Marcia Patton-Mallory; Kathleen Franzreb; Charles Carll; Richard Cline
The USDA Forest Service recently developed and adopted a code of ethical conduct for scientific research and development. The code addresses issues related to research misconduct, such as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research or in reporting research results, as well as issues related to professional misconduct, such...
... Apply for a Permit or File a Notice § 280.11 What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities related to hard minerals on the OCS only after you... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do before I may conduct scientific...
... scientific research? 280.21 Section 280.21 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research activities under a... you are prospecting or conducting scientific research activities. (b) Consult and coordinate your G&G...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research. 600.512 Section 600... research. (a) Scientific research activity. Persons planning to conduct scientific research activities on board a scientific research vessel in the EEZ that may be confused with fishing are encouraged to submit...
In this research, it is aimed to determine the effect of the attitudes of postgraduate students towards scientific research and codes of conduct, supported by digital script. This research is a quantitative study, and it has been formed according to pre-test & post-test research model of experiment and control group. In both groups, lessons…
Shamoo, Adil E
Since the early 2000s, the field of Responsible Conduct of Research has become widely recognized as essential to scientific education, investigation, and training. At present, research institutions with public funding are expected to have some minimal training and education in RCR for their graduate students, fellows and trainees. These institutions also are expected to have a system in place for investigating and reporting misconduct in research or violations of regulations in research with human subjects, or in their applications to federal agencies for funding. Public scrutiny of the conduct of scientific researchers remains high. Media reports of misconduct scandals, biased research, violations of human research ethics rules, and moral controversies in research occur on a weekly basis. Since the 2009 publication of the 2nd edition of Shamoo and Resnik's Responsible Conduct of Research, there has been a vast expansion in the information, knowledge, methods, and diagnosis of problems related to RCR and the ...
McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas
Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…
Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul
A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code. We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higher-quality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the
Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul
A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code.We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higherquality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big
... Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and Exempted Activity Submissions AGENCY... collection. Fishery regulations do not generally affect scientific research activities conducted by a scientific research vessel. Persons planning to conduct such research are encouraged to submit a scientific...
The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the perception of teacher candidates towards scientific research process and their self-efficacy in this process, during Scientific Research Methods course that has been conducted using "Learning Management System" based on out-of-class learning activities. Being designed as a…
Ethics, a branch of philosophy, has a place in the regulatory framework of human subjects research. Sometimes, however, ethical concepts and arguments play a more central role in scientific activity. This can happen, for example, when violations of research norms are also ethical violations. In such a situation, ethical arguments can be marshaled to improve the quality of the scientific research. I explore two different examples in which philosophers and scientists have used ethical arguments to plead for epistemological improvements in the conduct of research. The first example deals with research dishonesty in pharmaceutical development. The second example is concerned with neuropsychological research using fMRI technology.
Reichlin, Thomas S; Vogt, Lucile; Würbel, Hanno
Reproducibility in animal research is alarmingly low, and a lack of scientific rigor has been proposed as a major cause. Systematic reviews found low reporting rates of measures against risks of bias (e.g., randomization, blinding), and a correlation between low reporting rates and overstated treatment effects. Reporting rates of measures against bias are thus used as a proxy measure for scientific rigor, and reporting guidelines (e.g., ARRIVE) have become a major weapon in the fight against risks of bias in animal research. Surprisingly, animal scientists have never been asked about their use of measures against risks of bias and how they report these in publications. Whether poor reporting reflects poor use of such measures, and whether reporting guidelines may effectively reduce risks of bias has therefore remained elusive. To address these questions, we asked in vivo researchers about their use and reporting of measures against risks of bias and examined how self-reports relate to reporting rates obtained through systematic reviews. An online survey was sent out to all registered in vivo researchers in Switzerland (N = 1891) and was complemented by personal interviews with five representative in vivo researchers to facilitate interpretation of the survey results. Return rate was 28% (N = 530), of which 302 participants (16%) returned fully completed questionnaires that were used for further analysis. According to the researchers' self-report, they use measures against risks of bias to a much greater extent than suggested by reporting rates obtained through systematic reviews. However, the researchers' self-reports are likely biased to some extent. Thus, although they claimed to be reporting measures against risks of bias at much lower rates than they claimed to be using these measures, the self-reported reporting rates were considerably higher than reporting rates found by systematic reviews. Furthermore, participants performed rather poorly when asked to
It is expected that research conducted by graduate students in science education provide research findings which can be utilized as evidence based foundations for making decisions to improve science education practices in schools. However, lack of credibility of research become one of the factors cause idleness of thesis and dissertation in the context of education improvement. Credibility of a research is constructed by its scientificness. As a result, enhancement of scientific characters of graduate research needs to be done to close the gap between research and practice. A number of guiding principles underlie educational researchs as a scientific inquiry are explored and applied in this paper to identify common shortages of some thesis and dissertation manuscripts on science education reviewed in last two years.
Full Text Available In the article the problem of the use of international scientometric databases in research activities as web-oriented resources and services that are the means of publication and dissemination of research results is considered. Selection criteria of scientometric platforms of open access in conducting scientific researches (coverage Ukrainian scientific periodicals and publications, data accuracy, general characteristics of international scientometrics database, technical, functional characteristics and their indexes are emphasized. The review of the most popular scientometric databases of open access Google Scholar, Russian Scientific Citation Index (RSCI, Scholarometer, Index Copernicus (IC, Microsoft Academic Search is made. Advantages of usage of International Scientometrics database Google Scholar in conducting scientific researches and prospects of research that are in the separation of cloud information and analytical services of the system are determined.
Hasan Hüseyin Şahan
Full Text Available Present study has been constructed to determine scientific research competencies of prospective teachers and identify the extent of effect of prospective teachers’ attitudes toward scientific research and scientific research methods course on their research skills and attitudes towards research. This study has two dimensions: it is a descriptive study by virtue of identifying prospective teachers’ research skills and attitudes toward research, also an experimental study by virtue of determining the effect of scientificresearch methods course on prospective teachers’ skills and their attitudes toward research. In order to obtain the data related to identified sub-problems “Scale for Identifying Scientific Research Competencies” and “Scale for Identifying the Attitude toward Research” have been utilized. Data collection tools were applied to 445 prospective teachers. It has thus been concluded in this study that scientific research methods course had no significant effect in gaining scientific research competencies to prospective teachers and that this effect demonstrated no differentiation with respect to departments. On the other hand it has been explored that scientific research methods course had a negative effect onthe attitudes of prospective teachers toward research and that there was a differentiation to the disadvantage of prospective teachers studying at Primary Education Mathematics Teaching Department.
The number of Tunisian women conducting scientific research is comparable to that of countries where educating girls has been going on much longer. Although women play an increasingly important role in the field of research, they rarely hold positions of responsibility. Enormous similarities exist between the degree of integration of Tunisian women in science and technology and that of developed countries. Since independence and the removal of discrimination between girls and boys, Tunisian women have been catching up very quickly.
I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs
Akyürek, Erkan; Afacan, Özlem
This study was conducted to determine the problems faced by graduate students when conducting scientific research and to make suggestions for solving these problems. The research model was a case study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants in the study with questions about the problems encountered during scientific research…
Czarkowski, Marek; Sieczych, Alicja
Realizing scientific biomedical research conducted on human-beings demands obeying ample ethical rules. However, states keep independence in the means of implementing deontological guidelines to legislative acts. The aim of the article is to compare rules of law relative to protection of scientific biomedical research participants in two European Union member states--France and Poland. French regulations cover more types of scientific biomedical research than those in Poland. In France almost all types of interventional scientific biomedical research including research on human biological samples and research on cosmetics are covered by the rules of law. Polish regulations are limited to interventional research conducted by doctors and dentists. In both states projects of clinical trials of medicinal products demands double acceptance - from bioethics committee and from competent state authority. In protection of scientific biomedical research participants the role of state authority competent for personal data is more vital in France than it is in Poland. In France there is also National Ethics Advisory Committee whereas in Poland there is no such institution. The systems protecting scientific biomedical research participants differs therefore in both states in many vital aspects and French measures cover more types of scientific biomedical research, hence the level of participants protection in various types of research is more equitable.
... aspects of the proposed research; (ii) The species or stocks of marine mammals (common and scientific names) that are the subject of the scientific research and any other species or stock of marine mammals... this section. Annual reports must include: (i) A summary of research activities conducted; (ii...
... require scientists to report their activities associated with these tags. Examples of research conducted... stock assessments. The public display and scientific research quotas for sandbar sharks are now limited... Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering Permits; Letters...
HOU Jianhua; CHEN Chaomei; YAN Jianxin
The aim of this paper was to identify the trends and hot topics in the study of scientific collaboration via scientometric analysis.Information visualization and knowledge domain visualization techniques were adopted to determine how the study of scientific collaboration has evolved.A total of 1,455 articles on scientific cooperation published between 1993 and 2007 were retrieved from the SCI,SSCI and A&HCI databases with a topic search of scientific collaboration or scientific cooperation for the analysis.By using CiteSpace,the knowledge bases,research foci,and research fronts in the field of scientific collaboration were studied.The results indicated that research fronts and research foci are highly consistent in terms of the concept,origin,measurement,and theory of scientific collaboration.It also revealed that research fronts included scientific collaboration networks,international scientific collaboration,social network analysis and techniques,and applications of bibliometrical indicators,webmetrics,and health care related areas.
public, but also mutual trust among scientiststhemselves. Moreover, false results and conclusions may mislead other scientists and usersof scientific achievements.European incentives have been launched to encourage awareness of ethical dimensionsof science, to accept and follow rules of good practice in scientific research and scholarship,and to set up mechanisms for investigating cases of alleged violation of good practice,misconduct and fraud. Most countries have codes of good scientific practice or otherwritten ethical standards of scientific research.Advantages of such codes include educational and preventive effects, they can increaseethical sensitivity of the individual researcher. On the other hand, a code of good scientificpractice can provide useful guidelines in evaluating complex situations. Finally, theknowledge that such codes exist and are used may increase public confidence in science.Complete prevention of dishonesty is equally impossible in science as it is in other walks oflife. However safeguards can and must be established. What is necessary is that not onlyevery individual scientist and scholar, but especially institutions of science – universities,research institutes, learned societies, scientific journals, funding organizations – developa consciousness of good scientific practice and apply it in their day-to-day work. On theother hand, environment fostering moral integrity in science should be created. An importantpart of this should be development of an evaluation system which is not based onquantity but rather on quality of scientific achievements. A national code of conduct andgood practice in scientific research is needed. A system of efficient handling cases of allegedmisconduct should be put in place. Special attention must be devoted to the education ofyoung scientists towards responsible research.
Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Wang, Qi
The principles of balance, randomization, control and repetition, which are closely related, constitute the four principles of scientific research. The balance principle is the kernel of the four principles which runs through the other three. However, in scientific research, the balance principle is always overlooked. If the balance principle is not well performed, the research conclusion is easy to be denied, which may lead to the failure of the whole research. Therefore, it is essential to have a good command of the balance principle in scientific research. This article stresses the definition and function of the balance principle, the strategies and detailed measures to improve balance in scientific research, and the analysis of the common mistakes involving the use of the balance principle in scientific research.
Based on the perception of knowledge management from experts specializing in different fields,and experts at home and abroad,the knowledge management of agricultural scientific research institution can build new platform,offer new approach for realization of explicit or tacit knowledge,and promote resilience and innovative ability of scientific research institution.The thesis has introduced functions of knowledge management research of agricultural science.First,it can transform the tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge.Second,it can make all the scientific personnel share knowledge.Third,it is beneficial to the development of prototype system of knowledge management.Fourth,it mainly researches the realization of knowledge management system.Fifth,it can manage the external knowledge via competitive intelligence.Sixth,it can foster talents of knowledge management for agricultural scientific research institution.Seventh,it offers the decision-making service for leaders to manage scientific program.The thesis also discusses the content of knowledge management of agricultural scientific research institution as follows:production and innovation of knowledge;attainment and organizing of knowledge;dissemination and share of knowledge;management of human resources and the construction and management of infrastructure.We have put forward corresponding countermeasures to further reinforce the knowledge management research of agricultural scientific research institution.
Hules, John A.; Bashor, Jon; Wang, Ucilia; Yarris, Lynn; Preuss, Paul
This report presents highlights of the research conducted on NERSC computers in a variety of scientific disciplines during the year 2007. It also reports on changes and upgrades to NERSC's systems and services aswell as activities of NERSC staff.
Innovative technologies are changing the way research is performed, preserved, and communicated. Managing Scientific Information and Research Data explores how these technologies are used and provides detailed analysis of the approaches and tools developed to manage scientific information and data. Following an introduction, the book is then divided into 15 chapters discussing the changes in scientific communication; new models of publishing and peer review; ethics in scientific communication; preservation of data; discovery tools; discipline-specific practices of researchers for gathering and using scientific information; academic social networks; bibliographic management tools; information literacy and the information needs of students and researchers; the involvement of academic libraries in eScience and the new opportunities it presents to librarians; and interviews with experts in scientific information and publishing.
Demir Kaçan, Sibel
This study was conducted with the participation of 31 pre-service science teachers. Participants were asked to develop various research questions on germination. The study aims to examine research questions on the subject germination from the perspective of scientific creativity. The research questions were examined using the fluency, science…
Scott, Karen; Caldwell, Patrina; Schuwirth, Lambert
The approaches used to educate future clinicians must be continually improved through evidence-based methods. Clinicians interested in conducting education research need to understand the terminology and conventions of health professional education, in the same way that health professional educators from education backgrounds need to be aware of clinical practices and scientific mores and jargon. This article provides clinicians with 10 steps to conducting health professional education research, and encourages collaboration between clinicians interested in education and health professional educators. The basic steps in conducting education research are introduced, beginning with literature searches, using appropriate terminology and writing conventions, and finding research collaborators. We encourage researchers to ask themselves, 'So what?' about their research idea to ensure it is interesting and relevant to a journal's readers. The nuts and bolts of educational research are then presented, including research questions and methodologies, outcome measures, theoretical frameworks and epistemologies. The final two steps aim to foster internationally relevant and well-designed research studies. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians, who struggle with what is required. Yet clinicians who teach are ideally placed to identify the knowledge gaps about how we can more effectively educate future clinicians. These 10 steps provide clinicians with guidance on how to conduct education research so relevant research findings can inform the education of future clinicians. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wong, Siu Ling; Kwan, Jenny; Hodson, Derek; Yung, Benny Hin Wai
Interviews with key scientists who had conducted research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), together with analysis of media reports, documentaries and other literature published during and after the SARS epidemic, revealed many interesting aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry in contemporary scientific research in the rapidly growing field of molecular biology. The story of SARS illustrates vividly some NOS features advocated in the school science curriculum, including the tentative nature of scientific knowledge, theory-laden observation and interpretation, multiplicity of approaches adopted in scientific inquiry, the inter-relationship between science and technology, and the nexus of science, politics, social and cultural practices. The story also provided some insights into a number of NOS features less emphasised in the school curriculum—for example, the need to combine and coordinate expertise in a number of scientific fields, the intense competition between research groups (suspended during the SARS crisis), the significance of affective issues relating to intellectual honesty and the courage to challenge authority, the pressure of funding issues on the conduct of research and the ‘peace of mind’ of researchers, These less emphasised elements provided empirical evidence that NOS knowledge, like scientific knowledge itself, changes over time. They reflected the need for teachers and curriculum planners to revisit and reconsider whether the features of NOS currently included in the school science curriculum are fully reflective of the practice of science in the 21st century. In this paper, we also report on how we made use of extracts from the news reports and documentaries on SARS, together with episodes from the scientists’ interviews, to develop a multimedia instructional package for explicitly teaching the prominent features of NOS and scientific inquiry identified in the SARS research.
Ilana Abrahamson; Katie Lyon
The Coram Experimental Forest represents western larch-mixed conifer forests of the Northern Rockies. Western larch research was centered at Coram Experimental Forest (CEF) to provide a scientific basis to regenerate and grow this important and valuable species. For example, the long-term silvicultural studies installed at CEF are allowing researchers and managers to...
Danch, J. M.
The Woodbridge Township New Jersey School District has a 4-year high school Science Research program that depends on the enrollment of students with the prerequisite skills to conduct authentic scientific research at the high school level. A multifaceted approach to training elementary teachers in the methods of scientific investigation, data collection and analysis and communication of results was undertaken in 2017. Teachers of predominately grades 4 and 5 participated in hands on workshops at a Summer Tech Academy, an EdCamp, a District Inservice Day and a series of in-class workshops for teachers and students together. Aspects of the instruction for each of these activities was facilitated by high school students currently enrolled in the High School Science Research Program. Much of the training activities centered around a "Learning With Students" model where teachers and their students simultaneously learn to perform inquiry activities and conduct scientific research fostering inquiry as it is meant to be: where participants produce original data are not merely working to obtain previously determined results.
Strawn, George O.
As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300... REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management measures... vessel for research purposes, unless otherwise indicated. (b) Catches taken by any vessel for research...
Frankena, T K; Naaldenberg, J; Cardol, M; Garcia Iriarte, E; Buchner, T; Brooker, K; Embregts, P; Joosa, E; Crowther, F; Fudge Schormans, A; Schippers, A; Walmsley, J; O'Brien, P; Linehan, C; Northway, R; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H; Leusink, G
The active involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in research, or inclusive research, is relatively common. However, inclusive health research is less common, even though it is expected to lead to appropriate healthcare and increased quality of life. Inclusive health research can build upon lessons learned from inclusive research. A total of 17 experts on inclusive (health) research without intellectual disabilities and 40 experts with intellectual disabilities collaborated in this consensus statement. The consensus statement was developed in three consecutive rounds: (1) an initial feedback round; (2) a roundtable discussion at the 2016 International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities World Congress; and (3) a final feedback round. This consensus statement provides researchers with guidelines, agreed upon by experts in the field, regarding attributes, potential outcomes, reporting and publishing, and future research directions, for designing and conducting inclusive health research. Consensus was reached on how to design and conduct inclusive health research. However, this statement should be continuously adapted to incorporate recent knowledge. The focus of this consensus statement is largely on inclusive health research, but the principles can also be applied to other areas. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus; Applebaum, Rhona; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard; Dwyer, Johanna; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne; Miller, Sanford; Tancredi, Doris; Weaver, Connie; Woteki, Catherine; Wedral, Elaine
There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. While biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion, to date, has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this paper, set out proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines, regarding industry funding, for protecting the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, specifying ground rules for industry-sponsored research. The paper, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. The Guiding Principles are as follows. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall: 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively; according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) prior to the commencement of studies, ensure that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time-frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations
Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus M; Applebaum, Rhona S; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy A; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne R; Miller, Sanford A; Tancredi, Doris L; Weaver, Connie M; Woteki, Catherine E; Wedral, Elaine
There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. Whereas biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion to date has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this article, proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines regarding industry funding to protect the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, which specify the ground rules for industry-sponsored research. This article, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively, and, according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) ensure, before the commencement of studies, that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations, full signed disclosure of all financial
Full Text Available In June 2004, an expert Task Force, appointed by the National Research Council Canada and chaired by Dr. David Strong, came together in Ottawa to plan a National Forum as the focus of the National Consultation on Access to Scientific Research Data. The Forum, which was held in November 2004, brought together more than seventy Canadian leaders in scientific research, data management, research administration, intellectual property and other pertinent areas. This article presents a comprehensive review of the issues, and the opportunities and the challenges identified during the Forum. Complex and rich arrays of scientific databases are changing how research is conducted, speeding the discovery and creation of new concepts. Increased access will accelerate such changes even more, creating other new opportunities. With the combination of databases within and among disciplines and countries, fundamental leaps in knowledge will occur that will transform our understanding of life, the world and the universe. The Canadian research community is concerned by the need to take swift action to adapt to the substantial changes required by the scientific enterprise. Because no national data preservation organization exists, may experts believe that a national strategy on data access or policies needs to be developed, and that a "Data Task Force" be created to prepare a full national implementation strategy. Once such a national strategy is broadly supported, it is proposed that a dedicated national infrastructure, tentatively called "Data Canada", be established, to assume overall leadership in the development and execution of a strategic plan.
Scientific attitude is need of today's society for peaceful and meaningful living of every person in a multicultural world. A case study was conducted at the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Riau, Pekanbaru in order to describe the scientific attitude that shaped by research-based teaching (RBT). Eighteen students of English for Biology bilingual program were selected from 88 regular students as a subject of the study. RBT designed consists of 9 steps: 1) field observations, 2) developing research proposals, 3) research proposal seminar, 4) field data collecting, 5) data analyzing & ilustrating, 6) writing research papers, 7) preparing power point slides, 8) creating a scientific poster, 9) seminar & poster session. Data were collected by using check list observation instuments during 14 weeks (course sessions), then analyzed by using descriptive-quantitative method. The results showed that RBT were able to shape critical-mindedness, suspended judgement, respect for evidence, honesty, objectivity, and questioning attitude as well as tolerance of uncertainty. These attitudes which shaped were varies according to every steps of learning activities. It's seems that the preparation of scientific posters and research seminar quite good in shaping the critical-mindedness, suspended judgment, respect for evidence, honesty, objectivity, and questioning attitude, as well as tolerance of uncertainty. In conclusion, the application of research-based teaching through the English for Biology courses could shape the students scientific attitudes. However, the consistency of the appearance of a scientific attitude in every stage of Biology-based RBT learning process need more intensive and critical assessment.
He, Ping; Li, Yi-kui
At present, Chinese medical field faces with an important problem of how to correctly handle the relationship between medical and scientific research. Academician Li Lianda advocates doctors doing scientific research under the premise of putting the medical work first. He points out that there are many problems in the process of doctors doing scientific research at present such as paying more attention to scientific research than medical care, excessively promoting building scientific research hospital, only paying attention to training scientific talents, research direction be flashy without substance, the medical evaluation system should be improved and so on. Medical, scientific research and teaching are inseparable because improving medical standards depends on scientific research and personnel training. But not all doctors need to take into account of medical treatment, scientific research and teaching in the same degree while not all hospitals need to turn into three-in-one hospital, scientific research hospital or teaching hospital. It must be treated differently according to the actual situation.
U V Suvakovic
Full Text Available Argumentation in favor of overcoming the long-ago-established dichotomy of qualitative and quantitative scientific research is presented in the article. Proceeding from the view of materialistic dialecticians that every scientific research must deal with a subject, the author assumes that it is impossible to conduct a quantitative research without first establishing the quality to be studied. This also concerns measuring, which is referred only to quantitative procedures in literature. By way of illustration, the author designs two instruments for measuring the successfulness of political parties - the scale and the quotient of party successfulness. On the other hand, even the qualitative analysis usually involves certain quantifications. The author concludes that to achieve methodological correctness the existing dichotomy of qualitative and quantitative research should be considered as overcome and a typology of scientific research including predominantly qualitative and predominantly quantitative studies, depending on the methodological components prevailing in them, should be used.
Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)
At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.
Li, Hai-yan; Li, Yuan-hai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fang-zhou; Wang, Jing; Tian, Ye; Yang, Ce; Liu, Yang; Li, Meng; Sun Li-ying
The aim of this study is to identify the present status of the scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) resource science. Based on the data from Chinese scientific research paper, an investigation regarding the number of the personnel, the distribution, their output of paper, their scientific research teams, high-yield authors and high-cited authors was conducted. The study covers seven subfields of traditional Chinese medicine identification, quality standard, Chinese medicine cultivation, harvest processing of TCM, market development and resource protection and resource management, as well as 82 widely used Chinese medicine species, such as Ginseng and Radix Astragali. One hundred and fifteen domain authority experts were selected based on the data of high-yield authors and high-cited authors. The database system platform "Skilled Scientific and Technological Personnel in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resource Science-Chinese papers" was established. This platform successfully provided the retrieval result of the personnel, output of paper, and their core research team by input the study field, year, and Chinese medicine species. The investigation provides basic data of scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine resource science for administrative agencies and also evidence for the selection of scientific and technological personnel and construction of scientific research teams.
Landry, Robert J., III
This article begins with an overview of what is meant by empirical scientific research in the context of legal studies. With that backdrop, the argument is presented that without engaging in normative, theoretical, and doctrinal research in tandem with empirical scientific research, the role of legal studies scholarship in making meaningful…
Chandler, Jesse; Shapiro, Danielle
Crowdsourcing has had a dramatic impact on the speed and scale at which scientific research can be conducted. Clinical scientists have particularly benefited from readily available research study participants and streamlined recruiting and payment systems afforded by Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a popular labor market for crowdsourcing workers. MTurk has been used in this capacity for more than five years. The popularity and novelty of the platform have spurred numerous methodological investigations, making it the most studied nonprobability sample available to researchers. This article summarizes what is known about MTurk sample composition and data quality with an emphasis on findings relevant to clinical psychological research. It then addresses methodological issues with using MTurk--many of which are common to other nonprobability samples but unfamiliar to clinical science researchers--and suggests concrete steps to avoid these issues or minimize their impact.
Scientific research is an important aspect of the function of a university lecturer. It is how he/she carries out this function that determines his/her relevance in the university system and indeed in the scientific community as a whole. Scientific research or investigation may be divided into four sections: mental exercise, ...
López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sim, Kang; Shen, Winston Wu; Huelves, Lorena; Moreno, Raquel; Molina, Juan de Dios; Rubio, Gabriel; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Alamo, Cecilio
A bibliometric study was carried out to ascertain the volume and impact of scientific literature published on second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in Singapore from 1997 to 2011. A search of the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases was performed to identify articles originating from Singapore that included the descriptors 'atypic* antipsychotic*', 'second-generation antipsychotic*', 'clozapine', 'risperidone', 'olanzapine', 'ziprasidone', 'quetiapine', 'sertindole', 'aripiprazole', 'paliperidone', 'amisulpride', 'zotepine', 'asenapine', 'iloperidone', 'lurasidone', 'perospirone' and 'blonanserin' in the article titles. Certain bibliometric indicators of production and dispersion (e.g. Price's Law on the increase of scientific literature, and Bradford's Law) were applied, and the participation index of various countries was calculated. The bibliometric data was also correlated with some social and health data from Singapore, such as the total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on research and development. From 1997 to 2011, a total of 51 articles on SGAs in Singapore were published. Our results suggested non-fulfilment of Price's Law (r = 0.0648 after exponential adjustment vs. r = 0.2140 after linear adjustment). The most widely studied drugs were clozapine (21 articles), risperidone (16 articles) and olanzapine (8 articles). Division into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus occupied by the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (6 articles) and the Singapore Medical Journal(4 articles). The analysed material was published in a total of 30 journals, with the majority from six journals. Four of these six journals have an impact factor greater than 2. Publications on SGAs in Singapore are still too few to confirm an exponential growth of scientific literature.
Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok
Background: It is estimated that about half of currently published research cannot be reproduced. Many reasons have been offered as explanations for failure to reproduce scientific research findings- from fraud to the issues related to design, conduct, analysis, or publishing scientific research. We also postulate a sensitive dependency on initial conditions by which small changes can result in the large differences in the research findings when attempted to be reproduced at later times. Methods: We employed a simple logistic regression equation to model the effect of covariates on the initial study findings. We then fed the input from the logistic equation into a logistic map function to model stability of the results in repeated experiments over time. We illustrate the approach by modeling effects of different factors on the choice of correct treatment. Results: We found that reproducibility of the study findings depended both on the initial values of all independent variables and the rate of change in the baseline conditions, the latter being more important. When the changes in the baseline conditions vary by about 3.5 to about 4 in between experiments, no research findings could be reproduced. However, when the rate of change between the experiments is ≤2.5 the results become highly predictable between the experiments. Conclusions: Many results cannot be reproduced because of the changes in the initial conditions between the experiments. Better control of the baseline conditions in-between the experiments may help improve reproducibility of scientific findings. PMID:25132705
Magnussen, Rikke; Damgaard Hansen, Sidse; Planke, Tilo
for student-research collaboration is to investigate if and how this type of game concept can strengthen authentic experimental practice and the creation of new knowledge in science education. Researchers and game developers tested the game in three separate high school classes (Class 1, 2, and 3). The tests...... were documented using video observations of students playing the game, qualitative interviews, and qualitative and quantitative questionnaires. The focus of the tests has been to study players' motivation and their experience of learning through participation in authentic scientific inquiry....... In questionnaires conducted in the two first test classes students found that the aspects of doing “real scientific research” and solving physics problems were the more interesting aspects of playing the game. However, designing a game that facilitates professional research collaboration while simultaneously...
Михаил Эльдарович Широченко
Full Text Available Educational research conducted in educational process of secondary and higher professional educational organizations, are increasingly playing a key role in the selection of modern methods of teaching students. While such studies may, on the one hand, rely on features implemented in the university or college of methodical systems of teaching of different disciplines, on the other hand, have characteristic features of real scientific research conducted by professional researchers. Among these scientific bases for potential educational research should address the issue and the specificity of its determination. This article examines approaches to the selection of the main scientific issues in conducting educational research in the use of modern electronic resources, means of informatization, information technologies in managing the economy and other related areas of the social sciences. The criteria and examples of typical defects in the selection and formulation of research problems. Combine research methods training with the study of important and topical issues of informatization is intended to provide a double effect in the case of training for life in the information society and professional activities, based on creativity.
Full Text Available What plays a major role in the process of building the competitiveness of an organization is not just the ability to adapt to the changing conditions in the environment, but also acquiring characteristics distinguishing it, which make it possible to keep, or improve its position on the market. What may be such a handicap for a scientific unit is the HR Excellence in Research (HRE logo, which is awarded by the European Commission under the strategy “Human Resources Strategy for Researchers” (HRS4R. It is awarded to scientific institutions, which implement the rules of the „European Charter for Researchers” and the „Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers”, and thanks to this create a friendly work environment and opportunities for development. In 2015 Central Mining Institute (GIG took steps aimed at getting the HR Excellence in Research logo, which is supposed to boost the attractiveness of the institute for scientists and contribute to further development of science and achieving a better position on the market. In the article the results of an internal analysis, which includes research on the opinions of scientific and research employees of GIG concerning the existing practices and rules governing research at the institute, are discussed. As a result of the research a Report together with an Action Plan were drawn up. They are supposed to support the creation of a friendly environment for scientific work and transparent rules for recruiting scientific employees. Also, the article highlights the most important challenges which the institute has to face in order to fully implement the guidelines of HRE, which stimulate economic and personal development.
Mauricio Corrêa da Silva
Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the importance of the scientific method to conduct and advertise research in applied social sciences and research typologies, as well as to highlight contributions from Marx, Weber and Durkheim to the scientific methodology. To reach this objective, we conducted a review of the literature on the term research, the scientific method,the research techniques and the scientific methodologies. The results of the investigation revealed that it is fundamental that the academic investigator uses a scientific method to conduct and advertise his/her academic works in applied social sciences in comparison with the biochemical or computer sciences and in the indicated literature. Regarding the contributions to the scientific methodology, we have Marx, dialogued, the dialectical, striking analysis, explicative of social phenomenon, the need to understand the phenomena as historical and concrete totalities; Weber, the distinction between “facts” and “value judgments” to provide objectivity to the social sciences and Durkheim, the need to conceptualize very well its object of study, reject sensible data and imbue with the spirit of discovery and of being surprised with the results.
Guan, Jiancheng; Liu, Na
The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively explore scientific research profiles in the field of emerging nano-energy during 1991-2012 based on bibliometrics and social network analysis. We investigate the growth pattern of research output, and then carry out across countries/regions comparisons on research performances. Furthermore, we examine scientific collaboration across countries/regions by analyzing collaborative intensity and networks in 3- to 4-year intervals. Results indicate with an impressively exponential growth pattern of nano-energy articles, the world share of scientific "giants," such as the USA, Germany, England, France and Japan, display decreasing research trends, especially in the USA. Emerging economies, including China, South Korea and India, exhibit a rise in terms of the world share, illustrating strong development momentum of these countries in nano-energy research. Strikingly, China displays a remarkable rise in scientific influence rivaling Germany, Japan, France, and England in the last few years. Finally, the scientific collaborative network in nano-energy research has expanded steadily. Although the USA and several major European countries play significantly roles on scientific collaboration, China and South Korea exert great influence on scientific collaboration in recent years. The findings imply that emerging economies can earn competitive advantages in some emerging fields by properly engaging a catch-up strategy.
Full Text Available Background: Writing a scientific manuscript is an important skill to acquire for junior doctors considering the mandatory requirement of research publications during post-graduate training and for career advancement in India. Methods: We conducted a one-day workshop on scientific writing and publication at Udaipur in November 2017, comprising both didactic lectures as well as hands-on evaluation of a dummy manuscript, and evaluated structured questionnaires filled pre- and post-workshop. Results: There were 120 attendees, most of whom were junior doctors with little or no prior experience in writing a scientific paper. A significant baseline knowledge deficit regarding the principles and processes of scientific writing (ranging from 20.9% to 77.3% participants for the different questions asked could be identified before the workshop. This knowledge deficit was significantly improved in most areas as assessed after the workshop. We identified the need to discuss predatory publishing in greater detail in subsequent workshops, as 20.8% of respondents after the workshop professed that they might consider publishing in a predatory journal. As expressed in participant feedback, longer, more-specialized or advanced level workshops on scientific writing in the future could also consider including more details on appropriate statistical presentation and pictorial representation of data as well as longer time spent on hands-on exercises. Conclusion: There remains a need to conduct more scientific writing workshops by national societies and journals all over the country.
Schuurbiers, D.; Osseweijer, P.; Kinderlerer, J.
Widespread enthusiasm for establishing scientific codes of conduct notwithstanding, the utility of such codes in influencing scientific practice is not self-evident. It largely depends on the implementation phase following their establishment—a phase which often receives little attention. The aim of
Ulrich, Connie M; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Cui, Naixue; Chittams, Jesse; Sweet, Monica; Plemmons, Dena
Team science is advocated to speed the pace of scientific discovery, yet the goals of collaborative practice in nursing science and the responsibilities of nurse stakeholders are sparse and inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to examine nurse scientists' views on collaborative research as part of a larger study on standards of scientific conduct. Web-based descriptive survey of nurse scientists randomly selected from 50 doctoral graduate programs in the United States. Nearly forty percent of nurse respondents were not able to identify good collaborative practices for the discipline; more than three quarters did not know of any published guidelines available to them. Successful research collaborations were challenged by different expectations of authorship and data ownership, lack of timeliness and communication, poorly defined roles and responsibilities, language barriers, and when they involve junior and senior faculty working together on a project. Individual and organizational standards, practices, and policies for collaborative research needs clarification within the discipline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The scientific research represents a modern production neo-factor that implies two groups of coordinates: preparation and scientific research. The scientific research represents a complex of elements that confer a new orientation of high performance and is materialized in resources and new availabilities brought in active shape by the contribution of the creators and by the attraction in a specific way in the economic circuit. It is the creator of new ideas, lifting the performance and understanding to the highest international standards of competitive economic efficiency. In the present, the role of the scientific research stands before some new challenges generated by the stage of society. It.s propose a unitary, coherent scientific research and educational system, created in corresponding proportions, based on the type, level and utility of the system, by the state, the economic-social environment and the citizen himself.
The potential threat from misuse of current and future Dual-Use research in the field of NBC Defense is challenge to which scientific community must respond. The rapid advances in the life sciences and the worldwide growth of biotechnology industry only add urgency of this task. Code of conduct is formal statement of values and professional practices of a group of individuals with a common focus, either an occupation, academic field, or social doctrine. Codes of conduct can help to reduce the risk that scientific research will be misused. 'Dual-use' is a term often used in politics and diplomacy to refer to technology which can be used for both peaceful and military aims, usually in regard to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Dual-use information and 'know-how' in the field of NBC defense are covered under the Export control regimes. Nearly all WMD production equipment is 'dual-use' and only very large capacity equipment is export controlled. Research in the life sciences, including NBC defense research must be conducted safely, securely, and ethically. Development of an international harmonized regime for control of biological and chemical warfare agents within and between laboratories and facilities is very important. This paper will present very important consideration of the content, promulgation and adoption of codes of conduct for scientists in the field of NBC research, for inducing of discussion between scientists into group of CBMTS members with aim how improve protection of sensitive research results and information in the field of NBC Defense sciences. (author)
Terzi, Ali Riza; Uyangör, Nihat
This research explores the relationship between scientific epistemological beliefs and educational philosophies of formation teacher candidates. The research was conducted in the summer pedagogical formation program at Balikesir University of Necatibey Education Faculty during the 2016-17 academic years. The research, conducted with 379 candidate…
De Winter, Jan; Kosolosky, Laszlo
We live in a world in which scientific expertise and its epistemic authority become more important. On the other hand, the financial interests in research, which could potentially corrupt science, are increasing. Due to these two tendencies, a concern for the integrity of scientific research becomes increasingly vital. This concern is, however, hollow if we do not have a clear account of research integrity. Therefore, it is important that we explicate this concept. Following Rudolf Carnap's characterization of the task of explication, this means that we should develop a concept that is (1) similar to our common sense notion of research integrity, (2) exact, (3) fruitful, and (4) as simple as possible. Since existing concepts do not meet these four requirements, we develop a new concept in this article. We describe a concept of epistemic integrity that is based on the property of deceptiveness, and argue that this concept does meet Carnap's four requirements of explication. To illustrate and support our claims we use several examples from scientific practice, mainly from biomedical research.
Full Text Available The need for commercialization of scientific research leads to the necessity of changing the orientation of scientific-research units to marketing orientation, which is characterized by, among others, conducting research aimed at learning the clients’ needs and building better communication with the recipients. What is an important element of a unit’s marketing communication is its visual identity system, which the recipients use to build their opinion and their picture of the unit. The goal of this article is an attempt to define the key rules of designing visual identity of scientific and research institutions, as well as presenting the role of visualization in their cooperation with business. In the article the notions of image, identity, corporate identity and visual identity are subject to analysis. The article also presents the significance of visualization in the functioning of research and scientific units, elements of visual identity system and the rules of designing visual identity of scientific and research institutions. An analysis of chosen research-scientific units was carried out with regard to visualization.
Teresa Piñeiro Otero
Full Text Available Research in communication has recently gained relevance, leading to the development of a significant and specialised corpus of studies. Along these lines, this work focuses on radio studies from the perspective of the scientific community – an innovative approach in the framework of communication meta-research. Starting with the outcomes of an initial survey, an in-depth study was then conducted to focus on the importance, themes and quality of radio research. We looked into the 31 most important authors of contributions published in scientific journals (1980-2013 to understand their perceptions and impressions about Spanish research. This study helped confirm that radio research is still a minority and individual endeavour. The respondents explained that this is due to limited support from research and academic institutions. In any case, radio researchers find the object of their study to be relevant, influential and well rooted, even if the topics and approaches are permeable to the context where the studies take place.
Frederick U. Ozor
Full Text Available Public research institutions and scientists are principal actors in the production and transfer of scientific knowledge, technologies and innovations for application in industry as well for social and economic development. Based on the relevance of science and technology actors, the aim of this study was to identify and explain factors in research governance that influence scientific knowledge production and to contribute to empirical discussions on the impact levels of different governance models and structures. These discussions appear limited and mixed in the literature, although still are ongoing. No previous study has examined the possible contribution of the scientific committee model of research governance to scientific performance at the individual level of the scientist. In this context, this study contributes to these discussions, firstly, by suggesting that scientific committee structures with significant research steering autonomy could contribute not only directly to scientific output but also indirectly through moderating effects on research practices. Secondly, it is argued that autonomous scientific committee structures tend to play a better steering role than do management-centric models and structures of research governance.
Aliyeva, Saida; Flanagan, Peter; Johnson, April; Strelow, Lisa
This review especially describes the dangerous pathogens research program in Azerbaijan (AJ) funded by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency under the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) from 2011 through 2015. The objectives of the CBEP are to prevent the proliferation of biological weapons; to consolidate and secure collections of dangerous pathogens in central repositories; to strengthen biosafety and biosecurity of laboratory facilities; and to improve partner nations' ability to detect, diagnose, report, and respond to outbreaks of disease caused by especially dangerous pathogens. One of the missions of the CBEP is therefore to increase the research skills and proficiency of partner country scientists. The program aims to fulfill this mission by sponsoring scientific research projects that exercise the modern diagnostic techniques available in the CBEP-engaged laboratories and the enhanced disease surveillance/control programs. To strengthen the local scientists' ability to develop research ideas, write grant proposals, and conduct research independently, in-country CBEP integrating contractor personnel have mentored scientists across AJ and conducted workshops to address technical gaps. As a result of CBEP engagement, seven research projects developed and led by AJ scientists have been funded, and five projects are currently in various stages of implementation. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency has also sponsored AJ scientist participation at international scientific conferences to introduce and integrate them into the global scientific community. The efforts summarized in this review represent the first steps in an ongoing process that will ultimately provide AJ scientists with the skills and resources to plan and implement research projects of local and regional relevance.
Pischke, Erin C.; Knowlton, Jessie L.; Phifer, Colin C.; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose; Propato, Tamara S.; Eastmond, Amarella; de Souza, Tatiana Martins; Kuhlberg, Mark; Picasso Risso, Valentin; Veron, Santiago R.; Garcia, Carlos; Chiappe, Marta; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.
Global environmental problems such as climate change are not bounded by national borders or scientific disciplines, and therefore require international, interdisciplinary teamwork to develop understandings of their causes and solutions. Interdisciplinary scientific work is difficult enough, but these challenges are often magnified when teams also work across national boundaries. The literature on the challenges of interdisciplinary research is extensive. However, research on international, interdisciplinary teams is nearly non-existent. Our objective is to fill this gap by reporting on results from a study of a large interdisciplinary, international National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education (NSF-PIRE) research project across the Americas. We administered a structured questionnaire to team members about challenges they faced while working together across disciplines and outside of their home countries in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Analysis of the responses indicated five major types of barriers to conducting interdisciplinary, international research: integration, language, fieldwork logistics, personnel and relationships, and time commitment. We discuss the causes and recommended solutions to the most common barriers. Our findings can help other interdisciplinary, international research teams anticipate challenges, and develop effective solutions to minimize the negative impacts of these barriers to their research.
Pischke, Erin C; Knowlton, Jessie L; Phifer, Colin C; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose; Propato, Tamara S; Eastmond, Amarella; de Souza, Tatiana Martins; Kuhlberg, Mark; Picasso Risso, Valentin; Veron, Santiago R; Garcia, Carlos; Chiappe, Marta; Halvorsen, Kathleen E
Global environmental problems such as climate change are not bounded by national borders or scientific disciplines, and therefore require international, interdisciplinary teamwork to develop understandings of their causes and solutions. Interdisciplinary scientific work is difficult enough, but these challenges are often magnified when teams also work across national boundaries. The literature on the challenges of interdisciplinary research is extensive. However, research on international, interdisciplinary teams is nearly non-existent. Our objective is to fill this gap by reporting on results from a study of a large interdisciplinary, international National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education (NSF-PIRE) research project across the Americas. We administered a structured questionnaire to team members about challenges they faced while working together across disciplines and outside of their home countries in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Analysis of the responses indicated five major types of barriers to conducting interdisciplinary, international research: integration, language, fieldwork logistics, personnel and relationships, and time commitment. We discuss the causes and recommended solutions to the most common barriers. Our findings can help other interdisciplinary, international research teams anticipate challenges, and develop effective solutions to minimize the negative impacts of these barriers to their research.
Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy
The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie
To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors' and investigators' experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 interviews, five focus groups and observations of monitoring practice were conducted. Fieldwork occurred in the places where the monitoring models are coordinated and applied in Thailand, Cambodia, Uganda and Kenya. Participants included those coordinating the monitoring schemes, monitors, senior investigators and research staff. Transcribed textual data from field notes, interviews and focus groups was imported into a qualitative data software program (NVIVO V. 10) and analysed inductively and thematically by a qualitative researcher. The initial coding framework was reviewed internally and two main categories emerged from the subsequent interrogation of the data. The categories that were identified related to the conceptual framing and nature of monitoring, and the practice of monitoring, including relational factors. Particular emphasis was given to the value of a scientific and cooperative style of monitoring as a means of enhancing data quality, trust and transparency. In terms of practice the primary purpose of monitoring was defined as improving the conduct of health research and increasing the capacity of researchers and trial sites. The models studied utilise internal and network wide expertise to improve the ethics and quality of clinical research. They demonstrate how monitoring can be a scientific and constructive exercise rather than a threatening process. The value of cooperative relations needs to be given more emphasis in monitoring activities, which seek to ensure that research protects
Polašek, Ozren; Kolčić, Ivana; Buneta, Zoran; Čikeš, Nada; Pećina, Marko
Aim To evaluate scientific production among research fellows employed at the Zagreb University School of Medicine and identify factors associated with their scientific output. Method We conducted a survey among research fellows and their mentors during June 2005. The main outcome measure was publication success, defined for each fellow as publishing at least 0.5 articles per employment year in journals indexed in the Current Contents bibliographic database. Bivariate methods and binary logistic regression were used in data analysis. Results A total of 117 fellows (response rate 95%) and 83 mentors (100%) were surveyed. The highest scientific production was recorded among research fellows employed in public health departments (median 3.0 articles, interquartile range 4.0), compared with those from pre-clinical (median 0.0, interquartile range 2.0) and clinical departments (median 1.0, interquartile range 2.0) (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.003). A total of 36 (29%) research fellows published at least 0.5 articles per employment year and were considered successful. Three variables were associated with fellows’ publication success: mentor’s scientific production (odds ratio [OR], 3.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-7.53), positive mentor’s assessment (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.10-9.05), and fellows’ undergraduate publication in journals indexed in the Current Contents bibliographic database (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.07-15.34). Conclusion Undergraduate publication could be used as one of the main criteria in selecting research fellows. One of the crucial factors in a fellow’s scientific production and career advancement is mentor’s input, which is why research fellows would benefit most from working with scientifically productive mentors. PMID:17042070
Satyawan, I. A.
The South China Sea is one of the hot-spot areas in the world. This area is claimed by China, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Vietnam and the Philippines. It also noted, the South China Sea is rich in biodiversity as well as oil and gas. On the other side, environmental degradation is still happening in the South China Sea due to the reluctance of surrounding states to conduct a preservation program and mitigating action on climate change effects. Joint Oceanographic Marine Scientific Research Expedition between Vietnam and the Philippines is a breakthrough to start collaboration actions as well as to conduct Science Diplomacy.
Farrokhyar, Forough; Bianco, Daniela; Dao, Dyda; Ghert, Michelle; Andruszkiewicz, Nicole; Sussman, Jonathan; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S
There is a demand for providing evidence on the effectiveness of research investments on the promotion of novice researchers' scientific productivity and production of research with new initiatives and innovations. We used a mixed method approach to evaluate the funding effect of the New Investigator Fund (NIF) by comparing scientific productivity between award recipients and non-recipients. We reviewed NIF grant applications submitted from 2004 to 2013. Scientific productivity was assessed by confirming the publication of the NIF-submitted application. Online databases were searched, independently and in duplicate, to locate the publications. Applicants' perceptions and experiences were collected through a short survey and categorized into specified themes. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Of 296 applicants, 163 (55 %) were awarded. Gender, affiliation, and field of expertise did not affect funding decisions. More physicians with graduate education (32.0 %) and applicants with a doctorate degree (21.5 %) were awarded than applicants without postgraduate education (9.8 %). Basic science research (28.8 %), randomized controlled trials (24.5 %), and feasibility/pilot trials (13.3 %) were awarded more than observational designs (p scientific productivity and professional growth of novice investigators and production of research with new initiatives and innovations. Further efforts are recommended to enhance the support of small grant funding programs.
This concise introductory guide explains the values that should inform the responsible conduct of scientific research in today's global setting. Featuring accessible discussions and ample real-world scenarios, Doing Global Science covers proper conduct, fraud and bias, the researcher's responsibilities to society, communication with the public, and much more. The book places special emphasis on the international and highly networked environment in which modern research is done, presenting science as an enterprise that is being transformed by globalization, interdisciplinary research projects, team science, and information technologies. Accessibly written by an InterAcademy Partnership committee comprised of leading scientists from around the world, Doing Global Science is required reading for students, practitioners, and anyone concerned about the responsible conduct of science today.
Burlamaque-Neto, A C; Santos, G R; Lisbôa, L M; Goldim, J R; Machado, C L B; Matte, U; Giugliani, R
In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research.
Zhang Xupu; Xia Yun
This article discusses the concept and types of dynamic scientific and technical intelligence, describes the characteristics and role of dynamic scientific and technical intelligence, and analyzes methods and procedures of dynamic scientific and technical intelligence research. Combined with the status quo of dynamic scientific and technical intelligence research in library of China Institute of Atomic Energy, this article makes some suggestions for strengthening dynamic scientific and technical intelligence research. (authors)
There is no data about the performance of scientific researchers in biomedicine in our environment that can be use by individual subjects to compare their execution with their pairs. Using the Scopus browser the following data from 115 scientific researchers in biomedicine were obtained: actual institution, number of articles published, place on each article within the author list as first, last or unique author, total number of citations, percentage of citations due to the most cited paper, and h-index. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and simple lineal regressions. Most of scientific researches in the sample are from the National Institutes of the Health Ministry or some of the research institutes or faculties at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Total number of publications was biomedicine in Mexico City, which can be used to compare the productivity of individual subjects with their pairs.
The article examines the validity of OSS (open source software) licenses for scientific, as opposed to creative works. It draws on examples of OSS licenses to consider their suitability for the scientific community and scientific research.
The BES user facilities provide open access to specialized instrumentation and expertise that enable scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry to carry out experiments and develop theories that could not be done at their home institutions. These forefront research facilities require resource commitments well beyond the scope of any non-government institution and open up otherwise inaccessible facets of Nature to scientific inquiry. For approved, peer-reviewed projects, instrument time is available without charge to researchers who intend to publish their results in the open literature. These large-scale user facilities have made significant contributions to various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, environmental science, biology, and biomedical science. Over 16,000 scientists and engineers.pdf file (27KB) conduct experiments at BES user facilities annually. Thousands of other researchers collaborate with these users and analyze the data measured at the facilities to publish new scientific findings in peer-reviewed journals.
Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta
The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned
V. V. Guzikova
Full Text Available Introduction. In modern education, against the backdrop of rapidly increasing processes of informatization and globalization as well as the requirements of specialists’ mobility, one of the priorities is vocational-oriented education in foreign languages. It ensures the formation of students’ ability to communicate in foreign languages in specific professional, business, scientific spheres and situations, taking into account the peculiarities of their future profession. The aims of this article are the following: to reveal the peculiarities of the organization of teaching foreign languages in the master’s degree of a non-linguistic high school; to present effective methods, approaches, and techniques of working with master students of the direction of “Musical Education”. Methodology and research methods. In the process of the research, such theoretical scientific methods as analysis, synthesis, specification, and generalization were used. The experimental design of the present study was based on the concept of Lifelong Learning. The methods of interview, observation and testing were applied. Results and scientific novelty. The authors have developed a set of exercises for mastering the skills of conducting a scientific discussion by the master students of the direction “Music Education”. The proposed technique has a cross-disciplinary character. It is designed to teach the students how to effectively communicate with colleagues in a foreign (English language when performing professional tasks, including scientific and research activities. The samples of particular tasks are given. Practical significance. The research materials may be of interest to methodologists, educators, and teachers of the system of continuous professional education.
Berry, Kathleen; Kincheloe, Joe
What does it mean to engage in rigorous research? What does a researcher need to know to produce such research? What is specifically involved in multiple method bricolage research? In an era where talk abounds about scientific rigour and evidence-based research in education, this groundbreaking book presents a new and compelling examination of…
Fischer, Frank; Kollar, Ingo; Ufer, Stefan; Sodian, Beate; Hussmann, Heinrich; Pekrun, Reinhard; Neuhaus, Birgit; Dorner, Birgit; Pankofer, Sabine; Fischer, Martin; Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Heene, Moritz; Eberle, Julia
Scientific reasoning and scientific argumentation are highly valued outcomes of K-12 and higher education. In this article, we first review main topics and key findings of three different strands of research, namely research on the development of scientific reasoning, research on scientific argumentation, and research on approaches to support…
Rask, Jon C.; Chakravarty, Kaushik; French, Alison; Choi, Sungshin; Stewart, Helen
The NASA Ames Life Sciences Institutional Scientific Collection (ISC), which is composed of the Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) and the Biospecimen Storage Facility (BSF), is managed by the Space Biosciences Division and has been operational since 1993. The ALSDA is responsible for archiving information and animal biospecimens collected from life science spaceflight experiments and matching ground control experiments. Both fixed and frozen spaceflight and ground tissues are stored in the BSF within the ISC. The ALSDA also manages a Biospecimen Sharing Program, performs curation and long-term storage operations, and makes biospecimens available to the scientific community for research purposes via the Life Science Data Archive public website (https:lsda.jsc.nasa.gov). As part of our best practices, a viability testing plan has been developed for the ISC, which will assess the quality of archived samples. We expect that results from the viability testing will catalyze sample use, enable broader science community interest, and improve operational efficiency of the ISC. The current viability test plan focuses on generating disposition recommendations and is based on using ribonucleic acid (RNA) integrity number (RIN) scores as a criteria for measurement of biospecimen viablity for downstream functional analysis. The plan includes (1) sorting and identification of candidate samples, (2) conducting a statiscally-based power analysis to generate representaive cohorts from the population of stored biospecimens, (3) completion of RIN analysis on select samples, and (4) development of disposition recommendations based on the RIN scores. Results of this work will also support NASA open science initiatives and guides development of the NASA Scientific Collections Directive (a policy on best practices for curation of biological collections). Our RIN-based methodology for characterizing the quality of tissues stored in the ISC since the 1980s also creates unique
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for scientific research and... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.41 Permits for scientific research and enhancement. In addition to the requirements under §§ 216.33 through 216.38, permits for scientific research...
Many problems in study designs have affected the validity of scientific researches seriously. We must understand the methodology of research, especially clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, and recognize the urgency in selection and implement of right study design. Thereafter we can promote the research capability and improve the overall quality of scientific researches.
The poster is a medium of scientific communication. When presented in public, it optimises the value of an original research approach. The poster sessions are devoted to one-to-one exchanges with peers on the subject of the research. The poster can help to integrate scientific knowledge into the nursing decision-making process.
Nachman, C.; Holman, A.; DeMaster, D.
Commercial, industrial, and research interests in the Arctic are expanding rapidly. Potentials are numerous and exciting, giving rise to the need for guidelines to ensure interactions among waterway users do not conflict. Of particular concern is the potential for adverse impacts to U.S. Arctic coastal communities that rely on living marine resources for nutritional and cultural health, through subsistence hunts from small craft, ice edges, and shore. Recent events raised concerns over research surveys potentially interfering with subsistence hunts in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas. Incidents led to calls by Native Alaskan communities to restrict science activities with a mixed response from the scientific community (i.e., some sympathetic, some defensive). With a common goal of wanting to mitigate this potential interaction, Federal agencies made a commitment in the National Strategy for the Arctic Region to coordinate and consult with Alaska Natives and also to pursue responsible Arctic stewardship, with understanding through scientific research and traditional knowledge. The effort to create a "Standard of Care" for research surveys incorporates years of experience by subsistence hunters working to mitigate impacts of other anthropogenic activities in the region, as well as best practices by many in the research community. The protocols are designed to ensure potential conflicts between the scientific research community and subsistence hunters are avoided and to encourage mutual assistance and collaboration between researchers and hunters. The guidelines focus on enhancing communication between researchers and subsistence hunters before, during, and after research occurs. The best management practices outlined in the Standard of Care assist those overseeing and funding scientific research in making decisions about how best to accomplish the goals of the research while ensuring protection of the Alaska subsistence lifestyle. These protocols could also be
It is hard to believe, but science in America is struggling. Funding for scientific research has been cut back for years, but this year it is so bad that in the Chicago area, needs to in 2008 to make ends meet. Last week Congress failed to provide enough budgetary support for basic scientific research in all fields.
Jones, W. Vernon
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program is committed to meeting the need for extended duration scientific investigations by providing advanced balloon vehicles and support systems. A sea change in ballooning capability occurred with the inauguration of 8 - 20 day flights around Antarctica in the early 1990's. The attainment of 28-31 day flights and a record-breaking 42-day flight in, respectively, two and three circumnavigations of the continent has greatly increased the expectations of the scientific users. A new super-pressure balloon is currently under development for future flights of 60-100 days at any latitude, which would bring another sea change in scientific research ballooning
Abstracting the main content of a recent report on the bad state of the archives of scientific research, this paper puts forward eleven thesis likely to feed, in this time of numeric transition to a new documentary regime and to a new patrimonial policy. The recent numeric conditions impose to set new archival pratices, more proactive, anticipative and prospective. Archives of scientific research must be thought in a double memorial and scientific dimension, and not only as a patrimonial or historical one.
Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam; Groman, Robert; Kinkade, Danie; Rauch, Shannon; Allison, Molly; Copley, Nancy; Gegg, Stephen; Wiebe, Peter; Glover, David
The sum of the parts is greater than the whole, but for scientific research how do we identify the parts when they are curated at distributed locations? Results from environmental research represent an enormous investment and constitute essential knowledge required to understand our planet in this time of rapid change. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) curates data from US NSF Ocean Sciences funded research awards, but BCO-DMO is only one repository in a landscape that includes many other sites that carefully curate results of scientific research. Recent efforts to use persistent identifiers (PIDs), most notably Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCiD) for person, Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for publications including data sets, and Open Funder Registry (FundRef) codes for research grants and awards are realizing success in unambiguously identifying the pieces that represent results of environmental research. This presentation uses BCO-DMO as a test case for adding PIDs to the locally-curated information published out as standards compliant metadata records. We present a summary of progress made thus far; what has worked and why, and thoughts on logical next steps.
Bækgaard, Josefine Stokholm; Hallas, Peter
Crowdsourcing (CS) is a rapidly emerging method in scientific research. In CS, large groups of people generate new data or try to find solutions to specific research questions, mainly by online collaboration. Examples of the current use of CS in medicine include disease surveillance as well as diagnosis of rare conditions. CS techniques are rapid, low cost and geographically independent - traits lacking in traditional types of study design. However, CS as a method has not yet found its place in the evidence rating scale and a standard for conducting and reporting CS studies does not yet exist.
The quality of scientific experiment building directly influences the scientific research work and production. To create a good working environment for scientific research and production, it is necessary to strengthen the maintenance and reconstruction for old scientific experiment building. The paper briefly introduces the site supervisory work of maintaining and reconstructing old scientific experiment building in Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, as well as some measures taken to ensure the project quality, and the reconstructed building. (authors)
In this study, it is aimed to investigate pre-service elementary mathematics teachers' perceptions about scientific research with metaphor analysis and determine the foundations of these perceptions. This phenomenological study was conducted with 182 participants. The data were collected with two open-ended survey forms formed for investigating…
Pascal, C B
This paper describes the role of the Office of Research Integrity (ORI), a component of the Public Health Service (PHS), in defining scientific misconduct in research supported with PHS funds and in establishing standards for responding to allegations of misconduct. The principal methods by which ORI exercises its responsibilities in this area are defining what types of behaviors undertaken by research investigators constitute misconduct, overseeing institutional efforts to investigate and report misconduct, and recommending to the Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) PHS administrative actions when misconduct is identified. ORI also takes affirmative steps to promote research integrity through education, training, and other initiatives. The role of the research institution in responding to misconduct and promoting research integrity is complementary and overlapping with ORI's efforts but, as the employer of research investigators and front-line manager of the research, the institution has a greater opportunity to promote the highest standards of integrity in the day-to-day conduct of research. Finally, legal precedent established through civil litigation has played an important role in defining the standards that apply in determining when a breach of research integrity has occurred.
At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.
Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo de; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Oliveira, Maria Christina Lopes; Martelli, Daniella Reis; Lima, Leonardo Santos; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Lopes, Thais Junqueira; Silva, Ana Cristina Simões; Martelli, Hercílio
Systematic assessments of the scientific production can optimize resource allocation and increase research productivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile and scientific production of researchers in the field of Cardiology who have fellowship in Medicine provided by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico. The curriculum Lattes of 33 researchers with active fellowships from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, tutoring of undergraduate, masters and PhD students, and scientific production and its impact. : There was predominance of males (72.7%) and of fellowship level 2 (56.4%). Three states of the Federation were responsible for 94% of the researchers: SP (28; 71.8%), RS (4; 10.3%), e RJ (3; 9.1%). Four institutions are responsible for about 82% of researchers: USP (13; 39.4%), UNESP (5; 15.2%), UFRGS (4; 12.1%) e UNIFESP (3; 9.1%). During all academic careers, the researchers published 2.958 journal articles, with a mean of 89 articles per researcher. Of total, 55% and 75% were indexed at Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The researchers received a total of 19648 citations at the database Web of Science, with a median of 330 citations per researcher (IQ = 198-706). The average number of citations per article was 13.5 citations (SD = 11.6). Our study has shown that researchers in the field of cardiology have a relevant scientific production. The knowledge of the profile of researchers in the field of Cardiology will probably enable effective strategies to qualitatively improve the scientific output of Brazilian researchers.
Chang, Shu-Nu; Chiu, Mei-Hung
The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis…
Association of American Universities, 2011
An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400... STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Peer and Merit Review Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research...
Vuckovic-Dekic, L; Gavrilovic, D; Kezic, I; Bogdanovic, G; Brkic, S
To determine the impact of the short science ethics courses on the knowledge of basic principles of responsible conduct of research (RCR), and on the attitude toward scientific fraud among young biomedical researchers. A total of 361 attendees of the course on science ethics answered a specially designed anonymous multiple- choice questionnaire before and after a one-day course in science ethics. The educational course consisted of 10 lectures: 1) Good scientific practice - basic principles; 2) Publication ethics; 3) Scientific fraud - fabrication, falsification, plagiarism; 4) Conflict of interests; 5) Underpublishing; 6) Mentorship; 7) Authorship; 8) Coauthorship; 9) False authorship; 10) Good scientific practice - ethical codex of science. In comparison to their answers before the course, a significantly higher (pscience ethics as sufficient after the course was completed. That the wrongdoers deserve severe punishment for all types of scientific fraud, including false authorship, thought significantly (pscience ethics had a great impact on the attendees, enlarging their knowledge of responsible conduct of research and changing their previous, somewhat opportunistic, behavior regarding the reluctance to react publicly and punish the wrongdoers.
To meet the requirement of development trend of scientific research and production, it is necessary to incorporate the modern procurement management theory in the whole procurement process for the items used in scientific research and production.This paper provided some suggestions to improve the procurement management by introducing the experiences in the application of the modern procurement management methods in the procurement of parts production. (author)
Prince, Mary Ellen
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a growing field which is just beginning to make an impact on disciplines other than computer science. While a number of military and commercial applications were undertaken in recent years, few attempts were made to apply AI techniques to basic scientific research. There is no inherent reason for the discrepancy. The characteristics of the problem, rather than its domain, determines whether or not it is suitable for an AI approach. Expert system, intelligent tutoring systems, and learning programs are examples of theoretical topics which can be applied to certain areas of scientific research. Further research and experimentation should eventurally make it possible for computers to act as intelligent assistants to scientists.
Oliveira, Maria Christina L; Martelli, Daniella Reis B; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso; Miranda, Debora Marques; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Leite, Barbara Gusmão L; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; e Silva, Ana Cristina S; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo
To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8%) belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77%) and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62%) prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%), Minas Gerais (21%), and Rio Grande do Sul (15%). During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119). Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73) for the 323 indexed journals. The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality.
Hurlimann, T; Stenne, R; Menuz, V; Godard, B
There are compelling reasons to ensure the participation of ethnic minorities and populations of all ages worldwide in nutrigenetics clinical research. If findings in such research are valid for some individuals, groups, or communities, and not for others, then ethical questions of justice--and not only issues of methodology and external validity--arise. This paper aims to examine inclusion in nutrigenetics clinical research and its scientific and ethical challenges. In total, 173 publications were identified through a systematic review of clinical studies in nutrigenetics published between 1998 and 2007. Data such as participants' demographics as well as eligibility criteria were extracted. There is no consistency in the way participants' origins (ancestry, ethnicity, or race) and ages are described in publications. A vast majority of the studies identified was conducted in North America and Europe and focused on 'white' participants. Our results show that pregnant women (and fetuses), minors, and the elderly (≥ 75 years old) remain underrepresented. Representativeness in nutrigenetics research is a challenging ethical and scientific issue. Yet, if nutrigenetics is to benefit whole populations and be used in public and global health agendas, fair representation as well as clear descriptions of participants in publications are crucial. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)
Vaynbaum, S Ya
The category of ''potential effect'' is inherent to scientific developments in oil geology. This effect is associated with a quantity of labor in the sphere of scientific research which is embodied in the extracted information and stored until its complete use in production. The potential effect can be predicted. It is an indicator of economic effectiveness of scientific research. Distribution of the coefficient of creativity (innovation) for scientific research for geological exploration is suggested. The system of calculating the economic effect contains real stimuli for increasing economic efficiency. The most important of them are: establishment of the most promising trends for geological exploration which guarantee maximum increase in hydrocarbon reserves; decrease in net cost which will guarantee the obtaining of great profit; conducting of research on a higher level, in a large quantity of stages of work. This results in an increase in the percentage of participation of science in the production process, and this means, an increase in its economic effectiveness.
Full Text Available There is a potential for improving the scientific research environment in Libya. One reason to be optimistic about the prospects of the future of science in Libya is the number of postgraduate students in all disciplines who are training in European and North American Universities. According to statistics of the Higher Education Authorities in Libya, there are approximately 3000 Libyan students enrolled in postgraduate studies in British universities alone and almost half of this number in North America . However, research output of Libyan universities’ academic staff members is still very low. For example, a recent survey of published medical literature revealed that the average annual production rate at the Al-Fateh Medical University is 1.4 article/100 academic staff . In my opinion, four major reasons may explain the problems facing scientific research in Arab countries in general and in Libya in particular: 1 Brain Drain 2 Lack of funding 3 Lack of scientific infrastructure and incompetent supportive staff, and 4 Teaching overload. I will discuss the role that the new generation of Libyan researchers* could play to advance the scientific research output in Libya.
Hubbard, Katharine E; Dunbar, Sonja D
Reading primary research literature is an essential skill for all scientists and students on science degree programmes, however little is known about how researchers at different career stages interact with and interpret scientific papers. To explore this, we conducted a survey of 260 undergraduate students and researchers in Biological Sciences at a research intensive UK university. Responses to Likert scale questions demonstrated increases in confidence and skill with reading the literature between individuals at each career stage, including between postdoctoral researchers and faculty academics. The survey indicated that individuals at different career stages valued different sections of scientific papers, and skill in reading the results section develops slowly over the course of an academic career. Inexperienced readers found the methods and results sections of research papers the most difficult to read, and undervalued the importance of the results section and critical interpretation of data. These data highlight a need for structured support with reading scientific literature at multiple career stages, and for senior academics to be aware that junior colleagues may prioritise their reading differently. We propose a model for the development of literature processing skills, and consider the need for training strategies to help inexperienced readers engage with primary literature, and therefore develop important skills that underpin scientific careers. We also encourage researchers to be mindful of language used when writing papers, and to be more inclusive of diverse audiences when disseminating their work.
María Martín-Moreno, José; Juan Toharia, José; Gutiérrez Fuentes, José Antonio
The assessment and prioritisation of research activity are essential components of any Science, Technology and Industry System. Data on researchers' perspectives in this respect are scarce. The objective of this paper was to describe Spanish scientists' point of view on the current evaluation system in Spain and how they believe this system should be functionally structured. From the sampling frame formed by established Spanish scientists, listed in the databases of CSIC and FIS (Institute of Health Carlos III), clinical, biomedical-non clinical, and physics and chemical researchers were randomly selected. Two hundred and eleven interviews were carried out by means of a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system. Researchers expressed their acknowledgement of progress in the Spanish research field but made their wish clear to progress towards better scientific scenarios. In their assessment, they gave a score of 5.4 to scientific policy, as opposed to 9.4 when speaking about the goals, reflecting the desire for a better policy definition, with clear objectives, stable strategies and better coordination of R&D activities (the current coordination received a score of 3.9, while the desirable coordination was valued as high as 9.2). There was certain agreement regarding the need for a prioritisation criteria which preserves some degree of creativity by researchers. They also stated that they would like to see an independent research structure with social prestige and influence. The interviewed researchers believe that the evaluation of scientific activities is fundamental in formulating a sound scientific policy. Prioritisation should arise from appropriate evaluation. Strategies properly coordinated among all the stakeholders (including the private sector) should be fostered. Budget sufficiency, stability, and better organization of independent researchers should be the backbone of any strategy tailored to increase their capacity to influence future scientific
Kaminski, Amy P.; Neogi, Natasha A.
This guidebook provides an overarching summary of existing policies, activities, and guiding principles for scientific and research integrity with which NASA's workforce and affiliates must conform. This document addresses NASA's obligations as both a research institution and as a funder of research, NASA's use of federal advisory committees, NASA's public communication of research results, and professional development of NASA's workforce. This guidebook is intended to provide a single resource for NASA researchers, NASA research program administrators and project managers, external entities who do or might receive funding from NASA for research or technical projects, evaluators of NASA research proposals, NASA advisory committee members, NASA communications specialists, and members of the general public so that they can understand NASA's commitment to and expectations for scientific and integrity across the agency.
Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn; Jeppesen, Jacob
This paper summarizes preliminary results from a project studying how the organizational and cognitive features of research carried out in a Large Scale Research Facility (LSRF) affect scientific impact. The study is based on exhaustive bibliometric mapping of the scientific publications...... of the Neutron Science Department of Oak Ridge National Laboratories in 2006-2009. Given the collaborative nature of research carried out at LSRFs, it is important to understand how its organization affects scientific impact. Diversity of teams along the institutional and cognitive dimensions affects both...... opportunities for combination of knowledge and coordination costs. The way specific collaborative configurations strike this trade-offs between these opportunities and costs have notable effects on research performance. The findings of the paper show that i.) scientists combining affiliations to both...
Haiyan LUO; Qingqun YAO; Lizhen CHEN; Yu ZHENG
Project management of agricultural scientific research institutions is an important section of agricultural scientific research plan management. It is of great significance for sustainable development of scientific research work of scientific research institutions. According to a series of opinions and notices about scientific and technological system reform issued by the state,and combining current situations of management of scientific research projects in scientific research institutions,this paper made a preliminary study on management of agricultural scientific research projects in the new trend. Finally,on the basis of the current situations of management of agricultural scientific research projects,it came up with pertinent recommendations,including strengthening communication and cooperation and actively declaring projects,strengthening preliminary planning of projects and establishing project information database,reinforcing project process management,ensuring on-time and high quality completion of projects,and strengthening learning and improving quality of management personnel.
Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L
Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers' time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment.
Sonnenwald, Diane H.
In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...
Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter Walter; Young, Mitchell
In 2013, the European Union (EU) unveiled its new ‘Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence’. This is not an isolated occurrence; policy-based interest in excellence is growing all over the world. The heightened focus on excellence and, in particular, attempts...... to define it through quantitative indicators can have important implications for research policy and for the conduct of research itself. This paper examines how the EU's understanding of excellence has evolved in recent years, from the presentation of the Lisbon strategy in 2000 to the current Europe 2020...... strategy. We find a distinct shift in the understanding of excellence and how success in the knowledge-based economy should be achieved: in the early period, excellence is a fuzzy concept, intrinsically embedded in research and researchers and revealed by peer review. In the later period, excellence...
Hather, Gregory J; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John; Kolker, Eugene
To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"
Gregory J Hather
Full Text Available To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US, we compared federal research funding (FRF with the US gross domestic product (GDP and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU and the People's Republic of China (China over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"
Open inquiry through reproducing results is fundamental to the scientific process. Contemporary research relies on software engineering pipelines to collect, process, and analyze data. The open source projects within Project Jupyter facilitate these objectives by bringing software engineering within the context of scientific communication. We will highlight specific projects that are computational building blocks for scientific communication, starting with the Jupyter Notebook. We will also explore applications of projects that build off of the Notebook such as Binder, JupyterHub, and repo2docker. We will discuss how these projects can individually and jointly improve reproducibility in scientific communication. Finally, we will demonstrate applications of Jupyter software that allow researchers to build upon the code of other scientists, both to extend their work and the work of others. There will be a follow-up demo session in the afternoon, hosted by iML. Details can be foun...
Full Text Available Scientists' moral responsibilities have become a focus for the scientific community over the postwar decades. International and regional networks of leading academic bodies have responded to a widely perceived increase in scientific fraud and the ensued loss of public trust in science during the 1980s, and initiated a discussion with a view to codifying good practice in research. While scientists' “external” responsibilities towards society and the humankind have been variously addressed, codes drafted since then mainly dwell on problems of misconduct concerning scientists' “internal” responsibilities towards science and to the scientific community. They also reflect an ethical pluralism, which declines justifying moral standards in research with reference to universal ethical principles. However, the need for such justification has been first recognized decades ago, during the Doctor's Trial in Nuremberg, where the shortcomings of the established ethos of science and the inadequacy of the Hippocratic ethics in safeguarding human rights in research had become flagrant, with the resultant Nuremberg Code of 1947 introducing a human rights perspective into Hippocratic ethics. This paper argues for the necessity of an integral ethical justification of scientists' both external and inner responsibilities, as put down or assumed by internationally acclaimed codes of conduct. Such necessity is validated by the evidence that a historical current to monopolize ethical thinking in the name of science and nullify philosophical ethics lies at the root of an anti–morality that relativized human worth and virtually legitimized human rights violations in scientific practice. Kantian ethics based on humans' absolute inner worth, and Popperian epistemology rooted in respect for truth and for humans as rational beings, pledge an ethical justification of moral norms in science so as to reinforce the latter against intrusions of anti–morality. The paper
Debates about science and, more specifically, about scientific research quickly bring up the question about its freedom. Science is readily blamed for technological disasters or criticized for nursing fantasies of omnipotence and commercial gain. This prompts the call for a restriction of its freedom. At the same time, society's demands on science are enormous, to the effect that science and technology have acquired the status of a deus-ex-machina: they are expected to furnish short-term, affordable, and convenient solutions to a wide range of problems, including issues of health, transportation, food and, more generally, a comfortable life. What kind of freedom is required to meet these expectations? Who is in a position to grant it? What does freedom for science mean and how is it linked to responsibility? The paper examines the current situation of freedom in scientific research and of its restrictions, many of which are mentally or economically conditioned. It calls for the involvement of an informed, self-confident bourgeoisie in research decisions and for the educational measures this necessitates. Finally, it demands a greater appreciation of education (rather than training) as the basis of social trust, and the recognition of continuous education as a productive investment of time and a crucial element in the employment of social goods.
Maria Christina L. Oliveira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. METHODS: The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. RESULTS: In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8% belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77% and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62% prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%, Minas Gerais (21%, and Rio Grande do Sul (15%. During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119. Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73 for the 323 indexed journals. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality.
Quantitative and qualitative approaches in scientific research should not be looked at as separate or even opposed fields of thinking and action, but could rather offer complementary perspectives in order to build appropriate answers to increasingly complex research questions. An open letter recently published by the BMJ and signed by 76 senior academics from 11 countries invite the editors to reconsider their policy of rejecting qualitative research on the grounds of low priority and challenge the journal to develop a proactive, scholarly and pluralistic approach to research that aligns with its stated mission. The contents of the letter, the many voices raised by almost fifty rapid responses and the severe but not closed responses of the editors outline a stimulating debate and hopefully prelude some "change in emphasis", ensuring that all types of research relevant to the mission of the BMJ (as well as other core journals) are considered for publication and providing an evolving landmark for scientific and educational purposes.
Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G.; Boyd, Stephen J.; Kopak, Albert
Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies. PMID:22167325
As of 2013, a number of companies had announced their intention to start flying suborbital vehicles, capable of transporting people to high altitudes out of any airport or launch site, on a commercial and regular basis. According to several studies, a market for suborbital "space tourism" exists. Another very promising application of suborbital flight is scientific research. The present paper provides an overview of the potential of commercial suborbital flight for science, including microgravity research. Suborbital flight provides a much-needed intermediate-duration opportunity between research performed in Earth orbit and more affordable but shorter duration alternatives, such as drop towers and zero-g parabolic flights. Moreover, suborbital flight will be less expensive and more frequent than both orbital flight and sounding rockets, and it has the capability to fly into sub-orbit the researcher together with the payload, and thus enable on-site interaction with the experiment. In the United States, both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and a number of private institutions have already shown interest in conducting scientific experiments, particularly microgravity research, aboard these new platforms. Researchers who intend to participate in future suborbital flights as payload specialists will need training, given the physical challenges posed by the flight. Finally, suborbital researchers may also want to have a basic knowledge of the legal status that will apply to them as passengers of such flights.
Gundersen, L. C.
Predicting climate change, developing resources sustainably, and mitigating natural hazard risk are complex interdisciplinary challenges in the geosciences that require the integration of data and knowledge from disparate disciplines and scales. This kind of interdisciplinary science can only thrive if scientific communities work together and adhere to common standards of scientific integrity, ethics, data management, curation, and sharing. Science and data without integrity and ethics can erode the very fabric of the scientific enterprise and potentially harm society and the planet. Inaccurate risk analyses of natural hazards can lead to poor choices in construction, insurance, and emergency response. Incorrect assessment of mineral resources can bankrupt a company, destroy a local economy, and contaminate an ecosystem. This paper presents key ethics and integrity questions paired with the major components of the research data life cycle. The questions can be used by the researcher during the scientific process to help ensure the integrity and ethics of their research and adherence to sound data management practice. Questions include considerations for open, collaborative science, which is fundamentally changing the responsibility of scientists regarding data sharing and reproducibility. The publication of primary data, methods, models, software, and workflows must become a norm of science. There are also questions that prompt the scientist to think about the benefit of their work to society; ensuring equity, respect, and fairness in working with others; and always striving for honesty, excellence, and transparency.
Full Text Available Research capacity is weakest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs where operational research is highly relevant and needed. Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT courses have been developed to train participants to conduct and publish operational research and influence policy and practice. Twenty courses were completed in Asia, Africa, Europe and the South Pacific between 2009 and 2014.In the 20 completed SORT IT courses, to assess where the research was conducted, who was trained, who became facilitators in subsequent courses and course outcomes.A cohort study of completed SORT IT courses.There were 236 participants (41% female including 64 nationalities who conducted research in 59 countries, mostly from Asia and Africa (mean course duration = 9.7 months. Most participants (68% were from government health programs and non-governmental agencies. A total of 213(90% participants completed all milestones successfully with 41(19% becoming subsequent course facilitators, 88% of whom were from LMICs. Of 228 manuscripts submitted to scientific journals, 197(86% were either published or in press; in 86%, the principal investigator (first author was a LMIC national. Papers were published in 23 scientific journals (impact factor 0.5-4.4 and covered 21 disease categories (median publication time = 5.7 months. Published papers (186 had 94,794 cumulative article views/downloads. Article views/downloads for immediate open access articles were double those from closed access journals.The SORT IT model has been effective in training personnel to produce relevant operational research in LMICs. It merits continued commitment and support for further scale-up and development.
requisite for a successful academic research environment. Lately, a lot of revelations of fraud and other unacceptable behaviour in research have been highly publicized in scientific journals and mass media. Whereas institutions in developed ...
Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.
Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) was founded to study the effects of radiation in survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several fixed cohorts or sub-cohorts were established to provide epidemiological and clinical data on the health status and mortality of survivors and their children. Genetics and radiobiological studies are carried out to help interpret the findings. The Life Span Study is the core project of RERF. It consists of a large cohort from a general population of both sexes and all ages, encompassing a wide range of accurately known doses and incorporating accurate disease incidence and mortality recording. These features make this a very valuable and informative study. The Adult Health Study is a clinical study of a sub-cohort of the Life Span Study. Examinations of survivors are conducted every two years, providing a continuing health profile of an aging population and establishing the radiation-related risk of non-cancer diseases. The children of atomic-bomb survivors are being studied to determine whether genetic effects might be apparent that could be related to parental exposures. Initial study of post-natal defects did not demonstrate discernable effects. The mortality follow up is continuing. A new clinical study of survivor children was recently started to examine the health condition of these now middle-aged individuals. It is now 58 years since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The legacy of those events still marks the lives of the survivors. RERF feels an important responsibility to investigate the effects of radiation to contribute to the welfare of those affected, to understand and quantify the effects, and to provide a scientific basis for radiation protection worldwide. We intend to continue a high quality scientific research program into the future, establishing where possible more collaborative efforts to be sure that our shared resources and capabilities are most effectively utilized
Natalya O. Vaganova
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reveal features and possibilities of research work in the organizations of secondary professional education. Methods. Theoretical methods involve analysis of legislative, normative documents; comparison and generalization of the findings of scientists on research activities. Empirical methods: pedagogical observation, to study the experience of organization of research work. Results. The definition of «research ability» is proposed; the system of organization of research activity in the organization of secondary vocational education, including the identification of approaches to the concept of «research» is developed; development of a program of research skills formation is given; definition of subjective functional relationships for the implementation of the programmer of research; the development of training programs for teaching staff the organization of the secondary professional education to the organization and conduct of research activities with students; creation of innovative infrastructure as a set of resources and means to ensure the maintenance of research activities. Scientific novelty. An attempt to fill the gaps in the methodology of organization of research activity in organizations of secondary vocational education is taken. Peculiarities of the educational programs of secondary vocational education, defining the forms of research activities are disclosed. Approaches to the concept of «research», the formation of research skills and development of professional-pedagogical competences of teachers as subjects of research activities are proposed. Practical significance. The use of suggested approaches to conducting research in organizations of secondary vocational education can increase the level of students and extend the functionality of teachers.
Full Text Available Access to and sharing of data are essential for the conduct and advancement of science. This article argues that publicly funded research data should be openly available to the maximum extent possible. To seize upon advancements of cyberinfrastructure and the explosion of data in a range of scientific disciplines, this access to and sharing of publicly funded data must be advanced within an international framework, beyond technological solutions. The authors, members of an OECD Follow-up Group, present their research findings, based closely on their report to OECD, on key issues in data access, as well as operating principles and management aspects necessary to successful data access regimes.
Bangera, Gita; Brownell, Sara E.
Current approaches to improving diversity in scientific research focus on graduating more science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors, but graduation with a STEM undergraduate degree alone is not sufficient for entry into graduate school. Undergraduate independent research experiences are becoming more or less a prerequisite…
Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan
Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone's daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it's adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity.
Zoto, J.; Zaganjori, S.
The Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) was established in 1971 as a scientific research institution with main goal basic scientific knowledge transmission and transfer the new methods and technologies of nuclear physics to the different economy fields. The organizational structure and main research areas of the Institute are described. The effects of the long transition period of the Albanian society and economy on the Institution activity are also presented
The main argument of this article is that science teaching based on a pedagogy of questions is to be modeled on a hermeneutic conception of scientific research as a process of the constitution of texts. This process is spelled out in terms of hermeneutic phenomenology. A text constituted by scientific practices is at once united by a hermeneutic…
The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes.
Sergio Bertolucci has become Director for Research and Scientific Computing at the moment when the LHC is almost ready to deliver its first physics data. In this interview, he explains the importance of the perfect mix of collaboration and competition that will make the LHC scientific programme successful. Sergio Bertolucci’s enthusiasm for being at CERN at this historic time is evident from the first minute of the interview and has not waned after an hour speaking with us. Bertolucci’s recipe for a successful start-up of the physics delivery phase of the LHC is "Festina lente", a Latin motto that means something like ‘hasten slowly’. "The LHC is probably the biggest and most complex scientific enterprise ever undertaken by humanity," says Bertolucci. "It will certainly lead us towards a new phase of our understanding of the Universe. Nature is already giving us some indications but only the LHC will allow us to observe the ne...
CERN. Geneva; Monga, Inder
The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is a high-performance, unclassified national network built to support scientific research. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science (SC) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, ESnet provides services to more than 40 DOE research sites, including the entire National Laboratory system, its supercomputing facilities, and its major scientific instruments. ESnet also connects to 140 research and commercial networks, permitting DOE-funded scientists to productively collaborate with partners around the world. ESnet Division Director (Interim) Inder Monga and ESnet Networking Engineer David Mitchell will present current ESnet projects and research activities which help support the HEP community. ESnet helps support the CERN community by providing 100Gbps trans-Atlantic network transport for the LHCONE and LHCOPN services. ESnet is also actively engaged in researching connectivity to cloud computing resources for HEP workflows a...
Frederick U. Ozor
Public research institutions and scientists are principal actors in the production and transfer of scientific knowledge, technologies and innovations for application in industry as well for social and economic development. Based on the relevance of science and technology actors, the aim of this study was to identify and explain factors in research governance that influence scientific knowledge production and to contribute to empirical discussions on the impact levels of different governance m...
O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.
It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…
Vose, P.B.; Cervellini, A.
The paper gives a general consideration of the problems encountered in the scientific research by the developing countries. Possible optimizations in the long term as well as short term strategies are pointed out
Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan
Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone’s daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it’s adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity. PMID:26524587
The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritos for the year 1980 are presented in the form of a list of 76 projects giving title, objectives, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 16 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritos NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Scientific Directorate, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications, Radioimmunoassay and Training. (N.C.)
This book investigates how collaborative scientific practice yields scientific knowledge. At a time when most of today’s scientific knowledge is created in research groups, the author reconsiders the social character of science to address the question of whether collaboratively created knowledge should be considered as collective achievement, and if so, in which sense. Combining philosophical analysis with qualitative empirical inquiry, this book provides a comparative case study of mono- and interdisciplinary research groups, offering insight into the day-to-day practice of scientists. The book includes field observations and interviews with scientists to present an empirically-grounded perspective on much-debated questions concerning research groups’ division of labor, relations of epistemic dependence and trust.
Britto, Jorge; Vargas, Marco Antônio; Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira
To examine recent developments in health-related scientific capabilities, the impact of lines of incentives on reducing regional scientific imbalances, and university-industry research collaboration in Brazil. Data were obtained from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) databases for the years 2000 to 2010. There were assessed indicators of resource mobilization, research network structuring, and knowledge transfer between science and industry initiatives. Based on the regional distribution map of health-related scientific and technological capabilities there were identified patterns of scientific capabilities and science-industry collaboration. There was relative spatial deconcentration of health research groups and more than 6% of them worked in six areas of knowledge areas: medicine, collective health, dentistry, veterinary medicine, ecology and physical education. Lines of incentives that were adopted from 2000 to 2009 contributed to reducing regional scientific imbalances and improving preexisting capabilities or, alternatively, encouraging spatial decentralization of these capabilities. Health-related scientific and technological capabilities remain highly spatially concentrated in Brazil and incentive policies have contributed to reduce to some extent these imbalances.
Communities can demonstrate environmental concerns by providing scientific evidence of environmental impact. Communities may be able to access existing local data and conduct their own analyses or communities may turn to existing studies.
Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity means for the professional and community investigators who are involved in CBPR. This analysis explores the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR among 74 professional and community research team members from of 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. It describes the basic definition for scientific integrity and then explores variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR. Variations in the interpretations were associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Professional investigators understood scientific integrity in CBPR as either conceptually or logistically flexible, as challenging to balance with community needs, or no different than traditional scientific integrity. Community investigators interpret other factors as important in scientific integrity, such as trust, accountability, and overall benefit to the community. This research demonstrates that the variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR call for a new definition of scientific integrity in CBPR that takes into account the understanding and needs of all investigators. PMID:24161098
Catalá-López, Ferrán; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; Page, Matthew J; Hutton, Brian; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael
The management of comorbidity and multimorbidity poses major challenges to health services around the world. Analysis of scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity is limited in the biomedical literature. This study aimed to map global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity to understand the maturity and growth of the area during the past decades. This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Web of Science. Searches were run from inception until November 8, 2016. We included research articles or reviews with no restrictions by language or publication date. Data abstraction was done by one researcher. A process of standardization was conducted by two researchers to unify different terms and grammatical variants and to remove typographical, transcription, and/or indexing errors. All potential discrepancies were resolved via discussion. Descriptive analyses were conducted (including the number of papers, citations, signatures, most prolific authors, countries, journals and keywords). Network analyses of collaborations between countries and co-words were presented. During the period 1970-2016, 85994 papers (64.0% in 2010-2016) were published in 3500 journals. There was wide diversity in the specialty of the journals, with psychiatry (16558 papers; 19.3%), surgery (9570 papers; 11.1%), clinical neurology (9275 papers; 10.8%), and general and internal medicine (7622 papers; 8.9%) the most common. PLOS One (1223 papers; 1.4%), the Journal of Affective Disorders (1154 papers; 1.3%), the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (727 papers; 0.8%), the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (634 papers; 0.7%) and Obesity Surgery (588 papers; 0.7%) published the largest number of papers. 168 countries were involved in the production of papers. The global productivity ranking was headed by the United States (37624 papers), followed by the United Kingdom (7355 papers), Germany (6899 papers) and Canada (5706 papers). Twenty authors who published 100 or more
Page, Matthew J.; Hutton, Brian; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael
Background The management of comorbidity and multimorbidity poses major challenges to health services around the world. Analysis of scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity is limited in the biomedical literature. This study aimed to map global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity to understand the maturity and growth of the area during the past decades. Methods and findings This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Web of Science. Searches were run from inception until November 8, 2016. We included research articles or reviews with no restrictions by language or publication date. Data abstraction was done by one researcher. A process of standardization was conducted by two researchers to unify different terms and grammatical variants and to remove typographical, transcription, and/or indexing errors. All potential discrepancies were resolved via discussion. Descriptive analyses were conducted (including the number of papers, citations, signatures, most prolific authors, countries, journals and keywords). Network analyses of collaborations between countries and co-words were presented. During the period 1970–2016, 85994 papers (64.0% in 2010–2016) were published in 3500 journals. There was wide diversity in the specialty of the journals, with psychiatry (16558 papers; 19.3%), surgery (9570 papers; 11.1%), clinical neurology (9275 papers; 10.8%), and general and internal medicine (7622 papers; 8.9%) the most common. PLOS One (1223 papers; 1.4%), the Journal of Affective Disorders (1154 papers; 1.3%), the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (727 papers; 0.8%), the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (634 papers; 0.7%) and Obesity Surgery (588 papers; 0.7%) published the largest number of papers. 168 countries were involved in the production of papers. The global productivity ranking was headed by the United States (37624 papers), followed by the United Kingdom (7355 papers), Germany (6899 papers) and Canada (5706 papers). Twenty
Boody, Robert M.
Socrates and Admetus discuss the value of scientific research in education. They conclude that although RCTs have their place, they are not a panacea for education, and that the push for them by NCLB is not warranted.
Darío Bergel, Salvador
This article aims to review the relationship between patents and scientific research from an ethical point of view. The recent developments in the law of industrial property led in many cases to patent discoveries, contributions of basic science, and laws of nature. This trend, which denies the central principles of the discipline, creates disturbances in scientific activity, which requires the free movement of knowledge in order to develop their potentialities.
The goal of this thesis is to analyse how the academic domain of a research entity can be defined by a panel of scientific journals. The aim of this work is to contribute to the creation of information tools as a help in research management. The first part gives an analysis of the scientific journals as markers of the scientific development: the production and diffusion of scientific journals and their ''scientometrical'' analysis (references, citation reports, citation indexes etc..). In the second part, a research unit is analyzed according to its related scientific journals and to its research domain. The SPAM (Photons, Atoms and Molecules Service) of the CEA was chosen for this task (main journals and co-publications network, specialization, main topics, collaborations and competition). The OST (Observatory of Sciences and Techniques) has in charge the production of scientific and technical indicators for research operators. The third part evaluates the methods used by the OST (analyses of reviews and journals) to provide a documentary corpus, taking the topic of the environment as an example. Finally the relevance of the information products obtained is evaluated. (J.S.)
Full Text Available The behavior/structure methodological dichotomy as locus of scientific inquiry is closely related to the issue of modeling and theory change in scientific explanation. Given that the traditional tension between structure and behavior in scientific modeling is likely here to stay, considering the relevant precedents in the history of ideas could help us better understand this theoretical struggle. This better understanding might open up unforeseen possibilities and new instantiations, particularly in what concerns the proposed technological modification of the human condition. The sequential structure of this paper is twofold. The contribution of three philosophers better known in the humanities than in the study of science proper are laid out. The key theoretical notions interweaving the whole narrative are those of mechanization, constructability and simulation. They shall provide the conceptual bridge between these classical thinkers and the following section. Here, a panoramic view of three significant experimental approaches in contemporary scientific research is displayed, suggesting that their undisclosed ontological premises have deep roots in the Western tradition of the humanities. This ontological lock between core humanist ideals and late research in biology and nanoscience is ultimately suggested as responsible for pervasively altering what is canonically understood as “human”.
This report contains the titles of the publications edited in the year 1983. The scientific and technical-scientific publications of the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe are printed as books, as original contributions in scientific or technical specialists' journals, as scripts for habilitation, thesis, scripts for diploma, as patents, as KfK-Reports (KfK=Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe) and are being presented as lectures on scientific meetings. No further separate abstracts of this list of publications were prepared. (orig./HBR) [de
Sorensen, Amanda E.; Corral, Lucia; Dauer, Jenny M.; Fontaine, Joseph J.
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) have been developed to overcome barriers including students in research. However, there are few examples of CUREs that take place in a conservation and natural resource context with students engaging in field research. Here, we highlight the development of a conservation-focused CURE integrated to a research program, research benefits, student self-assessment of learning, and perception of the CURE. With the additional data, researchers were able to refine species distribution models and facilitate management decisions. Most students reported gains in their scientific skills, felt they had engaged in meaningful, real-world research. In student reflections on how this experience helped clarify their professional intentions, many reported being more likely to enroll in graduate programs and seek employment related to science. Also interesting was all students reported being more likely to talk with friends, family, or the public about wildlife conservation issues after participating, indicating that courses like this can have effects beyond the classroom, empowering students to be advocates and translators of science. Field-based, conservation-focused CUREs can create meaningful conservation and natural resource experiences with authentic scientific teaching practices.
Lamanauskas, Vincentas; Augiene, Dalia
The development of student abilities of scientific research activity (SRA) in the process of studies appears as a highly important area. In the course of studies, students not only increase their general competencies, acquire professional abilities and skills but also learn to conduct research. This does not mean that all students will build their…
Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal
Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D
In this series of articles--Research Ethics I, Research Ethics II, and Research Ethics III--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In Research Ethics I, they present a historical overview of the evolution of RCR in the United States then examine the evolution of human and animal experimentation from the birth of scientific medicine through World War II to the present day. They relied on authoritative documents, both historical and contemporary, insightful commentary, and empirical research in order to identify current issues and controversies of potential interest to both faculty and students. The authors have written this article from a historical perspective because they think all readers interested in RCR should appreciate how the history of science and all the good--and harm--it has produced can inform how researchers practice responsible research in the 21st century and beyond.
Paine, Drew; Lee, Charlotte
Slides from Charlotte P. Lee's presentation at the 2015 iConference on our paper "Examining Data Processing Work as Part of the Scientific Data Lifecycle: Comparing Practices Across Four Scientific Research Groups".
Pennington, D. D.; Gandara, A.; Gris, I.
The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of Semantic Web, mash up, and social networking tools that supports knowledge sharing and innovation across scientific disciplines in research and education communities and networks. The explosion of scientific resources (data, models, algorithms, tools, and cyberinfrastructure) challenges the ability of researchers to be aware of resources that might benefit them. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about those resources to become potential adopters or re-users. Often scientific data and emerging technologies have little documentation, especially about the context of their use. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of researchers to organize Web resources into virtual collections, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant resources that are available; b) design research that leverages those resources; and c) develop initial work plans. The VLC aims to support the "fuzzy front end" of innovation, where novel ideas emerge and there is the greatest potential for impact on research design. It is during the fuzzy front end that conceptual collisions across disciplines and exposure to diverse perspectives provide opportunity for creative thinking that can lead to inventive outcomes. The VLC integrates Semantic Web functionality for structuring distributed information, mash up functionality for retrieving and displaying information, and social media for discussing/rating information. We are working to provide three views of information that support researchers in different ways: 1. Innovation Marketplace: supports users as they try to understand what research is being conducted, who is conducting it, where they are located, and who they collaborate with; 2. Conceptual Mapper: supports users as they organize their
Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Fernandez, Ana; Madden, Rosamond; Lukersmith, Sue; Colagiuri, Ruth; Torkfar, Ghazal; Sturmberg, Joachim
The new area of health system research requires a revision of the taxonomy of scientific knowledge that may facilitate a better understanding and representation of complex health phenomena in research discovery, corroboration and implementation. A position paper by an expert group following and iterative approach. 'Scientific evidence' should be differentiated from 'elicited knowledge' of experts and users, and this latter typology should be described beyond the traditional qualitative framework. Within this context 'framing of scientific knowledge' (FSK) is defined as a group of studies of prior expert knowledge specifically aimed at generating formal scientific frames. To be distinguished from other unstructured frames, FSK must be explicit, standardized, based on the available evidence, agreed by a group of experts and subdued to the principles of commensurability, transparency for corroboration and transferability that characterize scientific research. A preliminary typology of scientific framing studies is presented. This typology includes, among others, health declarations, position papers, expert-based clinical guides, conceptual maps, classifications, expert-driven health atlases and expert-driven studies of costs and burden of illness. This grouping of expert-based studies constitutes a different kind of scientific knowledge and should be clearly differentiated from 'evidence' gathered from experimental and observational studies in health system research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Šerpenskienė, Silvija; Skridlaitė, Gražina
etc. Applications for a grant of open access shall be received online in accordance with the established procedure via the NRC website (www.gamtostyrimai.lt). State-of-the-art equipment enables researchers to carry out up-to-date scientific research and educational projects, scientific experiments, graduation and laboratory works. Scientists, researchers and students get the opportunity to deepen their knowledge, conduct new research in the field of natural sciences, to obtain new data to be used for further studies as well as for the development of products of higher added value. Favourable conditions are created for pursuing and developing higher level scientific research, for the implementation of joint and interdisciplinary projects, for enhancing cooperation between business and public institutions as well as between those of studies and science. The implementation of the above mentioned tasks leads to the enhanced competitiveness of Lithuanian scientists and researchers and to dissemination of the high quality scientific knowledge for a society. Tens of students from different universities and researchers from other institutions are using the OAC facilities. "Pan-European coordination action on CO2 Geological Storage (CGS Europe)"; "GEO-SEAS"; "EMODNET"; "Securing the Conservation of biodiversity across Administrative Levels and spatial, temporal, and Ecological Scales (SCALES)"; "Decline Of Fraxinus excelsior in northern Europe" and other projects are being carried out at the OAC so far. This is a contribution to the Open Access Centre activities
Full Text Available Objective: characterize the behavior of clinical research in Physiotherapy, through the analysis of theproduction of scientific literature in a period of five years in order to identify areas of concentrationand dispersion, collaborative research and types of clinical studies have conducted. Methods andmaterials: descriptive study on the papers in Medline/PubMed from 2005-2009. Were considereda total 404 publications, clinical trials and epidemiological studies side, analyzed according to thepercentage distribution of articles by clinical area, year of publication, and institutional affiliation ofresearchers. Results: It found a greater number of trials (93% systematic reviews represented thegreatest number of epidemiological studies side. The clinical areas pulmonary and cardiovascularaccount for 65% of scientific publications in the studies analyzed. The year with highest numberof publications was 2008. Half of the clinical research produced in this five-year have affiliationwith academic institutions, and secondly, studies conducted in hospitals. Conclusions: the clinicalresearch publications in Physiotherapy in Medline/PubMed registered show sustained activity ofscientific production in the pulmonary and cardiovascular areas, consistent with the major healthconcerns in the world. The findings suggest that the ability of physiotherapists to develop qualityresearch, use and transfer of results into clinical practice should achieve greater development.
Huamaní, Charles; Rey de Castro, Jorge; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Polesel, Daniel Ninello; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy
The research in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be beneficial from the collaboration between countries and researchers. In this study, we aimed to analyze the scientific research on OSA from 1991 to 2012 and to evaluate the collaboration networks between countries. We conducted a bibliometric study in the SCOPUS database. The systematic search was limited to "articles" published from 1991 to 2012. Articles are results of original research; we evaluated the following criteria: number of countries represented, number of authors, number of citations, and journal names. We determined which countries were the most productive (more articles published) and the number of collaborations between these countries. The probability of citation was evaluated using adjusted odds ratios in a logistic regression analysis. We found a total of 6,896 OSA-related articles that had been published in 1,422 journals, 50 % of these articles were concentrated in 41 journals. Of the 74 different countries associated with these articles, the USA had the highest involvement with 23.8 % of all articles published. The probability of citation increased by 1.23 times for each additional author, and by 2.23 times for each additional country represented; these findings were independent of time since publication, journal, or the country of the author. Scientific production on OSA is increasing with limited international collaboration. The country with the greatest production in this period (1991-2012) was the USA, which concentrated the international collaboration network on OSA. We recommended that articles should be produced with international collaboration to improve the quantity of scientific publications and their chances of publication in high impact journals.
Petroleum is one of Malaysia's major commodities. In 1993 alone, Malaysia exported about 21 million tonne crude petroleum and 3.4 million tonne of petroleum products with export value of about RM 9.2 billion. Despite the large local and export market of the fuel, our petroleum industry is facing several difficulties. The supply of petrol will inevitably deplete. The industry faces an increase in the exploration costs and decline in the discovery of large reserves. Petronas research and scientific services Sdn Bhd was established 3 years ago. The company which supports its holding company's needs in R and D started its history as an analytical laboratory in 1978. Today, it is one of the leading upstream and downstream petroleum research institute in this region
Ani, Okon E.; Biao, Esohe Patience
This article reports on a study which investigated the impact of globalization on scientific research in Nigeria. The research data were collected using a questionnaire survey which was administered to academics in science-based disciplines in four Nigerian universities: University of Calabar, University of Uyo, University of Lagos and University…
Twigg, Homer L; Crystal, Ronald; Currier, Judith; Ridker, Paul; Berliner, Nancy; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Rutherford, George; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone; Wong, Renee; Peprah, Emmanuel; Engelgau, Michael; Creazzo, Tony; Colombini-Hatch, Sandra; Caler, Elisabet
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) AIDS Program's goal is to provide direction and support for research and training programs in areas of HIV-related heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) diseases. To better define NHLBI current HIV-related scientific priorities and with the goal of identifying new scientific priorities and gaps in HIV-related HLBS research, a wide group of investigators gathered for a scientific NHLBI HIV Working Group on December 14-15, 2015, in Bethesda, MD. The core objectives of the Working Group included discussions on: (1) HIV-related HLBS comorbidities in the antiretroviral era; (2) HIV cure; (3) HIV prevention; and (4) mechanisms to implement new scientific discoveries in an efficient and timely manner so as to have the most impact on people living with HIV. The 2015 Working Group represented an opportunity for the NHLBI to obtain expert advice on HIV/AIDS scientific priorities and approaches over the next decade.
О. A. Yeremchenko
Full Text Available One of the primary challengesRussiais currently facing is the need for diversification of the Russian economy and its increase in the share of manufacturing and exported scientific-driven work products. In this light, improving the effectiveness of the scientific-technological complex of the country is becoming increasingly important. The article considers two scalable, developed in parallel, projects for increasing effectiveness of the scientificresearch sector: restructurization of the scientific organizations network and the project for bringing back home 15 thousand Russian scientists reverse immigration. A conclusion is made about the adequacy of a refusal from a large-scale change in the personnel of scientists in circumstances of when the budget for research and development and the number of scientific-research organizations is cut. It is proposed to create comfortable conditions for scientific search for all parties involved in the process of new knowledge creation, both for the scientists returning toRussiaand those that remain working in the country.
... Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering Permits; Letters... Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research Permits (SRPs), Display Permits, Letters of Acknowledgment (LOAs), and... scientific research, the acquisition of information and data, the enhancement of safety at sea, the purpose...
... Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering Permits; Letters... intent to issue Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research Permits (SRPs), Display Permits... public display and scientific research that is exempt from regulations (e.g., fishing seasons, prohibited...
... Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering Permits; Letters... intent to issue Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research Permits (SRPs), Display Permits... of HMS for public display and scientific research that is exempt from regulations (e.g., seasons...
Ruth L. Fischbach
Full Text Available The field of assisted reproduction is renowned for its remarkable advances and constant pushing forward of research boundaries in an effort to offer innovative and effective methods for enhancing fertility. Accompanying these advances, however, are physiological, psychological, and bioethical consequences that must be considered. These concomitant advances and consequences make assisted reproduction an excellent educational paradigm for inculcating responsible conduct in both research and clinical practice. Ultimately, responsible conduct rests on the ethical researcher and clinician. Here, we present the as-yet unapproved, contentious assisted reproductive technology of mitochondrial replacement transfer (MRT as an ideal educational platform to foster the responsible conduct of research by advancing dialogue among multidisciplinary scholars, researchers, and students. Using a likely future case, we present the basic science, legal, and ethical considerations, and the pedagogical principles and strategies for using MRT as an effective educational paradigm. Society will benefit when the ethical issues inherent in creating children with three genetic parents as well as germline interference are discussed across multiple academic levels that include researchers, legal experts, bioethicists, and government-appointed commissions. Furthermore, undergraduate and graduate students should be included because they will likely determine the ethical fates of these biotechnologies. While emerging assisted reproduction technologies such as MRT are highly complex and will take years to be readily available for patients in need, now is the time to consider their scientific, legal, ethical, and cultural/religious implications for ensuring the responsible conduct of research.
Di Meglio, Alberto; Purcell, Andrew
This whitepaper describes the major IT challenges in scientific research at CERN and several other European and international research laboratories and projects. Each challenge is exemplified through a set of concrete use cases drawn from the requirements of large-scale scientific programs. The paper is based on contributions from many researchers and IT experts of the participating laboratories and also input from the existing CERN openlab industrial sponsors. The views expressed in this document are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily reflect the view of their organisations and/or affiliates.
The teaching of research methodology to graduate science students places an emphasis on scientific reasoning and on the generation and evaluation of evidence in support of research conclusions. Very little attention is paid to the teaching of scientific creativity, the processes for generation of new ideas, hypotheses, and theories. By contrast,…
Gavrilov, V V; Myznikov, I L; Kuz'minov, O V; Shmelev, S V; Oparin, M Iu
The main issues of organization of scientific and research work of medical service in the North Fleet are considered in the present article. Analysis of some paragraphs of documents, regulating this work at army level is given. The authors give an example of successful experience of such work in the North Fleet, table some suggestions which allow to improve the administration of scientific and research work in the navy and also on the district scale.
Duque, Juan Carlos; Ramos Lobo, Raúl; Royuela Mora, Vicente
This paper studies Spanish scientific production in Economics from 1994 to 2004. It focuses on aspects that have received little attention in other bibliometric studies, such as the impact of research and the role of scientific collaborations in the publications produced by Spanish universities. Our results show that national research networks have played a fundamental role in the increase in Spanish scientific production in this discipline.
Promoting Original Scientific Research and Teacher Training Through a High School Science Research Program: A Five Year Retrospective and Analysis of the Impact on Mentored 8th Grade Geoscience Students and the Mentors Themselves
Danch, J. M.
In 2010 a group of 8th grade geoscience students participated in an extracurricular activity allowing them to conduct original scientific research while being mentored by students enrolled in a 3 - year high school Science Research program. Upon entering high school the mentored students themselves enrolled in the Science Research program and continued for 4 years, culminating with their participation in Science Research 4. This allowed them to continue conducting original scientific research, act as mentors to 8th grade geoscience students and to provide teacher training for both middle and high school teachers conducting inquiry-based science lessons. Of the 7 Science Research 4 students participating since 2010, 100% plan on majoring or minoring in a STEM - related field in college and their individual research projects have been been granted over 70 different awards and honors in science fair and symposia including a 3rd and 4th place category awards at two different international science fairs - the International Sustainable Energy Engineering and Environment Project (iSWEEP) and the International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF). Science Research 4 students developed and conducted a Society for Science and the Public affiliated science fair for middle school students enrolled in an 8th grade honors geoscience program allowing over 100 students from 5 middle schools to present their research and be judged by STEM professionals. Students with research judged in the top 10% were nominated for participation in the National Broadcom MASTERS program which they successfully entered upon further mentoring from the Science Research 4 students. 8th grade enrollment in the Science Research program for 2015 increased by almost 50% with feedback from students, parents and teachers indicating that the mentorship and participation in the 8th grade science fair were factors in increasing interest in continuing authentic scientific research in high school.
Affordable and accessible technology has advanced tremendously in the last decade allowing educational paradigms to change dramatically to more student-centered, experiential and project-based models. Additionally, as the need to increase the number of students entering STEM fields in the United States becomes more critical it is imperative to understand the factors that determine student career pathways and to provide opportunities for students to experience, understand and pursue scientific endeavors. The Institute for Student Astronomical Research was founded in order to provide a means for high school and early undergraduate students to engage in meaningful and relevant scientific research. A major goal is to give students the experience of true-to-life scientific investigation from the planning and proposal stages to the data collection and analysis, writing up and presenting of scientific findings and finally to the publication of results. Furthermore, the Institute is designed to collect data on how involvement in the Science Research Seminars influences educational and career choices for students in longitudinal studies following participants for several years. In the first year of the online course of the Institute 10 student teams conducted original research and published their findings in peer-reviewed journals. Lessons learned from the pilot year are being applied to the Institute as efforts to scale up the program are underway.
Abla, G.; Kim, E.N.; Schissel, D.P.; Flanagan, S.M.
Web browsers have become a major application interface for participating in scientific experiments such as those in magnetic fusion. The recent advances in web technologies motivated the deployment of interactive web applications with rich features. In the scientific world, web applications have been deployed in portal environments. When used in a scientific research environment, such as fusion experiments, web portals can present diverse sources of information in a unified interface. However, the design and development of a scientific web portal has its own challenges. One such challenge is that a web portal needs to be fast and interactive despite the high volume of information and number of tools it presents. Another challenge is that the visual output of the web portal must not be overwhelming to the end users, despite the high volume of data generated by fusion experiments. Therefore, the applications and information should be customizable depending on the needs of end users. In order to meet these challenges, the design and implementation of a web portal needs to support high interactivity and user customization. A web portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide by providing multiple services, such as real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access and interactive data visualization. The web portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing a collaborative logbook, shared visualization and online instant messaging services. The portal's design utilizes the multi-tier software architecture and has been implemented utilizing web 2.0 technologies, such as AJAX, Django, and Memcached, to develop a highly interactive and customizable user interface. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services, which allows users to create a unique, personalized working environment to fit their own needs and interests. This paper describes the software
Abla, G., E-mail: email@example.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States); Kim, E.N.; Schissel, D.P.; Flanagan, S.M. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States)
Web browsers have become a major application interface for participating in scientific experiments such as those in magnetic fusion. The recent advances in web technologies motivated the deployment of interactive web applications with rich features. In the scientific world, web applications have been deployed in portal environments. When used in a scientific research environment, such as fusion experiments, web portals can present diverse sources of information in a unified interface. However, the design and development of a scientific web portal has its own challenges. One such challenge is that a web portal needs to be fast and interactive despite the high volume of information and number of tools it presents. Another challenge is that the visual output of the web portal must not be overwhelming to the end users, despite the high volume of data generated by fusion experiments. Therefore, the applications and information should be customizable depending on the needs of end users. In order to meet these challenges, the design and implementation of a web portal needs to support high interactivity and user customization. A web portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide by providing multiple services, such as real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access and interactive data visualization. The web portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing a collaborative logbook, shared visualization and online instant messaging services. The portal's design utilizes the multi-tier software architecture and has been implemented utilizing web 2.0 technologies, such as AJAX, Django, and Memcached, to develop a highly interactive and customizable user interface. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services, which allows users to create a unique, personalized working environment to fit their own needs and interests. This paper describes the software
Can, Sendil; Kaymakci, Güliz
The purpose of the current study employing the survey method is to determine the pre-service science teachers' perceptions of the principles of scientific research and to investigate the effects of gender, grade level and the state of following scientific publications on their perceptions. The sampling of the current research is comprised of 125…
Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and…
The document outlines the mission and organization of the Office of Aerospace Research (OAR), then describes how its principal product, scientific...effective technical information program, are documented by examples. The role of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information within OAR as performed
Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Motallebnejad, Mina; Gholinia, Hemmat; Esbakian, Somayeh
As in other fields of medicine, scientific production in the field of dentistry has significant placement. This study aimed at quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating Iranian researchers' scientific output in the field of dentistry and determining their contribution in each of dentistry subfields and branches. This research was a scientometric study that applied quantitative and qualitative indices of Web of Science (WoS). Research population consisted of927indexed documents published under the name of Iran in the time span of 1993-2012 which were extracted from WoS on 10 March 2013. The Mann-Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to data analyses in SPSS 19. 777 (83. 73%) of indexed items of all scientific output in WoS were scientific articles. The highest growth rate of scientific productionwith90% belonged to endodontic sub field. The correlation coefficient test showed that there was a significant positive relationship between the number of documents and their publication age (P scientific production in various subfields of dentistry were very different. It needs to reinforce the infrastructure for more balanced scientific production in the field and its related subfields.
Birge M. Wolf
Full Text Available Various research fields, like organic agricultural research, are dedicated to solving real-world problems and contributing to sustainable development. Therefore, systems research and the application of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches are increasingly endorsed. However, research performance depends not only on self-conception, but also on framework conditions of the scientific system, which are not always of benefit to such research fields. Recently, science and its framework conditions have been under increasing scrutiny as regards their ability to serve societal benefit. This provides opportunities for (organic agricultural research to engage in the development of a research system that will serve its needs. This article focuses on possible strategies for facilitating a balanced research evaluation that recognises scientific quality as well as societal relevance and applicability. These strategies are (a to strengthen the general support for evaluation beyond scientific impact, and (b to provide accessible data for such evaluations. Synergies of interest are found between open access movements and research communities focusing on global challenges and sustainability. As both are committed to increasing the societal benefit of science, they may support evaluation criteria such as knowledge production and dissemination tailored to societal needs, and the use of open access. Additional synergies exist between all those who scrutinise current research evaluation systems for their ability to serve scientific quality, which is also a precondition for societal benefit. Here, digital communication technologies provide opportunities to increase effectiveness, transparency, fairness and plurality in the dissemination of scientific results, quality assurance and reputation. Furthermore, funders may support transdisciplinary approaches and open access and improve data availability for evaluation beyond scientific impact. If they begin to
Alla V. Kilchenko
Full Text Available A construction and introduction of the information systems in a management education is the actual task of forming of modern information society. In the article the results of research of automation of treatment of financial documents, which was conducted within the project «Scientific-methodical providing of the informative system of programming of scientific researches in Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine based on the Internet» № 0109U002139 are represented. The article contains methodical principles of automation of treatment programming and financial documents as well as requirements to the information system, which will be the base to next project stages.
The article reviews the recent progress of the scientific researches including synthesis of new nuclides, investigations of the isospin effects in heavy ion collisions, studies of the nuclear structure in high spin states and the applications of heavy ion beams to other scientific researches, such as biology and material science. It also gives a brief introduction of the development of the design and progress of the new project of heavy ion cooling storage ring (CSR) of Lanzhou. (author)
Oliveira, Eduardo A; Pécoits-Filho, Roberto; Quirino, Isabel G; Oliveira, Maria Christina; Martelli, Daniela Reis; Lima, Leonardo S; Martelli, Hercílio
This study aimed at evaluating the profile and scientific production of researchers in Nephrology and Urology, receiving grants in the area of Clinical Medicine from the Brazilian National Research Council. The standardized online curriculum vitae (Curriculum Lattes) of 39 researchers in Medicine receiving grants in the 2006-2008 triennium were included in the analysis. The variables analyzed were: gender, affiliation, time from completion of the PhD program, scientific production, and supervision of undergraduate students, and master's and PhD programs. Males (74.4%) and category 2 grants (56.4%) predominated. The following three Brazilian states are responsible for 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (28; 71.8%); Rio Grande do Sul (4; 10.3%); and Minas Gerais (3; 7.7%). Four institutions are responsible for 70% of the researchers: UNIFESP (14; 36%); USP (8; 20.5%); UFMG (3, 7.7%); and UNICAMP (3; 7.7%). Considering the academic career, the assessed researchers published 3,195 articles in medical journals, with a median of 75 articles per researcher (QI = 52-100). The researchers received a total of 25,923 citations at the database Web of Science®, with a median of 452 citations per researcher (QI = 161-927). The average number of citations per article was 13.8 citations (SD = 11.6). The Southeastern region of Brazil concentrates researchers in Nephrology and Urology. Our study has shown an increase in the scientific production of most researchers in the last five years. By knowing the profile of researchers in Nephrology and Urology, more effective strategies to encourage the scientific production and the demand for resources to finance research projects can be defined.
Kötter, Thomas; Carmienke, Solveig; Herrmann, Wolfram J
In many departments of General Practice (GP) in Germany, young doctors who are trainees also work as researchers. Often these trainees work part time at the university and part time as a trainee in clinical practice. However, little is known about the situation of the actors involved. The aim of the study was to investigate the perspectives of GP trainees, heads of departments and GP trainers regarding the combination of research and GP training. We conducted a web-based survey with the heads of all German departments of General Practice, GP trainees who also conduct research and their GP trainers. The questionnaires consisted of open and closed questions. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative methods. 28 heads of GP departments and 20 GP trainees responded. The trainees were mostly very satisfied with their situation as a trainee. However, the trainees considered the combination of research and GP training as difficult. The respondents name as problems the coordination of multiple jobs and the lack of credibility given to research in General Practice. They name as solutions research-enabling training programs and uniform requirements in training regarding research. The combination of GP training and scientific research activity is perceived as difficult. However, well-organized and designed programs can improve the quality of the combination.
Oliveira, Maria Christina Lopes Araujo; Martelli, Daniella Reis; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Colosimo, Enrico Antônio; Silva, Ana Cristina Simões e; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo de
several studies have examined the academic production of the researchers at the CNPq, in several areas of knowledge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific production of researchers in Hematology/Oncology who hold scientific productivity grants from the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development. the Academic CVs of 28 researchers in Hematology/Oncology with active grants in the three-year period from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: institution, researchers' time after doctorate, tutoring of undergraduate students, masters and PhD degree, scientific production and its impact. from a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 28 (7%) were identified as being in the area of Hematology/Oncology. There was a slight predominance of males (53.6%) and grant holders in category 1. Three Brazilian states are responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (21,75%), Rio de Janeiro (3,11%), and Minas Gerais (2, 7%). During their academic careers, the researchers published 2,655 articles, with a median of 87 articles per researcher (IQR = 52 to 122). 65 and 78% of this total were indexed on the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The researchers received 14,247 citations on the WoS database with a median of 385 citations per researcher. The average number of citations per article was 8.2. in this investigation, it was noted that researchers in the field of Hematology/Oncology have a relevant scientific output from the point of view of quantity and quality compared to other medical specialties.
Anand, Nalini P; Hofman, Karen J; Glass, Roger I
The scientific diaspora is a unique resource for U.S. universities. By drawing on the expertise, experience, and catalytic potential of diaspora scientists, universities can capitalize more fully on their diverse intellectual resources to make lasting contributions to global health. This article examines the unique contributions of the diaspora in international research collaborations, advantages of harnessing the diaspora and benefits to U.S. universities of fostering these collaborations, challenges faced by scientists who want to work with their home countries, examples of scientists engaging with their home countries, and specific strategies U.S. universities and donors can implement to catalyze these collaborations. The contributions of the diaspora to the United States are immense: International students enrolled in academic year 2007-2008 contributed an estimated $15 billion to the U.S. economy. As scientific research becomes increasingly global, the percentage of scientific publications with authors from foreign countries has grown from 8% in 1988 to 20% in 2005. Diaspora scientists can help build trusting relationships with scientists abroad, and international collaborations may improve the health of underserved populations at home. Although opportunities for diaspora networks are increasing, most home countries often lack enabling policies, infrastructure, and resources to effectively utilize their diaspora communities abroad. This article examines how some governments have successfully mobilized their scientific diaspora to become increasingly engaged in their national research agendas. Recommendations include specific strategies, including those that encourage U.S. universities to promote mini-sabbaticals and provide seed funding and flexible time frames.
We will focus on the following aspects of conducting empirical research in virtual worlds: the toolbox of techniques for data collection; selection of technique(s) for the research questions; tips on how the techniques need to be adapted for conducting research in virtual worlds; guidance for developing research materials such as the consent form, project summary sheet, and how to address the possible concerns of an institution’s ethics committee who may not be familiar with the avatar-based ...
Fernandes, Lynette B
Responsible conduct in learning and research (RCLR) was progressively introduced into the pharmacology curriculum for undergraduate science students at The University of Western Australia. In the second year of this undergraduate curriculum, a lecture introduces students to issues such as the use of animals in teaching and responsible conduct of research. Third year student groups deliver presentations on topics including scientific integrity and the use of human subjects in research. Academic and research staff attending these presentations provide feedback and participate in discussions. Students enrolled in an optional capstone Honours year complete an online course on the responsible conduct of research and participate in an interactive movie. Once RCLR became established in the curriculum, a survey of Likert-scaled and open-ended questions examined student and staff perceptions. Data were expressed as Approval (% of responses represented by Strongly Agree and Agree). RCLR was found to be relevant to the study of pharmacology (69-100% Approval), important for one's future career (62-100% Approval), and stimulated further interest in this area (32-75% Approval). Free entry comments demonstrated the value of RCLR and constructive suggestions for improvement have now been incorporated. RCLR modules were found to be a valuable addition to the pharmacology undergraduate curriculum. This approach may be used to incorporate ethics into any science undergraduate curriculum, with the use of discipline-specific topics. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):53-59, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
scientific journals and mass media. Whereas ... Ugandan research and academic institutions are proposed. Conclusion: With the ... implications on policy and clinical practice as is evidenced. African Health ... cordance to international ethical standards or that scien- ... professional bodies like the Uganda Medical and Dental.
Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Descalzo, Miguel A; García-Doval, Ignacio
Clinical research papers and their derived metrics can be useful to assess the scientific production of medical and research centers. Diverse factors are probably associated to differences in scientific production. But there are scarce studies analyzing them. Resources are limited and have to be distributed efficiently. The objective of this study is to explore what resources and activities are potentially associated with a higher scientific productivity. A bibliometric study was performed to obtain information about scientific productivity. Papers included had to meet criteria to be considered clinical research in dermatology, additionally had to be published between the years 2005-2014, had to be included in Pubmed or Embase and had to include a Spanish center of dermatology as the correspondence address. Information about research resources and activities of the year 2015 was gathered by means of an online survey sent to the authors identified in the bibliometric study. The search strategy returned 8617 papers and only 1104 of them (12.81%) met the inclusion criteria. 63 out of 113 centers responded to the survey (55.75%). Factors associated with a higher scientific productivity were: the size of the resident program, the amount of time specifically dedicated to research, a lower clinical workload, and the number of clinical trials performed in the last year. We have demonstrated that some factors are associated with a higher scientific productivity. Residency program, more research staff, clinical workload redistribution and research motivation/initiatives are key strategies that could improve scientific productivity of a center.
Rodriguez, W. J.; Chaudhury, S. R.
Undergraduate research projects that utilize remote sensing satellite instrument data to investigate atmospheric phenomena pose many challenges. A significant challenge is processing large amounts of multi-dimensional data. Remote sensing data initially requires mining; filtering of undesirable spectral, instrumental, or environmental features; and subsequently sorting and reformatting to files for easy and quick access. The data must then be transformed according to the needs of the investigation(s) and displayed for interpretation. These multidimensional datasets require views that can range from two-dimensional plots to multivariable-multidimensional scientific visualizations with animations. Science undergraduate students generally find these data processing tasks daunting. Generally, researchers are required to fully understand the intricacies of the dataset and write computer programs or rely on commercially available software, which may not be trivial to use. In the time that undergraduate researchers have available for their research projects, learning the data formats, programming languages, and/or visualization packages is impractical. When dealing with large multi-dimensional data sets appropriate Scientific Visualization tools are imperative in allowing students to have a meaningful and pleasant research experience, while producing valuable scientific research results. The BEST Lab at Norfolk State University has been creating tools for multivariable-multidimensional analysis of Earth Science data. EzSAGE and SAGE4D have been developed to sort, analyze and visualize SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) data with ease. Three- and four-dimensional visualizations in interactive environments can be produced. EzSAGE provides atmospheric slices in three-dimensions where the researcher can change the scales in the three-dimensions, color tables and degree of smoothing interactively to focus on particular phenomena. SAGE4D provides a navigable
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... Board is to review rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... is to review rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical merit...
The CSIR undertakes and manages broadly based scientific research, development and technology transfer in South Africa. The organisation is divided into four groups: Corporate Finance Management; Research Development and Implementation; Foundation for Research Development and Corporate Support Services. Research on coal is carried out by the Energy Technology Division which is part of the Research, Development and Implementation Group. This annual report reviews the work of the CSIR during 1987.
Full Text Available Research, development and innovation is for any country the engine of its economic and social development. Common concern of all countries for science and scientific research appears as a recognition of their role in ensuring the welfare of human civilization.The level of society development is determined mainly by performance of its education and research systems, educational level of its citizens, the quality of research activity products and equitable access of all potential users to the services and products of these systems.
Xing, Wan-jin; Morigen, Morigen
The classroom is the main venue for undergraduate teaching. It is worth pondering how to cultivate undergraduate's research ability in classroom teaching. Here we introduce the practices and experiences in teaching reform in genetics for training the research quality of undergraduate students from six aspects: (1) constructing the framework for curriculum framework systematicaly, (2) using the teaching content to reflect research progress, (3) explaining knowledge points with research activities, (4) explaining the scientific principles and experiments with PPT animation, (5) improving English reading ability through bilingual teaching, and (6) testing students' analysing ability through examination. These reforms stimulate undergraduate students' enthusiasm for learning, cultivate their ability to find, analyze and solve scientific problems, and improve their English reading and literature reviewing capacity, which lay a foundation for them to enter the field of scientific research.
Morino, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Yuichi
It is observed that new and sophisticated technologies developed through research and development in relation to magnetic confinement fusion have been transferred to other industrial and scientific fields with remarkable spin-off effects. Approximately 10 years ago, the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) has investigated technical transfer and spin-off effects of fusion technologies developed in Japan. The essence of the results of this investigation as well as high technologies developed in the last decade, some of which are in the early stage of technical spin-off, are described. It is additionally explained that independent technical development conducted by our country as well as by engineers themselves is important in achieving effective spin-off. An outline of scientific spin-off effects is also described, including utilization technologies of fusion reactions besides those for energy production purposes, the progress of scientific understanding in the course of fusion research, and scientific information transfer and communication with other fields. (author)
Cheng, Yongbo; Ge, Shaowei
This paper illustrates the important role that the scientific and technological innovation plays in the research university. Technological innovation is one of the main functions that the research university serves and contributes for the development of economy and society, which is the essential measure for Research University to promote…
De Waard, Anita; Kircz, Joost
We review over 10 years of research at Elsevier and various Dutch academic institutions on establishing a new format for the scientific research article. Our work rests on two main theoretical principles: the concept of modular documents, consisting of content elements that can exist and be
Full Text Available The processes that drive knowledge production and dissemination in scientific environments are embedded within the social, technical, cultural and epistemic practices of the constituent research communities. This article presents a methodology to unpack specific social and epistemic dimensions of scientific knowledge production using, as a case study, the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS, a National Science Foundation “little science” research center involved in theoretical and applied work in the field of wireless communication and sensor networks. By analysis of its scholarly record, I construct a social network of coauthorship, linking individuals that have coauthored scholarly artifacts (journal articles and conference papers, and an epistemic network of topic co-occurrence, linking concepts and knowledge constructs in the same scholarly artifacts. This article reports on ongoing work directed at the study of the emergence and evolution of these networks of scientific interaction. I present some preliminary results and introduce a socio-epistemic method for an historical analysis of network co-evolution. I outline a research design to support further investigations of knowledge production in scientific circles.
Rusilowati, A.; Nugroho, S. E.; Susilowati, E. S. M.; Mustika, T.; Harfiyani, N.; Prabowo, H. T.
The research were aimed to develop and find out of validity, reliability, characteristic of scientific literacy assessment, and find out of the profile of students’ scientific literacy skills in Energy themed. The research is conducted in 7th grade of Secondary School at Demak, Central of Java Indonesia. The research design used R&D (Research and Development). The results of the research showed that the scientific literacy assessment was valid and reliable with 0.68 value in the first try out and 0.73 value in the last try out. The characteristics of the scientific literacy assessment are the difficulty index and the discrimination power. The difficulty index and distinguishing are 56.25% easy, 31.25% medium, and 12.5% very difficult with good discrimination power. The proportion of category of scientific literacy as the body of knowledge, the science as a way of investigating, science as a way of thinking, and the interaction among science, environment, technology, and society was 37.5%:25%:18.75%:18.75%. The highest to the lowest profile of students’ scientific literacy skills at Secondary School Demak was 72% in the category of science as a way of thinking and the lowest was 59% in the category of science as the body of knowledge.
Peisert, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Potok, Thomas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science (SC) Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program office, a workshop was held June 2-3, 2015, in Gaithersburg, MD, to identify potential long term (10 to +20 year) cybersecurity fundamental basic research and development challenges, strategies and roadmap facing future high performance computing (HPC), networks, data centers, and extreme-scale scientific user facilities. This workshop was a follow-on to the workshop held January 7-9, 2015, in Rockville, MD, that examined higher level ideas about scientific computing integrity specific to the mission of the DOE Office of Science. Issues included research computation and simulation that takes place on ASCR computing facilities and networks, as well as network-connected scientific instruments, such as those run by various DOE Office of Science programs. Workshop participants included researchers and operational staff from DOE national laboratories, as well as academic researchers and industry experts. Participants were selected based on the submission of abstracts relating to the topics discussed in the previous workshop report  and also from other ASCR reports, including "Abstract Machine Models and Proxy Architectures for Exascale Computing" , the DOE "Preliminary Conceptual Design for an Exascale Computing Initiative" , and the January 2015 machine learning workshop . The workshop was also attended by several observers from DOE and other government agencies. The workshop was divided into three topic areas: (1) Trustworthy Supercomputing, (2) Extreme-Scale Data, Knowledge, and Analytics for Understanding and Improving Cybersecurity, and (3) Trust within High-end Networking and Data Centers. Participants were divided into three corresponding teams based on the category of their abstracts. The workshop began with a series of talks from the program manager and workshop chair, followed by the leaders for each of the
While government funding of scientific research has been the bedrock of scientific advances in the US, it is seldom quick or directly responsive to societal needs. If we are to effectively respond to the increasingly urgent needs for new science to address the environmental and social challenges faced by humanity and the environment we need to deploy new scientific models to augment government-centric approaches. The Environmental Defense Fund has developed an approach that accelerates the development and uptake of new science in pursuit of science-based policy to fill the gap while government research efforts are initiated. We utilized this approach in developing the data necessary to quantify methane emissions from the oil and gas supply chain. This effort was based on five key principles: studies led by an academic researchers; deployment of multiple methods whenever possible (e.g. top-down and bottom-up); all data made public (identity but not location masked when possible); external scientific review; results released in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The research to quantify methane emissions involved > 150 scientists from 40 institutions, resulting in 35 papers published over four years. In addition to the research community companies operating along the oil and gas value chain participated by providing access to sites/vehicles and funding for a portion of the academic research. The bulk of funding came from philanthropic sources. Overall the use of this alternative research/funding model allowed for the more rapid development of a robust body of policy-relevant knowledge that addressed an issue of high societal interest/value.
Schissel, D.P.; Finkelstein, A.; Foster, I.T.; Fredian, T.W.; Greenwald, M.J.; Hansen, C.D.; Johnson, C.R.; Keahey, K.; Klasky, S.A.; Li, K.; McCune, D.C.; Peng, Q.; Stevens, R.; Thompson, M.R.
The long-term vision of the Fusion Collaboratory described in this paper is to transform fusion research and accelerate scientific understanding and innovation so as to revolutionize the design of a fusion energy source. The Collaboratory will create and deploy collaborative software tools that will enable more efficient utilization of existing experimental facilities and more effective integration of experiment, theory, and modeling. The computer science research necessary to create the Collaboratory is centered on three activities: security, remote and distributed computing, and scientific visualization. It is anticipated that the presently envisioned Fusion Collaboratory software tools will require 3 years to complete
Manuel Gregorio Loza-Murguia
Full Text Available At birth the Journal of the Andean Forest Research Society, in September 2008, seeks to make visible to researchers and research, which often are locked in libraries, which spread in tiny, not transcending beyond the laboratory , cabinet or presentation at a local conference. The publications resulting from research, experi ence, methodological reflections or opinions on relevant issues, with collective interest, should be part of an obligation on professional and scientific society. The importance of a manuscript at various stages of evaluation, to its approval, depends on the editorial board, to maintain the frequency, which helps to maintain the prestige and opens doors for writers to see the seriousness it has. At present research has become a cornerstone of the university, institute, governmental or nongovernmental organization, being this is incor porated into the training of human resources for undergraduate and graduate students who are perpet rators of social transformation and bear fruits that are translated into events that transcend borders, which in turn is why the analysis, comment and / or citation in a journal pair, as this gives pa ttern of product quality that is being offered to society. Finally I thank the editorial staff and researchers, professionals, send their manuscripts to rely on the work being done to keep this means of dissem ination of scientific information, which has no political or economic interest, in favor of ge nerating scientific knowledge, being authors, reviewers, editors, and each contributes to th e generations that are being formed with updated information and this is true, and they generate impr ovements in quality of life of our society as a whole
Full Text Available Growing complexity of the environment arising both from the processes of globalization in world economy and from the development processes in Poland has become a strategic challenge for the Institute of Aviation. Significant disproportions of the potential of Poland, compared to Germany, United States, or China (especially in terms of the economic dimension and the adopted model for financing scientific research, as well as distant position of Polish universities on the scientific map of the world lead to the necessity to create a model for managing the Institute of Aviation based on internationalization of research and cooperation with leading scientific and (Ohio State University – OSU technological centres (General Electric – GE. The experiences of the Institute of Aviation show that what should be the basis of international competitiveness of research institutes is well educated scientific personnel, modern research infrastructure and competences of cooperation. A proof of this is 16-year-long strategic alliance (private-public partnership of the Institute and GE, cooperation with OSU and activities in European research consortia. The innovative dimension of scientific cooperation with OSU (2+2 formula, research internships, commission for predicting new directions of scientific research and other foreign partners allows the Institute of Aviation to achieve success in competition of international character.
Full Text Available Basing on the example of a scientific institute, this article shows: – potential areas in which CRM philosophy, procedures and tools could be applied – purpose of applying CRM – outcomes to expect from CRM application The article shows the Customer Relationship Management idea exclusively, along with areas of its use in scientific and research institutions and also a proposal to determine a group of clients for these institutions. The summary of the article consists of information regarding sources of knowledge about CRM philosophy and procedures (mainly bibliographical and also about IT systems which support CRM.
Yermachenko Volodymyr Ye.
Full Text Available The research is aimed at developing a methodical approach to the construction of an innovative system of estimation of research, scientific, technical, and innovative activities of higher education institutions (HEI on the basis of elaborate structured system of indicators. The proposed methodical approach contains five stages, the research discloses the content of each of them. Based on the results of a comparative analysis of international and national systems of HEI-rating, as well as the usage of economic and mathematical instrumentarium, a list of indicators for estimating their scientific activities in terms of the selected factors and directions of estimation was formed and substantiated. An approach to formation of cluster aggregates of HEI by the criterion of their scientific performance has been suggested. Proposals on formation of a HEI-rating within the limits of the allocated homogeneous groups by means of the system of integral indicators were developed. Prospects for further scientific researches in this direction imply formation of directions of development of managerial decisions in accordance with the obtained results of rating, which will be directed on strengthening and search for new ways of development of scientific activity of HEI, increase of its level of competitiveness and image, and also strengthening of its contribution to the solution of actual problems of economy and society.
Carlson, Herbert C.; Goretta, K.C.
The Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) annually sponsors approximately 5000 research scientists at 1000 universities and laboratories, generating about 10,000 Ph.D. graduates per decade, all expected to publish their basic research findings in peer-reviewed journals. After a brief introduction of the nature of AFOSR's support to basic research in the U.S. and international scientific communities, work it supports at the frontiers of materials science is highlighted. One focused research theme that drives our investment is the MEANS program. It begins with the end in mind; materials are designed with practicable manufacture as an explicit initial goal. AFOSR's broad research portfolio comprises many materials. Nanotechnology efforts include optical materials that reduce distortion to the scale of the nanoparticles themselves. Advances in semiconductors include breakthroughs in Group III nitrides, some of which emanated from Asia under sponsorship from AFOSR's Asian office. Advances in structural materials include those for use at ultra-high temperatures and self-healing composites. The growing role of high-performance computing in design and study of functional, biological, and structural materials is also discussed
Scientists produce research resources that are useful to future research and innovative efforts. In a typical scientific scenario, the results created by a collaborative team often include numerous artifacts, observations and relationships relevant to research findings, such as programs that generate data, parameters that impact outputs, workflows…
McDonald, Katherine E; Schwartz, Nicole M; Gibbons, Colleen M; Olick, Robert S
Perceptions, attitudes, and ethical concerns related to conducting research with adults with intellectual disability hinder scientific innovation to promote health. Yet we lack an understanding of community views on effective research policy and practice. To address this knowledge void, we qualitatively studied the views of adults with intellectual disability and those who provide them support regarding research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found substantial support for their inclusion, particularly given the possibility of benefits to adults with intellectual disability, researchers, and society. We also found concerns for potential harm and differing ideas on how to promote safety. Our findings emphasize the importance of their inclusion in research, and the need for policies and practices that promote respect and safety. © The Author(s) 2015.
Guydish, Joseph; Masson, Carmen; Flentje, Annesa; Shopshire, Michael; Sorensen, James L
There is little information on how to increase the scientific writing productivity of early-stage investigators in the addictions field. A scientific writing seminar is presented in this article, aiming to encourage manuscript writing and dissemination of addiction research, and outcomes are reported for 14 years of the seminar. In 14 years, there were 113 postdoctoral fellow enrollments in a 6-month writing seminar. Records of submission and publication rates of manuscripts were collected for 14 cohorts. Of the 113 participant enrollments, 97 (86%) submitted a manuscript for publication, and 87 participants (77%) published their manuscript. A scientific writing seminar may benefit writing productivity, but more research is needed to compare this training model with other existing models.
A striking feature of 25 years of research into inertially confined fusion (ICF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been its significant impact in other fields of science. Most ICF facilities worldwide are now being used in part to support a wider portfolio of research than simply ICF. Reasons for this trend include the high intrinsic interest of the new science coupled with the relative ease and low marginal cost of adapting the facilities particularly lasers, to carry out experiments with goals other than ICF. The availability at ICF laboratories of sophisticated theory and modeling capability and advanced diagnostics has given added impetus. The expertise of ICF specialists has also triggered more lateral scientific spin-offs leading for example to new types of lasers and to related developments in basic science. In a generic sense, the facilities developed for ICF have made possible study of new regimes of the properties of matter at extremely high-energy density and the interaction of ultraintense light with matter. This general opportunity has been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of research. Examples elaborated below include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of planets and stars; development of uniquely intense sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard x-ray emission, notably the x-ray laser; understanding of the physics of strong field interaction of light and matter; and related new phenomena such as laser-induced nuclear processes and high-field-electron accelerators. Some of these developments have potential themselves for further scientific exploitation such as the scientific use of advanced light sources. There are also avenues for commercial exploitation, for example the use of laser plasma sources in EUV lithography. Past scientific progress is summarized here and projections are made for new science that may flow from the
Guiquan, Xi; Lin, Cong; Xuehui, Jin
As an important platform for scientific and technological development, large -scale scientific facilities are the cornerstone of technological innovation and a guarantee for economic and social development. Researching management of large-scale scientific facilities can play a key role in scientific research, sociology and key national strategy. This paper reviews the characteristics of large-scale scientific facilities, and summarizes development status of China's large-scale scientific facilities. At last, the construction, management, operation and evaluation of large-scale scientific facilities is analyzed from the perspective of sustainable development.
Full Text Available In addition to universal social changes, the information revolution also brought a lot of innovation to the workings of intelligence services, which are traditionally the part of the national security system that is conducting data analyses and for which information is the primary product. If in the past the main problem and challenge has been the timely acquisition of data, today most agencies are faced with an entirely different problem - information overload. This problem is being tackled by technical as well as systemic measures that combine various types of intelligence work. However, there are still unanswered questions regarding the applicability of intelligence products for decision makers. Here we have to point out information visualization as the subject of an interdisciplinary scientific research that definitely shows a lot of potential in the context of the defense science as well. This article points out three key requirements that allow the application of information visualization to defense research: (1 the concept of the intelligence cycle can be used as a good basis for the information that is subject to visualization; (2 the quality of decision-making support information depends on proper visualization; (3 the first two requirements offer a stable theoretical and empirical basis for the introduction of innovative scientific methods in the field of defense science, such as experiments.
Danka, Elizabeth S.; Malpede, Brian M.
High school students are not often given opportunities to communicate scientific findings to their peers, the general public, and/or people in the scientific community, and therefore they do not develop scientific communication skills. We present a nine-week course that can be used to teach high school students, who may have no previous experience, how to read and write primary scientific articles and how to discuss scientific findings with a broad audience. Various forms of this course have been taught for the past 10 years as part of an intensive summer research program for rising high school seniors that is coordinated by the Young Scientist Program at Washington University in St. Louis. The format presented here includes assessments for efficacy through both rubric-based methods and student self-assessment surveys. PMID:26753027
Krossa, Cheryl Delemos [San Francisco Univ. (United States)
Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.
Millette, Patricia M.
Authentic field geology research is a inquiry method that encourages students to interact more with their local environment, and by solving genuine puzzles, begin to increase their intuitive understanding of the nature and processes of science. The goal of the current study was to determine if conducting authentic field research and giving high school students the opportunity to present findings to adult audiences outside of the school setting 1) enhances students' understanding of the nature of science, and 2) affects students views of themselves as researchers. To accomplish this, ninth-grade students from a public school in northern New England engaged in a community-initiated glacial geology problem, completed a field research investigation, and presented their findings at several professional conferences. Following the completion of this student-centered field research, I investigated its effects by using a mixed methods approach consisting of qualitative and quantitative data from two sources. These included selected questions from an open-response survey (VNOS-c), and interviews that were conducted with fifteen of the students of different ages and genders. Findings show that conducting original field research seems to have a positive influence on these students' understanding of the NOS as well as the processes of science. Many of the students reported feelings of accomplishment, acceptance of responsibility for the investigation, a sense of their authentic contribution to the body of scientific knowledge in the world, and becoming scientists. This type of authentic field investigation is significant because recent reforms in earth-science education stress the importance of students learning about the nature and processes of scientific knowledge along with science content.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of conducting ethnographic research. Methodology definition and key characteristics are given. The stages of the research process are described including preparation, data gathering and recording, and analysis. Important issues such as reliability and validity are also discussed.
As reports of research misconduct seem to increase, research integrity and the promotion of responsible research conduct are important for academic institutions. This paper considers what research integrity means for individual researchers and institutions, and explores trends for promoting responsible research conduct.
Full Text Available This essay is a reflection on the peculiarities of the scientifically based research and on the distinctive elements of the EBL (evidence based learning, methodology used in the study on the “Relationship between Metacognition, Self-efficacy and Self-regulation in Learning”. The EBL method, based on the standardization of data, explains how the students’ learning experience can be considered as a set of “data” and can be used to explain how and when the research results can be considered generalizable and transferable to other learning situations. The reflections present in this study have also allowed us to illustrate the impact that its results have had on the micro and macro level of reality. They helped to fill in the gaps concerning the learning/teaching processes, contributed to the enrichment of the scientific literature on this subject and allowed to establish standards through rigorous techniques such as systematic reviews and meta-analysis.
Full Text Available In recent decades, research has growth Increasingly in Iran and, consequently, the country has risen dramatically in world rankings, based on the number of scientific documents. The impressive growth of the number of Iran researches, research experts increasingly focus on "research impact", and repeated emphasize on the issue of "use of research to improve society" in Iran superior governmental documents, leaded some researchers to investigate "how much Iran researches are effective?" They showed that these researches have in general been ineffective. Therefore, their efficacy should be evaluated which is the main purpose of this study. In this regard, using the Descriptive-Analytical method and valid secondary data and statistics, the results of Citation Analysis of Iran research outcomes were compared with other countries. Central questions of this study were respectively about «the quality of Iran whole researches (1996-2014», «the quality of top researches (2005-2014», «comparing the quality of whole researches with quality of top researches», and «the quality of Iran's Persian (2011-2012 and English (2014 scientific journals». For this purpose, based on the reliable data from valid databases (Thomson Reuters, Scopus and ISC, the value and rank of Iran at different citation related indices were extracted or calculated. The results, including «few citations per paper (5/7 which is about half of the global average (10/3 and declining trend of Iran rank based on this index», «poor country rank based on the share of top papers in all documents (128», «small share of global citations (47.0%, despite a significant share in the world Scientific document (1/1%», «low h-index despite the large number of articles», «inappropriate position in the basis of self-citation (more than 50% in 2014 in addition to a declining trend», «few citations per paper (76/7 which is about half of the global average (144/9», «small share of global
Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Service, which is an important component of intelligence, is the intelligence researcher to select key subjects and major issues and key technology or innovation goals under the actual needs of scientific research personnel issues, using network communication technology and database technology and information retrieval technologies, sustained and in a timely manner to track all kinds of literature for the front-line services, until the completion of research topics or key problem-solving. Library of China Institute of Atomic Energy is struggling to meet the diverse needs of customers, targeted to provide a lot of useful information for scientific researchers to use less time as possible to obtain as much intelligence information, and to research workers and leading to the successful completion of research tasks, and various decisions. The implementation of SDI services to identify clients and scope, to format SDI service team, to determine the SDI service principles and service mode. SDI services Selective demand intelligence researchers have been asked to improve their quality, to improve their interpersonal communication skills. (author)
Narlikar, Jayant V
This article gives a personal perception of the author, of what scientific research means. Citing examples from the lives of all time greats like Newton, Kelvin and Maxwell he stresses the agonies of thinking up new ideas, the urge for creativity and the pleasure one derives from the process when it is completed. He then narrates instances from his own life that proved inspirational towards his research career. In his early studenthood, his parents and maternal uncle had widened his intellectual horizons while in later life his interaction with Fred Hoyle made him take up research challenges away from the beaten path. He concludes that taking up an anti-Establishment stand in research can create many logistical difficulties, but the rewards of success are all the more pleasing.
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission relevance, and the... Program Manager, Scientific Merit Review Board, Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research...
Alexei V. Shestopal; Vladimir I. Konnov
The article considers peer review as the main procedure for demarcating scientific knowledge from other kinds thereof, which do not meet the criteria set for research results. The authors examine the history of peer review, which has first been used in early scientific journals and then has become one of the key approaches to distributing funds for research in science foundations, such as the U.S. National Science Foundation. The article also considers the role of peer review in the legal pro...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on February 13-14, 2013, at the... research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit. Recommendations regarding funding...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review... Service, and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and technical merit, the mission... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service...
Horban', A Ie; Zakrut'ko, L I; Uvarenko, S V; Prysiazhniuk, L V
The article made a retrospective analysis of the scientific medical forums (congresses, symposia and scientific conferences) in the healthcare sector of Ukraine in 2008-2012, planned by higher medical schools and post-graduate medical education schools, scientific institutions of Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine, National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, medical associations and scientific and medical societies. Quantitative and qualitative assessment was carried out of the effectiveness of their implementation, provided suggestions for improving the planning and conducting of medical research forums.
Sara Julia Castellanos Quintero
In this article it is presented the state of arts of the analysis of the scientific discourse in educational research in Mexico, particularly, in the curriculum design and development research. The development of the research in the area of university curricula started seriously in the decade of 80´s.The scientific discourse was oriented towards the searching of models and methods of teaching and evaluation, of the best way of the implementation of practicum and the correspondence between the...
The author has successfully used a learning activity titled "The Year I Was Born" to motivate students to conduct historical research and present key scientific discoveries from their birth year. The activity promotes writing, helps students enhance their scientific literacy, and also improves their attitude toward the learning of science. As one…
Robbins, Dennis; Ford, K. E. Saavik
We present a scaling-up plan for AstroComNYC's Methods of Scientific Research (MSR), a course designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of science practices. The course format and goals, notably the open-ended, hands-on, investigative nature of the curriculum are reviewed. We discuss how the course's interactive pedagogical techniques empower students to learn creativity within the context of experimental design and control of variables thinking. To date the course has been offered to a limited numbers of students in specific programs. The goals of broadly implementing MSR is to reach more students and early in their education—with the specific purpose of supporting and improving retention of students pursuing STEM careers. However, we also discuss challenges in preserving the effectiveness of the teaching and learning experience at scale.
Milanović, Vesna; Bučalina-Matić, Andrea; Golubović, Marina
The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into restrictions of comparative analysis of investing in scientific research and scientific outcomes of the countries in nanotechnology, having in mind that it is a developing technology which is expected to give significant contribution to science, economy and society in the future. Using the methods of content analysis, comparative methods and relevant literature, certain restrictions of this comparative analysis have been established. They ar...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI, and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musculoskeletal research. Methods The group narrowed the field to fracture research. The consensus opinion resulting from this workshop can be summarized as follows: Results & Conclusion Anaesthesia and pain management protocols for research animals should follow standard protocols applied in clinical work for the species involved. This will improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. A database should be established to facilitate selection of anaesthesia and pain management protocols for specific experimental surgical procedures and adopted as an International Standard (IS according to animal species selected. A list of 10 golden rules and requirements for conduction of animal experiments in musculoskeletal research was drawn up comprising 1 Intelligent study designs to receive appropriate answers; 2 Minimal complication rates (5 to max. 10%; 3 Defined end-points for both welfare and scientific outputs analogous to quality assessment (QA audit of protocols in GLP studies; 4 Sufficient details for materials and methods applied; 5 Potentially confounding variables (genetic background, seasonal, hormonal, size, histological, and biomechanical differences; 6 Post-operative management with emphasis on analgesia and follow-up examinations; 7 Study protocols to satisfy criteria established for a "justified animal study"; 8 Surgical expertise to conduct surgery on animals; 9 Pilot studies as a critical part of model validation and powering of the definitive study design
Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard
A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which
Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa
Mladenov, N.; Palomo, M.; Casad, B.; Pietruschka, B.; Buckley, C.
Studies have shown that undergraduate research opportunities foster student interest in research, encourage minority students to seek advanced degrees, and put students on a path toward higher education. It has been further suggested that engineering projects in international settings address issues of sustainability and promote a connection between engineering and social welfare that may compel students to seek future research opportunities. In this study, we explored the role that authentic research experiences in an international setting play in promoting higher education for students from groups typically under-represented in engineering and sciences. We hypothesized that the international context of the research experiences will provide undergraduate and graduate students with a global perspective of water reuse challenges and promote increased interest in pursuing a higher degree in engineering. Through the Sustainable Sanitation International Research Experiences for Students (IRES) Program, US students conducting research in Durban, South Africa in 2015 and 2016, were tasked with leading 6-week long research projects, collaborating with partners at the University of KwaZulu Natal, and producing papers and presentations for regional and international scientific conferences. All undergraduate participants were from groups under-represented in the sciences. Pre- and post-program survey results revealed that, after completing the program, participants of Cohort 1 had 1) greater research skills, 2) greater identification as an engineer, and 3) stronger intentions to pursue a PhD in engineering. Survey data were also used to evaluate comfort with cultural diversity before and after the international program and the effect of pairing US with South African student researchers. Our results indicate that students' awareness of societal needs and engineering challenges faced in Durban resulted in a positive impact on each student. The benefits gained from the
Altunay, Esen; Tonbul, Yilmaz
Many studies indicate that knowledge and knowledge production are the main predictors of social development, welfare and the ability to face the future with confidence. It could be argued that knowledge production is mainly carried out by universities. This study compares 1266 scientific research projects (SRPs) completed by faculties of education…
Li, Guowei; Jin, Yanling; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Dolovich, Lisa; Adachi, Jonathan D; Levine, Mitchell Ah; Cook, Deborah; Samaan, Zainab; Thabane, Lehana
Disseminating research protocols, processes, methods or findings via peer-reviewed publications has substantive merits and benefits to various stakeholders. In this article, we share strategies to enhance research publication contents (ie, what to write about) and to facilitate scientific writing (ie, how to write) in health research collaborations. Empirical experience sharing. To enhance research publication contents, we encourage identifying appropriate opportunities for publications, publishing protocols ahead of results papers, seeking publications related to methodological issues, considering justified secondary analyses, and sharing academic process or experience. To advance writing, we suggest setting up scientific writing as a goal, seeking an appropriate mentorship, making full use of scientific meetings and presentations, taking some necessary formal training in areas such as effective communication and time and stress management, and embracing the iterative process of writing. All the strategies we share are dependent upon each other; and they advocate gradual academic accomplishments through study and training in a "success-breeds-success" way. It is expected that the foregoing shared strategies in this paper, together with other previous guidance articles, can assist one with enhancing research publications, and eventually one's academic success in health research collaborations.
The author analyses the new situation that the scientific research on uranium geology is facing in the coming new century, and proposes that the guiding idea of the scientific research on uranium geology is to coordinate the general policy of Bureau of Geology--to give the first priority to in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits. The specific tasks for the scientific research on uranium geology are: to implement regional evaluation and target area selection of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits; to develop new techniques and methods of detecting buried in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits; to turn the genetic model of uranium deposit and deposit model to prospecting model; to strengthen the research on economic geology and the dynamic assessment system of uranium resources and to build up and improve the data base of Meso-Cenozoic basins and sandstone-type uranium deposits. In order to guarantee the successful implementation of the above tasks it is necessary for the Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology--the leading unit in scientific research on uranium geology to accelerate bringing up large numbers of young outstanding researchers; to have clear consciousness of market economy and product quality; to given play to advantages of qualified personnel, advanced equipment and modern technology
Clay, Alexis; Delord, Elric; Couture, Nadine; Domenger, Gaël
We describe the joint research that we conduct in gesture-based emotion recognition and virtual augmentation of a stage, bridging together the fields of computer science and dance. After establishing a common ground for dialogue, we could conduct a research process that equally benefits both fields. As computer scientists, dance is a perfect application case. Dancer's artistic creativity orient our research choices. As dancers, computer science provides new tools for creativity, and more importantly a new point of view that forces us to reconsider dance from its fundamentals. In this paper we hence describe our scientific work and its implications on dance. We provide an overview of our system to augment a ballet stage, taking a dancer's emotion into account. To illustrate our work in both fields, we describe three events that mixed dance, emotion recognition and augmented reality.
Herrera-Añazco, Percy; Valenzuela-Rodríguez, Germán; Pacheco-Mendoza, Josmel; Málaga, Germán
To determine the scientific production of Research Vice-chancellors at Peruvian universities that have medical schools, as well as their academic degrees as an indirect way to evaluate their suitability for the position they hold. We searched all Peruvian universities that register medical schools. Of these, the scientific production of the universities registered in SCOPUS was identified in September of the 2016. The scientific production of the vice chancellors of investigation of these faculties of medicine was determined through the search of its scientific publications registered in SCOPUS and those reported in the National Registry of Researchers in Science and Technology. Academic degrees were obtained from the database of the National Superintendence of Higher University Education. The sample included 28 research vice chancellors. Only 4/28 had any publications. The average number of articles published by the vice chancellors of research was 1.71, the number of citations 23.1 on average and the H index 0.64. Besides, 22 Vice-chancellors of research had the degree of doctor, four had the degree of bachelor and two the degree of master. The scientific production of research vice chancellors is poor. The required academic grade requirement for the position is not met in all cases. It is likely that, having no research experience, his leadership in directing a university's research policies may be questioned.
Algadheeb, Nourah A.; Almeqren, Monira A.
The present study aimed to identify the scientific research obstacles facing faculty members in the College of Education at Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University (PNU) and to determine the differences in the obstacles according to age, academic rank, scientific specialty, marital status, number of completed studies, and time since the last…
The changing focus within medical and allied health disciplines towards evidence-based practice has resulted in an increasing acceptance of research and professional researchers. Despite the shift towards tertiary degree-based training for medical imaging and allied specialty streams, with many teaching institutions now incorporating compulsory research components into their final year curriculum, the level of active involvement in research among graduates remains low. In addition to this, many of those who completed their training before the introduction of university degree courses have had little or no exposure to hands-on research. While not overtly difficult, the process of 'writing up' the findings of a research endeavour for presentation to peers can often seem a somewhat daunting task, especially for novice researchers. The structure of a scientific manuscript however follows a relatively basic and universally accepted pattern, adherence to which can greatly simplify the writing process. To contribute to a wider understanding of research, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the basic elements of a scientific research paper for journal publication. The outline provided, while not intended to be a recipe for manuscript construction, will provide a fundamental framework to assist student, junior or inexperienced researchers in their writings
Muchie, Mammo; Akpor, OB
Akpor OB and Muchie M. (2010). Bioremediation of polluted wasewaterwater influent: phiosphorus and nitrogen removal. Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 5(21), pp. 3222–3230......Akpor OB and Muchie M. (2010). Bioremediation of polluted wasewaterwater influent: phiosphorus and nitrogen removal. Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 5(21), pp. 3222–3230...
This document reports the general activities results of technical and scientific research production of the Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Researches, IPEN, Brazil, during the year of 1997-1999, listing journal articles, scientific events (complete texts, communications, abstracts and panels), thesis and dissertations, books, technical and scientific reports
Novak, Ivón T C; Bejarano, Paola Antón; Rodríguez, Fernando Marcos
This work is presented from a "problematic" perspective in the attempt to establish a dialogic relationship between the educator and the student-subject, mediated by the object of knowledge. It is oriented to the integral education of the helping students departing from a closer approach to the scientific research. This work was carried out by a teacher and two hired students. This project was developed in relation with the profile required for the career of medicine in the Faculty of Medicine of the National University of Cordoba which--among other aspects- addresses the importance of "adopting a positive attitude towards research based on knowledge and the application of the scientific methodology" and towards "the development of a responsible self-learning and continuous improvements" (sic). Thus, this work tries to be aligned with this perspectives. I. Characterization of the scientific methodology. Search for bibliography and discussion of scientific works. II. Optimization of the methodology for the observation of leucocytes: blood samples donated by healthy people, non-coagulating with citrate or with EDTA (Blood reservoir of the UNC (National University of Cordoba) n = 20. a) Blood smear of full blood. b) centrifugation at 200g of plasma and aspirated leucocytes after erythro sedimentation and re suspension of the cell pellet and cyto-dispersion. Cytological and cyto-chemical techniques. I. Deeper knowledge about blood field was achieved. It generated an appropriate atmosphere to produce scientific questioning and the activities involved in the process were carried out responsibly. II. Better results were achieved using EDTA for the observation and analysis of leucocytes. It was possible to attain the objectives for an approach to a scientific research as well as for a contribution towards a responsible development in the continuous learning process.
Sara Julia Castellanos Quintero
Full Text Available In this article it is presented the state of arts of the analysis of the scientific discourse in educational research in Mexico, particularly, in the curriculum design and development research. The development of the research in the area of university curricula started seriously in the decade of 80´s.The scientific discourse was oriented towards the searching of models and methods of teaching and evaluation, of the best way of the implementation of practicum and the correspondence between the professional formation and employment in the national context. In the other hand, the decade of 90´s is characterized by the influence of international educational policies, the use of CIT in the teaching-learning process, the appearance of more competitive occupational market, where professionals should be inserted. The scientific discourse was oriented towards the searching of curricular models that guarantee the correspondence between the professional formation and employment in the international framework. Nowadays an integral educational reform (RIE is taking place in Mexico where the competence approach is considered the guideline of the curriculum design in primary and secondary levels. Nevertheless, at the university level, different curriculum models are being implemented. This speaks about the diversity of the scientific discourse used in the curriculum research in Mexico.
... Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board that was to have taken... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting; Cancellation of Meeting...
Francisco das Chagas de Souza
This article results of bibliographical, exploratory and qualitative research. Its argues that three approaches are gifts in the educational process of discipline of the Scientific Research Methodology in Information Science. They are the social facts of the Information Science, the types of the research and the social theory. It sees that the pedagogical possibilities of the education of Scientific Methodology in Information Science are related with the practical one of the writing which dep...
Full Text Available Below are some considerations following on from a past Editorial entitled “The evaluation of scientific research: the result of merit-based or discretionary criteria?” published in issue No.11 (2011 of the historical-technical journal “Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage”. The Editorial looked at various tools for evaluating scientific research and expressed some reservations about the bibliometric criteria: - Impact Factor (IF, the most well-known bibliometric tool, owned by Thomson Reuters – Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, which collects data from over 14,000 journals in its web portal: an evaluation system that determines the frequency with which an article is cited in a given period; - Peer Review, a quality indicator typically used in selecting articles for publication; - Open Linking, a reference service offered by aggregators which transforms citations into hyperlinks and allows researchers to browse online from article to article regardless of the journal or publisher; - H Factor or H Index, which aims to quantify the overall scientific contribution of a researcher.
Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R
Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.
Guerreiro, Cátia Sá; Hartz, Zulmira; Sambo, Luís; Conceição, Cláudia; Dussault, Gilles; Russo, Giuliano; Viveiros, Miguel; Silveira, Henrique; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ferrinho, Paulo
After more than 40 years of democracy and 30 years of European integration, Portugal has bridged the research gap it had previously. However, when compared to global and European research policies, Portugal still has a long way go regarding investment in research and development. Health Research in Portugal has been managed by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia and the National Health Institute Doctor Ricardo Jorge, and it has not been a political priority, emphasized by the absence of a national scientific research plan for health, resulting in a weak coordination of actors in the field. The strategic guidelines of the 2004 - 2010 National Health Plan are what comes closest to a health research policy, but these were not implemented by the institutions responsible for scientific research for the health sector. Trusting that adopting a strategy of incentives to stimulate health research is an added-value for the Portuguese health system, the authors present five strategic proposals for research in health in Portugal.
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... & Regenerative Medicine Subcommittee of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit..., examination, reference to, [[Page 65405
Carter, Sarah K.; Manier, Daniel J.; Arkle, Robert S.; Johnston, Aaron; Phillips, Susan L.; Hanser, Steven E.; Bowen, Zachary H.
The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter GRSG) has been a focus of scientific investigation and management action for the past two decades. The 2015 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listing determination of “not warranted” was in part due to a large-scale collaborative effort to develop strategies to conserve GRSG populations and their habitat and to reduce threats to both. New scientific information augments existing knowledge and can help inform updates or modifications to existing plans for managing GRSG and sagebrush ecosystems. However, the sheer number of scientific publications can be a challenge for managers tasked with evaluating and determining the need for potential updates to existing planning documents. To assist in this process, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has reviewed and summarized the scientific literature published since January 1, 2015.To identify articles and reports published about GRSG, we first conducted a structured search of three reference databases (Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar) using the search term “greater sage-grouse.” We refined the initial list of products by (1) removing duplicates, (2) excluding products that were not published as research or scientific review articles in peer-reviewed journals or as formal government technical reports, and (3) retaining only those products for which GRSG or their habitat was a research focus.We summarized the contents of each product by using a consistent structure (background, objectives, methods, location, findings, and implications) and assessed the content of each product relevant to a list of 31 management topics. These topics include GRSG biology and habitat characteristics along with potential management actions, land uses, and environmental factors related to GRSG management and conservation. We also noted which articles/reports created new geospatial data.The final search was conducted on January 6, 2018, and application of our criteria
The scientific and technological-scientific publications of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe appear as books, as original articles in scientific or technological periodicals, as postdoctoral theses, theses, dissertations, patents and KfK reports and are given as lectures at scientific conferences. The report KfK 4425 contains the titles of all publications from 1987. In the case of patents, all rights established or published during 1987 are indicated: patents, information sheets (DE-OS). The list of publications is ordered according to institutes. Under projects, only published project reports and publications by staff working on the particular projects are listed. Also included are publications printed in the Kernforschungszentrum from research and development plans within the Production Technology Project (PFT) and the project called 'European Research Center for the Control of Air Pollution' (PEF), which were carried out by the Kernforschungszentrum as project sponsor in cooperation with firms and institutes. The list also includes publications of the Federal Research Institute for Nutrition based at the Kernforschungszentrum. (orig./HK) [de
Sudarshan, E C G
I review my scientific research career for the last 50 years, with emphasis on the issue of 'Poincare recurrences': I stress some ideas of mine which became so popular that they have been taken up (recurred) by others, sometimes forgetting the original source
Full Text Available The article deals with information – based marketing of scientific research institutes, which has been named SAVE (Solution – Access – Value – Education. A proper use of marketing instruments requires information assets which are defined in terms of the essence, the scope and the form of the defined information needs. The essence, the form and the pattern of information needs in reference to SAVE has been defined and described in the case of scientific research institute. The specification of needs for each instrument and for various market participants has been included into the description.
Atif Omar Bin Tareef
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the current status of scientific research at the University of Jordan as perceived by graduate students and the differences between students of science and humanities faculties, and to identify their opinions regarding ways to improve scientific research at the University of Jordan. The study followed a descriptive methodology based on a survey that was developed specifically for the purpose of this study. The survey consisted of 40 items covering 5 themes, and was distributed to a sample of 104 male and female participants representing science and humanities faculties. The data were analyzed, using the two-way ANOVA, the standard deviation and means. In addition, students’ opinions and obstacles to effective participation of graduate students were categorized. The results showed significant differences between students’ assessment of the status of scientific research in science and humanities faculties, which was (3.2 for students in humanities faculties and (2.8 for students in science faculties. The difference also appeared in all the five domains of the scientific research, while there was no presence of gender effect, neither was there effect for the interaction between the variables (gender and the faculty. The study recommended to provide financial support to scientific research, and to establish a refereed scientific Journal for publishing students’ innovative ideas and research projects. Keywords: Scientific research, Graduate students.
Maria A. Belyaeva
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to represent reflections on the crisis of science and logical thinking (within the framework of Social Science, Humanities and higher education that has its local and global manifestations; the author focused own attention on the manifestations in order to understand its depth and possible ways of overcoming them. Methods. A number of theoretical methods have been used in the article: analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, comparison and classification, methods of extrapolation and modeling, as well as participant observation. Results. Local manifestations of the crisis of science and logical thinking associated with human factor in the national system of higher professional education in the era of virtualization and commercialization are expressed in reducing efforts and productivity of scientific research, due to the existing contradictions between changed requirements that enumerate professional duties of a lecturer and possibilities of combining and productive implementation of traditional and new professional roles. In particular, researches turn to promoters of themselves to solve financial and organizational issues of a scientific research and promotion of ratings. Changes in the sense of scientific activity in respect to educators and their personal attitude to new requirements will eventually face the eternal problem of attitude to knowledge and to the actual problem of change of knowledge subject in non-classical model and post-non-classical model of science. Expression of a researcher’s individuality encounters many obstacles (the author has identified 10 of them and is complicated by new facets of this subjectivity, induced by «logistics turn point» in science. Scientific novelty. The author proves that it is necessary to change nonclassical subject knowledge model (where the corporate subject leaning for the general ways and collective norms of scientific activity dominates for
...] Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of its report of scientific and medical literature and... Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic...
Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Early in his twenty-five year career as the Director of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Norris Bradbury wrote at length about the atomic bomb and the many implications the bomb might have on the world. His themes were both technical and philosophical. In 1963, after nearly twenty years of leading the nation’s first nuclear weapons laboratory, Bradbury took the opportunity to broaden his writing. In a paper delivered to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s symposium on the “Criteria in the Selection of Sites for the Construction of Reactors and Nuclear Research Centers,” Bradbury took the opportunity to talk about the business of nuclear research and the human component of operating a scientific laboratory. This report is the transcript of his talk.
Resnik, David B
Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane's defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity.
Full Text Available The article presents strategic imperatives that influence the development of scientific libraries and systematizes the criteria that the scientific library of the research university must meet in order to ensure effective development in accordance with modern trends in science and technology. Strategic imperatives for the development of the library of the research university consist in providing: modern technologies of codification and transfer of information containing knowledge; Compliance with international standards of existing information and technical infrastructure of scientific libraries; Equal access to world-class advanced science-computer databases; Timely updating of library funds; Proactive visitor system and automate the processing of relevance of their queries; The fastest and most accurate search and access to information; availability of an effective information security system contained in the cloud of scientific library; Development of adjacent commercial services, which allow to receive a "package" of information generalized by professional specialists; Creation of creative space for a comfortable visit to the library by interested persons for obtaining existing knowledge and creating new ones. The only way for Ukraine to slow down the outflow of skilled scientific and pedagogical staff and students with high intellectual potential is to preserve and balance the system of research universities and to develop within their walls powerful scientific libraries that will be able to meet the above-mentioned development imperatives.
...] Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... period for the notice on its report of scientific and medical literature and information concerning the... ``Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information...
Breslavets, A. V.
The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.
Hilmy, Nazly; Ismachin, Moch; Suhadi, F.
Proceedings of Scientific Meeting On Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology has been presented On Nopember 6-7, 2000 this activity that was held by Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technolgy. The Scientific meeting is an information exchange facility among Researcher Industrialist for using isotope Technology in Industry Environment, Health, Agriculture and Farming. The proceedings Consist of 3 articles from keynotes speaker and 54 articles from BATAN participants as well outside. The articles is indexing separately
An evaluation has been made at the laboratory for INAA in Delft of the type of analytical protocols requested for by scientific and commercial customers. Examples are given of the differences in requests from industrial research and university research and the consequences for the analysis protocol to be selected. On the basis of experience with the users and clients and customer satisfaction evaluation results, a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis has been made. This analysis makes clear that many of the frequently mentioned 'advantages' of INAA do not excite the clients. One of the typical weaknesses of the technique results from lack of automation, indispensable for effective and economic operations. This may hamper small INAA groups to become interesting for large-scale and/or parallel requests, to become competitive and self-sustainable. Suggestions are given how the weaknesses and threats may be circumvented and how the strong points and opportunities may be successfully exploited. (author)
Jerzy Marian Brzeziński
Full Text Available In this article I present a model of associations between two social domains: the scientific research domain (here psychology and the professional practice domain. In the former case, its quality is determined by social and individual methodological awareness (MA. I introduce my own definition of MA. What determines the validity and usefulness of practical actions undertaken by professionals (e.g., assessment, therapy in the practice domain is the accurately constructed empirical theory high in descriptive power, explanatory power and predictive power. I propose a model (my own conceptualization in which I analyze information flow between the domains of scientific research (psychology as a science and professional practice (psychology as a profession. In the subsequent and final part I discuss my own model which links theory and practice: Scientific Research and Professional Practice in Psychology (SRPPP. The article ends with a presentation of three contexts in which the interrelationship between theory and practice is immersed: the ethical, psychological and cultural contexts.
DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.
This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and
Full Text Available This report aims to present the researcher in Psychology techniques for search and retrieval of information for academic and science research. Is based on my experiences as university librarian and as a doctoral student in Psychology, in a project on scientometry of the Social Skills field. This goal is to obtain information reliable and with quality to develop research, from sources of online information. Are recommended and described steps to the process of searching for scientific information, with examples from the Social Skills field: defining research topic; applying appropriate search tactics; selecting reliable sources of information and experts on the topic; translating research into the language of the information source; developing an effective search strategy; evaluating the quality and reliability of the obtained items. It is expected that by following these steps, the researcher obtain a coherent corpus with the subject, time saving and quality bibliographic.
Kraemer Diaz, Anne E; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Arcury, Thomas A
Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and unique concerns. Understanding the perceptions that promote or discourage scientific integrity in CBPR as identified by professional and community investigators is essential to promoting the value of CBPR. This analysis explores the perceptions that facilitate scientific integrity in CBPR as well as the barriers among a sample of 74 professional and community CBPR investigators from 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. There were variations in perceptions associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Perceptions identified to promote and discourage scientific integrity in CBPR by professional and community investigators were external pressures, community participation, funding, quality control and supervision, communication, training, and character and trust. Some perceptions such as communication and training promoted scientific integrity whereas other perceptions, such as a lack of funds and lack of trust could discourage scientific integrity. These results demonstrate that one of the most important perceptions in maintaining scientific integrity in CBPR is active community participation, which enables a co-responsibility by scientists and community members to provide oversight for scientific integrity. Credible CBPR science is crucial to empower the vulnerable communities to be heard by those in positions of power and policy making. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
This report details the second phase of an ongoing research project investigating the visual invention and composition processes of scientific researchers. In this phase, four academic researchers completed think-aloud protocols as they composed graphics for research presentations; they also answered follow-up questions about their visual…
The scientific and technological-scientific publications of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe appear as books, ar original articles in scientific or technological periodicals, as postdoctoral theses, theses, dissertations, patents and KfK reports and are given as lectures at scientific conferences. The report KfK 4625 contains the titles of all publications from 1989. In the case of patents, all rights established or published during 1989 are indicated: patents, information sheets (DE-OS). The list of publications is ordered according to institutes. Under projects, only published project reports and publications by staff working on the particular projects are listed. Also included are publications printed in the Kernforschungszentrum from research and development plans within the Production Technology Project (PFT) and the project called 'European Research Center for the Control of Air Pollution' (PEF), which were carried out by the Kernforschungszentrum as project sponsor in cooperation with firms and institutes. The list also includes publications of the branch of the Federal Research Institute for Nutrition based at the Kernforschungszentrum. (orig./HK) [de
Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although…
Sells, Sarah N.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Barker, Kristin J.; Forshee, Shannon C.; Keever, Allison; Goerz, James W.; Mitchell, Michael S.
Rigorous science that produces reliable knowledge is critical to wildlife management because it increases accurate understanding of the natural world and informs management decisions effectively. Application of a rigorous scientific method based on hypothesis testing minimizes unreliable knowledge produced by research. To evaluate the prevalence of scientific rigor in wildlife research, we examined 24 issues of the Journal of Wildlife Management from August 2013 through July 2016. We found 43.9% of studies did not state or imply a priori hypotheses, which are necessary to produce reliable knowledge. We posit that this is due, at least in part, to a lack of common understanding of what rigorous science entails, how it produces more reliable knowledge than other forms of interpreting observations, and how research should be designed to maximize inferential strength and usefulness of application. Current primary literature does not provide succinct explanations of the logic behind a rigorous scientific method or readily applicable guidance for employing it, particularly in wildlife biology; we therefore synthesized an overview of the history, philosophy, and logic that define scientific rigor for biological studies. A rigorous scientific method includes 1) generating a research question from theory and prior observations, 2) developing hypotheses (i.e., plausible biological answers to the question), 3) formulating predictions (i.e., facts that must be true if the hypothesis is true), 4) designing and implementing research to collect data potentially consistent with predictions, 5) evaluating whether predictions are consistent with collected data, and 6) drawing inferences based on the evaluation. Explicitly testing a priori hypotheses reduces overall uncertainty by reducing the number of plausible biological explanations to only those that are logically well supported. Such research also draws inferences that are robust to idiosyncratic observations and
The purpose of this study is to develop competencies of teachers, the coordination of the education, learning activities; in having access to innovations, developments and scientific studies in the literature. In addition, the purpose is to determine how teachers' scientific research self-efficacy and attitude towards the scientific research…
The critical steps for successful research: The research proposal and scientific writing: (A report on the pre-conference workshop held in conjunction with the 64(th) annual conference of the Indian Pharmaceutical Congress-2012).
Balakumar, Pitchai; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Jagadeesh, Gowraganahalli
An interactive workshop on 'The Critical Steps for Successful Research: The Research Proposal and Scientific Writing' was conducted in conjunction with the 64(th) Annual Conference of the Indian Pharmaceutical Congress-2012 at Chennai, India. In essence, research is performed to enlighten our understanding of a contemporary issue relevant to the needs of society. To accomplish this, a researcher begins search for a novel topic based on purpose, creativity, critical thinking, and logic. This leads to the fundamental pieces of the research endeavor: Question, objective, hypothesis, experimental tools to test the hypothesis, methodology, and data analysis. When correctly performed, research should produce new knowledge. The four cornerstones of good research are the well-formulated protocol or proposal that is well executed, analyzed, discussed and concluded. This recent workshop educated researchers in the critical steps involved in the development of a scientific idea to its successful execution and eventual publication.
The scientific and technical-scientific publications from the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre comprise books, original papers in scientific or technical journals, diploma, doctoral and habilitation theses, as well as papers held at scientific conferences, patents, KfK reports, and external reports (KfK = Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The present report, KfK 2625, contains the titles of the 1977 publications, scientific papers being listed only after the manusscript has been filed in the Central Library of the research centre. As for patents, the titles given refer to either first issues of a patent, or to patents laid open for inspection. Progress reports are listed according to subjects involved. The whole list of publications is ordered according to the names of institutes and of projects, the latter group covering the titles of published project reports and of publications written by individual cooperators of a given project, as well as publications printed by the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, written by cooperators of the following projects: 'Process control with data processing plants', (PDV), and 'Computer-assisted development' (CAD). These projects are carried out together with other firms and instutes. Yet another group of publications covered are those of the Federal Institute for Food Research, and of guest scientists working in the Centre. (orig./HK) [de
Benson, Jeff B; Marshall, Frances M [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Allen, Todd R [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world's premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material radiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. Cost free access to the ATR, INL post irradiation examination facilities, and partner facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to United States Department of Energy. To increase overall research capability, ATR NSUF seeks to form strategic partnerships with university facilities that add significant nuclear research capability to the ATR NSUF and are accessible to all ATR NSUF users. (author)
Full Text Available The article presents a historical reconstruction of Ukrainian-Polish scientific relations in the field of humanities in 1955-1960, conducted on the basis of archival sources study. Scientific information exchange of humanitarian institutions of the AS of the Ukrainian SSR with Polish research institutions was quite diversified. It included mutual visits of the scientists from research institutes as delegations members, individual scientific missions to research institutions in order to acquaint with scientific developments, participation in international workshops, congresses and conferences, international book exchange, joint publishing, mutual reviewing of scientific publications. From the second half of the 50s of the 20th century there was an intensification of joint research projects conducted for the development of certain scientific issues, which were of interest for both Ukrainian and Polish scientists, who endeavored to solve them
Danch, J. M.
Developed to allow high school students with special needs to participate in original scientific research, the Peer Mentoring Program was a supplement to existing science instruction for students in a self-contained classroom. Peer mentors were high school seniors at the end of a three-year advanced science research course who used their experience to create and develop inquiry-based research activities appropriate for students in the self- contained classroom. Peer mentors then assisted cooperative learning groups of special education students to facilitate the implementation of the research activities. Students with special needs successfully carried out an original research project and developed critical thinking and laboratory skills. Prior to embarking on their undergraduate course of study in the sciences, peer mentors developed an appreciation for the need to bring original scientific research to students of all levels. The program will be expanded and continued during the 2007-2008 school year.
This plan is issued in response to the Executive Office of the President's February 22, 2013, Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, "Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research." Through this memorandum, OSTP directed all agencies with more than $100 million in annual research and development expenditures to prepare a plan for improving the public's access to the results of federally funded research. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invests on the order of $3 billion annually in fundamental and applied research and technology development1 across a broad range of topics, including space and Earth sciences, life and physical sciences, human health, aeronautics, and technology. Promoting the full and open sharing of data with research communities, private industry, academia, and the general public is one of NASA's longstanding core values. For example, NASA's space and suborbital mission personnel routinely process, archive, and distribute their data to researchers around the globe. This plan expands the breadth of NASA's open-access culture to include data and publications for all of the scientific research that the Agency sponsors.
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be held on April 20, 2012, 131 M Street NE., Washington, DC...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be held on December 13-14, 2010, at the Hilton Alexandria Old...
Sahoo, Satya S; Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael
Scientific reproducibility is key to scientific progress as it allows the research community to build on validated results, protect patients from potentially harmful trial drugs derived from incorrect results, and reduce wastage of valuable resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a systematic guideline titled "Rigor and Reproducibility " for supporting reproducible research studies, which has also been accepted by several scientific journals. These journals will require published articles to conform to these new guidelines. Provenance metadata describes the history or origin of data and it has been long used in computer science to capture metadata information for ensuring data quality and supporting scientific reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the development of Provenance for Clinical and healthcare Research (ProvCaRe) framework together with a provenance ontology to support scientific reproducibility by formally modeling a core set of data elements representing details of research study. We extend the PROV Ontology (PROV-O), which has been recommended as the provenance representation model by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), to represent both: (a) data provenance, and (b) process provenance. We use 124 study variables from 6 clinical research studies from the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR) to evaluate the coverage of the provenance ontology. NSRR is the largest repository of NIH-funded sleep datasets with 50,000 studies from 36,000 participants. The provenance ontology reuses ontology concepts from existing biomedical ontologies, for example the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to model the provenance information of research studies. The ProvCaRe framework is being developed as part of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) data provenance project.
Márcia Martins Mendes De Luca
Full Text Available Sustainability has become an increasingly popular topic in administration research projects, with a great number of researchers trying to understand and apply it to the corporate world. The general objective of the present study consists of investigating the theoretical perspectives of scientific production on sustainability in administration present in the annals of the Anpad Meeting and in the “Revista de Gestão Social e Ambiental”, over an eight-year period. The research encompasses the characteristics of authorship, methodological procedures and theoretical groundwork, as well as the qualitative characteristics of the selected articles. It is a qualitative study, characterized as descriptive research, with the application of bibliometrics and content analysis. 103 articles, published in the Anpad Meeting (annual editions, from 2003 to 2010 and in the “Revista de Gestão Social e Ambiental” (published three times a year, from 2007 to 2010, were analyzed. The results revealed an increase in scientific production on sustainability, demonstrating this topic’s growing maturity. In a more punctual way, researchers identified a tendency towards co-authorship; methodological diversity, not limited to theories or pre-defined models; and a high incidence of proposals of models related to sustainability.
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit... management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D...
Robinson-Garcia, N.; Cañibano, C.; Woolley, R.; Costas, R.
This paper presents an exploratory analysis of different typologies of researchers according to their traceable mobility using scientific publications covered in the Web of Science (WoS). We compare two populations of researchers, of the same ‘scientific age’, based in Spain and The Netherlands. To establish reasonable comparisons between researchers based in The Netherlands and Spain, we must first identify similar groups of researchers in each country. We only consider 'trusted' direct linkages between author and affiliation as reported in scientific publications and recorded by WoS. We establish three different study groups: Mobile versus non-mobile researchers, returned versus not returned researchers and, single versus multiple affiliations. We observe differences in the mobility patterns and their relation with production and citation impact between countries. Differences for each study group are found in the case of Spain but not as evident for The Netherlands. We conclude remarking the need to further analyse the institutional framework of each country to better understand how much do they influence research mobility and in what way. (Author)
Soares, Hélia; Pereira, Sandra M; Neves, Ajuda; Gomes, Amy; Teixeira, Bruno; Oliveira, Carolina; Sousa, Fábio; Tavares, Márcio; Tavares, Patrícia; Dutra, Raquel; Pereira, Hélder Rocha
Project Evidência [Evidence] intends to promote the use of scientific databases among nurses. This study aims to design educational interventions that facilitate nurses' access to these databases, to determine nurses' habits regarding the use of scientific databases, and to determine the impact that educational interventions on scientific databases have on Azorean nurses who volunteered for this project. An intervention project was conducted, and a quantitative descriptive survey was designed to evaluate the impact two and five months after the educational intervention. This impact was investigated considering certain aspects, namely, the nurses' knowledge, habits and reasons for using scientific databases. A total of 192 nurses participated in this study, and the primary results indicate that the educational intervention had a positive impact based not only on the increased frequency of using platforms or databases of scientific information (DSIs) s but also on the competence and self-awareness regarding its use and consideration of the reasons for accessing this information.
Among the outstanding accomplishments of the last century is man's conquest of the air. That conquest began in 1903 when the Wright brothers made the first successful flight of an airplane at Kitty Hawk, N. C. Five years later the United States Government purchased its first airplane for the use of the Army, and began the training of officers for military flying. During the years immediately preceding the outbreak of the World War the Government and a meager aircraft industry had made important progress, but the Government, practically the only customer, had purchased less than 100 airplanes. In the meantime, leading European nations, sensing acutely the potentialities of aircraft in warfare, had made greater progress and had begun laying the foundations for the new science of aeronautics. The World War gave a remarkable impetus to the development of aeronautics and emphasized the need for organized research on the fundamental problems of flight. By act of Congress approved March 3, 1915, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was created and charged with the duty of supervising, directing, and conducting fundamental scientific research and experiment in aeronautics. With the farsighted support of the Congress the Committee has led the world in the development of unique aeronautical research facilities in its laboratories at Langley Field, Va. The research programs include problems initiated by the Committee and its subcommittees and also investigations requested by the Army, the Navy, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority. The results of researches conducted under one control, serve without duplication of effort, the needs of all branches of aviation, civil and military, and exert a profound influence on the progress of aeronautics by improving the performance, efficiency, and safety of aircraft. A brief description of the results of some of the committee's researches and of the equipment employed will be found in the following pages.
Tetyana V. Kuznetsova
Full Text Available Relevance of the material stated in article is caused by urgent needs of society in creation of administrative information systems, in particular Information system of planning of scientific researches in National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine on Internet basis (ІС "Planning". Information and technological support of processes of planning of scientific researches which are carried out in scientific institutions of NAPS of Ukraine is the purpose of creation of this system. The parameters of the functional maintenance of the informative system are pointed in the article, technology of treatment of documents on planning of scientific researches, scheme of routes of working of separate documents, and proper diagrams of their business-processes, on the basis of which using programmatic facilities of Microsoft Sharepoint the functions of programming are automatized, is examined.
Full Text Available Basic conceptual fundamentals of a Pedagogical University’s scientific research work organization as well as corresponding problems and assignments have been determined in the article. It’s been ascertained that some important problems remain unsettled, for instance, implementation of current scientific achievements in the contents of subject teachers’ training; popularization and marketing of scientific pedagogical achievements; intensification of scientific cooperation with foreign educational institutions; expansion of participation in joint scientific projects etc. Cardinal principals and priority directions of scientific maintenance of high-skilled teachers’ training have been defined. Practical results of a Pedagogical University’s scientific research work organization taking into consideration the determined conceptual fundamentals have been also analyzed.Key words: scientific research work monitoring, scientific activity, scientific productivity, scientific cooperation, scientific work organization, Pedagogical University.
Berling, Eric; McLeskey, Chet; O'Rourke, Michael; Pennock, Robert T
Drawing on Pennock's theory of scientific virtues, we are developing an alternative curriculum for training scientists in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) that emphasizes internal values rather than externally imposed rules. This approach focuses on the virtuous characteristics of scientists that lead to responsible and exemplary behavior. We have been pilot-testing one element of such a virtue-based approach to RCR training by conducting dialogue sessions, modeled upon the approach developed by Toolbox Dialogue Initiative, that focus on a specific virtue, e.g., curiosity and objectivity. During these structured discussions, small groups of scientists explore the roles they think the focus virtue plays and should play in the practice of science. Preliminary results have shown that participants strongly prefer this virtue-based model over traditional methods of RCR training. While we cannot yet definitively say that participation in these RCR sessions contributes to responsible conduct, these pilot results are encouraging and warrant continued development of this virtue-based approach to RCR training.
Camoin, G.; Stein, R.
The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is funded for the period 2003-2013, and is now starting to plan the future of ocean drilling beyond 2013, including the development of new technologies, new emerging research fields as and the societal relevance of this programme. In this context an interdisciplinary and multinational (USA, Europe, Japan, Asian and Oceanian countries), key conference - INVEST IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets - addressing all international IODP partners is therefore planned for September 23rd-25th 2009 in Bremen, Germany (more information at http://www.iodp.org and http://marum.de/iodp-invest.html) to discuss future directions of ocean drilling research and related aspects such as ventures with related programmes or with industry. The first critical step of INVEST is to define the scientific research goals of the second phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which is expected to begin in late 2013. INVEST will be open to all interested scientists and students and will be the principal opportunity for the international science community to help shape the future of scientific ocean drilling. The outcome of the conference will be the base to draft a science plan in 2010 and to define new goals and strategies to effectively meet the challenges of society and future ocean drilling. The current EGU Session and the related two days workshop which will be held at the University of Vienna will specifically address the future of European scientific drilling research. The major objectives of those two events are to sharpen the European interests in the future IODP and to prepare the INVEST Conference and are therefore of prime importance to give weight to the European propositions in the program renewal processes, both on science, technology and management, and to provide the participants with information about the status/process of ongoing discussions and negotiations regarding program structure, and provide them
... Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells 13505 Order 13505 Presidential... Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution.... Research involving human embryonic stem cells and human non-embryonic stem cells has the potential to lead...
Angela Timuş; Laura Afteni; Stela Rînja
This article is an integrate part of individual scientific project „Studies regarding improvement of investigation methodologies, techniques and proceedings in economic science”, and it was made in accordance with conditions which were stipulated in the contract for financing Nr.28/ind from 26.01.07. Scientific research and technological development are the main activities which create and generate economic and social progress in the modern world. In our days the science on the whole become a...
Wang, Lipeng; Li, Mingqiu
Currently, it has become a fundamental goal for the engineering major to cultivate high-quality engineering technicians with innovation ability in scientific research which is an important academic ability necessary for them. This paper mainly explores the development of comprehensive and designing experiments in automation based on scientific…
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the students’ achievement in answering modified lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning (MLCTSR questions in overall science teaching and by every aspect of scientific reasoning abilities. There are six aspects related to the scientific reasoning abilities that were measured; they are conservatorial reasoning, proportional reasoning, controlling variables, combinatorial reasoning, probabilistic reasoning, correlational reasoning. The research is also conducted to see the development of scientific reasoning by using levels of inquiry models. The students reasoning ability was measured using the Modified Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (MLCTSR. MLCTSR is a test developed based on the test of scientific reasoning of Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR in 2000 which amounted to 12 multiple-choice questions. The research method chosen in this study is descriptive quantitative research methods. The research design used is One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The population of this study is the entire junior high students class VII the academic year 2014/2015 in one junior high school in Bandung. The samples in this study are one of class VII, which is class VII C. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling. The results showed that there is an increase in quantitative scientific reasoning although its value is not big.
Ferris, Sharmila Pixy
A substantial number of published articles in speech communication research today is experimental/social scientific in nature. It is only in the past decade that scholars have begun to put the history of communication under the lens. Early advocates of the adoption of the method of social scientific inquiry were J. A. Winans, J. M. O'Neill, and C.…
D. I. Feldshtein
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the quality issue of the research conducted by the candidates for a scientific degree in pedagogy and psychology. The author – Chairman of the Expert Council in Pedagogy and Psychology of the Higher Attestation Commission and Vice President of the Russian Academy of Education –points out once again that awarding the scientific degree involves both the assessment of the research work and validation of the candidate’s contribution to the scientific society: publications, conference and symposium presentations, participation in discussions, etc. The paper exemplifies and analyzes the shortcomings of the thesis research: methodological illiteracy, incorrect wording, irrelevant and narrow themes and hypotheses, obvious borrowing of ideas, lack of novelty. The author lays the blame for the undue level of theses on the candidates for a degree, as well as the expert society – the department and laboratory staff, scientific and dissertation councils, scientific advisors, opponents and consult- ants, and experts of the Higher Attestation Commission. The paper suggests the correcting ways to improve the current situation in theses preparation, its defense and approval.
D. I. Feldshtein
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the quality issue of the research conducted by the candidates for a scientific degree in pedagogy and psychology. The author – Chairman of the Expert Council in Pedagogy and Psychology of the Higher Attestation Commission and Vice President of the Russian Academy of Education –points out once again that awarding the scientific degree involves both the assessment of the research work and validation of the candidate’s contribution to the scientific society: publications, conference and symposium presentations, participation in discussions, etc. The paper exemplifies and analyzes the shortcomings of the thesis research: methodological illiteracy, incorrect wording, irrelevant and narrow themes and hypotheses, obvious borrowing of ideas, lack of novelty. The author lays the blame for the undue level of theses on the candidates for a degree, as well as the expert society – the department and laboratory staff, scientific and dissertation councils, scientific advisors, opponents and consult- ants, and experts of the Higher Attestation Commission. The paper suggests the correcting ways to improve the current situation in theses preparation, its defense and approval.
Perez-Poch, Antoni; González, Daniel Ventura; López, David
We report on different research and educational activities related to parabolic flights conducted in Barcelona since 2008. We use a CAP10B single-engine aerobatic aircraft flying out of Sabadell Airport and operating in visual flight conditions providing up to 8 seconds of hypogravity for each parabola. Aside from biomedical experiments being conducted, different student teams have flown in parabolic flights in the framework of the international contest `Barcelona Zero-G Challenge', and have published their results in relevant symposiums and scientific journals. The platform can certainly be a good testbed for a proof-of-concept before accessing other microgravity platforms, and has proved to be excellent for motivational student campaigns.
Forni, Cristiana; Chiari, Paolo; Guarino, Lorenza; Tremosini, Morena; Trofa, Carmela; D'Alessandro, Fabio; Sabattini, Tania; Mini, Sandra; Zanotti, Enrichetta
In Italy research conducted by non medical professions is scarce also for the lack of knowledge on methods. At Rizzoli hospital in Bologna in 2006 a Centre for research to educate and support health professionals was implemented. To assess the impact of the research centre on number of research articles and protocols produced by nurses. Interrupted time series. In the five years before and after the implementation of the centre data on the number of protocols approved by Ethical Committee with a nurse as principal investigator and on the number of articles published on impacted journals with a nurse as first author were collected. The number of nurses authors of the publications was also collected. For all the variables an increasing trend, starting from 2006 was observed, with statistically significant differences from 2008 for the number of research protocols presented (p=0.037), the number of nurses authors of scientific articles (p=0.027). Although the number of publications on impacted journals increased from 2006, differences were not statistically significant after 2008. An hospital based Centre for education and support to research for health professionals may facilitate the scientific and research production.
Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury
Pediatric clinical research on new drugs and biomaterials involves children in order to create valid and generalizable knowledge. Research on vulnerable populations, such as children, is necessary but only admissible when researchers strictly follow methodological and ethical standards, together with the respect to human rights; and very especially when the investigation cannot be conducted with other population or when the potential benefits are specifically for that age group. Clinical research in Pediatric Dentistry is not an exception. The aim of the present article was to provide the bioethical principles (with respect to the child/parents' autonomy, benefit/risk analysis, and distributive justice), and recommendations, including informed consent, research ethics committees, conflict of interest, and the "equipoise" concept. Current and future worldwide oral health research in children and adolescents must be conducted incorporating their perspectives in the decision-making process as completely as possible. This concept must be carefully considered when a dental clinical study research is going to be planned and conducted, especially in the case of randomized controlled trials, in which children will be recruited as participants.
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION... research and development projects requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program...
Joynson, Catherine; Leyser, Ottoline
In 2014, the UK-based Nuffield Council on Bioethics carried out a series of engagement activities, including an online survey to which 970 people responded, and 15 discussion events at universities around the UK to explore the culture of research in the UK and its effect on ethical conduct in science and the quality of research. The findings of the project were published in December 2014 and the main points are summarised here. We found that scientists are motivated in their work to find out more about the world and to benefit society, and that they believe collaboration, multidisciplinarity, openness and creativity are important for the production of high quality science. However, in some cases, our findings suggest, the culture of research in higher education institutions does not support or encourage these goals or activities. For example, high levels of competition and perceptions about how scientists are assessed for jobs and funding are reportedly contributing to a loss of creativity in science, less collaboration and poor research practices. The project led to suggestions for action for funding bodies, research institutions, publishers and editors, professional bodies and individual researchers.
Hroar Klempe, Sven
This article focuses on some principles for understanding. By taking Anna Mikulak's article "Mismatches between 'scientific' and 'non-scientific' ways of knowing and their contributions to public understanding of science" (IPBS 2011) as a point of departure, the idea of demarcation criteria for scientific and non-scientific discourses is addressed. Yet this is juxtaposed with mythical thinking, which is supposed to be the most salient trait of non-scientific discourses. The author demonstrates how the most widespread demarcation criterion, the criterion of verification, is self-contradictory, not only when it comes to logic, but also in the achievement of isolating natural sciences from other forms of knowledge. According to Aristotle induction is a rhetorical device and as far as scientific statements are based on inductive inferences, they are relying on humanities, which rhetoric is a part of. Yet induction also has an empirical component by being based on sense-impressions, which is not a part of the rhetoric, but the psychology. Also the myths are understood in a rhetorical (Lévi-Strauss) and a psychological (Cassirer) perspective. Thus it is argued that both scientific and non-scientific discourses can be mythical.
Alexei V. Shestopal
Full Text Available The article considers peer review as the main procedure for demarcating scientific knowledge from other kinds thereof, which do not meet the criteria set for research results. The authors examine the history of peer review, which has first been used in early scientific journals and then has become one of the key approaches to distributing funds for research in science foundations, such as the U.S. National Science Foundation. The article also considers the role of peer review in the legal process, wherein observance of this procedure can be seen as the main criteria, which separates scientific evidence from mere testimony. The description of the main elements of the peer review procedure is based on the "Statement of principles for scientific merit review" the summary of the results of the Global Summit on Merit Review, which brought together heads of science funding organizations from more than 50 countries. The Statement listed the following principles: expert assessment, transparency, impartiality, appropriateness, confidentiality, integrity and ethical considerations. Although these principles are seen as a way to guarantee efficient peer review one has to consider the peculiarities of a particular research area, first of all the differences between social and natural sciences. Accordingly the article gives an overview of key traits of peer review in the social sciences and humanities. The authors also consider the main procedural elements - preparation of individual reviews, consideration by panels, anonymity of reviewers. Finally the article addresses the problems of peer review such as non-transparent process, elitism in selecting reviewers, conservativeness of decisions, and possible ways of handling these problems.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents experience disparities in mental and sexual health. There is also a lack of research on this population relative to other adolescents, which limits our ability to effectively address these health disparities. Researchers may unfortunately avoid conducting research with this population because of anticipated or actual experiences with difficulties in obtaining IRB approval. A case example is provided to illustrate the ethical and regulatory issues related to research with LGBT adolescents. Relevant U.S. federal and local regulations related to research on sexual and mental health with adolescents is then reviewed. Data are presented demonstrating that requiring parental consent for LGBT youth under age 18 would likely alter study result. Data are also presented on participants' appraisals of the risks and discomforts associated with research participation. The provision of such empirical data on the risks of research participation is consistent with the goal of moving the IRB process of risk/benefit assessment from being entirely subjective to being evidence-based. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to approach these issues in IRB applications and investigators are called to help to build a corpus of scholarship that can advance empirical knowledge in this area.
... operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. 19.71 Section 19.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...
The increase in social research conducted as a result of HIV/AIDS raises further concerns about the ethics of conducting research on elderly African persons with regards to issues of autonomy and informed consent. This paper examines the ethics and the notion of vulnerability of African elderly persons within the context of ...
Almaghrabi, Majed M; Alamoudi, Abdullah S; Radi, Suhaib A; Merdad, Anas A; Makhdoum, Ahmad M; Batwa, Faisal A
Evidence-based medicine has established itself in the field of gastroenterology. In this study we aim to assess the types of study designs of gastroenterology-related articles published in Saudi scientific journals. An online review using PubMed was carried out to review gastroenterology-related articles published in six Saudi medical journals in the time interval from 2003 to 2012. To classify the level of evidence in these articles we employed the Oxford's levels of evidence. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the levels of evidence between published articles. A total of 721 gastroenterology-related articles were reviewed, of which 591 articles met our inclusion criteria; 80.7% were level IV. The three most common types of studies we encountered were cross-sectional (33.9%), case reports (27.9%), and case series (18.8%). Forty-three percent of the published research was in the field of hepatobiliary and spleen. The total number of articles increased from 260 articles in the 1 st 5-year period (2003-2007) to 330 in the 2 nd period (2008-2012). However, no statistically significant difference in the level of evidence was noted. In Annals of Saudi Medicine Journal, articles with level II increased from 0 to 10% with a P value 0.02. In our review of gastroenterology-related published articles in Saudi scientific journals, we observed an increase in the quantity of articles with the quality and level of evidence remaining unchanged. Further research is recommended to explore different reasons affecting the volume and quality of gastroenterology-related research in Saudi scientific journals.
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program funds in excess of $1M. This meeting is...
Knudsen, Line V; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Jones, Lesley; Preminger, Jill E; Nielsen, Claus; Lunner, Thomas; Hickson, Louise; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E
Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. This paper is based on a literature review and our recent experience with the conduction of an international interdisciplinary qualitative study in audiology. We describe some available qualitative methods for sampling, data collection, and analysis and we discuss the rationale for choosing particular methods. The focus is on four approaches which have all previously been applied to audiologic research: grounded theory, interpretative phenomenological analysis, conversational analysis, and qualitative content analysis. This article provides a review of methodological issues useful for those designing qualitative research projects in audiology or needing assistance in the interpretation of qualitative literature.
Hyslop-Margison, Emery James
By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…
Valle, G.; Frusciante, V.; Petrucelli, L.; Podagrosi, V.; Giustini, A.
The paper reviews the laws that regulate the clinical scientific research with ionizing radiations in Italy and the effects of ICRP 62, introduced in Italy by the Minister's Decree 21/11/1997, renders invalid all previous rules and regulations which contrast with them [it
Bouter, Lex M
Universities are funded by public means to a large extend. It’s reasonable to expect that society benefits from the results. For scientific research this means that it should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual investigators must explicitly consider the societal
Scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1983 is compiled. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.
Biomedical science in the Netherlands and other continental European countries is lagging behind scientific research in English-speaking countries. A comparison between the two systems reveals several crucial differences. Although levels of government funding of scientific research are approximately
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice is... requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program funds in excess of $1M. This meeting is...
... Recommendations Prepared by the Research Committee of the Scientific Working Group on Medicolegal Death... Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, Scientific Working Group for Medicolegal Death Investigation will make available to the general public a document entitled, ``Research in Forensic Pathology...
Allario, F.; Taylor, L. V.
Current plans for the Earth Observing System (EOS) include development of a lidar facility to conduct scientific experiments from a polar orbiting platforms. A recommended set of experiments were scoped, which includes techniques of atmospheric backscatter (Lidar), Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), altimetry, and retroranging. Preliminary assessments of the resources (power, weight, volume) required by the Eos Lidar Facility were conducted. A research program in tunable solid state laser technology was developed, which includes laser materials development, modeling and experiments on the physics of solid state laser materials, and development of solid state laser transmitters with a strong focus on Eos scientific investigations. Some of the system studies that were conducted which highlight the payoff of solid state laser technology for the Eos scientific investigations will be discussed. Additionally, a summary of some promising research results which have recently emerged from the research program will be presented.
Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik
Razzouk, Denise; Zorzetto, Ricardo; Dubugras, Maria Thereza; Gerolin, Jerônimo; Mari, Jair de Jesus
To assess the extent of mental health scientific production in Brazil from 1999 to 2003, and to identify the nature of the publications generated, their sources of finance and the ways of publicly disseminating the research findings. Searches for publications were conducted in the Medline and PsychInfo databases for the period 1999-2003. A semi-structured questionnaire developed by an international team was applied to 626 mental health researchers, covering each interviewee's educational background, research experience, access to funding sources, public impact and research priorities. The sample was composed by 626 mental health researchers identified from 792 publications indexed on Medline and PsychInfo databases for the period above, and from a list of reviewers of Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. In Brazil, 792 publications were produced by 525 authors between 1999 and 2003 (441 indexed in Medline and 398 in the ISI database). The main topics were: depression (29.1%), substance misuse (14.6%), psychoses (10%), childhood disorders (7%) and dementia (6.7%). Among the 626 Brazilian mental health researchers, 329 answered the questionnaire. There were steadily increasing numbers of Brazilian articles on mental health published in foreign journals from 1999 to 2003: the number of articles in Medline tripled and it doubled in the ISI database. The content of these articles corresponded to the priorities within mental health, but there is a need for better interlinking between researchers and mental health policymakers.
Martin, B.R.; Irvine, J.
The economic situation of scientific research is now very different from what it was in the early 1960s when Dr. Alvin Weinberg opened the debate on the criteria for scientific choice. Annual rates of growth of 10 per cent. or more in the budget for science were then common in most Western countries, while today scientists face the prospect of no growth at all or even a decline. Some progress has also been made in developing techniques for the evaluation of the scientific performance of research groups. These two facts make it interesting to reconsider the question of scientific choice. (author)
Knudsen, L.V.; Laplante-Levesque, A.; Jones, L.; Preminger, J.E.; Nielsen, C.; Lunner, T.; Hickson, L.; Naylor, G.; Kramer, S.E.
Objective: Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. Design:
The use of personal data is critical to ensure quality and reliability in scientific research. The new Regulation [European Union (EU)] 2016/679 of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data [general data protection regulation (GDPR)], repealing Directive 95/46/EC, strengthens and harmonises the rules for protecting individuals' privacy rights and freedoms within and, under certain conditions, outside the EU territory. This new and historic legal milestone both prolongs and updates the EU acquis of the previous Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. The GDPR fixes both general rules applying to any kind of personal data processing and specific rules applying to the processing of special categories of personal data such as health data taking place in the context of scientific research, this including clinical and translational research areas. This article aims to provide an overview of the new rules to consider where scientific projects include the processing of personal health data, genetic data or biometric data and other kinds of sensitive information whose use is strictly regulated by the GDPR in order to give the main key facts to researchers to adapt their practices and ensure compliance to the EU law to be enforced in May 2018.
Jacob T. Stanley
Full Text Available In experimental physics, lab notebooks play an essential role in the research process. For all of the ubiquity of lab notebooks, little formal attention has been paid to addressing what is considered “best practice” for scientific documentation and how researchers come to learn these practices in experimental physics. Using interviews with practicing researchers, namely, physics graduate students, we explore the different experiences researchers had in learning how to effectively use a notebook for scientific documentation. We find that very few of those interviewed thought that their undergraduate lab classes successfully taught them the benefit of maintaining a lab notebook. Most described training in lab notebook use as either ineffective or outright missing from their undergraduate lab course experience. Furthermore, a large majority of those interviewed explained that they did not receive any formal training in maintaining a lab notebook during their graduate school experience and received little to no feedback from their advisors on these records. Many of the interviewees describe learning the purpose of, and how to maintain, these kinds of lab records only after having a period of trial and error, having already started doing research in their graduate program. Despite the central role of scientific documentation in the research enterprise, these physics graduate students did not gain skills in documentation through formal instruction, but rather through informal hands-on practice.
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that various subcommittees of the Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on August 28-30, 2012, at the Boston Omni Parker...
The existing problems of the experiment education in colleges and universities are analyzed. Take the science and engineering specialty as example, the idea of the combination with teaching and scientific research is discussed. The key problems are how the scientific research and scientific research achievements are used effectively in the experiment education, how to effectively use scientific research laboratories and scientific researchers. Then, a specialty experiment education system is established which is good for the teaching in accordance of all students' aptitude. The research in this paper can give the construction of the experiment teaching methods and the experiment system reform for the science and engineering specialties in colleges and universities.
This research paper uses case analysis methods to understand why participants engage in this innovative approach public participation in scientific research, and what they hope that will mean for their community. The research questions that guide this analysis are: 1) what factor...
Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.
Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…
Stenne, R; Hurlimann, T; Godard, B
Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics (NGx) are fields of research that have raised significant expectations about their potential benefits. This article presents empirical data from an online survey seeking the opinions of NGx researchers (n=126) regarding the achievability of the potential benefits of NGx, the time envisioned for their realization, the motives that may lead to their explicit mention in scientific peer-reviewed articles and the audience(s) targeted by NGx researchers when reporting their results in such articles. Results show that caution should be taken to avoid the risks associated with biohype and the premature dissemination of the potential benefits of NGx among various audiences.
Organisations and institutes in the Oslo district which carry out research in the technical-scientific field are listed, with adress and telephone number. This includes a number of institutes whose activities are mainly or partly in the nuclear field. The list is subdivided into departments, with brief descriptions of their fields of activity, the scientific personnel with their special interests, and a detailed list of the special projects and activities of the departments. Special apparatus and equipment which the institutes have at their disposal are also mentioned with brief specifications. (JIW)
Zong, Fan; Wang, Lifang
University scientific research ability is an important indicator to express the strength of universities. In this paper, the evaluation of university scientific research ability is investigated based on the output of sci-tech papers. Four university alliances from North America, UK, Australia, and China, are selected as the case study of the university scientific research evaluation. Data coming from Thomson Reuters InCites are collected to support the evaluation. The work has contributed new framework to the issue of university scientific research ability evaluation. At first, we have established a hierarchical structure to show the factors that impact the evaluation of university scientific research ability. Then, a new MCDM method called D-AHP model is used to implement the evaluation and ranking of different university alliances, in which a data-driven approach is proposed to automatically generate the D numbers preference relations. Next, a sensitivity analysis has been given to show the impact of weights of factors and sub-factors on the evaluation result. At last, the results obtained by using different methods are compared and discussed to verify the effectiveness and reasonability of this study, and some suggestions are given to promote China's scientific research ability.
José Aparecido de
Full Text Available This essay analyses the asymmetrical relationship between the time of scientific research and the time of the different segments interested in their results, focusing mainly on necessity to establish technical consensus about the fields of science that require rigorous investigations and texts. In the last years, civil society sectors - mainly scientific journalism, legislative power, and public opinion - has shown growing interest in participating of the decision making process that regulates science routes. In this study, we analyzed the decision making process of the Biosafety Law, as it allows research with embryonic stem cells in Brazil. The results allow us to conclude that this asymmetrical relationship between the different times (of science, scientific disclosure, public opinion, and public power contribute to the maturing of the dialog on scientific policies, as well as to the establishment of a consensus concerning science routes, which aims at the democratization of scientific work.
Hamberg, K; Johansson, E; Lindgren, G; Westman, G
The increase in qualitative research in family medicine raises a demand for critical discussions about design, methods and conclusions. This article shows how scientific claims for truthful findings and neutrality can be assessed. Established concepts such as validity, reliability, objectivity and generalization cannot be used in qualitative research. Alternative criteria for scientific rigour, initially introduced by Lincoln and Guba, are presented: credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability. These criteria have been applied to a research project, a qualitative study with in-depth interviews with female patients suffering from chronic pain in the locomotor system. The interview data were analysed on the basis of grounded theory. The proposed indicators for scientific rigour were shown to be useful when applied to the research project. Several examples are given. Difficulties in the use of the alternative criteria are also discussed.
Full Text Available The research is aimed at investigating the teachers implementation of scientific approach in English Language Teaching in one state junior high school in Bandung Regency. In addition, this research discusses the conformation of the Scientific Approach implementation and the lesson plans based on the 2013 curriculum. This research employs a case study qualitative research design. The data were obtained from classroom observation and teachers lesson plan analysis and interview. The findings showed that the teachers implemented the scientific stages in English Language Teaching. They conducted observing, questioning, experimenting, associating and communicating in the sequence activities. Besides, the teachers can demonstrate the student-centered learning strengthened by collaborative, cooperative, active and meaningful learning. However, concerning the conformation of the implementation with lesson plans, based on the indicators, learning objectives, learning materials, learning media, scientific stages and Scientific Approach model (discovery learning, inquiry leaning, problem based learning and project based learning, the teachers still have to underline and mention the Scientific Approach model and state learning objectives. Furthermore, the other components have been presented well in both teaching and lesson plans.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section 216.16 Wildlife and Fisheries... Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. It shall be...
Freda, Carmela; Atakan, Kuvvet; Cocco, Massimo
EPOS, the European Plate Observing System, is an ESFRI infrastructure serving the needs of the solid Earth science community as a whole. EPOS promotes the use of multidisciplinary solid Earth data to improve the understanding of physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and surface dynamics. The EPOS mission is to create a single, sustainable, and distributed infrastructure that integrates the diverse European research infrastructures for solid Earth science under a common framework with the final goal of delivering a suite of domain-specific and multidisciplinary data, products, and services in one single and integrated platform. Addressing ethics issues is a relevant challenge for any initiative, program or project dealing with scientific data and products provision, access to services for scientific purposes and communication with different stakeholders, including industry and society at large. In examining the role of EPOS on openly and freely delivering scientific data and products to diverse stakeholders including but not limited to scientists, we are looking at ethical issues associated with the use and re-use of these data and products possibly leading to a malevolent use and/or misuse of the data with implications on, for example, national security, environmental protection and risk communication. Moreover, EPOS is aware that the research promoted by the use of data delivered through its platform can have a profound influence on the environment, human health and wellbeing, economic development, and other facets of societies. We know there is nothing intrinsically bad about openly and freely delivering scientific data, as it serves as a tool for leveraging researches leading to solutions for a responsible management of Earth's resources and mitigation of natural hazards. However, we must evaluate the effects of such a data provision and feel the obligation to adopt a responsible
Viel, Guido; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Cecchi, Rossana; Bajanowski, Thomas; Vieira, Nuno Duarte; Ferrara, Santo Davide
The European mosaic of socio-cultural, economic and legal realities is reflected in forensic and legal medicine, in which a great variety of operational modes of forensic medical services, organisational systems, structures, functional competences and scientific research strategies can be observed. The present work analyses the European bio-medicolegal scientific output of the last 5.5 years (exact time window, January 1, 2005-June 1, 2010), categorising papers by nationality of the corresponding author and forensic sub-discipline in question, in order to identify the peculiarities of national sub-specialised competences and to build up international research projects. This country-based bibliometric analysis, based on the number of articles and the impact factor produced by each European country, also considering its economic profile (gross domestic product and per capita gross domestic product), highlights the prevailing productive role of Western and Southern Europe (Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Switzerland, Spain and France). Categorising scientific output by forensic sub-discipline and branch, significant in terms of impact factor are contributions from Germany (coming first in Pathology, Toxicology, Genetics, Anthropology and Biological Criminalistics), Great Britain (first in Clinical Forensic Medicine, Malpractice and Invalidity-Social Insurance), Switzerland (first in Criminology), Italy (second in Toxicology, Anthropology and Invalidity-Social Insurance), The Netherlands (third in Clinical Forensic Medicine and Medical Law and Ethics), Spain (third in Genetics, Criminalistics and Invalidity-Social Insurance) and France (third in Toxicology and Malpractice). Interestingly, several countries with low gross domestic product, such as Poland, Turkey and other Eastern European nations, show notable scientific production in specific sub-disciplines such as Pathology, Toxicology and Forensic Genetics, suggesting that fruitful international cooperation could be
Carmichael, Paul; Davies, Michael; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; Fletcher, Samantha; Gilmour, Nicola; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Merolla, Leona; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona; Westmoreland, Carl
Non-animal based approaches to risk assessment are now routinely used for assuring consumer safety for some endpoints (such as skin irritation) following considerable investment in developing and applying new methods over the past 20 years. Unilever's research programme into non-animal approaches for safety assessment is currently focused on the application of new technologies to risk assessments in the areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhalation toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biological and chemical processes that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement with EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, carcinoGENOMICS), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. COLIPA, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US 'Human Toxicology Project' consortium). 2009 FRAME.
Wang Zhong; Liu Wenbin
In the eleventh five-year, our company scientific research have a long way to go and preparatory work of commercial reprocessing has startup under digital information society. Fundamental change of existing content, model of nuclear science and technology information occurred to fit for new situation and new environment, and in order to service for our company scientific research. In this paper, we discuss the development of new services that fits for our company science and technology information. (authors)
Freeman, James E.; Rubenstein, Albert H.
At a 1973 workshop held in Denver, Colorado, 21 participants familiar with the uses of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) services gathered to identify the system's major research needs. Initially, 50 research projects were suggested in the areas of design, management, operations, marketing, and global considerations. Using a priority…
The goal of this article is to provide an integrative review of research that has been conducted on the development of children's scientific reasoning. Broadly defined, scientific thinking includes the skills involved in inquiry, experimentation, evidence evaluation, and inference that are done in the service of "conceptual change" or scientific…
Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Ozaki, Takuo; Yoshida, Takahiro
It has been recognized that microbial transformations of radionuclides and toxic metals could be significant in the environment, but there is a paucity of information on the mechanisms of biotransformation of radionuclides by the microorganisms. An understanding at the fundamental level the mechanisms of mobilization, immobilization and bioavailability of radioactive elements in particular the actinides is important from the standpoint of mobility of actinides in the environment, disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological formation, remediation of contaminated soils and materials, and development of strategies for the long-term stewardship of the contaminated sites. The microbiology research group in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting basic scientific research on microbial interactions with actinides. Fundamental research on microbial transformations of actinides include elucidation of the mechanisms of dissolution and precipitation of various chemical forms such as ionic, oxides, organic and inorganic complexes of actinides by aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms under relevant microbial process conditions. State-of-the-art analytical techniques are used to determine the interaction of actinides with microorganisms at the molecular level to understand the structure function relationship. These techniques include time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) to determine the coordination number, oxidation states and the nearest neighbor by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Synchrotron Light Source, identification of functional groups by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), determination of chemical forms by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and genomic (DNA) manipulation by molecular techniques. We here report the present status of our research activities on accumulation of lanthanides(III) by microorganisms, application of micro-particle induced X
Fried, Adam L; Fisher, Celia B
There has been increased attention on job-related stress and burnout experienced by clinicians working with vulnerable and at-risk populations, including effects on personal mental health, therapeutic decision-making, and job effectiveness. Little is known, however, about the job-related stressors and symptoms of burnout experienced by clinical research staff working with similar populations, especially in terms of moral stress they may experience when adherence to scientific procedures appears to conflict with their personal commitment to address the clinical needs of their research participants or role as health care provider. In this national study, 125 frontline research workers conducting clinical research studies with individuals diagnosed with affective and anxiety disorders completed an online survey including measures assessing research work related moral stress, job burnout, organizational ethics climate and organizational research support. Results indicated that younger research workers, those whose research work was part of a graduate assistantship and perceptions of higher participant research risk were associated with higher levels of moral stress and job burnout. Supportive organizational climates were associated with lower levels of moral stress and job burnout. Recommendations for clinical research workers, supervisors and clinical training directors are discussed.
Hules, J. [ed.
National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) provides researchers with high-performance computing tools to tackle science`s biggest and most challenging problems. Founded in 1974 by DOE/ER, the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center was the first unclassified supercomputer center and was the model for those that followed. Over the years the center`s name was changed to the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center and then to NERSC; it was relocated to LBNL. NERSC, one of the largest unclassified scientific computing resources in the world, is the principal provider of general-purpose computing services to DOE/ER programs: Magnetic Fusion Energy, High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Health and Environmental Research, and the Office of Computational and Technology Research. NERSC users are a diverse community located throughout US and in several foreign countries. This brochure describes: the NERSC advantage, its computational resources and services, future technologies, scientific resources, and computational science of scale (interdisciplinary research over a decade or longer; examples: combustion in engines, waste management chemistry, global climate change modeling).
Mohammad Javad Zibaeenezhad
Full Text Available International Cardiovascular Research Journal has been recently indexed in PubMed. In order to evaluate the role of this journal in global and international scientific growth, the scientific growth of cardiovascular researches in the past 13 years has been evaluated. In this way, one can compare the role of this journal in Iran and Iran’s role in the global scientific growth rate. Each year, new medical inventions and discoveries all around the world have major influences on increase of public health and decrease of treatment expenditures. It is obvious that in case the results of a study have not been published, that study has not probably been done or reached any result. Therefore, in evaluation of scientific researches, one may think that only published (and indexed articles should be taken into account. The number of officially indexed articles in acceptable databases is considered as a manifestation of progression in any field. In the field of medical sciences, PubMed is one of the main databases in which each paper is valuable. In addition, the number of indexed papers in PubMed is considered as a good criterion for determining the progresses in medical sciences. This study aims to identify the scientific outcomes in the field of cardiovascular researches both in Iran and around the world during the past 13 years. According to the statistics, more than 32000 articles were indexed in PubMed during 2000. This figure increased to more than 54000 in 2013, showing a 69% increase during 13 years. Moreover, 11 articles from or about Iran were indexed in this field during 2000, while this measure was reported to be 550 in 2013, revealing a 5000% increase in this area. A year-to-year comparison indicates that Iran’s publications growth rate in this field has always been higher than that of the world. This implies that cardiovascular sciences have a higher rate in Iran compared to the world. Figure 1 depicts the results of an annual comparison
Shamaev, V. G.; Gorshkov, A. B.
This paper reports on the creation of the open access Akustika portal (AKDATA.RU) designed to provide Russian-language easy-to-read and search information on acoustics and related topics. The absence of a Russian-language publication in foreign databases means that it is effectively lost for much of the scientific community. The portal has three interrelated sections: the Akustika information search system (ISS) (Acoustics), full-text archive of the Akusticheskii Zhurnal (Acoustic Journal), and 'Signal'naya informatsiya' ('Signaling information') on acoustics. The paper presents a description of the Akustika ISS, including its structure, content, interface, and information search capabilities for basic and applied research in diverse areas of science, engineering, biology, medicine, etc. The intended users of the portal are physicists, engineers, and engineering technologists interested in expanding their research activities and seeking to increase their knowledge base. Those studying current trends in the Russian-language contribution to international science may also find the portal useful.
Kostiuk, I. R.
Participation in the activity of scientific circle is one of the forms of students’ research work. The leader should not only interpret the science and serve as a data carrier, but he should be able to organize systemic individual activity of the future scientists. Constant active search for opportunities to improve the quality of educational process in order to train highly qualified dental specialists is conducted according to the credit-module system. As scientific circle is one of the mo...
Full Text Available As a leading producer of scientific publications on the African continent, South Africa has made remarkable progress. However, attempts are yet to be made to comprehend the empirical reality of scientific production in South Africa. One way to do this is to analyse specific science disciplines (such as the natural sciences, publication outputs and their features. A bibliometric study was undertaken of the publication trends and patterns of South African researchers in the natural sciences from 1975 to 2005 (choosing selected sample years, using the Thomson Reuters� Web of Knowledge database of selected indexed natural science journals. Characteristics of natural science publications, such as the trends over the years, were revealed as well as the collaborative dimensions involved in the production of scientific papers in these disciplines in South Africa. The connection between collaboration and publication, as well as between collaboration and sectors of authors was evident. The key findings of this study were that authors were based mostly in universities and were collaborative in their research endeavours. In addition, the participation of international collaborators has increased.
Y. Kargin (Yagiz); H. Pirk (Holger); M.G. Ivanova (Milena); S. Manegold (Stefan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)
textabstractIn the dawning era of data intensive research, scientific discovery deploys data analysis techniques similar to those that drive business intelligence. Similar to classical Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) processes, data is loaded entirely from external data sources (repositories)
Y. Kargin (Yagiz); H. Pirk (Holger); M.G. Ivanova (Milena); S. Manegold (Stefan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)
textabstractIn the dawn of the data intensive research era, scientific discovery deploys data analysis techniques similar to those that drive business intelligence. Similar to classical Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) processes, data is loaded entirely from external data sources (repositories)
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific Advisory Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense. ACTION... program areas. These projects are requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program...
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific Advisory Board AGENCY: Department of Defense, Office of the Secretary. ACTION... Change program areas. These projects are requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development...
The Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) adopted the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors on 8 March 2004. The Board's action was the culmination of several years of work to develop the Code and obtain a consensus on its provisions. The process leading to the Code began in 1998, when the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) informed the Director General of concerns about the safety of research reactors. In 2000, INSAG recommended that the Secretariat begin developing an international protocol or a similar legal instrument to address those concerns. In September 2000, in resolution GC(44)/RES/14, the General Conference requested the Secretariat ''within its available resources, to continue work on exploring options to strengthen the international nuclear safety arrangements for civil research reactors, taking due account of input from INSAG and the views of other relevant bodies''. A working group convened by the Secretariat pursuant to that request recommended that ''the Agency consider establishing an international action plan for research reactors'' and that the action plan include preparation of a Code of Conduct ''that would clearly establish the desirable attributes for management of research reactor safety''. In September 2001, the Board requested that the Secretariat develop and implement, in conjunction with Member States, an international research reactor safety enhancement plan which included preparation of a Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors. Subsequently, in resolution GC(45)/RES/10.A, the General Conference endorsed the Board's request. Pursuant to that request, a Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors was drafted at two meetings of an Open-ended Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts. This draft Code of Conduct was circulated to all Member States for comment. On the basis of the responses received, a revised draft of the Code was prepared by the Secretariat
To publish became almost compulsory in Medicine. There is no doubt about the importance of publishing research, but the ordering of its authors is not easy. The lack of internationally accepted criteria led to the establishment of several groups or conventions particularized medical and scientific sectors. To present numerical method to establish rule of value to people who carried out the research, and whether or not incorporated as authors. The proposed score is based on the needs of each step when conducting a scientific work. They were divided into topics in which the main ones were: 1) scientific criteria for authorship; 2) create the idea that originated the work and develop hypotheses; 3) structure the method of work; 4) guiding the work; 5) write the manuscript; 6) coordinate the group that carried out the work; 7) reviewing the literature; 8) suggestions incorporated into the work; 9) to solve fundamental problems of labor; 10) to collect data; 11) presentation at scientific meetings; 12 ) lead the job and raise funds; 13) providing patients or material; 14) to do the routine needs; 15) specific fee to participate; 16) criteria for ranking the authors; 17) honorary author; 18) usurpation of the main authorship, 19) acknowledgments . It is important to emphasize that, to prevent major conflicts, the group that is willing to conduct a scientific work should establish at the outset, as objectively as possible, the criteria to be adopted for distribution of authorship. The subjective criteria here proposed avoid interference and prevent conflicts of interest.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conducting market research... 32.202-3 Conducting market research about financing terms. Contract financing may be a subject included in the market research conducted in accordance with part 10. If market research for contract...
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice... research and development projects requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program funds...
van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja
This paper problematizes the issue of how decisions about the content of mathematics education can be made. After starting with two examples where research in mathematics education resulted in different choices on the content of primary school teaching, I explore where and how, in the scientific enterprise within the domain of education, issues of…
Skonieczny, Łukasz; Rybiński, Henryk; Kryszkiewicz, Marzena; Niezgódka, Marek
This book is a selection of results obtained within three years of research performed under SYNAT—a nation-wide scientific project aiming at creating an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The book is intended to be the last of the series related to the SYNAT project. The previous books, titled “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform” and “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform: Advanced Architectures and Solutions”, were published as volumes 390 and 467 in Springer's Studies in Computational Intelligence. Its contents is based on the SYNAT 2013 Workshop held in Warsaw. The papers included in this volume present an overview and insight into information retrieval, repository systems, text processing, ontology-based systems, text mining, multimedia data processing and advanced software engineering, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building...
Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.
Cognitive development unfolds in many contexts, and one of the most important of these contexts is school. Thus, understanding the school context is critical for understanding development. This article discusses some of the reasons why cognitive developmental researchers might wish to conduct research in schools, describes how to get started…
" The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has implemented a Zambeel Aztera storage system and software to accelerate the productivity of scientists running high performance scientific simulations and computations" (1 page).
Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A
A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters.The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no.Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed.
Background E-Delphi is a way to access a geographically dispersed group of experts. It is similar to other Delphi methods but conducted online. E-research methodologies, such as the e-Delphi method, have yet to undergo significant critical discussion. Aim To highlight some of the challenges nurse researchers may wish to consider when using e-Delphi in their research. Discussion This paper provides details about the author's approach to conducting an e-Delphi study in which a group of health literacy nurse experts (n=41) used an online survey platform to identify and prioritise essential health literacy competencies for registered nurses. Conclusion This paper advances methodological discourse about e-Delphi by critically assessing an e-Delphi case study. The online survey platform used in this study was advantageous for the researcher and the experts: the experts could participate at any time and place where the internet was available; the researcher could efficiently access a national group of experts, track responses and analyse data in each round. Implications for practice E-Delphi studies create opportunities for nurse researchers to conduct research nationally and internationally. Before conducting an e-Delphi study, researchers should carefully consider the design and methods for collecting data, to avoid challenges that could potentially compromise the quality of the findings. Researchers are encouraged to publish details about their approaches to e-Delphi studies, to advance the state of the science.
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Scientific Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... projects requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funds in excess of $1M...
Full Text Available Yanbing Su,1 Chao Long,2 Qi Yu,1 Juan Zhang,1 Daisy Wu,3 Zhiguang Duan1 1School of Management, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the multiple collaboration types, quantitatively evaluate the publication trends and review the performance of institutions or countries (regions across the world in COPD research.Materials and methods: Scientometric methods and social network analysis were used to survey the development of publication trends and understand current collaboration in the field of COPD research based on the Web of Science publications during the past 18 years.Results: The number of publications developed through different collaboration types has increased. Growth trends indicate that the percentage of papers authored through multinational and domestic multi-institutional collaboration (DMIC have also increased. However, the percentage of intra-institutional collaboration and single-authored (SA studies has reduced. The papers that produced the highest academic impact result from international collaboration. The second highest academic impact papers are produced by DMIC. Out of the three, the papers that are produced by SA studies have the least amount of impact upon the scientific community. A handful of internationally renowned institutions not only take the leading role in the development of the research within their country (region but also play a crucial role in international research collaboration in COPD. Both the amount of papers produced and the amount of cooperation that occurs in each study are disproportionally distributed between high-income countries (regions and low-income countries (regions. Growing attention has been generated toward research on COPD from more and more different
... Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under... allows permits authorizing the taking of endangered species for research/enhancement purposes. The... sets of information collections: (1) Applications for research/enhancement permits, and (2) reporting...
The Proceedings contain reports which were presented at current Annual scientific conference of the Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences (Kiev, January 27-30, 1998). The articles are presented in the sections which corresponds to the main scientific directions of the Institute activity: Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Reactor Safety, Radiation physics, Plasma Physics, Radioecology and Radiobiology. Each Proceedings Sections contain the following sequence of the works: theoretical, experimental, applied and methodological. The Proceeding are printed by means of direct reproduction
This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing polic...
Lane, Julia; Owen-Smith, Jason; Rosen, Rebecca; Weinberg, Bruce
Longitudinal micro-data derived from transaction level information about wage and vendor payments made by federal grants on multiple U.S. campuses are being developed in a partnership involving researchers, university administrators, representatives of federal agencies, and others. This paper describes the UMETRICS data initiative that has been implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation. The resulting data set reflects an emerging conceptual framework for analyzing the process, products, and impact of research. It grows from and engages the work of a diverse and vibrant community. This paper situates the UMETRICS effort in the context of research evaluation and ongoing data infrastructure efforts in order to highlight its novel and valuable features. Refocusing data construction in this field around individuals, networks, and teams offers dramatic possibilities for data linkage, the evaluation of research investments, and the development of rigorous conceptual and empirical models. Two preliminary analyses of the scientific workforce and network approaches to characterizing scientific teams ground a discussion of future directions and a call for increased community engagement.
Aisyah, R.; Zakiyah, I. A.; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.
A research has been conducted to create a crude oil learning media in the form of scientific literacy-oriented comic. The research included some phases, namely: concept analysis, material transformation to concept map, indicator identification and science literacy aspect. The product was made based on flowcharts and storyboards that have been validated by expert validators. The product has characteristics namely; 1) Develops indicators and aspects of science literacy, 2) presents the materials in form of story of science fiction genre, 3) has characters adopting levels of scientific literacy, 4) has optional stories, because it depends on questions asked to develop scientific literacy in terms of content, context, process and attitude. Based on feasibility test, the product is feasible to be used as learning media. It is suggested to do an expanded experiment to examine its affectivity in improving scientific literacy and growing students’ awareness about the issues of energy crisis and the impacts of fossil fuel use on the environment.
Hill, Sharon A.
21st century television and the Internet are awash in content regarding amateur paranormal investigators and research groups. These groups proliferated after reality investigation programs appeared on television. Exactly how many groups are active in the U.S. at any time is not known. The Internet provides an ideal means for people with niche interests to find each other and organize activities. This study collected information from 1000 websites of amateur research and investigation groups (ARIGs) to determine their location, area of inquiry, methodology and, particularly, to determine if they state that they use science as part of their mission, methods or goals. 57.3% of the ARIGs examined specifically noted or suggested use of science as part of the groups' approach to investigation and research. Even when not explicit, ARIGs often used science-like language, symbols and methods to describe their groups' views or activities. Yet, non-scientific and subjective methods were described as employed in conjunction with objective methods. Furthermore, what were considered scientific processes by ARIGs did not match with established methods and the ethos of the scientific research community or scientific processes of investigation. ARIGs failed to display fundamental understanding regarding objectivity, methodological naturalism, peer review, critical thought and theoretical plausibility. The processes of science appear to be mimicked to present a serious and credible reputation to the non-scientific public. These processes are also actively promoted in the media and directly to the local public as "scientific". These results highlight the gap between the scientific community and the lay public regarding the understanding of what it means to do science and what criteria are necessary to establish reliable knowledge about the world.
In recent decades there has been a sharp increase in China's scientific output. Behind its fast growth, little is known about China's comparative advantages in different academic disciplines. Meanwhile, despite China's rising position (now in second place worldwide for research output), its research
Full Text Available The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970. However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday & Martin, 2003. This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists. In order to assess this suitability, a survey was conducted in which two different groups of participants were asked questions based on a scientific abstract. One group of participants was given the original scientific abstract, whilst the second group was instead given a poem written about the scientific study. Quantitative analysis found that whilst a scientific audience found a poetic interpretation of a scientific abstract to be no less interesting or inspiring than the original prose, they did find it to be less accessible. However, further qualitative analysis suggested that the poem did a good job in conveying a similar meaning to that presented in the original abstract. The results of this study indicate that whilst for a scientific audience poetry should not replace the prose abstract, it could be used alongside the original format to inspire the reader to find out more about the topic. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of this approach for a non-expert audience. Alternative version: Are scientific papers understood, By anyone from outside of the field; And is an abstract really any good, If jargon means its secrets aren’t revealed? Could poetry present a different way, Of summing up research in a nutshell; Presented in a language for the lay, Yet still useful for scientists as well? This study
... the population stock and the marine ecosystem. In determining whether to issue a public display permit... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER...
Full Text Available The arrival of journals in the seventeenth century followed a long period of informal exchanges of letters between researchers (letters of Père Mersenne, 1617-1637. They were tasked to gather scholars for research in common but also to control all scientific activity. Journals already had both the expertise and role of arbitration. Role for scientific diffusion allowing greater visibility of research, they become a practice of science (PRICE, 1961 and the scientific article the main form of scholarly communication. In the 1990s, the whole system of diffusion of science is affected by the use of the Internet at different levels depending on the discipline. Electronic publishing seems to have found its audience and readership particularly in science, technology, and medicine (STM and seems to change the practices of reading and consultation. But these new uses they upset the conditions and challenges of diffusion of results? To answer this question we conducted an investigation with a population of researchers from a school of engineering in chemical and technological arts (ENSIACET.
. Moreover, public higher education institutions conduct the most professional communication. There is no clear regularity between the size of institutions and their activity in the field of communication, except for private universities. However, the greater engagement in communication activities is observed within the institutions authorized to award scientific degrees. In addition, conducted research, on the one hand, resulted in identification of the most common mistakes committed in website communication, but on the other hand, revealed the examples of websites that performed their communication and image-building functions excellently. Such information may serve as a benchmark for practitioners who would like to assess their websites and correct eventual defects.
Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Hochman, Bernardo; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
The main purpose of a study is its publication on a scientific journal. Research financing agencies are important institutions so that studies can be developed and published. The most important research financing agencies that are discussed in this article are: "Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior" (CAPES), "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico" (CNPq) and "Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo" (FAPESP). CAPES' activities can be grouped in four different strategy lines: a) it evaluates the stricto sensu, at the post-graduation level; b) it provides access and development of scientific research; c) it provides investment on the development of high qualified human resources in Brazil and abroad, and d) it promotes international scientific cooperation. Although CAPES does not support directly scientific publications, almost all actions of this agency contribute to the development of scientific research and publication. CNPq has two main purposes: financing researches and development of human resources. It provides the researchers with financial aid to scientific publication. The grants for editing were specifically created for supporting the national scientific and technical publications edited by Brazilians institutions or societies. CNPq can also support Congresses, Symposiums and similar short-term courses. The Plataforma Lattes is also a branch of CNPq on which the Curriculum Lattes is available. This site has the curriculum vitae of the scientific community and is of great value for researchers. FAPESP also finances journal publications, articles and books that bring up original results of studies made by researchers from the state of São Paulo. It finances, partially, the travel expenses of innovative papers authors in meetings within the country or abroad. Brazilian authors are increasing the number of international publications. Universities, research institutes, financing agencies and
Deng, Yang; Wang, Houxiong
Attending to practice has become a significant topic in science education today. As scientific argumentation is a typical form of scientific practice as well as an important educational practice, more and more attention has been paid to it by science education researchers. Evaluating students' competence in scientific argumentation is one of the…
Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.
Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798
Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M
Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.
Biryukov, V.A.; Kiseleva, T.B.; Starchenko, B.M.; Ustenko, L.P.
Congratulations and scientific papers devoted to the JINR forty-year anniversary are presented. The wide spectrum of scientific research studies, conducted at the JINR: high energy physics, nuclear physics and condensed matter physics, is noted. The main attention is paid to nucleon structure, coherent processes in nuclei and crystals and also to the heavy and superheavy nuclei stability
Ana Paula Batista da Silva; Ernani Ott
The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction between scientific research and professional accounting practice. In this exploratory study, as it examines a theme that has been little explored in Brazil, a quantitative approach was adopted and a survey was used as the data collection technique, supported by a research instrument with questions on aspects like: interest in and use of research; study and development of themes; means to disseminate the research; and causes of the gap betwe...
Bogucka, Roxanne; Wood, Emily
Undergraduate students are generally unfamiliar with scientific literature. Further, students experience frustration when they read research articles the way they read textbooks, from beginning to end. Using a team-based active learning exercise, an instruction librarian and colleagues at University of Texas at Austin introduce nutritional…
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the three Ps of scientific research: Public Domain; Public Interest; Public Funding. This is done by examining some of the difficulties faced by scientists engaged in scientific research who may have problems working within the constraints of current copyright and database legislation, where property claims can place obstacles in the way of research, in other words, the public domain. The article then looks at perceptions of the public interest and asks whether copyright and the database right reflect understandings of how this concept should operate. Thirdly, it considers the relevance of public funding for scientific research in the context of both the public domain and of the public interest. Finally, some recent initiatives seeking to change the contours of the legal framework are be examined.
Chakladar, Abhijoy; Eckstein, Sue; White, Stuart M
Application for Research Ethics Committee (REC) approval and the conduct of medical research is paper intensive. This retrospective study examined all applications to a single REC in the south of England over one year. It estimated the mass of paper used, comparing the proportional paper consumption of different trial types and during different stages of the research process, quantifying the consumption in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. In 2009, 68 trials were submitted to the REC. Total paper consumption for the REC process and study conduct was 176,150 sheets of A4 paper (879 kg), equivalent to an estimated 11.5 million sheets (88 tonnes, 2100 trees) a year for the U.K.; the REC process accounted for 26.4%. REC applications and the conduct of approved trials generate considerable environmental impact through paper consumption contributing to the NHS's carbon footprint. Paper use might be reduced through the implementation of digital technologies and revised research methods, namely changing attitudes in both researchers and ethics committees.
Full Text Available This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing policy at institutions.
Thiry, Heather; Laursen, Sandra L.
Among science educators, current interest in undergraduate research (UR) is influenced both by the traditional role of the research apprenticeship in scientists' preparation and by concerns about replacing the current scientific workforce. Recent research has begun to demonstrate the range of personal, professional, and intellectual benefits for STEM students from participating in UR, yet the processes by which student-advisor interactions contribute to these benefits are little understood. We employ situated learning theory (Lave and Wenger, Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge in 1991) to examine the role of student-advisor interactions in apprenticing undergraduate researchers, particularly in terms of acculturating students to the norms, values, and professional practice of science. This qualitative study examines interviews with a diverse sample of 73 undergraduate research students from two research-extensive institutions. From these interviews, we articulate a continuum of practices that research mentors employed in three domains to support undergraduate scientists-in-training: professional socialization, intellectual support, and personal/emotional support. The needs of novice students differed from those of experienced students in each of these areas. Novice students needed clear expectations, guidelines, and orientation to their specific research project, while experienced students needed broader socialization in adopting the traits, habits, and temperament of scientific researchers. Underrepresented minority students, and to a lesser extent, women, gained confidence from their interactions with their research mentors and broadened their future career and educational possibilities. Undergraduate research at research-extensive universities exemplifies a cycle of scientific learning and practice where undergraduate researchers are mentored by graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, who are
Tabani, P.; Mangeot, A.; Crabol, V.; Delage, P.; Dewonck, S.; Auriere, C.
Document available in extended abstract form only. The Research and Development Division must manage, secure and reliable manner, a large number of data from scientific disciplines and diverse means of acquisition (observations, measurements, experiments, etc.). This management is particularly important for the Underground research Laboratory, the source of many recording continuous measurements. Thus, from its conception, Andra has implemented two management tools of scientific information, the 'Acquisition System and Data Management' [SAGD] and GEO database with its associated applications. Beyond its own needs, Andra wants to share its achievements with the scientific community, and it therefore provides the data stored in its databases or samples of rock or water when they are available. Acquisition and Data Management (SAGD) This system manages data from sensors installed at several sites. Some sites are on the surface (piezometric, atmospheric and environmental stations), the other are in the Underground Research Laboratory. This system also incorporates data from experiments in which Andra participates in Mont Terri Laboratory in Switzerland. S.A.G.D fulfils these objectives by: - Make available in real time on a single system, with scientists from Andra but also different partners or providers who need it, all experimental data from measurement points - Displaying the recorded data on temporal windows and specific time step, - Allowing remote control of the experimentations, - Ensuring the traceability of all recorded information, - Ensuring data storage in a data base. S.A.G.D has been deployed in the first experimental drift at -445 m in November 2004. It was subsequently extended to the underground Mont Terri laboratory in Switzerland in 2005, to the entire surface logging network of the Meuse / Haute-Marne Center in 2008 and to the environmental network in 2011. All information is acquired, stored and manage by a software called Geoscope. This software
Full Text Available The federal initiative, NCLB, includes guidelines about educational research methodology as well as school practices ("No Child Left Behind Act," p. 532. The law states that reforms and school practices should be based on scientifically based research (SBR. SBR is mentioned over 100 times in NCLB (A. Smith, 2003, p. 126. Next to the strong emphasis on dis-aggregation of test scores, NCLB’s reference to SBR has spawned the next most frequent number of responses in the literature (Viadero, 2004. Educational researchers spend time “fighting these designs when they are inappropriate or irrelevant, which is often the case” (Eisenhart, 2005, p. 246. In response to the NCLB SBR mandate, the National Research Council (2002 published a report, Scientific Research in Education (SRE, addressing the question of the meaning of SBR. On the NCLB website, the U.S. Department of Education explains that “scientifically based research means there is reliable evidence that the program or practice works ” (n.d.. The explanation includes a reference to experimental study involving an experiment/control group. The report states that requiring SBR “moves the testing of educational practices toward the medical model used by scientists to assess the effectiveness of medications, therapies and the like” (A. Smith, 2003, p. 126. The strong emphasis on SBR leads one to the conclusion that forms of research that do not conform to SBR are invalid (Mayer, 2006, Winter, p. 8. Having the federal government legislate SBR is unusual and can be interpreted to have political overtones. Howe (2005 explains that research methodology is “unavoidably political by virtue of adopting certain aims, employing certain kinds of vocabularies and theories, and providing certain people the opportunity to be (or not to be heard (p. 321.” It has been suggested that SBR was mandated to improve the credibility of educational research and thus to increase the likelihood of continued
Suhadi, F.; Ismachin, Moch; Manurung, Simon
Proceedings of scientific meeting on research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology has been presented on Feb 23-24 2000. This activity for a routine activity that was held by Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology to disseminate research and development results of BATAN activity. The Scientific meeting is an information exchange facility among researcher manager and industrialist for using isotope technology in industry efficiency. The proceeding consist of 6 article from keynotes' speaker and 39 articles from BATAN participant as well as outside. The articles is indexing separately
SPQR ) Research Project (14ar02-9) (NEW) HR Planning (Organizational Level) (14ar03) Assessing Establishment Requirements for Canada Command HQ...flow. 14ar02-9 SPQR Research Project New (1 Jun 10) G. Christopher (DGMPRA) To have DMPORA make a comparison of existing SPQRs associated with...Sonar Operator SPQR Special Personnel Qualification Requirements STISA Scientific, Technical and Intelligence Support and Advice SUBCA Submarine
Full Text Available Abstract In this editorial, we reflect on the arguments for starting a scientific society focused on research on how to improve healthcare. This society would take an inclusive approach to what constitutes healthcare. For instance, it should include mental health healthcare, treatment for substance abuse, the work of allied health professions, and preventive healthcare. The society would be open to researchers from all traditions. Thus, we take an inclusive approach to what constitutes scientific research, as long as it uses rigorous methods, is focused on improving healthcare, and aims at knowledge that can be transferred across settings. The society would primarily target scientific researchers but would invite others with an interest in this area of research, regardless of their discipline, position, field of application, or group affiliation (e.g., improvement science, behavioral medicine, knowledge translation. A society would need fruitful collaboration with related societies and organizations, which may include having combined meetings. Special links may be developed with one or more journals. A website to provide information on relevant resources, events, and training opportunities is another key activity. It would also provide a voice for the field at funding agencies, political arenas, and similar institutions. An organizational structure and financial resources are required to develop and run these activities. Our aim is to start an international debate, to discover if we can establish a shared vision across academics and stakeholders engaged with creating scientific knowledge on how to improve healthcare. We invite readers to express their views in the online questionnaire accessed by following the URL link provided at the end of the editorial.
José Osvaldo De Sordi
Full Text Available This research studies the declaration of input sources for research in scientific communications, more specifically, whether this practice of the academy may be considered a good example to be followed by organizations. Seven hypotheses address two dimensions of input sources: origin (primary or secondary and nature (data or information. It appears that the declaration of research inputs in the academy is problematic, mostly incomplete or inaccurate. This does not reduce the importance of this practice; it simply indicates that the academy should not be considered a privileged space, with wide dominance and practice excellence. Nevertheless, the information environment of organizations can learn and benefit from the experience of the scientific academy. From the analyses of the research sample, a set of procedures has been developed, which allowed organizational analysts and researchers to elaborate a complete and accurate analysis of the input sources to be declared in organizational or scientific communication.
Resnik, David B
Openness is one of the most important principles in scientific inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for resolving conflicts between openness and secrecy."By academic freedom I understand the right to search for the truth and to publish and teach what one holds to be true. This right also implies a duty; one must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. It is evident that any restriction of academic freedom serves to restrain the dissemination of knowledge, thereby impeding rational judgment and action."Albert Einstein, quotation inscribed on his statute in front of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
Rönnebeck, Silke; Bernholt, Sascha; Ropohl, Mathias
Despite the importance of scientific inquiry in science education, researchers and educators disagree considerably regarding what features define this instructional approach. While a large body of literature addresses theoretical considerations, numerous empirical studies investigate scientific inquiry on quite different levels of detail and also…
Indarti, Dwi; Mardiyana; Pramudya, Ikrar
The aim of this research was to find out the influence of learning model implementation toward student’s achievement in mathematics. This research was using quasi-experimental research. The population of the research was all of 7th grade students in Karanganyar. Sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The data collection has been conducted based on students’ mathematics achievement test. The results from the data analysis showed that the learning mathematics by using Numbered Head Together (NHT) learning model with scientific approach improved student’s achievement in mathematics rather than direct learning model particularly in learning object of quadrilateral. Implementation of NHT learning model with scientific approach could be used by the teachers in teaching and learning, particularly in learning object of quadrilateral.
Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter; Young, Mitchell
In 2013, the European Union (EU) unveiled its new "Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence." This is not an isolated occurrence; policy-based interest in excellence is growing all over the world. The heightened focus on excellence and, in particular, attempts to define it through quantitative indicators…
Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Jakupi, Arianit; Raka, Denis; Gürpinar, Emre Umut; Alkan, Ali; Hoxha, Iris; Malaj, Admir; Cantarero, Lourdes Arevalo
In 2014, a qualitative multi-country research project was launched to study the reasons behind the high use of antibiotics in regions of Southeast Europe by using previously untrained national interviewers (who were engaged in other antibiotic microbial resistance-related investigations) to conduct qualitative interviews with local patients, physicians and pharmacists. Little knowledge exists about how to implement qualitative multi-country research collaborations involving previously untrained local data collectors. The aim of this paper was therefore to contribute to the knowledge regarding how to conduct these types of research projects by evaluating a pilot study of the project. Local data collectors conducted the study according to a developed protocol and evaluated the study with the responsible researcher-team from University of Copenhagen. The pilot study focused on 'local ownership', 'research quality' and 'feasibility' with regard to successful implementation and evaluation. The evaluation was achieved by interpreting 'Skype' and 'face to face' meetings and email correspondence by applying 'critical common sense'. Local data collectors achieved a sense of joint ownership. Overall, the protocol worked well. Several minor challenges pertaining to research quality and feasibility were identified, in particular obtaining narratives when conducting interviews and recruiting patients for the study. Furthermore, local data collectors found it difficult to allocate sufficient time to the project. Solutions were discussed and added to the protocol. Despite the challenges, it was possible to achieve an acceptable scientific level of research when conducting qualitative multi-country research collaboration under the given circumstances. Specific recommendations to achieve this are provided by the authors.
bin Tareef, Atif
This study aimed at identifying the status and obstacles of scientific research in Jordanian higher education institutions. And defined by being an attempt to increase faculty member's, researcher's and educational leader's attention to the necessity of improving research planning or strategies, professional development, working conditions,…
The disease burden in Africa, which is relatively very large compared with developed countries, has been attributed to various factors that include poverty, food shortages, inadequate access to health care and unaffordability of Western medicines to the majority of African populations. Although for 'old diseases' knowledge about the right African traditional medicines to treat or cure the diseases has been passed from generation to generation, knowledge about traditional medicines to treat newly emerging diseases has to be generated in one way or another. In addition, the existing traditional medicines have to be continuously improved, which is also the case with Western scientific medicines. Whereas one school of thought supports the idea of improving medicines, be they traditional or Western, through scientific research, an opposing school of thought argues that subjecting African traditional medicines to scientific research would be tantamount to some form of colonization and imperialism. This paper argues that continuing to use African traditional medicines for old and new diseases without making concerted efforts to improve their efficacy and safety is unethical since the disease burden affecting Africa may continue to rise in spite of the availability and accessibility of the traditional medicines. Most importantly, the paper commends efforts being made in some African countries to improve African traditional medicine through a combination of different mechanisms that include the controversial approach of scientific research on traditional medicines.
Xiaochun, Wu; Dan, Jia
A study of the science research activities in China's institutions of higher learning in recent years indicates that there is a major connection between the current instances of corruption in scientific research at colleges and universities and the evaluations system for scientific research implemented at many of the colleges and universities.…
Thompson, B. J.; Friedl, L.; Halford, A. J.; Mays, M. L.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Singer, H. J.; Stehr, J. W.
Why doesn't a solid scientific paper necessarily result in a tangible improvement in space weather capability? A well-known challenge in space weather forecasting is investing effort to turn the results of basic scientific research into operational knowledge. This process is commonly known as "Research to Operations," abbreviated R2O. There are several aspects of this process: 1) How relevant is the scientific result to a particular space weather process? 2) If fully utilized, how much will that result improve the reliability of the forecast for the associated process? 3) How much effort will this transition require? Is it already in a relatively usable form, or will it require a great deal of adaptation? 4) How much burden will be placed on forecasters? Is it "plug-and-play" or will it require effort to operate? 5) How can robust space weather forecasting identify challenges for new research? This presentation will cover several approaches that have potential utility in assessing scientific results for use in space weather research. The demonstration of utility is the first step, relating to the establishment of metrics to ensure that there will be a clear benefit to the end user. The presentation will then move to means of determining cost vs. benefit, (where cost involves the full effort required to transition the science to forecasting, and benefit concerns the improvement of forecast reliability), and conclude with a discussion of the role of end users and forecasters in driving further innovation via "O2R."
Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza
This article analyzes the origin of the primary arguments that underpin the qualitative approach, covering the birthplace of comprehensive and dialectical thought in Germany, its expansion into other countries such as France and the United States, and its spread into Latin America. The historical journey of the text starts with the development of modern science, examining the first empirical works in the Chicago School and the subsequent period of ostracism of qualitative research. The text also evidences a revival of comprehensive theoretical and empirical perspectives from the 1960s onwards, accompanying the cultural movement that came to question the great theoretical narratives and give rise to reflections on subjectivity. Theoretically, qualitative approaches are now considered a promising form of knowledge construction within the social and human sciences, with consolidated theories and a process of permanent internal critique. Such consolidation is ensured by the researchers' formation of conferences and university departments, the existence of books for the training of new researchers, and the increased presence of relevant spaces in scientific journals.
Sadrozinski, Hartmut F W
Focusing on resource awareness in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) design, Applications of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in Scientific Research covers the principle of FPGAs and their functionality. It explores a host of applications, ranging from small one-chip laboratory systems to large-scale applications in ""big science."" The book first describes various FPGA resources, including logic elements, RAM, multipliers, microprocessors, and content-addressable memory. It then presents principles and methods for controlling resources, such as process sequencing, location constraints, and in
Carsey, Frank; Behar, Alberto
We have continued to develop a concept for use of autonomous rovers, originally developed for use in planetary exploration, in polar science on Earth; the concept was the subject of a workshop, and this report summarizes and extends that workshop. The workshop on Antarctic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society on February 14 and 15, 2001 to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of autonomous rovers. The participants enthusiastically viewed rovers as being uniquely valuable for such tasks as data taking on tedious or repetitive routes, traverses in polar night, difficult or hazardous routes, extremely remote regions, routes requiring only simple instrumentation, traverses that must be conducted at low speed, augments of manned traverses, and scientific procedures not compatible with human presence or combustion engines. The workshop has concluded that instrumented autonomous vehicles, of the type being developed for planetary exploration, have the potential to contribute significantly to the way science in conducted in Antarctica while also aiding planetary technology development, and engaging the public's interest. Specific objectives can be supported in understanding ice sheet mass balance, sea ice heat and momentum exchange, and surface air chemistry processes. In the interval since the workshop, we have concluded that organized program to employ such rovers to perform scientific tasks in the Fourth International Polar Year would serve the objectives of that program well.
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice... development projects requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funds in...
Full Text Available Ontologies and corresponding knowledge bases can be quite successfully used for many tasks that rely on domain knowledge and semantic structures, which should be available for machine processing and sharing. Using SPARQL queries for retrieval of required elements from ontologies and knowledge bases, can significantly simplify modeling of arbitrary structures of concepts and data, and implementation of required functionalities. This paper describes developed ontology for support of Research Centre for testing of active substances that conducts scientific experiments. According to created ontology corresponding knowledge base was made and populated with real experimental data. Developed ontology and knowledge base are directly used for an intelligent system of experiment search which is based on many criteria from ontology. Proposed system gets the desired search result, which is actually an experiment in the form of a written report. Presented solution and implementation are very flexible and adaptable, and can be used as kind of a template by similar information system dealing with biological or similar complex system.
A survey is presented of scientific and research activities carried out in the departments of the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The first section lists the principal results achieved in the course of the 6th Five-Year Plan in Physical Electronics, Solid State Engineering, Materials Structure and Properties, Nuclear Physics, Theory and Technology of Nuclear Reactors, Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Chemistry. The second part gives a summary of scientific and research work carried out in the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering in the 7th Five-Year Plan in all branches of science represented. The Faculty's achievements in international scientific cooperation are assessed. (author)
Kassem, Gamal A
The aim of this work was to assess scientific research of master's and doctoral theses and essays in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zagazig University, Egypt. All master's and doctoral theses and essays since the foundation of Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zagazig University, Egypt, in 1975 till end of 2012 were reviewed. A total of 703 theses and essays were reviewed. The important topics in the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology were covered and updated. Infertility, in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) and related techniques, and polycystic ovarian disease were the most common gynecologic topics (27.2%), followed by gynecologic oncology (18.5%). Preeclampsia was the most common obstetrics topic (18.8%), followed by issues of high-risk pregnancy, fetal growth restriction, and fetal well-being (11.6%). The number of researches that allow the candidates to learn skills was 183 and it was increased from 4.4% of all research in the period 1979-1988 to 33.2% in period 1989-2000 then slightly decreased to 31.2% in period 2001-2012. Ultrasonography was on the top and was present in 99 out of 183 (54.1%) followed by laparoscopy (30, 16.4%), hysteroscopy (25, 13.7%), IVF-ET and related techniques (16, 8.7%) and colposcopy (13, 7.1%) researches. Multi-disciplinary research was decreased by 61.7% in the period 2001-2012. Researches in academic fields were abandoned and in some clinically important areas like preeclampsia were decreased. Scientific research of master's and doctoral theses and essays was comprehensive, updated, and had some autonomy independent of plans. Research which enable the candidate to learn skills were increased on the expense of academic, clinical and multidisciplinary research. It could be recommended that plans for scientific research should be flexible and should leave a space for local departmental views. Proper training of residents during their rotation in these subspecialties may help to revive the lost
Goran Rajović; JelisavkaBulatović
This article is a review of the jubilee scientific journal "European Researcher. Series A ", marked at all in 2016 – the sixth anniversary, of regular and of continuous publication. In addition to the history of the newspaper are exposed to the development phase of its program concept. The journal is the period 2010 – 2016 year, profiled in an important factor of development and the formation of professional and scientific thought. Journal “European Research. Series A” is now open forum for p...
Bacon, Charles [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bell, Greg [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Canon, Shane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dart, Eli [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dattoria, Vince [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Goodwin, Dave [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Lee, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hicks, Susan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holohan, Ed [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Klasky, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lauzon, Carolyn [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Rogers, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skinner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States)
The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.
Macfarlane, Matthew D; Kisely, Steve; Loi, Samantha; Macfarlane, Stephen; Merry, Sally; Parker, Stephen; Power, Brian; Siskind, Dan; Smith, Geoff; Looi, Jeffrey C
To discuss common pitfalls and useful tips in designing a quantitative research study, the importance and process of ethical approval, and consideration of funding. Through careful planning, based on formulation of a research question, early career researchers can design and conduct quantitative research projects within the framework of the Scholarly Project or in their own independent projects. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.
Recently, the National University Council (CUN) recognized the importance of bibliometric indicators in assessing scientific output and the Ministry of Education, University and Research established that the selection committees' decision must be guided by internationally recognized metrics including the impact factor (IF). To analyse methods and tools of metrics to assess scientific performance in Occupational Medicine by examining some critical aspects for entry-level positions and academic promotion in the Universities. By means of different databases (Web of Knowledge, Scopus, SCImago), the h-index was studied to assess the scientific output in the field of Occupational Medicine. The h-index was used as an index of both output and quality of overall output of researchers, disciplines, journals, and countries. Italian scientific output in the Public, Environmental & Occupational Health subject category (h-index = 62) was lower than almost the total of other medical disciplines and, at an international level, is ranked at 12th place (other disciplines ranked 3rd to 9th). Output was 32% compared to that of the USA (other disciplines ranged from 42% and 61%). However, it should be noted that most scientific papers of Occupational Medicine researchers are published mainly in journals of different disciplines (with a higher IF) rather than in journals of Public, Environmental & Occupational Health (with a lower IF). Assuming that selection committees' decisions will be guided by metrics and will respect the minimum standard proposed by CUN, Occupational Medicine researchers aiming at academic promotion will have good reason to ask themselves not only which journals are most useful but also which journals have the greatest impact. This fact could have profound implications for the future of the discipline.
Ruppert, S; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Hauk, T F; Matzel, E M
The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development (GNEMRD) Program at LLNL continues to make significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration, analysis, and information management with software automation tools. Our tool efforts address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats encountered during seismic calibration research. New information management and analysis tools have resulted in demonstrated gains in efficiency of producing scientific data products and improved accuracy of derived seismic calibrations. The foundation of a robust, efficient data development and processing environment is comprised of many components built upon engineered versatile libraries. We incorporate proven industry 'best practices' throughout our code and apply source code and bug tracking management as well as automatic generation and execution of unit tests for our experimental, development and production lines. Significant software engineering and development efforts have produced an object-oriented framework that provides database centric coordination between scientific tools, users, and data. Over a half billion parameters, signals, measurements, and metadata entries are all stored in a relational database accessed by an extensive object-oriented multi-technology software framework that includes stored procedures, real-time transactional database triggers and constraints, as well as coupled Java and C++ software libraries to handle the information interchange and validation requirements. Significant resources were applied to schema design to enable management of processing methods and station parameters, responses and metadata. This allowed for the development of merged ground-truth (GT) data sets compiled by the NNSA labs and AFTAC that include hundreds of thousands of events and tens of millions of arrivals. The
Batista, Pablo Diniz; Campiteli, Monica Guimaraes; Kinouchi, Osame; Martinez, Alexandre Souto
The number h of papers with at least h citations has been proposed to evaluate individual's scientific research production. This index is robust in several ways but yet strongly dependent on the research field. We propose a complementary index hI = h^2/N_t, with N_t being the total number of authors in the considered h papers. A researcher with index hI has hI papers with at least hI citation if he/she had published alone. We have obtained the rank plots of h and hI for four Brazilian scienti...
Pennock, Robert T; O'Rourke, Michael
Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock's notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations-theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered-that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students to this scientific virtue-based approach.
Mathieu Goudard; Michel Lubrano
The theory of human capital is one way to explain individual decisions to produce scientific research. However, this theory, even if it reckons the importance of time in science, is too short for explaining the existing diversity of scientific output. The present paper introduces the social capital of Bourdieu (1980), Coleman (1988) and Putnam (1995) as a necessary complement to explain the creation of scientific human capital. This paper connects these two concepts by means of a hierarchical...
Agee, Anne; Rowe, Theresa; Woo, Melissa; Woods, David
A 2006 ECAR study defined cyberinfrastructure as the coordinated aggregate of "hardware, software, communications, services, facilities, and personnel that enable researchers to conduct advanced computational, collaborative, and data-intensive research." While cyberinfrastructure was initially seen as support for scientific and…
Balachandran Nair, L.
The Scientific Integrity in Qualitative Research (SCIQUAL) 2017 seminar focused on the basic rules of good scientific practice and researchers' commitment to (or lack thereof in) adhering to these rules. Especially in the case of qualitative research, where there is a lack of standardized measures
Davis, Pryce R.; Russ, Rosemary S.
The fields of science education and science communication share the overarching goal of helping non-experts and non-members of the professional science community develop knowledge of the content and processes of scientific research. However, the specific audiences, methods, and aims employed in the two fields have evolved quite differently and as…
Hesselbach, Renee A; Petering, David H; Berg, Craig A; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Weber, Daniel
This article presents a detailed guide for high school through graduate level instructors that leads students to write effective and well-organized scientific papers. Interesting research emerges from the ability to ask questions, define problems, design experiments, analyze and interpret data, and make critical connections. This process is incomplete, unless new results are communicated to others because science fundamentally requires peer review and criticism to validate or discard proposed new knowledge. Thus, a concise and clearly written research paper is a critical step in the scientific process and is important for young researchers as they are mastering how to express scientific concepts and understanding. Moreover, learning to write a research paper provides a tool to improve science literacy as indicated in the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards (1996), and A Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011), the underlying foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards currently being developed. Background information explains the importance of peer review and communicating results, along with details of each critical component, the Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Specific steps essential to helping students write clear and coherent research papers that follow a logical format, use effective communication, and develop scientific inquiry are described.
Wang, L.; Coccia, M.
Frame and Carpenter (1979) analysed the pattern of international research collaboration among scientific fields in 1970s. Starting from this pioneering work, this paper investigates international collaborations over 1997-2012 and compares the critical results with earlier studies to detect the
Abramson, Erika L; Paul, Caroline R; Petershack, Jean; Serwint, Janet; Fischel, Janet E; Rocha, Mary; Treitz, Meghan; McPhillips, Heather; Lockspeiser, Tai; Hicks, Patricia; Tewksbury, Linda; Vasquez, Margarita; Tancredi, Daniel J; Li, Su-Ting T
Rigorous medical education research is critical to effectively develop and evaluate the training we provide our learners. Yet many clinical medical educators lack the training and skills needed to conduct high-quality medical education research. We offer guidance on conducting sound quantitative medical education research. Our aim is to equip readers with the key skills and strategies necessary to conduct successful research projects, highlighting new concepts and controversies in the field. We utilize Glassick's criteria for scholarship as a framework to discuss strategies to ensure that the research question of interest is worthy of further study and how to use existing literature and conceptual frameworks to strengthen a research study. Through discussions of the strengths and limitations of commonly used study designs, we expose the reader to particular nuances of these decisions in medical education research and discuss outcomes generally focused on, as well as strategies for determining the significance of consequent findings. We conclude with information on critiquing research findings and preparing results for dissemination to a broad audience. Practical planning worksheets and comprehensive tables illustrating key concepts are provided in order to guide researchers through each step of the process. Medical education research provides wonderful opportunities to improve how we teach our learners, to satisfy our own intellectual curiosity, and ultimately to enhance the care provided to patients. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Panduro, Arturo; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Rivera, Horacio; Roman, Sonia
To evaluate by the h index the scientific output of researchers from the University of Guadalajara who belong to the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores in the field of Medicine and Health Sciences. Researchers from the University of Guadalajara were selected from the Active SNI Researchers 2013 file. The scientific output of researchers in the fields of Medicine/Health Sciences and Biology/Chemistry was evaluated using the h index estimated by the Scopus website. A sample of capital researchers and Emeritus scientists was taken to perform the same procedure and compare data. The total number of researchers in the University of Guadalajara who are members of the SNI was 711, of which 67.2 % were level I and in less proportion were level II and III. Only 24.2 % of them were classified in the fields of Medicine/Health Sciences and Biology/Chemistry. The average h index value of researchers level I, II and III in Medicine/Health Sciences field was 5.4, 10.5 and 14.5, respectively. Capital and Emeritus scientists had an average h index of 23.4 and 19.8, respectively. The h index measures the quantity and quality of the scientific output and it also avoids bias in the evaluation process. It should be useful for future evaluations of the SNI members and for medical doctors who sign up for the National Academy of Medicine.
Curzon, M E J; Cleaton-Jones, P E
The publication of basic science and clinical research findings, as well as new clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, is widely disseminated. These days there is considerable competition to publish so the selection process is even more competitive. To present advice as to how to enhance the chances of being published and more importantly how to prepare a paper for submission. Instructions are presented as to the steps to be taken in writing a scientific manuscript. This covers Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion. Guidance is given as to what should be included and also what should be left out. The precision of writing is paramount and scientific text needs to be simple, easily read and translated by those whose day-to-day language is not English. Advice is given on journal selection and how to ensure the best chance of manuscript acceptance.
In the last few years, bibliometric studies have proliferated, seeking to provide data on world research. This study analyzes the profile of the Brazilian scientific production in the A (H1N1) influenza field between 2009 and 2011. The research was conducted in MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "H1N1" and "Brazil" were defined as the main topics. The data were analyzed taking into consideration the Brazilian state and institution in which the articles were produced, the impact factor of the journal and the language. The research revealed 40 documents (27 from MEDLINE, 16 from SciELO and 24 from LILACS). The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0977 to 8.1230. A similar amount of articles were written in English and Portuguese and São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, with 95% of the Brazilian production originating from the Southern and Southeastern regions. Linguistic data indicate that previous efforts made in order to improve the scientific production of Brazilian researchers making their observations attain a broader scientific audience produced results. It is necessary to assess the scientific studies, especially those conducted with public funds, in order to ensure that the results will benefit society.
Alexandre Fagundes Faria
Full Text Available There is a contemporary demand on STEM education to support learning experiences in which students use scientific thinking to solve tasks. Scientific thinking involves domain-specific knowledge and general domain strategies of thinking. The object of interest in this research was the set of students’ experiences of scientific thinking in which they articulate domain-general strategies and domain-specific knowledge to solve physics tasks. Our goal was to characterize the experiences of scientific thinking of two groups of four students engaged in tasks about Newtonian Mechanics. The volunteers were 19 students, 15-17 years old, enrolled in electronics or computer science courses (11th grade of a Brazilian vocational high school at Belo Horizonte/Minas Gerais. All class activities proposed to the students have been regularly used since 2010, therefore, we made no special intervention to conduct the study. Data collection occurred during the classes and involved audio and video recordings of students working in group; field notes; and photographs of students’ notebooks and of the posters they made to conduct oral presentations. The choice of the groups was based on how assiduous the members were. We have transcribed episodes in which we identified experiences of scientific thinking. These transcriptions, the field notes and the photographs were analyzed together, in interaction with each other. Data analysis is based upon John Dewey’s Theory of Experience. Our results show that the experiences of scientific thinking of the two groups were educative experiences, although qualitatively different. This difference was due to the way students interacted with the conditions given to solve the tasks. Additional information is given about the school circumstances in which the study was conducted to allow a better evaluation of results quality.
Henderson, M. A.; Russell, E. L.; Science on a Sphere Datasets
Connecting the Public to Scientific Research Data - Science On a Sphere° Maurice Henderson, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Elizabeth Russell, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, University of Colorado Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences Science On a Sphere° is a six foot animated globe developed by the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA, as a means to display global scientific research data in an intuitive, engaging format in public forums. With over 70 permanent installations of SOS around the world in science museums, visitor's centers and universities, the audience that enjoys SOS yearly is substantial, wide-ranging, and diverse. Through partnerships with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, the SOS Data Catalog (http://sos.noaa.gov/datasets/) has grown to a collection of over 350 datasets from NOAA, NASA, and many others. Using an external projection system, these datasets are displayed onto the sphere creating a seamless global image. In a cross-site evaluation of Science On a Sphere°, 82% of participants said yes, seeing information displayed on a sphere changed their understanding of the information. This unique technology captivates viewers and exposes them to scientific research data in a way that is accessible, presentable, and understandable. The datasets that comprise the SOS Data Catalog are scientific research data that have been formatted for display on SOS. By formatting research data into visualizations that can be used on SOS, NOAA and NASA are able to turn research data into educational materials that are easily accessible for users. In many cases, visualizations do not need to be modified because SOS uses a common map projection. The SOS Data Catalog has become a "one-stop shop" for a broad range of global datasets from across NOAA and NASA, and as a result, the traffic on the site is more than just SOS users. While the target audience for this site is SOS users, many
Almgren, Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeMar, Phil [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vetter, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne, IL (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Science Network; Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Science Network; Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Science Network; Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bernholdt, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bethel, Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bosilca, George [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cappello, Frank [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gamblin, Todd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Habib, Salman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, Judy [Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hollingsworth, Jeffrey K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); McInnes, Lois Curfman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moore, Shirley [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moreland, Ken [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roser, Rob [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shende, Sameer [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Shipman, Galen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
The widespread use of computing in the American economy would not be possible without a thoughtful, exploratory research and development (R&D) community pushing the performance edge of operating systems, computer languages, and software libraries. These are the tools and building blocks — the hammers, chisels, bricks, and mortar — of the smartphone, the cloud, and the computing services on which we rely. Engineers and scientists need ever-more specialized computing tools to discover new material properties for manufacturing, make energy generation safer and more efficient, and provide insight into the fundamentals of the universe, for example. The research division of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing and Research (ASCR Research) ensures that these tools and building blocks are being developed and honed to meet the extreme needs of modern science. See also http://exascaleage.org/ascr/ for additional information.
Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen
The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists' careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific "impact" rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the promotion of junior scientists. With the
High energy physics is a basic research domain with a well established European and international cooperation. Cooperation can be of different type depending on the size of the facilities involved (accelerators), on their financing, and on the type of experiments that use these facilities. The CERN, the European center for nuclear research, created in October 1954, is the best example of such a cooperation. This article examines first the juridical and scientifical structure of the CERN and the mode of organization of big experiments. Then, it presents the role of international committees in the establishment of a common scientific policy in Europe and in the rest of the world. Finally, the possible future evolution of the CERN towards a worldwide project is evoked. (J.S.)
Full Text Available In recent decades, research has growth Increasingly in Iran and, consequently, the country has risen dramatically in world rankings, based on the number of scientific documents. Meanwhile, research policy makers of different societies have concentrated, more and more, on "the effectiveness of researches" and today, their main concern is to ensure that researches are truly contributing to achieve development goals. The issue of "use of research to improve society" has also been emphasized by Iran high-ranking managers and consultants in superior governmental documents, implying their agreement on the importance and necessity of it. Experts' view about the necessity for science to play a fundamental role in the process of society improvement, research impact assessment specialists' models in which they directly emphasize on "promotion of development scale" as the research final expected effect, and the proven high correlation between scientific progress and economic development of societies, create a reasonable expectation that as a consequent of "remarkable progress in research", Iran has experienced a tangible improvement in other aspects and this improvement has been reflected in development indicators. This expectation leads to a question which has been the main reason for this study to be implemented. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Iran increasingly research growth in recent three decades on the country development. The study uses a Descriptive-Analytical method and valid secondary data have been the base of analyses. At first, the reliable development indicators for which data were available for a number of countries in an appropriate timeframe were selected. Next, the rank of Iran determined in any indicator among 215 countries (based on the number of countries in World Bank Web site. Then, the trend of Iran's research position was compared with the trend of Iran's position in terms of each development
Providing readers with an accessible, in-depth look at how to synthesize research literature, Conducting Research Literature Reviews is perfect for students, researchers, marketers, planners, and policymakers who design and manage public and private agencies, conduct research studies, and prepare strategic plans and grant proposals. Bestselling author Arlene Fink shows readers how to explain the need for and significance of research, as well as how to explain a study’s findings. Offering a step-by-step approach to conducting literature reviews, the Fourth Edition features updated examples and covers: how to select databases and evaluate their quality; selecting and organizing key words and other terms in order to effectively search databases and the Web; setting standards for evaluating the quality of research and other literature; extracting and recording information from articles and studies; synthesizing what the reader finds either descriptively or via a meta-analysis; recording and storing the results ...
Ethical conducts are gaining importance in times of increased globalization and research efforts. This paper presents a code of ethical conduct for researchers who plan to publish their studies with the journal Madagascar Conservation & Development. This paper will be subject to continuous adaptations and discussions.
Yildirim, Sefa; Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif
In this study, it was aimed to identify the scientific research-related anxiety levels of the undergraduate students studying in the department of faculty of science and letters and faculty of education to analyse these anxiety levels in terms of various variables (students' gender, using web based information sources, going to the library,…
Full Text Available The paper presents actual results of the research conducted as part of a field pilot project which consisted in interpretation of minifrac test data and evaluation of the efficiency of the scientific and technical supervision of fracking operations. The research program involved 11 wells targeting Devonian terrigenous reservoirs. Minifrac tests in one perforation interval were performed only in seven wells, that is approximately in 64% of total well count. A reliable fracture closure estimate was obtained only in six wells (55%, beginning of pseudoradial flow was observed only in one well out of 11 wells (9%. Hence, conventional minifrac tests should be supplemented with other diagnostic injection tests. Analysis of the performance of hydraulic fracturing operations conducted according to this pilot project plan indicates that fracture modelling, and scientific and technical supervision of fracking operations performed by Hydrofrac Research Laboratory of Institute TatNIPIneft Tatneft PJSC have yielded beneficial effects, namely 1.44 times increase in oil production rates.
Kraut, Robert; Olson, Judith; Banaji, Mahzarin; Bruckman, Amy; Cohen, Jeffrey; Couper, Mick
As the Internet has changed communication, commerce, and the distribution of information, so too it is changing psychological research. Psychologists can observe new or rare phenomena online and can do research on traditional psychological topics more efficiently, enabling them to expand the scale and scope of their research. Yet these…
Scientific committee 83 was appointed to identify research needs for radiation protection in response to the Nuclear Regulatory Commissions requires that follows on a Presidential inquiry to the Council asking it to identify critical questions in research including laboratory and epidemiologic research related to radiation protection and requiring resolution at this time. The answers overwhelmingly identified low dose, low dose rate, LET, and radiation risk being the most important. Aspects of the problems that were singled out had to do with fractionation and protraction, shape of the dose response curve, molecular mechanism, decrement in risk with time as revealed by epidemiologic study, and the reality of hormesis. Against this background, the Committee formulated its scope and an outline of this report, as well as the time table and the mechanism to react with its consultant s who will also be asked to serve as its critical reviewers. The scope of the Committee was taken to be the identification of areas for additional research to improve the bases for making recommendations for protection against ionizing radiation. This paper has five parts, one dealing with sources and environmental transport, one with dosimetry and measurement, one with biologic consequences, epidemiology and risk estimates and one with public perception and policy
Poelmans, J.; Ignatov, D.I.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Kuznetsov, S.O.
Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is an unsupervised clustering technique and many scientific papers are devoted to applying FCA in Information Retrieval (IR) research. We collected 103 papers published between 2003-2009 which mention FCA and information retrieval in the abstract, title or keywords.
Hou, Xiao-Ni; Hao, Yu-Fang; Cao, Jing; She, Yan-Chao; Duan, Hong-Mei
Collaboration has become very important in research and in technological progress. Coauthorship networks in different fields have been intensively studied as an important type of collaboration in recent years. Yet there are few published reports about collaboration in the field of nursing. This article aimed to reveal the status and identify the key features of collaboration in the field of nursing in China. Using data from the top 10 nursing journals in China from 2003 to 2013, we constructed a nursing scientific coauthorship network using social network analysis. We found that coauthorship was a common phenomenon in the Chinese nursing field. A coauthorship network with 228 subnetworks formed by 1428 nodes was constructed. The network was relatively loose, and most subnetworks were of small scales. Scholars from Shanghai and from military medical system were at the center of the Chinese nursing scientific coauthorship network. We identified the authors' positions and influences according to the research output and centralities of each author. We also analyzed the microstructure and the evolution over time of the maximum subnetwork.
Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson; Robert E. Keane; James M. Lenihan; Donald McKenzie; David R. Weise; David V. Sandberg
A team of fire scientists and resource managers convened 17-19 April 1996 in Seattle, Washington, to assess the effects of fire disturbance on ecosystems. Objectives of this workshop were to develop scientific recommendations for future fire research and management activities. These recommendations included a series of numerically ranked scientific and managerial...
Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Jaffee, Sara R.; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Koenen, Karestan C.; Odgers, Candice L.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Viding, Essi
This article charts a strategic research course toward an empirical foundation for the diagnosis of conduct disorder in the forthcoming DSM-V. Since the DSM-IV appeared in 1994, an impressive amount of new information about conduct disorder has emerged. As a result of this new knowledge, reasonable rationales have been put forward for adding to…
Waller, P; Cassell, J A; Saunders, M H; Stevens, R
In order to promote understanding of UK governance and assurance relating to electronic health records research, we present and discuss the role of the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC) for MHRA database research in evaluating protocols proposing the use of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We describe the development of the Committee's activities between 2006 and 2015, alongside growth in data linkage and wider national electronic health records programmes, including the application and assessment processes, and our approach to undertaking this work. Our model can provide independence, challenge and support to data providers such as the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database which has been used for well over 1,000 medical research projects. ISAC's role in scientific oversight ensures feasible and scientifically acceptable plans are in place, while having both lay and professional membership addresses governance issues in order to protect the integrity of the database and ensure that public confidence is maintained.
The Antibody Scientific Committee provides scientific insight and guidance to the NCI's Antibody Characterization Program. Specifically, the members of this committee evaluate request from the external scientific community for development and characterization of antibodies by the program. The members of the Antibody Scientific Committee include:
Del Savio, Lorenzo
Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems. I start with the idea that medical knowledge is a structured and intermediate public good and explain from this perspective that funding systems as a whole, rather than any of their parts (such as expert-based reviews) ought to be considered devices for the discovery of the social and scientific value of research. If so, we should not be concerned with whether crowdfunding bypasses expert reviews, but with whether it may constitute an improvement of extant funding systems. In the second part, I speculate that crowdfunding may ameliorate, albeit limitedly, some recalcitrant failures of funding systems, such as the sponsorship of research on neglected diseases, and smooth funding adaptations for scientific transitions. If, after trial, such hypotheses turn out to be true, crowdfunding ought to be promoted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
[ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR RESEARCH INVOLVING INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN FRANCE: A COMMENT OF THE CNRS ETHICS COMMITTEE OPINION ON THE IMPERATIVE OF FAIRNESS IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES].
Burelli, Thomas; Bambridge, Tamatoa
Historically, scientific research and colonization process have maintained very close ties. In order to frame research involving indigenous peoples and to avoid situations of abuse, some States have developed very detailed ethicalframeworks. In France, there are no ethicalframework comparable to those observed in particular in Anglo-Saxon countries like Canada. Extensive discussions were conducted by the Ethics Committee of the CNRS leading to the adoption of an opinion of a high quality but which appears largely unknown and under-exploited. This opinion deals with "the delicate question of the rights of local and indigenous populations during the research projected conducted with their support in developed and developing countries (DCs)". In this paper, we propose to analyze how this opinion can be considered remarkable because it recognizes the current challenges of research projects involving indigenous people, but also because of his recommendations. We still see that the scope of its recommendations is however limited so far although some encouraging experiences like the recent adoption of the CRIOBE centre code of ethics in French Polynesia can be observed.
Yustina, Yustina; Suwondo, Suwondo
The purpose of this research was to got the information about student's scientific attitude and creativity of product and correlation both of it in enviromental issues through project based learning. This research was conducted from January to June 2015. Sample in this research were 34 students of 2014 grade in FKIP Biologi UR used parameters were (1) scientific attitude with 4 indicators (curiosity, cooperative, carefulness and discipline); (2) creativity of product. Observation instrument m...
In 1992 the Santa Fe Institute hosted more than 100 short- and long-term research visitors who conducted a total of 212 person-months of residential research in complex systems. To date this 1992 work has resulted in more than 50 SFI Working Papers and nearly 150 publications in the scientific literature. The Institute`s book series in the sciences of complexity continues to grow, now numbering more than 20 volumes. The fifth annual complex systems summer school brought nearly 60 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to Santa Fe for an intensive introduction to the field. Research on complex systems-the focus of work at SFI-involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex adaptive behavior range upwards from DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complex behavior include spin glasses, cellular automata, and genetic algorithms. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simple components; (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy); and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions.
Reid, Grace; Norris, Stephen P.
Scientific media education is the ability to draw on a knowledge of the media and science, in order to choose, understand, evaluate, and respond to representations of science across diverse media genres. We begin this manuscript by reviewing research that shows scientific media education is one of the most important content areas that could be…
Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins
This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.
Full Text Available Gamal A Kassem Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt Aim: The aim of this work was to assess scientific research of master’s and doctoral theses and essays in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zagazig University, Egypt. Materials and methods: All master’s and doctoral theses and essays since the foundation of Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zagazig University, Egypt, in 1975 till end of 2012 were reviewed. Results: A total of 703 theses and essays were reviewed. The important topics in the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology were covered and updated. Infertility, in vitro fertilization–embryo transfer (IVF-ET and related techniques, and polycystic ovarian disease were the most common gynecologic topics (27.2%, followed by gynecologic oncology (18.5%. Preeclampsia was the most common obstetrics topic (18.8%, followed by issues of high-risk pregnancy, fetal growth restriction, and fetal well-being (11.6%. The number of researches that allow the candidates to learn skills was 183 and it was increased from 4.4% of all research in the period 1979–1988 to 33.2% in period 1989–2000 then slightly decreased to 31.2% in period 2001–2012. Ultrasonography was on the top and was present in 99 out of 183 (54.1% followed by laparoscopy (30, 16.4%, hysteroscopy (25, 13.7%, IVF-ET and related techniques (16, 8.7% and colposcopy (13, 7.1% researches. Multi-disciplinary research was decreased by 61.7% in the period 2001–2012. Researches in academic fields were abandoned and in some clinically important areas like preeclampsia were decreased. Conclusion: Scientific research of master’s and doctoral theses and essays was comprehensive, updated, and had some autonomy independent of plans. Research which enable the candidate to learn skills were increased on the expense of academic, clinical and multidisciplinary research. It could be recommended that plans for scientific
The analysis was done by conducting interview and record inspection on method of storage and retrieval of scientific documents such as research reports, technical memoranda, feasibility reports, journal articles, seminar papers, conference proceedings etc. The analysis revealed the shortcomings of the manual system ...
The library and information branch is an important constituent part of a scientific and technic research institute, and is a technically assistant department which is set for scientific and technic research and production. The investigations show that the achievements by the library and information departments are marked in scientific and technic research institutes, and the library and information works play important roles for the existence, development and innovation of the institute in past years. But, the present conditions and statuses are dropped behind, and more problems existed in the library and information departments as a whole. The development ideas are proposed for the library and information work by analyzing the characteristics of nowadays knowledge service, knowledge economy and network information time. (authors)
Full Text Available The conductive mechanism of graphene/rubber nanocomposites was introduced.Advances in the synthesis and properties of graphene and its derivatives, modifications of graphene, along with its hybrid fillers, as well as fabrication of related rubber conducting nanocomposites were reviewed.Many factors affecting the electrical properties, such as fabrication method, vulcanization, temperature, pressure, frequency and media etc. were also summarized.It was pointed out that the further research should be focused on multi-component graphene/rubber nanocomposites and its double percolation phenomenon.
Efficient scientific development may promote the solution of all the environmental problems. The way the question is put is new, for science is finally considered to be the source of all environmental disasters and to be blamed for that. Search for the means to solve scientifically induced crisis situation seems to be very interesting. (author)
Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ahmed, Rashid; Daniels, Doria; Simon, Christian
Lay persons who are trained to conduct research in their own communities form an essential part of many research projects. However, the effects of conducting research in their own communities have not been adequately explored. This paper examines the experiences, perceptions, and challenges faced by a group of community researchers during their involvement in a research project that examined if, and how, the relationships between mothers and their adolescent daughters could be harnessed to develop a daughter-initiated cervical cancer intervention. Seven community researchers interviewed 157 mother-daughter pairs in Cape Town, South Africa. We examine the use of journaling as a tool to document the experiences of community researchers, and we consider how journaling may help the community-based researcher grapple with the research process, and, more broadly, what such journal content illustrates with respect to the nature and challenges of community-engaged health research. An analysis of the content of the journals provides a strong indication of how personal and intimate the research process can be for community researchers by virtue of the background that they bring into the process as well as the additional weight of the research process itself. The complexities of navigating dual and somewhat oppositional roles - the role of impartial scientist or researcher and the role of invested community person - has been both underestimated and insufficiently researched. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In many scientific research environments the popular belief seems to be that scientific research cannot be subject to so-called “quality” management, at least not down to the research operational level. Examples of popular arguments behind...
Utilization of radiotracer methodology in industrial research provides substantial scientific rather than directly demonstrable economic benefits. These benefits include better understanding of industrial processes and subsequently the development of new ones. Examples are given of the use of radiotracers in technological studies and the significance of the obtained results is put down. Creative application of radiotracer methodology may contribute to the economic development and technological advancement of all countries including the developing ones. (orig.) [de
Aldridge, Robert W.; Hayward, Andrew C.; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane
Background School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. Methods We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. Results 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5–14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. Interpretation This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies
Aldridge, Robert W; Hayward, Andrew C; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane
School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5-14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies in the future.
Describes public and private online networks and the characteristics of electronic mail. Reviews the literature on survey research conducted via electronic mail, and examines the issues of design, implementation, and response. A table displays advantages and disadvantages of electronic mail surveys. (AEF)
Poppe, Michaela; Zitek, Andreas; Scheikl, Sigrid; Heidenreich, Andrea; Kurz, Roman; Schrittwieser, Martin; Muhar, Susanne
Due to immense technological and economic developments, human activities producing greenhouse gases, destructing ecosystems, changing landscapes and societies are influencing the world to such a degree, that the environment and human well-being are significantly affected. This results in a need to educate citizens towards a scientific understanding of complex socio-environmental systems. The OECD programme for international student assessment (PISA - http://www.pisa.oecd.org) investigated in detail the science competencies of 15-year-old students in 2006. The report documented that teenagers in OECD countries are mostly well aware of environmental issues but often know little about their causes or options to tackle these challenges in the future. For the integration of science with school learning and involving young people actively into scientific research Sparkling Science projects are funded by the Federal Ministry of Science and Research in Austria. Within the Sparkling Science Project "FlussAu:WOW!" (http://www.sparklingscience.at/de/projekte/574-flussau-wow-/) scientists work together with 15 to 18-year-old students of two Austrian High Schools over two years to assess the functions and processes in near natural and anthropogenically changed river floodplains. Within the first year of collaboration students, teachers and scientists elaborated on abiotic, biotic and spatial indicators for assessing and evaluating the ecological functionality of riverine systems. After a theoretical introduction students formulated research questions, hypotheses and planned and conducted field work in two different floodplain areas in Lower Austria. From the second year on, students are going to develop qualitative models on processes in river floodplain systems by means of the learning software "DynaLearn". The "DynaLearn" software is an engaging, interactive, hierarchically structured learning environment that was developed within the EU-FP7 project "DynaLearn" (http
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice... Act (Pub. L. 92-463). The topic of the meeting on October 23-25, 2012 is to review new start research...
Dolor, Rowena J.; Schmit, Kristine M.; Graham, Deborah G.; Fox, Chester H.; Baldwin, Laura Mae
Background There is increased interest nationally in multicenter clinical trials to answer questions about clinical effectiveness, comparative effectiveness, and safety in real-world community settings. Primary care practice-based research networks (PBRNs), comprising community- and/or academically affiliated practices committed to improving medical care for a range of health problems, offer ideal settings for these trials, especially pragmatic clinical trials. However, many researchers are not familiar with working with PBRNs. Methods Experts in practice-based research identified solutions to challenges that researchers and PBRN personnel experience when collaborating on clinical trials in PBRNs. These were organized as frequently asked questions in a draft document presented at a 2013 Agency for Health care Research and Quality PBRN conference workshop, revised based on participant feedback, then shared with additional experts from the DARTNet Institute, Clinical Translational Science Award PBRN, and North American Primary Care Research Group PBRN workgroups for further input and modification. Results The “Toolkit for Developing and Conducting Multi-site Clinical Trials in Practice-Based Research Networks” offers guidance in the areas of recruiting and engaging practices, budgeting, project management, and communication, as well as templates and examples of tools important in developing and conducting clinical trials. Conclusion Ensuring the successful development and conduct of clinical trials in PBRNs requires a highly collaborative approach between academic research and PBRN teams. PMID:25381071
Amidst late 19th-century efforts to emphasize modern medicine's transition to a more scientific approach, physicians seeking to represent themselves as scientists began wearing white laboratory coats. Today educational researchers are likewise urged to don metaphorical white coats as scientifically based research is held up as the cure-all for our…
This paper examines the relationship between excellence scholarships and research productivity, scientific impact, and degree completion. Drawing on the entire population of doctoral students in the province of Quebec, this pa- per analyzes three distinct sources of data: students, excellence scholarships, and scientific publications. It shows…
...: August 7 Aging and Neurodegenerative Disease; Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics; and... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that subcommittees of the Rehabilitation Research and Development...
Miró, O; Burbano Santos, P; Trilla, A; Casademont, J; Fernandez Pérez, C; Martín-Sánchez, Fj
To study the behaviour of several indicators of scientific production and repercussion in a group of Spanish clinical researchers and to evaluate their possible utility for interpreting individual or collective scientific pathways. We performed a unicentric, ecological pilot study involving a group of physicians with consolidated research experience. From the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) database, we obtained the number of publications of each author (indicator of production) and the number of citations, impact factor and h index (indicators of repercussion). These indicators were calculated individually for each of the years of research experience and we assessed the relationship between the experience of the researcher and the value of the indicator achieved, the relationship between these indicators themselves, and their temporal evolution, both individually and for the entire group. We analysed 35 researchers with a research experience of 28.4 (9.6) years. The h index showed the lowest coefficient of variance. The relationship between the indicators and research experience was significant, albeit modest (R2 between 0.15-0.22). The 4 indicators showed good correlations. The temporal evolution of the indicators, both individual and collective, adjusted better to a second grade polynomial than a linear function: individually, all the authors obtained R2>0.90 in all the indicators; together the best adjustment was produced with the h index (R2=0.61). Based on the indicator used, substantial variations may be produced in the researchers' ranking. A model of the temporal evolution of the indicators of production and repercussion can be described in a relatively homogeneous sample of researchers and the h index seems to demonstrate certain advantages compared to the remaining indicators. This type of analysis could become a predictive tool of performance to be achieved not only for a particular researcher, but also for a homogeneous group of resear-chers
Tyler, Betty M; Liu, Ann; Sankey, Eric W; Mangraviti, Antonella; Barone, Michael A; Brem, Henry
After over 50 years of scientific contribution under the leadership of Harvey Cushing and later Walter Dandy, the Johns Hopkins Hunterian Laboratory entered a period of dormancy between the 1960s and early 1980s. In 1984, Henry Brem reinstituted the Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory, with a new focus on localized delivery of therapies for brain tumors, leading to several discoveries such as new antiangiogenic agents and Gliadel chemotherapy wafers for the treatment of malignant gliomas. Since that time, it has been the training ground for 310 trainees who have dedicated their time to scientific exploration in the lab, resulting in numerous discoveries in the area of neurosurgical research. The Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory has been a unique example of successful mentoring in a translational research environment. The laboratory's philosophy emphasizes mentorship, independence, self-directed learning, creativity, and people-centered collaboration, while maintaining productivity with a focus on improving clinical outcomes. This focus has been served by the diverse backgrounds of its trainees, both in regard to educational status as well as culturally. Through this philosophy and strong legacy of scientific contribution, the Hunterian Laboratory has maintained a positive and productive research environment that supports highly motivated students and trainees. In this article, the authors discuss the laboratory's training philosophy, linked to the principles of adult learning (andragogy), as well as the successes and the limitations of including a wide educational range of students in a neurosurgical translational laboratory and the phenomenon of combining clinical expertise with rigorous scientific training.
Home · Resources · Publications. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 1: Proposal Development and Fieldwork ... IDRC and the United Kingdom's Global AMR Innovation Fund—managed by the ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all.
Ammon, C. J.
Adriana Carla Silva de Oliveira
Full Text Available Introduction:The practices of e-science and the use and reuse of scientific data have constituted a new scientific work that leads to the reflection on new regulatory, legal, institutional and technological frameworks for open science. Objective: This study shows the following research question: which dimensions provide sustainability for the formulation of a policy geared to open science and its practices in the Brazilian context? The aim of this study is to discuss the dimensions that support transversely the formulation of a policy for open science and its scientific practices. Methodology:Theoretically, the study is guided by the fourth scientific paradigm grounded in the e-Science. The methodology is supported by Bufrem’s studies (2013, which propose an alternative and multidimensional model for analysis and discussion of scientific research. Technically, the literature review and documentary survey were the methods used on the Data Lifecycle scientific model, laws and international agreements.For this study purpose, five dimensions were proposed, namely: epistemological, political, ethical-legal-cultural, morphological, and technological. Results: This studyunderstands that these dimensions substantiate an information policy or the development of minimum guidelines for the open science agenda in Brazil. Conclusions: The dimensions put away the reductionist perspective on survey data and they conducted the study for the multi-dimensional and multi-relational vision of open science.
...The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is seeking scientific information submissions from manufacturers of local, minimally invasive, medical devices for unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma (e.g., ablation, radiotherapy, or embolization devices). Scientific information is being solicited to inform our Comparative Effectiveness Review of Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based Practice Centers for the AHRQ Effective Health Care Program. Access to published and unpublished pertinent scientific information on this device will improve the quality of this comparative effectiveness review. AHRQ is requesting this scientific information and conducting this comparative effectiveness review pursuant to Section 1013 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, Public Law 108-173.
Chen, R. S.; Downs, R. R.
Stakeholders in the creation, distribution, support, funding, and use of scientific data can benefit by understanding the value that the data have for society and science. For decades, the scientific community has been using citations of articles in the published scientific literature as one of the primary measures used for evaluating the performance of scientists, departments, institutions, and scientific disciplines. Similarly, citations in the published literature of scientific data may be useful for measuring and assessing the value of the scientific data and the performance of the individuals, projects, programs, and organizations that have contributed to the data and their use. The results of citation analysis and other assessments of the value of data also can contribute to planning for future data collection, development, distribution, and preservation efforts. The planned release of new data citation indexes and the more widespread adoption of unique data identifiers and automated attribution mechanisms have the potential to improve significantly the capabilities for analyzing citations of scientific data. In addition, rapid developments in the systems and capabilities for disseminating data, along with education and workforce development on the importance of data attribution and on techniques for data citation, can improve practices for citing scientific data. Such practices need to lead not only to better aggregate statistics about data citation, but also to improved characterization and understanding of the impact of data use in terms of the benefits for science and society. Analyses of citations in the scientific literature were conducted for data that were distributed by an interdisciplinary scientific data center during a five-year period (1997 - 2011), to identify the scientific fields represented by the journals and books in which the data were cited. Secondary citation analysis also was conducted for a sample of scientific publications that used
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie
Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities.
This paper analyzes the impact of academic inbreeding in relation to academic research, and proposes a new conceptual framework for its analysis. We find that mobility (or lack of) at the early research career stage is decisive in influencing academic behaviors and scientific productivity. Less mobile academics have more inward oriented…
Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III; Whiting, Gilman W.; Grantham, Tarek C.
In this article, the authors share concerns and considerations for researchers conducting cross-cultural research in gifted education. They contend that researchers should be mindful of the need to consider their own humanness--their beliefs, assumptions, attitudes, values, paradigms--and the limitations of their humanness when working with…
Ni, Xin; Sun, Jianhua; Wang, Bo
BIM technology as a kind of information technology, has been along with the advancement of building industrialization application in domestic building industry gradually. Based on reasonable construction BIM model, using BIM technology platform, through collaborative design tools can effectively improve the design efficiency and design quality. Vanda northwest engineering design and research institute co., LTD., the scientific research office building project in combination with the practical situation of engineering using BIM technology, formed in the BIM model combined with related information according to the energy energy model (BEM) and the application of BIM technology in construction management stage made exploration, and the direct experience and the achievements gained by the architectural design part made a summary.
... Rehabilitation. March 1--Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics. March 1-2--Psychological Health... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development...
McInnes, Lois Curfman; Dahlgren, Tamara; Nieplocha, Jarek; Bernholdt, David; Allan, Ben; Armstrong, Rob; Chavarria, Daniel; Elwasif, Wael; Gorton, Ian; Kenny, Joe; Krishan, Manoj; Malony, Allen; Norris, Boyana; Ray, Jaideep; Shende, Sameer
This paper introduces three component technology initiatives within the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) that address ever-increasing productivity challenges in creating, managing, and applying simulation software to scientific discovery. By leveraging the Common Component Architecture (CCA), a new component standard for high-performance scientific computing, these initiatives tackle difficulties at different but related levels in the development of component-based scientific software: (1) deploying applications on massively parallel and heterogeneous architectures, (2) investigating new approaches to the runtime enforcement of behavioral semantics, and (3) developing tools to facilitate dynamic composition, substitution, and reconfiguration of component implementations and parameters, so that application scientists can explore tradeoffs among factors such as accuracy, reliability, and performance
The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...
Smith, Robert C; Fortin, Auguste H; Dwamena, Francesca; Frankel, Richard M
To review the scientific status of the biopsychosocial (BPS) model and to propose a way to improve it. Engel's BPS model added patients' psychological and social health concerns to the highly successful biomedical model. He proposed that the BPS model could make medicine more scientific, but its use in education, clinical care, and, especially, research remains minimal. Many aver correctly that the present model cannot be defined in a consistent way for the individual patient, making it untestable and non-scientific. This stems from not obtaining relevant BPS data systematically, where one interviewer obtains the same information another would. Recent research by two of the authors has produced similar patient-centered interviewing methods that are repeatable and elicit just the relevant patient information needed to define the model at each visit. We propose that the field adopt these evidence-based methods as the standard for identifying the BPS model. Identifying a scientific BPS model in each patient with an agreed-upon, evidence-based patient-centered interviewing method can produce a quantum leap ahead in both research and teaching. A scientific BPS model can give us more confidence in being humanistic. In research, we can conduct more rigorous studies to inform better practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Click, J L
The rationale for the routine performance of scientific audits has been previously discussed, and it has been proposed that independent professionals audit scientific data just as certified public accountants in independent public accounting firms audit financial data (1-4). Scientific audits would typically require the examination of data in laboratory notebooks and other work sheets, upon which research publications are based. Examples of such audits have been publicized recently, although these represent audits which have been conducted relatively inefficiently, over periods of several years per audit, and which have only been conducted due to the persistence of whistleblowers suspecting scientific fraud (5, 6). A detailed report has also appeared on the results of an audit of the research activities of a particular individual, where the audit was limited solely to an examination of the research publications themselves for errors and discrepancies (7). It should be emphasized that the purpose of conducting scientific audits is not only to detect fabrication of experimental results but also to monitor presumably more prevalent, non-fraudulent, inappropriate practices, such as misrepresentation of data, inaccurate reporting, and departure from institutional guidelines for handling hazardous materials, working with human subjects, etc. Two concerns which have been raised concerning the performance of scientific audits relate to cost. What would they cost, and who would pay for them? These questions, however, may be turned around. What does it cost not to conduct such audits, and who pays for that? An assumption often made is that science is self-correcting, that sooner or later the truth will be revealed because of the need to replicate experiments of others for independent verification of novel findings (8). Testimony recently presented at a U.S. congressional hearing suggests that the self-correcting manner in which science advances represents a very slow and
Langlais, Philip J
Despite the importance of scientific integrity to the well-being of society, recent findings suggest that training and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research are not very reliable or effective inhibitors of research misbehavior. Understanding how and why individual scientists decide to behave in ways that conform to or violate norms and standards of research is essential to the development of more effective training programs and the creation of more supportive environments. Scholars in business management, psychology, and other disciplines have identified many important factors that affect ethical behavior, including individual, contextual, and organizational factors. Surprisingly little research has been conducted to examine the role of these factors in either the development of ethical decision-making skills, or their applicability to ethical issues commonly encountered in research and other scholarly and professional activities. Interdisciplinary approaches combined with research and discipline relevant paradigms should greatly enhance understanding of the individual contextual and organizational factors involved in ethical and unethical research conduct. Such studies will inform and facilitate the development of more effective ethics education programs in the sciences and engineering professions.
Buljan, Ivan; Barać, Lana; Marušić, Ana
The aim of our study has been to use a qualitative approach to explore the potential motivations and drivers for unethical behaviors in biomedicine and determine the role of institutions regarding those issues in a small scientific community setting. Three focus groups were held---two with doctoral students and one with active senior researchers. Purposive sampling was used to reach participants at different stages of their scientific careers. Participants in all three focus groups were asked the same questions regarding the characteristics and behaviors of ethical/unethical scientists, ethical climate, role, and responsibility of institutions; they were also asked to suggest ways to improve research integrity. The data analysis included coding of the transcripts, categorization of the initial codes, and identification of themes and patterns. Three main topics were derived from the focus groups discussions. The first included different forms of unethical behaviors including increasing research "waste," non-publication of negative results, authorship manipulation, data manipulation, and repression of collaborators. The second addressed the factors influencing unethical behavior, both external and internal, to the researchers. Two different definitions of ethics in science emerged; one from the categorical perspective and the other from the dimensional perspective. The third topic involved possible routes for improvement, one from within the institution through the research integrity education, research integrity bodies, and quality control, and the other from outside the institution through external supervision of institutions. Based on the results of our study, research misconduct in a small scientific community is perceived to be the consequence of the interaction of several social and psychological factors, both general and specific, for small research communities. Possible improvements should be systematic, aiming both for improvements in work environment and
Nasution, M. K. M.; Sitepu, R.; Rosmayati; Bakti, D.; Hardi, S. M.
Research is needed to improve the capacity of human resources to manage natural resources for human well-being. Research is done by institutions such as universities or research institutions, but the research picture related to human welfare interests is not easy to obtain. If research can be proven through scientific publications, scientific research publication databases can be used to view research behaviour. Research mapping in North Sumatra needs to be done to see the suitability of research conducted with development needs in North Sumatra, and as a presentation is the Universitas Sumatera Utara which shows that research conducted has 60% strength, especially in the exact sciences.
The emergence of advanced technologies in the last three decades and extraordinary progress in our knowledge on the basic Physical, Chemical and Biological properties of living matter has offered tremendous benefits to human beings but simultaneously highlighted the need of higher awareness and responsibility by the scientists of 21 century. Scientist is not born with ethics, nor science is ethically neutral, but there are ethical dimensions to scientific work. There is need to evolve an appropriate Code of Conduct for scientist particularly working in every field of Science. However, while considering the contents, promulgation and adaptation of Codes of Conduct for Scientists, a balance is needed to be maintained between freedom of scientists and at the same time some binding on them in the form of Code of Conducts. The use of good and safe laboratory procedures, whether, codified by law or by common practice must also be considered as part of the moral duties of scientists. It is internationally agreed that a general Code of Conduct can't be formulated for all the scientists universally, but there should be a set of 'building blocks' aimed at establishing the Code of Conduct for Scientists either as individual researcher or responsible for direction, evaluation, monitoring of scientific activities at the institutional or organizational level. (author)
Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1980. Approximately 1400 citations are given. Formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles, meeting/conference papers, computer programs, tech briefs, patents, and unpublished research are included.
Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco
We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.