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Sample records for conductance regulator chloride

  1. Emerging role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator- an epithelial chloride channel in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuning Hou; Xiaoqing Guan; Zhe Yang; Chunying Li

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR), a glycoprotein with 1480 amino acids, has been well established as a chloride channel mainly expressed in the epithelial cells of various tissues and organs such as lungs, sweat glands, gastrointestinal system, and reproductive organs. Although defective CFTR leads to cystic fibrosis, a common genetic disorder in the Caucasian population, there is accumulating evidence that suggests a novel role of CFTR in various cancers, especially in gastroenterological cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging findings that link CFTR with various cancers, with focus on the association between CFTR defects and gastrointestinal cancers as well as the underlying mechanisms. Further study of CFTR in cancer biology may help pave a new way for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

  2. Functional Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Entrance to the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel Pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2015-06-19

    As an ion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator must form a continuous pathway for the movement of Cl(-) and other anions between the cytoplasm and the extracellular solution. Both the structure and the function of the membrane-spanning part of this pathway are well defined. In contrast, the structure of the pathway that connects the cytoplasm to the membrane-spanning regions is unknown, and functional roles for different parts of the protein forming this pathway have not been described. We used patch clamp recording and substituted cysteine accessibility mutagenesis to identify positively charged amino acid side chains that attract cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions to the inner mouth of the pore. Our results indicate that the side chains of Lys-190, Arg-248, Arg-303, Lys-370, Lys-1041, and Arg-1048, located in different intracellular loops of the protein, play important roles in the electrostatic attraction of Cl(-) ions. Mutation and covalent modification of these residues have charge-dependent effects on the rate of Cl(-) permeation, demonstrating their functional role in maximization of Cl(-) flux. Other nearby positively charged side chains were not involved in electrostatic interactions with Cl(-). The location of these Cl(-)-attractive residues suggests that cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions enter the pore via a lateral portal located between the cytoplasmic extensions to the fourth and sixth transmembrane helices; a secondary, functionally less relevant portal might exist between the extensions to the 10th and 12th transmembrane helices. These results define the cytoplasmic mouth of the pore and show how it attracts Cl(-) ions from the cytoplasm. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Conductivity and thermodynamic characteristic of superionic transition in strontium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, B.M.; Prisyazhnyj, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    Electric conductivity of strontium polycrystalline chloride in the wide temperature range including melting point is measured. Reciprocally caused anomalous behaviour of kinetic and thermodynamic properties, which relates to peculiarities of salt transition to a superionic state is established in the region of high temperatures. Thermodynamic functions corresponding to crystal anion sublattice disordering are determined and characterized. Comparative analysis of data on strontium chloride and other structural-like salts testifies about step-by-step washing-out character of superionic transition, and the depth of transition (the degree of disordering) reached at melting points relates regularly to relative sizes of cations and anions in the fluorite lattice

  4. Conductivity and electrochemical stability of concentrated aqueous choline chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, E. P.; Kudryakova, N. O.

    2017-10-01

    The conductivity and electrochemical stability of choline chloride (ChCl) solutions with water contents ranging from 20 to 39 wt % are studied. Exposing ChCl to moist ambient air yields a highly concentrated aqueous solution that, as an electrolyte, exhibits the properties and variations in conductivity with temperature and concentration characteristic of other similar systems. Its electrochemical stability window, determined by cyclic voltammetry, is comparable to that of ChCl-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Products of the electrolysis of ChCl‒H2O mixtures seem to be less toxic than those of Reline, Ethaline, and Maline.

  5. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes : First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied

  6. Chloride channels regulate chondrogenesis in chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Meiyu; Duan, Yinzhong; Duan, Xiaohong

    2010-12-01

    Voltage gated chloride channels (ClCs) play an important role in the regulation of intracellular pH and cell volume homeostasis. Mutations of these genes result in genetic diseases with abnormal bone deformation and body size, indicating that ClCs may have a role in chondrogenesis. In the present study, we isolated chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells (CMMC) from Hamburg-Hamilton (HH) stage 26 chick embryos and induced chondrocyte maturation by using ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (AA-BGP). We also determined the effect of the chloride channel inhibitor NPPB [5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid] on regulation of growth, differentiation, and gene expression in these cells using MTT and real-time PCR assays. We found that CLCN1 and CLCN3-7 mRNA were expressed in CMMC and NPPB reduced expression of CLCN3, CLCN5, and CLCN7 mRNA in these cells. At the same time, NPPB inhibited the growth of the CMMC, but had no effect on the mRNA level of cyclin D1 and cyclin E (P>0.05) with/without AA-BGP treatment. AA-BGP increased markers for early chondrocyte differentiation including type II collagen, aggrecan (Ptype X collagen. NPPB antagonized AA-BGP-induced expression of type II collagen and aggrecan (Ptype X collagen (PType X collagen might function as a target of chloride channel inhibitors during the differentiation process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Conductivity of Thionyl Chloride-Lithium Tetrachloroaluminate Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Hjuler, H. A.; Søndergaard, A. P. L.

    1989-01-01

    The specific conductivity of solutions of LiAlCl4 dissolved in SOCl2 was determined as a function of composition andtemperature. An analytical expression from which the conductivity can be calculated is given as a function of the molefraction of LiAlCl4 and temperature in the ranges from 0° to 0...

  8. Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    styrenesulphonic acid) with bariumchloride dihydrate (BaCl 2 ·2H 2 O) salt complex has been synthesized following the usual solution casting. The ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte was analysed by impedance spectroscopy. The highest room ...

  9. Conductivity of Thionyl Chloride-Lithium Tetrachloroaluminate Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Rolf W.; Hjuler, H. A.; Søndergaard, A. P. L.; Bjerrum, Niels

    1989-01-01

    The specific conductivity of solutions of LiAlCl4 dissolved in SOCl2 was determined as a function of composition andtemperature. An analytical expression from which the conductivity can be calculated is given as a function of the molefraction of LiAlCl4 and temperature in the ranges from 0° to 0.37°C and from –20° to +70°C, respectively.

  10. Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-26

    Jul 26, 2017 ... the present research is to reveal the effect of BaCl2 on the ionic conductivity ... pared polymer electrolyte was recorded and energy band gap was evaluated from ... The XRD analysis is useful to determine the structural and.

  11. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber an...

  12. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... antagonist diltiazem (10(-6) mol/L) abolished K+-induced contractions. Bicarbonate did not modify the sensitivity to chloride. Norepinephrine (10(-6) mol/L) induced full contraction in depolarized vessels even in the absence of chloride. Iodide and nitrate were substituted for chloride with no inhibitory...

  13. Simulation of specific conductance and chloride concentration in Abercorn Creek, Georgia, 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Roehl, Edwin A.; Davie, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Savannah operates an industrial and domestic water-supply intake on Abercorn Creek approximately 2 miles from the confluence with the Savannah River upstream from the Interstate 95 bridge. Chloride concentrations are a major concern for the city because industrial customers require water with low chloride concentrations, and elevated chloride concentrations require additional water treatment in order to meet those needs. The proposed deepening of Savannah Harbor could increase chloride concentrations (the major ion in seawater) in the upper reaches of the lower Savannah River estuary, including Abercorn Creek. To address this concern, mechanistic and empirical modeling approaches were used to simulate chloride concentrations at the city's intake to evaluate potential effects from deepening the Savannah Harbor. The first approach modified the mechanistic Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model developed by Tetra Tech and used for evaluating proposed harbor deepening effects for the Environmental Impact Statement. Chloride concentrations were modeled directly with the EFDC model as a conservative tracer. This effort was done by Tetra Tech under a separate funding agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and documented in a separate report. The second approach, described in this report, was to simulate chloride concentrations by developing empirical models from the available data using artificial neural network (ANN) and linear regression models. The empirical models used daily streamflow, specific conductance (field measurement for salinity), water temperature, and water color time series for inputs. Because there are only a few data points that describe the relation between high specific conductance values at the Savannah River at Interstate 95 and the water plant intake, there was a concern that these few data points would determine the extrapolation of the empirical model and potentially underestimate the effect of deepening the harbor on

  14. Effect of Chlorides on Conductivity and Dielectric Constant in Hardened Cement Mortar: NDT for Durability Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric constant and conductivity, the so-called EM properties (electromagnetic, are widely adopted for NDT (Nondestructive Technique in order to detect damage or evaluate performance of concrete without damage to existing RC (reinforced concrete. Among deteriorating agents, chloride ion is considered as one of the most critical threats due to rapid penetration and direct effect on steel corrosion. In the work, cement mortar samples with 3 w/c (water-to-cement ratios and 4 levels of chloride addition are considered. Conductivity and dielectric constant are measured in the normal frequency range. They increase with strength of mortar and more chloride ions due to denser pore formation. Furthermore, the behaviors of measured EM property are investigated with carbonation velocity and strength, which shows an attempt of application to durability evaluation through EM measurement.

  15. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...

  16. Potential of plant growth regulator and chlormequat chloride on alfalfa seed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. S.; Lin, H.; Han, W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs) has opened new prospects for increased seed production in grasses and legumes, but little information is available on the effects of PGRs combination with chlormequat chloride (CCC) on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed yield components. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of applying chlormequat chloride in combination with three PGRs (Naphthylacetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid 3 (GA), and brassinolide (BR)) on seed yield, aboveground biomass, plant height, lodging, yield components. CCC was applied annually at the stooling stage while three PGRs were applied twice each year at the stages of flower bud formation and peak flowering. Results provides evidence that: (i) each PGR consistently increased seed yields, and the numbers of seeds per stem compared to untreated plants; (ii) CCC treatment reduced plant height and lodging, but also significantly decreased seed yield and did not affect aboveground biomass. (iii) effectiveness of CCC application depends on climatic conditions, especially in North-east China. (iiii) the optimum combination of CCC with a PGR to increase alfalfa seed production was failed to identify. (iiiii) no interactions between PGRs and CCC on seed yield were observed and neither the PGRs nor the CCC. But alfalfa seed yield could be improved by combining a PGR such as NAA. Our Results suggest that these PGRs could be used in alfalfa breeding to increase seed yield while maintaining high seed quality. (author)

  17. SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE COTRANSPORT IN THE REGULATION OF VASCULAR MYOGENIC TONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  18. Structure and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Morales

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Mutations in the CFTR gene may result in a defective processing of its protein and alter the function and regulation of this channel. Mutations are associated with different symptoms, including pancreatic insufficiency, bile duct obstruction, infertility in males, high sweat Cl-, intestinal obstruction, nasal polyp formation, chronic sinusitis, mucus dehydration, and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus lung infection, responsible for 90% of the mortality of CF patients. The gene responsible for the cellular defect in CF was cloned in 1989 and its protein product CFTR is activated by an increase of intracellular cAMP. The CFTR contains two membrane domains, each with six transmembrane domain segments, two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs, and a cytoplasmic domain. In this review we discuss the studies that have correlated the role of each CFTR domain in the protein function as a chloride channel and as a regulator of the outwardly rectifying Cl- channels (ORCCs.

  19. Enhancement of conductivity in polyaniline-[poly(vinylidene chloride)-co-(vinyl acetate)] blends by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodugoez-Sentuerk, Hatice; Gueven, Olgun

    2011-01-01

    In this study we have prepared conductive poly(aniline), (PANI) blends with poly(vinylidene chloride-co-vinyl acetate), [P(VDC-co-VAc)] copolymer with varying compositions using gamma radiation to induce conductivity. A number of blends with different compositions were prepared by solution casting followed by irradiation in a 60 Co gamma cell to different doses up to 800 kGy. Electrical conductivity of the blends was measured before and after irradiation using a four-probe technique. Increasing radiation dose resulted in an increase of 9 orders of magnitude in the conductivity of P(VDC-co-VAc)/(PANI) films reaching 0.1 S/cm at 500 kGy and beyond this dose a decrease was observed. Effect of film thickness on conductivity of the blends was investigated and a slight increase of an order of magnitude was observed on increasing the film thickness from 50 to 200 μm. It was also observed that PANI blends exhibited a stretch dependent small increase in conductivity. The conductivity of the irradiated films was found to be stable for up to 12 months under ambient conditions.

  20. Electrical conductivity of molten carbonate and carbonate-chloride systems coexisting with aluminium oxide powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V. [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural State Economic Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bovet, Andrey L.; Zakiryanova, Irina D. [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2018-04-01

    The electrical properties of composite electrolytes (suspensions) composed of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and molten carbonate eutectic (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} or molten carbonate-chloride mixture 0.72(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut}-0.28NaCl have been investigated by AC impedance method. This system shows a dependence of the electrical conductivity upon the temperature and the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The specific electrical conductivity of the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} system can be adequately described by the Maxwell equation for two-phase heterogeneous materials. The regression equation for the dependence of the specific conductivity of the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} composite on the aluminium oxide concentration and temperature was obtained.

  1. High-temperature dehydration behavior and ionic conduction of 2,5-dimethylanilinium chloride monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidara, Sameh, E-mail: sameh_guidara@yahoo.fr; Feki, Habib; Abid, Younes

    2016-07-05

    The 2,5-dimethylanilinium chloride monohydrate compound is obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature. This material is characterized by DSC, X-Ray powder diffraction, Raman and impedance spectroscopy technique measured in the 2.10{sup 2}–5.10{sup 6} Hz frequency and 292–422 K temperature ranges. The calorimetric study has revealed three endothermic peaks at 355 K, 392 K and 403 K which defines four successive phases denoted I, II, III and IV. The first peak corresponds to water escape from the crystal. After heating above 355 K, the compound dehydrates and the crystal space group changes from non-centrosymmetric to centrosymmetric symmetry. The activation energy responsible for dielectric relaxation extracted from the modulus spectra is found to be almost the same as the value obtained from temperature variation of dc conductivity for phases I and IV. These results indicate that the transport is through ion hopping mechanism. The influence of the dehydration process on the compound conductivity was also discussed. - Highlights: • The calorimetric study of 2,5-DACM has revealed three endothermic peaks. • The dielectrical properties were studied using the impedance measurements. • The X ray powder diffraction has been performed. • The mobility of the charge carriers was reported and discussed.

  2. The LRRC8A Mediated “Swell Activated” Chloride Conductance Is Dispensable for Vacuolar Homeostasis in Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Behe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The dialysis of human and mouse neutrophils in patch clamp experiments in the conventional whole-cell mode induces the emergence of a chloride (Cl- current that appeared to be primarily regulated by cytoplasmic ionic strength. The characteristics of this current resembled that of the classical, and ubiquitous volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- current: strong outward rectification, selectivity sequence of the Eisenman1 type, insensitivity to external pH and strong inhibition by tamoxifen, DCPIB and WW781. We show that this current is essentially supported by the leucine rich repeat containing 8 A (LRRC8A; the naturally occurring LRRC8A truncation mutant in ebo/ebo mice drastically reduced Cl- conductance in neutrophils. Remarkably, the residual component presents a distinct pharmacology, but appears equally potentiated by reduced ionic strength. We have investigated the role of the LRRC8A-supported current in the ionic homeostasis of the phagosomal compartment. The vacuolar pH, measured using SNARF-1 labeled Candida albicans, normally rises because of NADPH oxidase activity, and this elevation is blocked by certain Cl- channel inhibitors. However, the pH rise remains intact in neutrophils from the ebo/ebo mice which also demonstrate preserved phagocytic and respiratory burst capacities and normal-sized vacuoles. Thus, the LRRC8A-dependent conductance of neutrophils largely accounts for their “swell activated” Cl- current, but is not required for homeostasis of the phagosomal killing compartment.

  3. The Arabidopsis thylakoid chloride channel AtCLCe functions in chloride homeostasis and regulation of photosynthetic electron transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei eHerdean

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ions can be translocated across cell membranes through Cl− channels or Cl−/H+ exchangers. The thylakoid-located member of the Cl− channel CLC family in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCLCe was hypothesized to play a role in photosynthetic regulation based on the initial photosynthetic characterization of clce mutant lines. The reduced nitrate content of Arabidopsis clce mutants suggested a role in regulation of plant nitrate homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to further investigate the role of AtCLCe in the regulation of ion homeostasis and photosynthetic processes in the thylakoid membrane. We report that the size and composition of proton motive force were mildly altered in two independent Arabidopsis clce mutant lines. Most pronounced effects in the clce mutants were observed on the photosynthetic electron transport of dark-adapted plants, based on the altered shape and associated parameters of the polyphasic OJIP kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction. Other alterations were found in the kinetics of state transition and in the macro-organisation of photosystem II supercomplexes, as indicated by circular dichroism measurements. Pre-treatment with KCl but not with KNO3 restored the wild-type photosynthetic phenotype. Analyses by transmission electron microscopy revealed a bow-like arrangement of the thylakoid network and a large thylakoid-free stromal region in chloroplast sections from the dark-adapted clce plants. Based on these data, we propose that AtCLCe functions in Cl− homeostasis after transition from light to dark, which affects chloroplast ultrastructure and regulation of photosynthetic electron transport.

  4. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in the gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Gout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CFTR gene is unique within the ATP-binding cassette (ABC protein family, predominantly of transporters, by coding a chloride channel. The gating mechanism of ABC proteins has been characterized by the ATP Switch model in terms cycles of dimer formation and dissociation linked to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. It would be of interest to assess the extent that Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR, a functional channel, fits the ATP Switch model for ABC transporters. Additional transporter mechanisms, namely those of Pgp and HlyB, are discussed for perspective. Literature search of databases selected key references in comparing and contrasting the gating mechanism. CFTR is a functional chloride channel facilitating transmembrane anion flow down electrochemical gradients. A dysfunctional CFTR protein results in cystic fibrosis, a fatal pleiotropic disease currently managed symptomatically. Understanding the gating mechanism will help target drug development aimed at alleviating and curing the disease.

  5. Gating of human ClC-2 chloride channels and regulation by carboxy-terminal domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Olivares, Jennie; Alekov, Alexi; Boroumand, Mohammad Reza; Begemann, Birgit; Hidalgo, Patricia; Fahlke, Christoph

    2008-11-15

    Eukaryotic ClC channels are dimeric proteins with each subunit forming an individual protopore. Single protopores are gated by a fast gate, whereas the slow gate is assumed to control both protopores through a cooperative movement of the two carboxy-terminal domains. We here study the role of the carboxy-terminal domain in modulating fast and slow gating of human ClC-2 channels, a ubiquitously expressed ClC-type chloride channel involved in transepithelial solute transport and in neuronal chloride homeostasis. Partial truncation of the carboxy-terminus abolishes function of ClC-2 by locking the channel in a closed position. However, unlike other isoforms, its complete removal preserves function of ClC-2. ClC-2 channels without the carboxy-terminus exhibit fast and slow gates that activate and deactivate significantly faster than in WT channels. In contrast to the prevalent view, a single carboxy-terminus suffices for normal slow gating, whereas both domains regulate fast gating of individual protopores. Our findings demonstrate that the carboxy-terminus is not strictly required for slow gating and that the cooperative gating resides in other regions of the channel protein. ClC-2 is expressed in neurons and believed to open at negative potentials and increased internal chloride concentrations after intense synaptic activity. We propose that the function of the ClC-2 carboxy-terminus is to slow down the time course of channel activation in order to stabilize neuronal excitability.

  6. Thionyl chloride assisted functionalization of amorphous carbon nanotubes: A better field emitter and stable nanofluid with better thermal conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, S.K.; Jha, A. [School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chattopadhyay, K.K., E-mail: kalyan_chattopadhyay@yahoo.com [Thin Film & Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Thionyl chloride assisted functionalization of amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs). • Improved dispersion enhanced thermal conductivity of engine oil. • Again f-a-CNTs showed enhanced field emission property compared to pure a-CNTs. - Abstract: Amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) were synthesized at low temperature in open atmosphere and further functionalized by treating them in thionyl chloride added stearic acid-dichloro methane solution. The as prepared functionalized a-CNTs (f-a-CNTs) were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The nanofluid was prepared by dispersing f-a-CNTs in engine oil using ultrasonic treatment. The effective thermal conductivity of as prepared nanofluid was investigated at different loading (volume fraction of f-a-CNTs). Obtained experimental data of thermal conductivity were compared with the predicted values, calculated using existing theoretical models. Stability of the nanofluid was tested by means of zeta potential measurement to optimize the loading. The as prepared f-a-CNTs sample also showed improved field emission result as compared to pristine a-CNTs. Dependence of field emission behavior on inter electrode distance was investigated too.

  7. The transition from proliferation to differentiation in colorectal cancer is regulated by the calcium activated chloride channel A1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    Full Text Available Breaking the balance between proliferation and differentiation in animal cells can lead to cancer, but the mechanisms maintaining this balance remain largely undefined. The calcium activated chloride channel A1 (CLCA1 is a member of the calcium sensitive chloride conductance family of proteins and is expressed mainly in the colon, small intestine and appendix. We show that CLCA1 plays a functional role in differentiation and proliferation of Caco-2 cells and of intestinal tissue. Caco-2 cells spontaneously differentiate either in confluent culture or when treated with butyrate, a molecule present naturally in the diet. Here, we compared CLCA1 expressional levels between patients with and without colorectal cancer (CRC and determined the functional role of CLCA1 in differentiation and proliferation of Caco-2 cells. We showed that: 1 CLCA1 and CLCA4 expression were down-regulated significantly in CRC patients; 2 CLCA1 expression was up-regulated in Caco-2 cells induced to differentiate by confluent culture or by treatment with sodium butyrate (NaBT; 3 Knockdown of CLCA1 with siRNA significantly inhibited cell differentiation and promoted cell proliferation in Caco-2 confluent cultures, and 4 In Caco-2 3D culture, suppression of CLCA1 significantly increased cell proliferation and compromised NaBT-induced inhibition of proliferation. In conclusion, CLCA1 may contribute to promoting spontaneous differentiation and reducing proliferation of Caco-2 cells and may be a target of NaBT-induced inhibition of proliferation and therefore a potential diagnostic marker for CRC prognosis.

  8. 78 FR 55171 - Removal of Standards of Ethical Conduct Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Ethical Conduct Regulations AGENCY: Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. ACTION: Final rule... concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), issued a final rule for employees of the SIGIR that supplemented the executive-branch-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct (Standards) issued by OGE. With certain...

  9. Thermal conductivity and magnon-phonon resonant interaction in antiferromagnetic ferrous chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, Guy

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus has been studied and built to measure thermal conductivity between 0,3 K and 80 K. The thermal conductivity in the c plane and along the c axis have been measured in FeCl 2 . These results show an anomalous behaviour of the thermal conductivity below the Neel temperature. A calculation of the thermal conductivity of magneto-elastic modes arising from a magnon-phonon resonant interaction renders an account of this behaviour. From the present results, the magneto-elastic coupling constant G 44 is found to be 3,5 meV. Finally, an experimental study of the thermal conductivity magnetic field dependence of FeCl 2 was performed.(author) [fr

  10. Role of Interaction and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase B in Regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function by cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A Borthwick

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA and ATP-regulated chloride channel. Here, we demonstrate that nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B, NM23-H2 forms a functional complex with CFTR. In airway epithelia forskolin/IBMX significantly increases NDPK-B co-localisation with CFTR whereas PKA inhibitors attenuate complex formation. Furthermore, an NDPK-B derived peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent disrupts the NDPK-B/CFTR complex in vitro (19-mers comprising amino acids 36-54 from NDPK-B or NDPK-A. Overlay (Far-Western and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR analysis both demonstrate that NDPK-B binds CFTR within its first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1, CFTR amino acids 351-727. Analysis of chloride currents reflective of CFTR or outwardly rectifying chloride channels (ORCC, DIDS-sensitive showed that the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent reduced both chloride conductances. Additionally, the NDPK-B (but not NDPK-A peptide also attenuated acetylcholine-induced intestinal short circuit currents. In silico analysis of the NBD1/NDPK-B complex reveals an extended interaction surface between the two proteins. This binding zone is also target of the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide, thus confirming its capability to disrupt NDPK-B/CFTR complex. We propose that NDPK-B forms part of the complex that controls chloride currents in epithelia.

  11. Regulation of gap junction conductance by calcineurin through Cx43 phosphorylation: implications for action potential conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabr, Rita I; Hatch, Fiona S; Salvage, Samantha C; Orlowski, Alejandro; Lampe, Paul D; Fry, Christopher H

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are associated with raised intracellular [Ca 2+ ] and slowed action potential conduction caused by reduced gap junction (GJ) electrical conductance (Gj). Ventricular GJs are composed of connexin proteins (Cx43), with Gj determined by Cx43 phosphorylation status. Connexin phosphorylation is an interplay between protein kinases and phosphatases but the precise pathways are unknown. We aimed to identify key Ca 2+ -dependent phosphorylation sites on Cx43 that regulate cardiac gap junction conductance and action potential conduction velocity. We investigated the role of the Ca 2+ -dependent phosphatase, calcineurin. Intracellular [Ca 2+ ] was raised in guinea-pig myocardium by a low-Na solution or increased stimulation. Conduction velocity and Gj were measured in multicellular strips. Phosphorylation of Cx43 serine residues (S365 and S368) and of the intermediary regulator I1 at threonine35 was measured by Western blot. Measurements were made in the presence and absence of inhibitors to calcineurin, I1 or protein phosphatase-1 and phosphatase-2.Raised [Ca 2 + ] i decreased Gj, reduced Cx43 phosphorylation at S365 and increased it at S368; these changes were reversed by calcineurin inhibitors. Cx43-S368 phosphorylation was reversed by the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine. Raised [Ca 2+ ] i also decreased I1 phosphorylation, also prevented by calcineurin inhibitors, to increase activity of the Ca 2+ -independent phosphatase, PPI. The PP1 inhibitor, tautomycin, prevented Cx43-365 dephosphorylation, Cx43-S368 phosphorylation and Gj reduction in raised [Ca 2+ ] i . PP2A had no role. Conduction velocity was reduced by raised [Ca 2+ ] i and reversed by calcineurin inhibitors. Reduced action potential conduction and Gj in raised [Ca 2+ ] are regulated by calcineurin-dependent Cx43-S365 phosphorylation, leading to Cx43-S368 dephosphorylation. The calcineurin action is indirect, via I1 dephosphorylation and subsequent activation of PP1.

  12. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator intracellular processing, trafficking, and opportunities for mutation-specific treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rogan, Mark P

    2012-02-01

    Recent advances in basic science have greatly expanded our understanding of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the chloride and bicarbonate channel that is encoded by the gene, which is mutated in patients with CF. We review the structure, function, biosynthetic processing, and intracellular trafficking of CFTR and discuss the five classes of mutations and their impact on the CF phenotype. The therapeutic discussion is focused on the significant progress toward CFTR mutation-specific therapies. We review the results of encouraging clinical trials examining orally administered therapeutics, including agents that promote read-through of class I mutations (premature termination codons); correctors, which overcome the CFTR misfolding that characterizes the common class II mutation F508del; and potentiators, which enhance the function of class III or IV mutated CFTR at the plasma membrane. Long-term outcomes from successful mutation-specific treatments could finally answer the question that has been lingering since and even before the CFTR gene discovery: Will therapies that specifically restore CFTR-mediated chloride secretion slow or arrest the deleterious cascade of events leading to chronic infection, bronchiectasis, and end-stage lung disease?

  13. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  14. Conductive Au nanowires regulated by silk fibroin nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo-Ju; Lu, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Conductive Au-biopolymer composites have promising applications in tissue engineering such as nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, silk fibroin nanofibers were formed in aqueous solution by regulating silk self-assembly process and then used as template for Au nanowire fabrication. We performed the synthesis of Au seeds by repeating the seeding cycles for several times in order to increase the density of Au seeds on the nanofibers. After electroless plating, densely decorated Au seeds grew into irregularly shaped particles following silk nanofiber to fill the gaps between particles and finally form uniform continuous nanowires. The conductive property of the Au-silk fibroin nanowires was studied with current-voltage ( I-V) measurement. A typical ohmic behavior was observed, which highlighted their potential applications in nerve tissue regeneration.

  15. GmCLC1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance through Regulating Chloride Accumulation in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The family of chloride channel proteins that mediate Cl- transportation play vital roles in plant nutrient supply, cellular action potential and turgor pressure adjustment, stomatal movement, hormone signal recognition and transduction, Cl- homeostasis, and abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. The anionic toxicity, mainly caused by chloride ions (Cl-, on plants under salt stress remains poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the function of soybean Cl-/H+ antiporter GmCLC1 under salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, soybean, and yeast. We found that GmCLC1 enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic A. thaliana by reducing the Cl- accumulation in shoots and hence released the negative impact of salt stress on plant growth. Overexpression of GmCLC1 in the hairy roots of soybean sequestered more Cl- in their roots and transferred less Cl- to their shoots, leading to lower relative electrolyte leakage values in the roots and leaves. When either the soybean GmCLC1 or the yeast chloride transporter gene, GEF1, was transformed into the yeast gef1 mutant, and then treated with different chloride salts (MnCl2, KCl, NaCl, enhanced survival rate was observed. The result indicates that GmCLC1 and GEF1 exerted similar effects on alleviating the stress of diverse chloride salts on the yeast gef1 mutant. Together, this work suggests a protective function of GmCLC1 under Cl- stress.

  16. Targeting a genetic defect: cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulators in cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Derichs

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is caused by genetic mutations that affect the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein. These mutations can impact the synthesis and transfer of the CFTR protein to the apical membrane of epithelial cells, as well as influencing the gating or conductance of chloride and bicarbonate ions through the channel. CFTR dysfunction results in ionic imbalance of epithelial secretions in several organ systems, such as the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, liver and the respiratory system. Since discovery of the CFTR gene in 1989, research has focussed on targeting the underlying genetic defect to identify a disease-modifying treatment for CF. Investigated management strategies have included gene therapy and the development of small molecules that target CFTR mutations, known as CFTR modulators. CFTR modulators are typically identified by high-throughput screening assays, followed by preclinical validation using cell culture systems. Recently, one such modulator, the CFTR potentiator ivacaftor, was approved as an oral therapy for CF patients with the G551D-CFTR mutation. The clinical development of ivacaftor not only represents a breakthrough in CF care but also serves as a noteworthy example of personalised medicine.

  17. Correlation between the Increasing Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions of Cation Chlorides with Time and the “Salting-Out” Properties of the Cations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Verdel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The time-dependent role of cations was investigated by ageing four different aqueous solutions of cation chlorides. A linear correlation was found between the cations’ Setchenov coefficient for the salting-out of benzene and the increase in the conductivity with time. The conductivity of the structure-breaking cations or the chaotropes increased more significantly with time than the conductivity of the kosmotropes. Since larger water clusters accelerate the proton or hydroxyl hopping mechanism, we propose that the structuring of the hydration shells of the chaotropes might be spontaneously enhanced over time.

  18. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nancy M.; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R.; Stefanski, Casey D.; Strubberg, Ashlee M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl− and HCO3− efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3−)-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3−-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl− concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl− concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl− and HCO3− efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl− and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. PMID:26542396

  19. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. The hypertonic environment differentially regulates wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, solid state d.c. electrical conductivity and biological studies of some lanthanide(III chloride complexes with a heterocyclic Schiff base ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with 2-amino-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene in 1:1 molar ratio, yielded a potentially tridentate Schiff base viz. 2-[N-(2′-hydroxy-1-naphthylideneamino]-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene (HNAT. This ligand formed complexes with lanthanum(III, cerium(III, praseodymium(III, neodymium(III, samarium(III, europium(III and gadolinium(III chloride under well defined conditions. These complexes were characterized through elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment measurements, IR, UV–Vis, FAB mass and 1H NMR spectral studies. Analytical data showed that all the metal complexes exhibited 1:1 metal–ligand ratio. Molar conductance values adequately confirmed the non-electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. The proton NMR spectral observations supplement the IR spectral assignments. The spectral data revealed that the ligand acted as neutral tridentate, coordinating to the metal ion through azomethine nitrogen, ester carbonyl and naphtholate oxygen without deprotonation. The ligand and its lanthanum(III chloride complex were subjected to XRD studies. The lanthanum(III chloride complex has undergone a facile transesterification reaction. The solid state d.c. electrical conductivity of some selected complexes were measured as a function of temperature, indicating the semiconducting nature of the metal complexes. The antimicrobial activities were examined by disk diffusion method against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species.

  2. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Guoli; Yao, Guangmin; Zhan, Guanqun; Hu, Yufeng [Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei PR China (China); Yue, Ming [Hubei Key Laboratory of Drug Target Research and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Cheng, Ling; Liu, Yaping; Ye, Qi [Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei PR China (China); Qing, Guoliang [Hubei Key Laboratory of Drug Target Research and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhang, Yonghui, E-mail: zhangyh@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei PR China (China); Liu, Hudan, E-mail: hudanliu@hust.edu.cn [Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei PR China (China)

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes. - Highlights: • N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid. • NMHC exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity. • NMHC leads to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased metabolism. • NMHC down-regulates the AKT signaling pathway.

  3. Talking about Emotion: Prosody and Skin Conductance Indicate Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Matejka, Moritz; Kazzer, Philipp; Seehausen, Maria; Bajbouj, Malek; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Prehn, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Talking about emotion and putting feelings into words has been hypothesized to regulate emotion in psychotherapy as well as in everyday conversation. However, the exact dynamics of how different strategies of verbalization regulate emotion and how these strategies are reflected in characteristics of the voice has received little scientific attention. In the present study, we showed emotional pictures to 30 participants and asked them to verbally admit or deny an emotional experience or a neut...

  4. Autoradiographic localization of GABA-regulated chloride ionophore binding site using t-[3H]butylbicycloorthobenzoate (TBOB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, L.H.; McEwen, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    t-Butylbicycloorthobenzoate (TBOB) has been shown to bind with high affinity to sites on or near the chloride ionophore in rat brain membrane preparations. The present study used in vitro quantitative autoradiography to localize the regional distribution of [ 3 H]TBOB binding sites in rat forebrain. Receptors were labelled with 10 nM [ 3 H]TBOB. Nonspecific binding was determined by adding 10 μM picrotoxin to the incubation. Autoradiograms were generated using LKB Ultrofilm and then quantitated using computer-assisted spot-densitometry. The highest specific binding was found in frontal cortex layer 4, islands of Calleja, and ventral palladium. High binding was also found in many regions including anterior hypothalamic n., ventromedial hypothalamic n., dentate gyrus, stratum oriens and stratum lacunosum moleculare of hippocampus, and substantia nigra. Nonspecific binding represented 5 to 15% of total binding and was uniformly low throughout all brain regions. Thus, this selective probe for GABA-regulated chloride ionophore binding sites should provide a useful tool for characterizing this system and its relationship to convulsant and depressant drug action

  5. Using hydraulic head, chloride and electrical conductivity data to distinguish between mountain-front and mountain-block recharge to basin aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Etienne; Cranswick, Roger H.; Banks, Eddie W.; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Cook, Peter G.; Batelaan, Okke

    2018-03-01

    Numerous basin aquifers in arid and semi-arid regions of the world derive a significant portion of their recharge from adjacent mountains. Such recharge can effectively occur through either stream infiltration in the mountain-front zone (mountain-front recharge, MFR) or subsurface flow from the mountain (mountain-block recharge, MBR). While a thorough understanding of recharge mechanisms is critical for conceptualizing and managing groundwater systems, distinguishing between MFR and MBR is difficult. We present an approach that uses hydraulic head, chloride and electrical conductivity (EC) data to distinguish between MFR and MBR. These variables are inexpensive to measure, and may be readily available from hydrogeological databases in many cases. Hydraulic heads can provide information on groundwater flow directions and stream-aquifer interactions, while chloride concentrations and EC values can be used to distinguish between different water sources if these have a distinct signature. Such information can provide evidence for the occurrence or absence of MFR and MBR. This approach is tested through application to the Adelaide Plains basin, South Australia. The recharge mechanisms of this basin have long been debated, in part due to difficulties in understanding the hydraulic role of faults. Both hydraulic head and chloride (equivalently, EC) data consistently suggest that streams are gaining in the adjacent Mount Lofty Ranges and losing when entering the basin. Moreover, the data indicate that not only the Quaternary aquifers but also the deeper Tertiary aquifers are recharged through MFR and not MBR. It is expected that this finding will have a significant impact on the management of water resources in the region. This study demonstrates the relevance of using hydraulic head, chloride and EC data to distinguish between MFR and MBR.

  6. Using hydraulic head, chloride and electrical conductivity data to distinguish between mountain-front and mountain-block recharge to basin aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bresciani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous basin aquifers in arid and semi-arid regions of the world derive a significant portion of their recharge from adjacent mountains. Such recharge can effectively occur through either stream infiltration in the mountain-front zone (mountain-front recharge, MFR or subsurface flow from the mountain (mountain-block recharge, MBR. While a thorough understanding of recharge mechanisms is critical for conceptualizing and managing groundwater systems, distinguishing between MFR and MBR is difficult. We present an approach that uses hydraulic head, chloride and electrical conductivity (EC data to distinguish between MFR and MBR. These variables are inexpensive to measure, and may be readily available from hydrogeological databases in many cases. Hydraulic heads can provide information on groundwater flow directions and stream–aquifer interactions, while chloride concentrations and EC values can be used to distinguish between different water sources if these have a distinct signature. Such information can provide evidence for the occurrence or absence of MFR and MBR. This approach is tested through application to the Adelaide Plains basin, South Australia. The recharge mechanisms of this basin have long been debated, in part due to difficulties in understanding the hydraulic role of faults. Both hydraulic head and chloride (equivalently, EC data consistently suggest that streams are gaining in the adjacent Mount Lofty Ranges and losing when entering the basin. Moreover, the data indicate that not only the Quaternary aquifers but also the deeper Tertiary aquifers are recharged through MFR and not MBR. It is expected that this finding will have a significant impact on the management of water resources in the region. This study demonstrates the relevance of using hydraulic head, chloride and EC data to distinguish between MFR and MBR.

  7. Hemodynamic forces regulate developmental patterning of atrial conduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Bressan

    Full Text Available Anomalous action potential conduction through the atrial chambers of the heart can lead to severe cardiac arrhythmia. To date, however, little is known regarding the mechanisms that pattern proper atrial conduction during development. Here we demonstrate that atrial muscle functionally diversifies into at least two heterogeneous subtypes, thin-walled myocardium and rapidly conducting muscle bundles, during a developmental window just following cardiac looping. During this process, atrial muscle bundles become enriched for the fast conduction markers Cx40 and Nav1.5, similar to the precursors of the fast conduction Purkinje fiber network located within the trabeculae of the ventricles. In contrast to the ventricular trabeculae, however, atrial muscle bundles display an increased proliferation rate when compared to the surrounding myocardium. Interestingly, mechanical loading of the embryonic atrial muscle resulted in an induction of Cx40, Nav1.5 and the cell cycle marker Cyclin D1, while decreasing atrial pressure via in vivo ligation of the vitelline blood vessels results in decreased atrial conduction velocity. Taken together, these data establish a novel model for atrial conduction patterning, whereby hemodynamic stretch coordinately induces proliferation and fast conduction marker expression, which in turn promotes the formation of large diameter muscle bundles to serve as preferential routes of conduction.

  8. Adrenergic regulation of conduction velocity in cultures of immature cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, T. P.; van Rijen, H. V. M.; van der Heyden, M. A. G.; de Bakker, J. M. T.; van Veen, T. A. B.

    2008-01-01

    During cardiac maturation, increased exposure of the heart to circulating catecholamines correlates with increased conduction velocity and growth of the heart. We used an in vitro approach to study the underlying mechanisms of adrenergic stimulation induced changes in conduction velocity. By

  9. Resveratrol enhances airway surface liquid depth in sinonasal epithelium by increasing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator open probability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Chronic rhinosinusitis engenders enormous morbidity in the general population, and is often refractory to medical intervention. Compounds that augment mucociliary clearance in airway epithelia represent a novel treatment strategy for diseases of mucus stasis. A dominant fluid and electrolyte secretory pathway in the nasal airways is governed by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. The objectives of the present study were to test resveratrol, a strong potentiator of CFTR channel open probability, in preparation for a clinical trial of mucociliary activators in human sinus disease.Primary sinonasal epithelial cells, immortalized bronchoepithelial cells (wild type and F508del CFTR, and HEK293 cells expressing exogenous human CFTR were investigated by Ussing chamber as well as patch clamp technique under non-phosphorylating conditions. Effects on airway surface liquid depth were measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Impact on CFTR gene expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.Resveratrol is a robust CFTR channel potentiator in numerous mammalian species. The compound also activated temperature corrected F508del CFTR and enhanced CFTR-dependent chloride secretion in human sinus epithelium ex vivo to an extent comparable to the recently approved CFTR potentiator, ivacaftor. Using inside out patches from apical membranes of murine cells, resveratrol stimulated an ~8 picosiemens chloride channel consistent with CFTR. This observation was confirmed in HEK293 cells expressing exogenous CFTR. Treatment of sinonasal epithelium resulted in a significant increase in airway surface liquid depth (in µm: 8.08+/-1.68 vs. 6.11+/-0.47,control,p<0.05. There was no increase CFTR mRNA.Resveratrol is a potent chloride secretagogue from the mucosal surface of sinonasal epithelium, and hydrates airway surface liquid by increasing CFTR channel open probability. The foundation for a

  10. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Is a Novel Regulator of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firhan A Malik

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR attenuates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P signaling in resistance arteries and has emerged as a prominent regulator of myogenic vasoconstriction. This investigation demonstrates that S1P inhibits CFTR activity via adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK, establishing a potential feedback link. In Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK cells expressing wild-type human CFTR, S1P (1μmol/L attenuates forskolin-stimulated, CFTR-dependent iodide efflux. S1P's inhibitory effect is rapid (within 30 seconds, transient and correlates with CFTR serine residue 737 (S737 phosphorylation. Both S1P receptor antagonism (4μmol/L VPC 23019 and AMPK inhibition (80μmol/L Compound C or AMPK siRNA attenuate S1P-stimluated (i AMPK phosphorylation, (ii CFTR S737 phosphorylation and (iii CFTR activity inhibition. In BHK cells expressing the ΔF508 CFTR mutant (CFTRΔF508, the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, both S1P receptor antagonism and AMPK inhibition enhance CFTR activity, without instigating discernable correction. In summary, we demonstrate that S1P/AMPK signaling transiently attenuates CFTR activity. Since our previous work positions CFTR as a negative S1P signaling regulator, this signaling link may positively reinforce S1P signals. This discovery has clinical ramifications for the treatment of disease states associated with enhanced S1P signaling and/or deficient CFTR activity (e.g. cystic fibrosis, heart failure. S1P receptor/AMPK inhibition could synergistically enhance the efficacy of therapeutic strategies aiming to correct aberrant CFTR trafficking.

  11. 18 CFR 1300.101 - Cross references to employee ethical conduct standards and other applicable regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee ethical conduct standards and other applicable regulations. 1300.101 Section 1300.101 Conservation... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.101 Cross references to employee ethical conduct standards and other...-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635 and to the TVA regulations at 5 CFR part 7901...

  12. Dietary flavonoid fisetin regulates aluminium chloride-induced neuronal apoptosis in cortex and hippocampus of mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Dharmalingam; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2015-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been suggested to promote brain health by protecting brain parenchymal cells. Recently, understanding the possible mechanism underlying neuroprotective efficacy of flavonoids is of great interest. Given that fisetin exerts neuroprotection, we have examined the mechanisms underlying fisetin in regulating Aβ aggregation and neuronal apoptosis induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl3) administration in vivo. Male Swiss albino mice were induced orally with AlCl3 (200 mg/kg. b.wt./day/8 weeks). Fisetin (15 mg/Kg. b.wt. orally) was administered for 4 weeks before AlCl3-induction and administered simultaneously for 8 weeks during AlCl3-induction. We found aggregation of Amyloid beta (Aβ 40-42), elevated expressions of Apoptosis stimulating kinase (ASK-1), p-JNK (c-Jun N-terminal Kinase), p53, cytochrome c, caspases-9 and 3, with altered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in favour of apoptosis in cortex and hippocampus of AlCl3-administered mice. Furthermore, TUNEL and fluoro-jade C staining demonstrate neurodegeneration in cortex and hippocampus. Notably, treatment with fisetin significantly (Pfisetin treatment. We have identified the involvement of fisetin in regulating ASK-1 and p-JNK as possible mediator of Aβ aggregation and subsequent neuronal apoptosis during AlCl3-induced neurodegeneration. These findings define the possibility that fisetin may slow or prevent neurodegneration and can be utilised as neuroprotective agent against Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chloroquine uptake, altered partitioning and the basis of drug resistance: evidence for chloride-dependent ionic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiney, J A; Ferrer, A S; Cerami, A; Dzekunov, S; Roepe, P

    1999-01-01

    The biochemical mechanism of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum remains unknown. We postulated that chloroquine-resistant strains could alter ion fluxes that then indirectly control drug accumulation within the parasite by affecting pH and/or membrane potential ('altered partitioning mechanism'). Two principal intracellular pH-regulating systems in many cell types are the amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), and the sodium-independent, stilbene-sensitive Cl-/HCO3- antiporter (AE). We report that under physiological conditions (balanced CO2 and HCO3-) chloroquine uptake and susceptibility are not altered by amiloride analogues. We also do not detect a significant difference in NHE activity between chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains via single cell photometry methods. AE activity is dependent on the intracellular and extracellular concentrations of Cl- and HCO3- ions. Chloroquine-resistant strains differentially respond to experimental modifications in chloride-dependent homeostasis, including growth, cytoplasmic pH and pH regulation. Chloroquine susceptibility is altered by stilbene DIDS only on chloroquine-resistant strains. Our results suggest that a Cl(-)-dependent system (perhaps AE) has a significant effect on the uptake of chloroquine by the infected erythrocyte, and that alterations of this biophysical parameter may be part of the mechanism of chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum.

  14. A conductance study of guanidinium chloride, thiocyanate, sulfate, and carbonate in dilute aqueous solutions: ion-association and carbonate hydrolysis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Neueder, Roland; Buchner, Richard; Apelblat, Alexander

    2013-01-17

    We study the conductance of dilute aqueous solutions for a series of guandinium salts at 298.15 K. The experimental molar conductivities were analyzed within the framework of the Quint-Viallard theory in combination with Debye-Hückel activity coefficients. From this analysis, we find no evidence for significant ion association in aqueous solutions of guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) and guanidinium thiocyanate (GdmSCN), and the molar conductivity of these electrolytes can be modeled assuming a complete dissociation. The limiting ionic conductivity of the guanidinium ion (Gdm(+)) is accurately determined to λ(Gdm(+)) = 51.45 ± 0.10 S cm(2) mol(-1). For the bivalent salts guanidinium sulfate (Gdm(2)SO(4)) and guanidinium carbonate (Gdm(2)CO(3)), the molar conductivities show small deviations from ideal (fully dissociated electrolyte) behavior, which are related to weak ion association in solution. Furthermore, for solutions of Gdm(2)CO(3), the hydrolysis of the carbonate anion leads to distinctively increased molar conductivities at high dilutions. The observed ion association is rather weak for all studied electrolytes and cannot explain the different protein denaturing activities of the studied guanidinium salts, as has been proposed previously.

  15. Bicarbonate/chloride antiport in Vero cells: II. Mechanisms for bicarbonate-dependent regulation of intracellular pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsnes, S.; Ludt, J.; Tonnessen, T.I.; Sandvig, K.

    1987-01-01

    The rates of bicarbonate-dependent uptake and efflux of 22 Na + in Vero cells were studied and compared with the uptake and efflux of 36 Cl - . Both processes were strongly inhibited by DIDS. Whereas the transport of chloride increased approximately ten-fold when the internal pH was increased over a narrow range around neutrality, the uptake of Na + was much less affected by changes in pH. The bicarbonate-linked uptake of 22 Na + was dependent on internal Cl- but not on internal Na + . At a constant external concentration of HCO 3 -, the amount of 22 Na + associated with the cells increased when the internal concentration of HCO 3 - decreased and vice versa, which is compatible with the possibility that the ion pair NaCO 3 - is the transported species and that the transport is symmetric across the membrane. Bicarbonate inhibited the uptake of 36 Cl - both in the absence and presence of Na + . At alkaline internal pH, HCO 3 - stimulated the efflux of 36 Cl - from preloaded cells, while at acidic internal pH both Na + and HCO 3 - were required to induce 36 Cl - efflux. We propose a model for how bicarbonate-dependent regulation of the internal pH may occur. This model implies the existence of two bicarbonate transport mechanisms that, under physiological conditions, transport OH(-)-equivalents in opposite directions across the plasma membrane

  16. 25 CFR 1000.464 - What personal conflicts of interest must the standards of conduct regulate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conduct regulate? 1000.464 Section 1000.464 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... interest must the standards of conduct regulate? The personal conflicts of interest standards must: (a... financial interest or an employment relationship; (b) Prohibit such officers, employees, or agents from...

  17. 25 CFR 900.235 - What personal conflicts of interest must the standards of conduct regulate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conduct regulate? 900.235 Section 900.235 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... must the standards of conduct regulate? The standards must prohibit an officer, employee, or agent... involving an entity in which such persons have a direct financial interest or an employment relationship. It...

  18. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic acidosis ) or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis ). A decreased level of blood chloride (called hypochloremia) ... disease , emphysema or other chronic lung diseases (causing respiratory ... metabolic alkalosis). An increased level of urine chloride can indicate ...

  19. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the

  20. 3 CFR 100.1 - Ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure... § 100.1 Ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Executive Office of the President are subject to the executive branch-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR...

  1. Electrical Conductivity of Molten DyCl3-NaCl and DyCl3-KCl Systems: An Approach to Structural Interpretations of Rare Earth Chloride Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwadate, Yasuhiko; Ohkubo, Takahiro

    2017-11-01

    Electrical conductivities (κs) of molten DyCl3-NaCl and DyCl3-KCl systems were estimated by measuring the impedances of each mixture melt at any temperature and/or frequency. The molar volumes (Vms) were measured by dilatometry and represented as a polynomial empirical equation of temperature and composition. Due to both the properties, the molar conductivities (Λms) were calculated and their temperature and/or composition dependences were discussed from the standpoint of structural features as well. The κs increased curvilinearly with increasing temperature across the whole composition ranges. This trend was also applied to the Λms which was fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The relationship of Λms with melt composition was studied and the Λms were found to decrease with increasing composition of DyCl3. These findings were interpreted based on the results of structural science so far reported, and finally, the relationship between Λms and the structures of pure rare earth chloride melts was discussed.

  2. 36 CFR 400.1 - Cross-references to employees' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and other conduct rules. 400.1 Section 400.1... CONDUCT § 400.1 Cross-references to employees' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations... executive branch-wide standards of ethical conduct and financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR parts 2634...

  3. Chloride Anions Regulate Kinetics but Not Voltage-Sensor Qmax of the Solute Carrier SLC26a5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Song, Lei

    2016-06-07

    In general, SLC26 solute carriers serve to transport a variety of anions across biological membranes. However, prestin (SLC26a5) has evolved, now serving as a motor protein in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian inner ear and is required for cochlear amplification, a mechanical feedback mechanism to boost auditory performance. The mechanical activity of the OHC imparted by prestin is driven by voltage and controlled by anions, chiefly intracellular chloride. Current opinion is that chloride anions control the Boltzmann characteristics of the voltage sensor responsible for prestin activity, including Qmax, the total sensor charge moved within the membrane, and Vh, a measure of prestin's operating voltage range. Here, we show that standard narrow-band, high-frequency admittance measures of nonlinear capacitance (NLC), an alternate representation of the sensor's charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship, is inadequate for assessment of Qmax, an estimate of the sum of unitary charges contributed by all voltage sensors within the membrane. Prestin's slow transition rates and chloride-binding kinetics adversely influence these estimates, contributing to the prevalent concept that intracellular chloride level controls the quantity of sensor charge moved. By monitoring charge movement across frequency, using measures of multifrequency admittance, expanded displacement current integration, and OHC electromotility, we find that chloride influences prestin kinetics, thereby controlling charge magnitude at any particular frequency of interrogation. Importantly, however, this chloride dependence vanishes as frequency decreases, with Qmax asymptoting at a level irrespective of the chloride level. These data indicate that prestin activity is significantly low-pass in the frequency domain, with important implications for cochlear amplification. We also note that the occurrence of voltage-dependent charge movements in other SLC26 family members may be hidden by inadequate

  4. Distribution of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR Mutations in a Cohort of Patients Residing in Palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Siryani

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive inherited life-threatening disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs and the digestive system. In Palestine, mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR that contributes to the clinical presentation of CF are ill defined. A cohort of thirty three clinically diagnosed CF patients from twenty one different Palestinian families residing in the central and southern part of Palestine were incorporated in this study. Sweat chloride testing was performed using the Sweat Chek Conductivity Analyzer (ELITECH Group, France to confirm the clinical diagnosis of CF. In addition, nucleic acid from the patients' blood samples was extracted and the CFTR mutation profiles were assessed by direct sequencing of the CFTR 27 exons and the intron-exon boundaries. For patient's DNA samples where no homozygous or two heterozygous CFTR mutations were identified by exon sequencing, DNA samples were tested for deletions or duplications using SALSA MLPA probemix P091-D1 CFTR assay. Sweat chloride testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis of CF in those patients. All patients had NaCl conductivity >60 mmol/l. In addition, nine different CFTR mutations were identified in all 21 different families evaluated. These mutations were c.1393-1G>A, F508del, W1282X, G85E, c.313delA, N1303K, deletion exons 17a-17b-18, deletion exons 17a-17b and Q1100P. c.1393-1G>A was shown to be the most frequent occurring mutation among tested families. We have profiled the underling mutations in the CFTR gene of a cohort of 21 different families affected by CF. Unlike other studies from the Arab countries where F508del was reported to be the most common mutation, in southern/central Palestine, the c.1393-1G>A appeared to be the most common. Further studies are needed per sample size and geographic distribution to account for other possible CFTR genetic alterations and their frequencies. Genotype

  5. 41 CFR 105-735.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations, and other regulations. 105-735.1... CONDUCT § 105-735.1 Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure... executive branch-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, GSA's regulations at 5 CFR part 6701...

  6. Comments on the paper: 'Optical reflectance, optical refractive index and optical conductivity measurements of nonlinear optics for L-aspartic acid nickel chloride single crystal'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Naik, Suvidha G.; Dhavskar, Kiran T.

    2016-02-01

    We argue that the 'L-aspartic acid nickel chloride' crystal reported by the authors of the title paper (Optics Communications, 291 (2013) 304-308) is actually the well-known diaqua(L-aspartato)nickel(II) hydrate crystal.

  7. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations: do they play a role in the aetiology of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, T E; Weiner Miller, P; Garrett, J E; Cutting, G R

    2002-05-01

    Previous work suggests that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations may be implicated in the aetiology of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis (ABPA). To compare the frequency of CF gene mutations in asthmatics with ABPA of varying severity with asthmatics who were skin prick test (SPT)-positive to Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) without evidence of ABPA and asthmatics SPT-negative to Af. Thirty-one Caucasian patients with ABPA were identified, together with asthmatics SPT positive to Af without evidence of ABPA (n = 23) and SPT negative to Af (n = 28). Genomic DNA was tested for 16 CF mutations accounting for approximately 85% of CF alleles in Caucasian New Zealanders. Four (12.9%) ABPA patients were found to be carriers of a CF mutation (DeltaF508 n = 3, R117H n = 1), one (4.3%) asthmatic SPT positive to Af without ABPA (DeltaF508), and one (3.6%) asthmatic SPT negative to Af (R117H). All patients with a CF mutation had normal sweat chloride (< 40 mM). There was no significant difference between the frequency of CF mutations in the ABPA patients and asthmatics without ABPA. However, the frequency of CF mutations in the ABPA patients was significantly different (P = 0.0125) to the expected carrier rate in the general population. These results lend further support to a possible link between CF mutations and ABPA.

  9. 24 CFR 0.1 - Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 0.1 Section 0.1 Housing and Urban... Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees...-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, the Department's regulation at 5 CFR part 7501...

  10. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and Chloride-Dependent Ion Fluxes of Ovine Vocal Fold Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydon, Ciara; Fisher, Kimberly V.; Lodewyck-Falciglia, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Ion-driven transepithelial water fluxes participate in maintaining superficial vocal fold hydration, which is necessary for normal voice production. The authors hypothesized that Cl[superscript -] channels are present in vocal fold epithelial cells and that transepithelial Cl[superscript -] fluxes can be manipulated pharmacologically.…

  11. The Heterogeneity of ADHD Symptoms and Conduct Problems : Cognitive Inhibition, Emotion Regulation, Emotionality and Disorganized Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachm...

  12. One and done: Reasons principal investigators conduct only one FDA-regulated drug trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Corneli, PhD, MPH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised over the high turnover rate for clinical investigators. Using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA Bioresearch Monitoring Information System database, we conducted an online survey to identify factors that affect principal investigators' (PIs decisions to conduct only a single FDA-regulated drug trial. Of the 201 PIs who responded, 54.2% were classified as “one-and-done.” Among these investigators, 28.9% decided for personal reasons to not conduct another trial, and 44.4% were interested in conducting another trial, but no opportunities were available. Three categories of broad barriers were identified as generally burdensome or challenging by the majority of investigators: 1 workload balance (balancing trial implementation with other work obligations and opportunities (63.8%; 2 time requirements (time to initiate and implement trial; investigator and staff time (63.4%; and 3 data and safety reporting (56.5%. Additionally, 46.0% of investigators reported being generally unsatisfied with finance-related issues. These same top three barriers also affected investigators' decisions to no longer conduct FDA-regulated trials. Our findings illuminate three key aspects of investigator turnover. First, they confirm that investigator turnover occurs, as more than half of respondents were truly “one-and-done.” Second, because a large proportion of respondents wanted to conduct more FDA-regulated trials but lacked opportunities to do so, mechanisms that match interested investigators with research sponsors are needed. Third, by focusing on the barriers we identified that affected investigators' decisions to no longer conduct FDA-regulated trials, future efforts to reduce investigator turnover can target issues that matter the most to investigators.

  13. 18 CFR 3c.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 3c.1 Section 3c.1 Conservation of... STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 3c.1 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure... branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634, the Standards of Ethical Conduct for...

  14. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid–solid phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions. PMID:21505445

  15. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid-solid phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions.

  16. Investigation of Endogenous Retrovirus Sequences in the Neighborhood of Genes Up-regulated in a Neuroblastoma Model after Treatment with Hypoxia-Mimetic Cobalt Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brütting, Christine; Narasimhan, Harini; Hoffmann, Frank; Kornhuber, Malte E; Staege, Martin S; Emmer, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have been found to be associated with different diseases, e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS). Most human ERVs integrated in our genome are not competent to replicate and these sequences are presumably silent. However, transcription of human ERVs can be reactivated, e.g., by hypoxia. Interestingly, MS has been linked to hypoxia since decades. As some patterns of demyelination are similar to white matter ischemia, hypoxic damage is discussed. Therefore, we are interested in the association between hypoxia and ERVs. As a model, we used human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells after treatment with the hypoxia-mimetic cobalt chloride and analyzed differences in the gene expression profiles in comparison to untreated cells. The vicinity of up-regulated genes was scanned for endogenous retrovirus-derived sequences. Five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in SH-SY5Y cells after treatment with cobalt chloride: clusterin, glutathione peroxidase 3, insulin-like growth factor 2, solute carrier family 7 member 11, and neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9. In the vicinity of these genes we identified large (>1,000 bp) open reading frames (ORFs). Most of these ORFs showed only low similarities to proteins from retro-transcribing viruses. However, we found very high similarity between retrovirus envelope sequences and a sequence in the vicinity of neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9. This sequence encodes the human endogenous retrovirus group FRD member 1, the encoded protein product is called syncytin 2. Transfection of syncytin 2 into the well-characterized Ewing sarcoma cell line A673 was not able to modulate the low immunostimulatory activity of this cell line. Future research is needed to determine whether the identified genes and the human endogenous retrovirus group FRD member 1 might play a role in the etiology of MS.

  17. Trafficking and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: a complex network of posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Michelle L.; Barnes, Stephen; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications add diversity to protein function. Throughout its life cycle, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) undergoes numerous covalent posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including glycosylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, phosphorylation, and palmitoylation. These modifications regulate key steps during protein biogenesis, such as protein folding, trafficking, stability, function, and association with protein partners and therefore may serve as targets for therapeutic manipulation. More generally, an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms that underlie CFTR PTMs may suggest novel treatment strategies for CF and perhaps other protein conformational diseases. This review provides a comprehensive summary of co- and posttranslational CFTR modifications and their significance with regard to protein biogenesis. PMID:27474090

  18. The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Elizabeth; Simecek, Nicole; Brown, Richard; Forster, Sam; Spinks, Jenny; Toms, Nick; Gibson, G. Gordon; Lyon, Jon; Plant, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1 mM lithium chloride or 1 mM sodium valproate for 6 h or 72 h, and transcriptomes measured by Affymetrix U133A/B microarray. Statistically significant gene expression changes were identified using SAM software, with selected changes confirmed at transcript (TaqMan) and protein (Western blotting) levels. Finally, anti-apoptotic action was measured by an in vitro fluorescent assay. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to therapeutically relevant concentrations of either lithium chloride or sodium valproate elicited 936 statistically significant changes in gene expression. Amongst these changes we observed a large (maximal 31.3-fold) increase in the expression of the homeodomain protein Six1, and have characterized the time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of this gene in response to both drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that, like LiCl or VPA treatment, Six1 over-expression protects SH-SY5Y cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis via the blockade of caspsase-3 activation, whereas removal of Six1 protein via siRNA antagonises the ability of LiCl and VPA to protect SH-SY5Y cells from STS-induced apoptosis. These results provide a novel mechanistic rationale underlying the neuroprotective mechanism of LiCl and VPA, suggesting exciting possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinsonism

  19. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR allelic variants relate to shifts in faecal microbiota of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Schippa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study we investigated the effects of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR gene variants on the composition of faecal microbiota, in patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF. CFTR mutations (F508del is the most common lead to a decreased secretion of chloride/water, and to mucus sticky secretions, in pancreas, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Intestinal manifestations are underestimated in CF, leading to ileum meconium at birth, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth in adult age. METHODS: Thirty-six CF patients, fasting and under no-antibiotic treatment, were CFTR genotyped on both alleles. Faecal samples were subjected to molecular microbial profiling through Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis and species-specific PCR. Ecological parameters and multivariate algorithms were employed to find out if CFTR variants could be related to the microbiota structure. RESULTS: Patients were classified by two different criteria: 1 presence/absence of F508del mutation; 2 disease severity in heterozygous and homozygous F508del patients. We found that homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients exhibited an enhanced dysbiotic faecal microbiota composition, even within the CF cohort itself, with higher biodiversity and evenness. We also found, by species-specific PCR, that potentially harmful species (Escherichia coli and Eubacterium biforme were abundant in homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients, while beneficial species (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium limosum were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that establishes a link among CFTR variants and shifts in faecal microbiota, opening the way to studies that perceive CF as a 'systemic disease', linking the lung and the gut in a joined axis.

  20. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) allelic variants relate to shifts in faecal microbiota of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippa, Serena; Iebba, Valerio; Santangelo, Floriana; Gagliardi, Antonella; De Biase, Riccardo Valerio; Stamato, Antonella; Bertasi, Serenella; Lucarelli, Marco; Conte, Maria Pia; Quattrucci, Serena

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene variants on the composition of faecal microbiota, in patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF). CFTR mutations (F508del is the most common) lead to a decreased secretion of chloride/water, and to mucus sticky secretions, in pancreas, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Intestinal manifestations are underestimated in CF, leading to ileum meconium at birth, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth in adult age. Thirty-six CF patients, fasting and under no-antibiotic treatment, were CFTR genotyped on both alleles. Faecal samples were subjected to molecular microbial profiling through Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis and species-specific PCR. Ecological parameters and multivariate algorithms were employed to find out if CFTR variants could be related to the microbiota structure. Patients were classified by two different criteria: 1) presence/absence of F508del mutation; 2) disease severity in heterozygous and homozygous F508del patients. We found that homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients exhibited an enhanced dysbiotic faecal microbiota composition, even within the CF cohort itself, with higher biodiversity and evenness. We also found, by species-specific PCR, that potentially harmful species (Escherichia coli and Eubacterium biforme) were abundant in homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients, while beneficial species (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium limosum) were reduced. This is the first report that establishes a link among CFTR variants and shifts in faecal microbiota, opening the way to studies that perceive CF as a 'systemic disease', linking the lung and the gut in a joined axis.

  1. Crystallographic and single-particle analyses of native- and nucleotide-bound forms of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awayn, N H; Rosenberg, M F; Kamis, A B; Aleksandrov, L A; Riordan, J R; Ford, R C

    2005-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis, one of the major human inherited diseases, is caused by defects in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), a cell-membrane protein. CFTR acts as a chloride channel which can be opened by ATP. Low-resolution structural studies of purified recombinant human CFTR are described in the present paper. Localization of the C-terminal decahistidine tag in CFTR was achieved by Ni2+-nitriloacetate nanogold labelling, followed by electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The presence of the gold label appears to improve the single-particle-alignment procedure. Projection structures of CFTR from two-dimensional crystals analysed by electron crystallography displayed two alternative conformational states in the presence of nucleotide and nanogold, but only one form of the protein was observed in the quiescent (nucleotide-free) state.

  2. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  3. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  4. CO2 sensing and CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance: advances and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Cawas; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense CO2 concentration changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in CO2-regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars which perform better in a shifting climate. PMID:26482956

  5. IRSN methodological guide to conducting workplace studies in compliance with French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donadille, L.; Rehel, J. L.; Deligne, J. M.; Queinnec, F.; Aubert, B.; Bottollier-Depois, J. F.; Clairand, I.; Jourdain, J. R.; Rannou, A.

    2007-01-01

    Under French regulations governing radiation protection of workers, dosimetric workplace studies are mandatory. However, their practical implementation is not described. IRSN has developed a guide to help stakeholders in the radiological protection of workers conduct such studies. It proposes a general methodology applicable to most cases and 'workplace sheets', which apply this methodology to specific occupational settings. At present, two sheets are available: Conventional radiology and interventional radiology. (authors)

  6. 29 CFR 2703.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and...-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Members and employees... of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR part 2635; the Commission's regulations at 5 CFR part 8401, which...

  7. 12 CFR 264.101 - Cross-reference to employees' ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employees' ethical conduct... § 264.101 Cross-reference to employees' ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations... branch-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635 and the Board's regulation at 5 CFR part 6801...

  8. 29 CFR 0.735-1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and other ethics regulations. 0.735-1 Section 0.735-1 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ETHICS AND CONDUCT OF DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EMPLOYEES Standards of Conduct for Current...

  9. Effect of Ammonium Chloride on the Efficiency with Which Copper Sulfate Activates Marmatite: Change in Solution Composition and Regulation of Surface Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengdong Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfide minerals are the primary choice for zinc extraction and marmatite is one of the two most common zinc sulphide minerals (sphalerite and marmatite, therefore it is of great significance to study and optimize the flotation of marmatite. To improve the activation of copper sulfate on marmatite, a method involving the addition of ammonium chloride is devised. The method has been proven to be an effective way of improving the activation efficiency of copper sulfate towards marmatite under alkaline conditions. The strengthening mechanism was studied using micro-flotation, adsorption test, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and by analyzing changes in solution composition. Flotation test results show that the activation effect of the copper sulfate towards marmatite is enhanced with the addition of ammonium chloride. According to the results of the adsorption measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, when the marmatite surface is activated using copper sulfate with added ammonia chloride, it adsorbs more copper sulfide and less copper hydroxide and zinc hydroxide. These changes in surface composition are believed to occur via the following process: NH3(aq promotes the dissolution of zinc hydroxide and then facilitates the conversion of surface copper hydroxide to copper sulfide. In addition, the occurrence of Cu(NH3n2+ can promote the adsorption of copper ions (Cu2+ can be stored as Cu(NH3n2+ via complexation, and then, when the concentration of copper ions decreases, Cu2+ can be released through the decompositionof Cu(NH3n2+. Hence, the copper ion concentration can be maintained and this can facilitate the adsorption of Cu2+ on marmatite. Based on a comprehensive analysis of all our results, we propose that adding ammonium chloride to the copper sulfate changes the solution components (i.e., the presence of NH3(aq and Cu(NH3n2+ and then regulates the surface composition of marmatite. The change in surface composition

  10. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  11. The regulation of visitors conduction activity in the State System os Brazilian Conservation Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alves Nascimento

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond to conserving biodiversity, conservation units must promote public use in contact with nature, assisting in increasing the economic resource of the area, approximating the society to nature and promoting their sustainable use. In Brazil, there are rules of the Ministry of Environment and Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation that regulate the conduction of visitors in federal conservation units. Remains to know how the activity is regulated in other spheres of the National Conservation Units System. Therefore, this article purpose to identify the legal basis for the conduction of visitors in the state conservation units and their adherence to guidelines of the Ministry of Environment. The methodology consisted in documentary research and data survey of the legal basis, done through visits to websites and sending e-mails to state management agencies. Adherence to the guidelines of the regulations was done through the evaluation to fulfillment or not from them. Legal basis were found in 18.5% of federal units of Brazil, being that only Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro meet almost all of the guideline. The conclusion was that there is a long way to go forward as the creation of rules and procedures that simultaneously encourage visitation accompanied to qualified conductors and biodiversity conservation. It is recommended greater efforts of state management agencies for the development of these legal basis, promoting improvements in desenvolviment of the activity and awareness of society.

  12. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  13. Thermal conductance and basal metabolic rate are part of a coordinated system for heat transfer regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Daniel E.; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Thermal conductance measures the ease with which heat leaves or enters  an organism's body. Although the analysis of this physiological variable in relation to climatic and ecological factors can be traced to studies by Scholander and colleagues, only small advances have occurred ever since. Here, we analyse the relationship between minimal thermal conductance estimated during summer (Cmin) and several ecological, climatic and geographical factors for 127 rodent species, in order to identify the exogenous factors that have potentially affected the evolution of thermal conductance. In addition, we evaluate whether there is compensation between Cmin and basal metabolic rate (BMR)—in such a way that a scale-invariant ratio between both variables is equal to one—as could be expected from the Scholander–Irving model of heat transfer. Our major findings are (i) annual mean temperature is the best single predictor of mass-independent Cmin. (ii) After controlling for the effect of body mass, there is a strong positive correlation between log10 (Cmin) and log10 (BMR). Further, the slope of this correlation is close to one, indicating an almost perfect compensation between both physiological variables. (iii) Structural equation modelling indicated that Cmin values are adjusted to BMR values and not the other way around. Thus, our results strongly suggest that BMR and thermal conductance integrate a coordinated system for heat regulation in endothermic animals and that summer conductance values are adjusted (in an evolutionary sense) to track changes in BMRs. PMID:23902915

  14. Thermal conductance and basal metabolic rate are part of a coordinated system for heat transfer regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Daniel E; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2013-09-22

    Thermal conductance measures the ease with which heat leaves or enters an organism's body. Although the analysis of this physiological variable in relation to climatic and ecological factors can be traced to studies by Scholander and colleagues, only small advances have occurred ever since. Here, we analyse the relationship between minimal thermal conductance estimated during summer (Cmin) and several ecological, climatic and geographical factors for 127 rodent species, in order to identify the exogenous factors that have potentially affected the evolution of thermal conductance. In addition, we evaluate whether there is compensation between Cmin and basal metabolic rate (BMR)-in such a way that a scale-invariant ratio between both variables is equal to one-as could be expected from the Scholander-Irving model of heat transfer. Our major findings are (i) annual mean temperature is the best single predictor of mass-independent Cmin. (ii) After controlling for the effect of body mass, there is a strong positive correlation between log10 (Cmin) and log10 (BMR). Further, the slope of this correlation is close to one, indicating an almost perfect compensation between both physiological variables. (iii) Structural equation modelling indicated that Cmin values are adjusted to BMR values and not the other way around. Thus, our results strongly suggest that BMR and thermal conductance integrate a coordinated system for heat regulation in endothermic animals and that summer conductance values are adjusted (in an evolutionary sense) to track changes in BMRs.

  15. 13 CFR 105.101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 105.101 Section 105.101 Business Credit... RESPONSIBILITIES Standards of Conduct § 105.101 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial... to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch at 5 CFR part 2635 and the...

  16. 12 CFR 336.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct... and Conduct § 336.1 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure... Branch-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, the Corporation regulation at 5 CFR part...

  17. 10 CFR 1010.102 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations, and...

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    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) CONDUCT OF EMPLOYEES § 1010.102 Cross-references to employee ethical conduct... Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch at 5 CFR part 2635, the DOE regulation at...

  18. 34 CFR 73.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

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    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards... of Education STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 73.1 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and... branch-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR part 2635 and to the Department of Education regulation...

  19. 14 CFR 1207.101 - Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations. 1207.101 Section 1207.101 Aeronautics and Space...-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations. Employees of the...

  20. Optimization of the thickness of a conducting polymer, polyaniline, deposited on the surface of poly(vinyl chloride) membranes: a new way to improve their potentiometric response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkanova, T V; Matejka, P; Král, V; Sedenková, I; Trchová, M; Stejskal, J

    2008-08-29

    Repeated depositions of polyaniline (PANI) have been used to control the thickness of the polymeric film deposited on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane surface. The oxidation of aniline was carried out in a dispersion mode, i.e. in the presence of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Two kinds of PVC were used for this purpose: a non-plasticized PVC for the study of PANI deposition and PVC, plasticized with nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), as a prototype of a liquid membrane electrode. The results of UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopies and electron microscopy showed that (1) the film thickness increased by about equal increments of approximately 40 nm after each polymerization, and (2) the interface with PVC was constituted by PANI film and adhering PANI-PVP colloidal particles. The various thicknesses of the deposited PANI films affected the potentiometric response of the NPOE/PVC membrane with and without an anion-exchanger. The potentiometric anionic response was observed with a minimal thickness of PANI film on the blank NPOE/PVC membrane. Sensitivity of the PANI film to pH occurred only with a blank NPOE/PVC membrane coated with a thick polymeric film, while it was strongly suppressed by the presence of a lipophilic anion-exchanger, tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDDMACl), in the membrane, regardless of the thickness of the polymer film. The thickness of the PANI film did not affect the anionic selectivity pattern of TDDMACl-based membranes to any great extent, but its presence improved and stabilized their potentiometric characteristics (sensitivity, linear-response range).

  1. Reactive neurogenesis and down-regulation of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in the cochlear nuclei after cochlear deafferentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Tighilet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available While many studies have been devoted to investigating the homeostatic plasticity triggered by cochlear hearing loss, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in these central changes remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of reactive neurogenesis after unilateral cochlear nerve section in the cochlear nucleus of cats. We found a strong cell proliferation in all the cochlear nucleus sub-divisions ipsilateral to the lesion. Most of the newly generated cells survive up to one month after cochlear deafferentation in all cochlear nuclei (except the dorsal cochlear nucleus and give rise to a variety of cell types, i.e. microglial cells, astrocytes and neurons. Interestingly, many of the newborn neurons had an inhibitory (GABAergic phenotype. This result is intriguing since sensory deafferentation is usually accompanied by enhanced excitation, consistent with a reduction in central inhibition. The membrane potential effect of GABA depends, however, on the intra-cellular chloride concentration, which is maintained at low levels in adults by the potassium chloride co-transporter KCC2. The KCC2 density on the plasma membrane of neurons was then assessed after cochlear deafferentation in the cochlear nuclei ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion. Cochlear deafferentation is accompanied by a strong down-regulation of KCC2 ipsilateral to the lesion at 3 and 30 days post-lesion. This study suggests that reactive neurogenesis and downregulation of KCC2 is part of the vast repertoire involved in homeostatic plasticity triggered by hearing loss. These central changes may also play a role in the generation of tinnitus and hyperacusis.

  2. Nitric oxide signaling pathway regulates potassium chloride cotransporter-1 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fulvio, M; Lauf, P K; Adragna, N C

    2001-11-30

    Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express at least two mRNAs for K-Cl cotransporters (KCC): KCC1 and KCC3. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I regulates KCC3 mRNA expression in these cells. Here, we show evidence implicating the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling pathway in the expression of KCC1 mRNA, considered to be the major cell volume regulator. VSMCs, expressing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and PKG-I isoforms showed a time- and concentration-dependent increase in KCC1 mRNA levels after treatment with sodium nitroprusside as demonstrated by semiquantitative RT-PCR. sGC-dependent regulation of KCC1 mRNA expression was confirmed using YC-1, a NO-independent sGC stimulator. The sGC inhibitor LY83583 blocked the effects of sodium nitroprusside and YC-1. Moreover, 8-Br-cGMP increased KCC1 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The 8-Br-cGMP effect was partially blocked by KT5823 but not by actinomycin D. However, actinomycin D and cycloheximide increased basal KCC1 mRNA in an additive manner, suggesting different mechanisms of action for both drugs. These findings suggest that in VSMCs, the NO/cGMP-signaling pathway participates in KCC1 mRNA regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  3. 15 CFR 0.735-2 - Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to ethical conduct... Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations. Employees of the Department of Commerce should refer to the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct...

  4. 46 CFR 508.101 - Cross-referrence to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-referrence to employee ethical conduct standards... GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS EMPLOYEE ETHICAL CONDUCT STANDARDS AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS § 508.101 Cross-referrence to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure...

  5. 12 CFR 601.100 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to employee ethical conduct... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Board members, officers, and other employees of the Farm Credit Administration are subject to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of...

  6. 43 CFR 20.101 - Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure and other applicable regulations.

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    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-references to ethical conduct... Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure and other applicable regulations. In addition... Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch, at 5 CFR part 2635; the Department's...

  7. 22 CFR 705.101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct... INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS EMPLOYEE ETHICAL CONDUCT STANDARDS AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS § 705.101 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure...

  8. 16 CFR 1030.101 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL EMPLOYEE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT General § 1030.101 Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Consumer Product... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to employee ethical conduct...

  9. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  10. Purification and crystallization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mark F; Kamis, Alhaji Bukar; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Ford, Robert C; Riordan, John R

    2004-09-10

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein that is mutated in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Here we report the purification and first crystallization of wild-type human CFTR. Functional characterization of the material showed it to be highly active. Electron crystallography of negatively stained two-dimensional crystals of CFTR has revealed the overall architecture of this channel for two different conformational states. These show a strong structural homology to two conformational states of another eukaryotic ATP-binding cassette transporter, P-glycoprotein. In contrast to P-glycoprotein, however, both conformational states can be observed in the presence of a nucleotide, which may be related to the role of CFTR as an ion channel rather than a transporter. The hypothesis that the two conformations could represent the "open" and "closed" states of the channel is considered.

  11. Function and expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator after small intestinal transplantation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghong Song

    Full Text Available The secretion function of intestinal graft is one of the most important factors for successful intestinal transplantation. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR mediates HCO3(- and Cl(- secretions in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, we made investigation on the expression and function of CFTR in an experimental model of murine small intestinal transplantation. Heterotopic intestinal transplantations were performed in syngeneic mice. The mRNA and protein expressions of CFTR were analyzed by real time PCR and western blot. Murine intestinal mucosal HCO3(- and Cl(- secretions were examined in vitro in Ussing chambers by the pH stat and short circuit current (I(sc techniques. The results showed that forskolin, an activator of CFTR, stimulated jejunal mucosal epithelial HCO3(- and Cl(- secretions in mice, but forskolin-stimulated HCO3(- and Cl(- secretions in donor and recipient jejunal mucosae of mice after heterotopic jejunal transplantation were markedly decreased, compared with controls (P<0.001. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CFTR in donor and recipient jejunal mucosae of mice were also markedly lower than those in controls (P<0.001, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα were markedly increased in donor jejunal mucosae of mice (P<0.001, compared with controls. Further experiments showed that TNFα down-regulated the expression of CFTR mRNA in murine jejunal mucosa. In conclusion, after intestinal transplantation, the function of CFTR was impaired, and its mRNA and protein expressions were down-regulated, which may be induced by TNFα.

  12. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  13. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  14. Suppression of adenosine-activated chloride transport by ethanol in airway epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammeta V Raju

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is associated with increased lung infections. Molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is not complete. Airway epithelial ion transport regulates the homeostasis of airway surface liquid, essential for airway mucosal immunity and lung host defense. Here, air-liquid interface cultures of Calu-3 epithelial cells were basolaterally exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (0, 25, 50 and 100 mM for 24 hours and adenosine-stimulated ion transport was measured by Ussing chamber. The ethanol exposure reduced the epithelial short-circuit currents (I(SC in a dose-dependent manner. The ion currents activated by adenosine were chloride conductance mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel. Alloxazine, a specific inhibitor for A(2B adenosine receptor (A(2BAR, largely abolished the adenosine-stimulated chloride transport, suggesting that A(2BAR is a major receptor responsible for regulating the chloride transport of the cells. Ethanol significantly reduced intracellular cAMP production upon adenosine stimulation. Moreover, ethanol-suppression of the chloride secretion was able to be restored by cAMP analogs or by inhibitors to block cAMP degradation. These results imply that ethanol exposure dysregulates CFTR-mediated chloride transport in airways by suppression of adenosine-A(2BAR-cAMP signaling pathway, which might contribute to alcohol-associated lung infections.

  15. AMP-activated protein kinase and adenosine are both metabolic modulators that regulate chloride secretion in the shark rectal gland ( Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Rugina I; van Kalmthout, Juliette A M; Pfau, Daniel J; Menendez, Dhariyat M; Young, Lawrence H; Forrest, John N

    2018-04-01

    The production of endogenous adenosine during secretagogue stimulation of CFTR leads to feedback inhibition limiting further chloride secretion in the rectal gland of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). In the present study, we examined the role of AMP-kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor also modulating chloride secretion through CFTR. We found that glands perfused with forskolin and isobutylmethylxanthine (F + I), potent stimulators of chloride secretion in this ancient model, caused significant phosphorylation of the catalytic subunit Thr 172 of AMPK. These findings indicate that AMPK is activated during energy-requiring stimulated chloride secretion. In molecular studies, we confirmed that the activating Thr 172 site is indeed present in the α-catalytic subunit of AMPK in this ancient gland, which reveals striking homology to AMPKα subunits sequenced in other vertebrates. When perfused rectal glands stimulated with F + I were subjected to severe hypoxic stress or perfused with pharmacologic inhibitors of metabolism (FCCP or oligomycin), phosphorylation of AMPK Thr 172 was further increased and chloride secretion was dramatically diminished. The pharmacologic activation of AMPK with AICAR-inhibited chloride secretion, as measured by short-circuit current, when applied to the apical side of shark rectal gland monolayers in primary culture. These results indicate that that activated AMPK, similar to adenosine, transmits an inhibitory signal from metabolism, that limits chloride secretion in the shark rectal gland.

  16. 5 CFR 1900.100 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to employee ethical... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Officers and employees of the Appalachian Regional Commission Federal Staff are subject to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the...

  17. 29 CFR 1600.101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

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    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and... to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) are subject to the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical...

  18. 49 CFR 1019.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

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    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct... Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Members and employees of the Surface Transportation Board also should refer to the executive branch Standards of Ethical...

  19. 5 CFR 1633.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board (Board) are subject to the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical conduct at 5 CFR part...

  20. 39 CFR 3000.735-101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

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    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Postal Regulatory Commission (Commission) are subject and should refer to the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical...

  1. 5 CFR 1300.1 - Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 1300.1 Section 1300.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 1300.1 Cross-reference...

  2. Up-regulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α by cobalt chloride correlates with proliferation and apoptosis in PC-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Zhi-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exact mechanism of the effects of hypoxia on the proliferation and apoptosis in carcinoma cells is still conflicting. This study investigated the variation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α expression and the apoptosis effect of hypoxia stimulated by cobalt chloride (CoCl2 in pancreatic cancer PC-2 cells. Methods PC-2 cells were cultured with different concentration (50-200 μmol/L of CoCl2 after 24-120 hours to simulate hypoxia in vitro. The proliferation of PC-2 cells was examined by MTT assay. The cellular morphology of PC-2 cells were observed by light inverted microscope and transmission electron microscope(EM. The expression of HIF-1α on mRNA and protein level was measured by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Apoptosis of PC-2 cells were demonstrated by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Results MTT assay showed that the proliferation of PC-2 cells were stimulated in the first 72 h, while after treated over 72 h, a dose- dependent inhibition of cell growth could be observed. By using transmission electron microscope, swollen chondrosomes, accumulated chromatin under the nuclear membrane and apoptosis bodies were observed. Flow cytometer(FCM analysis showed the apoptosis rate was correlated with the dosage of CoCl2. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis indicated that hypoxia could up-regulate the expression of HIF-1α on both mRNA and protein levels. Conclusion Hypoxic microenvironment stimulated by CoCl2 could effectively induce apoptosis and influence cell proliferation in PC-2 cells, the mechanism could be related to up-expression of HIF-1α.

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those...

  7. Mercury toxicity in the shark (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland: apical CFTR chloride channels are inhibited by mercuric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Martha A; Decker, Sarah E; Aller, Stephen G; Weber, Gerhard; Forrest, John N

    2006-03-01

    In the shark rectal gland, basolateral membrane proteins have been suggested as targets for mercury. To examine the membrane polarity of mercury toxicity, we performed experiments in three preparations: isolated perfused rectal glands, primary monolayer cultures of rectal gland epithelial cells, and Xenopus oocytes expressing the shark cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. In perfused rectal glands we observed: (1) a dose-dependent inhibition by mercury of forskolin/3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated chloride secretion; (2) inhibition was maximal when mercury was added before stimulation with forskolin/IBMX; (3) dithiothrietol (DTT) and glutathione (GSH) completely prevented inhibition of chloride secretion. Short-circuit current (Isc) measurements in monolayers of rectal gland epithelial cells were performed to examine the membrane polarity of this effect. Mercuric chloride inhibited Isc more potently when applied to the solution bathing the apical vs. the basolateral membrane (23 +/- 5% and 68 +/- 5% inhibition at 1 and 10 microM HgCl2 in the apical solution vs. 2 +/- 0.9% and 14 +/- 5% in the basolateral solution). This inhibition was prevented by pre-treatment with apical DTT or GSH; however, only the permeant reducing agent DTT reversed mercury inhibition when added after exposure. When the shark rectal gland CFTR channel was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and chloride conductance was measured by two-electrode voltage clamping, we found that 1 microM HgCl2 inhibited forskolin/IBMX conductance by 69.2 +/- 2.0%. We conclude that in the shark rectal gland, mercury inhibits chloride secretion by interacting with the apical membrane and that CFTR is the likely site of this action. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator contributes to reacidification of alkalinized lysosomes in RPE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Lu, Wennan; Guha, Sonia; Baltazar, Gabriel C; Coffey, Erin E; Laties, Alan M; Rubenstein, Ronald C; Reenstra, William W; Mitchell, Claire H

    2012-07-15

    The role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in lysosomal acidification has been difficult to determine. We demonstrate here that CFTR contributes more to the reacidification of lysosomes from an elevated pH than to baseline pH maintenance. Lysosomal alkalinization is increasingly recognized as a factor in diseases of accumulation, and we previously showed that cAMP reacidified alkalinized lysosomes in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. As the influx of anions to electrically balance proton accumulation may enhance lysosomal acidification, the contribution of the cAMP-activated anion channel CFTR to lysosomal reacidification was probed. The antagonist CFTR(inh)-172 had little effect on baseline levels of lysosomal pH in cultured human RPE cells but substantially reduced the reacidification of compromised lysosomes by cAMP. Likewise, CFTR activators had a bigger impact on cells whose lysosomes had been alkalinized. Knockdown of CFTR with small interfering RNA had a larger effect on alkalinized lysosomes than on baseline levels. Inhibition of CFTR in isolated lysosomes altered pH. While CFTR and Lamp1 were colocalized, treatment with cAMP did not increase targeting of CFTR to the lysosome. The inhibition of CFTR slowed lysosomal degradation of photoreceptor outer segments while activation of CFTR enhanced their clearance from compromised lysosomes. Activation of CFTR acidified RPE lysosomes from the ABCA4(-/-) mouse model of recessive Stargardt's disease, whose lysosomes are considerably alkalinized. In summary, CFTR contributes more to reducing lysosomal pH from alkalinized levels than to maintaining baseline pH. Treatment to activate CFTR may thus be of benefit in disorders of accumulation associated with lysosomal alkalinization.

  9. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16 protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum.

  10. High alkaline tolerant electrolyte membrane with improved conductivity and mechanical strength via lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide dissolved microcrystalline cellulose for Zn-Air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuansong; Li, Cong; Cai, Xiaoxia; Yao, Jinshui; Li, Mei; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Qinze

    2016-01-01

    LiCl/DMAc (dimethylacetamide) solution dissolved microcrystalline cellulose (LD-MCC) showed potential benefits to the alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE). High alkali tolerance (up to 70 wt% KOH loading), remarkable improvements in ionic conductivity (from 0.018 S cm −1 to 0.153 S cm −1 ) and mechanical properties (3-fold increase in tensile strength from 0.28 MPa to 0.76 MPa) were achieved just via an incorporation of 5 wt% of LD-MCC into the ASPE matrix. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction indicated that LD-MCC entrapped KOH and hindered its aggregation. X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrometer revealed that K + was preferentially located on the LD-MCC surfaces rather than the polymeric matrix. Scanning Electron Microscopy of freeze-dry sample demonstrated a submicro-porous morphology with reduced average pore size (175 nm) after the incorporation of LD-MCC in ASPE matrix. The incorporated LD-MCC acted as KOH stabilizer, hydrophilicity agent and OH − transport media. Distinct micro-structures before and after the incorporation of LD-MCC were investigated to reveal the special role of LD-MCC in the performance improvement of ASPE membrane.

  11. 5 CFR 735.103 - What other regulations pertain to employee conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employee's violation of those regulations may cause the employee's agency to take disciplinary action, or corrective action as that term is used in 5 CFR part 2635. Such disciplinary action or corrective action may...

  12. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 74-Rules and Regulations Governing Conduct on Federal Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from— (a) Being under the influence, using or possessing any narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines. Alcoholic... the GSA Regional Administrator, which will have the same force and effect as these regulations; (e...

  13. Benign and Deleterious Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Mutations Identified by Sequencing in Positive Cystic Fibrosis Newborn Screen Children from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Danieli B; Sosnay, Patrick R; Azen, Colleen; Young, Suzanne; Raraigh, Karen S; Keens, Thomas G; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Of the 2007 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutations, 202 have been assigned disease liability. California's racially diverse population, along with CFTR sequencing as part of newborn screening model, provides the opportunity to examine the phenotypes of children with uncategorized mutations to help inform disease liability and penetrance. We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on children screened from 2007 to 2011 and followed for two to six years. Newborns that screened positive were divided into three genotype groups: those with two CF-causing mutations (CF-C); those with one mutation of varying clinic consequence (VCC); and those with one mutation of unknown disease liability (Unknown). Sweat chloride tests, pancreatic sufficiency status, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization were compared. Children with two CF-causing mutations had a classical CF phenotype, while 5% of VCC (4/78) and 11% of Unknown (27/244) met diagnostic criteria of CF. Children carrying Unknown mutations 2215insG with D836Y, and T1036N had early and classical CF phenotype, while others carrying 1525-42G>A, L320V, L967S, R170H, and 296+28A>G had a benign clinical presentation, suggesting that these are non-CF causing. While most infants with VCC and Unknown CFTR mutations do not meet diagnostic criteria for CF, a small proportion do. These findings highlight the range of genotypes and phenotypes in the first few years of life following CF newborn screening when CFTR sequencing is performed.

  14. Benign and Deleterious Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Mutations Identified by Sequencing in Positive Cystic Fibrosis Newborn Screen Children from California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli B Salinas

    Full Text Available Of the 2007 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR mutations, 202 have been assigned disease liability. California's racially diverse population, along with CFTR sequencing as part of newborn screening model, provides the opportunity to examine the phenotypes of children with uncategorized mutations to help inform disease liability and penetrance.We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on children screened from 2007 to 2011 and followed for two to six years. Newborns that screened positive were divided into three genotype groups: those with two CF-causing mutations (CF-C; those with one mutation of varying clinic consequence (VCC; and those with one mutation of unknown disease liability (Unknown. Sweat chloride tests, pancreatic sufficiency status, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization were compared.Children with two CF-causing mutations had a classical CF phenotype, while 5% of VCC (4/78 and 11% of Unknown (27/244 met diagnostic criteria of CF. Children carrying Unknown mutations 2215insG with D836Y, and T1036N had early and classical CF phenotype, while others carrying 1525-42G>A, L320V, L967S, R170H, and 296+28A>G had a benign clinical presentation, suggesting that these are non-CF causing.While most infants with VCC and Unknown CFTR mutations do not meet diagnostic criteria for CF, a small proportion do. These findings highlight the range of genotypes and phenotypes in the first few years of life following CF newborn screening when CFTR sequencing is performed.

  15. Activation of AMPK inhibits cholera toxin stimulated chloride secretion in human and murine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailín C Rogers

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK. In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness.

  16. Ursodeoxycholic acid protects cardiomyocytes against cobalt chloride induced hypoxia by regulating transcriptional mediator of cells stress hypoxia inducible factor 1α and p53 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Anis Syamimi; Hanafi, Noorul Izzati; Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Siti Hamimah; Md Noor, Julina; Abdul Hamid Hasani, Narimah; Ab Rahim, Sharaniza; Siran, Rosfaiizah

    2017-10-01

    In hepatocytes, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) activates cell signalling pathways such as p53, intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-receptor via Gα i -coupled-receptor. Recently, UDCA has been shown to protect the heart against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. However, it is not clear whether UDCA cardioprotection against hypoxia acts through a transcriptional mediator of cells stress, HIF-1α and p53. Therefore, in here, we aimed to investigate whether UDCA could protect cardiomyocytes (CMs) against hypoxia by regulating expression of HIF-1α, p53, [Ca 2+ ] i , and S1P-Gα i -coupled-receptor. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from newborn rats (0-2 days), and hypoxia was induced by using cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ). Cardiomyocytes were treated with UDCA and cotreated with either FTY720 (S1P-receptor agonist) or pertussis toxin (PTX; Gα i inhibitor). Cells were subjected for proliferation assay, beating frequency, QuantiGene Plex assay, western blot, immunofluorescence, and calcium imaging. Our findings showed that UDCA counteracted the effects of CoCl 2 on cell viability, beating frequency, HIF-1α, and p53 protein expression. We found that these cardioprotection effects of UDCA were similar to FTY720, S1P agonist. Furthermore, we observed that UDCA protects CMs against CoCl 2 -induced [Ca 2+ ] i dynamic alteration. Pharmacological inhibition of the Gα i -sensitive receptor did not abolish the cardioprotection of UDCA against CoCl 2 detrimental effects, except for cell viability and [Ca 2+ ] i . Pertussis toxin is partially effective in inhibiting UDCA protection against CoCl 2 effects on CM cell viability. Interestingly, PTX fully inhibits UDCA cardioprotection on CoCl 2 -induced [Ca 2+ ] i dynamic changes. We conclude that UDCA cardioprotection against CoCl 2 -induced hypoxia is similar to FTY720, and its actions are not fully mediated by the Gα i -coupled protein sensitive pathways. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the most hydrophilic bile

  17. 12 CFR 400.101 - Cross-reference to employee financial disclosure and ethical conduct standards regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employee financial disclosure and ethical conduct standards regulations. 400.101 Section 400.101 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT.... Employees of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Bank) should refer to: (a) The executive branch...

  18. Electrical regulation of Schwann cells using conductive polypyrrole/chitosan polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghui; Hu, Xueyu; Lu, Lei; Ye, Zhengxu; Zhang, Quanyu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2010-04-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) can dramatically enhance neurite outgrowth through conductive polymers and accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration in animal models of nerve injury. Therefore, conductive tissue engineering graft in combination with ES is a potential treatment for neural injuries. Conductive tissue engineering graft can be obtained by seeding Schwann cells on conductive scaffold. However, when ES is applied through the conductive scaffold, the impact of ES on Schwann cells has never been investigated. In this study, a biodegradable conductive composite made of conductive polypyrrole (PPy, 2.5%) and biodegradable chitosan (97.5%) was prepared in order to electrically stimulate Schwann cells. The tolerance of Schwann cells to ES was examined by a cell apoptosis assay. The growth of the cells was characterized using DAPI staining and a MTT assay. mRNA and protein levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in Schwann cells were assayed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the amount of NGF and BDNF secreted was determined by an ELISA assay. The results showed that the PPy/chitosan membranes supported cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation with or without ES. Interestingly, ES applied through the PPy/chitosan composite dramatically enhanced the expression and secretion of NGF and BDNF when compared with control cells without ES. These findings highlight for the first time the possibility of enhancing nerve regeneration in conductive scaffolds through ES-increased neurotrophin secretion.

  19. Conduction velocity is regulated by sodium channel inactivation in unmyelinated axons innervating the rat cranial meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Col, Roberto; Messlinger, Karl; Carr, Richard W

    2008-02-15

    Axonal conduction velocity varies according to the level of preceding impulse activity. In unmyelinated axons this typically results in a slowing of conduction velocity and a parallel increase in threshold. It is currently held that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-dependent axonal hyperpolarization is responsible for this slowing but this has long been equivocal. We therefore examined conduction velocity changes during repetitive activation of single unmyelinated axons innervating the rat cranial meninges. In direct contradiction to the currently accepted postulate, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase blockade actually enhanced activity-induced conduction velocity slowing, while the degree of velocity slowing was curtailed in the presence of lidocaine (10-300 microm) and carbamazepine (30-500 microm) but not tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10-80 nm). This suggests that a change in the number of available sodium channels is the most prominent factor responsible for activity-induced changes in conduction velocity in unmyelinated axons. At moderate stimulus frequencies, axonal conduction velocity is determined by an interaction between residual sodium channel inactivation following each impulse and the retrieval of channels from inactivation by a concomitant Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-mediated hyperpolarization. Since the process is primarily dependent upon sodium channel availability, tracking conduction velocity provides a means of accessing relative changes in the excitability of nociceptive neurons.

  20. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device... Guidance Document: CFTR Gene Mutation Detection System.” See § 866.1(e) for the availability of this...

  1. The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  3. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  4. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  5. Two Salt Bridges Differentially Contribute to the Maintenance of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Channel Function*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guiying; Freeman, Cody S.; Knotts, Taylor; Prince, Chengyu Z.; Kuang, Christopher; McCarty, Nael A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified two salt bridges in human CFTR chloride ion channels, Arg352-Asp993 and Arg347-Asp924, that are required for normal channel function. In the present study, we determined how the two salt bridges cooperate to maintain the open pore architecture of CFTR. Our data suggest that Arg347 not only interacts with Asp924 but also interacts with Asp993. The tripartite interaction Arg347-Asp924-Asp993 mainly contributes to maintaining a stable s2 open subconductance state. The Arg352-Asp993 salt bridge, in contrast, is involved in stabilizing both the s2 and full (f) open conductance states, with the main contribution being to the f state. The s1 subconductance state does not require either salt bridge. In confirmation of the role of Arg352 and Asp993, channels bearing cysteines at these sites could be latched into a full open state using the bifunctional cross-linker 1,2-ethanediyl bismethanethiosulfonate, but only when applied in the open state. Channels remained latched open even after washout of ATP. The results suggest that these interacting residues contribute differently to stabilizing the open pore in different phases of the gating cycle. PMID:23709221

  6. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  7. Oxidized calmodulin kinase II regulates conduction following myocardial infarction: a computational analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Christensen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII mediates critical signaling pathways responsible for divergent functions in the heart including calcium cycling, hypertrophy and apoptosis. Dysfunction in the CaMKII signaling pathway occurs in heart disease and is associated with increased susceptibility to life-threatening arrhythmia. Furthermore, CaMKII inhibition prevents cardiac arrhythmia and improves heart function following myocardial infarction. Recently, a novel mechanism for oxidative CaMKII activation was discovered in the heart. Here, we provide the first report of CaMKII oxidation state in a well-validated, large-animal model of heart disease. Specifically, we observe increased levels of oxidized CaMKII in the infarct border zone (BZ. These unexpected new data identify an alternative activation pathway for CaMKII in common cardiovascular disease. To study the role of oxidation-dependent CaMKII activation in creating a pro-arrhythmia substrate following myocardial infarction, we developed a new mathematical model of CaMKII activity including both oxidative and autophosphorylation activation pathways. Computer simulations using a multicellular mathematical model of the cardiac fiber demonstrate that enhanced CaMKII activity in the infarct BZ, due primarily to increased oxidation, is associated with reduced conduction velocity, increased effective refractory period, and increased susceptibility to formation of conduction block at the BZ margin, a prerequisite for reentry. Furthermore, our model predicts that CaMKII inhibition improves conduction and reduces refractoriness in the BZ, thereby reducing vulnerability to conduction block and reentry. These results identify a novel oxidation-dependent pathway for CaMKII activation in the infarct BZ that may be an effective therapeutic target for improving conduction and reducing heterogeneity in the infarcted heart.

  8. Osmoregulated Chloride Currents in Hemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bregante

    Full Text Available We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution. The chloride channel was slightly inhibited by micromolar concentrations of zinc chloride in the bath solution, while the antifouling agent zinc pyrithione did not affect the channel conductance at all. This is the first direct electrophysiological characterization of a functional ion channel in ancestral immunocytes of mytilus, which may bring a contribution to the understanding of the response of bivalves to salt and contaminant stresses.

  9. A complementary switching mechanism for organic memory devices to regulate the conductance of binary states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Giriraj; Dagar, Parveen; Sahu, Satyajit

    2016-06-01

    We have fabricated an organic non-volatile memory device wherein the ON/OFF current ratio has been controlled by varying the concentration of a small organic molecule, 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ), in an insulating matrix of a polymer Poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP). A maximum ON-OFF ratio of 106 is obtained when the concentration of DDQ is half or 10 wt. % of PVP. In this process, the switching direction for the devices has also been altered, indicating the disparity in conduction mechanism. Conduction due to metal filament formation through the active material and the voltage dependent conformational change of the organic molecule seem to be the motivation behind the gradual change in the switching direction.

  10. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  11. Root hydraulic vulnerability regulation of whole-plant conductance along hillslope gradients within subalpine and montane forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, D.; Speckman, H. N.; Ewers, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem-scale models often rely on root vulnerability or whole-plant conductance for simulating seasonal evapotranspiration declines via constraints of water uptake and vegetation mortality. Further, many of these ecosystem models rely on single, unvarying, hydraulic parameter estimates for modeling large areas. Ring-porous species have shown seasonal variability in root vulnerability (percent loss of conductivity; PLC) and whole-plant conductance (Kw) but simulations of coniferous forest typically rely on point measurements. This assumption for coniferous forest is not likely true because of seasonal variability caused by phenology and environmental stresses and the potential for cavitation fatigue is not considered. Moreover, many of these dynamics have only been considered for stems even though roots are often the most vulnerable segments of the pathway for conifers. We hypothesized that seasonally dynamic whole-plant conductance along hillslope gradients in coniferous forests are regulated by cavitation fatigue within the roots resulting in seasonal increases in vulnerability. To test the hypothesis, a subalpine mixed forest (3000 m.a.s.l) and montane forest (2550 m.a.s.l.) were monitored between 2015-2017 to quantify PLC and Kw along the hillslope gradients of 300 m and 50 m, respectively. Forest plots were instrumented with 35 Granier-type sapflow sensors. Seasonal sampling campaigns occurred to quantify PLC through centrifuge techniques and Kw through Darcy's law approximations with pre-dawn and diurnal leaf water potentials. Downslope roots exhibit a 33% decrease in maximal conductivity corresponding to the approximately 50% decrease in whole-plant conductance suggesting seasonal soil dry-down limitations within the downslope stands. Upslope stands had no to little change in root vulnerability or decrease in whole-plant conductance as soil water limitations occur immediately following snowmelt, thus limiting hydraulic conductance throughout the growing

  12. Divalent Cations Regulate the Ion Conductance Properties of Diverse Classes of Aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kourghi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are known to facilitate water and solute fluxes across barrier membranes. An increasing number of AQPs are being found to serve as ion channels. Ion and water permeability of selected plant and animal AQPs (plant Arabidopsis thaliana AtPIP2;1, AtPIP2;2, AtPIP2;7, human Homo sapiens HsAQP1, rat Rattus norvegicus RnAQP4, RnAQP5, and fly Drosophila melanogaster DmBIB were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined in chelator-buffered salines to evaluate the effects of divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+ and Cd2+ on ionic conductances. AtPIP2;1, AtPIP2;2, HsAQP1 and DmBIB expressing oocytes had ionic conductances, and showed differential sensitivity to block by external Ca2+. The order of potency of inhibition by Ca2+ was AtPIP2;2 > AtPIP2;1 > DmBIB > HsAQP1. Blockage of the AQP cation channels by Ba2+ and Cd2+ caused voltage-sensitive outward rectification. The channels with the highest sensitivity to Ca2+ (AtPIP2;1 and AtPIP2;2 showed a distinctive relief of the Ca2+ block by co-application of excess Ba2+, suggesting that divalent ions act at the same site. Recognizing the regulatory role of divalent cations may enable the discovery of other classes of AQP ion channels, and facilitate the development of tools for modulating AQP ion channels. Modulators of AQPs have potential value for diverse applications including improving salinity tolerance in plants, controlling vector-borne diseases, and intervening in serious clinical conditions involving AQPs, such as cancer metastasis, cardiovascular or renal dysfunction.

  13. Dual regulation of the native ClC-K2 chloride channel in the distal nephron by voltage and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Laurent; Nissant, Antoine; Edwards, Aurélie; Lourdel, Stéphane; Teulon, Jacques; Paulais, Marc

    2016-09-01

    ClC-K2, a member of the ClC family of Cl(-) channels and transporters, forms the major basolateral Cl(-) conductance in distal nephron epithelial cells and therefore plays a central role in renal Cl(-) absorption. However, its regulation remains largely unknown because of the fact that recombinant ClC-K2 has not yet been studied at the single-channel level. In the present study, we investigate the effects of voltage, pH, Cl(-), and Ca(2+) on native ClC-K2 in the basolateral membrane of intercalated cells from the mouse connecting tubule. The ∼10-pS channel shows a steep voltage dependence such that channel activity increases with membrane depolarization. Intracellular pH (pHi) and extracellular pH (pHo) differentially modulate the voltage dependence curve: alkaline pHi flattens the curve by causing an increase in activity at negative voltages, whereas alkaline pHo shifts the curve toward negative voltages. In addition, pHi, pHo, and extracellular Ca(2+) strongly increase activity, mainly because of an increase in the number of active channels with a comparatively minor effect on channel open probability. Furthermore, voltage alters both the number of active channels and their open probability, whereas intracellular Cl(-) has little influence. We propose that changes in the number of active channels correspond to them entering or leaving an inactivated state, whereas modulation of open probability corresponds to common gating by these channels. We suggest that pH, through the combined effects of pHi and pHo on ClC-K2, might be a key regulator of NaCl absorption and Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange in type B intercalated cells. © 2016 Pinelli et al.

  14. Ethical standards and regulations principles of professional conduct in the field of mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia I. Melnychuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An origin of conflicts, during life of man, is the inevitable phenomenon. A subject for a conflict results in the origin of conflict situation, which contains the negative colouring the display of which can be offence. Mediaciya appears the alternative method of permission of conflict, which is directed on zalagodzhennya and decision of conflicts by the direct socializing with an offender and suffering. A collaboration as a result of realization of which reasons of divergences and aspiration of resisting sides of search of vzaemopriynyatnikh ways of decision of situation turn out appears the base of process of mediacii. In this process the third participant is a neurohumor, the purpose of activity of which is adjusting and communicative process control. Institualizaciya of codes of conduct, which are added the certain types of moral mutual relations between people is optimum for realization of professional activity. Socialphilosophical interpretation of cultural, humanism principles of restoration process is fixed in the ethics standards of mediacii. Ethics norms are key in achievement of the real perfection, that is why there is a clear requirement in the ethics estimation of practice of neurohumor for the maintainance of moral, legal norms upgrading functioning. Professional practice of neurohumor is based on an awareness them of ethics aspects and social payment in prevention of recidivism, observance of ethics rules and standards, proper European legislation, national traditions.

  15. Assessment of Correlation between Sweat Chloride Levels and Clinical Features of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Manzoor A; Khan, Mosin S; Malik, Showkat A; Raina, Ab Hameed; Makhdoomi, Mudassir J; Bhat, Javed I; Mudassar, Syed

    2016-12-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the incidence of this disease is undermined in Northern India. The distinguishable salty character of the sweat belonging to individuals suffering from CF makes sweat chloride estimation essential for diagnosis of CF disease. The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the relationship of sweat chloride levels with clinical features and pattern of CF. A total of 182 patients, with clinical features of CF were included in this study for quantitative measurement of sweat chloride. Sweat stimulation and collection involved pilocarpine iontophoresis based on the Gibson and Cooks methodology. The quantitative estimation of chloride was done by Schales and Schales method with some modifications. Cystic Fibrosis Trans Membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutation status was recorded in case of patients with borderline sweat chloride levels to correlate the results and for follow-up. Out of 182 patients having clinical features consistent with CF, borderline and elevated sweat chloride levels were present in 9 (5%) and 41 (22.5%) subjects respectively. Elevated sweat chloride levels were significantly associated with wheeze, Failure To Thrive (FTT), history of CF in Siblings, product of Consanguineous Marriage (CM), digital clubbing and steatorrhoea on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis only wheeze, FTT and steatorrhoea were found to be significantly associated with elevated sweat chloride levels (p<0.05). Among the nine borderline cases six cases were positive for at least two CFTR mutations and rest of the three cases were not having any mutation in CFTR gene. The diagnosis is often delayed and the disease is advanced in most patients at the time of diagnosis. Sweat testing is a gold standard for diagnosis of CF patients as genetic mutation profile being heterozygous and unlikely to become diagnostic test.

  16. CFTR-dependent chloride efflux in cystic fibrosis mononuclear cells is increased by ivacaftor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Lorenzo; D'Oria, Susanna; Favia, Maria; Castellani, Stefano; Santostasi, Teresa; Polizzi, Angela M; Mariggiò, Maria A; Gallo, Crescenzio; Casavola, Valeria; Montemurro, Pasqualina; Leonetti, Giuseppina; Manca, Antonio; Conese, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) potentiator ivacaftor (Kalydeco®) improves clinical outcome in G551D cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we have investigated whether ivacaftor has a clinical impact on non-G551D gating mutations and function of circulating leukocytes as well. Seven patients were treated with ivacaftor and evaluated at baseline, and at 1-3 and 6 months. Besides clinical and systemic inflammatory parameters, circulating mononuclear cells (MNC) were evaluated for CFTR-dependent chloride efflux by spectrofluorimetry, neutrophils for oxidative burst by cytofluorimetry and HVCN1 mRNA expression by real time PCR. Ivacaftor determined a significant decrease in sweat chloride concentrations at all time points during treatment. Body mass index (BMI), FEV 1 , and FVC showed an increasing trend. While C-reactive protein decreased significantly at 2 months, the opposite behavior was noticed for circulating monocytes. CFTR activity in MNC was found to increase significantly at 3 and 6 months. Neutrophil oxidative burst peaked at 2 months and then decreased to baseline. HVCN1 mRNA expression was significantly higher than baseline at 1-3 months and decreased after 6 months of treatment. The chloride efflux in MNC correlated positively with both FEV 1 and FVC. On the other hand, sweat chloride correlated positively with CRP and WBC, and negatively with both respiratory function tests. A cluster analysis confirmed that sweat chloride, FEV 1 , FVC, BMI, and MNC chloride efflux behaved as a single entity over time. In patients with non-G551D mutations, ivacaftor improved both chloride transport in sweat ducts and chloride efflux in MNC, that is, functions directly imputed to CFTR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Proinflammatory effect of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in deltaF508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator lung epithelial cells: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 and c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Telma; Boncoeur, Emilie; Saint-Criq, Vinciane; Bonvin, Elise; Clement, Annick; Tabary, Olivier; Jacquot, Jacky

    2008-09-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) has attracted a great deal of attention in cystic fibrosis (CF) pathology due to its capacity to traffic DeltaF508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to the cell membrane and restore CFTR chloride function at the plasma membrane of CF lung cells in vitro and in vivo. Using two different DeltaF508-CFTR lung epithelial cell lines (CFBE41o- and IB3-1 cells, characterized with DeltaF508-homozygous and heterozygous genotype, respectively) in vitro, 4-PBA induced an increase of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 production in a concentration-dependent manner. This 4-PBA-induced IL-8 production was associated with a strong reduction of proteasome and nuclear factor-kappaB transcriptional activities in the two DeltaF508-CFTR lung cells either in a resting state or after tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation. In contrast, a strong increase of activator protein-1 transcriptional activity was observed. The inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio] butadiene (U0126) and 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (PD98059) and c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by anthra[1,9-cd] pyrazol-6 (2H)-one (SP600125), respectively, was associated with a reduction (2-3.5-fold) of IL-8 production in both DeltaF508-CFTR lung cell lines treated with 4-PBA. No significant change of IL-8 production was observed after an inhibition of p38 MAPK with 4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-pyridinyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl] phenol (SB202190). Therefore, we suggest that inhibition of both ERK1/2 and JNK signaling may be a means to strongly reduce 4-PBA-induced IL-8 production in combination with 4-PBA treatment to restore CFTR Cl(-) channel function in lung epithelial cells of patients with CF.

  18. Emotion Regulation in Adolescent Males with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Testing the Effects of Comorbid Conduct Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Northover

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been linked to emotion dysregulation, few studies have experimentally investigated this whilst controlling for the effects of comorbid conduct disorder (CD. Economic decision-making games that assess how individuals respond to offers varying in fairness have been used to study emotion regulation. The present study compared adolescent boys with ADHD (n = 90, ADHD + CD (n = 94 and typical controls (n = 47 on the Ultimatum Game and examined the contribution of ADHD and CD symptom scores and callous and unemotional traits to acceptance levels of unfair offers. There were no significant differences in acceptance rates of fair and highly unfair offers between groups, and only boys with ADHD did not significantly differ from the controls. However, the subgroup of boys with ADHD and additional high levels of aggressive CD symptoms rejected significantly more ambiguous (i.e., moderately unfair offers than any other subgroup, suggesting impaired emotion regulation in those with ADHD and aggressive CD. Correlations within the CD group showed that the rejection rate to moderately unfair offers was predicted by aggressive CD symptom severity, but not callous and unemotional traits. These findings highlight the fact that ADHD is a heterogeneous condition from an emotion regulation point of view.

  19. Emotion Regulation in Adolescent Males with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Testing the Effects of Comorbid Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northover, Clare; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2015-09-07

    Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to emotion dysregulation, few studies have experimentally investigated this whilst controlling for the effects of comorbid conduct disorder (CD). Economic decision-making games that assess how individuals respond to offers varying in fairness have been used to study emotion regulation. The present study compared adolescent boys with ADHD (n = 90), ADHD + CD (n = 94) and typical controls (n = 47) on the Ultimatum Game and examined the contribution of ADHD and CD symptom scores and callous and unemotional traits to acceptance levels of unfair offers. There were no significant differences in acceptance rates of fair and highly unfair offers between groups, and only boys with ADHD did not significantly differ from the controls. However, the subgroup of boys with ADHD and additional high levels of aggressive CD symptoms rejected significantly more ambiguous (i.e., moderately unfair) offers than any other subgroup, suggesting impaired emotion regulation in those with ADHD and aggressive CD. Correlations within the CD group showed that the rejection rate to moderately unfair offers was predicted by aggressive CD symptom severity, but not callous and unemotional traits. These findings highlight the fact that ADHD is a heterogeneous condition from an emotion regulation point of view.

  20. Influence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator on expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadri Luis EN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene. Infections of the respiratory tract are a hallmark in CF. The host immune responses in CF are not adequate to eradicate pathogens, such as P. aeruginosa. Dendritic cells (DC are crucial in initiation and regulation of immune responses. Changes in DC function could contribute to abnormal immune responses on multiple levels. The role of DC in CF lung disease remains unknown. Methods This study investigated the expression of CFTR gene in bone marrow-derived DC. We compared the differentiation and maturation profile of DC from CF and wild type (WT mice. We analyzed the gene expression levels in DC from naive CF and WT mice or following P. aeruginosa infection. Results CFTR is expressed in DC with lower level compared to lung tissue. DC from CF mice showed a delayed in the early phase of differentiation. Gene expression analysis in DC generated from naive CF and WT mice revealed decreased expression of Caveolin-1 (Cav1, a membrane lipid raft protein, in the CF DC compared to WT DC. Consistently, protein and activity levels of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP, a negative regulator of Cav1 expression, were increased in CF DC. Following exposure to P. aeruginosa, expression of 3β-hydroxysterol-Δ7 reductase (Dhcr7 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (Scd2, two enzymes involved in the lipid metabolism that are also regulated by SREBP, was less decreased in the CF DC compared to WT DC. Conclusion These results suggest that CFTR dysfunction in DC affects factors involved in membrane structure and lipid-metabolism, which may contribute to the abnormal inflammatory and immune response characteristic of CF.

  1. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  2. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  3. Fenugreek Seed Powder Nullified Aluminium Chloride Induced Memory Loss, Biochemical Changes, Aβ Burden and Apoptosis via Regulating Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokan Prema

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia that mainly affects the cognitive functions of the aged populations. Trigonella foenum-graecum (L. (fenugreek, a traditionally well utilized medicinal plant ubiquitously used as one of the main food additive worldwide, is known to have numerous beneficial health effects. Fenugreek seed extract could be able to inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, a key enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of AD, and further shown to have anti-parkinsonic effect. The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of fenugreek seed powder (FSP against aluminium chloride (AlCl3 induced experimental AD model. Administration of germinated FSP (2.5, 5 and 10% mixed with ground standard rat feed protected AlCl3 induced memory and learning impairments, Al overload, AChE hyperactivity, amyloid β (Aβ burden and apoptosis via activating Akt/GSK3β pathway. Our present data could confirm the neuroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds. Further these results could lead a possible therapeutics for the management of neurodegenerative diseases including AD in future.

  4. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Attaches Tumor Suppressor PTEN to the Membrane and Promotes Anti Pseudomonas aeruginosa Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Sebastián A; Hopkins, Benjamin D; Wolfe, Andrew L; DiMango, Emily; Kitur, Kipyegon; Parsons, Ramon; Prince, Alice

    2017-12-19

    The tumor suppressor PTEN controls cell proliferation by regulating phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activity, but the participation of PTEN in host defense against bacterial infection is less well understood. Anti-inflammatory PI3K-Akt signaling is suppressed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease characterized by hyper-inflammatory responses to airway infection. We found that Ptenl -/- mice, which lack the NH 2 -amino terminal splice variant of PTEN, were unable to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the airways and could not generate sufficient anti-inflammatory PI3K activity, similar to what is observed in CF. PTEN and the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) interacted directly and this interaction was necessary to position PTEN at the membrane. CF patients under corrector-potentiator therapy, which enhances CFTR transport to the membrane, have increased PTEN amounts. These findings suggest that improved CFTR trafficking could enhance P. aeruginosa clearance from the CF airway by activating PTEN-mediated anti-bacterial responses and might represent a therapeutic strategy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane, but accumulat...

  6. MiRNA-135a regulates the expression of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK3) channels in epilepsy-like conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honrath, Birgit; Norwood, Braxton; Tanrioever, Gaye; Kuter, Katarzyna; Henshall, David C; Aksel-Aksoy, Ayla; Schratt, Gerhard; Pasterkamp, Jeroen; Dencher, Norbert A.; Nieweg, Katja; Culmsee, Carsten; Dolga, Amalia Mihalea

    2017-01-01

    Background Excessive and hypersynchronous neuronal discharges are key characteristics in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Owing to their ability of regulating neuronal excitability, small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels have been implicated in

  7. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  8. Structural basis of typhod: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PilS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, A.; Saxena, A; Mok, H; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein (PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 A, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  9. Structural basis of typhoid: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PiLS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Mok, H. Y.-K.; Swaminathan, K.

    2009-11-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein ({Delta}PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of {Delta}PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 {angstrom}, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  10. Distinct expression/function of potassium and chloride channels contributes to the diverse volume regulation in cortical astrocytes of GFAP/EGFP mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešová, Jana; Rusňáková, Vendula; Honsa, Pavel; Pivoňková, Helena; Džamba, Dávid; Kubista, Mikael; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), e29725 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1338 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD309/08/H079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : cell volume regulation * GFAP/EGFP * ischemia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology; FH - Neurology (BTO-N) Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  11. Aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride in groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Carpenter, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the biodegradation of 14 C-labeled vinyl chloride in samples taken from a shallow aquifer. Under aerobic conditions, vinyl chloride was readily degraded, with greater than 99% of the labeled material being degraded after 108 days and approximately 65% being mineralized to 14 CO 2

  12. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some electrical and mechanical properties for pure polyvinyl alcohol. A B Elaydy M Hafez ... Keywords. Polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA); granular strontium chloride, SrCl2; a.c. electrical conductivity; dielectric constant; dielectric loss; Young's modulus; creep relaxation curve.

  13. Lack of the sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE impairs visual function in the mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Hilgen

    Full Text Available Regulation of ion and pH homeostasis is essential for normal neuronal function. The sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE (Slc4a10, a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, uses the transmembrane gradient of sodium to drive cellular net uptake of bicarbonate and to extrude chloride, thereby modulating both intracellular pH (pH(i and chloride concentration ([Cl(-](i in neurons. Here we show that NCBE is strongly expressed in the retina. As GABA(A receptors conduct both chloride and bicarbonate, we hypothesized that NCBE may be relevant for GABAergic transmission in the retina. Importantly, we found a differential expression of NCBE in bipolar cells: whereas NCBE was expressed on ON and OFF bipolar cell axon terminals, it only localized to dendrites of OFF bipolar cells. On these compartments, NCBE colocalized with the main neuronal chloride extruder KCC2, which renders GABA hyperpolarizing. NCBE was also expressed in starburst amacrine cells, but was absent from neurons known to depolarize in response to GABA, like horizontal cells. Mice lacking NCBE showed decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in behavioral experiments and smaller b-wave amplitudes and longer latencies in electroretinograms. Ganglion cells from NCBE-deficient mice also showed altered temporal response properties. In summary, our data suggest that NCBE may serve to maintain intracellular chloride and bicarbonate concentration in retinal neurons. Consequently, lack of NCBE in the retina may result in changes in pH(i regulation and chloride-dependent inhibition, leading to altered signal transmission and impaired visual function.

  14. 49 CFR 99.735-1 - Cross-reference to ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethical conduct standards and... Transportation EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General § 99.735-1 Cross-reference to ethical conduct... the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, the Department of...

  15. 22 CFR 1001.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cross-references to employee ethical conduct... FOUNDATION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 1001.1 Cross-references to employee ethical conduct... Foundation should refer to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch at 5 CFR...

  16. 22 CFR 1504.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cross-references to employee ethical conduct... FOUNDATION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 1504.1 Cross-references to employee ethical conduct... Foundation are subject to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch at 5 CFR...

  17. A survey of detergents for the purification of stable, active human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ellen; Zhang, Qinghai; Cant, Natasha; Ding, Haitao; Dai, Qun; Peng, Lingling; Fu, Yu; DeLucas, Lawrence J; Ford, Robert; Kappes, John C; Urbatsch, Ina L

    2014-11-01

    Structural knowledge of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) requires developing methods to purify and stabilize this aggregation-prone membrane protein above 1mg/ml. Starting with green fluorescent protein- and epitope-tagged human CFTR produced in mammalian cells known to properly fold and process CFTR, we devised a rapid tandem affinity purification scheme to minimize CFTR exposure to detergent in order to preserve its ATPase function. We compared a panel of detergents, including widely used detergents (maltosides, neopentyl glycols (MNG), C12E8, lysolipids, Chaps) and innovative detergents (branched alkylmaltosides, facial amphiphiles) for CFTR purification, function, monodispersity and stability. ATPase activity after reconstitution into proteoliposomes was 2-3 times higher when CFTR was purified using facial amphiphiles. ATPase activity was also demonstrated in purified CFTR samples without detergent removal using a novel lipid supplementation assay. By electron microscopy, negatively stained CFTR samples were monodisperse at low concentration, and size exclusion chromatography showed a predominance of monomer even after CFTR concentration above 1mg/ml. Rates of CFTR aggregation quantified in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that detergents which best preserved reconstituted ATPase activity also supported the greatest stability, with CFTR monomer half-lives of 6-9days in MNG or Chaps, and 12-17days in facial amphiphile. Cryoelectron microscopy of concentrated CFTR in MNG or facial amphiphile confirmed mostly monomeric protein, producing low resolution reconstructions in conformity with similar proteins. These protocols can be used to generate samples of pure, functional, stable CFTR at concentrations amenable to biophysical characterization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium type 2 channels regulate the formation of contextual fear memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana R K Murthy

    Full Text Available Small-conductance, Ca2+ activated K+ channels (SK channels are expressed at high levels in brain regions responsible for learning and memory. In the current study we characterized the contribution of SK2 channels to synaptic plasticity and to different phases of hippocampal memory formation. Selective SK2 antisense-treatment facilitated basal synaptic transmission and theta-burst induced LTP in hippocampal brain slices. Using the selective SK2 antagonist Lei-Dab7 or SK2 antisense probes, we found that hippocampal SK2 channels are critical during two different time windows: 1 blockade of SK2 channels before the training impaired fear memory, whereas, 2 blockade of SK2 channels immediately after the training enhanced contextual fear memory. We provided the evidence that the post-training cleavage of the SK2 channels was responsible for the observed bidirectional effect of SK2 channel blockade on memory consolidation. Thus, Lei-Dab7-injection before training impaired the C-terminal cleavage of SK2 channels, while Lei-Dab7 given immediately after training facilitated the C-terminal cleavage. Application of the synthetic peptide comprising a leucine-zipper domain of the C-terminal fragment to Jurkat cells impaired SK2 channel-mediated currents, indicating that the endogenously cleaved fragment might exert its effects on memory formation by blocking SK2 channel-mediated currents. Our present findings suggest that SK2 channel proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity and memory not only as ion channels but also by additionally generating a SK2 C-terminal fragment, involved in both processes. The modulation of fear memory by down-regulating SK2 C-terminal cleavage might have applicability in the treatment of anxiety disorders in which fear conditioning is enhanced.

  19. Structure of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the inward-facing conformation revealed by single particle electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateeq Al-Zahrani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common inherited disease in European populations is cystic fibrosis. Mutations in the gene lead to loss of function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR. CFTR is a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of membrane proteins that mostly act as active transporters using ATP to move substances across membranes. These proteins undergo large conformational changes during the transport cycle, consistent with an inward-facing to outward-facing translocation mechanism that was originally proposed by Jardetzky. CFTR is the only member of this family of proteins that functions as an ion channel, and in this case ATP and phosphorylation of a regulatory domain controls the opening of the channel. In this article we describe the inward-facing conformation of the protein and show it can be modulated by the presence of a purified recombinant NHERF1-PDZ1 domain that binds with high affinity to the CFTR C-terminal PDZ motif (-QDTRL. ATP hydrolysis activity of CFTR can also be modulated by glutathione, which we postulate may bind to the inward-facing conformation of the protein. A homology model for CFTR, based on a mitochondrial ABC transporter of glutathione in the inward-facing configuration has been generated. The map and the model are discussed with respect to the biology of the channel and the specific relationship between glutathione levels in the cell and CFTR. Finally, disease-causing mutations are mapped within the model and discussed in terms of their likely physiological effects.

  20. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  1. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  2. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  3. Differential regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Na+,K+ -ATPase in gills of striped bass, Morone saxatilis: effect of salinity and hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen; Jensen, Lars Nørholm; Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek

    2007-01-01

    -regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was stimulated by EGF but not affected by IGF-I. This study is the first to report a branchial EGF response and to demonstrate a functional ERK 1/2 pathway in the teleost gill. In conclusion, CFTR and Na(+),K(+) -ATPase are differentially regulated by salinity and hormones in gills...

  4. Chloride channels as tools for developing selective insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2003-12-01

    Ligand-gated chloride channels underlie inhibition in excitable membranes and are proven target sites for insecticides. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(1)) receptor/chloride ionophore complex is the primary site of action for a number of currently used insecticides, such as lindane, endosulfan, and fipronil. These compounds act as antagonists by stabilizing nonconducting conformations of the chloride channel. Blockage of the GABA-gated chloride channel reduces neuronal inhibition, which leads to hyperexcitation of the central nervous system, convulsions, and death. We recently investigated the mode of action of the silphinenes, plant-derived natural compounds that structurally resemble picrotoxinin. These materials antagonize the action of GABA on insect neurons and block GABA-mediated chloride uptake into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes in a noncompetitive manner. In mammals, avermectins have a blocking action on the GABA-gated chloride channel consistent with a coarse tremor, whereas at longer times and higher concentrations, activation of the channel suppresses neuronal activity. Invertebrates display ataxia, paralysis, and death as the predominant signs of poisoning, with a glutamate-gated chloride channel playing a major role. Additional target sites for the avermectins or other chloride channel-directed compounds might include receptors gated by histamine, serotonin, or acetylcholine.The voltage-sensitive chloride channels form another large gene family of chloride channels. Voltage-dependent chloride channels are involved in a number of physiological processes including: maintenance of electrical excitability, chloride ion secretion and resorption, intravesicular acidification, and cell volume regulation. A subset of these channels is affected by convulsants and insecticides in mammals, although the role they play in acute lethality in insects is unclear. Given the wide range of functions that they mediate, these channels are also potential targets for

  5. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  6. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions

  7. Resposta de cultivares de arroz a doses de nitrogênio e do regulador de crescimento cloreto de clormequat Response of rice cultivars to nitrogen and growth regulator chlormequat chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatiér Buzetti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 e do regulador de crescimento cloreto de clormequat (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1, em algumas características agronômicas de cultivares de arroz IAC 201 e IAC 202. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O N foi aplicado em cobertura, no estádio da diferenciação floral, e o regulador de crescimento foi aplicado parceladamente, aos 20 e 30 dias após a emergência das plântulas de arroz (perfilhamento. Na safra 2001/2002, houve efeito significativo de N para altura de plantas, comprimento da panícula, espiguetas por panícula, massa de 100 grãos e produtividade de grãos. Houve efeito do regulador de crescimento sobre o comprimento da panícula e espiguetas por panícula. A maior produtividade foi a da cultivar IAC 202. Na safra 2002/2003, houve efeito de N para altura de plantas, massa de 100 grãos, fertilidade das espiguetas e produtividade de grãos. O regulador de crescimento não exerceu efeito nas características testadas, e a cultivar IAC 202 foi novamente a mais produtiva.The objective of this work was to evaluate N rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 and the growth regulator chlormequat chloride effect (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1 on some agronomic characteristics of rice cultivars IAC 201 and IAC 202. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Nitrogen was applied as side-dressing at flower differentiation and the growth regulator was split in two times and applied at 20 and 30 days after seedlings emergency (tillering. In the harvests of 2001/2002, there was no significant effect of N rates on plant height, panicle length, spikelet per panicle, 100-grain mass and grain yield. The growth regulator rates were significant for panicle length and spikelet per panicle. IAC 202 presented higher grain yield. In the harvest of 2002/2003 there was no effect of N rates on plant height, spikelet

  8. 12 CFR 1401.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to employee ethical conduct... INSURANCE CORPORATION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 1401.1 Cross-references to employee ethical... the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation are subject to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for...

  9. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  10. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... concentrations over longer periods. The signal was seen to be stable, with regular drift in both laboratory and field test. In the field application, the sensor signal was corrected for drift, and errors were observed to be under 7% of that of conductivity measurements. The study also found that the chloride...

  11. Functional modifications of acid-sensing ion channels by ligand-gated chloride channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanmao Chen

    Full Text Available Together, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs and epithelial sodium channels (ENaC constitute the majority of voltage-independent sodium channels in mammals. ENaC is regulated by a chloride channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Here we show that ASICs were reversibly inhibited by activation of GABA(A receptors in murine hippocampal neurons. This inhibition of ASICs required opening of the chloride channels but occurred with both outward and inward GABA(A receptor-mediated currents. Moreover, activation of the GABA(A receptors modified the pharmacological features and kinetic properties of the ASIC currents, including the time course of activation, desensitization and deactivation. Modification of ASICs by open GABA(A receptors was also observed in both nucleated patches and outside-out patches excised from hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, ASICs and GABA(A receptors interacted to regulate synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampal slices. The activation of glycine receptors, which are similar to GABA(A receptors, also modified ASICs in spinal neurons. We conclude that GABA(A receptors and glycine receptors modify ASICs in neurons through mechanisms that require the opening of chloride channels.

  12. Effect of chloride-based deicers on reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an extensive literature review and performed laboratory tests to assess the effect of chloride-based deicers on the rebars and dowel bars in concrete and to determine whether or not deicer corrosion inhibitors help preserve the transport...

  13. Targeting autophagy as a novel strategy for facilitating the therapeutic action of potentiators on ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Luciani (Alessandro); V.R. Villella (Valeria Rachela); S. Esposito (Susanna); M. Gavina (Manuela); I. Russo (Ilaria); M. Silano (Marco); S. Guido (Stefano); M. Pettoello-Mantovani (Massimo); R. Carnuccio (Rosa); B.J. Scholte (Bob); A. de Matteis (Antonella); M.C. Maiuri (Maria Chiara); V. Raia (Valeria); A. Luini (Alberto); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); L. Maiuri (Luigi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractChannel activators (potentiators) of cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), can be used for the treatment of the small subset of CF patients that carry plasma membrane-resident CFTR mutants. However, approximately 90% of CF patients carry the misfolded

  14. Emotion regulation difficulties in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorders and the relation with comorbid autism traits and attention deficit traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD), children with other

  15. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Potentiation as a Therapeutic Strategy for Pulmonary Edema: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Vargas Buonfiglio, Luis G; Adam, Ryan J; Stoltz, David A; Zabner, Joseph; Comellas, Alejandro P

    2017-12-01

    To determine the feasibility of using a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator, ivacaftor (VX-770/Kalydeco, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA), as a therapeutic strategy for treating pulmonary edema. Prospective laboratory animal investigation. Animal research laboratory. Newborn and 3 days to 1 week old pigs. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was induced in pigs by acute volume overload. Ivacaftor was nebulized into the lung immediately after volume overload. Grams of water per grams of dry lung tissue were determined in the lungs harvested 1 hour after volume overload. Ivacaftor significantly improved alveolar liquid clearance in isolated pig lung lobes ex vivo and reduced edema in a volume overload in vivo pig model of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. To model hydrostatic pressure-induced edema in vitro, we developed a method of applied pressure to the basolateral surface of alveolar epithelia. Elevated hydrostatic pressure resulted in decreased cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator activity and liquid absorption, an effect which was partially reversed by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiation with ivacaftor. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiation by ivacaftor is a novel therapeutic approach for pulmonary edema.

  16. Expression and Regulation of Attachment-Related Emotions in Children with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R; Gale, Nyree; Godbee, Megan; Moul, Caroline; Pasalich, Dave S; Fink, Elian; Hawes, David J

    2016-08-01

    Callous-unemotional traits (CU) are defined by low responsiveness to, and unfeeling disregard for the emotions of others. There is controversial evidence, however, that children with high CU traits can demonstrate affective responsiveness under certain conditions, namely those associated with attachment threat. We tested this using 'fear + amusing' and 'attachment rich' stimuli from the Lion King film. Of N = 76, 4-14 years old children, 56 were clinic-referred children divided into high and low CU traits groups, and 20 children were drawn from the community. Participants watched film sequences of fearful, attachment-related and neutral stimuli and their affective responses and emotion-regulation strategies were coded by independent observers. Children in the high CU traits group were able to disengage from the fear stimuli by showing more 'happiness' to a brief slapstick interlude. In the attachment scenario, high CU children expressed similar or trends toward higher emotional responses and emotion regulation strategies, compared to low-CU children and control children. The results support the idea that high CU children may have the potential for emotional responsiveness to complex emotional stimuli in attachment contexts. Implications of these results for the development of interventions are discussed.

  17. A study on chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, H.C.; Kim, T.J.; Jang, J.H.; Kim, G.Y.; Lee, S.J.; Hur, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) was conducted to derive an easy and simple uranium chloride production method without impurities. In thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, it was predicted that only uranium chlorides can be produced by the reactions between uranium metal and NH 4 Cl. Experimental conditions for the chlorination of uranium metal were determined using a chlorination test of cerium metal using NH 4 Cl. It was confirmed that UCl 3 and UCl 4 in the form of particles as uranium chlorination products can be obtained from the chlorination method using NH 4 Cl. (author)

  18. Modelling (18)O2 and (16)O2 unidirectional fluxes in plants. IV: role of conductance and laws of its regulation in C3 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marcel J

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies focus on the measurement of conductances for CO2 transfer in plants and especially on their regulatory effects on photosynthesis. Measurement accuracy is strongly dependent on the model used and on the knowledge of the flow of photochemical energy generated by light in chloroplasts. The only accurate and precise method to quantify the linear electron flux (responsible for the production of reductive energy) is the direct measurement of O2 evolution, by (18)O2 labelling and mass spectrometry. The sharing of this energy between the carboxylation (P) and the oxygenation of photorespiration (PR) depends on the plant specificity factor (Sp) and on the corresponding atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and O2 (André, 2013). The concept of plant specificity factor simplifies the equations of the model. It gives a new expression of the effect of the conductance (g) between atmosphere and chloroplasts. Its quantitative effect on photosynthesis is easy to understand because it intervenes in the ratio of the plant specificity factor (Sp) to the specificity of Rubisco (Sr). Using this 'simple' model with the data of (18)O2 experiments, the calculation of conductance variations in response to CO2 and light was carried out. The good fitting of experimental data of O2 and CO2 exchanges confirms the validity of the simple model. The calculation of conductance variation during the increase of external CO2 concentration reveals a linear law of regulation between external and internal CO2 concentrations. During CO2 variations, the effects of g regulation tend to maintain a higher level of oxygenation (PR) in expense of a better carboxylation (P). Contrary to CO2, the variation of O2 creates a negative feedback effect compatible with a stabilization of atmospheric O2. The regulation of g amplifies this result. The effect of light in combination with CO2 is more complex. Below 800μmolquantam(-2)s(-1) the ratio PR/P is maintained unchangeable in expense of carboxylation

  19. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantiene Schoorl

    Full Text Available Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD, children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1 to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC of 38 boys (8-12 years using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game, parent report and self-report, and 2 to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this.

  20. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD), children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1) to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC) of 38 boys (8-12 years) using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game), parent report and self-report, and 2) to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this.

  1. Variability of streambed hydraulic conductivity in an intermittent stream reach regulated by Vented Dams: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganna, Sujay Raghavendra; Deka, Paresh Chandra

    2018-07-01

    The hydro-geological properties of streambed together with the hydraulic gradients determine the fluxes of water, energy and solutes between the stream and underlying aquifer system. Dam induced sedimentation affects hyporheic processes and alters substrate pore space geometries in the course of progressive stabilization of the sediment layers. Uncertainty in stream-aquifer interactions arises from the inherent complex-nested flow paths and spatio-temporal variability of streambed hydraulic properties. A detailed field investigation of streambed hydraulic conductivity (Ks) using Guelph Permeameter was carried out in an intermittent stream reach of the Pavanje river basin located in the mountainous, forested tract of western ghats of India. The present study reports the spatial and temporal variability of streambed hydraulic conductivity along the stream reach obstructed by two Vented Dams in sequence. Statistical tests such as Levene's and Welch's t-tests were employed to check for various variability measures. The strength of spatial dependence and the presence of spatial autocorrelation among the streambed Ks samples were tested by using Moran's I statistic. The measures of central tendency and dispersion pointed out reasonable spatial variability in Ks distribution throughout the study reach during two consecutive years 2016 and 2017. The streambed was heterogeneous with regard to hydraulic conductivity distribution with high-Ks zones near the backwater areas of the vented dam and low-Ks zones particularly at the tail water section of vented dams. Dam operational strategies were responsible for seasonal fluctuations in sedimentation and modifications to streambed substrate characteristics (such as porosity, grain size, packing etc.), resulting in heterogeneous streambed Ks profiles. The channel downstream of vented dams contained significantly more cohesive deposits of fine sediment due to the overflow of surplus suspended sediment-laden water at low velocity

  2. Heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 channels differentially regulate action potential initiation and conduction in neocortical myelinated axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battefeld, Arne; Tran, Baouyen T; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C; Kole, Maarten H P

    2014-03-05

    Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of K(v)7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels in the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. The local biophysical properties of these K(v)7 channels and the functional impact of colocalization with Na(v) channels remain poorly understood. Here, we quantitatively examined K(v)7 channels in myelinated axons of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons using high-resolution confocal imaging and patch-clamp recording. K(v)7.2 and 7.3 immunoreactivity steeply increased within the distal two-thirds of the axon initial segment and was mirrored by the conductance density estimates, which increased from ~12 (proximal) to 150 pS μm(-2) (distal). The axonal initial segment and nodal M-currents were similar in voltage dependence and kinetics, carried by K(v)7.2/7.3 heterotetramers, 4% activated at the resting membrane potential and rapidly activated with single-exponential time constants (~15 ms at 28 mV). Experiments and computational modeling showed that while somatodendritic K(v)7 channels are strongly activated by the backpropagating action potential to attenuate the afterdepolarization and repetitive firing, axonal K(v)7 channels are minimally recruited by the forward-propagating action potential. Instead, in nodal domains K(v)7.2/7.3 channels were found to increase Na(v) channel availability and action potential amplitude by stabilizing the resting membrane potential. Thus, K(v)7 clustering near axonal Na(v) channels serves specific and context-dependent roles, both restraining initiation and enhancing conduction of the action potential.

  3. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  4. Peptide microarray analysis of substrate specificity of the transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase KPI-2 reveals reactivity with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Brautigan, David L

    2006-11-01

    Human lemur (Lmr) kinases are predicted to be Tyr kinases based on sequences and are related to neurotrophin receptor Trk kinases. This study used homogeneous recombinant KPI-2 (Lmr2, LMTK2, Cprk, brain-enriched protein kinase) kinase domain and a library of 1,154 peptides on a microarray to analyze substrate specificity. We found that KPI-2 is strictly a Ser/Thr kinase that reacts with Ser either preceded by or followed by Pro residues but unlike other Pro-directed kinases does not strictly require an adjacent Pro residue. The most reactive peptide in the library corresponds to Ser-737 of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, and the recombinant R domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator was a preferred substrate. Furthermore the KPI-2 kinase phosphorylated peptides corresponding to the single site in phosphorylase and purified phosphorylase b, making this only the second known phosphorylase b kinase. Phosphorylase was used as a specific substrate to show that KPI-2 is inhibited in living cells by addition of nerve growth factor or serum. The results demonstrate the utility of the peptide library to probe specificity and discover kinase substrates and offer a specific assay that reveals hormonal regulation of the activity of this unusual transmembrane kinase.

  5. Structural studies of precursor and partially oxidized conducting complexes. 19. Synthesis and crystal structure of Cs2[Pt(CN)4]Cl/sub 0.30, the first anhydrous one-dimensional tetracyanoplatinate chloride complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.K.; Williams, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The preparation and single-crystal x-ray structural characterization of a new, partially oxidized tetracyanoplatinate (POTCP), Cs 2 [Pt(CN) 4 ]Cl/sub 0.30/, CsCP(Cl), has been carried out. This one-dimensional conducting salt crystallizes with four formula units in the tetragonal unit cell I4/mcm, with cell constants a = 13.176 (2) A, c = 5.718 (1) A, and V = 992.7 A 3 . A total of 3112 observed data were averaged to yield 427 independent reflections. The structure was solved by standard heavy-atom methods and was refined by full-matrix least squares to a final R(F 0 2 ) = 0.045 and R/sub w/(F 0 2 ) = 0.059. Pertinent structural features include perfectly linear chains of Pt atoms with Pt-Pt separations crystallographically constrained to a value of (c/2) = 2.859 (2) A and interchain Pt-Pt distances of 9.317 A. Separations between the Cs + and Cl - ions are significantly shorter than the sum of the ionic radii. A discussion of these unusually short interionic distances and the absence of hydration as determined from the structural study and themogravimetric analyses is given. 2 figures, 2 tables

  6. Analysis of chloride diffusivity in concrete containing red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process and, due to its high pH, is classified as hazardous. Its incorporation in concrete mixtures, acting as filler due to the particles fineness, might be an interesting reuse alternative. The focus of this paper is to study the chloride diffusivity of concrete mixtures containing red-mud. The concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which was distilled water initially. In addition, the estimation of the chloride ions diffusion coefficients in steady and non-steady conditions, Ds and Dns, was obtained from the ''time-lag'' and ''equivalent time'' between diffusion and migration experiments. Due to superfine particle-size distribution and the "filler" effect, the red mud addition seems to assure lower chloride diffusivity.

  7. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  8. Comportamento da condutividade elétrica e do conteúdo de cloretos do leite como métodos auxiliares de diagnóstico na mastite subclínica bovina Electrical conductivity and chloride concentration of milk as auxiliary diagnostic methods in bovine subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Zafalon

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as provas de condutividade elétrica, utilizando-se um medidor manual, e do conteúdo de cloretos do leite como métodos auxiliares para o diagnóstico da mastite subclínica bovina na identificação de quartos mamários doentes em que Staphylococcus aureus e microrganismos do grupo Corynebacterium foram isolados posteriormente. Os exames foram realizados durante o período de dois anos, em animais da raça Holandesa, em propriedade rural produtora de leite do tipo C, onde a ordenha era realizada uma vez ao dia. A sensibilidade das provas de condutividade elétrica e do conteúdo de cloretos do leite originado dos quartos mamários em que foram isolados o Corynebacterium sp (65,3% e 78,3%, respectivamente foi superior à encontrada para os quartos mamários em que o Staphylococcus aureus foi identificado (55,4% e 68,2%, respectivamente. As eficiências das duas provas diagnósticas foram semelhantes. Foi demonstrada significância estatística nas análises de regressão das duas provas acompanhadas para os quartos mamários sadios e quartos com mastite subclínica por Staphylococcus aureus.Electrical conductivity measured by a hand-held meter and chloride concentration of milk were studied as auxiliary methods for diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis in the identification of affected mammary quarters where Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium sp were later isolated. Tests were made during 2 years in Holstein cows of a dairy farm producing type C milk, where milking was performed once a day. Sensitivities of electrical conductivity and chloride concentration tests from mammary quarters, where Corynebacterium sp was isolated (65.3% and 78.3%, respectively, were superior to the found in mammary quarters where S. aureus was identified (55.4% and 68.2%, respectively. The efficacies of the two diagnostic tests were similar. Statistical significance was demonstrated with regression analysis of both tests of healthy mammary

  9. Effects of 1,1-Dimethylpiperidinium Chloride on the Pests and Allelochemicals of Cotton and Pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. A. Hedin; J. N. Jenkins; J. C. McCarty; J. E. Mulrooney; W. L. Parrott; A. Borazjani; C. H. Graves; T. H. Filer

    1984-01-01

    The growth regulator, PIX (mepiquat chloride - 1,1-dimethyl-piperdinium chloride), when applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and pecan (Carya illinoensis Koch), caused internode shortening. PIX did not elicit an increase in resistance in cotton to the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens (Fab.)], or in pecan...

  10. Molecular and Thermodynamic Mechanisms of the Chloride-dependent Human Angiotensin-I-converting Enzyme (ACE)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christopher J.; Masuyer, Geoffrey; Schwager, Sylva L. U.; Akif, Mohd; Sturrock, Edward D.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE), a key regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte fluid homeostasis, cleaves the vasoactive angiotensin-I, bradykinin, and a number of other physiologically relevant peptides. sACE consists of two homologous and catalytically active N- and C-domains, which display marked differences in substrate specificities and chloride activation. A series of single substitution mutants were generated and evaluated under varying chloride concentrations using isothermal titration calorimetry. The x-ray crystal structures of the mutants provided details on the chloride-dependent interactions with ACE. Chloride binding in the chloride 1 pocket of C-domain ACE was found to affect positioning of residues from the active site. Analysis of the chloride 2 pocket R522Q and R522K mutations revealed the key interactions with the catalytic site that are stabilized via chloride coordination of Arg522. Substrate interactions in the S2 subsite were shown to affect chloride affinity in the chloride 2 pocket. The Glu403-Lys118 salt bridge in C-domain ACE was shown to stabilize the hinge-bending region and reduce chloride affinity by constraining the chloride 2 pocket. This work demonstrated that substrate composition to the C-terminal side of the scissile bond as well as interactions of larger substrates in the S2 subsite moderate chloride affinity in the chloride 2 pocket of the ACE C-domain, providing a rationale for the substrate-selective nature of chloride dependence in ACE and how this varies between the N- and C-domains. PMID:24297181

  11. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  12. Chloride leaching from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Q.; Schollbach, K.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Vlastimil, Bilek; Kersner, Zbynek; Simonova, Hana

    2017-01-01

    The presence of chlorides in the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration bottom ashes (BA) hinders their potential for recycling in building materials. The contaminant content in the incineration residues is strictly regulated by the Dutch legislation Soil Quality Decree (2013). The fine fraction

  13. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  14. Producing ammonium chloride from coal or shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, O L

    1921-02-25

    Process of producing ammonium chloride consists of mixing the substance to be treated with a chloride of an alkali or alkaline earth metal, free silica, water and free hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture until ammonium chloride distills off and collecting the ammonium chloride.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  16. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c) The...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  19. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and pipe...

  20. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride...

  2. Preparation of pure anhydrous rare earth chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kova, N.L.; Slastenova, N.M.; Batyaev, I.M.; Solov'ev, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been suggested for obtaining extra-pure anhydrous REE chlorides by chloridizing corresponding oxalates by chlorine in a fluid bed, the chloridizing agents being diluted by an inert gas in a ratio of 2-to-1. The method is applicable to the manufacture of quality chlorides not only of light, but also of heavy REE. Neodymium chloride has an excited life of tau=30 μs, this evidencing the absence of the damping impurities

  3. Mena/VASP and αII-Spectrin complexes regulate cytoplasmic actin networks in cardiomyocytes and protect from conduction abnormalities and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Peter M; Merkel, Carla J; Offner, Kristin; Abeßer, Marco; Ullrich, Melanie; Fischer, Tobias; Bayer, Barbara; Wagner, Helga; Gambaryan, Stepan; Ursitti, Jeanine A; Adham, Ibrahim M; Linke, Wolfgang A; Feller, Stephan M; Fleming, Ingrid; Renné, Thomas; Frantz, Stefan; Unger, Andreas; Schuh, Kai

    2013-08-12

    In the heart, cytoplasmic actin networks are thought to have important roles in mechanical support, myofibrillogenesis, and ion channel function. However, subcellular localization of cytoplasmic actin isoforms and proteins involved in the modulation of the cytoplasmic actin networks are elusive. Mena and VASP are important regulators of actin dynamics. Due to the lethal phenotype of mice with combined deficiency in Mena and VASP, however, distinct cardiac roles of the proteins remain speculative. In the present study, we analyzed the physiological functions of Mena and VASP in the heart and also investigated the role of the proteins in the organization of cytoplasmic actin networks. We generated a mouse model, which simultaneously lacks Mena and VASP in the heart. Mena/VASP double-deficiency induced dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction abnormalities. In wild-type mice, Mena and VASP specifically interacted with a distinct αII-Spectrin splice variant (SH3i), which is in cardiomyocytes exclusively localized at Z- and intercalated discs. At Z- and intercalated discs, Mena and β-actin localized to the edges of the sarcomeres, where the thin filaments are anchored. In Mena/VASP double-deficient mice, β-actin networks were disrupted and the integrity of Z- and intercalated discs was markedly impaired. Together, our data suggest that Mena, VASP, and αII-Spectrin assemble cardiac multi-protein complexes, which regulate cytoplasmic actin networks. Conversely, Mena/VASP deficiency results in disrupted β-actin assembly, Z- and intercalated disc malformation, and induces dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction abnormalities.

  4. Increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators expression and decreased epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits expression in early abortion: findings from a mouse model and clinical cases of abortion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou

    Full Text Available The status of the maternal endometrium is vital in regulating humoral homeostasis and for ensuring embryo implantation. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTR and epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits (ENaC-α play an important role in female reproduction by maintaining humoral and cell homeostasis. However, it is not clear whether the expression levels of CFTR and ENaC-α in the decidual component during early pregnancy are related with early miscarriage. CBA×DBA/2 mouse mating has been widely accepted as a classical model of early miscarriage. The abortion rate associated with this mating was 33.33% in our study. The decidua of abortion-prone CBA female mice (DBA/2 mated had higher CFTR mRNA and protein expression and lower ENaC-α mRNA and protein expression, compared to normal pregnant CBA mice (BLAB/C mated. Furthermore, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression were observed in the uterine tissue from women with early miscarriage, as compared to those with successful pregnancy. In conclusion, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression in the decidua of early abortion may relate with failure of early pregnancy.

  5. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  6. Reaction of calcium chloride with alkali metal chlorides in melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, V.D.; Mikhajlova, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermochemical characteristics of CaCl 2 reaction with sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in melts at 890 deg C are determined. The values of formation enthalpies of infinitely diluted by CaCl 2 solutions (ΔH) in the chloride row increase from -22 in NaCl to -47 kJ/mol of CaCl 2 in CsCl. With increasing the concentration of calcium chloride in the solution the ΔH values decrease. The regularities of separation from the solution of the CaCl 2 -CsCl system at 890 deg C of the CaCl 2 x CsCl in solid are studied. Formation enthalpies under the given conditions constitutes -70+-3 kJ/mol

  7. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is correlated closely with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L-Y; Shan, J-J; Tong, X-M; Zhu, H-Y; Yang, L-Y; Zheng, Q; Luo, Y; Shi, Q-X; Zhang, S-Y

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been demonstrated to be expressed in mature spermatozoa and correlated with sperm quality. Sperm CFTR expression in fertile men is higher than that in infertile men suffering from teratospermia, asthenoteratospermia, asthenospermia and oligospermia, but it is unknown whether CFTR is correlated with sperm parameters when sperm parameters are normal. In this study, 282 healthy and fertile men with normal semen parameters were classified into three age groups, group (I): age group of 20-29 years (98 cases, 27.1 ± 6.2), group (II): age group of 30-39 years (142 cases, 33.7 ± 2.6) and group (III): age group of more than or equal to 40 years (42 cases, 44.1 ± 4.6). Sperm concentration, total count and progressive motility were analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Sperm morphology was analysed by modified Papanicolaou staining. Sperm CFTR expression was conducted by indirect immunofluorescence staining. There was a significant positive correlation (P sperm progressive motility (r = 0.221) and normal morphology (r = 0.202), but there were no correlations between sperm CFTR expression and semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm total count as well as male age (P > 0.05). Our findings show that CFTR expression is associated with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters, but not associated with the number of spermatozoa and male age. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  9. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  10. A mathematical model in charactering chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.; Pecur, I.B.; Baricevic, A.; Stirmer, N; Bjegovic, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new analytic model for predicting chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious materials is developed based on conductivity theory and Nernst-Einstein equation. The model specifies that chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious materials can be mathematically described as

  11. Electrolytic production of light lanthanides from molten chloride alloys on a large laboratory scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklarski, W.; Bogacz, A.; Strzyzewska, M.

    1979-01-01

    Literature data relating to electrolytic production of rare earth metals are presented. Conditions and results are given of own investigations into the electrolytic process of light lanthanide chloride solutions (LA-Nd) in molten potassium and sodium chlorides conducted on a large laboratory scale using molybdenic, iron, cobaltic and zinc cathodes. Design schemes of employed electrolysers are enclosed. (author)

  12. Decree 343/012. Is regulated the servitude established by Decree-Law 10,383, on several lines of electricity conduction -150 KV to be built in the departments of Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree regulates the establishment of electricity conduction in Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo towns. These electrical lines are necessary to provide the public service by UTE

  13. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. II. Sulfur, chloride, iodine compounds. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, E

    1952-01-01

    Atmospheric precipitation invariably contains insoluble substances of different origin. A large scale study was conducted to determine the content of sulfur, chloride, and iodine in rainwater from various places around the world. The origin of these elements in rainwater is discussed. Several meteorological factors influence the Cl-content of rainwater. They include: rainfall, wind direction and wind strength, altitude, and seasonal variation.

  14. Impact of the [delta]F508 Mutation in First Nucleotide-binding Domain of Human Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator on Domain Folding and Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Hal A.; Zhao, Xun; Wang, Chi; Sauder, J. Michael; Rooney, Isabelle; Noland, Brian W.; Lorimer, Don; Kearins, Margaret C.; Conners, Kris; Condon, Brad; Maloney, Peter C.; Guggino, William B.; Hunt, John F.; Emtage, Spencer (SG); (Columbia); (JHU)

    2010-07-19

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), commonly the deletion of residue Phe-508 (DeltaF508) in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), which results in a severe reduction in the population of functional channels at the epithelial cell surface. Previous studies employing incomplete NBD1 domains have attributed this to aberrant folding of DeltaF508 NBD1. We report structural and biophysical studies on complete human NBD1 domains, which fail to demonstrate significant changes of in vitro stability or folding kinetics in the presence or absence of the DeltaF508 mutation. Crystal structures show minimal changes in protein conformation but substantial changes in local surface topography at the site of the mutation, which is located in the region of NBD1 believed to interact with the first membrane spanning domain of CFTR. These results raise the possibility that the primary effect of DeltaF508 is a disruption of proper interdomain interactions at this site in CFTR rather than interference with the folding of NBD1. Interestingly, increases in the stability of NBD1 constructs are observed upon introduction of second-site mutations that suppress the trafficking defect caused by the DeltaF508 mutation, suggesting that these suppressors might function indirectly by improving the folding efficiency of NBD1 in the context of the full-length protein. The human NBD1 structures also solidify the understanding of CFTR regulation by showing that its two protein segments that can be phosphorylated both adopt multiple conformations that modulate access to the ATPase active site and functional interdomain interfaces.

  15. Dual regulation of root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporins by plant nitrate accumulation and high-affinity nitrate transporter NRT2.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Tillard, Pascal; Gojon, Alain; Maurel, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The water status and mineral nutrition of plants critically determine their growth and development. Nitrate (NO3(-)), the primary nitrogen source of higher plants, is known to impact the water transport capacity of roots (root hydraulic conductivity, Lpr). To explore the effects and mode of action of NO3(-) on Lpr, we used an extended set of NO3(-) transport (nrt1.1, nrt1.2, nrt1.5 and nrt2.1), signaling (nrt1.1 and nrt2.1) and metabolism (nia) mutants in Arabidopsis, grown under various NO3(-) conditions. First, a strong positive relationship between Lpr and NO3(-) accumulation, in shoots rather than in roots, was revealed. Secondly, a specific 30% reduction of Lpr in nrt2.1 plants unraveled a major role for the high-affinity NO3(-) transporter NRT2.1 in increasing Lpr These results indicate that NO3(-)signaling rather than nitrogen assimilation products governs Lpr in Arabidopsis. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to investigate the effects of NO3(-) availability on plasma membrane aquaporin (plasma membrane intrinsic protein; PIP) expression. Whereas PIP regulation mostly occurs at the post-translational level in wild-type plants, a regulation of PIPs at both the transcriptional and translational levels was uncovered in nrt2.1 plants. In conclusion, this work reveals that control of Arabidopsis Lpr and PIP functions by NO3(-) involves novel shoot to root signaling and NRT2.1-dependent functions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity is Associated with Divergent Regulation of Calponin-1 in Conductance and Resistance Arteries in Hypertension-induced Early Vascular Dysfunction and Remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Juliana M; Pereira, Camila A; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Tanus-Santos, José E; Tostes, Rita C; Castro, Michele M

    2017-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 participates in hypertension-induced maladaptive vascular remodelling by degrading extra- and intracellular proteins. The consequent extracellular matrix rearrangement and phenotype switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) lead to increased cellular migration and proliferation. As calponin-1 degradation by MMP-2 may lead to VSMC proliferation during hypertension, the hypothesis of this study is that increased MMP-2 activity contributes to early hypertension-induced maladaptive remodelling in conductance and resistance arteries via regulation of calponin-1. The main objective was to analyse whether MMP-2 exerts similar effects on the structure and function of the resistance and conductance arteries during early hypertension. Two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive male rats and corresponding controls were treated with doxycycline (30 mg/kg/day) or water until reaching one week of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure was increased in 2K-1C rats, and doxycycline did not reduce it. Aortas and mesenteric arteries were analysed. MMP-2 activity and expression were increased in both arteries, and doxycycline reduced it. Significant hypertrophic remodelling and VSMC proliferation were observed in aortas but not in mesenteric arteries of 2K-1C rats. The contractility of mesenteric arteries to phenylephrine was increased in 2K-1C rats, and doxycycline prevented this alteration. The potency of phenylephrine to contract aortas of 2K-1C rats was increased, and doxycycline decreased it. Whereas calponin-1 expression was increased in 2K-1C mesenteric arteries, calponin-1 was reduced in aortas. Doxycycline treatment reverted changes in calponin-1 expression. MMP-2 contributes to hypertrophic remodelling in aortas by decreasing calponin-1 levels, which may result in VSMC proliferation. On the other hand, MMP-2-dependent increased calponin-1 in mesenteric arteries may contribute to vascular hypercontractility in 2K-1C rats. Divergent

  17. Transport and fate of chloride from road salt within a mixed urban and agricultural watershed in Illinois (USA): assessing the influence of chloride application rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwikowski, Jessica J.; Peterson, Eric W.

    2018-01-01

    In a typical winter season, approximately 471,000 tons of road salt are deposited along roadways in Illinois, USA. An estimated 45% of the deposited road salt will infiltrate through the soils and into shallow aquifers. Transported through shallow aquifers, chloride associated with the road salts has the potential to reside within groundwater for years based on the pathway, the geologic material, and the recharge rate of the aquifer system. Utilizing MODFLOW and MT3D, simulations employing various road-salt application rates were conducted to assess the net accumulation of chloride and the residence times of chloride in an agriculture-dominated watershed that originates in an urban area. A positive-linear relationship was observed between the application rate of chloride and both the maximum chloride concentration and total mass accumulated within the watershed. Simulated annual recharge rates along impacted surfaces ranged from 1,000 to 10,000 mg/L. After 60 years of application, simulated chloride concentrations in groundwater ranged from 197 to 1,900 mg/L. For all application rates, chloride concentrations within the groundwater rose at an annual rate of >3 mg/L. While concentrations increase throughout the system, the majority of chloride accumulation occurs near the roads and the urban areas. Model simulations reveal a positive relationship between application rate and residence time of chloride (1,123-1,288 days based on application rate). The models indicate that continued accumulation of chloride in shallow aquifers can be expected, and methods that apply less chloride effectively need to be examined.

  18. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  19. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    : On the basis of five included studies, the ED10 values of aqueous cobalt chloride ranged between 0.0663 and 1.95 µg cobalt/cm(2), corresponding to 30.8-259 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides an overview of the doses of cobalt that are required to elicit allergic cobalt contactdermatitis in sensitized...

  20. Surface Chloride Levels in Colorado Structural Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This project focused on the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The primary goal of this project is to analyze the surface chloride concentration level of the concrete bridge decks throughout Colorado. The study in...

  1. Pharmacokinetics of vinyl chloride in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.M.; Laib, R.J.; Kappus, H.; Buchter, A.

    1977-01-01

    When rats are exposed to [ 14 C]vinyl chloride in a closed system, the vinyl chloride present in the atmosphere equilibrates with the animals' organism within 15 min. The course of equilibration could be determined using rats which had been given 6-nitro-1,2,3-benzothiadiazole. This compound completely blocks metabolism of vinyl chloride. The enzymes responsible for metabolism of vinyl chloride are saturated at an atmospheric concentration of vinyl chloride of 250 ppm. Pharmacokinetic analysis shows that no significant cumulation of vinyl chloride or its major metabolites is to be expected on repeated administration of vinyl chlorides. This may be consistent with the theory that a reactive, shortly living metabolite which occurs in low concentration only, may be responsible for the toxic effects of vinyl chloride

  2. Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Flexas, Jaume; Fernández, José E; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Stabilization of a nucleotide-binding domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator yields insight into disease-causing mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Robert M; Chong, P Andrew; Lin, Hong; Yang, Zhengrong; Zhou, Qingxian; Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Dawson, Jennifer E; Riordan, John R; Brouillette, Christie G; Thibodeau, Patrick H; Forman-Kay, Julie D

    2017-08-25

    Characterization of the second nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has lagged behind research into the NBD1 domain, in part because NBD1 contains the F508del mutation, which is the dominant cause of cystic fibrosis. Research on NBD2 has also been hampered by the overall instability of the domain and the difficulty of producing reagents. Nonetheless, multiple disease-causing mutations reside in NBD2, and the domain is critical for CFTR function, because channel gating involves NBD1/NBD2 dimerization, and NBD2 contains the catalytically active ATPase site in CFTR. Recognizing the paucity of structural and biophysical data on NBD2, here we have defined a bioinformatics-based method for manually identifying stabilizing substitutions in NBD2, and we used an iterative process of screening single substitutions against thermal melting points to both produce minimally mutated stable constructs and individually characterize mutations. We present a range of stable constructs with minimal mutations to help inform further research on NBD2. We have used this stabilized background to study the effects of NBD2 mutations identified in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, demonstrating that mutants such as N1303K and G1349D are characterized by lower stability, as shown previously for some NBD1 mutations, suggesting a potential role for NBD2 instability in the pathology of CF. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Orphan missense mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: A three-step biological approach to establishing a correlation between genotype and phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresquet, Fleur; Clement, Romain; Norez, Caroline; Sterlin, Adélaïde; Melin, Patricia; Becq, Frédéric; Kitzis, Alain; Thoreau, Vincent; Bilan, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    More than 1860 mutations have been found within the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene sequence. These mutations can be classified according to their degree of severity in CF disease. Although the most common mutations are well characterized, few data are available for rare mutations. Thus, genetic counseling is particularly difficult when fetuses or patients with CF present these orphan variations. We describe a three-step in vitro assay that can evaluate rare missense CFTR mutation consequences to establish a correlation between genotype and phenotype. By using a green fluorescent protein-tagged CFTR construct, we expressed mutated proteins in COS-7 cells. CFTR trafficking was visualized by confocal microscopy, and the cellular localization of CFTR was determined using intracellular markers. We studied the CFTR maturation process using Western blot analysis and evaluated CFTR channel activity by automated iodide efflux assays. Of six rare mutations that we studied, five have been isolated in our laboratory. The cellular and functional impact that we observed in each case was compared with the clinical data concerning the patients in whom we encountered these mutations. In conclusion, we propose that performing this type of analysis for orphan CFTR missense mutations can improve CF genetic counseling. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chloride channels in myotonia congenita assessed by velocity recovery cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S Veronica; Z'Graggen, Werner J; Boërio, Delphine; Rayan, Dipa Raja; Norwood, Fiona; Ruddy, Deborah; Howard, R; Hanna, Michael G; Bostock, Hugh

    2014-06-01

    Myotonia congenita (MC) is caused by congenital defects in the muscle chloride channel CLC-1. This study used muscle velocity recovery cycles (MVRCs) to investigate how membrane function is affected. MVRCs and responses to repetitive stimulation were compared between 18 patients with genetically confirmed MC (13 recessive, 7 dominant) and 30 age-matched, normal controls. MC patients exhibited increased early supernormality, but this was prevented by treatment with sodium channel blockers. After multiple conditioning stimuli, late supernormality was enhanced in all MC patients, indicating delayed repolarization. These abnormalities were similar between the MC subtypes, but recessive patients showed a greater drop in amplitude during repetitive stimulation. MVRCs indicate that chloride conductance only becomes important when muscle fibers are depolarized. The differential responses to repetitive stimulation suggest that, in dominant MC, the affected chloride channels are activated by strong depolarization, consistent with a positive shift of the CLC-1 activation curve. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    -170-degrees-C) depending on melt acidity and anode material. DMTC, being specifically adsorbed and reduced on the tungsten electrode surface, had an inhibiting effect on the aluminum reduction, but this effect was suppressed on the aluminum substrate. An electrochemical process with high current density (tens...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active......The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...

  7. Antisense oligonucleotides suppress cell-volume-induced activation of chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwentner, M; Nagl, U O; Wöll, E; Schmarda, A; Ritter, M; Paulmichl, M

    1995-08-01

    Cell volume regulation is an essential feature of most cells. After swelling in hypotonic media, the simultaneous activation of potassium and chloride channels is believed to be the initial, time-determining step in cell volume regulation. The activation of both pathways is functionally linked and enables the cells to lose ions and water, subsequently leading to cell shrinkage and readjustment of the initial volume. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts efficiently regulate their volume after swelling and bear chloride channels that are activated by decreasing extracellular osmolarity. The chloride current elicited in these cells after swelling is reminiscent of the current found in oocytes expressing an outwardly rectifying chloride current termed ICln. Introduction of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides complementary to the first 30 nucleotides of the coding region of the ICln channel into NIH 3T3 fibroblasts suppresses the activation of the swelling-induced chloride current. The experiments directly demonstrate an unambiguous link between a volume-activated chloride current and a cloned protein involved in chloride transport.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  9. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  10. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  18. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a...

  3. Relating road salt to exceedances of the water quality standard for chloride in New Hampshire streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Philip R; Kahl, J Steve; Sassan, Dari A; Heath, Douglas L; Walsh, Edward M

    2010-07-01

    Six watersheds in New Hampshire were studied to determine the effects of road salt on stream water quality. Specific conductance in streams was monitored every 15 min for one year using dataloggers. Chloride concentrations were calculated from specific conductance using empirical relationships. Stream chloride concentrations were directly correlated with development in the watersheds and were inversely related to streamflow. Exceedances of the EPA water quality standard for chloride were detected in the four watersheds with the most development. The number of exceedances during a year was linearly related to the annual average concentration of chloride. Exceedances of the water quality standard were not predicted for streams with annual average concentrations less than 102 mg L(-1). Chloride was imported into three of the watersheds at rates ranging from 45 to 98 Mg Cl km(-2) yr(-1). Ninety-one percent of the chloride imported was road salt for deicing roadways and parking lots. A simple, mass balance equation was shown to predict annual average chloride concentrations from streamflow and chloride import rates to the watershed. This equation, combined with the apparent threshold for exceedances of the water quality standard, can be used for screening-level TMDLs for road salt in impaired watersheds.

  4. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Restoring Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function Reduces Airway Bacteria and Inflammation in People with Cystic Fibrosis and Chronic Lung Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisert, Katherine B; Heltshe, Sonya L; Pope, Christopher; Jorth, Peter; Wu, Xia; Edwards, Rachael M; Radey, Matthew; Accurso, Frank J; Wolter, Daniel J; Cooke, Gordon; Adam, Ryan J; Carter, Suzanne; Grogan, Brenda; Launspach, Janice L; Donnelly, Seamas C; Gallagher, Charles G; Bruce, James E; Stoltz, David A; Welsh, Michael J; Hoffman, Lucas R; McKone, Edward F; Singh, Pradeep K

    2017-06-15

    Previous work indicates that ivacaftor improves cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and lung function in people with cystic fibrosis and G551D-CFTR mutations but does not reduce density of bacteria or markers of inflammation in the airway. These findings raise the possibility that infection and inflammation may progress independently of CFTR activity once cystic fibrosis lung disease is established. To better understand the relationship between CFTR activity, airway microbiology and inflammation, and lung function in subjects with cystic fibrosis and chronic airway infections. We studied 12 subjects with G551D-CFTR mutations and chronic airway infections before and after ivacaftor. We measured lung function, sputum bacterial content, and inflammation, and obtained chest computed tomography scans. Ivacaftor produced rapid decreases in sputum Pseudomonas aeruginosa density that began within 48 hours and continued in the first year of treatment. However, no subject eradicated their infecting P. aeruginosa strain, and after the first year P. aeruginosa densities rebounded. Sputum total bacterial concentrations also decreased, but less than P. aeruginosa. Sputum inflammatory measures decreased significantly in the first week of treatment and continued to decline over 2 years. Computed tomography scans obtained before and 1 year after ivacaftor treatment revealed that ivacaftor decreased airway mucous plugging. Ivacaftor caused marked reductions in sputum P. aeruginosa density and airway inflammation and produced modest improvements in radiographic lung disease in subjects with G551D-CFTR mutations. However, P. aeruginosa airway infection persisted. Thus, measures that control infection may be required to realize the full benefits of CFTR-targeting treatments.

  6. l-Methionine anti-biofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is enhanced by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator potentiator, ivacaftor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Lim, Dong-Jin; Mackey, Calvin; Weeks, Christopher G; Peña Garcia, Jaime A; Skinner, Daniel; Grayson, Jessica W; Hill, Harrison S; Alexander, David K; Zhang, Shaoyan; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2018-05-01

    Biofilms may contribute to refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), as they lead to antibiotic resistance and failure of effective clinical treatment. l-Methionine is an amino acid with reported biofilm-inhibiting properties. Ivacaftor is a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator with mild antimicrobial activity via inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether co-treatment with ivacaftor and l-methionine can reduce the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. P aeruginosa (PAO-1 strain) biofilms were studied in the presence of l-methionine and/or ivacaftor. For static biofilm assays, PAO-1 was cultured in a 48-well plate for 72 hours with stepwise combinations of these agents. Relative biofilm inhibitions were measured according to optical density of crystal violet stain at 590 nm. Live/dead assays (BacTiter-Glo™ assay, Promega) were imaged with laser scanning confocal microscopy. An agar diffusion test was used to confirm antibacterial effects of the drugs. l-Methionine (0.5 μM) significantly reduced PAO-1 biofilm mass (32.4 ± 18.0%; n = 4; p l-methionine (two-way analysis of variane, p = 0.0415) compared with corresponding concentrations of l-methionine alone. Ivacaftor enhanced the anti-biofilm activity of l-methionine against the PAO-1 strain of P aeruginosa. Further studies evaluating the efficacy of ivacaftor/l-methionine combinations for P aeruginosa sinusitis are planned. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  7. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  9. A genetically-encoded YFP sensor with enhanced chloride sensitivity, photostability and reduced ph interference demonstrates augmented transmembrane chloride movement by gerbil prestin (SLC26a5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhong

    Full Text Available Chloride is the major anion in cells, with many diseases arising from disordered Cl- regulation. For the non-invasive investigation of Cl- flux, YFP-H148Q and its derivatives chameleon and Cl-Sensor previously were introduced as genetically encoded chloride indicators. Neither the Cl- sensitivity nor the pH-susceptibility of these modifications to YFP is optimal for precise measurements of Cl- under physiological conditions. Furthermore, the relatively poor photostability of YFP derivatives hinders their application for dynamic and quantitative Cl- measurements. Dynamic and accurate measurement of physiological concentrations of chloride would significantly affect our ability to study effects of chloride on cellular events.In this study, we developed a series of YFP derivatives to remove pH interference, increase photostability and enhance chloride sensitivity. The final product, EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP, has a chloride Kd of 14 mM and pKa of 5.9. The bleach time constant of 175 seconds is over 15-fold greater than wild-type EYFP. We have used the sensor fused to the transmembrane protein prestin (gerbil prestin, SLC26a5, and shown for the first time physiological (mM chloride flux in HEK cells expressing this protein. This modified fluorescent protein will facilitate investigations of dynamics of chloride ions and their mediation of cell function.Modifications to YFP (EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP results in a photostable fluorescent protein that allows measurement of physiological changes in chloride concentration while remaining minimally affected by changes in pH.

  10. A genetically-encoded YFP sensor with enhanced chloride sensitivity, photostability and reduced ph interference demonstrates augmented transmembrane chloride movement by gerbil prestin (SLC26a5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Sheng; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Chloride is the major anion in cells, with many diseases arising from disordered Cl- regulation. For the non-invasive investigation of Cl- flux, YFP-H148Q and its derivatives chameleon and Cl-Sensor previously were introduced as genetically encoded chloride indicators. Neither the Cl- sensitivity nor the pH-susceptibility of these modifications to YFP is optimal for precise measurements of Cl- under physiological conditions. Furthermore, the relatively poor photostability of YFP derivatives hinders their application for dynamic and quantitative Cl- measurements. Dynamic and accurate measurement of physiological concentrations of chloride would significantly affect our ability to study effects of chloride on cellular events. In this study, we developed a series of YFP derivatives to remove pH interference, increase photostability and enhance chloride sensitivity. The final product, EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP), has a chloride Kd of 14 mM and pKa of 5.9. The bleach time constant of 175 seconds is over 15-fold greater than wild-type EYFP. We have used the sensor fused to the transmembrane protein prestin (gerbil prestin, SLC26a5), and shown for the first time physiological (mM) chloride flux in HEK cells expressing this protein. This modified fluorescent protein will facilitate investigations of dynamics of chloride ions and their mediation of cell function. Modifications to YFP (EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP) results in a photostable fluorescent protein that allows measurement of physiological changes in chloride concentration while remaining minimally affected by changes in pH.

  11. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo van Buren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106. Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day. Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  12. Decree 284/12. It regulate the servitudes prescribed by decree law 10.383 referring of UTE conduction lines energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree is about the UTE transmission line which integrate the Uruguayan National Electricity System. This regulation are able to allow an increasing energy demand as well as a better public service, a main purpose of UTE.

  13. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  14. Melting in trivalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.; Scamehorn, C.; Tosi, M.P.

    1990-11-01

    We report a neutron diffraction study of the liquid structure of YCl 3 and combine the structural data with macroscopic melting and transport data to contrast the behaviour of this molten salt with those of SrCl 2 , ZnCl 2 and AlCl 3 as prototypes of different melting mechanisms for ionic materials. A novel melting mechanism for trivalent metal chlorides, leading to a loose disordered network of edge-sharing octahedral units in the liquid phase, is thereby established. The various melting behaviours are related to bonding character with the help of Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale. (author). 25 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Evaluation of Electrochemical Treatment of Chloride Contaminated Mortar Containing GGBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of cementitious binder on electrochemical treatment of steel embedded in salt contaminated mortar. As binder, ordinary Portland cement (OPC and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS were used and the current density of 250–750 mA/m2 was applied for 4 weeks to complete electrochemical chloride extraction. To evaluate the effect of electrochemical treatment the chloride profile and corrosion behaviour covering chloride concentration, galvanic current density, linear polarization resistance, open circuit potential, and mass loss were measured. An increase in the applied direct current density resulted in a decrease in the chloride concentration at the vicinity of steel, accompanying the mitigated corrosion damage. The performance of electrochemical treatment was more remarkable in mortar containing GGBS presumably due to binding mechanism. However, corrosion damage was more detrimental in GGBS rather than OPC at a given potential, while GGBS had superior corrosion resistance to a corrosive environment and treatment conditions. Therefore, the electrochemical treatment should be conducted prudently to evaluate the corrosion state of embedded steel depending on binder type.

  16. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  17. Secondary effects of anion exchange on chloride, sulfate, and lead release: systems approach to corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Hillary; Boyer, Treavor H

    2012-05-01

    Water treatment processes can cause secondary changes in water chemistry that alter finished water quality including chloride, sulfate, natural organic matter (NOM), and metal release. Hence, the goal of this research was to provide an improved understanding of the chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) with regards to chloride and sulfate variations at full-scale water treatment plants and corrosion potential under simulated premise plumbing conditions. Laboratory corrosion studies were conducted using Pb-Sn solder/Cu tubing galvanic cells exposed to model waters with low (approx. 5 mg/L Cl(-) and 10 mg/L SO(4)(2-)) and high (approx. 50 mg/L Cl(-) and 100 mg/L SO(4)(2-)) concentrations of chloride and sulfate at a constant CSMR of ≈ 0.5. The role of NOM during corrosion was also evaluated by changing the type of organic material. In addition, full-scale sampling was conducted to quantify the raw water variability of chloride, sulfate, and NOM concentrations and the changes to these parameters from magnetic ion exchange treatment. Test conditions with higher concentrations of chloride and sulfate released significantly more lead than the lower chloride and sulfate test waters. In addition, the source of NOM was a key factor in the amount of lead released with the model organic compounds yielding significantly less lead release than aquatic NOM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled ethyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanski, R.

    1976-01-01

    A new efficient method of synthesis of ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C), based on the Ba 14 CO 3 and dry hydrogen chloride as starting materials has been developed and described. Addition of the hydrogen chloride to ethylene (1,2- 14 C), obtained from Ba 14 CO 3 , has been carried out in the presence of the AlCl 3 as catalyst. The outlined method leads to ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C) of high specific activity. The radiochemical yield of the reaction based on the activity of barium carbonate used was 72%. (author)

  19. Method of processing chloride waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Tsunashima, Mikiyasu; Horie, Masaaki; Koyama, Masafumi; Sudo, Minoru; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Ogasawara, Tadashi.

    1991-01-01

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  20. separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon N. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl and strontium chloride (SrCl2 from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8–5 mm/h and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl2 separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  1. Separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ammon n.; Pack, Michael [Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States); Phongikaroon, Spathorn [Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl) and strontium chloride (SrCl{sub 2}) from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8-5 mm/h) and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl{sub 2} separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  2. Electrochemical chloride extraction of a beam polluted by chlorides after 40 years in the sea

    OpenAIRE

    BOUTEILLER, Véronique; LAPLAUD, André; MALOULA, Aurélie; MORELLE, René Stéphane; DUCHESNE, Béatrice; MORIN, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    A beam element, naturally polluted by chlorides after 40 years of a marine tidal exposure, has been treated by electrochemical chloride extraction. The chloride profiles, before and after treatment, show that free chlorides are extrated with an efficiency of 70 % close to the steel, 50 % in the intermediate cover and only 5 % at the concrete surface. From the electrochemical characterizations (before, after, 1, 2 and 17 months after treatment), the steel potential values can, semehow, indicat...

  3. Thermochemistry of alkali chloride - lanthanoide(III) chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachnik, R.; Selle, D.

    1979-01-01

    The phase diagrams of the mixtures KCl + GdCl 3 resp. DyCl 3 and of CsCl + PrCl 3 (DyCl 3 , ErCl 3 , and YbCl 3 ) were investigated by differential thermal analysis. In the mixtures of lanthanoide(III) chlorides with CsCl resp. KCl three different stoichiometries of the compounds were found, namely A 3 MCl 6 , A 2 MCl 5 , and AM 2 Cl 7 . Debyeograms of the compounds A 3 MCl 6 and AM 2 Cl 7 reveal, that in the case of the latter type all compounds with the same alkali halide have identical structure, whereas in the A 3 MCl 6 compounds three different types of X-ray patterns were observed. The stabilities of the congruently melting compounds can be estimated by comparing the melting point of the compound with the temperature of an extrapolated eutectic point. (author)

  4. Surface profile gradient in amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} semi conductive layers regulates nanoscale electric current stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cefalas, A.C., E-mail: ccefalas@eie.gr [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kollia, Z.; Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, N.; Gavriil, V. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Christofilos, D.; Kourouklis, G. [Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Semashko, V.V.; Pavlov, V. [Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Sarantopoulou, E. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The work links the surface morphology of amorphous semiconductors with both their electric-thermal properties and current stability at the nanoscale (<1 μm). • Measured high correlation value between surface morphological spatial gradient and conductive electron energy spatial gradient or thermal gradient. • Unidirectional current stability is associated with asymmetric nanodomains along nanosize conductive paths. • Bidirectional current stability is inherent with either long conductive paths or nanosize conductive paths along symmetric nanodomains. • Conclusion: Surface design improves current stability across nanoelectonic junctions. - Abstract: A link between the morphological characteristics and the electric properties of amorphous layers is established by means of atomic, conductive, electrostatic force and thermal scanning microscopy. Using amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (a-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) semiconductive layer, it is found that surface profile gradients (morphological gradient), are highly correlated to both the electron energy gradient of trapped electrons in interactive Coulombic sites and the thermal gradient along conductive paths and thus thermal and electric properties are correlated with surface morphology at the nanoscale. Furthermore, morphological and electron energy gradients along opposite conductive paths of electrons intrinsically impose a current stability anisotropy. For either long conductive paths (L > 1 μm) or along symmetric nanodomains, current stability for both positive and negative currents i is demonstrated. On the contrary, for short conductive paths along non-symmetric nanodomains, the set of independent variables (L, i) is spanned by two current stability/intability loci. One locus specifies a stable state for negative currents, while the other locus also describes a stable state for positive currents.

  5. Estimation of Groundwater Recharge at Pahute Mesa using the Chloride Mass-Balance Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Clay A [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI; Lyles, Brad F [DRI

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater recharge on Pahute Mesa was estimated using the chloride mass-balance (CMB) method. This method relies on the conservative properties of chloride to trace its movement from the atmosphere as dry- and wet-deposition through the soil zone and ultimately to the saturated zone. Typically, the CMB method assumes no mixing of groundwater with different chloride concentrations; however, because groundwater is thought to flow into Pahute Mesa from valleys north of Pahute Mesa, groundwater flow rates (i.e., underflow) and chloride concentrations from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat were carefully considered. Precipitation was measured with bulk and tipping-bucket precipitation gauges installed for this study at six sites on Pahute Mesa. These data, along with historical precipitation amounts from gauges on Pahute Mesa and estimates from the PRISM model, were evaluated to estimate mean annual precipitation. Chloride deposition from the atmosphere was estimated by analyzing quarterly samples of wet- and dry-deposition for chloride in the bulk gauges and evaluating chloride wet-deposition amounts measured at other locations by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Mean chloride concentrations in groundwater were estimated using data from the UGTA Geochemistry Database, data from other reports, and data from samples collected from emplacement boreholes for this study. Calculations were conducted assuming both no underflow and underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. Model results estimate recharge to be 30 mm/yr with a standard deviation of 18 mm/yr on Pahute Mesa, for elevations >1800 m amsl. These estimates assume Pahute Mesa recharge mixes completely with underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. The model assumes that precipitation, chloride concentration in bulk deposition, underflow and its chloride concentration, have been constant over the length of time of recharge.

  6. The Use of Gestural Modes to Enhance Expressive Conducting at All Levels of Entering Behavior through the Use of Illustrators, Affect Displays and Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the use of illustrators, affect displays and regulators, which I consider to be non-verbal communication categories through which conductors can employ a more varied approach to body use, gesture and non-verbal communication. These categories employ the use of a conductor's hands and arms, face, eyes and body in a way…

  7. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  8. Adrenomedullin increases the short-circuit current in the mouse seminal vesicle: actions on chloride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S B; Cheung, K H; O, W S; Tang, Fai

    2014-08-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) may regulate seminal vesicle fluid secretion, and this may affect sperm quality. In this study, we investigated the effect of ADM on chloride secretion in the mouse seminal vesicle. The presence of ADM in mouse seminal vesicle was confirmed using immunostaining, and the molecular species was determined using gel filtration chromatography coupled with enzyme-linked assay for ADM. The effects of ADM on chloride secretion were studied by short-circuit current technique in a whole-mount preparation of mouse seminal vesicle in an Ussing chamber. The effects of specific ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists were investigated. Whether the ADM effect depended on the cAMP- and/or calcium-activated chloride channel was also studied using specific chloride channel blockers. The results showed that ADM was present in seminal vesicle epithelial cells. The major molecular species was precursor in the mouse seminal vesicle. ADM increased short-circuit current through the calcium-activated chloride channel in mouse seminal vesicle, and CGRP receptor was involved. We conclude that ADM may regulate chloride and fluid secretion from the seminal vesicle, which may affect the composition of the seminal plasma bathing the sperm and, hence, fertility. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. Novel short chain fatty acids restore chloride secretion in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Toan D.; Kim, Ug-Sung; Perrine, Susan P.

    2006-01-01

    Phenylalanine deletion at position 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ΔF508-CFTR), the most common mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF), causes a misfolded protein exhibiting partial chloride conductance and impaired trafficking to the plasma membrane. 4-Phenylbutyrate corrects defective ΔF508-CFTR trafficking in vitro, but is not clinically efficacious. From a panel of short chain fatty acid derivatives, we showed that 2,2-dimethyl-butyrate (ST20) and α-methylhydrocinnamic acid (ST7), exhibiting high oral bioavailability and sustained plasma levels, correct the ΔF508-CFTR defect. Pre-incubation (≥6 h) of CF IB3-1 airway cells with ≥1 mM ST7 or ST20 restored the ability of 100 μM forskolin to stimulate an 125 I - efflux. This efflux was fully inhibited by NPPB, DPC, or glibenclamide, suggesting mediation through CFTR. Partial inhibition by DIDS suggests possible contribution from an additional Cl - channel regulated by CFTR. Thus, ST7 and ST20 offer treatment potential for CF caused by the ΔF508 mutation

  10. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  11. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  12. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  13. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  14. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, V.D.; Kocherov, N.P.; Novikova, N.R.; Perfilov, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.) [de

  15. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Kihara, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Ohuchi, Misao

    1996-06-01

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl{sub 2} and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} were formed. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl{sub 2}, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH{sub 3}{sup +} and CH{sub 4} were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  16. Crevice corrosion of alloy 22 in fluoride and chloride containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, Ricardo M.; Rodriguez, Martin A.

    2005-01-01

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is highly resistant to localized corrosion. Alloy 22 may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in pure chloride (Cl - ) solutions under aggressive environmental conditions. The effect of the fluoride (F - ) on the susceptibility to crevice corrosion induced by chloride ions is still not well established. The objective of the present work was to explore the crevice corrosion resistance of this alloy to different mixtures of fluorides and chlorides. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) tests were conducted in deaerated aqueous solutions of pure halide ions and also in different mixtures of chloride and fluoride at 90 C degrees and pH 6. The range of chloride concentration [Cl - ] was 0.001 M ≤ [Cl - ] ≤ 1 M and the range of molar fluoride to chloride ratio [F - ]/[Cl - ] was 0.1≤ [F - ]/[Cl - ] ≤ 10. Results showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion in all the pure chloride solutions but not in the pure fluoride solutions. A molar ratio [F - ]/[Cl - ] ranging from 5 to 10 was required for the inhibition of crevice corrosion to be complete in the halide mixtures. A moderate or nil inhibitive effect was observed for molar ratios [F - ]/[Cl - ] [es

  17. Chloride Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the ...

  18. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Zamarreño, Angel M; Iriarte, Juan C; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Baigorri, Roberto; García-Mina, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Heat generation in lithium/thionyl chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbard, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    The flow of heat from lithium/thionyl chloride batteries has been measured in two conduction calorimeters. Several types of cells have been studied, both at rest and during low- and high-rate discharge. In contrast with other reports in the literature, no conditions were found under which the discharge of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries was endothermic. Results at low currents, which are described in terms of the thermodynamic formalism developed previously, are consistent with measurements of the temperature dependence of the open-circuit potential. Cells discharged at higher currents produced more heat flux than predicted by the simple thermodynamic treatment. The current and time variation of the additional heat is consistent with a current-dependent corrosion of the lithium electrode. 14 refs.

  20. Surface chloride salt formation on Space Shuttle exhaust alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Pellett, G. L.; Sebacher, D. I.; Wakelyn, N. T.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum oxide samples from the exhaust of Space Shuttle launches STS-1, STS-4, STS-5, and STS-6 were collected from surfaces on or around the launch pad complex and chemically analyzed. The results indicate that the particulate solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) alumina was heavily chlorided. Concentrations of water-soluble aluminum (III) ion were large, suggesting that the surface of the SRM alumina particles was rendered soluble by prior reactions with HCl and H2O in the SRM exhaust cloud. These results suggest that Space Shuttle exhaust alumina particles are good sites for nucleation and condensation of atmospheric water. Laboratory experiments conducted at 220 C suggest that partial surface chloriding of alumina may occur in hot Space Shuttle exhaust plumes.

  1. Prevalência da mutação ΔF508 no gene cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator em pacientes com fibrose cística em um centro de referência no Brasil Prevalence of ΔF508 mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene among cystic fibrosis patients from a Brazilian referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Marisa Bieger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a presença da mutação ΔF508 no gene cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator na população de pacientes com fibrose cística, diagnosticados pelo teste de sódio e cloro no suor, em acompanhamento no Ambulatório de Pneumologia Pediátrica da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, centro de referência no tratamento da fibrose cística. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 167 amostras de DNA de pacientes com fibrose cística. O genótipo dos pacientes foi determinado pela técnica de reação da polimerase e realizado cálculo para a frequência dos alelos e genótipos da mutação ΔF508. RESULTADOS: A frequência genotípica encontrada foi, respectivamente, para os genótipos -/-, ΔF508/- e ΔF508/ΔF508: 43,7% (73 pacientes, 32,9% (55 pacientes e 23,4% (39 pacientes. Do total de 334 alelos analisados, foi observada a frequência de 201 (60,18% alelos para a ausência da mutação ΔF508 e de 133 (39,82% para a presença da mutação ΔF508. O cálculo do equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg foi realizado, e obtivemos o valor de qui-quadrado = 16,34 (p OBJECTIVE: To verify the presence of ΔF508 mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene among patients with cystic fibrosis diagnosed by the sweat test for sodium and chlorine and followed at the Pediatric Pneumology Outpatient Clinic of Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil, a referral center for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. METHODS: The study analyzed 167 DNA samples from cystic fibrosis patients. Patients' genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction, and allele and genotype frequencies of ΔF508 mutation were calculated. RESULTS: The genotype frequencies found for -/-, ΔF508/-, and ΔF508/ΔF508 genotypes were respectively: 43.7% (73 patients, 32.9% (55 patients, and 23.4% (39 patients. Of the 334 alleles analyzed, we observed a frequency of 201 (60.18% alleles for the absence of ΔF508 mutation and of 133 (39.82% for the

  2. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  3. Monitoring of trace chloride ions at different stages of the gas production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. El Naggar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty gas and liquid samples at different stages of Obaiyed gas plant in Egypt were selected and subjected for determining chloride ion and hydrocarbon compositions. The trace levels of chloride in the water extracted from natural gas, condensate, Benfield and glycol samples were achieved using ion chromatograph (IC, electrical, conductivity and potentiometric methods, respectively. The hydrocarbon compositions were analyzed and evaluated using capillary gas chromatography. The chloride ions in natural gas and condensate are a function of water content and their concentration mainly depends on the separation efficiency. Variability in natural gas and condensate compositions seasonally is not an uncommon occurrence. Our aim is monitoring of chloride ion to select and optimize the conditions of sweetening and dehydration regenerators in order to follow and prevent their gradient in gas plant.

  4. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  5. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  6. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  7. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...

  8. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  9. Effect of Using Metakaolin on Chloride Ion Penetration in High Performance Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mohammed Shihab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to reduce the penetrability of high performance steel fiber reinforced concrete to chloride ions originating from external sources, by using High Reactivity Metakaolin (HRM as a highly active pozzolanic material, in order to prolong the time to initiation of the steel fibers corrosion and to minimize concrete damage that may occur due to the exposure to chloride ion penetration. According to pozzolanic activity index (P.A.I., 8% content of HRM was used as a partial replacement by weight of cement with 2% steel fibers by volume of concrete. During the exposure period of 300 days in 4.5% of NaCl solution, the total and free chloride contents (Cltotal, Clfree with the chloride profiles at the ages of 28 and 300 days were investigated. Also the rapid chloride penetrability test (RCPT, compressive and flexural strengths tests were conducted at the ages of 28, 90, 180 and 300 days. Results showed that the incorporation of 8% HRM caused a reduction in the (Clfree/Cltota ratio, the chloride penetration depth and the electrical conductivity with percentages of 21%, 40% and 43% respectively after 300 days exposure to chloride solution in comparing with the mix of 0% HRM. Results also indicated that the losses in compressive and flexural strengths after exposure of 300 days to chloride solution for the mix incorporating 8% HRM were by 5% and 5.8% respectively while they reached 9.5% and 11% respectively for the mix without HRM in relation to the correspondent test specimens cured in tap water.

  10. Ratios of colony mass to thermal conductance of tree and man-made nest enclosures of Apis mellifera: implications for survival, clustering, humidity regulation and Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Derek

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of human intervention, the honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) usually constructs its nest in a tree within a tall, narrow, thick-walled cavity high above the ground (the enclosure); however, most research and apiculture is conducted in the thin-walled, squat wooden enclosures we know as hives. This experimental research, using various hives and thermal models of trees, has found that the heat transfer rate is approximately four to seven times greater in the hives in common use, compared to a typical tree enclosure in winter configuration. This gives a ratio of colony mass to lumped enclosure thermal conductance (MCR) of less than 0.8 kgW-1 K for wooden hives and greater than 5 kgW-1 K for tree enclosures. This result for tree enclosures implies higher levels of humidity in the nest, increased survival of smaller colonies and lower Varroa destructor breeding success. Many honeybee behaviours previously thought to be intrinsic may only be a coping mechanism for human intervention; for example, at an MCR of above 2 kgW-1 K, clustering in a tree enclosure may be an optional, rare, heat conservation behaviour for established colonies, rather than the compulsory, frequent, life-saving behaviour that is in the hives in common use. The implied improved survival in hives with thermal properties of tree nests may help to solve some of the problems honeybees are currently facing in apiculture.

  11. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE): structure, biological roles, and molecular basis for chloride ion dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyer, Geoffrey; Yates, Christopher J; Sturrock, Edward D; Acharya, K Ravi

    2014-10-01

    Somatic angiotensin-I converting enzyme (sACE) has an essential role in the regulation of blood pressure and electrolyte fluid homeostasis. It is a zinc protease that cleaves angiotensin-I (AngI), bradykinin, and a broad range of other signalling peptides. The enzyme activity is provided by two homologous domains (N- and C-), which display clear differences in substrate specificities and chloride activation. The presence of chloride ions in sACE and its unusual role in activity was identified early on in the characterisation of the enzyme. The molecular mechanisms of chloride activation have been investigated thoroughly through mutagenesis studies and shown to be substrate-dependent. Recent results from X-ray crystallography structural analysis have provided the basis for the intricate interactions between ACE, its substrate and chloride ions. Here we describe the role of chloride ions in human ACE and its physiological consequences. Insights into the chloride activation of the N- and C-domains could impact the design of improved domain-specific ACE inhibitors.

  12. Sorption and leaching of benzalkonium chlorides in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Macfie, Sheila M; Ray, Madhumita B

    2017-07-01

    The adsorption and leaching characteristics of two commonly used benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) and benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA) using three agricultural soils with varied proportions of silt, sand, clay, and organic matter were determined. BACs are cationic surfactants used in large quantities for sanitary and personal care products and are abundant in environmental samples. Adsorption isotherm data (aqueous concentration in the range of 25-150 mg L -1 ) fitted the Langmuir model better than the Freundlich model. BDTA with a longer alkyl chain adsorbed more to soil compared to BDDA, and the soil with the highest percentage of clay adsorbed the most. Column tests conducted using soils amended with lime stabilised biosolids and artificial rain water at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min -1 indicate very low leaching of BACs. Less than 1% of the available BDDA leached through sandy loam soil column with a depth of 9 cm. Therefore, the possibility of BACs to become bioavailable through leaching is very low at environmentally relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The molecular analysis of mutations in exons 4, 11 and 21 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene in cystic fibrosis patients in Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibe Karimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF is a common genetic disorder in white populations with an autosomal recessive pattern, caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. The frequency of more than 1950 various mutations reported in the CFTR gene significantly varies in different populations. ∆F508 is a common mutation in exon 10, which is first addressed in the molecular analysis of the disease. Other exons are required to be investigated owing to failing to identify mutations in the patients. The present study was conducted to investigate mutations in exons 4, 11 and 21 of the CFTR gene using the sequencing method in CF patients in Kermanshah province, Iran. Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted on all patients with CF presenting to the medical genetics center in Kermanshah in 2010-2011. After taking blood samples and extracting DNA using saturated NaCl solution, sequences of exons were amplified using PCR and sequenced for identifying mutations. Results: The frequency of mutations was found to be respectively 0, 0 and 5.5% in exon 11, 21 and 4. The D110H mutation was found to be homozygous in one subject and heterozygous in another. Moreover, the 4029A>G polymorphism (12.9% was found to be homozygous in two subjects and heterozygous in three others. Conclusion: The D110H mutation is recommended to be included in the screening programs of the study population. The results obtained support the effects of ethnic and geographical factors on the distribution of CF mutations.

  14. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  15. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  16. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  17. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  18. Inert Reassessment Document for Cerous Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rare earth chlorides have a wide variety of scientific applications. They a re used in superconductors, lasers, magnets, catalytic converters, fertilizes, supper alloys, cigarette lighters and as catalysts in the production of petroleum products.

  19. Process for making rare earth metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruesi, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An uncombined metal or a metal compound such as a sulfide, oxide, carbonate or sulfate is converted in a liquid salt bath to the corresponding metal chloride by reacting it with chlorine gas or a chlorine donor. The process applies to metals of groups 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 5a and 8 of the periodic table and to the rare earth metals. The chlorine donor may be ferric or sulfur chloride. The liquid fused salt bath is made up of chlorides of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, ammonia, zinc and ferric iron. Because the formed metal chlorides are soluble in the liquid fused salt bath, they can be recovered by various conventional means

  20. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Use of the chloride channel activator lubiprostone for constipation in adults with cystic fibrosis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Catherine E; Anderson, Paula J; Stowe, Cindy D

    2010-03-01

    To describe the use of lubiprostone for constipation in 3 adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). This case series describes the use of lubiprostone for the treatment of constipation in 3 adults with CF (mean +/- SD length of therapy 17.3 +/- 1.5 mo). All 3 patients were prescribed lubiprostone 24 microg twice daily after hospitalization for treatment of intestinal obstruction. Patient 1 continues on chronic polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and lubiprostone and has not had a recurrence of obstruction. Patient 2 requires aggressive chronic therapy with PEG 3350, lubiprostone, and methylnaltrexone. She has had 1 recurrence of obstruction. Patient 3 continues with lubiprostone taken several times per week with good control of constipation and no recurrence of obstruction to date. The adverse effect profile has been tolerable in all 3 patients. CF is caused by a genetic mutation resulting in a dysfunctional or absent CF transmembrane conductance regulator that normally functions as a chloride channel. This results in viscous secretions in multiple organ systems including the lungs and intestinal tract. Accumulation of viscous intestinal contents contributes to constipation, which is common among adults with CF and can sometimes lead to intestinal obstruction. Lubiprostone is indicated for chronic constipation and works by activating type 2 chloride channels (ClC-2) in the intestinal tract. Because it utilizes an alternate chloride channel, lubiprostone may be especially effective for constipation in patients with CF. Lubiprostone provides an additional option for the treatment of constipation in adults with CF. Its use in the CF population deserves further study.

  2. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  3. A study on conductivity, density, and viscosity of molten salt systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kangjo

    1976-01-01

    A relation between the equivalent conductivity and density for molten salts is deduced with the aid of significant structures theory, and the solid state density at melting point is evaluated approximately for some rare-earth metal chlorides and the other chlorides. Furthermore, the relation among the equivalent conductivity, density, and viscosity for some molten salts is discussed. (auth.)

  4. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  5. Is sweat chloride predictive of severity of cystic fibrosis lung disease assessed by chest computed tomography?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, Daan; Zitter, David; Bronsveld, Inez; Tiddens, Harm

    BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by a marked heterogeneity. Sweat chloride-level is a functional marker of the CF Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) protein and could be an important predictor of later disease severity. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis children from

  6. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  7. Effect of interface structure regulation caused by variation of imidization rate on conduction current characteristics of PI/nano-Al2O3 three-layer composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinyu; Liu, Lizhu; Zhang, Xiaorui; He, Hongju

    2018-06-01

    A series of sandwich structure PI films were prepared by different imidization process, with pure PI film as the interlayer and PI/Al2O3 composite films as outer layers. The imidization rate of the film with different cured processes was calculated by characterizing by infrared spectrum (FT-IR), and the morphology of interlayer interface with different imidization rates by scanning electron microscope (SEM). When the imidization conditions of the first and second films were 260 °C/120 min, the composite films displayed better interface structure and higher imidization rate (ID) than others. Moreover, results also showed that the conduction current of three-layer composite film steadily improved with increased ID and temperature, and was higher than that of the pure film. At the temperature of 30 °C, the electrical aging threshold at different ID was obtained. When the ID reached the maximum value of 78.9%, the electrical aging threshold reached the maximum 41.69 kV/mm.

  8. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of sterile...

  9. Physicochemical properties of the electrolyte system lithium tetrachloraluminate(III)-thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demakhin, A.G.; Kuznetsov, N.N.

    1992-07-20

    The solubility of lithium chloroaluminate in thionyl chloride has been determined over the temperature range 233-323 K. The composition of solid phases in equilibrium with saturated solution was found. The density, viscosity, and electrical conductance of lithium chloroaluminate solutions in thionyl chloride were determined over the temperature range 263-333 K and pseudomolar volumes of the solution and apparent molar volumes of the electrolyte calculated. Activation energies for viscous flow and conductance have been calculated. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Impact of Cyclic Loading on Chloride Diffusivity and Mechanical Performance of RC Beams under Seawater Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of cyclic loading on the mechanical performance and chloride diffusivity of RC beams exposed to seawater wet-dry cycles. To induce initial damage to RC beam specimen, cyclic loading controlled by max load and cycles was applied. Then beam specimens underwent 240 wet-dry cycles of seawater. Results show that the chloride content increased as max load and cycle increased. The chloride content at steel surface increased approximatively linearly as average crack width increased. Moreover, the max load had more influence on chloride content at steel surface than cycle. The difference of average chloride diffusion coefficient between tension and compression concrete was little at uncracked position. Average chloride diffusion coefficient increased as crack width increased when crack width was less than 0.11 mm whereas the increasing tendency was weak when crack width exceeded 0.11 mm. The residual yield load and ultimate load of RC beams decreased as max load and cycle increased. Based on univariate analysis of variance, the max load had more adverse effect on yield load and ultimate load than cycle.

  11. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  12. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15%) improved battery performance significantly (10% greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell peformance is illustrated. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N. A.

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15 percent) improved battery performance significantly (10 percent greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell performance is illustrated.

  14. Corrosion Resistance of Some Stainless Steels in Chloride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work compares corrosion behaviour of four types of S30403, S31603, S32615 austenitic and S32404 austenitic-ferritic stainless steels in chloride solutions (1%, 3% NaCl and in Ringer solution, at 37°C temperature. Corrosion resistance was determined by potentiodynamic polarization measurements and a thirty day immersion test conducted in Ringer solution. The immersion test was performed in term of biomedical application. These alloy were spontaneously passivated in all electrolytes, wherein S30403, S31603 and S32404 undergo pitting corrosion. Only S32615 containing 5.5% Si shows resistance to pitting corrosion.

  15. Chloride effect on the early photolysis intermediates of a gecko cone-type visual pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J W; Liang, J; Ebrey, T G; Sheves, M; Kliger, D S

    1995-05-02

    Nanosecond laser photolysis measurements were conducted on the cone-type visual pigment P521 in digitonin extracts of Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) retina containing physiological chloride ion levels and also on samples which had been chloride depleted or which contained high levels (4 M) of chloride. Absorbance difference spectra were recorded at a sequence of time delays from 30 ns to 60 microseconds following excitation with a pulse of either 532- or 477-nm actinic light. Global analysis showed the kinetic decay data for gecko pigment P521 to be best fit by two exponential processes under all chloride conditions. The initial photoproduct detected had a broad spectrum characteristic of an equilibrated mixture of a Batho P521 intermediate with its blue-shifted intermediate (BSI P521) decay product. The first exponential process was assigned to the decay of this mixture to the Lumi P521 intermediate. The second exponential process was identified as the decay of Lumi P521 to Meta I P521. The initial photoproduct's spectrum exhibited a strong dependence on chloride concentration, indicating that chloride affects the composition of the equilibrated mixture of Batho P521 and BSI P521. These results suggest that the affinity for chloride is reduced approximately 5-fold in the Batho P521 intermediate and approximately 50-fold in the BSI P521 intermediate. Chloride concentration also affects the apparent decay rate of the equilibrated mixture. When the apparent decay rate is corrected for the composition of the equilibrated mixture, a relatively invariant microscopic rate constant is obtained for BSI decay (k = 1/55 ns-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Numerical Modeling of Local Penetration of Chloride-Containing Medium into Construction Elements Made of Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, I. I.; Snezhkina, O. V.; Ovchinnikov, I. G.

    2017-11-01

    The task of modeling the kinetics of chloride-containing medium penetration into construction elements out of reinforced concrete that have partially damaged anti-corrosion protective coatings is being discussed. As a result, chlorides penetrate the construction element via local surface areas which leads to irregularities between chloride dispersion volumes. The kinetics of chloride penetration is described by the equation of diffusion to solve which the CONDUCT software complex by professor S. Patankar was used. The methodology used to solve the diffusional equation is described. The results of the evaluation of concentration field in the axial section of a cylindrical construction element, which was centrally reinforced, are given. The chloride diffusion was symmetrical to the axis, the medium was applied through the central ring area equal to one third of the side surface area while the rest of the surface was isolated. It was shown that the methodology of evaluation and its algorithm allow one to evaluate the concentration field of chlorides in reinforced concrete structural elements under local or asymmetrical action of the chloride - containing medium. The example given illustrates that after a certain time interval critical the concentration of chlorides develops even in protected areas which are located far from the initial damaged area. This means that the corrosion destruction of reinforced elements develops not only in the immediate damage area, but also further away from it.

  17. Atmospheric chloride: Its implication for foliar uptake and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, E. L.; Sealy, R. L.

    Atmospheric chloride is inversely related to distance from the Texas coast; r2 = 0.86. Levels of atmospheric chloride are higher in the early summer than in the winter because of salt storms. Leaf chloride l'evels of Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) reflect the atmospheric chloride levels; r2 = 0.78. The importance of considering the effect of atmospheric chloride on leaf damage to horticultural crops is discussed.

  18. Mechanisms of CFTR Functional Variants That Impair Regulated Bicarbonate Permeation and Increase Risk for Pancreatitis but Not for Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    LaRusch, Jessica; Jung, Jinsei; General, Ignacio J.; Lewis, Michele D.; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E.; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A.; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev ) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize tha...

  19. Determination of chloride in MOX samples using chloride ion selective electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindan, R; Das, D K; Mallik, G K; Sumathi, A; Patil, Sangeeta; Raul, Seema; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1997-09-01

    The chloride present in the MOX fuel is separated from the matrix by pyrohydrolysis at a temperature of 950 {+-} 50 degC and is then analyzed by chloride ion selective electrode (Cl-ISE). The range covered is 0.4-4 ppm with a precision of better than {+-}5% R.S.D. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Study on the chloride migration coefficient obtained following different Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Uzoegbo, H.C.; Schmidt, W.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the differences in the available Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines, and their influence on the values of the chloride migration coefficients DRCM, obtained following these guidelines. It is shown that the differences between the guidelines are significant and concern

  1. Laboratory investigation of electro-chemical chloride extraction from concrete with penetrated chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Hondel, A.W.M. van den

    2002-01-01

    Chloride extraction of concrete is a short-term electrochemical treatment against corrosion of reinforcing steel. The aim is to remove chloride ions from the concrete cover in order to reinstate passive behaviour. Physically sound concrete is left in place. To make this method more predictable and

  2. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  4. Temperature dependence of diffusion coefficients of trivalent uranium ions in chloride and chloride-fluoride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.E.; Borodina, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients of U 3+ ions are measured by chronopotentiometric method in chloride 3LiCl-2KCl and in mixed chloride fluoride 3LiCl(LiF)-2KCl melts in the temperature range 633-1235 K. It is shown It is shown that experimental values of diffusion-coefficients are approximated in a direct line in lg D-1/T coordinate in chloride melt in the whole temperature range and in chloride-fluoride melt in the range of 644-1040 K. Experimental values of diffusion coefficients diviate from Arrhenius equation in the direction of large values in chloride-fluoride melt at further increase of temperature up to 1235 K. Possible causes of such a diviation are considered [ru

  5. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox trademark process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200 degrees C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl 3 liquid + H 2 O → FeOCl solid + 2 HCl gas During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl solid + H 2 O → Fe 2 O 3 solid + 2 HCl gas . The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way

  6. Determination of chloride content in crystalline silicotitanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is one of three options under evaluation to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process. This Salt Disposition Alternatives team identified three options for pretreatment of High Level Waste supernate: non-elutable ion exchange, precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate or direct disposal in grout. The ion exchange option would use crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Researchers at Texas A and M and Sandia National Laboratory developed CST. The engineered form of CST was procured from UOP LLC under the trade name IONSIVreg s ign IE-911. Review of vendor literature and discussions with UOP personnel led to speculation concerning the fate of chloride ion during the manufacture process of IE-911. Walker proposed tests to examine the chloride content of CST and removal methods. This report describes the results of tests to determine the chloride levels in as received CST and washed CST

  7. Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride after metabolic activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannug, U; Johansson, A; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1974-01-01

    Vinyl chloride has recently been shown to cause a malignant liver tumor disease in man after occupational exposure in PVC plants. This actualizes the problem of whether such hazards could be avoided or at least diminished in the future by a screening for mutagenicity of chemicals used in industries. The basis for such a screening procedure is the close correlation between carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of chemicals. Experiments with Salmonella bacteria showed that the carcinogenic hazard of vinyl chloride could have been traced by means of mutagenicity tests. The data indicate that vinyl chloride is not mutagenic per se but becomes mutagenic after a metabolic activation in the liver. 24 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  8. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient......; the higher the volume of gel solid relative to the space available for it, the lower the chloride migration coefficient, because the pore system becomes more tortuous and the porosity becomes less....

  9. pH-modulation of chloride channels from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourie, J I

    1999-01-01

    The understanding of the role of cytoplasmic pH in modulating sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) ion channels involved in Ca2+ regulation is important for the understanding of the function of normal and adversely affected muscles. The dependency of the SR small chloride (SCl) channel from rabbit skeletal muscle on cytoplasmic pH (pHcis) and luminal pH (pHtrans) was investigated using the lipid bilayer-vesicle fusion technique. Low pHcis 6.75-4.28 modifies the operational mode of this multiconductance channel (conductance levels between 5 and 75 pS). At pHcis 7.26-7.37 the channel mode is dominated by the conductance and kinetics of the main conductance state (65-75 pS) whereas at low pHcis 6.75-4.28 the channel mode is dominated by the conductance and kinetics of subconductance states (5-40 pS). Similarly, low pHtrans 4.07, but not pHtrans 6.28, modified the activity of SCl channels. The effects of low pHcis are pronounced at 10(-3) and 10(-4) M [Ca2+]cis but are not apparent at 10(-5) M [Ca2+]cis, where the subconductances of the channel are already prominent. Low pHcis-induced mode shift in the SCl channel activity is due to modification of the channel proteins that cause the uncoupling of the subconductance states. The results in this study suggest that low pHcis can modify the functional properties of the skeletal SR ion channels and hence contribute, at least partly, to the malfunction in the contraction-relaxation mechanism in skeletal muscle under low cytoplasmic pH levels.

  10. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  11. Chloride flux from blood to CSF: inhibition by furosemide and bumetanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.C.; Singer, S.; Hoop, B.; Kazemi, H.

    1987-01-01

    Movement of chloride from blood to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the factors that may be involved in regulation of CSF [Cl-], which is important to CSF acid-base balance. We made quantitative measurements of the unidirectional flux of radiolabeled chloride between blood and CSF in anesthetized dogs, using 38 Cl, a short-lived isotope (half-life 37.3 min). This allowed multiple studies to be performed in a given animal. A three-compartment model for the blood, CSF, brain extracellular fluid, and ventriculocisternal perfusion system was used to determine the flux rate. With normocapnia, the flux was 0.01.1 min-1. The influx could be reproducibly measured for three separate determinations in the same animal over a period of 6 h, being 98 +/- 6% of the control first run on the second run and 113 +/- 6% on the third. Furosemide and bumetanide, inhibitors of sodium-coupled chloride movement, lowered the flux to 43 +/- 3% and 55 +/- 6% of control, respectively. The combination of hypercapnia and furosemide lowered the influx to 63 +/- 9% of control. These results indicate that a major mechanism of chloride entry into CSF is sodium-coupled chloride transport

  12. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  13. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...... desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 k...

  14. Conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  15. Use of supplemental cementitious materials for optimum resistance of concrete to chloride penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether significant improvements could be achieved in the resistance to the penetration by chloride ions of concretes with fly ash or slag by the addition of silica fume with either Type II or Type III cement and...

  16. An improved lithium-vanadium pentoxide cell and comparison with a lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorn, G.

    1985-03-01

    This paper describes a programme of experiments conducted to assess the effects of: (a) diluting the electrolyte in lithium-vanadium pentoxide cells; (b) optimizing the volume of electrolyte per unit cathode mass. This programme led to the development of an improved cell, the performance of which is compared with that of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell of similar configuration.

  17. Improved lithium-vanadium pentoxide cell and comparison with a lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorn, G.

    1985-01-15

    This paper describes a programme of experiments conducted to assess the effects of: (a) diluting the electrolyte in lithium-vanadium pentoxide cells; (b) optimizing the volume of electrolyte per unit cathode mass. This programme led to the development of an improved cell, the performance of which is compared with that of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell of similar configuration.

  18. A Genetically-Encoded YFP Sensor with Enhanced Chloride Sensitivity, Photostability and Reduced pH Interference Demonstrates Augmented Transmembrane Chloride Movement by Gerbil Prestin (SLC26a5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Sheng; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Chloride is the major anion in cells, with many diseases arising from disordered Cl− regulation. For the non-invasive investigation of Cl− flux, YFP-H148Q and its derivatives chameleon and Cl-Sensor previously were introduced as genetically encoded chloride indicators. Neither the Cl− sensitivity nor the pH-susceptibility of these modifications to YFP is optimal for precise measurements of Cl− under physiological conditions. Furthermore, the relatively poor photostability of YFP derivatives hinders their application for dynamic and quantitative Cl− measurements. Dynamic and accurate measurement of physiological concentrations of chloride would significantly affect our ability to study effects of chloride on cellular events. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we developed a series of YFP derivatives to remove pH interference, increase photostability and enhance chloride sensitivity. The final product, EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP), has a chloride Kd of 14 mM and pKa of 5.9. The bleach time constant of 175 seconds is over 15-fold greater than wild-type EYFP. We have used the sensor fused to the transmembrane protein prestin (gerbil prestin, SLC26a5), and shown for the first time physiological (mM) chloride flux in HEK cells expressing this protein. This modified fluorescent protein will facilitate investigations of dynamics of chloride ions and their mediation of cell function. Conclusions Modifications to YFP (EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP) results in a photostable fluorescent protein that allows measurement of physiological changes in chloride concentration while remaining minimally affected by changes in pH. PMID:24901231

  19. Crystal field influence on vibration spectra: anhydrous uranyl chloride and dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Andre; Caillet, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Vibrational spectra of anhydrous uranyl chloride UO 2 Cl 2 and so called basic uranyl chloride: dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate /UO 2 (OH) 2 UO 2 /Cl 2 (H 2 O) 4 are reported. Factor group method analysis leads for the first time to complete and comprehensive interpretation of their spectra. Two extreme examples of crystal field influence on vibrational spectra are pointed out: for UO 2 Cl 2 , one is unable to explain spectra without taking into account all the elements of primitive crystalline cell, whilst for dihydroxodiuranyl dichloride tetrahydrate the crystal packing has very little effect on vibrational spectra [fr

  20. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...

  1. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  2. Study of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate purification on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, L.V.; Knyazeva, A.N.; Fakeev, A.A.; Belyaeva, N.A.; Morozov, V.I.; Kucherova, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate from iron, chromium, manganese and cobalt impurities by sorption on some inorganic collectors are considered in this article. Study was conducted by means of radioactive-tracer technique at concurrent use of several γ-radioactive isotopes. As a collectors were used hydrated aluminium and zirconium oxides. Dependence of effectiveness of precipitation by collectors on ph-value of medium, quantity of collector, nature and concentration of components is studied. Optimal parameters of purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate are defined.

  3. Effect of iron ions on corrosion of lithium in a thionyl chloride electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, A.V.; Churikov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the iron electrolyte addition on the growth rate of the passivating layer on lithium in the LiAlCl 4 1 M solution in thionyl chloride is experimentally studied. It is established, that kinetic curved in the first 10 hours of the Li-electrode contact with electrolyte are described by the equation, assuming mixed diffusion kinetic control over the corrosion process. It is shown that introduction of Fe 3+ into electrolyte causes increase in both ionic and electron conductivity constituents. Increase in the electron carrier concentration is the cause of lithium corrosion in the iron-containing thionyl chloride solutions [ru

  4. Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian; Ge Yihong; Kaminski, Joseph M.; Summers, James Bradley; Wang Zhichong; Ge Jian; Yu Keming

    2009-01-01

    Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

  5. Distinct freshwater and seawater isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase in gill chloride cells of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Regish, A.M.; Christensen, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in teleost fishes is involved in ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. We have developed and validated rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific to the NKA alpha1a and alpha1b protein isoforms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus), and used western blots and immunohistochemistry to characterize their size, abundance and localization. The relative molecular mass of NKA alpha1a is slightly less than that for NKA beta1b. The abundance of gill NKA alpha1a was high in freshwater and became nearly undetectable after seawater acclimation. NKA alpha1b was present in small amounts in freshwater and increased 13-fold after seawater acclimation. Both NKA isoforms were detected only in chloride cells. NKA alpha1a was located in both filamental and lamellar chloride cells in freshwater, whereas in seawater it was present only as a faint background in filamental chloride cells. In freshwater, NKA alpha1b was found in a small number of filamental chloride cells, and after seawater acclimation it was found in all chloride cells on the filament and lamellae. Double simultaneous immunofluorescence indicated that NKA alpha1a and alpha1b are located in different chloride cells in freshwater. In many chloride cells in seawater, NKA alpha1b was present in greater amounts in the subapical region than elsewhere in the cell. The combined patterns in abundance and immunolocalization of these two isoforms can explain the salinity-related changes in total NKA and chloride cell abundance. The results indicate that there is a freshwater and a seawater isoform of NKA alpha-subunit in the gills of Atlantic salmon and that they are present in distinct chloride cells.

  6. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis with chloride meter (Sherwood M926S chloride analyzer®) and sweat test analysis system (CFΔ collection system®) compared to the Gibson Cooke method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiralioğlu, Nagehan; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Doğru, Deniz; Kiper, Nural

    2016-01-01

    Sweat test with Gibson Cooke (GC) method is the diagnostic gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF). Recently, alternative methods have been introduced to simplify both the collection and analysis of sweat samples. Our aim was to compare sweat chloride values obtained by GC method with other sweat test methods in patients diagnosed with CF and whose CF diagnosis had been ruled out. We wanted to determine if the other sweat test methods could reliably identify patients with CF and differentiate them from healthy subjects. Chloride concentration was measured with GC method, chloride meter and sweat test analysis system; also conductivity was determined with sweat test analysis system. Forty eight patients with CF and 82 patients without CF underwent the sweat test, showing median sweat chloride values 98.9 mEq/L with GC method, 101 mmol/L with chloride meter, 87.8 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. In non-CF group, median sweat chloride values were 16.8 mEq/L with GC method, 10.5 mmol/L with chloride meter, and 15.6 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. Median conductivity value was 107.3 mmol/L in CF group and 32.1 mmol/L in non CF group. There was a strong positive correlation between GC method and the other sweat test methods with a statistical significance (r=0.85) in all subjects. Sweat chloride concentration and conductivity by other sweat test methods highly correlate with the GC method. We think that the other sweat test equipments can be used as reliably as the classic GC method to diagnose or exclude CF.

  7. Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffleben, George; Goods, Steven H.; Shepodd, Timothy; Wheeler, David R.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy

    2002-01-01

    Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

  8. Detection of chloride ion concentration using chronopotentiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions using chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with respect to another identical Ag/AgCl electrode in the bulk electrolyte.

  9. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination... China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review pursuant to... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  10. Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Chloride Hexahydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar; Šolcová, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 17 (2005), s. 6591-6598 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aluminum chloride hexahydrate * thermal decomposition * reaction kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2005

  11. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is bas...

  12. Commercial production of thallium-201 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.V.; Volkova, N.M.; Skokov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Thallium-201 chloride pharmaceuticals production practice at the Medradiopreparat factory under USSR Ministry of Public Health is described. The factory is carried out series-produced supplies of the compound prepared according to a new practice from September, 1985. Thallium-201 extraction from cyclotron targets irradiated is carried out by the extraction method

  13. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Sherman (202-205-3289...

  14. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... contained in USITC Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014. (2) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl... this section by engineering, work practice, and personal protective controls as follows: (1) Feasible...

  16. Niobium interaction with chloride-carbonate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Kuznetsova, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    Niobium interaction with chloride-carbonate melt NaCl-KCl-K 2 CO 3 (5 mass %) in the temperature range of 973-1123 K has been studied. The products and niobium corrosion rate have been ascertained, depending on the temperature of melt and time of allowance. Potentials of niobium corrosion have been measured. Refs. 11, figs. 3, tabs. 2

  17. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  18. Chloride concentration affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Rohlenová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2008), s. 1401-1408 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : soil chloride * terminal restriction fragments * soil microorganisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  19. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation is one of the fundamental and essential molecular cloning techniques. In this paper, we have reported a modified method for preparation and transformation of competent cells. This modified method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride ...

  20. Analysis of the Rapid Chloride Migration test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Ferreira, R. M.; Gulikers, J.; Andrade, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study the Rapid Chloride Migration test (RCM) standardized as NT Build 492 and BAW-Merkblatt is reviewed. Since the traditional natural diffusion tests are laborious, time consuming and costly, they are not always preferred from a practical point of view. To overcome these disadvantages,

  1. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  2. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  3. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM. PMID:27873832

  4. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-09-15

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO₃, a solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO₃, solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM.

  5. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  6. Amendment trials for bioremediation of sodium and chloride contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Western Alfalfa Milling Co. Ltd., Norquay, SK (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Details of a soil amendment experiment was presented. Soil samples from sodium and chloride contaminated soil were taken from a site located in southeastern Alberta. Soil amendments included high protein dehydrated alfalfa pellets, 2 types of Zeolite, and used coconut coir. The aim of the study was to find an effective in-situ method of remediating the soil while establishing the highest possible plant biomass. Preliminary trial data indicated a strong trend for high plant protein pellets to increase plant productivity on sodium and chloride contaminated soil. The addition of alfalfa increased plant height and stem diameter, as well as leaf width, which increased incrementally with higher volumes of alfalfa. Equivalent rates of .5 MT to 4 MT per acre application rates were used in the trial. Coconut coir was used at a rate of 30 per cent of the volume of the growing medium and also showed increased growth. An experiment was conducted using harvested plant matter from the samples to determine the effect of the 3 amendments on sodium uptake by the plants. Results showed that the sodium uptake significantly increased with the application of soil amendments, particularly when alfalfa pellets were applied, with percentages of sodium found in the plant tissue almost twice as high as percentages found in the control sample. Sodium levels also increased in the plant tissues where coconut coir was used, although to a lesser degree than levels found in plants grown with the alfalfa amended soils. Zeolite did not perform as well on its own. However, it was noted that previous trials have shown good performance when Zeolite was mixed into sodium/chloride contaminated soils and combined with water filtration. It was concluded that the soil amendments improved plant growth, and increased the sodium uptake by plants. The consortium is pursuing industry support to plan larger field studies in the 2006 season. 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  8. Improved electrolyte for lithium-thionyl chloride battery. [Patent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, W.H.; McCartney, J.F.

    1980-12-17

    A lithium, thionyl chloride battery is provided with an electrolyte which makes it safe under a reverse voltage condition. The electrolyte is niobium pentachloride which is dissolved in the thionyl chloride.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride (Final Report, 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Vinyl Chloride and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  10. Thallium-201 chloride dynamic analysis using thallium-201 chloride and sodium iodide-131 thyroid subtraction scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Setsuo; Hiraki, Yoshio; Togami, Izumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-10-01

    The mechanism of /sup 201/Tl chloride accumulation is unclear in thyroid gland and thyroid tumor. This report examines 108 patients that received thyroid scintigraphy examinations with both /sup 201/Tl chloride and sodium /sup 131/I. The patients were diagnosed clinically and histologically whenever possible. The ROI were obtained by subtraction imaging with both isotopes and by subtraction positive and negative areas of imaging. Dynamic curves were obtained for /sup 201/Tl chloride per square unit of each ROI. The dynamic curve in the radioiodide-accumulated area was examined. The data indicate that the clearance rate of /sup 201/Tl chloride (T/sub 15/) was correlated with the sodium /sup 131/I uptake rate at 24 h (r=0.70).

  11. Tribasic copper chloride and copper sulfate as copper sources for weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Monegue, H J; Hall, D D; Orr, D E

    1998-01-01

    We conducted three 28-d experiments involving a total of 915 pigs to assess the relative efficacy of tribasic Cu chloride (Cu2[OH]3Cl) and Cu sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H20) in diets for weanling pigs. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted at an experiment station (University of Kentucky), and Exp. 3 was conducted at a commercial feed company's swine research facilities (United Feeds, Inc.). The basal diet was a fortified corn-soybean meal-dried whey diet (1.25% lysine) with no antimicrobials in Exp. 1 or with carbadox (55 mg/kg) in Exp. 2 and 3. In Exp. 1, 135 pigs were weaned at 27 to 31 d and fed the basal diet without or with 100 or 200 ppm Cu from Cu chloride, or 100 or 200 ppm Cu from Cu sulfate from 7.9 to 17.7 kg BW. The 200 ppm level of Cu from Cu sulfate improved ADG (P sulfate from 8.9 to 20.8 kg BW. Addition of 200 ppm Cu improved ADG (P sulfate tended to increase liver Cu more than did Cu chloride in one experiment, but not in another experiment. The results indicate that tribasic Cu chloride is as effective as Cu sulfate in improving growth in weanling pigs.

  12. Subsurface injection of dissolved ferric chloride to form a chemical barrier: Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.; Morris, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    A chemical barrier is a permeable zone of reactive materials emplaced in the subsurface to remove ground-water contaminants while allowing clean ground water to pass through. Because dissolved ferric chloride hydrolyzes to amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide when it contacts calcite (CaCO 3 ), it may be viable to emplace a zone of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (an absorbent for U, Mo, and other inorganic contaminants) into calcite-bearing geologic units by injecting ferric chloride through wells. For a chemical barrier to be successful, it must remain permeable and must be immobile. This investigation monitored chemical compositions, hydraulic conductivity, and iron mobility in laboratory columns and in a two-dimensional tank to determine the viability of injecting ferric chloride to form an amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide chemical barrier. The authors introduced a ferric chloride solution (1,345 mg/1[0.024 m] Fe) to calcite-bearing alluvial gravel to form a chemical barrier of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide, followed by solutions contaminated with U and Mo. The simulated chemical barriers decreased U and Mo concentrations to less than 0.05 mg/l (2.1 x 10 -7 m) and 0.01 (1.0 x 10 -7 m), respectively; however, the breakthrough front is spread out with concentrations increasing to more than regulatory guideline values sooner than predicted. The hydraulic conductivity of calcite-bearing alluvial gravel decreased substantially during ferric chloride introduction because of the formation of carbon dioxide but increased to within factors of 1 to 5 of the original value as synthetic ground water flowed through the system. Amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide that formed in these experiments remained immobile at flow rates exceeding those typical of ground water. These laboratory results, in conjunction with site-specific characterization data, can be used to design chemical barriers emplaced by injection of ferric chloride

  13. Responsible conduct of research

    CERN Document Server

    Shamoo, Adil E

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, the field of Responsible Conduct of Research has become widely recognized as essential to scientific education, investigation, and training. At present, research institutions with public funding are expected to have some minimal training and education in RCR for their graduate students, fellows and trainees. These institutions also are expected to have a system in place for investigating and reporting misconduct in research or violations of regulations in research with human subjects, or in their applications to federal agencies for funding. Public scrutiny of the conduct of scientific researchers remains high. Media reports of misconduct scandals, biased research, violations of human research ethics rules, and moral controversies in research occur on a weekly basis. Since the 2009 publication of the 2nd edition of Shamoo and Resnik's Responsible Conduct of Research, there has been a vast expansion in the information, knowledge, methods, and diagnosis of problems related to RCR and the ...

  14. Thermal energy storage using chloride salts and their eutectics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip D.; Goswami, D. Yogi

    2016-01-01

    Achieving the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot initiative requires (1) higher operating temperatures for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants to increase theoretical efficiency, and (2) effective thermal energy storage (TES) strategies to ensure dispatchability. Current inorganic salt-based TES systems in large-scale CSP plants generally employ molten nitrate salts for energy storage, but nitrate salts are limited in application to lower temperatures—generally, below 600 °C. These materials are sufficient for parabolic trough power plants, but they are inadequate for use at higher temperatures. At the higher operating temperatures achievable in solar power tower-type CSP plants, chloride salts are promising candidates for application as TES materials, owing to their thermal stability and generally lower cost compared to nitrate salts. In light of this, a recent study was conducted, which included a preliminary survey of chloride salts and binary eutectic systems that show promise as high temperature TES media. This study provided some basic information about the salts, including phase equilibria data and estimates of latent heat of fusion for some of the eutectics. Cost estimates were obtained through a review of bulk pricing for the pure salts among various vendors. This review paper updates that prior study, adding data for additional salt eutectic systems obtained from the literature. Where possible, data are obtained from the thermodynamic database software, FactSage. Radiative properties are presented, as well, since at higher temperatures, thermal radiation becomes a significant mode of heat transfer. Material compatibility for inorganic salts is another important consideration (e.g., with regard to piping and/or containment), so a summary of corrosion studies with various materials is also presented. Lastly, cost data for these systems are presented, allowing for meaningful comparison among these systems and other materials for TES

  15. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  16. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  17. Accelerated testing for chloride threshold of reinforcing steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Put, M. van; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing for the chloride threshold (also called critical chloride content) for corrosion initiation of steel in concrete has been found difficult and, at best, time consuming. Nevertheless, the chloride threshold is an important parameter in service life design of new structures and for evaluation

  18. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this analytical technique has been checked against a certified reference material, Merck sodium chloride solution. Confidence levels (CL0.95), of 0.03 and relative standard deviations of 0.2 % for chloride were determined for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) chloride binding ...

  19. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, D.O.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl 3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl 3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  20. Chloride sensing by WNK1 kinase involves inhibition of autophosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piala, Alexander T.; Moon, Thomas M.; Akella, Radha; He, Haixia; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. Here, we found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. Thus, these data suggest that WNK1 functions as a chloride sensor through direct binding of a regulatory chloride ion to the active site, which inhibits autophosphorylation. PMID:24803536

  1. ISOCHORIC HEAT CAPACITY OF 1% AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Dvoryanchikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to conduct an experimental study of isochoric heat capacity of 1% aqueous solution of magnesium chloride along the phase boundary curve.Method. In order to determine the isochoric heat capacity at the phase boundary curve we used the adiabatic calorimeter of KH. I. Amirkhanov.Results. Results of the study of the isochoric heat capacity depending on the temperature are given in tables and figures; the findings are compared with those of other researchers. When evaluating a complex system, we ought not to evaluate its effectiveness on the basis of only one criterion, even a very important, in this case must take into account the requirements of the technical, economic, environmental and of other natures.Conclusions. When solving optimization problems of efficiency in geothermal energy it is necessary to take into account the fact of the temperature dependence of the heat and density. The temperature dependence of the density and heat capacity in the calculations significantly affect the value of the efficiency criterion to be taken into account, otherwise the calculation error can be up to 20%. The data obtained from the isochoric heat capacity of aqueous solutions of magnesium chloride is compared with the data for water and aqueous solutions of NaCl and NaOH, obtained previously, which may be represented as a model of geothermal and sea water.

  2. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  3. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, P.M. (Alliant Techsystems, Inc., Power Sources Center, Horsham, PA (United States))

    1993-03-15

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thinoyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings (>40%) over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, (CoPC)[sub n], into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Finally, the results of testing a complete prototype battery are described in detail. (orig.)

  4. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  5. Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

    1999-01-01

    A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a ±3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of ±15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism

  6. The influence of nitrogen - urea fertilization to leaves and chloride chlorocholine on the accumulation Cs-137 in spring wheat crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrynczuk, B.; Weber, R.

    1998-01-01

    In pot experiments were studied effects of using nitrogen urea solution to leaves and use chloride chlorocholine on the Cs-137 accumulation in spring wheat crops. The Cs-137 contamination was conducted from soil and through leaves. It has been found that use nitrogen fertilization as urea solution spray and in addition use chloride chlorocholine caused an increase of Cs-137 concentration in grain from the contaminated soil. Accumulation of Cs-137 in spring wheat grain is 2-4 times higher coming from the contaminated leaves in blooming phase in comparison to the grain of plants contaminated in spread phase. The urea solution fertilization used on leaves and addition chloride chlorocholine did not influence the Cs-137 accumulation in grain when the plants were contaminated in the early growing phase. The Cs-137 contamination brought on the plants after using chloride chlorocholine in subsequent growing phases passed early into spring wheat grain. (author)

  7. The Effect of WNK4 on the Na+-Cl- Cotransporter Is Modulated by Intracellular Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazúa-Valenti, Silvana; Chávez-Canales, María; Rojas-Vega, Lorena; González-Rodríguez, Xochiquetzal; Vázquez, Norma; Rodríguez-Gama, Alejandro; Argaiz, Eduardo R; Melo, Zesergio; Plata, Consuelo; Ellison, David H; García-Valdés, Jesús; Hadchouel, Juliette; Gamba, Gerardo

    2015-08-01

    It is widely recognized that the phenotype of familial hyperkalemic hypertension is mainly a consequence of increased activity of the renal Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) because of altered regulation by with no-lysine-kinase 1 (WNK1) or WNK4. The effect of WNK4 on NCC, however, has been controversial because both inhibition and activation have been reported. It has been recently shown that the long isoform of WNK1 (L-WNK1) is a chloride-sensitive kinase activated by a low Cl(-) concentration. Therefore, we hypothesized that WNK4 effects on NCC could be modulated by intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)]i), and we tested this hypothesis in oocytes injected with NCC cRNA with or without WNK4 cRNA. At baseline in oocytes, [Cl(-)]i was near 50 mM, autophosphorylation of WNK4 was undetectable, and NCC activity was either decreased or unaffected by WNK4. A reduction of [Cl(-)]i, either by low chloride hypotonic stress or coinjection of oocytes with the solute carrier family 26 (anion exchanger)-member 9 (SLC26A9) cRNA, promoted WNK4 autophosphorylation and increased NCC-dependent Na(+) transport in a WNK4-dependent manner. Substitution of the leucine with phenylalanine at residue 322 of WNK4, homologous to the chloride-binding pocket in L-WNK1, converted WNK4 into a constitutively autophosphorylated kinase that activated NCC, even without chloride depletion. Elimination of the catalytic activity (D321A or D321K-K186D) or the autophosphorylation site (S335A) in mutant WNK4-L322F abrogated the positive effect on NCC. These observations suggest that WNK4 can exert differential effects on NCC, depending on the intracellular chloride concentration. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Is sweat chloride predictive of severity of cystic fibrosis lung disease assessed by chest computed tomography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudri, Daan; Zitter, David; Bronsveld, Inez; Tiddens, Harm

    2017-09-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by a marked heterogeneity. Sweat chloride-level is a functional marker of the CF Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) protein and could be an important predictor of later disease severity. In this retrospective analysis children from the Rotterdam CF clinic with available sweat chloride level at diagnosis and at least one routine spirometry-controlled volumetric chest CT scan in follow-up were included. CT scans were scored using the CF-CT scoring system (% of maximum). Associations between sweat chloride-levels and CF-CT scores were calculated using linear regression models, adjusting for age at sweat test and age at follow-up. Because structural lung damage develops over the course of many years, effect modification by the age at follow-up CT-scan was tested for by age-stratification. In 59 children (30 male) sweat chloride was measured at diagnosis (median age 0.5 years, range 0-13) and later chest CT performed (median age 14 years, range 6-18). Sweat chloride was associated with significantly higher CT-CT total score, bronchiectasis score, and mucus plugging score. Stratification for age at follow-up in tertiles showed this association remained only in the oldest age group (range 15-18 years). In that subgroup associations were found with all but one of the CF-CT subscores, as well as with all tested lung functions parameters. Sweat chloride-level is a significant predictor of CF lung disease severity as determined by chest CT and lung function. This association could only be demonstrated in children with follow-up to age 15 years and above. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk production and milk composition of Etawah grade goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of choline chloride supplementation through forced drinking combined with concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil on milk production and milk composition of Etawah Grade goats was evaluated. Choline chloride is an essential component in ruminant diets as it is required for fat metabolism. Method The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three types of treatments and eight replications. The trial had two successive experimental periods; the first, during the eight weeks of late pregnancy, and the second, during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Twenty-four Etawah Grade does in the second gestation period were divided into three treatment groups. Commercial choline chloride 60 % in corncobs-based powder was used as a source of choline chloride. The treatments were no supplementation (control and supplemented with either 4 g or 8 g/2days of choline chloride. Choline chloride was given to the animals through a forced drinking technique, after dissolving it in 60 ml drinking water. The initial body weight of does was 38.81 ± 3.66 kg. The does were penned individually, and were given fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum and 700 g/day of concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil, starting eight weeks prior to expecting kidding and continuing for 12 weeks of parturition. Results All nutrient intakes were not significantly different (p > 0.05 among the treatments during the late pregnancy and the lactation periods. Supplementation did not affect (p > 0.05 the average daily gains and feed conversion ratio during pregnancy but gave effects (p < 0.05 on the average daily gains, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost during lactation. The highest average daily milk yields and 4 % fat corrected milk yields were found in goats supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride and increased by 17.00 % and 24.67 %, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, milk

  10. Determination of Chloride Content in Cementitious Materials : From Fundamental Aspects to Application of Ag/AgCl Chloride Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pargar, F.; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the advantages and drawbacks of available test methods for the determination of chloride content in cementitious materials in general, and the application of Ag/AgCl chloride sensors in particular. The main factors that affect the reliability of a chloride sensor are presented.

  11. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B

    2012-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antib......The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho......-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and m...

  12. Atomistic Modeling of Ion Conduction through the Voltage-Sensing Domain of the Shaker K+ Ion Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mona L; Freites, J Alfredo; Tombola, Francesco; Tobias, Douglas J

    2017-04-20

    Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) sense changes in the membrane electrostatic potential and, through conformational changes, regulate a specific function. The VSDs of wild-type voltage-dependent K + , Na + , and Ca 2+ channels do not conduct ions, but they can become ion-permeable through pathological mutations in the VSD. Relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms of conduction through VSDs. The most detailed studies have been performed on Shaker K + channel variants in which ion conduction through the VSD is manifested in electrophysiology experiments as a voltage-dependent inward current, the so-called omega current, which appears when the VSDs are in their resting state conformation. Only monovalent cations appear to permeate the Shaker VSD via a pathway that is believed to be, at least in part, the same as that followed by the S4 basic side chains during voltage-dependent activation. We performed μs-time scale atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of a cation-conducting variant of the Shaker VSD under applied electric fields in an experimentally validated resting-state conformation, embedded in a lipid bilayer surrounded by solutions containing guanidinium chloride or potassium chloride. Our simulations provide insights into the Shaker VSD permeation pathway, the protein-ion interactions that control permeation kinetics, and the mechanism of voltage-dependent activation of voltage-gated ion channels.

  13. Influence of chloride admixtures on cement matrix durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, I.A.; Zamorani, E.; Serrini, G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of various inorganic salts, as chloride admixtures to Portland cement, on the mechanical properties and the durability of the matrix has been studied. The salts used in this study are chromium, nickel and cadmium chlorides. Improved compressive strength values are obtained which have been correlated to the stable metal hydroxide formation in high pH environment. Under static water conditions at 50 0 C, hydrolyzed chloride ions exhibit adverse effects on the matrix durability through rapid release of calcium as calcium chloride in the initial period of leaching. On the contrary, enhanced matrix durability is obtained on long term leaching in the case of cement containing chromium chloride

  14. Thermochemistry of certain rare earth and ammonium double chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubaliev, D.U.; Abramtsev, V.A.; Kydynov, M.K.; Vilyaev, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    In a calorimeter with isothermal casing at 25 deg C dissolution enthalpies of double chlorides of rare earths and ammonium LnCl 3 x2NH 4 Cl (Ln=La, Sm) and LnCl 3 x3NH 4 Cl (Ln=Gd, Tb, Ho) in water, as well as dissolution enthalpy of rare earth chlorides in solution of ammonium chloride and NH 4 Cl in solution of rare earth chloride, have been measured. Formation enthalpies, standard formation enthalpies, dissociation enthalpies of the above-mentioned double chlorides are calculated

  15. Digital gene expression analysis of Microsporum canis exposed to berberine chloride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wen Xiao

    Full Text Available Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illumina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05 in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson's disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis.

  16. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  17. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

  18. Magnetic interactions in iron (III) porphyrin chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, J.; Subramanian, Japyesan; Fuhrhop, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Intermolecular exchange interactions in iron(III) porphyrin chlorides (porphyrin = OEP, proto, TPP) have been studied by X-ray structure, EPR and magnetic susceptibility studies. The crystal structure of Fe(III)OEP-Cl was found to be different from that of the other two. Different types of exchange broadened EPR-spectra are obtained which are attributable to the arrangement in the crystals. The EPR results correlate well with magnetic susceptibility data. (orig.) [de

  19. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  20. Radiochemical determination of methylmercury chloride Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Prasilova, J.

    1976-01-01

    The isotope exchange between methylmercury species and an excess of inorganic radiomercury in sulphuric acid medium has been used for the simple determination of methylmercury chloride down to 0.01 ppm. The determination is not influenced by the presence of a great excess of other metals, however, chlorides, bromides and iodides interfere in higher concentrations. It has been found that the isotope exchange between CH 3 HgCl and 203 HgCl 4 2- (or 203 HgCl 2 ) in 0.01-3M hydrochloric acid is extremely slow, for the bimolecular reaction the rate constant is lower than 10 -3 mol -1 s -1 at 25 deg C. The isotope exchange rate between methylmercury chloride and mercuric-nitrate 0n on 0.5M sulphuric acid is higher. The isotope exchange is a bimolecular reaction with a rate constant k=0.050+-0.004 mol -1 s -1 at 25 deg C. (T.I.)

  1. Abnormal chloride homeostasis in the substancia nigra pars reticulata contributes to locomotor deficiency in a model of acute liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. METHODS: Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE. The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. RESULTS: In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure.

  2. Self-discharge rate of lithium thionyl-chloride cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    Our low-rate lithium/thionyl-chloride ``D`` cell is required to provide power continuously for up to 10 years. The cell was designed at Sandia National Laboratories and manufactured at Eagle-Picher Industries, Joplin, Missouri. We have conducted accelerated aging studies at elevated temperatures to predict long-term performance of cells fabricated in 1992. Cells using 1.0M LiAlCl{sub 4} electrolyte follow Arrhenius kinetics with an activation energy of 14.6 Kcal/mol. This results in an annual capacity loss to self-discharge of 0.13 Ah at 25 C. Cells using a 1.0M LiAlCl{sub 4}{sm_bullet}SO{sub 2} electrolyte do not follow Arrhenius behavior. The performance of aged cells from an earlier fabrication lot is variable.

  3. Fluid conductivity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the electrical conductivity of fluid which can be used to detonate an electro explosive device for operating a release mechanism for uncoupling a parachute canopy from its load upon landing in water. An operating network connected to an ignition capacitor and to a conductivity sensing circuit and connected in controlling relation to a semiconductor switch has a voltage independent portion which controls the time at which the semiconductor switch is closed to define a discharge path to detonate the electro explosive device independent of the rate of voltage rise on the ignition capacitor. The operating network also has a voltage dependent portion which when a voltage of predetermined magnitude is developed on the conductivity sensing circuit in response to fluid not having the predetermined condition of conductivity, the voltage dependent portion closes the semiconductor switch to define the discharge path when the energy level is insufficient to detonate the electro explosive device. A regulated current source is connected in relation to the conductivity sensing circuit and to the electrodes thereof in a manner placing the circuit voltage across the electrodes when the conductivity of the fluid is below a predetermined magnitude so that the sensing circuit does not respond thereto and placing the circuit voltage across the sensing circuit when the conductivity of the fluid is greater than a predetermined magnitude. The apparatus is operated from a battery, and the electrodes are of dissimilar metals so selected and connected relative to the polarity portions of the circuit to maximize utilization of the battery output voltage

  4. Analysis of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukul

    The lithium/thionyl chloride battery (Li/SOClsb2) has received considerable attention as a primary energy source due to its high energy density, high operating cell voltage, voltage stability over 95% of the discharge, large operating temperature range (-55sp°C to 70sp°C), long storage life, and low cost of materials. In this dissertation, a one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed. Mathematical models can be used to tailor a battery design to a specific application, perform accelerated testing, and reduce the amount of experimental data required to yield efficient, yet safe cells. The Model was used in conjunction with the experimental data for parameter estimation and to obtain insights into the fundamental processes occurring in the battery. The diffusion coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode are obtained as a function of temperature by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49sp°C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells at Sandia National Laboratories. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness and current and temperature pulsing on the cell capacity. Thionyl chloride reduction in the porous cathode is accompanied with a volume reduction. The material balance used previously in one-dimensional mathematical models of porous electrodes is invalid when the volume occupied by the reactants and the products is not equal. It is shown here how the material balance has to be modified to either account for the loss in volume, or to account for the inflow of electrolyte from the header into the active pores. The one-dimensional mathematical model of lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is used to illustrate the effect of this material balance

  5. Using functional-structural plant modeling to explore the response of cotton to mepiquat chloride application and plant population density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, S.; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Vos, J.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The crop growth regulator Mepiquat Chloride (MC) is widely used in cotton production to optimize the canopy structure in order to maximize the yield and fiber quality. Cotton plasticity in relation to MC and other agronomical practice was quantified using a functional-structural plant model of

  6. Crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride and its copper(II) and cobalt(III) chloride complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumakov, Yu. M.; Tsapkov, V. I.; Bocelli, G.; Antosyak, B. Ya.; Shova, S. G.; Gulea, A. P.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride hydrate hemiethanol solvate (I), salicylideneguanylhydrazinium trichloroaquacuprate(II) (II), and bis(salicylideneguanylhydrazino)cobalt(III) chloride trihydrate (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. The structures of compounds I, II, and III are solved by direct methods and refined using the least-squares procedure in the anisotropic approximation for the non-hydrogen atoms to the final factors R = 0.0597, 0.0212, and 0.0283, respectively. In the structure of compound I, the monoprotonated molecules and chlorine ions linked by hydrogen bonds form layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. In the structure of compound II, the salicylaldehyde guanylhydrazone cations and polymer chains consisting of trichloroaquacuprate(II) anions are joined by an extended three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. In the structure of compound III, the [Co(LH) 2 ] + cations, chloride ions, and molecules of crystallization water are linked together by a similar network

  7. Growth and characterization of magnesium chloride and lanthanum chloride doped strontium tartrate crystals - gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiarasi, S.; Jaikumar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Growth of single crystals of doped strontium tartrate by controlled diffusion of strontium chloride into the silica gel charged with tartaric acid at room temperature is narrated. In this study, we synthesized magnesium chloride (5% and 10%) doped strontium tartrate crystals and Lanthanum chloride (5%, 10% and 15%) doped strontium tartrate crystals are grown. The crystal structure of the compound crystals was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of pure and doped crystals are recorded and analyzed. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum analysis reveals that the optical study of the grown crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured by using Kurtz powder technique with Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 1064 nm. (author)

  8. Assembly and misassembly of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: folding defects caused by deletion of F508 occur before and after the calnexin-dependent association of membrane spanning domain (MSD) 1 and MSD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Meredith F N; Grove, Diane E; Chen, Liling; Cyr, Douglas M

    2008-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a polytopic membrane protein that functions as a Cl(-) channel and consists of two membrane spanning domains (MSDs), two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), and a cytosolic regulatory domain. Cytosolic 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70), and endoplasmic reticulum-localized calnexin are chaperones that facilitate CFTR biogenesis. Hsp70 functions in both the cotranslational folding and posttranslational degradation of CFTR. Yet, the mechanism for calnexin action in folding and quality control of CFTR is not clear. Investigation of this question revealed that calnexin is not essential for CFTR or CFTRDeltaF508 degradation. We identified a dependence on calnexin for proper assembly of CFTR's membrane spanning domains. Interestingly, efficient folding of NBD2 was also found to be dependent upon calnexin binding to CFTR. Furthermore, we identified folding defects caused by deletion of F508 that occurred before and after the calnexin-dependent association of MSD1 and MSD2. Early folding defects are evident upon translation of the NBD1 and R-domain and are sensed by the RMA-1 ubiquitin ligase complex.

  9. Sorption of sulphur dioxide in calcium chloride and nitrate chloride liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzepierczynska, I.; Gostomczyk, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Flue gas desulphurization via application of suspensions has one inherent disadvantage: fixation of sulphur dioxide is very poor. This should be attributed to the low content of calcium ions which results from the solubility of the sorbing species. The solubility of sparingly soluble salts (CaO, CaCO 3 ) may be increased by decreasing the pH of the solution; yet, there is a serious limitation in this method: the corrosivity of the scrubber. The objective of this paper was to assess the sorbing capacity of two soluble calcium salts, calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, as a function of calcium ion concentration in the range of 20 to 82 kg/m 3 . It has been found that sorbing capacity increases with the increasing calcium ion concentration until the calcium concentration in the calcium chloride solution reaches the level of 60 kg/m 3 which is equivalent to the chloride ion content of ∼ 110 kg/m 3 . Addition of calcium hydroxide to the solutions brings about an increase in the sorbing capacity up to 1.6 kg/m 3 and 2.2 kg/m 3 for calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, respectively, as a result of the increased sorbent alkalinity. The sorption capacity of the solutions is considerably enhanced by supplementing them by acetate ions (2.8 to 13.9 kg/m 3 ). Increase in the sorption capacity of calcium nitrate solutions enriched with calcium acetate was approximately 30% as high as that of the chloride solutions enriched with calcium acetate was approximately 30% as high as that of the chloride solutions supplemented in the same way. (author). 12 refs, 7 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Structural studies of precursor and partially oxidized conducting complexes. XIII. A neutron diffraction and x-ray diffuse scattering study of the dimerized platinum chain in rubidium tetracyanoplatinate chloride (2:1:0.3) trihydrate, Rb2[Pt(CN)4]Cl03.3.0H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.; Johnson, P.L.; Schultz, A.J.; Coffey, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The crystal structure and molecular formula of the one-dimensional conductor Rb 2 [Pt(CN) 4 ]Cl 0 . 30 . 3.0H 2 O, RbCP(Cl), have been fully characterized using single-crystal neutron diffraction, x-ray diffuse scattering data, and thermogravimetric analysis. RbCP(Cl) is isostructural with KCP(Cl) and KCP(Br) except that only one halide site can be identified. From thermogravimetric analyses RbCP(Cl) is a 3.0 hydrate as is KCP(Br). RbCP(Cl) crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4mm, with unit cell dimensions a = 10.142 (6) A, c = 5.801 (4) A, V/sub c/ = 596.7 A 3 , and Z = 2. Using x-ray diffuse scattering techniques we have established the Pt oxidation as +2.31 (2) from which the molecular formula Rb 2 [Pt(CN) 4 ]Cl/sub 0.31(2)/ . 3.0H 2 O is obtained. The structure consists of nearly planar Pt(CN) 4 moieties stacked along the c axis forming a perfectly linear Pt-Pt chain. The crystal asymmetric unit contains two independent Pt(CN) 4 1 . 7- groups, two H 2 O sites, one Rb + site, and one Cl - site. The asymmetric ordering of the Rb + ion and the H 2 O molecules constitutes the main source of crystal asymmetry. The two-independent Pt-Pt chain distances are definitely unequal (2.877 (8) and 2.924 (8) A) with the average intrachain separation (2.90 A) being slightly longer than in KCP(Br) (2.88 A) and KCP(Cl) (2.87 A). The replacement of K + by Rb + results in lattice expansion along c, which produces larger Pt-Pt intrachain separations. Thus the unequal and slightly longer Pt-Pt separations in RbCP(Cl), apparently result in increased electron localization along the Pt-atom chain and a concomitant decrease in the electrical conductivity. 10 figures, 3 tables

  11. Association between continuous peripheral i.v. infusion of 3% sodium chloride injection and phlebitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lina; Nguyen, Cherwyn M; Patel, Samit; Mlynash, Michael; Caulfield, Anna Finley

    2018-03-01

    One institution's experience with use of peripheral i.v. (PIV) catheters for prolonged infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection at rates up to 100 mL/hr is described. A prospective, observational, 13-month quality assurance project was conducted at an academic medical center to evaluate frequencies of patient and catheter phlebitis among adult inpatients who received both an infusion of 3% sodium chloride injection for a period of ≥4 hours through a dedicated PIV catheter and infusions of routine-care solutions (RCSs) through separate PIV catheters during the same hospital stay. Sixty patients received PIV infusions through a total of 291 catheters during the study period. The majority of patients (78%) received infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection for intracranial hypertension, with 30% receiving such infusions in the intensive care unit. Phlebitis occurred in 28 patients (47%) during infusions of 3% sodium chloride and 26 patients (43%) during RCS infusions ( p = 0.19). Catheter phlebitis occurred in 73 catheters (25%), with no significant difference in the frequencies of catheter phlebitis with infusion of 3% sodium chloride versus RCSs (30% [32 of 106 catheters]) versus 22% [41 of 185 catheters]), p = 0.16). Patient and catheter phlebitis rates were not significantly different with infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection versus RCSs, suggesting that an osmolarity cutoff value of 900 mOsm/L for peripheral infusions of hypertonic saline solutions may not be warranted. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride for oral solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, M L

    1992-02-01

    NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Potassium Chloride for Oral Solution), a product from Braintree Laboratories, Inc. is a modification of GoLYTELY (PEG 3350 and Electrolytes for Oral Solution) that has been found to have the same therapeutic advantages in terms of safety, efficacy, speed and patient acceptance. This product was developed to improve upon the taste of GoLYTELY. NuLYTELY represents an effective alternative for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy that may be more acceptable to some patients.

  13. Study of the Susceptibility of Oxygen-Free Phosphorous Doped Copper to Corrosion in Simulated Groundwater in the Presence of Chloride and Sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Ivan; Lamas, Claudia; Werme, Lars; Oversby, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen free high conductivity copper, doped with phosphorus (Cu OFP) has been chosen as the material for the fabrication of high level nuclear waste containers in Sweden. This material will be the corrosion barrier for spent fuel in the environment of a deep geological repository in granitic rock. The service life of this container is expected to exceed 1,000,000 years. During this time, which includes several glaciations, water of different compositions, including high concentration of chloride ions, will contact the copper surface. This work reports a study of the susceptibility of Cu OFP to corrosion when chloride ions are present, in deionized water (DW) and in synthetic groundwater (SGW). The techniques used were electrochemical methods such as corrosion potential evolution and Tafel curves. The system was studied with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). We also used as characterization techniques Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The main conclusions are that copper is more susceptible to corrosion at high chloride ion concentration. When the chloride concentration is low, it is possible to form copper chloride crystals, but at the highest concentration, copper chloride complexes are formed, leaving the copper surface without deposits. When the chloride concentration is low ( -5 M), copper corrosion in the presence of chloride is controlled by diffusional processes, while at higher concentrations corrosion is controlled by charge transfer processes. (authors)

  14. Mapping the spatial distribution of chloride deposition across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. J.; Crosbie, R. S.

    2018-06-01

    The high solubility and conservative behaviour of chloride make it ideal for use as an environmental tracer of water and salt movement through the hydrologic cycle. For such use the spatial distribution of chloride deposition in rainfall at a suitable scale must be known. A number of authors have used point data acquired from field studies of chloride deposition around Australia to construct relationships to characterise chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast; these relationships have allowed chloride deposition to be interpolated in different regions around Australia. In this paper we took this a step further and developed a chloride deposition map for all of Australia which includes a quantification of uncertainty. A previously developed four parameter model of chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast for Australia was used as the basis for producing a continental scale chloride deposition map. Each of the four model parameters were made spatially variable by creating parameter surfaces that were interpolated using a pilot point regularisation approach within a parameter estimation software. The observations of chloride deposition were drawn from a literature review that identified 291 point measurements of chloride deposition over a period of 80 years spread unevenly across all Australian States and Territories. A best estimate chloride deposition map was developed from the resulting surfaces on a 0.05 degree grid. The uncertainty in the chloride deposition map was quantified as the 5th and 95th percentile of 1000 calibrated models produced via Null Space Monte Carlo analysis and the spatial variability of chloride deposition across the continent was consistent with landscape morphology. The temporal variability in chloride deposition on a decadal scale was investigated in the Murray-Darling Basin, this highlighted the need for long-term monitoring of chloride deposition if the uncertainty of the continental scale map is

  15. Buried chloride stereochemistry in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugo, Oliviero

    2014-09-23

    Despite the chloride anion is involved in fundamental biological processes, its interactions with proteins are little known. In particular, we lack a systematic survey of its coordination spheres. The analysis of a non-redundant set (pairwise sequence identity chloride anion shows that the first coordination spheres of the chlorides are essentially constituted by hydrogen bond donors. Amongst the side-chains positively charged, arginine interacts with chlorides much more frequently than lysine. Although the most common coordination number is 4, the coordination stereochemistry is closer to the expected geometry when the coordination number is 5, suggesting that this is the coordination number towards which the chlorides tend when they interact with proteins. The results of these analyses are useful in interpreting, describing, and validating new protein crystal structures that contain chloride anions.

  16. The Influence of Salt Water on Chloride Penetration in Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Like Novia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of chloride ion penetration in geopolymer concrete. Fly ash as based material for geopolymer concrete was used in this mixture. Fly ash was mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH 8 M and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 as the alkali solution. The sizes of cylindrical specimens were prepared with a diameter of 100 mm and 200 mm high. Some specimens were immersed in salt water at a concentration of 3.5%, and other control specimens were cured in tap water for 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. The mechanical properties were determined with compressive test which was conducted at 28, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. Some durability tests were performed for porosity, chloride penetration, and pH measurement. It was found that geopolymer concrete has higher compressive strength than concrete made with Ordinary Portland cement (OPC. However, chloride penetration in geopolymer concrete is higher than OPC. The pH measurement showed that geopolymer concrete has less pH than OPC concrete. The porosity of concrete has been found to influence chloride penetration and pH of concrete.

  17. Electrochemical degradation of diuron in chloride medium using DSA® based anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipi, Angelo R. F.; Aquino Neto, Sidney; Andrade, Adalgisa R. de

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study of the electrochemical degradation of the herbicide diuron using Ti/Ru x Ti (1-x) O 2 and Ti/Ir x Ti (1-x) O 2 (x 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7) anodes. The investigation of the degradation was conducted in the presence and in the absence of chloride. The study of the herbicide removal as a function of the current density in the absence of chloride yielded 41 and 49% COD (chemical oxygen demand) removals and 10 and 14% TOC (total organic carbon) removal at 100 mA cm -2 , respectively. By keeping the electrolysis time constant (4 h), Ti/Ru 0.7 Ti 0.3 O 2 anode composition was determined as the most active for removal of diuron and its byproduct. The maximum removal value achieved after 4 h was 58%. Addition of chloride doubled the removal ratio, and 100% COD removal was obtained for Ti/Ru 0.3 Ti 0.7 O 2 . High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the total removal of the herbicide in chloride medium and indicated the formation of byproducts. The generated byproducts presented as function of the applied current density and the anode composition. Ir-based anodes promoted milder oxidation and furnished more byproducts in aqueous medium. (author)

  18. Electrochemical degradation of diuron in chloride medium using DSA Registered-Sign based anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipi, Angelo R. F.; Aquino Neto, Sidney; Andrade, Adalgisa R. de, E-mail: ardandra@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    This work presents a study of the electrochemical degradation of the herbicide diuron using Ti/Ru{sub x}Ti{sub (1-x)}O{sub 2} and Ti/Ir{sub x}Ti{sub (1-x)}O{sub 2} (x 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7) anodes. The investigation of the degradation was conducted in the presence and in the absence of chloride. The study of the herbicide removal as a function of the current density in the absence of chloride yielded 41 and 49% COD (chemical oxygen demand) removals and 10 and 14% TOC (total organic carbon) removal at 100 mA cm{sup -2}, respectively. By keeping the electrolysis time constant (4 h), Ti/Ru{sub 0.7}Ti{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} anode composition was determined as the most active for removal of diuron and its byproduct. The maximum removal value achieved after 4 h was 58%. Addition of chloride doubled the removal ratio, and 100% COD removal was obtained for Ti/Ru{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 2} . High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the total removal of the herbicide in chloride medium and indicated the formation of byproducts. The generated byproducts presented as function of the applied current density and the anode composition. Ir-based anodes promoted milder oxidation and furnished more byproducts in aqueous medium. (author)

  19. Chemical and physical compatibility of an intravenous solution of epinephrine with calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Phillip A; Teng, Yang; Wu, Lei; Sun, Mary; Yang, Zhen; Chow, Diana S-L

    2014-01-01

    An infusion of epinephrine combined with calcium chloride has been used historically as an intravenous inotropic solution to support critically ill heart failure patients with severe cardiogenic shock. There is no reliable data on the stability of this solution beyond three hours. This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical compatibility of epinephrine (0.032 mg/mL) combined with calcium chloride (4 mg/mL) in a solution for intravenous administration up to 26 hours at room temperature. The chemical stability of epinephrine was monitored by measuring epinephrine concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. The physical compatibility of the mixture was determined by measuring spectrophotometric absorbance between 400 to 700 nm. Absorbance greater than 0.010 AU was considered an indicator of the presence of precipitation. The results showed epinephrine with calcium chloride was stable together in normal saline up to 26 hours at room temperature, irrespective of exposure to light. The absorbance of epinephrine throughout the study was less than 0.010 AU, indicating no significant precipitation. Conclusions indicate that epinephrine (0.032 mg/mL) combined with calcium chloride (4 mg/mL) in normal saline at room temperature is acceptably stable up to 26 hours for intravenous administration.

  20. Enhancing post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Afridi, S.R.; Khan, R.U.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The present study was conducted to enhance the post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride treatments. CaCl/sub 2/ solution at 1 % (T1 ), 2 % (T2 ) and 3 % (T3) were prepared and the fruits were dipped for five minutes, while (To) was left with out calcium chloride treatment as control. The fruits were packed in corrugated soft board cartons and stored at ambient temperature (35 degree C + 2) for a total period of 15 days. The physicochemical analysis such as weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), decay index, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content and overall sensory acceptability were determined at an interval of three days up to the successful completion of the study. A significant decrease was observed in fruit firmness (1.8-0.3 kg), % acidity (0.950- 0.538), ascorbic acid content (7.06-4.67 mg/100g) and overall sensory acceptability (8.4-2.3), while a significant increase was observed in TSS (8.2-11.9 degree brix), decay index (0-72.64 %) and % weight loss (0-11.3) during storage. Results showed that one and two percent calcium chloride treated fruits have little improvement while fruits treated with 3 % calcium chloride were found to be most acceptable as per physico-chemical analyses and over all sensory acceptability result. (author)

  1. The effect of steam curing on chloride penetration in geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Ekaputri Januarti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the result of our study on the effect of steam curing to chloride ion penetration in geopolymer concrete. Class F fly ash was activated using sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. The concrete specimens were then steam-cured at 40°C, 60°C, 80°C and room temperature at 24 hours. The treatment was followed by wet curing for 28 days, and then followed by immersion of all specimens in salt water for the durations of 30, 60, and 90 days. Cylindrical specimens were then prepared for compressive strength, chloride ion penetration, pH, and porosity tests. A 16 mm-steel bar was fixed at the center of the specimen concrete blocks (specimen size: 10cm × 10cm × 15cm. Corrosion probability was determined by conducting Half Cell Potential test. Our result showed that increasing the curing temperature to 80°C induced chloride ion penetration into the concrete’s effective pores, despite improvements in compressive strength. We also found that chloride ingress on the geopolymer concrete increases commensurately with the increase of the curing temperature. The corrosion potential measurement of geopolymer concrete was higher than OPC concrete even if corrosion was not observed in reinforcing. Based on our result, we suggest that the corrosion categorization for geopolymer concretes needs to be adjusted.

  2. Improving Wheat Growth and Yield Using Chlormequat Chloride, Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vahabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress is most important abiotic stress reducing growth and production of wheat worldwide. Protective role of plant growth regulators (PGRs against drought stress has been accepted in general, however, comparison of PGRs types to determine the optimum one is crucial. Many PGRs are known to alleviate the negative effects of drought stress in plants. However, limited research has been conducted to investigate the potential benefits of exogenous application of different PGRs in wheat plants grown under drought stress. Chlormequat chloride (CCC, salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA could consider as three major PGRs using in cereals. Materials and Methods To examine the effect of three PGRs consisted of CCC, SA and JA on yield components and grain yield of wheat cv. Roshan under different water stress conditions (a range of light to severe drought levels two separated experiments were conducted at controlled and field conditions at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University during 2012-2013 growing seasons. Concentration of CCC, SA and JA were 19.0, 1.0 and 0.1 mM, respectively. Drought stress levels were 100%, 80%, 60% and 40% of field capacity in greenhouse and were 100%, 2/3 and 1/5 of field capacity in the field experiment. Field capacity was determined as 25% (g g-1 for the experimental field. Greenhouse and field researches were carried out in factorial experiment based on completely randomized design and in split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design, respectively. Four and three replications were used greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Roshan as a bread wheat cultivar with standard height was used. Foliar application of 3 PGRs was done at double ridges stage in both experiments; however, irrigation treatments were applied at double ridges stage and early anthesis at greenhouse and field experiment, respectively. For plot irrigation a tape system was used and amount of irrigation was

  3. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.J.; Day, S.D.; Ilevbare, G.O.; Whalen, M.T.; King, K.J.; Hust, G.A.; Wong, L.L.; Estill, J.C.; Rebak, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl 2 at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy

  4. Effect of kaolin treatment temperature on mortar chloride permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the results of chloride resistance tests conducted on ordinary Portland cement (OPC mortars containing a Colombian kaolin pre-treated at temperatures of from 600 to 800 ºC. The resulting metakaolin (MK was added to OPC mortar mixes in proportions of 10 and 20% by cement weight. The mortars were compared for physical and chemical properties, including capillary absorption, chloride permeability and pore microstructure as assessed by mercury porosimetry. The best performance was recorded for the samples containing 20% of the material treated at 800 ºC.En el presente trabajo se incluyen los resultados de la resistencia a la penetración de cloruros de morteros de Cemento Portland Ordinario (OPC adicionados con un caolín colombiano sometido a tratamiento térmico en un rango de temperaturas entre 600 y 800 °C. Los productos del tratamiento térmico, metacaolín (MK, son incorporados en mezclas de morteros de OPC en proporciones del 10 y 20% en relación al peso del cemento. Se comparan sus características físico-químicas, entre las cuales se incluye la microestructura de poros evaluada por la técnica de porosimetría de mercurio, con la absorción capilar y la permeabilidad a cloruros. Se concluye que las muestras adicionadas con un 20% del material tratado térmicamente a 800 °C presentan el mejor desempeño en sus propiedades finales.

  5. Effect of chlorides on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Kazuyuki; Shimada, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    In PWR's steam generators, ''denting'' resulted from corrosion of support plate material, carbon steel is an important problem. The role of chlorides in corrosion acceleration of mild steel was studied. Corrosion tests were conducted at temperature from 100 0 C to 280 0 C in deaerated solutions of NaCl and MgCl 2 which are main content of sea water. 1) Solution of MgCl 2 was more corrosive than that of NaCl. The more increased in concentration of each chloride solution, the more corrosive in MgCl 2 soln. but the less corrosive in NaCl soln. 2) The rate of corrosion in the mixed solution of NaCl and MgCl 2 was governed by the concentration of MgCl 2 soln. The corrosion behaviour in sea water was suggested to be not controlled by NaCl but by MgCl 2 . 3) Acidification of MgCl 2 soln. could be evaluated by experiment at 100 0 C, the degree of acidification increased with increasing the concentration. However, the value of pH during corrosion was kept constant by the concentration of dissolved Fe 2+ ions. 4) The corrosion acceleration by MgCl 2 soln. was arised not only from acidification by the solution itself but from continuous supplementation of H + ions with the hydrolysis of dissolved Fe 2+ ions. This autocatalytic corrosion process not exhausting acid was characterized with the corrosion in closed system such as in crevice. In addition to acidification of MgCl 2 soln., the formation of non-protective magnetite film by Mg 2+ ion was estimated to be a reason of accelerated corrosion. (author)

  6. Investigating Seed Germination Indices and Absorption Rate of Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, and Potassium in Different Parts of Seedlings of Sweet Corn KSC 403 (Zea Mays L var. Saccharata Under Salinity Stress and Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah alhossini,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of seed priming on germination indices and nutrient absorption at early growth stages of sweet corn (Golden Kernel Hybrid a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2011. The experiment consists of 6 levels of primings (seeds without priming, priming with tap water, priming with distilled water, priming with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrous calcium chloride and five levels of salinity (zero, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m sodium chloride. The characteristics studied were germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, root to shoot ratio and determination of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium concentration in different parts of seedlings (stems, roots and seed. The results indicated that increasing salinity stress levels decreased all parameters measured. Priming seeds with hydrated calcium chloride responded to significantly to salinity stress better than other treatments. Results also showed that increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt, increased absorption rate of sodium but concentration of calcium and potassium were reduced. Because application of hydrous calcium chloride stimulates cell in using calcium under salinity conditions it leads to improved seedling growth parameters. To achieve a more accurate results slicing interaction effect of seed priming×salinity levels was performed. Hydrous calcium chloride treatments improved all traits under study except sodium and potassium concentration. This represents a better performance of seeds germination under salinity stress when seeds primed with hydrous calcium chloride.

  7. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an antidiarrheal Chinese herb Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim reveals (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate as inhibitors of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Yaofang; Gao, Xin; Zhu, Liang; Ma, Tonghui; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the principal apical route for transepithelial fluid transport induced by enterotoxin. Inhibition of CFTR has been confirmed as a pharmaceutical approach for the treatment of secretory diarrhea. Many traditional Chinese herbal medicines, like Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim, have long been used for the treatment of secretory diarrhea. However, the active ingredients responsible for their therapeutic effectiveness remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify CFTR inhibitors from Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim via bioactivity-directed isolation strategy. We first identified fractions of Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim that inhibited CFTR Cl- channel activity. Further bioactivity-directed fractionation led to the identification of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as CFTR Cl- channel inhibitor. Analysis of 5 commercially available EGCG analogs including (+)-catechins (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and EGCG revealed that ECG also had CFTR inhibitory activity. EGCG dose-dependently and reversibly inhibited CFTR Cl- channel activity in transfected FRT cells with an IC50 value around 100 μM. In ex vivo studies, EGCG and ECG inhibited CFTR-mediated short-circuit currents in isolated rat colonic mucosa in a dose-dependent manner. In an intestinal closed-loop model in mice, intraluminal application of EGCG (10 μg) and ECG (10 μg) significantly reduced cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion. CFTR Cl- channel is a molecular target of natural compounds EGCG and ECG. CFTR inhibition may account, at least in part, for the antidiarrheal activity of Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim. EGCG and ECG could be new lead compounds for development of CFTR-related diseases such as secretory diarrhea.

  9. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  10. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2016-01-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl 2 -NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl 2 -MCl systems.

  11. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  13. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  14. Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.

  15. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  16. Different Methods for Conditioning Chloride Salt Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Fedeli, C.; Capone, M.; Marzo, G.A.; Mariani, M.; Da Ros, M.; Giacobbo, F.; Macerata, E.; Giola, M.

    2015-01-01

    Three different methods have been used to condition chloride salt wastes coming from pyro-processes. Two of them allow to synthesise sodalite, a naturally occurring mineral containing chlorine: the former, starting from Zeolite 4A, which transforms the zeolite into sodalite; the latter, which starts from kaolinite, giving sodalite as well. In addition, a new matrix, termed SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ), has been synthesised. It is able to form different mineral phases which occlude fission metals. The products from the different processes have been fully characterised. In particular the chemical durability of the final waste forms has been determined using the standard product consistency test. According to the results obtained, SAP seems to be a promising matrix for the incorporation of chloride salt wastes from pyro-processes. Financial support from the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Union (projects ACSEPT, contract FP7-CP-2007- 211 267, and SACSESS, Collaborative Project 323282), as well as from Italian Ministry for Economic Development (Accordo di Programma: Piano Annuale di Realizzazione 2008-2009) is gratefully acknowledged. (authors)

  17. Total gastrectomy due to ferric chloride intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, A Mesut; Abramson, Leonardo; Vera, Raúl A; Duza, Guillermo E; Palermo, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    The ferric chloride intoxication is frequently caused by accident. Its toxicity is generally underrated, which can lead to fatal evolution or irreversible consequences. In this case, the caustic condition of the substance is related to the toxic properties of iron. A 36-year-old male patient arrives by ambulance indicating sensory deterioration. He presents erosive injuries in the buccal cavity and in the oropharynx, brownish teeth and metabolic acidosis. Toxicology tests and ferritin blood dosage are requested, which show a result from 1400 mg/dl. The symptoms are interpreted as acute iron intoxication. Due to the unfavorable evolution of his condition, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan are performed, which show extensive pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy, a total gastrectomy with esophagostomy and feeding jejunostomy, washing and drainage due to perforated gastric necrosis caused by caustic ingestion are performed. In our country, there is a high rate of intoxication caused by iron compounds, although it is not statistically measured. Nevertheless, the ferric chloride intoxication is extremely infrequent. The ingestion of this product leads to complications, which are associated with the iron concentration and its condition as a caustic agent. The surgical indications in the presence of intoxication caused by iron compounds are: stomach evacuation of iron, gastric necrosis, perforation or peritonitis and stenosis. Early or prophylactic gastrectomy is contraindicated. However, if complications that require immediate surgical intervention arise, there should be no hesitation and the corresponding procedure should be performed.

  18. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  19. Degradation of fly ash concrete under the coupled effect of carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jun; Qiu, Qiwen; Chen, Xiaochi; Wang, Xiaodong; Xing, Feng; Han, Ningxu; He, Yijian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonation affects the chloride profile in concrete under chloride aerosol attack. • The chloride binding capacity can be reduced by the presence of carbonation. • Carbonation increases the rate of chloride diffusion for chloride aerosol ingress. • Chloride aerosol ingress reduces the carbonation depth and increases the pH value. • The use of fly ash in concrete enhances the resistance of chloride aerosol ingress. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the coupled effect of carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress on the durability performance of fly ash concrete. Test results demonstrate that carbonation significantly affects the chloride ingress profile, reduces the chloride binding capacity, and accelerates the rate of chloride ion diffusion. On the other hand, the carbonation rate of fly ash concrete is reduced by the presence of chlorides aerosol. The interaction nature between concrete carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress is also demonstrated by the microscopic analysis results obtained from scanning electron microscope and mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  20. Cryo-EM structures of the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shangyu; Feng, Shengjie; Tien, Jason; Peters, Christian J; Bulkley, David; Lolicato, Marco; Zhao, Jianhua; Zuberbühler, Kathrin; Ye, Wenlei; Qi, Lijun; Chen, Tingxu; Craik, Charles S; Jan, Yuh Nung; Minor, Daniel L; Cheng, Yifan; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2017-12-21

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) encoded by TMEM16A control neuronal signalling, smooth muscle contraction, airway and exocrine gland secretion, and rhythmic movements of the gastrointestinal system. To understand how CaCCs mediate and control anion permeation to fulfil these physiological functions, knowledge of the mammalian TMEM16A structure and identification of its pore-lining residues are essential. TMEM16A forms a dimer with two pores. Previous CaCC structural analyses have relied on homology modelling of a homologue (nhTMEM16) from the fungus Nectria haematococca that functions primarily as a lipid scramblase, as well as subnanometre-resolution electron cryo-microscopy. Here we present de novo atomic structures of the transmembrane domains of mouse TMEM16A in nanodiscs and in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol as determined by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy. These structures reveal the ion permeation pore and represent different functional states. The structure in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol has one Ca 2+ ion resolved within each monomer with a constricted pore; this is likely to correspond to a closed state, because a CaCC with a single Ca 2+ occupancy requires membrane depolarization in order to open (C.J.P. et al., manuscript submitted). The structure in nanodiscs has two Ca 2+ ions per monomer and its pore is in a closed conformation; this probably reflects channel rundown, which is the gradual loss of channel activity that follows prolonged CaCC activation in 1 mM Ca 2+ . Our mutagenesis and electrophysiological studies, prompted by analyses of the structures, identified ten residues distributed along the pore that interact with permeant anions and affect anion selectivity, as well as seven pore-lining residues that cluster near pore constrictions and regulate channel gating. Together, these results clarify the basis of CaCC anion conduction.

  1. The signaling role for chloride in the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Corinne S; Mongin, Alexander A

    2018-01-09

    It is well known that the electrical signaling in neuronal networks is modulated by chloride (Cl - ) fluxes via the inhibitory GABA A and glycine receptors. Here, we discuss the putative contribution of Cl - fluxes and intracellular Cl - to other forms of information transfer in the CNS, namely the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. The manuscript (i) summarizes the generic functions of Cl - in cellular physiology, (ii) recaps molecular identities and properties of Cl - transporters and channels in neurons and astrocytes, and (iii) analyzes emerging studies implicating Cl - in the modulation of neuroglial communication. The existing literature suggests that neurons can alter astrocytic Cl - levels in a number of ways; via (a) the release of neurotransmitters and activation of glial transporters that have intrinsic Cl - conductance, (b) the metabotropic receptor-driven changes in activity of the electroneutral cation-Cl - cotransporter NKCC1, and (c) the transient, activity-dependent changes in glial cell volume which open the volume-regulated Cl - /anion channel VRAC. Reciprocally, astrocytes are thought to alter neuronal [Cl - ] i through either (a) VRAC-mediated release of the inhibitory gliotransmitters, GABA and taurine, which open neuronal GABA A and glycine receptor/Cl - channels, or (b) the gliotransmitter-driven stimulation of NKCC1. The most important recent developments in this area are the identification of the molecular composition and functional heterogeneity of brain VRAC channels, and the discovery of a new cytosolic [Cl - ] sensor - the Wnk family protein kinases. With new work in the field, our understanding of the role of Cl - in information processing within the CNS is expected to be significantly updated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemistry of vanadium(II and the electrodeposition of aluminum-vanadium alloys in the aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of vanadium(II was examined in the 66.7-33.3 mole percent aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing dissolved VCl2 at 353 K. Voltammetry experiments revealed that V(II could be electrochemically oxidized to V(III and V(IV. However at slow scan rates the V(II/V(III electrode reaction is complicated by the rapid precipitation of V(III as VCl3. The reduction of V(II occurs at potentials considerably negative of the Al(III/Al electrode reaction, and Al-V alloys cannot be electrodeposited from this melt. However electrodeposition experiments conducted in VCl2-saturated melt containing the additive, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, resulted in Al-V alloys. The vanadium content of these alloys increased with increasing cathodic current density or more negative applied potentials. X-ray analysis of Al-V alloys that were electrodeposited on a rotating copper wire substrate indicated that these alloys did not form or contain an intermetallic compound, but were non-equilibrium or metastable solid solutions. The chloride-pitting corrosion properties of these alloys were examined in aqueous NaCl by using potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Alloys containing ~10 a/o vanadium exhibited a pitting potential that was 0.3 V positive of that for pure aluminum.

  3. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride battery development for undersea weapon propulsion applications. Revised. Final report 1 Sep 77-30 Jun 78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, W.C.; Walk, C.R.

    1978-08-23

    This report describes the experimental results obtained in the development of a high rate lithium, thionyl chloride battery system. Initially, cell optimization studies were conducted with so-called neutral electrolyte, i.e., thionyl chloride containing equimolar quantities of LiCl and AlCl/sup 3/. This report is divided into four sections, Section I - Cell Performance in Neutral Electrolyte, Section II - Cell Performance in Acid Electrolyte, Section III - Discussions of Battery Characteristics and Section IV - Active Battery Considerations.

  4. Mapping of road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge and estimation of chloride load to a small stream in southern New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, P.T.; Trowbridge, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of chloride in excess of State of New Hampshire water-quality standards (230 mg/l) have been measured in watersheds adjacent to an interstate highway (I-93) in southern New Hampshire. A proposed widening plan for I-93 has raised concerns over further increases in chloride. As part of this effort, road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge was mapped with terrain electrical conductivity (EC) electromagnetic (EM) methods in the fall of 2006 to identify potential sources of chloride during base-flow conditions to a small stream, Policy Brook. Three different EM meters were used to measure different depths below the streambed (ranging from 0 to 3 m). Results from the three meters showed similar patterns and identified several reaches where high EC groundwater may have been discharging. Based on the delineation of high (up to 350 mmhos/m) apparent terrain EC, seven-streambed piezometers were installed to sample shallow groundwater. Locations with high specific conductance in shallow groundwater (up to 2630 mmhos/m) generally matched locations with high streambed (shallow subsurface) terrain EC. A regression equation was used to convert the terrain EC of the streambed to an equivalent chloride concentration in shallow groundwater unique for this site. Utilizing the regression equation and estimates of onedimensional Darcian flow through the streambed, a maximum potential groundwater chloride load was estimated at 188 Mg of chloride per year. Changes in chloride concentration in stream water during streamflow recessions showed a linear response that indicates the dominant process affecting chloride is advective flow of chloride-enriched groundwater discharge. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel in glycerol solution and chloride solution at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftirman; Maruhum Tua Lubis

    2009-01-01

    Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) is an environmentally assisted failure caused by exposure to a corrodant while under a sustained tensile stress. SCC is most often rapid, unpredictable and catastrophic. Failure can occur in as little as a few hours or take years to happen. Most alloys are susceptible to SCC in one or more environments requiring careful consideration of alloy type in component design. In aqueous chloride environments austenitic stainless steels and many nickel based alloys are known to perform poorly. One of products Oleo chemical is glycerol solution. Glycerol solution contains chloride with concentration 50 ppm - 150 ppm. Austenitic stainless steel is usually used in distillation construction tank and pipe line of glycerol. Material AISI 304 will be failure in this glycerol solution with this concentration in 5 years. In production process, concentration of chloride in glycerol becomes more than 150 ppm at temperature 150 degree Celsius. The reason is that the experiment I conducted in high chloride with concentration such as 6000 ppm, 9000 ppm, and 12000 ppm. The stress corrosion cracking of the austenitic stainless steels of types AISI 304, 316 and 316L in glycerol solution at elevated temperature 150 degree Celsius is investigated as a function variation of chloride concentration, namely 50, 6000, 9000 and 12000 ppm using a constant load method with two kinds of initial tensile stress as 50 % and 70 % yield strength. The experiment uses a spring loaded fixture type and is based on ASTM G49 for experiment method, and E292 for geometry of specimen. Pitting corrosion occurs on the surface specimen until the stress level reaches the ultimate strength. Pitting corrosion attack and depletion occur on the surface as initiation of SCC failure as the stress reaches the ultimate strength. Failure has occurred in catastrophic brittle fracture type of transgranular. AISI 304 was more susceptible for all conditions. In chloride solution with concentration of

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

    1999-09-01

    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at

  7. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl 2 , and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl 2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al 2 O 3 .CaCl 2 ) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl 2 . Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl 2 .

  8. Interaction of calcium oxide with molten alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Ermakov, D.S.; Magurina, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium oxide solubility in molten lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium chlorides and their binary mixtures is determined in a temperature range of 973-1173 K by the method of isothermal saturation. Mechanisms of calcium oxide interaction with molten alkali metal chlorides are proposed

  9. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete as protection against chloride penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.; Borsje, H.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic treatment makes a concrete surface absorb less water and less chloride. Hydrophobic treatment was studied as a protection agninst chloride penetration from deicing salts. Test methods were designed. Nine hydrophobic products were tested, of which three complied to the requirements on

  10. Chloride penetration into cementitious mortar at early age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballero, J.; Polder, R.B.; Leegwater, G.A.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern service life design methods for concrete structures use chloride diffusion data as an input parameter. Abundant data exist for concrete at 28 days and, to a lesser extent, at later ages. This paper presents chloride diffusion data for mortar at ages between 1 day and 28 days age. Rapid

  11. Determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient in blended cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfmarkova, V.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid chloride migration test (RCM) is a commonly used accelerated test for the determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete. Nevertheless, the initial development and further experience with the RCM test concern mainly the ordinary Portland cement system. Therefore, the

  12. [Forensic Analysis for 54 Cases of Suxamethonium Chloride Poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y F; Zhao, B Q; Ma, K J; Zhang, J; Chen, F Y

    2017-08-01

    To observe and analyze the performance of forensic science in the cases of suxa- methonium chloride poisoning, and to improve the identification of suxamethonium chloride poisoning. Fifty-four cases of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were collected. The rules of determination of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were observed by the retrospective analysis of pathological and toxicological changes as well as case features. The pathological features of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were similar to the general changes of sudden death, which mainly included acute pulmonary congestion and edema, and partly showed myocardial disarray and fracture. Suxamethonium chloride could be detected in the heart blood of all cases and in skin tissue of part cases. Suxa-methonium chloride poisoning has the characteristics with fast death and covert means, which are difficult to rescue and easily miss inspection. For the cases of sudden death or suspicious death, determination of suxamethonium chloride should be taken as a routine detection index to prevent missing inspection. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  13. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  14. Stability constants of the Europium complexes with the chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A.

    2000-01-01

    The stability constants of lanthanides complexes with chloride ions which were determined at the same ionic force but in different media, are significantly different. It does not exist a systematic study over these stability constants. The purpose of this work is to determine the stability constants of the europium complexes with chloride ions at 303 K, by the solvents extraction method. (Author)

  15. Free and bound chloride contents in cementitious materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Fischer, G.; Geiker, M.; Hededal, O.; Ottoson, L.; Stang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Chloride attack is the main cause of structural damage in reinforced concrete buildings exposed to marine environments. When a certain threshold concentration of chlorides is reached at the concrete-reinforcement interface, the corrosion of the steel rebars is initiated. A part of the intruding

  16. Chloride transport in mortar at low moisture concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taher, A.; Zanden, van der A.J.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride penetration into cementitious structures with a steel reinforcement results in corrosion of the steel. Concrete columns of bridges, which are in frequent contact with sea water, are an example of these structures. Understanding the chloride transport in cementitious materials can lead to

  17. Process for the preparation of a vinylidene chloride polymer composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Process for the preparation of a vinylidene chloride polymer composite comprising a solid particulate encapsulated in the vinylidene chloride polymer. The process comprises providing a dispersion of a solid particulate material in a liquid phase, said dispersion comprising a RAFT/MADIX agent;

  18. Mass transport and chloride ion complexes in occluded cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Nishikata, A.; Haruyama, S.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the transport and the concentration of ions in a model occluded cell are traced during galvanostatic anodic polarization of a mild steel and a stainless steel. Apparent transport numbers of anions and cations, which were estimated from chemical analysis of solution, were different from those calculated from known mobility data. At the initial stage of the polarization, the transport number of chloride ion was almost unity, and then decreased gradually. For the mild steel, the concentration of total chloride ion accumulated in the occluded compartment increased with the anodic charge passed, and the amount of chloride ion complexed with cations also increased. The chloride complex was estimated as FeCl + . For SUS304 stainless steel, the total chloride ion increased, however, the free chloride ion, which responded to an Ag/AgCl electrode remained approximately 2 mol/dm 3 . Therefore, most of the chloride ions transferred into the occluded cell formed complex ions, such as CrCl n 3-n . The number of chloride ion coordinated to ferrous and chromic ions was estimated from the data fo mass transport for the case of the mild steel and the stainless steel. (author) 9 refs., 14 figs

  19. Probabilistic Models and Computational Methods for Chloride Ingress in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.

    Within the last decades it has been recognized that reinforced concrete structures are subject to a number of destructive mechanisms which might affect the structure in such a way that it is not able to fulfil its purpose efficiently. The present report focuses on chloride ingress and chloride...

  20. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  1. [Jejunal myenteric denervation induced by benzalkonium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, F S; Santos, G C; Ramalho, L N; Kajiwara, J K; Zucoloto, S

    1994-01-01

    The effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the number of myenteric neurons, muscle thickness and external perimeter after acute (until 10 days after BAC application) and chronic (30 and 60 days after BAC application) denervation of the proximal jejunum were determined in rats. There was a significant reduction in the number of myenteric neurons of all segments treated with BAC. The extent of denervation varied along the time, and it was reduced in the denervated segments of the chronic group in comparison with the acute group. This may be due to the neuroplasticity phenomenon appearing during the chronic phase. Myenteric denervation increased the thickness of the propria muscle layer, especially in the longitudinal muscle layer, suggesting a higher sensitivity of this layer to myenteric denervation.

  2. The dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, T.; Velasquez, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to determinate the effects of parameters and additives on the kinetics of dissolution of chalcopyrite on moderated conditions by means of dissolutions test with chalcopyrite concentrate and pure chalcopyrite in shake flasks and instrumented stirred reactors. A study of the dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride solutions has demonstrated that the rate of dissolution of chalcopyrite is strongly dependent on the potential of the solution within a range of 540 to 630 mV (versus SHE). Leaching at pH around 2.5 results in increased rates of copper dissolution suggesting the possibility to keep the solution potential within the range. Both pyrite and silver ions enhance the dissolution of chalcopyrite and this effect increases when both species are present. The MnO 2 has a negative effect on the dissolution increasing the solution potential to values where the rate decreases considerably. (Author)

  3. Some reactions of uranium chloride pentafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, A.J.; Gardner, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The molecule UF 5 Cl has been isolated, together with an excess of UF 6 , in a solid matrix of Ar, N 2 , or CO and characterised by its i.r. spectrum. Under these conditions it dissociates under the action of radiation having wavelengths close to 500 nm to give UF 5 ; OCCl and OCClF are also formed on photolysis in a solid CO matrix, whereas a species believed to be U 2 F 11 is formed on photolysis in a solid N 2 matrix. CCl 3 F solutions of fluoride-rich mixtures of uranium(VI) chloride fluorides have been shown to function as chlorinating, fluorinating, or chlorofluorinating reagents in their reactions with various unsaturated molecules at temperatures low enough to preclude thermal decomposition of the mixed halides ( 0 C). (author)

  4. Aspects of the magnetism of ferrous chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrara, P.

    1968-01-01

    This work is a critical review of the existing work on ferrous chloride and presents, as well, a number of new experimental results. First, a careful analysis of the level structure of ferrous ions in the crystalline field shows that the crystalline anisotropy is of the same order of magnitude as the exchange interactions, a feature which gives rise to some particular effects, such as an upward curvature of the magnetization curve at 0 K in a perpendicular magnetic field. Further, the very low temperature (T > 0.4 K) thermal variation of both the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility evidences a magnetic component in elementary excitations. This result suggests the presence of a large magneto-elastic coupling. Finally, an experimental study of the H-T phase diagram near T N and of the critical behaviour of the specific heat and parallel susceptibility was performed. (author) [fr

  5. Electrochemical properties of actinides in molten chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertin, D.; Lacquement, J.; Sanchez, S.; Picard, G.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical properties of plutonium and cerium chlorides have been studied in the fused CaCl 2 -NaCl equimolar mixture at 550 deg. C using a tungsten working electrode and a pO 2- indicator electrode. The standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu was determined using cyclic voltammetry. The solubility product of Pu 2 O 3 was calculated by potentiometric titration. The standard potential of Ce(III)/Ce have been determined by a potentiometry method. Potentiometric titrations of Ce(III) have been shown the existence of a soluble cerium oxychloride. All these data allowed us to draw the potential-pO 2- diagram which summarises the properties of plutonium and cerium compounds in the melt. (authors)

  6. Effect of chloride impurities on the performance and durability of polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Syed Talat; Li, Qingfeng; Pan, Chao

    2011-01-01

    The effect of chloride as an air impurity and as a catalyst contaminant on the performance and durability of polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) was studied. The ion chromatographic analysis reveals the existence of chloride contaminations....... The performance loss was recovered when switching from the HCl solution back to pure water in the air humidifier. Under an accelerated aging performance test conducted through potential cycling between 0.9 V and 1.2 V, the PBI-based fuel cell initially containing 0.5 NaCl mg cm−2 on the cathode catalyst layer...

  7. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  8. Formation of mixed hydroxides in the thorium chloride-iron chloride-sodium hydroxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Prokudina, A.F.; Sapozhnikova, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    The process of formation of mixed hydroxides in the system thorium chloride-iron chloride-NaOH was studied at commensurate concentrations of Th and Fe in solution (1:1 and 1:10 mole fractions, respectively) with ionic strength 0.3, 2.1, and 4.1, created with the electrolyte NaCl, at room temperature 22+-1degC. By the methods of chemical, potentiometric, thermographic, and IR-spectrometric analyses, it was shown that all the synthesized precipitates are mechanical mixtures of two phases - thorium hydroxide and iron hydroxide - and not a new hydrated compound. The formal solubility of the precipitates of mixed hydroxides was determined. It was shown that the numerical value of the formal solubility depends on the conditions of formation and age of the precipitates

  9. Zirconium and hafnium tetrachloride separation by extractive distillation with molten zinc chloride lead chloride solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    In an extractive distillation method for separating hafniuim tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride of the type wherein a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides is introduced into an extractive distillation column, which extractive distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a molten salt solvent is circulated into the reflux condenser and through the column to provide a liquid phase, and wherein molten salt solvent containing zirconium tetrachloride is taken from the reboiler and run through a stripper to remove zirconium tetrachloride product from the molten salt solvent and the stripped molten salt solvent is returned to the reflux condenser and hafnium tetrachloride enriched vapor is taken as product from the reflux condenser, the improvement is described comprising: the molten salt having a composition of at least 30 mole percent zinc chloride and at least 10 mole percent of lead chloride

  10. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.

    1999-01-01

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs

  11. Anodic solution of alkali earth alloys in potassium chloride-sodium chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Generalized results of studying the process of anodic dissolution of alkaline-earth metal alloys with zinc, aluminium and copper in the melts of KCl-NaCl equimolar mixture containing alkaline-earth metal chlorides, are presented. It is shown that during dissolution of both pure liquid metals and their alloys there is no electrode polarization in the range of the current densities lower or comparable in their values to corrosion current

  12. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-12-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  13. Radiation fixation of vinyl chloride in an insecticide aerosol container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, V.T.; Takemoto, K.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, a large quantity of vinyl chloride has been used as spraying additive for insecticide aerosols. Since January 1974 when the Food and Drug Administration of the United States of America announced that vinyl chloride causes liver cancer, it has been forbidden in Japan and the United States of America to market insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride. In Japan, following a government order, about 20 million insecticide aerosol containers have been collected and put into storage. A report is given on the radiation fixation of vinyl chloride as polyvinylchloride powder by gamma-ray-induced polymerization in the aerosol container. Insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride were irradiated by gamma rays from 60 Co at room temperature. Vinyl chloride polymerized to form powdered polymer in the container. Polymerization conversion increased with the irradiation dose, and after 10 Mrad irradiation, vinyl chloride was not found in the sprayed gas. This establishes that vinyl chloride can be fixed by gamma-ray irradiation in the aerosol container. To accelerate the reaction rate, the effect of various additives on the reaction was investigated. It was found that halogenated hydrocarbons, such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, accelerated the initiation of the polymerization, and that a vinyl monomer such as vinyl acetate accelerated the reaction rate due to the promotion of the initiation and the high reactivity of the polyvinylacetate radical to vinyl chloride. Consequently, the required irradiation dose for the fixation of vinyl chloride was decreased to less than 5 Mrad by the addition of various kinds of additives. Following the request of the Ministry of Public Welfare, various technical problems for large-scale treatment are being studied with the co-operation of the Federation of Insecticide Aerosols. (author)

  14. CLICs-dependent chloride efflux is an essential and proximal upstream event for NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tiantian; Lang, Xueting; Xu, Congfei; Wang, Xiaqiong; Gong, Tao; Yang, Yanqing; Cui, Jun; Bai, Li; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Wei; Zhou, Rongbin

    2017-08-04

    The NLRP3 inflammasome can sense different pathogens or danger signals, and has been reported to be involved in the development of many human diseases. Potassium efflux and mitochondrial damage are both reported to mediate NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but the underlying, orchestrating signaling events are still unclear. Here we show that chloride intracellular channels (CLIC) act downstream of the potassium efflux-mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) axis to promote NLRP3 inflammasome activation. NLRP3 agonists induce potassium efflux, which causes mitochondrial damage and ROS production. Mitochondrial ROS then induces the translocation of CLICs to the plasma membrane for the induction of chloride efflux to promote NEK7-NLRP3 interaction, inflammasome assembly, caspase-1 activation, and IL-1β secretion. Thus, our results identify CLICs-dependent chloride efflux as an essential and proximal upstream event for NLRP3 activation.The NLRP3 inflammasome is key to the regulation of innate immunity against pathogens or stress, but the underlying signaling regulation is still unclear. Here the authors show that chloride intracellular channels (CLIC) interface between mitochondria stress and inflammasome activation to modulate inflammatory responses.

  15. The "chloride theory", a unifying hypothesis for renal handling and body fluid distribution in heart failure pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    Body fluid volume regulation is a complex process involving the interaction of various afferent (sensory) and neurohumoral efferent (effector) mechanisms. Historically, most studies focused on the body fluid dynamics in heart failure (HF) status through control of the balance of sodium, potassium, and water in the body, and maintaining arterial circulatory integrity is central to a unifying hypothesis of body fluid regulation in HF pathophysiology. The pathophysiologic background of the biochemical determinants of vascular volume in HF status, however, has not been known. I recently demonstrated that changes in vascular and red blood cell volumes are independently associated with the serum chloride concentration, but not the serum sodium concentration, during worsening HF and its recovery. Based on these observations and the established central role of chloride in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, I propose a unifying hypothesis of the "chloride theory" for HF pathophysiology, which states that changes in the serum chloride concentration are the primary determinant of changes in plasma volume and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system under worsening HF and therapeutic resolution of worsening HF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating Anthropogenic Emissions of Hydrogen Chloride and Fine Particulate Chloride in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Wang, T.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) can significantly impact the atmospheric photochemistry via photolysis and subsequent reactions of chlorine radical with other gases. The formation of ClNO2 in the atmosphere is sensitive to the emissions of chlorine-containing particulates from oceanic and anthropogenic sources. For China, the only available anthropogenic chlorine emission inventory was compiled for the year 1990 with a coarse resolution of 1 degree. In this study, we developed an up-to-date anthropogenic inventory of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and fine particulate chloride (Cl-) emissions in China for the year 2014, including coal burning, industrial processes, biomass burning and waste burning. Bottom-up and top-down methodologies were combined. Detailed local data (e.g. Cl content in coal, control technologies, etc.) were collected and applied. In order to improve the spatial resolution of emissions, detailed point source information were collected for coal-fired power plants, cement factories, iron & steel factories and waste incineration factories. Uncertainties of this emission inventory and their major causes were analyzed using the Monte Carlo method. This work enables better quantification of the ClNO2 production and impact over China.

  17. A comprehensive search for calcium binding sites critical for TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Jason; Peters, Christian J; Wong, Xiu Ming; Cheng, Tong; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh; Yang, Huanghe

    2014-01-01

    TMEM16A forms calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) that regulate physiological processes such as the secretions of airway epithelia and exocrine glands, the contraction of smooth muscles, and the excitability of neurons. Notwithstanding intense interest in the mechanism behind TMEM16A-CaCC calcium-dependent gating, comprehensive surveys to identify and characterize potential calcium sensors of this channel are still lacking. By aligning distantly related calcium-activated ion channels in the TMEM16 family and conducting systematic mutagenesis of all conserved acidic residues thought to be exposed to the cytoplasm, we identify four acidic amino acids as putative calcium-binding residues. Alterations of the charge, polarity, and size of amino acid side chains at these sites alter the ability of different divalent cations to activate the channel. Furthermore, TMEM16A mutant channels containing double cysteine substitutions at these residues are sensitive to the redox potential of the internal solution, providing evidence for their physical proximity and solvent accessibility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02772.001 PMID:24980701

  18. The effect of pulse current on energy saving during Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Geiker, Mette R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is a factor influencing the cost of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete. The aims of this work were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during ECE and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of chloride. Four...... experiments with artificially polluted concrete under same charge transfer were conducted. Results showed that the energy consumption was decreased 15% by pulse current in experiments with 0.2 mA/cm2 current density, which was higher than that of 0.1 mA/cm2 experiments with a decrease of 9.6%. When comparing...... the voltage drop at different parts of the experimental cells, it was found that the voltage drop of the area across the concrete was the major contributor to energy consumption, and results indicated that the pulse current could decrease the voltage drop of this part by re-distribution of ions in pore fluid...

  19. Effect of chloride contamination in MON-1 propellant on crack growth properties of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, C. M.; Toth, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of a high level of chloride content (800 ppm) in MON-1 propellant on the crack growth properties of seven materials was investigated. Sustained load tests were conducted at 49 C (120 F) temperature with thin gauge tensile specimens having a semi-elliptical surface flaw. Alloys included aluminum 1100, 3003, 5086 and 6061; corrosion resistant steel types A286 and 347; and titanium 6Al-4V. The configurations tested with precracked flaws exposed to MON-1 were: parent or base metal, center weld, and heat affected zone. It was concluded that this chloride level in MON-1 does not affect the stress corrosion, crack growth properties of these alloys after 1000 hour exposure duration under high stresses.

  20. Unexpected corrosion of stainless steel in low chloride waters – microbial aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Carpén, Leena; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    conditions or periods of low water consumption have occurred prior to the failure. Typically the corrosion attacks appear within 2-3 years in weld nuggets, heat affected zones or in crevices like e.g. press fitting pipe connections. The failure mode is pitting and crevice corrosion leading to leaks and rust......Abstract Stainless steels EN 1.4301 and 1.4401/1.4404 are normally considered corrosion resistant in low chloride natural waters like drinking water. However, a number of corrosion failures have been observed in e.g. fire extinguisher systems and drinking water installations, where stagnant...... stains on the outside of the installation. Corrosion may occur in water qualities with rather low chloride contents and fairly low conductivity, which would usually not be considered especially corrosive towards stainless steel. One key parameter is the ennoblement documented on stainless steel...