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Sample records for conditions results revealed

  1. REVEAL II: Seasonality and spatial variability of particle and visibility conditions in the Fraser Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents data collected during a year-long field experiment (REVEAL II) in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia. The data are used to provide information regarding ambient visibility conditions and fine particle concentrations in the valley. Although average fine mass measured during RE...... taken at a number of sites during REVEAL II are used to evaluate a simple method for obtaining (classed) quantitative estimates of visual range from this medium without requiring access to specialized instrumentation. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.

    2014-12-01

    New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  3. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ''like-new'' condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ''like-new'' condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report

  4. A portable anaerobic microbioreactor reveals optimum growth conditions for the methanogen Methanosaeta concilii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Benjamin; Garcia, Marcelo L; Shen, Amy Q; Angenent, Largus T

    2007-03-01

    Conventional studies of the optimum growth conditions for methanogens (methane-producing, obligate anaerobic archaea) are typically conducted with serum bottles or bioreactors. The use of microfluidics to culture methanogens allows direct microscopic observations of the time-integrated response of growth. Here, we developed a microbioreactor (microBR) with approximately 1-microl microchannels to study some optimum growth conditions for the methanogen Methanosaeta concilii. The microBR is contained in an anaerobic chamber specifically designed to place it directly onto an inverted light microscope stage while maintaining a N2-CO2 environment. The methanogen was cultured for months inside microchannels of different widths. Channel width was manipulated to create various fluid velocities, allowing the direct study of the behavior and responses of M. concilii to various shear stresses and revealing an optimum shear level of approximately 20 to 35 microPa. Gradients in a single microchannel were then used to find an optimum pH level of 7.6 and an optimum total NH4-N concentration of less than 1,100 mg/liter (<47 mg/liter as free NH3-N) for M. concilii under conditions of the previously determined ideal shear stress and pH and at a temperature of 35 degrees C.

  5. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhussein A. Basheer

    2014-12-01

    The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES’es and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  6. Thyroid transcriptome analysis reveals different adaptive responses to cold environmental conditions between two chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Yang, Xukai; Wang, Dehe; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Ning; Hou, Zhuocheng; Ning, Zhonghua

    2018-01-01

    Selection for cold tolerance in chickens is important for improving production performance and animal welfare. The identification of chicken breeds with higher cold tolerance and production performance will help to target candidates for the selection. The thyroid gland plays important roles in thermal adaptation, and its function is influenced by breed differences and transcriptional plasticity, both of which remain largely unknown in the chicken thyroid transcriptome. In this study, we subjected Bashang Long-tail (BS) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens to either cold or warm environments for 21 weeks and investigated egg production performance, body weight changes, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and thyroid gland transcriptome profiles. RIR chickens had higher egg production than BS chickens under warm conditions, but BS chickens produced more eggs than RIRs under cold conditions. Furthermore, BS chickens showed stable body weight gain under cold conditions while RIRs did not. These results suggested that BS breed is a preferable candidate for cold-tolerance selection and that the cold adaptability of RIRs should be improved in the future. BS chickens had higher serum thyroid hormone concentrations than RIRs under both environments. RNA-Seq generated 344.3 million paired-end reads from 16 sequencing libraries, and about 90% of the processed reads were concordantly mapped to the chicken reference genome. Differential expression analysis identified 46-1,211 genes in the respective comparisons. With regard to breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome, BS chickens showed higher cell replication and development, and immune response-related activity, while RIR chickens showed higher carbohydrate and protein metabolism activity. The cold environment reduced breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome compared with the warm environment. Transcriptional plasticity analysis revealed different adaptive responses in BS and RIR chickens to cope with the cold

  7. Deficiency in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway reveals the toxic potential of autophagy under ER stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Logue, Susan E; Pakos-Zebrucka, Karolina; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bertrand, Mathieu J M; Samali, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death is normally associated with activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is characterized by CYCS (cytochrome c, somatic) release, apoptosome formation, and caspase activation, resulting in cell death. In this study, we demonstrate that under conditions of ER stress cells devoid of CASP9/caspase-9 or BAX and BAK1, and therefore defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, still undergo a delayed form of cell death associated with the activation of caspases, therefore revealing the existence of an alternative stress-induced caspase activation pathway. We identified CASP8/caspase-8 as the apical protease in this caspase cascade, and found that knockdown of either of the key autophagic genes, ATG5 or ATG7, impacted on CASP8 activation and cell death induction, highlighting the crucial role of autophagy in the activation of this novel ER stress-induced death pathway. In line with this, we identified a protein complex composed of ATG5, FADD, and pro-CASP8 whose assembly coincides with caspase activation and cell death induction. Together, our results reveal the toxic potential of autophagy in cells undergoing ER stress that are defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and suggest a model in which the autophagosome functions as a platform facilitating pro-CASP8 activation. Chemoresistance, a common problem in the treatment of cancer, is frequently caused by the downregulation of key mitochondrial death effector proteins. Alternate stress-induced apoptotic pathways, such as the one described here, may become of particular relevance for tackling the problem of chemoresistance in cancer cells.

  8. Recent results on cleaning and conditioning the ATF vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.; Clark, T.L.; Glowienka, J.C.; Goulding, R.H.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Rayburn, T.F.; Schaich, C.R.; Shepard, T.D.; Simpkins, J.E.; Yarber, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques for cleaning and conditioning the vacuum vessel of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) and its internal components are described. The vacuum vessel cleaning technique combines baking to 150 degree C and glow discharges with hydrogen gas. Chromium gettering is used to further condition the system. The major internal components are the anodized aluminum baffles in the Thomson scattering system, a graphite-shielded ICRF antenna, two graphite limiters, and a diagnostic graphite plate. Three independent heating systems are used to bake some of the major components of the system. The major characteristics used for assessing cleanliness and conditioning progress are the maximum pressure attained during bakeout, the results of gas analysis, and revelant plasma parameters (e.g., time to radiative decay). Details of the various cleaning and conditioning procedures and results are presented

  9. Recent results on cleaning and conditioning the ATF vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.; Clark, T.L.; Glowienka, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for cleaning and conditioning the vacuum vessel of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) and its internal components are described. The vacuum vessel cleaning technique combines baking to 150/degree/C and glow discharges with hydrogen gas. Chromium gettering is used to further condition the system. The major internal components are the anodized aluminum baffles in the Thomson scattering system, a graphite-shielded ICRF antenna, two graphite limiters, and a diagnostic graphite plate. Three independent heating systems are used to bake some of the major components of the system. The major characteristics used for assessing cleanliness and conditioning progress are the maximum pressure attained during bakeout, the results of gas analysis, and relevant plasma parameters (e.g., time to radiative decay). Details of the various cleaning and conditioning procedures and results are presented. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Metabolite analysis of Mycobacterium species under aerobic and hypoxic conditions reveals common metabolic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapal, Margit; Wheeler, Paul R; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    A metabolite profiling approach has been implemented to elucidate metabolic adaptation at set culture conditions in five Mycobacterium species (two fast- and three slow-growing) with the potential to act as model organisms for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Analysis has been performed over designated growth phases and under representative environments (nutrient and oxygen depletion) experienced by Mtb during infection. The procedure was useful in determining a range of metabolites (60-120 compounds) covering nucleotides, amino acids, organic acids, saccharides, fatty acids, glycerols, -esters, -phosphates and isoprenoids. Among these classes of compounds, key biomarker metabolites, which can act as indicators of pathway/process activity, were identified. In numerous cases, common metabolite traits were observed for all five species across the experimental conditions (e.g. uracil indicating DNA repair). Amino acid content, especially glutamic acid, highlighted the different properties between the fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria studied (e.g. nitrogen assimilation). The greatest similarities in metabolite composition between fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria were apparent under hypoxic conditions. A comparison to previously reported transcriptomic data revealed a strong correlation between changes in transcription and metabolite content. Collectively, these data validate the changes in the transcription at the metabolite level, suggesting transcription exists as one of the predominant modes of cellular regulation in Mycobacterium. Sectors with restricted correlation between metabolites and transcription (e.g. hypoxic cultivation) warrant further study to elucidate and exploit post-transcriptional modes of regulation. The strong correlation between the laboratory conditions used and data derived from in vivo conditions, indicate that the approach applied is a valuable addition to our understanding of cell regulation in these Mycobacterium species.

  11. HANDBOOK: GUIDANCE ON SETTING PERMIT CONDITIONS AND REPORTING TRIAL BURN RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Handbook provides guidance for establishing operational conditions for incinerators. he document provides a means for state and local agencies to achieve a level of consistency in setting permit conditions that will result in establishment of more uniform permit conditions n...

  12. Electrostatic point charge fitting as an inverse problem: Revealing the underlying ill-conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Maxim V.; Talipov, Marat R.; Timerghazin, Qadir K.

    2015-01-01

    Atom-centered point charge (PC) model of the molecular electrostatics—a major workhorse of the atomistic biomolecular simulations—is usually parameterized by least-squares (LS) fitting of the point charge values to a reference electrostatic potential, a procedure that suffers from numerical instabilities due to the ill-conditioned nature of the LS problem. To reveal the origins of this ill-conditioning, we start with a general treatment of the point charge fitting problem as an inverse problem and construct an analytical model with the point charges spherically arranged according to Lebedev quadrature which is naturally suited for the inverse electrostatic problem. This analytical model is contrasted to the atom-centered point-charge model that can be viewed as an irregular quadrature poorly suited for the problem. This analysis shows that the numerical problems of the point charge fitting are due to the decay of the curvatures corresponding to the eigenvectors of LS sum Hessian matrix. In part, this ill-conditioning is intrinsic to the problem and is related to decreasing electrostatic contribution of the higher multipole moments, that are, in the case of Lebedev grid model, directly associated with the Hessian eigenvectors. For the atom-centered model, this association breaks down beyond the first few eigenvectors related to the high-curvature monopole and dipole terms; this leads to even wider spread-out of the Hessian curvature values. Using these insights, it is possible to alleviate the ill-conditioning of the LS point-charge fitting without introducing external restraints and/or constraints. Also, as the analytical Lebedev grid PC model proposed here can reproduce multipole moments up to a given rank, it may provide a promising alternative to including explicit multipole terms in a force field

  13. Top-down proteomics reveals a unique protein S-thiolation switch in Salmonella Typimurium in response to infection-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansong, Charles; Wu, Si; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Brewer, Heather M.; Kaiser, Brooke LD; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Cort, John R.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2013-06-18

    Characterization of the mature protein complement in cells is crucial for a better understanding of cellular processes on a systems-wide scale. Bottom-up proteomic approaches often lead to loss of critical information about an endogenous protein’s actual state due to post translational modifications (PTMs) and other processes. Top-down approaches that involve analysis of the intact protein can address this concern but present significant analytical challenges related to the separation quality needed, measurement sensitivity, and speed that result in low throughput and limited coverage. Here we used single-dimension ultra high pressure liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to investigate the comprehensive ‘intact’ proteome of the Gram negative bacterial pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium. Top-down proteomics analysis revealed 563 unique proteins including 1665 proteoforms generated by PTMs, representing the largest microbial top-down dataset reported to date. Our analysis not only confirmed several previously recognized aspects of Salmonella biology and bacterial PTMs in general, but also revealed several novel biological insights. Of particular interest was differential utilization of the protein S-thiolation forms S-glutathionylation and S-cysteinylation in response to infection-like conditions versus basal conditions, which was corroborated by changes in corresponding biosynthetic pathways. This differential utilization highlights underlying metabolic mechanisms that modulate changes in cellular signaling, and represents to our knowledge the first report of S-cysteinylation in Gram negative bacteria. The demonstrated utility of our simple proteome-wide intact protein level measurement strategy for gaining biological insight should promote broader adoption and applications of top-down proteomics approaches.

  14. Performance investigation of low – Concentration photovoltaic systems under hot and arid conditions: Experimental and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Mohamed S.; Abdel Rahman, Ali K.; Ookawara, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of cooling on the performance of photovoltaic systems. • A comprehensive model (optical, thermal, and electrical) was developed. • Experimental measurements were conducted under hot climate conditions. • For conventional photovoltaic with cooling, about 11% more power was obtained. • For concentrated photovoltaic with cooling, about 15% more power was obtained. - Abstract: In this study, a comparative performance analysis was performed between a conventional photovoltaic system and a low-concentration photovoltaic system. Two typical photovoltaic modules and two compound parabolic concentrating photovoltaic systems were examined. A Cooling system was employed to lower the temperature of the solar cells in each of the two configurations. Experimental and numerical investigations of the performance of the two arrangements with and without cooling were presented. Experiments were conducted outdoors at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, subjected to the hot climate conditions of New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt (Longitude/Latitude: E 029°42′/N 30°55′). A comprehensive system model was established, which comprises an optical model, coupled with thermal and electrical models. The coupled model was developed analytically and solved numerically, using MATLAB software, to assess the overall performance of the two configurations, considering the concentration ratio of the concentrated photovoltaic system to be 2.4X. The results indicated that cooling the solar panels considerably improved the electrical power yield of the photovoltaic systems. By employing cooling, the temperatures of the conventional photovoltaic system and the concentrated photovoltaic system were effectively lowered by approximately 25% and 30%, respectively, resulting in a significant enhancement in the electrical power output of the photovoltaic system by 11% and that of the concentrated photovoltaic system by 15%. Furthermore, the

  15. Grouping subjects based on conditioning criteria reveals differences in acquisition rates and in strength of conditioning-specific reflex modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2017-11-01

    Averaging behavioral data such as the nictitating membrane response (NMR) across subjects can conceal important individual and group differences. Analyses were conducted of NMR data from rabbits that were grouped based on the point during NMR conditioning when subjects produced 8 conditioned responses (CR) in a set of 10 trials. This resulted in five groups (Early Day 1, Late Day 1, Early Day 2, Late Day 2, Early Day 3) in which group differences in CR acquisition rates were found. Percent (%) CRs were not found to increase monotonically and between-session differences in % CR were found. Conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) of the NMR is a type of enhanced reflexive responding of the NMR that is detected when the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) following paired classical conditioning. CRM occurred in some subjects in all five groups. Subjects from both the group that was fastest and the group that was slowest to reach the learning criterion had unconditioned response (UR) topographies following NMR conditioning that strongly resembled the CR-UR response sequence elicited during NMR conditioning. This finding was most pronounced when the US duration used to assess CRM was equivalent to that used during NMR conditioning, further evidence to support the hypothesis that CRM is a CR that has generalized from the CS to the US. While grouping data based on conditioning criteria did not facilitate identifying individuals more predisposed to exhibiting CRM, strong CRM only occurred in the groups that reached the conditioning criterion the fastest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Who in Europe Works beyond the State Pension Age and under which Conditions? Results from SHARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Akinwale, Bola; Landy, Rebecca; Matthews, Katey; Blane, David

    2017-01-01

    There is much research about those who exit the labour market prematurely, however, comparatively little is known about people working longer and about their employment and working conditions. In this paper, we describe the employment and working conditions of men and women working between 65 and 80 years, and compare them with previous conditions of those retired in the same age group. Analyses are based on wave 4 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) with information collected between 2009 and 2011 from 17,625 older men and women across 16 European countries. Besides socio-demographic and health-related factors (physical and mental health), the focus lies on employment conditions (e.g. employment status, occupational position and working hours) and on stressful working conditions, measured in terms of low control at work and effort-reward imbalance. In case of retired people, information on working conditions refer to the last job before retirement. Following descriptive analyses, we then conduct multivariable analyses and investigate how working conditions and poor health are related to labour market participation (i.e. random intercept models accounting for country affiliation and adjusted for potential confounders). Results illustrate that people working between the ages of 65 and 80 are more likely to be self-employed (either with or without employees) and work in advantaged occupational positions. Furthermore, findings reveal that psychosocial working conditions are generally better than the conditions retired respondents had in their last job. Finally, in contrast to those who work, health tends to be worse among retired people. In conclusion, findings deliver empirical evidence that paid employment beyond age 65 is more common among self-employed workers throughout Europe, in advantaged occupations and under-favourable psychosocial circumstances, and that this group of workers are in considerably good mental and physical

  17. Illumina sequencing-based analysis of a microbial community enriched under anaerobic methane oxidation condition coupled to denitrification revealed coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Luciene Alves Batista; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Oliveira, Guilherme; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto Lemos; de Araújo, Juliana Calabria

    2017-07-01

    Methane is produced in anaerobic environments, such as reactors used to treat wastewaters, and can be consumed by methanotrophs. The composition and structure of a microbial community enriched from anaerobic sewage sludge under methane-oxidation condition coupled to denitrification were investigated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis retrieved sequences of Methylocaldum and Chloroflexi. Deep sequencing analysis revealed a complex community that changed over time and was affected by methane concentration. Methylocaldum (8.2%), Methylosinus (2.3%), Methylomonas (0.02%), Methylacidiphilales (0.45%), Nitrospirales (0.18%), and Methanosarcinales (0.3%) were detected. Despite denitrifying conditions provided, Nitrospirales and Methanosarcinales, known to perform anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (DAMO) process, were in very low abundance. Results demonstrated that aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs coexisted in the reactor together with heterotrophic microorganisms, suggesting that a diverse microbial community was important to sustain methanotrophic activity. The methanogenic sludge was a good inoculum to enrich methanotrophs, and cultivation conditions play a selective role in determining community composition.

  18. Conditional Eddies in Plasma Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, H.; Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1987-01-01

    Low‐frequency electrostatic turbulence generated by the ion–ion beam instability was investigated experimentally in a double‐plasma device. Real time signals were recorded and examined by a conditional statistical analysis. Conditionally averaged potential distributions reveal the formation...... and propagation of structures with a relatively long lifetime. Various methods for making a conditional analysis are discussed and compared. The results are discussed with reference to ion phase space vortices and clump formation in collisionless plasmas....

  19. Spatio-temporal dynamics of ocean conditions and forage taxa reveal regional structuring of seabird–prey relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A; Schroeder, Isaac D; Field, John C; Wells, Brian K; Sydeman, William J

    Studies of predator–prey demographic responses and the physical drivers of such relationships are rare, yet essential for predicting future changes in the structure and dynamics of marine ecosystems. Here, we hypothesize that predator–prey relationships vary spatially in association with underlying physical ocean conditions, leading to observable changes in demographic rates, such as reproduction. To test this hypothesis, we quantified spatio-temporal variability in hydrographic conditions, krill, and forage fish to model predator (seabird) demographic responses over 18 years (1990–2007). We used principal component analysis and spatial correlation maps to assess coherence among ocean conditions, krill, and forage fish, and generalized additive models to quantify interannual variability in seabird breeding success relative to prey abundance. The first principal component of four hydrographic measurements yielded an index that partitioned “warm/weak upwelling” and “cool/strong upwelling” years. Partitioning of krill and forage fish time series among shelf and oceanic regions yielded spatially explicit indicators of prey availability. Krill abundance within the oceanic region was remarkably consistent between years, whereas krill over the shelf showed marked interannual fluctuations in relation to ocean conditions. Anchovy abundance varied on the shelf, and was greater in years of strong stratification, weak upwelling and warmer temperatures. Spatio-temporal variability of juvenile forage fish co-varied strongly with each other and with krill, but was weakly correlated with hydrographic conditions. Demographic responses between seabirds and prey availability revealed spatially variable associations indicative of the dynamic nature of “predator–habitat” relationships. Quantification of spatially explicit demographic responses, and their variability through time, demonstrate the possibility of delineating specific critical areas where the

  20. Effects of different centrifugation conditions on clinical chemistry and Immunology test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesic Predrag

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of centrifugation time of heparinized blood samples on clinical chemistry and immunology results has rarely been studied. WHO guideline proposed a 15 min centrifugation time without citing any scientific publications. The centrifugation time has a considerable impact on the turn-around-time. Methods We investigated 74 parameters in samples from 44 patients on a Roche Cobas 6000 system, to see whether there was a statistical significant difference in the test results among specimens centrifuged at 2180 g for 15 min, at 2180 g for 10 min or at 1870 g for 7 min, respectively. Two tubes with different plasma separators (both Greiner Bio-One were used for each centrifugation condition. Statistical comparisons were made by Deming fit. Results Tubes with different separators showed identical results in all parameters. Likewise, excellent correlations were found among tubes to which different centrifugation conditions were applied. Fifty percent of the slopes lay between 0.99 and 1.01. Only 3.6 percent of the statistical tests results fell outside the significance level of p Conclusion A centrifugation time of either 7 or 10 min provided identical test results compared to the time of 15 min as proposed by WHO under the conditions used in our study.

  1. IMAGE Project: Results of Laboratory Tests on Tracers for Supercritical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvoll, Øyvind; Opsahl Viig, Sissel; Nardini, Isabella; Muller, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    The use of tracers is a well-established technique for monitoring dynamic behaviour of water and gas through a reservoir. In geothermal reservoirs special challenges are encountered due to high temperatures and pressures. In this work, tracer candidates for monitoring water at supercritical conditions (temperature > 374°C, pressure ca 218 bar), are tested in laboratory experiments. Testing of tracers at supercritical water conditions requires experimental set-ups which tolerate harsh conditions with respect to high temperature and pressure. In addition stringent HES (health, environment and safety) factors have to be taken into consideration when designing and performing the experiments. The setup constructed in this project consists of a pressure vessel, high pressure pump, instrumentation for pressure and temperature control and instrumentation required for accurate sampling of tracers. In order to achieve accurate results, a special focus has been paid to the development of the tracer sampling technique. Perfluorinated cyclic hydrocarbons (PFCs) have been selected as tracer candidates. This group of compounds is today commonly used as gas tracers in oil reservoirs. According to the literature they are stable at temperatures up to 400°C. To start with, five PFCs have been tested for thermal stability in static experiments at 375°C and 108 bar in the experimental setup described above. The tracer candidates will be further tested for several months at the relevant conditions. Preliminary results indicate that some of the PFC compounds show stability after three months. However, in order to arrive at conclusive results, the experiments have to be repeated over a longer period and paying special attention to more accurate sampling procedures.

  2. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  3. Interactions between Prefrontal Cortex and Cerebellum Revealed by Trace Eyelid Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, Brian E.; Ohyama, Tatsuya; Kreider, Joy C.; Riusech, Frank; Mauk, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Eyelid conditioning has proven useful for analysis of learning and computation in the cerebellum. Two variants, delay and trace conditioning, differ only by the relative timing of the training stimuli. Despite the subtlety of this difference, trace eyelid conditioning is prevented by lesions of the cerebellum, hippocampus, or medial prefrontal…

  4. Waste conditioning for tank heel transfer. Preliminary data and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the research carried out at Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) for the fiscal year 1998 (FY98) under the Tank Focus Area (TFA) project ''Waste Conditioning for Tank Slurry Transfer.'' The objective of this project is to determine the effect of chemical and physical properties on the waste conditioning process and transfer. The focus of this research consisted in building a waste conditioning experimental facility to test different slurry simulants under different conditions, and analyzing their chemical and physical properties. This investigation would provide experimental data and analysis results that can make the tank waste conditioning process more efficient, improve the transfer system, and influence future modifications to the waste conditioning and transfer system. A waste conditioning experimental facility was built in order to test slurry simulants. The facility consists of a slurry vessel with several accessories for parameter control and sampling. The vessel also has a lid system with a shaft-mounted propeller connected to an air motor. In addition, a circulation system is connected to the slurry vessel for simulant cooling and heating. Experimental data collection and analysis of the chemical and physical properties of the tank slurry simulants has been emphasized. For this, one waste slurry simulant (Fernald) was developed, and another two simulants (SRS and Hanford) obtained from DOE sites were used. These simulants, composed of water, soluble metal salts, and insoluble solid particles, were used to represent the actual radioactive waste slurries from different DOE sites. The simulants' chemical and physical properties analyzed include density, viscosity, pH, settling rate, and volubility. These analyses were done to samples obtained from different experiments performed at room temperature but different mixing time and strength. The experimental results indicate that the

  5. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  6. Inherent safety features of the HTTR revealed in the accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, K.; Shinozaki, M.; Baba, O.; Saito, S.

    1992-01-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) being constructed by JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) is a graphite-moderated and helium-cooled reactor with an outlet gas temperature of 950degC. The inherent safety characteristics in the HTTR prevent temperature increase of reactor fuels and fission product release from the reactor core in postulated accident conditions. The reactor core can be cooled by a Vessel Cooling System (VCS) indirectly, even in the case that no forced cooling is expected during the accident such as primary pipe break. The VCS consists of independent water cooling loop and cooling panel around the reactor pressure vessel. The cooling panel whose temperature of 60-90degC cools the reactor pressure vessel by radiation and removes the decay heat from the core indirectly. Furthermore, even if failure of VCS is assumed during this accident as a severe accident, the reactor core is remained safe despite the temperature increase of biological concrete shield around the reactor pressure vessel. This paper describes the inherent safety features of the HTTR specially focused on the accident condition without forced cooling. The detailed analytical results of such an accident are described together with clarifying the role of the VCS. (author)

  7. Revealing context-specific conditioned fear memories with full immersion virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eHuff

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The extinction of conditioned fear is known to be context specific, and often referred to as more robustly contextually bound than the fear memory itself (Bouton, 2004. Yet, recent findings in rodents have challenged the notion that contextual fear retention is initially generalized. The context specificity of a cued-fear memory to the learning context has not been addressed in the human literature largely due to limitations in methodology. Here we adapt a novel technology to test the context specificity of cued fear conditioning using full immersion 3-dimensional virtual reality (VR. During acquisition training, healthy participants navigated through virtual environments containing dynamic snake and spider conditioned stimuli (CSs, one of which was paired with electrical wrist stimulation. During a 24-hour delayed retention test, one group returned to the same context as acquisition training whereas another group experienced the CSs in a novel context. Unconditioned stimulus (US expectancy ratings were assayed on-line during fear acquisition as an index of contingency awareness. Skin conductance responses (SCR time-locked to CS onset were the dependent measure of cued fear, and skin conductance levels during the interstimulus interval were an index of context fear. Findings indicate that early in acquisition training, participants express contingency awareness as well as differential contextual fear, whereas differential cued fear emerged later in acquisition. During the retention test, differential cued fear retention was enhanced in the group who returned to the same context as acquisition training relative to the context shift group. The results extend recent rodent work to illustrate differences in cued and context fear acquisition and the contextual specificity of recent fear memories. Findings support the use of full immersion VR as a novel tool in cognitive neuroscience to bridge rodent models of contextual phenomena underlying human

  8. Effects of different centrifugation conditions on clinical chemistry and Immunology test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, Elisabeth I; Schibli, Adrian; Mahrer, Dagmar; Nesic, Predrag; Plüer, Kathrin

    2011-05-10

    The effect of centrifugation time of heparinized blood samples on clinical chemistry and immunology results has rarely been studied. WHO guideline proposed a 15 min centrifugation time without citing any scientific publications. The centrifugation time has a considerable impact on the turn-around-time. We investigated 74 parameters in samples from 44 patients on a Roche Cobas 6000 system, to see whether there was a statistical significant difference in the test results among specimens centrifuged at 2180 g for 15 min, at 2180 g for 10 min or at 1870 g for 7 min, respectively. Two tubes with different plasma separators (both Greiner Bio-One) were used for each centrifugation condition. Statistical comparisons were made by Deming fit. Tubes with different separators showed identical results in all parameters. Likewise, excellent correlations were found among tubes to which different centrifugation conditions were applied. Fifty percent of the slopes lay between 0.99 and 1.01. Only 3.6 percent of the statistical tests results fell outside the significance level of p < 0.05, which was less than the expected 5%. This suggests that the outliers are the result of random variation and the large number of statistical tests performed. Further, we found that our data are sufficient not to miss a biased test (beta error) with a probability of 0.10 to 0.05 in most parameters. A centrifugation time of either 7 or 10 min provided identical test results compared to the time of 15 min as proposed by WHO under the conditions used in our study.

  9. Work disability resulting from chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Debra; Allaire, Saralynn H; Reisine, Susan T

    2005-03-01

    To describe current programs and policies for addressing work disability among adults with chronic health conditions, and to identify opportunities for new research aimed at reducing the problem. The authors conducted secondary data analysis and a literature review. Millions of Americans with a chronic health condition have a work disability or are at risk of developing one. This public health problem is costing hundreds of billions of dollars a year nationally in lost productivity and diminishing the quality of life of millions of Americans. The medical care system, employers, and government--three traditional sources of help for adults with chronic health problems--are not sufficiently oriented toward the primary or secondary prevention of work disability. New research is urgently needed to reduce the burden of work disability on individuals and society.

  10. Fermilab Linac Upgrade: Module conditioning results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroc, T.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.

    1992-12-01

    The 805 MHz Side-coupled cavity modules for the Fermilab 400 MeV linac upgrade have been conditioned to accept full power. The sparking rate in the cavities and in the side-cells has been reduced to acceptable levels. It required approximately 40 x 10 6 pulses for each module to achieve an adequately low sparking rate. This contribution outlines the commissioning procedure, presents the sparking rate improvements and the radiation level improvements through the commissioning process and disc the near-online commissioning plans for this accelerator

  11. Fermilab linac upgrade. Module conditioning results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroc, T.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules for the Fermilab 400 MeV linac upgrade have been conditioned to accept full power. The sparking rate in the cavities and in the side cells has been reduced to acceptable levels. It required approximately 40 x 10 6 pulses for each module to achieve an adequately low sparking rate. This contribution outlines the commissioning procedure, presents the sparking rate improvements and the radiation level improvements through the commissioning process and discusses the near-on-line commissioning plans for this accelerator. (Author) ref., 4 figs

  12. Adhesion of Escherichia coli under flow conditions reveals potential novel effects of FimH mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, T.; Schmidt Thøgersen, Mariane; Wieser, E.

    2017-01-01

    H mutations on bacterial adhesion using a novel adhesion assay, which models the physiological flow conditions bacteria are exposed to. We introduced 12 different point mutations in the mannose binding pocket of FimH in an E. coli strain expressing type 1 fimbriae only (MSC95-FimH). We compared the bacterial...... adhesion of each mutant across several commonly used adhesion assays, including agglutination of yeast, adhesion to mono- and tri-mannosylated substrates, and static adhesion to bladder epithelial and endothelial cells. We performed a comparison of these assays to a novel method that we developed to study...... mutations abrogated adhesion. We demonstrated that FimH residues E50 and T53 are crucial for adhesion under flow conditions. The coating of endothelial cells on biochips and modelling of physiological flow conditions enabled us to identify FimH residues crucial for adhesion. These results provide novel...

  13. Variation in the Asian monsoon intensity and dry-wet condition since the Little Ice Age in central China revealed by an aragonite stalagmite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.-J.; Yuan, D.-X.; Li, H.-C.; Cheng, H.; Li, T.-Y.; Edwards, R. L.; Lin, Y.-S.; Qin, J.-M.; Tang, W.; Zhao, Z.-Y.; Mii, H.-S.

    2014-04-01

    Highlight: this paper focuses on the climate variability in central China since 1300 AD, involving: 1. A well-dated, 1.5 year resolution stalagmite δ18O record from Lianhua Cave, central China; 2. Links of the δ18O record with regional dry-wet condition, monsoon intensity, and temperature over eastern China; 3. Correlations among drought events in the Lianhua record, solar irradiation, and ENSO index. We present a highly precisely 230Th/U dated, 1.5 year resolution δ18O record of an aragonite stalagmite (LHD1) collected from Lianhua Cave in Wuling mountain area of central China. The comparison of the δ18O record with the local instrumental record and historical documents exhibits at least 15 drought events in the Wuling mountain and adjacent areas during the Little Ice Age, in which some of them were corresponding to megadrought events in the broad Asian monsoonal region of China. Thus, the stalagmite δ18O record reveals variations in the summer monsoon precipitation and dry-wet condition in Wuling mountain area. The eastern China temperature varied with the solar activity, showing higher temperature under stronger solar irradiation which produces stronger summer monsoon. During Maunder, Dalton and 1900 sunspot minima, more severe drought events occurred, indicating weakening of the summer monsoon when solar activity decreased on decadal time scales. On interannual time scale, dry conditions in the studying area were prevailing under El Niño condition, which is also supported by the spectrum analysis. Hence, our record illustrates the linkage of Asian summer monsoon precipitation to solar irradiation and ENSO: wetter condition under stronger summer monsoon during warm periods and vice versa; During cold periods, the Walker circulation will shift toward central Pacific under El Niño condition, resulting further weakening of Asian summer monsoon. However, the δ18O of LHD1 record is positively correlated with temperature after ~1940 AD which is opposite to the

  14. Evolutions of Yang Phase Under Cyclic Condition and Adiabatic Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Shangwu; Gu Zhiyu

    2005-01-01

    There are three non-integrable phases in literatures: Berry phase, Aharonov-Anandan phase, and Yang phase. This article discusses the evolutions of Yang phase under the cyclic condition and the adiabatic condition for the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator, thus reveals the intimate relations between these three non-integrable phases.

  15. Repeated Activation of a CS-US-Contingency Memory Results in Sustained Conditioned Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka and Zinbarg, 2006). One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear) reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder. However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US)-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a "rehearsed" CS+ as compared to a "non-rehearsed" CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal "purely mental." In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone to mentally

  16. Repeated Activation of a CS-US-Contingency Memory Results in Sustained Conditioned Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka and Zinbarg, 2006). One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear) reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder. However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US)-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a “rehearsed” CS+ as compared to a “non-rehearsed” CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal “purely mental.” In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone

  17. Repeated activation of a CS-US-contingency memory results in sustained conditioned responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els eJoos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka & Zinbarg, 2006. One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder.However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a CS-US-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a ‘rehearsed’ CS+ as compared to a ‘non-rehearsed’ CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal ‘purely mental’. In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone to mentally rehearse

  18. How Cyanobacterial Distributions Reveal Flow and Irradiance Conditions of Photosynthetic Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prufert-Bebout, Lee

    2001-01-01

    Microbial life on Earth is enormously abundant at sediment-water interfaces. The fossil record in fact contains abundant evidence of the preservation of life on such surfaces. It is therefore critical to our interpretation of early Earth history, and potentially to history of life on other planets, to be able to recognize life forms at these interfaces. On Earth this life often occurs as organized structures of microbes and their extracellular exudates known as biofilms. When such biofilms occur in areas receiving sunlight photosynthetic biofilms are the dominant form in natural ecosystems due to selective advantage inherent in their ability to utilize solar energy. Cyanobacteria are the dominant phototrophic microbes in most modern and ancient photosynthetic biofilms, microbial mats and stromatolites. Due to their long (3.5 billion year) evolutionary history, this group has extensively diversified resulting in an enormous array of morphologies and physiological abilities. This enormous diversity and specialization results in very specific selection for a particular cyanobacterium in each available photosynthetic niche. Furthermore these organisms can alter their spatial orientation, cell morphology, pigmentation and associations with heterotrophic organisms in order to fine tune their optimization to a given micro-niche. These adaptations can be detected, and if adequate knowledge of the interaction between environmental conditions and organism response is available, the detectable organism response can be used to infer the environmental conditions causing that response. This presentation will detail two specific examples which illustrate this point. Light and water are essential to photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and these organisms have specific detectable behavioral responses to these parameters. We will present cyanobacterial responses to quantified flow and irradiance to demonstrate the interpretative power of distribution and orientation information. This

  19. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions. Volume 1, Results from bellows tested in 'like-new' conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Sandia National Laboratories. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen bellows have been tested, all in the 'like-new' condition. (Additional tests are planned of bellows that have been subjected to corrosion.) The tests showed that bellows are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed

  20. Associations between self-reported working conditions and registered health and safety results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høivik, Dordi; Baste, Valborg; Brandsdal, Einar; Moen, Bente E

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported working conditions and registered health and safety results in a petroleum company in Norway. We analyzed data from company surveys of working and organizational conditions in 2003 and 2004 and data from the company's files of sickness absence, personal injuries, serious incidents, and undesirable incidents in 2003 and 2004 as well as personal injuries from 2000 to 2004 using Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analyses. Good perception of confidence in management in 2003 and 2004 was significantly negatively correlated with the number of personal injuries from 2000 to 2004. Management style and trust in the manager are important factors for predicting personal injuries. The company's working and organizational survey might be used as an indicator for injury risk.

  1. Contractile Defect Caused by Mutation in MYBPC3 Revealed under Conditions Optimized for Human PSC-Cardiomyocyte Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Birket

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing baseline function of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs is essential for their effective application in models of cardiac toxicity and disease. Here, we aimed to identify factors that would promote an adequate level of function to permit robust single-cell contractility measurements in a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. A simple screen revealed the collaborative effects of thyroid hormone, IGF-1 and the glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone on the electrophysiology, bioenergetics, and contractile force generation of hPSC-CMs. In this optimized condition, hiPSC-CMs with mutations in MYBPC3, a gene encoding myosin-binding protein C, which, when mutated, causes HCM, showed significantly lower contractile force generation than controls. This was recapitulated by direct knockdown of MYBPC3 in control hPSC-CMs, supporting a mechanism of haploinsufficiency. Modeling this disease in vitro using human cells is an important step toward identifying therapeutic interventions for HCM.

  2. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner start-up results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, K.M.; Mariani, R.D.; Vaden, D.; Bonomo, N.L.; Cunningham, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    At ANL-West, there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will make use of an electrometallurgical process employing molten salts and liquid metals. The treatment equipment is presently undergoing testing with depleted uranium. Operations with irradiated fuel will commence when the environmental evaluation for FCF is complete

  3. Variation in the Asian monsoon intensity and dry-wet conditions since the Little Ice Age in central China revealed by an aragonite stalagmite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.-J.; Yuan, D.-X.; Li, H.-C.; Cheng, H.; Li, T.-Y.; Edwards, R. L.; Lin, Y.-S.; Qin, J.-M.; Tang, W.; Zhao, Z.-Y.; Mii, H.-S.

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on the climate variability in central China since AD 1300, involving: (1) a well-dated, 1.5-year resolution stalagmite δ18O record from Lianhua Cave, central China (2) links of the δ18O record with regional dry-wet conditions, monsoon intensity, and temperature over eastern China (3) correlations among drought events in the Lianhua record, solar irradiation, and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) variation. We present a highly precise, 230Th / U-dated, 1.5-year resolution δ18O record of an aragonite stalagmite (LHD1) collected from Lianhua Cave in the Wuling Mountain area of central China. The comparison of the δ18O record with the local instrumental record and historical documents indicates that (1) the stalagmite δ18O record reveals variations in the summer monsoon intensity and dry-wet conditions in the Wuling Mountain area. (2) A stronger East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) enhances the tropical monsoon trough controlled by ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone), which produces higher spring quarter rainfall and isotopically light monsoonal moisture in the central China. (3) The summer quarter/spring quarter rainfall ratio in central China can be a potential indicator of the EASM strength: a lower ratio corresponds to stronger EASM and higher spring rainfall. The ratio changed from 1 after 1950, reflecting that the summer quarter rainfall of the study area became dominant under stronger influence of the Northwestern Pacific High. Eastern China temperatures varied with the solar activity, showing higher temperatures under stronger solar irradiation, which produced stronger summer monsoons. During Maunder, Dalton and 1900 sunspot minima, more severe drought events occurred, indicating a weakening of the summer monsoon when solar activity decreased on decadal timescales. On an interannual timescale, dry conditions in the study area prevailed under El Niño conditions, which is also supported by the spectrum analysis. Hence, our record

  4. A CLUSTER IN THE MAKING: ALMA REVEALS THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR HIGH-MASS CLUSTER FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Contreras, Y.; Longmore, S. N.; Bastian, N.; Jackson, J. M.; Alves, J. F.; Bally, J.; Foster, J. B.; Garay, G.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Testi, L.; Walsh, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    G0.253+0.016 is a molecular clump that appears to be on the verge of forming a high-mass cluster: its extremely low dust temperature, high mass, and high density, combined with its lack of prevalent star formation, make it an excellent candidate for an Arches-like cluster in a very early stage of formation. Here we present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array observations of its small-scale (∼0.07 pc) 3 mm dust continuum and molecular line emission from 17 different species that probe a range of distinct physical and chemical conditions. The data reveal a complex network of emission features with a complicated velocity structure: there is emission on all spatial scales, the morphology of which ranges from small, compact regions to extended, filamentary structures that are seen in both emission and absorption. The dust column density is well traced by molecules with higher excitation energies and critical densities, consistent with a clump that has a denser interior. A statistical analysis supports the idea that turbulence shapes the observed gas structure within G0.253+0.016. We find a clear break in the turbulent power spectrum derived from the optically thin dust continuum emission at a spatial scale of ∼0.1 pc, which may correspond to the spatial scale at which gravity has overcome the thermal pressure. We suggest that G0.253+0.016 is on the verge of forming a cluster from hierarchical, filamentary structures that arise from a highly turbulent medium. Although the stellar distribution within high-mass Arches-like clusters is compact, centrally condensed, and smooth, the observed gas distribution within G0.253+0.016 is extended, with no high-mass central concentration, and has a complex, hierarchical structure. If this clump gives rise to a high-mass cluster and its stars are formed from this initially hierarchical gas structure, then the resulting cluster must evolve into a centrally condensed structure via a dynamical process

  5. Fluorescence lifetime components reveal kinetic intermediate states upon equilibrium denaturation of carbonic anhydrase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtseva, Elena V; Lashchuk, Olesya O; Gerasimova, Marina A; Melnik, Tatiana N; Nagibina, Galina S; Melnik, Bogdan S

    2017-12-21

    In most cases, intermediate states of multistage folding proteins are not 'visible' under equilibrium conditions but are revealed in kinetic experiments. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used in equilibrium denaturation studies. The technique allows for detecting changes in the conformation and environment of tryptophan residues in different structural elements of carbonic anhydrase II which in its turn has made it possible to study the intermediate states of carbonic anhydrase II under equilibrium conditions. The results of equilibrium and kinetic experiments using wild-type bovine carbonic anhydrase II and its mutant form with the substitution of leucine for alanine at position 139 (L139A) were compared. The obtained lifetime components of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence allowed for revealing that, the same as in kinetic experiments, under equilibrium conditions the unfolding of carbonic anhydrase II ensues through formation of intermediate states.

  6. [Influence of testing conditions on the susceptibility results of Staphylococcus cohnii to beta-lactams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Tonmasz; Szewczyk, Eligia M

    2006-01-01

    The high occurence of coagulase-negative staphylococci among bacteria responsible for hospital infections is unquestioned. Studies on the poorly-known novobiocin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus cohnii were undertaken. The possibilities of optimizing conditions for determination of susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics of this species were researched. In the case of S. cohnii the new cefoxitin test for detection of methicillin resistant strains, introduced by the National Reference Centre for Antibiotics in Poland was found as a good and of credible quality. It was also shown, that application in in vitro examination conditions stimulating the mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, supplies credible results relating to their true susceptibility. The necessity of establishing individual conditions for susceptibility determination in different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci was suggested.

  7. 49 CFR 236.528 - Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and...-operated switch three-eighths inch or more, or hand-operated switch is not locked where facing point lock with circuit controller is used, the resultant restrictive condition of an automatic train stop or...

  8. Monitoring fate and behaviour of Nanoceria under relevant environmental conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tancu, Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ). The results revealed significant tendency of nCeO¬2 to undergo aggregation, agglomeration and certain degree of deagglomeration processes under different environmental conditions. Moreover, the findings suggested that both electrostatic and steric interactions...

  9. Proboscis conditioning experiments with honeybees, Apis mellifera caucasica, with butyric acid and DEET mixture as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul; Mixson, T Andrew; Nolf, Sondra L; Wells, Harrington; Kence, Aykut; Kence, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment DEET and butyric acid readily led to standard acquisition and extinction effects, which are comparable to the use of cinnamon as a conditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that the odor of DEET or butyric acid is not intrinsically repellent to honey bees. In a second experiment, with DEET and butyric acid mixed with sucrose as an unconditioned stimulus, proboscis conditioning was not established. After several trials, few animals responded to the unconditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that these chemicals are gustatory repellents when in direct contact. In the last experiment a conditioned suppression paradigm was used. Exposing animals to butyric acid or DEET when the proboscis was extended by direct sucrose stimulation or by learning revealed that retraction of the proboscis was similar to another novel odor, lavender, and in all cases greatest when the animal was not permitted to feed. These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee.

  10. Predicting Comorbid Conditions and Trajectories using Social Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Ae Chun, Soon; Geller, James

    2016-05-05

    Many patients suffer from comorbidity conditions, for example, obese patients often develop type-2 diabetes and hypertension. In the US, 80% of Medicare spending is for managing patients with these multiple coexisting conditions. Predicting potential comorbidity conditions for an individual patient can promote preventive care and reduce costs. Predicting possible comorbidity progression paths can provide important insights into population heath and aid with decisions in public health policies. Discovering the comorbidity relationships is complex and difficult, due to limited access to Electronic Health Records by privacy laws. In this paper, we present a collaborative comorbidity prediction method to predict likely comorbid conditions for individual patients, and a trajectory prediction graph model to reveal progression paths of comorbid conditions. Our prediction approaches utilize patient generated health reports on online social media, called Social Health Records (SHR). The experimental results based on one SHR source show that our method is able to predict future comorbid conditions for a patient with coverage values of 48% and 75% for a top-20 and a top-100 ranked list, respectively. For risk trajectory prediction, our approach is able to reveal each potential progression trajectory between any two conditions and infer the confidence of the future trajectory, given any observed condition. The predicted trajectories are validated with existing comorbidity relations from the medical literature.

  11. Sequential radionuclide bone imaging in avascular pediatric hip conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minikel, J.; Sty, J.; Simons, G.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed on six patients with various hip conditions. Initial bone images revealed diminished uptake of isotope /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Following therapeutic intervention, repeat bone scans revealed normal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Subsequent radiographs revealed that avascular necrosis had not occurred. There are two types of avascularity: the potentially reversible, and the irreversible. Attempts should be made toward early recognition of the potentially reversible avascular insult. With early recognition, surgical reconstruction prior to osteophyte death may result in revascularization. If this can be accomplished, avascular necrosis can be avoided

  12. Growth conditions of 0-group plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the western Wadden Sea as revealed by otolith microstructure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Joana F. M. F.; Freitas, Vânia; de Paoli, Hélène; Witte, Johannes IJ.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2016-05-01

    Growth studies based on population-based growth estimates are limited by the fact that they do not take into account differences in age/size structure within the population. To overcome these problems, otolith microstructure analysis is often used to estimate individual growth. Here, we analyse growth of 0-group plaice in the western Wadden Sea in two years: a year preceded by a mild winter (1995) and a year preceded by a severe winter (1996). Growth was analysed by combining information on individual growth based on otolith analysis with predictions of maximum growth (= under optimal food conditions) based on a Dynamic Energy Budget model. Otolith analysis revealed that settlement occurred earlier in 1995 than in 1996. In both years, one main cohort was found, followed by a group of late settlers. No differences in mean length-at-age were found between these groups. DEB modelling suggested that growth was not maximal during the whole growing season: realized growth (the fraction of maximum growth realized by 0-group plaice) declined in the summer, although this decline was relatively small. In addition, late settling individuals exhibited lower realized growth than individuals from the main cohort. This study confirms that growth conditions for 0-group plaice are not optimal and that a growth reduction occurs in summer, as suggested in previous studies.

  13. Mapping differentiation under mixed culture conditions reveals a tunable continuum of T cell fates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron E Antebi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell differentiation is typically directed by external signals that drive opposing regulatory pathways. Studying differentiation under polarizing conditions, with only one input signal provided, is limited in its ability to resolve the logic of interactions between opposing pathways. Dissection of this logic can be facilitated by mapping the system's response to mixtures of input signals, which are expected to occur in vivo, where cells are simultaneously exposed to various signals with potentially opposing effects. Here, we systematically map the response of naïve T cells to mixtures of signals driving differentiation into the Th1 and Th2 lineages. We characterize cell state at the single cell level by measuring levels of the two lineage-specific transcription factors (T-bet and GATA3 and two lineage characteristic cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4 that are driven by these transcription regulators. We find a continuum of mixed phenotypes in which individual cells co-express the two lineage-specific master regulators at levels that gradually depend on levels of the two input signals. Using mathematical modeling we show that such tunable mixed phenotype arises if autoregulatory positive feedback loops in the gene network regulating this process are gradual and dominant over cross-pathway inhibition. We also find that expression of the lineage-specific cytokines follows two independent stochastic processes that are biased by expression levels of the master regulators. Thus, cytokine expression is highly heterogeneous under mixed conditions, with subpopulations of cells expressing only IFN-γ, only IL-4, both cytokines, or neither. The fraction of cells in each of these subpopulations changes gradually with input conditions, reproducing the continuous internal state at the cell population level. These results suggest a differentiation scheme in which cells reflect uncertainty through a continuously tuneable mixed phenotype combined with a biased

  14. Effects of weather conditions, light conditions, and road lighting on vehicle speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Sjöbergh, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Light conditions are known to affect the number of vehicle accidents and fatalities but the relationship between light conditions and vehicle speed is not fully understood. This study examined whether vehicle speed on roads is higher in daylight and under road lighting than in darkness, and determined the combined effects of light conditions, posted speed limit and weather conditions on driving speed. The vehicle speed of passenger cars in different light conditions (daylight, twilight, darkness, artificial light) and different weather conditions (clear weather, rain, snow) was determined using traffic and weather data collected on an hourly basis for approximately 2 years (1 September 2012-31 May 2014) at 25 locations in Sweden (17 with road lighting and eight without). In total, the data included almost 60 million vehicle passes. The data were cleaned by removing June, July, and August, which have different traffic patterns than the rest of the year. Only data from the periods 10:00 A.M.-04:00 P.M. and 06:00 P.M.-10:00 P.M. were used, to remove traffic during rush hour and at night. Multivariate adaptive regression splines was used to evaluate the overall influence of independent variables on vehicle speed and nonparametric statistical testing was applied to test for speed differences between dark-daylight, dark-twilight, and twilight-daylight, on roads with and without road lighting. The results show that vehicle speed in general depends on several independent variables. Analyses of vehicle speed and speed differences between daylight, twilight and darkness, with and without road lighting, did not reveal any differences attributable to light conditions. However, vehicle speed decreased due to rain or snow and the decrease was higher on roads without road lighting than on roads with lighting. These results suggest that the strong association between traffic accidents and darkness or low light conditions could be explained by drivers failing to adjust their

  15. Identification of mine rescue equipment reduction gears technical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerike, B. L.; Klishin, V. I.; Kuzin, E. G.

    2017-09-01

    The article presents the reasons for adopting intelligent service of mine belt conveyer drives concerning evaluation of their technical condition based on the diagnostic techniques instead of regular preventative maintenance. The article reveals the diagnostic results of belt conveyer drive reduction gears condition taking into account the parameters of lubricating oil, vibration and temperature. Usage of a complex approach to evaluate technical conditions allows reliability of the forecast to be improved, which makes it possible not only to prevent accidental breakdowns and eliminate unscheduled downtime, but also to bring sufficient economic benefits through reduction of the term and scope of work during overhauls.

  16. [Nursing workloads and working conditions: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoeller, Roseli; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Neis, Márcia Binder; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires

    2011-06-01

    This study reviews theoretical production concerning workloads and working conditions for nurses. For that, an integrative review was carried out using scientific articles, theses and dissertations indexed in two Brazilian databases, Virtual Health Care Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) and Digital Database of Dissertations (Banco Digital de Teses), over the last ten years. From 132 identified studies, 27 were selected. Results indicate workloads as responsible for professional weariness, affecting the occurrence of work accidents and health problems. In order to adequate workloads studies indicate some strategies, such as having an adequate numbers of employees, continuing education, and better working conditions. The challenge is to continue research that reveal more precisely the relationships between workloads, working conditions, and health of the nursing team.

  17. Testbeam results of the upgraded fast beam condition monitor at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Maria; Karacheban, Olena; Lohmann, Wolfgang [BTU, Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (Belarus); Burtowy, Piotr; Ryjov, Vladimir; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Henschel, Hans; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica Lynn [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Levy, Itamar [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Przyborowski, Dominik [AGH-UST, Cracow (Poland); Schuwalow, Sergej; Walsh, Roberval [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Fast Beam Condition Monitor BCM1F at CMS is based on single-crystal diamond sensor with nanosecond time resolution. BCM1F delivered luminosity and machine induced background information to the CMS and LHC control room during the first running period of the LHC. A major upgrade to BCM1F was developed and built during the long shutdown of the LHC in 2014. The increased rate and the 25ns spacing should be handled with sensors subdivided by a double pad metallization and a faster new front-end ASIC. A prototype with these new components was investigated in the testbeam at DESY-II. The results are presented and also verified by Superfish simulations.

  18. Post-test investigation result on the WWER-1000 fuel tested under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, A.; Shtuckert, Yu.; Zwir, E.; Stupina, L.

    1996-01-01

    The model bundle of WWER-type were tested under SFD condition in the out-of-pile CORA installation. The objective of the test was to provide an information on the WWER-type fuel bundles behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions. Also it was assumed to compare the WWER-type bundle damage mechanisms with these experienced in the PWR-type bundle tests with aim to confirm a possibility to use the various code systems, worked our for PWR as applied to WWER. In order to ensure the possibility of the comparison of the calculated core degradation parameters with the real state of the tested bundle, some parameters have been measured on the bundle cross-sections under examination. Quantitative parameters of the bundle degradation have been evaluated by digital image processing of the bundle cross-sections. The obtained results are shown together with corresponding results obtained by the other participants of this investigation. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs

  19. Hippocampal Structural Plasticity Accompanies the Resulting Contextual Fear Memory Following Stress and Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D.; Molina, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to…

  20. Effects of storage conditions on results for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of proteins in canine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théron, Marie-Laure; Piane, Laetitia; Lucarelli, Laetitia; Henrion, Rémi; Layssol-Lamour, Catherine; Palanché, Florence; Concordet, Didier; Braun, Jean-Pierre D; Trumel, Catherine; Lavoué, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of storage conditions on the canine urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) and on SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) of urinary proteins. SAMPLE Urine specimens from 20 proteinuric (UPC > 0.5) and 20 nonproteinuric (UPC ≤ 0.2) dogs. PROCEDURES UPC and SDS-AGE were performed on urine specimens stored at room temperature (20°C) and 4°C for up to 5 days and at -20° and -80°C for up to 360 days; some specimens were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles. Results were compared with those obtained for fresh urine specimens. RESULTS UPC was not affected by storage at room temperature or by freezing. A decrease in UPC was observed for specimens from nonproteinuric dogs after 5 days at 4°C (10%) and from both groups after 90 days at -20° and -80°C (≤ 20% and ≤ 15%, respectively). The SDS-AGE profiles revealed no visual changes regardless of duration of storage for specimens stored at room temperature, 4°C, and -80°C, except for 1 profile after 360 days at -80°C. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles did not affect SDS-AGE profiles. Appearance or strengthening of high-molecular-weight bands that could alter interpretation was evident in SDS-AGE profiles after storage at -20°C for ≥ 15 days (31/40 dogs). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Storage of urine at -20° or -80°C for up to 1 year influenced the UPC without affecting clinical interpretation. Storage of urine specimens at -20°C impaired visual analysis of SDS-AGE. When SDS-AGE cannot be performed on fresh or recently refrigerated urine specimens, storage at -80°C is recommended.

  1. WATER CONDITIONING FOR FOOD INDUSTRY USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA NASTAS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water conditioning for food industry uses. Tap (drinkingwater from many localities of Moldova doesn’t always correspond to the “Sanitarystandards for drinking water quality” or to the requirements of the “Regulation fornon-alcoholic beverages”, requiring the need for additional purification/conditioning. This paper presents research regarding the removal/adsorption of themain pollutants in tap water (iron, manganese, aluminum, humic substances,trihalomethanes on supports of local carbon adsorbents made from vegetableproducts (stones of peach and plum, walnut shells. Experiments were performedin dynamic conditions in columns of carbon adsorbents. As work solutions wasused tap water where pollutants have been introduced in amounts equivalent to 3maximum allowable concentrations. Carbonaceous adsorbents used forremoval/adsorption of pollutants in dynamic conditions, reveal a capacity of up to1:400 volumes adsorbent: solution before breakthrough. Combined filter, utilizingactive carbons, was constructed and tested for conditioning of tap water forbeverage and food production. The results demonstrated efficient remove oforganic substances and heavy metals by filtering of about 700 volumes of waterper volume of filter.

  2. Early fasting is long lasting: differences in early nutritional conditions reappear under stressful conditions in adult female zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tobias Krause

    Full Text Available Conditions experienced during early life can have profound effects on individual development and condition in adulthood. Differences in nutritional provisioning in birds during the first month of life can lead to differences in growth, reproductive success and survival. Yet, under natural conditions shorter periods of nutritional stress will be more prevalent. Individuals may respond differently, depending on the period of development during which nutritional stress was experienced. Such differences may surface specifically when poor environmental conditions challenge individuals again as adults. Here, we investigated long term consequences of differences in nutritional conditions experienced during different periods of early development by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata on measures of management and acquisition of body reserves. As nestlings or fledglings, subjects were raised under different nutritional conditions, a low or high quality diet. After subjects reached sexual maturity, we measured their sensitivity to periods of food restriction, their exploration and foraging behaviour as well as adult resting metabolic rate (RMR. During a short period of food restriction, subjects from the poor nutritional conditions had a higher body mass loss than those raised under qualitatively superior nutritional conditions. Moreover, subjects that were raised under poor nutritional conditions were faster to engage in exploratory and foraging behaviour. But RMR did not differ among treatments. These results reveal that early nutritional conditions affect adult exploratory behaviour, a representative personality trait, foraging and adult's physiological condition. As early nutritional conditions are reflected in adult phenotypic plasticity specifically when stressful situations reappear, the results suggest that costs for poor developmental conditions are paid when environmental conditions deteriorate.

  3. The Effect of Conditioning on the Flotation of Pyrrhotite in the Presence of Chlorite

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfei Chen; Qing Shi; Qiming Feng; Yiping Lu; Wencai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The influence of conditioning on the flotation of pyrrhotite in the presence of chlorite was investigated through flotation tests, sedimentation tests, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The flotation results show that chlorite slimes dramatically impair the flotation of pyrrhotite. Sedimentation and flotation tests reveal that conditioning can effectively remove chlorite slimes from pyrrhotite surfaces, resulting in an enhanced flotation recovery of pyrrhotite. When mixed m...

  4. The Effect of Conditioning on the Flotation of Pyrrhotite in the Presence of Chlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of conditioning on the flotation of pyrrhotite in the presence of chlorite was investigated through flotation tests, sedimentation tests, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis. The flotation results show that chlorite slimes dramatically impair the flotation of pyrrhotite. Sedimentation and flotation tests reveal that conditioning can effectively remove chlorite slimes from pyrrhotite surfaces, resulting in an enhanced flotation recovery of pyrrhotite. When mixed minerals were conditioned under the natural atmosphere, a faster conditioning speed and longer conditioning time decreased the flotation recovery of pyrrhotite. However, when mixed minerals were conditioned under a nitrogen atmosphere, a more intensive conditioning process provided better flotation results. XPS analyses illustrate that a faster conditioning speed and longer conditioning time under the natural atmosphere accelerates the oxidation of pyrrhotite, leading to a decrease in the flotation recovery of pyrrhotite.

  5. Conditions affecting the release of phosphorus from surface lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophoridis, Christophoros; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of pH and redox conditions, as well as the effect of Fe, Mn, Ca, Al, and organic matter, on the release of ortho-phosphates in lake sediments taken from Lakes Koronia and Volvi (Northern Greece). Results were evaluated in combination with experiments to determine P fractionation in the sediment. The study revealed the major effect of redox potential and pH on the release of P from lake sediments. Both lakes showed increased release rates under reductive conditions and high pH values. The fractionation experiments revealed increased mobility of the reductive P fraction as well as of the NaOH-P fraction, indicating participation of both fractions in the overall release of sediment-bound P, depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. The results were assessed in combination with the release patterns of Fe, Mn, Ca, Al, and organic matter, enabling the identification of more specific processes of P release for each lake. The basic release patterns included the redox induced reductive dissolution of P-bearing metal oxides and the competitive exchange of phosphate anions with OH- at high pH values. The formation of an oxidized surface microlayer under oxic conditions acted as a protective film, preventing further P release from the sediments of Lake Volvi, while sediments from Lake Koronia exhibited a continuous and increased tendency to release P under various physicochemical conditions, acting as a constant source of internal P loading.

  6. Hippocampal structural plasticity accompanies the resulting contextual fear memory following stress and fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D; Molina, Victor A

    2013-10-15

    The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to stress prevented both the enhancement of fear retention and an increase in the density of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. These findings emphasize the role of the stress-induced attenuation of GABAergic neurotransmission in BLA in the promoting influence of stress on fear memory and on synaptic remodeling in DH. In conclusion, the structural remodeling in DH accompanied the facilitated fear memory following a combination of fear conditioning and stressful stimulation.

  7. Investigation of film boiling thermal hydraulics under FCI conditions. Results of a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, T.N.; Dinh, A.T.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Sehgal, B.R. [Div. of Nuclear Power Safety Royal Inst. of Tech. (RIT), Brinellvaegen 60, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Film boiling on the surface of a high-temperature melt jet or of a melt particle is one of key phenomena governing the physics of fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs) which may occur during the course of a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR). A number of experimental and analytical studies have been performed, in the past, to address film boiling heat transfer and the accompanying hydrodynamic aspects. Most of the experiments have, however, been performed for temperature and heat flux conditions, which are significantly lower than the prototypic conditions. For ex-vessel FCIs, high liquid subcooling can significantly affect the FCI thermal hydraulics. Presently, there are large uncertainties in predicting natural-convection film boiling of subcooled liquids on high-temperature surfaces. In this paper, research conducted at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS), Stockholm, concerning film-boiling thermal hydraulics under FCI condition is presented. Notably, the focus is placed on the effects of (1) water subcooling, (2) high-temperature steam properties, (3) the radiation heat transfer and (4) mixing zone boiling dynamics, on the vapor film characteristics. Numerical investigations are performed using a novel CFD modeling concept named as the local-homogeneous-slip model (LHSM). Results of the analytical and numerical studies are discussed with respect to boiling dynamics under FCI conditions. (author)

  8. Phenotype specific analyses reveal distinct regulatory mechanism for chronically activated p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kirschner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The downstream functions of the DNA binding tumor suppressor p53 vary depending on the cellular context, and persistent p53 activation has recently been implicated in tumor suppression and senescence. However, genome-wide information about p53-target gene regulation has been derived mostly from acute genotoxic conditions. Using ChIP-seq and expression data, we have found distinct p53 binding profiles between acutely activated (through DNA damage and chronically activated (in senescent or pro-apoptotic conditions p53. Compared to the classical 'acute' p53 binding profile, 'chronic' p53 peaks were closely associated with CpG-islands. Furthermore, the chronic CpG-island binding of p53 conferred distinct expression patterns between senescent and pro-apoptotic conditions. Using the p53 targets seen in the chronic conditions together with external high-throughput datasets, we have built p53 networks that revealed extensive self-regulatory 'p53 hubs' where p53 and many p53 targets can physically interact with each other. Integrating these results with public clinical datasets identified the cancer-associated lipogenic enzyme, SCD, which we found to be directly repressed by p53 through the CpG-island promoter, providing a mechanistic link between p53 and the 'lipogenic phenotype', a hallmark of cancer. Our data reveal distinct phenotype associations of chronic p53 targets that underlie specific gene regulatory mechanisms.

  9. Pavlovian drug-sickness pairings result in the conditioning of an antisickness response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, B T

    1983-10-01

    After a drug conditioned stimulus (CS) has been injected prior to lithium chloride as the unconditioned stimulus (US) on five occasions, the drug CS becomes able to evoke a conditioned antisickness response (CAR). This CAR is implied by the finding that the CS drug mitigates the conditioned saccharin aversion produced by lithium when it is administered in the interval between saccharin consumption and lithium injection. The following drugs were tested and are listed in approximate order of their effectiveness in producing a conditioned antisickness effect: pentobarbital, ethanol, morphine, amphetamine, and chlordiazepoxide.

  10. Conditional deletion of AP-2β in mouse cranial neural crest results in anterior segment dysgenesis and early-onset glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa B. Martino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD encompasses a group of developmental disorders in which a closed angle phenotype in the anterior chamber of the eye can occur and 50% of patients develop glaucoma. Many ASDs are thought to involve an inappropriate patterning and migration of the periocular mesenchyme (POM, which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (NCCs and mesoderm. Although, the mechanism of this disruption is not well understood, a number of transcriptional regulatory molecules have previously been implicated in ASDs. Here, we investigate the function of the transcription factor AP-2β, encoded by Tfap2b, which is expressed in NCCs and their derivatives. Wnt1-Cre-mediated conditional deletion of Tfap2b in NCCs resulted in post-natal ocular defects typified by opacity. Histological data revealed that the conditional AP-2β NCC knockout (KO mutants exhibited dysgenesis of multiple structures in the anterior segment of the eye including defects in the corneal endothelium, corneal stroma, ciliary body and disruption in the iridocorneal angle with adherence of the iris to the cornea. We further show that this phenotype leads to a significant increase in intraocular pressure and a subsequent loss of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve degeneration, features indicative of glaucoma. Overall, our findings demonstrate that AP-2β is required in the POM for normal development of the anterior segment of the eye and that the AP-2β NCC KO mice might serve as a new and exciting model of ASD and glaucoma that is fully penetrant and with early post-natal onset.

  11. Influence of test conditions and exposure duration on the result of ecotoxicological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj

    be calculated from results of ecotoxicological tests performed according to internationally approved guidelines, such as from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) or International Standardization Organisation (ISO). Such guidelines were originally developed to enable classification......H and exposure duration on the toxicity recorded in tests using four sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs) and the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba as study objects. The study showed that changing the physical and chemical test conditions influenced the toxicity of sulfonylurea herbicides towards L. gibba. Lowering...

  12. Financial Conditions: An In-Depth Look at Fiscal Troubles on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoby, Jerry L.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 300 college and university business officers investigated the extent of the institutions' financial difficulties. Results reveal administrators' perceptions of the reasons for and solutions to financial problems, factors in institutional stability or strength, plans to maintain or strengthen the institution's financial condition,…

  13. PROFESSIONAL MOBILITY AND COMPETENCE CORRELATION OF RURAL SCHOOLS TEACHERS IN THE CONDITIONS OF EDUCATION MODERNIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Vladimirovna Gavrilova; Elena Aleksandrovna Zakharova

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The article deals with the problem of teacher's professional activity in conditions of education modernization. The subject of analysis is professional mobility and competence correlation of rural schools teachers and the conditions of its formation. The authors’ aim to reveal the concepts of teacher’s "professional mobility", "professional competence" in rural schools and to determine its nature and structure in the changing paradigm of education. Results. The results of this wo...

  14. [Mastitis revealing Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannepond, C; Le Fourn, E; de Muret, A; Ouldamer, L; Carmier, D; Machet, L

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome often involves the skin, and this may sometimes reveal the disease. A 25-year-old woman was referred to a gynaecologist for inflammation of the right breast with breast discharge. Cytological analysis of the liquid showed numerous inflammatory cells, particularly polymorphonuclear eosinophils and neutrophils. Ultrasound examination of the breast was consistent with galactophoritis. CRP was normal, and hypereosinophilia was seen. The patient was subsequently referred to a dermatology unit. Skin examination revealed inflammation of the entire breast, which was painful, warm and erythematous; the border was oedematous with blisters. Necrotic lesions were also present on the thumbs and knees. Skin biopsy of the breast showed a dermal infiltrate with abundant infiltrate of polymorphonuclear eosinophils, including patchy necrosis and intraepidermal vesicles. Histological examination of a biopsy sample from a thumb revealed eosinophilic granuloma and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was also presenting asthma, pulmonary infiltrates and mononeuropathy at L3, consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Breast involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is very rare (only one other case has been reported). This is the first case in which the breast condition revealed the disease. Cutaneous involvement of the breast is, however, also compatible with Wells' cellulitis. The lesions quickly disappeared with 1mg/kg/d oral prednisolone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Conversion Method of the Balance Test Results in Open Jet Tunnel on the Free Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of sizing a model and converting the balance test results in the low speed open-jet wind tunnel to free-flow conditions. The ANSYS Fluent commercial code performs flow model calculations in the test section and in the free flow, and the ANSYS ICEM CFD module is used to provide grid generation. A structured grid is generated in the free flow and an unstructured one is provided in the test section. The changes of aerodynamic coefficients are determined at the different values of the blockage factor for the segmental-conical and hemisphere cylinder-cone shapes of the model. The blockage factor values are found at which the interference of the test section – model is neglected. The paper presents a technique to convert the wind tunnel test results to the free flow conditions.

  16. Trial sequential analysis reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J.; Thorlund, K.; Gluud, C.

    2008-01-01

    in 80% (insufficient information size). TSA(15%) and TSA(LBHIS) found that 95% and 91% had absence of evidence. The remaining nonsignificant meta-analyses had evidence of lack of effect. CONCLUSION: TSA reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate meta-analyses with trial sequential analysis (TSA). TSA adjusts for random error risk and provides the required number of participants (information size) in a meta-analysis. Meta-analyses not reaching information size are analyzed with trial sequential monitoring boundaries...... analogous to interim monitoring boundaries in a single trial. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We applied TSA on meta-analyses performed in Cochrane Neonatal reviews. We calculated information sizes and monitoring boundaries with three different anticipated intervention effects of 30% relative risk reduction (TSA...

  17. Effect of the stringency of conditions on caloric test results in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulovic, Claudio; Tulsidas Mahtani, Bharti; Atrache Al Attrache, Nabil; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio

    The caloric test is widely used to assess vestibular function, but the conditions in which it is performed can vary. Caloric nystagmus obtained in 57 healthy subjects were compared: 24 subjects studied in ideal conditions and 33 subjects in non-ideal conditions. A statistically significant decrease in the slow phase velocity of the 4 irrigations performed on the subjects in non-ideal conditions was observed. This must be considered, especially in subjects with suspected bilateral involvement. Stringent conditions reduce the risk of misdiagnosis with bilateral deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  18. Joint mapping of genes and conditions via multidimensional unfolding analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelen Kristof

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray compendia profile the expression of genes in a number of experimental conditions. Such data compendia are useful not only to group genes and conditions based on their similarity in overall expression over profiles but also to gain information on more subtle relations between genes and conditions. Getting a clear visual overview of all these patterns in a single easy-to-grasp representation is a useful preliminary analysis step: We propose to use for this purpose an advanced exploratory method, called multidimensional unfolding. Results We present a novel algorithm for multidimensional unfolding that overcomes both general problems and problems that are specific for the analysis of gene expression data sets. Applying the algorithm to two publicly available microarray compendia illustrates its power as a tool for exploratory data analysis: The unfolding analysis of a first data set resulted in a two-dimensional representation which clearly reveals temporal regulation patterns for the genes and a meaningful structure for the time points, while the analysis of a second data set showed the algorithm's ability to go beyond a mere identification of those genes that discriminate between different patient or tissue types. Conclusion Multidimensional unfolding offers a useful tool for preliminary explorations of microarray data: By relying on an easy-to-grasp low-dimensional geometric framework, relations among genes, among conditions and between genes and conditions are simultaneously represented in an accessible way which may reveal interesting patterns in the data. An additional advantage of the method is that it can be applied to the raw data without necessitating the choice of suitable genewise transformations of the data.

  19. An integrated model of multiple-condition ChIP-Seq data reveals predeterminants of Cdx2 binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Mahony

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory proteins can bind to different sets of genomic targets in various cell types or conditions. To reliably characterize such condition-specific regulatory binding we introduce MultiGPS, an integrated machine learning approach for the analysis of multiple related ChIP-seq experiments. MultiGPS is based on a generalized Expectation Maximization framework that shares information across multiple experiments for binding event discovery. We demonstrate that our framework enables the simultaneous modeling of sparse condition-specific binding changes, sequence dependence, and replicate-specific noise sources. MultiGPS encourages consistency in reported binding event locations across multiple-condition ChIP-seq datasets and provides accurate estimation of ChIP enrichment levels at each event. MultiGPS's multi-experiment modeling approach thus provides a reliable platform for detecting differential binding enrichment across experimental conditions. We demonstrate the advantages of MultiGPS with an analysis of Cdx2 binding in three distinct developmental contexts. By accurately characterizing condition-specific Cdx2 binding, MultiGPS enables novel insight into the mechanistic basis of Cdx2 site selectivity. Specifically, the condition-specific Cdx2 sites characterized by MultiGPS are highly associated with pre-existing genomic context, suggesting that such sites are pre-determined by cell-specific regulatory architecture. However, MultiGPS-defined condition-independent sites are not predicted by pre-existing regulatory signals, suggesting that Cdx2 can bind to a subset of locations regardless of genomic environment. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.

  20. A mouse model for Costello syndrome reveals an Ang II–mediated hypertensive condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Alberto J.; Guerra, Carmen; Sauzeau, Vincent; Cañamero, Marta; Bustelo, Xosé R.; Barbacid, Mariano

    2008-01-01

    Germline activation of H-RAS oncogenes is the primary cause of Costello syndrome (CS), a neuro-cardio-facio-cutaneous developmental syndrome. Here we describe the generation of a mouse model of CS by introduction of an oncogenic Gly12Val mutation in the mouse H-Ras locus using homologous recombination in ES cells. Germline expression of the endogenous H-RasG12V oncogene, even in homozygosis, resulted in hyperplasia of the mammary gland. However, development of tumors in these mice was rare. H-RasG12V mutant mice closely phenocopied some of the abnormalities observed in patients with CS, including facial dysmorphia and cardiomyopathies. These mice also displayed alterations in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system, including development of systemic hypertension, extensive vascular remodeling, and fibrosis in both the heart and the kidneys. This phenotype was age dependent and was a consequence of the abnormal upregulation of the renin–Ang II system. Treatment with captopril, an inhibitor of Ang II biosynthesis, prevented development of the hypertension condition, vascular remodeling, and heart and kidney fibrosis. In addition, it partially alleviated the observed cardiomyopathies. These mice should help in elucidating the etiology of CS symptoms, identifying additional defects, and evaluating potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:18483625

  1. Extreme Changes in Stream Geomorphic Conditions induced by Fluvial Scour in Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, O.; Ozcan, O.

    2016-12-01

    The numerous complexities associated with bridge scour have caused scour to be one of the most active topics of stream geomorphic research. The assessment of local scouring mechanism around bridge piers provides information for decision-making regarding the pile footing design, predicting the safety of bridges under critical scoured conditions, and as a result, may help prevent unnecessary loses. In the study, bridge design plans and HEC-RAS modeling were used for the assessment of changes in stream geomorphic conditions. The derived fluvial scour depths were compared with the field measurements and the empirical formula which is based on stream flow discharge rate, streambed condition and shape of river. Preliminary results revealed that bridge damage resulting from the flood event in 2003 induced substantial scour around bridge piles. Afterwards, significant stream bed change was observed under the influence of fluvial scour in another flood occurred in 2009. Consequently, geomorphic conditions of the stream bed should be considered in the structural design of the bridges.

  2. [Work conditions and results of the health screening in workers of linoleum producing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubchenko, P N; Salganikova, B S; Gorenkov, R V; Kholod, O L; Alekseeva, G A

    1993-01-01

    Screening in 115 linoleum shop workers exposed to small concentrations (at the level of MAC) of dioctyiphthalate, cyclohexanone, lead, carbon dioxide revealed the complaints of digestive and nervous systems in 84.3% and 60.9% of examines respectively. The special questionnaire and neurologic examination revealed the autonomic nervous system dysfunction in 62.6% of examinees. According to the Kardo index 70.7% had parasympathicotonia, 21.2% of examinees--sympathicotonia and 8.1% had eutonic dysfunction.

  3. Sector-condition-based results for adaptive control and synchronization of chaotic systems under input saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Hong, Keum-Shik; Khaliq, Abdul; Saeed-ur-Rehman

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of adaptive feedback controllers for two problems (namely, stabilization and synchronization) of chaotic systems with unknown parameters by considering input saturation constraints. A novel generalized sector condition is developed to deal with the saturation nonlinearities for synthesizing the nonlinear and the adaptive controllers for the stabilization and synchronization control objectives. By application of the proposed sector condition and rigorous regional stability analysis, control and adaptation laws are formulated to guarantee local stabilization of a nonlinear system under actuator saturation. Further, simple control and adaptation laws are developed to synchronize two chaotic systems under uncertain parameters and input saturation nonlinearity. Numerical simulation results for Rössler and FitzHugh–Nagumo models are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive stabilization and synchronization control methodologies

  4. Aircraft and ground vehicle friction correlation test results obtained under winter runway conditions during joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft and ground vehicle friction data collected during the Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program under winter runway conditions are discussed and test results are summarized. The relationship between the different ground vehicle friction measurements obtained on compacted snow- and ice-covered conditions is defined together with the correlation to aircraft tire friction performance under similar runway conditions.

  5. Strength and conditioning practices of National Basketball Association strength and conditioning coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simenz, Christopher J; Dugan, Carrie A; Ebben, William P

    2005-08-01

    This study describes the results of a survey of the practices of National Basketball Association strength and conditioning (NBA S&C) coaches. The response rate was 68.9% (20 of 29). This survey examines (a) background information, (b) physical testing, (c) flexibility development, (d) speed development, (e) plyometrics, (f) strength/power development, (g) unique aspects, and (h) comments from coaches providing additional information. Results indicate, in part, that coaches assess an average of 7.3 parameters of fitness, with body composition testing being the most common. All coaches used a variety of flexibility development strategies. Results reveal that 17 of 20 (85.0%) of NBA S&C coaches follow a periodization model. Nineteen of 20 coaches (95.0%) indicated that their athletes used Olympic-style lifts. All coaches employed plyometric exercises with their athletes. The squat and its variations, as well as the Olympic-style lifts and their variations, were the most frequently used exercises. The survey serves as a review and a source of applied information and new ideas.

  6. The first results of pilot project on combined preventive suplementation of iodine- and iron deficiency conditions in Tyumen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sharuho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008–2010 pilot project were realized in Tyumen region on combined preventive maintenance iodine deficiency and iron deficiency conditions, within the framework of which children from pilot of the territory got feeding, enriched premixes of the iodine and ferric while checking group has formed the children, getting monoprevention iodized salt. In study were examined 467 children. Frequency of the goiter on ultrasonography in pilot territory fell from 19.8 to 6.4%, in checking from 12.5 to 10.1%. In group teenager on background combined micronutrient preventive maintenance frequency tests ferritin less 15 mcg/l fell for 76 weeks in four times (p = 0.000, herewith average factors in 2010 above, than in 2008 (p = 0.114. In group teenager checking territory on background monoprevention frequency of the lowered tests ferritin more, than in group on background of the combined preventive maintenance in 2 times (p = 0.004, improvements for period of the study is not revealed.Dynamics indices of iodine deficiency conditions on background of the combined preventive maintenance and monoprevention confirms greater efficiency of the simultaneous using the products fortifications iodine and iron. Shown efficiency micronutrient preventive maintenances of the latent deficit ferric fortifications bread.

  7. Effects of dual-task conditions on cervical spine movement variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Vogel, Johanna; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-22

    The potential to accurately perform cervical movements during more challenging tasks might be of importance to prevent dysfunctional motion characteristics. Although sensorimotor function during dual-task conditions are of increasing interest in biomedical and rehabilitation research, effects of such conditions on movement consistency of the neck have not yet been investigated. In this crossover MiSpEx(Medicine in Spine Exercise)-diagnostic study, we aimed to explore differences between single and dual-task conditions on cervical movement variability. Nineteen healthy participants (9 male; 24.5 ± 3.3 y) performed 10 repetitive maximal cervical movements in (1) flexion/extension and (2) lateral flexion, during one single- and during two dual-task test conditions (cognitive, motor) in a randomised and cross-over sequence. Latter consisted of a working memory n-back task (n= 2) and a repetitive ankle movement task. Range of motion (RoM) was assessed using an external three-dimensional ultrasonic movement analysis system. Coefficient of variation (CV) for repetitive RoM was analysed for differences between conditions and controlled for variances in intra-individual movement characteristics. Friedman and post-hoc Bonferroni-adjusted confidence intervals for differences from single- to dual-task values revealed changes in CV in flexion/extension from single-task to motor dual-task (+0.02 ± 0.02 (97.5%CI: 0.01; 0.03); pdual-task condition (+0.01 ± 0.02 (97.5%CI: 0.003; 0.02)) nor for lateral flexion (p> 0.05). Pearson regression analyses revealed a linear negative (pdual-task (R=2 0.55). Results for lateral flexion are comparable, baseline CV negatively impacts differences to cognitive (R=2 0.2) and motor dual-task performance (R=2 0.76; pdual-task conditions while participants with a higher variability remained almost stable or showed a decrease. The results point toward a complex interrelationship of motion patterns and adaptation processes during challenging tasks

  8. Do Geriatric Conditions Increase Risk of Adverse Drug Reactions in Ambulatory Elders? Results From the VA GEM Drug Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Joseph T.; Sloane, Richard J.; Boscardin, W. John; Schmader, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Many clinicians prescribe cautiously to older adults with common geriatric conditions for fear of causing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). However, little is known about the association between these conditions and risk of ADRs. Methods. Using data from the VA Geriatric Evaluation and Management Drug Study, we determined any, preventable, and serious ADRs in 808 elders for 12 months after hospital discharge using a validated process involving patient self-report and chart review adjudicated by two health care professionals. Eight common geriatric conditions (activities of daily living, dementia, incontinence, falls, difficulty ambulating, malnourishment, depression, and prolonged bed rest) were evaluated at study baseline through self-report and structured assessments. We used Poisson regression to model the relationship between these geriatric conditions and ADRs. Results. Participants had a mean of 2.9 ± 1.2 geriatric conditions. Over the 12-month follow-up period, 497 ADRs occurred in 269 participants, including 187 ADRs considered preventable and 127 considered severe. On multivariable analyses, participants with dependency in one or more activities of daily living were less likely to suffer ADRs than those who were fully independent (incidence rate ratio: 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.62–1.00). None of the other seven geriatric conditions assessed were associated with ADR risk. Results were similar for preventable and serious ADRs, although participants with a history of falls were more likely to develop serious ADRs (incidence rate ratio: 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.00–2.21). Conclusions. Many geriatric conditions were not associated with risk of ADRs. Although it is prudent to prescribe judiciously in patients with these conditions, excessive caution may not be warranted. PMID:21321003

  9. [Effect of indications and pre-existing conditions on the result of McDonald's cervix-closure surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avar, Z; Tóth, B; Zacher, P

    1979-01-01

    Authors have performed the McDonald cerclage operation on 172 gravidae because of cervical incompetence. From these pregnancies 80.2 per cent of the infants have survived over the sixth day. While with operations performed on the basis of extended indications for surgery an effect of 56.5 per cent was achieved, it was in cases of classical ones 92.8 per cent. Two complicated cases are reported caused by blastospores or bacteria respectively, isolated also in the vaginal secretion which have ascended into the uterine cavity. Both cases resulted in fetal death and in a septic condition of the mother. It is emphasized that the normal vaginal bioflora is essential condition for the cervical suture.

  10. ID-check: Online concealed information test reveals true identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Kleinberg, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these

  11. Working conditions analysis according T.L. personal dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory for personal dosimetry in the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health, Belgrade, used TLD more than twenty years. Before that, film dosimetry was main method in external monitoring. T.L. dosimetry was started with Reader Toledo 654 and crystals Mg B 4 O 7 . Finally, from 1992 laboratory has Harshaw TLD Reader Model 6600. Dosimeters are crystals LiF type 100, card packed, worn in standard filtrated holders. Personal dosimetry data are keeping 30 years for each worker according to regulations. The data from 1990 are in electronic form. Long experience enables conclusion that new technique means more advantages in practice. Recommendation from this laboratory practice refers to TLD read-out cycle. The longest period should be one month. LiF is recommended crystal. Glow curve deconvolution gives information about chronological irradiation. It is very important to conclude was dosimetry irradiated by 'one-shot' or continuously. Preparing calibration for determination the time since accident laboratory has to define adequate dose calibration methodology including low temperature peaks. Possibility to follow working conditions analyzing TLD glow curve is much more important than low decrease of dose severity. Time depend analyze is not possible if TLD would be read-out more than (approximately) six weeks after irradiation. If ionizing sources produce such low dose and has negligible probability of accidental exposure (according nowadays regulation read-out frequency could be once in three month), the recommendation is not to use external personal monitoring. Reading personal dosimeters once in three months deemed not useful. Complete and successful personal dosimetry dictates using system that enables glow curve shape representation to be sure that signal is ionizing irradiation result or not. Time depend analyze imparts information about protection permanence. In special circumstance, it is possible to estimate the time of exposure. This is extremely

  12. Eliciting Characteristics, Condition and Challenges in Bank Frontline Services: A Service Quality Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renante A. Egcas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Continual improvement and customer satisfaction are not simply mantras but become a culture of an organization that had its quality management system certified. Hence, this study aimed to assess the operation of the new accounts section of the select provincial branches of an ISO certified bank in the Philippines. A survey instrument using the CCC (characteristics-condition-challenges framework was employed. The respondents were the new accounts clerks (NACs, supervisors and clients of the branches. The result revealed that the most essential and helpful characteristics of the NAC to achieve maximum clients’ satisfaction are being accommodating, accurate, compliant, fast, facilitative, and pleasing. The result further revealed that the condition of the New Account Section (NAS as to the level of compliance and satisfaction in triangulated assessment was ‘very highly compliant/satisfactory’ in the different areas of operation, hence, conforming processes were evident. Furthermore, the result revealed that the challenges or the issues and problems encountered by the NACs are bulk of works, complaining clients, impatient clients, long processes, and overwhelming clients. Generally, the stakeholders of the bank, particularly the clients desired to be wellaccommodated and well-facilitated by a pleasing and efficient employee in a shortest possible time because for them this is ‘good service’. For continual improvement and business excellence, more procedural and service innovations on some aspects of operations are wanting.

  13. Sintering of hardmetals in different conditions: experimental results of 2-D dilatometry and computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasik, M.; Zhang, B.; Kaskiala, M.; Yilkeraelae, J.

    2001-01-01

    Properties of WC-Co functionally gradated materials (FGM) manufactured by powder metallurgy from nanograin powders are studied. New optical system (a 2-D dilatometer) has been developed, using a high-resolution CCd camera and a dedicated software fro image processing. Sintering of WC-Co hard metals with different cobalt and grain growth inhibitors content was performed for various conditions (substrate, heating rate, temperature) and resulting anisotropy was measured. (author)

  14. The effect of search condition and advertising type on visual attention to Internet advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gho; Lee, Jang-Han

    2011-05-01

    This research was conducted to examine the level of consumers' visual attention to Internet advertising. It was predicted that consumers' search type would influence visual attention to advertising. Specifically, it was predicted that more attention to advertising would be attracted in the exploratory search condition than in the goal-directed search condition. It was also predicted that there would be a difference in visual attention depending on the advertisement type (advertising type: text vs. pictorial advertising). An eye tracker was used for measurement. Results revealed that search condition and advertising type influenced advertising effectiveness.

  15. [Relationships between air conditioning, airborne microorganisms and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, S; Perdrix, A; Baconnier, P

    1999-01-01

    Concurrently with the increase of air-conditioning, potentially severe or frequent new diseases have emerged, giving rise to social and economical consequences. The first part of this work is a state of the art review of the relationships between air-conditioning, airborne microorganisms and health, through a technical, metrological and medical approach. The second part presents four studies performed in this field. Two of them deal with the relationship between airborne microorganisms and technical features of air-conditioning. Measurements performed on actual sites demonstrated the benefit of using high efficiency filters and low risk components in air-conditioning systems. The third study was aimed to look for a relationship between airborne microorganisms and sick building syndrome symptoms. Statistical analyses of individual data revealed significant associations between airborne bacteria or fungi and symptoms. These results may be the first step in determining a dose-response relationship, in order to define threshold limit values in this field. In the fourth study, the contribution of particle counting in assessing exposure to airborne microorganisms was explored by monitoring simultaneous variations of microbial and particle concentrations. The results showed that associating particle counting may allow to detect microbial variations instantaneously, and therefore improve the assessment of exposure to airborne microorganisms.

  16. Restricted Social Engagement among Adults Living with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla P. Meek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions and factors associated with these restrictions. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey were examined for relationships between social engagement restrictions and chronic conditions, health status, support, quality of life implications, self-care barriers, caregiving, and demographics. Associations were tested using bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. Results: Participants were 793 middle-aged (age 44–64 and older adults (age 65+ with one or more chronic conditions. Factors associated with social engagement restrictions included having higher education, receiving care, having more physician visits and hospitalizations, being disabled, being unemployed, and having higher Emotional and Physical Problems Scale scores. Conclusions: Findings reveal the prevalence of social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions. Results highlight the importance of promoting research, assessments, and interventions to increase social engagement among this aging population.

  17. Chironomidae (Diptera, Chironomidae) as biological indicators of water bodies ecological condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtin, M.M.; Sejsebaev, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents data confirming that Chironomidae are good to be used as an indicative criterion when classifying lakes. It was found that their quantity and presence of certain species could serve as an index in assessment of water body ecological condition. Results of cytotaxonomic analysis helped to reveal the nature of Chironomini species diversity in STS water bodies. (author)

  18. Cellular Responses of the Lichen Circinaria gyrosa in Mars-Like Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de la Torre Noetzel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are extremely resistant organisms that colonize harsh climatic areas, some of them defined as “Mars-analog sites.” There still remain many unsolved questions as to how lichens survive under such extreme conditions. Several studies have been performed to test the resistance of various lichen species under space and in simulated Mars-like conditions. The results led to the proposal that Circinaria gyrosa (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota is one of the most durable astrobiological model lichens. However, although C. gyrosa has been exposed to Mars-like environmental conditions while in a latent state, it has not been exposed in its physiologically active mode. We hypothesize that the astrobiological test system “Circinaria gyrosa,” could be able to be physiologically active and to survive under Mars-like conditions in a simulation chamber, based on previous studies performed at dessicated-dormant stage under simulated Mars-like conditions, that showed a complete recover of the PSII activity (Sánchez et al., 2012. Epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM showed that living algal cells were more abundant in samples exposed to niche conditions, which simulated the conditions in micro-fissures and micro-caves close to the surface that have limited scattered or time-dependent light exposure, than in samples exposed to full UV radiation. The medulla was not structurally affected, suggesting that the niche exposure conditions did not disturb the lichen thalli structure and morphology as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. In addition, changes in the lichen thalli chemical composition were determined by analytical pyrolysis. The chromatograms resulting from analytical pyrolysis at 500°C revealed that lichen samples exposed to niche conditions and full UV radiation consisted primarily of glycosidic compounds, lipids, and sterols, which are typical constituents of the cell walls. However, specific

  19. Cellular Responses of the Lichen Circinaria gyrosa in Mars-Like Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Miller, Ana Z; de la Rosa, José M; Pacelli, Claudia; Onofri, Silvano; García Sancho, Leopoldo; Cubero, Beatriz; Lorek, Andreas; Wolter, David; de Vera, Jean P

    2018-01-01

    Lichens are extremely resistant organisms that colonize harsh climatic areas, some of them defined as "Mars-analog sites." There still remain many unsolved questions as to how lichens survive under such extreme conditions. Several studies have been performed to test the resistance of various lichen species under space and in simulated Mars-like conditions. The results led to the proposal that Circinaria gyrosa (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) is one of the most durable astrobiological model lichens. However, although C . gyrosa has been exposed to Mars-like environmental conditions while in a latent state, it has not been exposed in its physiologically active mode. We hypothesize that the astrobiological test system " Circinaria gyrosa ," could be able to be physiologically active and to survive under Mars-like conditions in a simulation chamber, based on previous studies performed at dessicated-dormant stage under simulated Mars-like conditions, that showed a complete recover of the PSII activity (Sánchez et al., 2012). Epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that living algal cells were more abundant in samples exposed to niche conditions, which simulated the conditions in micro-fissures and micro-caves close to the surface that have limited scattered or time-dependent light exposure, than in samples exposed to full UV radiation. The medulla was not structurally affected, suggesting that the niche exposure conditions did not disturb the lichen thalli structure and morphology as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In addition, changes in the lichen thalli chemical composition were determined by analytical pyrolysis. The chromatograms resulting from analytical pyrolysis at 500°C revealed that lichen samples exposed to niche conditions and full UV radiation consisted primarily of glycosidic compounds, lipids, and sterols, which are typical constituents of the cell walls. However, specific differences could be

  20. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geelhood, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bignell, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Gregg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Jy-An [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanborn, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spears, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klymyshyn, Nick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  1. Determinants of Current Account Deficit in Turkey: The Conditional and Partial Granger Causality Approach

    OpenAIRE

    YURDAKUL, Funda; CEVHER, Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the causality relations between the macro aggregates that affect current deficit using conditional and partial Granger causality test. Current deficit/GDP, growth rate, real effective exchange rate, direct foreign capital investment, openness, and energy import were selected as variables for this purpose. 2003.1-2014.2 quarterly data for Turkey’s economy were used for analysis. The results of the conditional and partial Granger causality test demonstrate that real ef...

  2. Hypomorphic conditional deletion of E11/Podoplanin reveals a role in osteocyte dendrite elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Katherine A; Javaheri, Behzad; Hohenstein, Peter; Fleming, Robert; Ikpegbu, Ekele; Unger, Erin; Hopkinson, Mark; Buttle, David J; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Farquharson, Colin

    2017-11-01

    The transmembrane glycoprotein E11/Podoplanin (Pdpn) has been implicated in the initial stages of osteocyte differentiation. However, its precise function and regulatory mechanisms are still unknown. Due to the known embryonic lethality induced by global Pdpn deletion, we have herein explored the effect of bone-specific Pdpn knockdown on osteocyte form and function in the post-natal mouse. Extensive skeletal phenotyping of male and female 6-week-old Oc-cre;Pdpn flox/flox (cKO) mice and their Pdpn flox/flox controls (fl/fl) has revealed that Pdpn deletion significantly compromises tibial cortical bone microarchitecture in both sexes, albeit to different extents (p < 0.05). Consistent with this, we observed an increase in stiffness in female cKO mice in comparison to fl/fl mice (p < 0.01). Moreover, analysis of the osteocyte phenotype by phalloidin staining revealed a significant decrease in the dendrite volume (p < 0.001) and length (p < 0.001) in cKO mice in which deletion of Pdpn also modifies the bone anabolic loading response (p < 0.05) in comparison to age-matched fl/fl mice. Together, these data confirm a regulatory role for Pdpn in osteocyte dendrite formation and as such, in the control of osteocyte function. As the osteocyte dendritic network is known to play vital roles in regulating bone modeling/remodeling, this highlights an essential role for Pdpn in bone homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Lemire, Bernard D.

    2011-01-01

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in 1 H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  4. Comparative study of housing conditions in turkey flocks and the influence of the results in the meat inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Hultsch, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    According to Chapter 1 oft the GlHV, dated December 3rd , 1997 feedlots of Poultry fattening are required to collect Data from the housing conditions of the animals. Taking these fattening data into consideration during official veterinarian Examinations is designed to getting the best possible Information about the flock. Results of the ante mortem examination are to be examined or explained by its origination, to be able to determine the general health condition of a herd. Thi...

  5. Short-term total sleep deprivation alters delay-conditioned memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Shweta; Jha, Sushil K

    2016-06-01

    Short-term sleep deprivation soon after training may impair memory consolidation. Also, a particular sleep stage or its components increase after learning some tasks, such as negative and positive reinforcement tasks, avoidance tasks, and spatial learning tasks, and so forth. It suggests that discrete memory types may require specific sleep stage or its components for their optimal processing. The classical conditioning paradigms are widely used to study learning and memory but the role of sleep in a complex conditioned learning is unclear. Here, we have investigated the effects of short-term sleep deprivation on the consolidation of delay-conditioned memory and the changes in sleep architecture after conditioning. Rats were trained for the delay-conditioned task (for conditioning, house-light [conditioned stimulus] was paired with fruit juice [unconditioned stimulus]). Animals were divided into 3 groups: (a) sleep deprived (SD); (b) nonsleep deprived (NSD); and (c) stress control (SC) groups. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between groups and days (training and testing) during the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus presentation. Further, Tukey post hoc comparison revealed that the NSD and SC animals exhibited significant increase in performances during testing. The SD animals, however, performed significantly less during testing. Further, we observed that wakefulness and NREM sleep did not change after training and testing. Interestingly, REM sleep increased significantly on both days compared to baseline more specifically during the initial 4-hr time window after conditioning. Our results suggest that the consolidation of delay-conditioned memory is sleep-dependent and requires augmented REM sleep during an explicit time window soon after training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Ripple formation in unilamellar-supported lipid bilayer revealed by FRAPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Frédéric; Simon, Anne; Tinland, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of formation and conditions of the existence of the ripple phase are fundamental thermodynamic questions with practical implications for medicine and pharmaceuticals. We reveal a new case of ripple formation occurring in unilamellar-supported bilayers in water, which results solely from the bilayer/support interaction, without using lipid mixtures or specific ions. This ripple phase is detected by FRAPP using diffusion coefficient measurements as a function of temperature: a diffusivity plateau is observed. It occurs in the same temperature range where ripple phase existence has been observed using other methods. When AFM experiments are performed in the appropriate temperature range the ripple phase is confirmed.

  7. Is periodontal disease a reason or result for premature birth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Demir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is a known fact that there is a connection between periodontal disease and certain systemic conditions. Even though there are some contradictory results in the conducted studies, periodontal disease has been accepted as a risk factor affecting the negative terminations of pregnancy in recent years (premature birth [PB], low birth weight. This consideration is associated with a positive correlation between two conditions in some studies. The Hypothesis: Although there is such a relationship between periodontal disease and PB, the linking mechanism has not been explained as presence of the relation cannot reveal the cause-effect relationship. It should be discussed whether or not this positive connection is caused by the fact that periodontal disease is an independent risk factor for PB, or the change (hormonal, inflammatory in the systemic condition in PB cases causes a risk for periodontal disease. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The fact that in PB cases the changes in steroid hormone levels might increase the incidence and severity of periodontal disease as in pregnancy, or there could be a common risk factor that may cause both cases, has not been revealed yet and should be taken into consideration.

  8. Working conditions, work style, and job satisfaction among Albanian teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, Marion; Tarifa, Fatos

    1994-03-01

    For the first time in Albania, a large-scale study investigating teachers' working conditions was conducted. 349 teachers from many parts of the country and from all school levels answered an extensive questionnaire, providing a comprehensive description of their working situation. As data for parts of the study exist from the USA, Germany, Singapore, England, and Poland, results could be discussed in comparison to the conditions in these countries, showing that self-reported job satisfaction and engagement in effective classroom practices is relatively high among Albanian teachers, while the economic and physical conditions are bad. Stepwise regression analyses reveal that the items measuring professional autonomy account for a considerable part of the variance of the job satisfaction measure; while work efficiency is mainly predicted by items measuring social support and, again, professional autonomy.

  9. Hybridization within Saccharomyces Genus Results in Homoeostasis and Phenotypic Novelty in Winemaking Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma da Silva

    Full Text Available Despite its biotechnological interest, hybridization, which can result in hybrid vigor, has not commonly been studied or exploited in the yeast genus. From a diallel design including 55 intra- and interspecific hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum grown at two temperatures in enological conditions, we analyzed as many as 35 fermentation traits with original statistical and modeling tools. We first showed that, depending on the types of trait--kinetics parameters, life-history traits, enological parameters and aromas -, the sources of variation (strain, temperature and strain * temperature effects differed in a large extent. Then we compared globally three groups of hybrids and their parents at two growth temperatures: intraspecific hybrids S. cerevisiae * S. cerevisiae, intraspecific hybrids S. uvarum * S. uvarum and interspecific hybrids S. cerevisiae * S. uvarum. We found that hybridization could generate multi-trait phenotypes with improved oenological performances and better homeostasis with respect to temperature. These results could explain why interspecific hybridization is so common in natural and domesticated yeast, and open the way to applications for wine-making.

  10. Employment conditions and maternal postpartum mental health: results from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Canterford, Louise; Strazdins, Lyndall; Nicholson, Jan M

    2011-06-01

    Maternal postpartum mental health is influenced by a broad range of risk and protective factors including social circumstances. Forty percent of Australian women resume employment in the first year postpartum, yet poor quality employment (without security, control, flexibility or leave) has not been investigated as a potential social determinant of maternal psychological distress. This paper examines whether poor quality jobs are associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum psychological distress. Data were collected from employed mothers of infants ≤12 months (n = 1,300) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Logistic regression analyses estimated the association between job quality and maternal psychological distress, adjusting for prior depression, social support, quality of partner relationship, adverse life events and sociodemographic characteristics. Only 21% of women reported access to all four optimal job conditions. After adjustment for known risk factors for poor maternal mood, mothers were significantly more likely to report psychological distress (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.09, 1.77) with each reduction in the number of optimal employment conditions. Interventions for maternal postpartum affective disorders are unlikely to be successful if major risk factors are not addressed. These results provide strong evidence that employment conditions are associated with maternal postpartum mood, and warrant consideration in psychosocial risk assessments and interventions.

  11. Practical models to estimate horizontal irradiance in clear sky conditions: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, German A.; Hernandez, Alejandro L.; Saravia, Luis R. [Department of Physics, School of Exact Sciences, National University of Salta, Bolivia Avenue 5150, 4400 Salta Capital (Argentina); INENCO (Institute of Non Conventional Energy Research), Bolivia Avenue 5150, 4400 Salta Capital (Argentina)

    2010-11-15

    The Argentinean Northwest (ANW) is a high altitude region located alongside Los Andes Mountains. The ANW is also one of the most insolated regions in the world due to its altitude and particular climate. However, the characterization of the solar resource in the region is incomplete as there are no stations to measure solar radiation continuously and methodically. With irradiance data recently having been measured at three sites in the Salta Province, a study was carried out that resulted in a practical model to quickly and efficiently estimate the horizontal irradiance in high altitude sites in clear sky conditions. This model uses the altitude above sea level (A) as a variable and generates a representative clearness index as a result (k{sub t-R}) that is calculated for each site studied. This index k{sub t-R} is then used with the relative optical air mass and the extraterrestrial irradiance to estimate the instantaneous clearness index (k{sub t}). Subsequently, the index k{sub t-R} is corrected by introducing the atmospheric pressure in the definition of relative optical air mass proposed by Kasten. The results are satisfactory as errors in the irradiance estimations with respect to measured values do not exceed 5% for pressure corrected air masses AM{sub c} < 2. This model will be used in a feasibility study to locate sites for the installation of solar thermal power plants in the ANW. A prototype of a CLFR solar power plant is being built in the INENCO Campus, at the National University of Salta. (author)

  12. Towards the problem ChAES alienation zone residing conditions for watch-shift personal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimenko, V.Ya.; Yanko, N.M.; Semashko, P.V.; Yarygin, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The article deals with some results of hygienic study concerning watch-shift workers residing condition in the ChAES 30-km zone. The evaluation is given for residing environment prioritative living parameters, air ventilation, hostels inhabiting conditions, the acoustic regime. Some indoor environment aerosol pollution levels different kind domestic activity a revealed. Electrostatic air cleaning installing as devices of radioactive smalldispers aerosol control a studied. Some tasks of further research are substantiated in order of watch-shift workers residing environment optimization in the alienation zone

  13. Predicting the impact of chronic health conditions on workplace productivity and accidents: results from two US Department of Energy national laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jodi Jacobson; Osteen, Philip J; Berglund, Patricia A; Jinnett, Kimberly; Ko, Jungyai

    2015-04-01

    Examine associations of chronic health conditions on workplace productivity and accidents among US Department of Energy employees. The Health and Work Performance Questionnaire-Select was administered to a random sample of two Department of Energy national laboratory employees (46% response rate; N = 1854). The majority (87.4%) reported having one or more chronic health conditions, with 43.4% reporting four or more conditions. A population-attributable risk proportions analysis suggests improvements of 4.5% in absenteeism, 5.1% in presenteeism, 8.9% in productivity, and 77% of accidents by reducing the number of conditions by one level. Depression was the only health condition associated with all four outcomes. Results suggest that chronic conditions in this workforce are prevalent and costly. Efforts to prevent or reduce condition comorbidity among employees with multiple conditions can significantly reduce costs and workplace accident rates.

  14. Chronic Lateral Epicondylalgia Does Not Exhibit Mechanical Pain Modulation in Response to Noxious Conditioning Heat Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Edwin Choon Wyn; Sterling, Michele; Vicenzino, Bill

    2017-10-01

    The impaired attenuation of pain by the application of a noxious conditioning stimulus at a segmentally distinct site, known as conditioned pain modulation (CPM), has been implicated in clinical pain states. Chronic lateral epicondylalgia (LE), which is characterized by lower pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at sites remote to the affected elbow and spinal cord hyperexcitability, is a clinical pain state that might plausibly involve less efficacious CPM. This study aimed to determine whether LE exhibits a less efficacious CPM compared with that in pain-free controls. Results: Twenty participants with LE, aged 50.7 years (SD=7.05) and who had their condition for 10.2 months (range: 2 to 80 mo), were matched by age and sex to 22 pain-free participants. All participants indicated their PPT over the lateral epicondyle(s) before and during a conditioning noxious heat stimulus that was applied over the calf. A CPM score was calculated as the difference between the PPT before and during the heat pain-conditioning stimulus expressed as a percentage of PPT before the heat pain-conditioning stimulus. The condition (LE vs. control) by side (affected vs. unaffected) analysis of variance revealed a significant condition effect (P=0.001), but not side effect (P=0.192) or side-by-condition interaction effect (P=0.951). Follow-up tests for the effect of condition revealed a mean deficit in CPM of -24.5% (95% confidence interval, -38.0 to -11.0) in LE compared with that in pain-free participants. The results that suggest an impaired ability to modulate pain might be associated with the previously observed spinal cord hyperexcitability and the mechanical hyperalgesia that characterizes LE.

  15. 17 CFR 229.303 - (Item 303) Management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 303) Management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations. 229.303 Section 229.303 Commodity... 1975-REGULATION S-K Financial Information § 229.303 (Item 303) Management's discussion and analysis of...

  16. A generalized conditional heteroscedastic model for temperature downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, R.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a method for deriving the time varying second order moment, or heteroscedasticity, of local daily temperature and its association to large Coupled Canadian General Circulation Models predictors. This is carried out by applying a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) approach to construct the conditional variance-covariance structure between General Circulation Models (GCMs) predictors and maximum and minimum temperature time series during 1980-2000. Two MGARCH specifications namely diagonal VECH and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) are applied and 25 GCM predictors were selected for a bivariate temperature heteroscedastic modeling. It is observed that the conditional covariance between predictors and temperature is not very strong and mostly depends on the interaction between the random process governing temporal variation of predictors and predictants. The DCC model reveals a time varying conditional correlation between GCM predictors and temperature time series. No remarkable increasing or decreasing change is observed for correlation coefficients between GCM predictors and observed temperature during 1980-2000 while weak winter-summer seasonality is clear for both conditional covariance and correlation. Furthermore, the stationarity and nonlinearity Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) tests showed that GCM predictors, temperature and their conditional correlation time series are nonlinear but stationary during 1980-2000 according to BDS and KPSS test results. However, the degree of nonlinearity of temperature time series is higher than most of the GCM predictors.

  17. Amelioration of Heat-Stress Conditions of Egyptian Summer Season on Friesian Calves Using Air Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.; Kamal, T.H.; Khalil, W.K.B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Friesian calves were used to evaluate cool air condition (AC) in alleviating heat stress (HS) determined by Heat Shock Protein genes expression (HSP), hormonal, biochemical and physiological parameters. The animals were exposed to summer heat stress (HS) under shade for two weeks (control). The maximum temperature humidity index (THI) during summer HS was from 81 to 88. Afterward the animals were exposed to AC, inside a climatic chamber for 6 hours daily for two weeks, where, the THI was from 70 to 71. The results revealed that expression level of the Hsp genes (Hsp72, Hsp70.1, Hsp70 and Hsp47) was lower under air condition treatment than under summer heat stress. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly lower (p< 0.01) under air condition treatment than those under heat stress. Total triiodothyronin (T3) level was significantly higher (P< 0.05) in AC cooling treatments than in HS, while cortisol level was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in AC cooling treatment than in HS calves. Creatinine and Urea -N levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in AC cooling treatment than in HS calves. Triglycerides, ALT and AST levels were significantly lower (p<0.01), (P< 0.01) and (p<0.05), respectively in AC cooling treatment than in HS calves. These results demonstrated that there is a relationship between the molecular weight of HSPs and the level of HSPs gene exprisson. The higher the molecular weight (HSP 72) the lower is the HSPs gene expression level (0.82 in HS and 0.39 in AC) and vise versa. This holds true in both heat stress and air condition. AC treatment is capable to ameliorate heat stress of Friesian calves under hot summer climate

  18. Dynamics of a stabilized motor defense conditioned reflex at different levels of motivation in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtemberg, A S

    1982-05-01

    Postradiation dynamics of strengthened motor-defense conditioned reflex in rats-males irradiated with the doses of 94.111 and 137 Gy was studied. Phase disturbances of conditioned-reflex activity increased with enhancing irradiation dose have been revealed. Rapid recovery of conditioned reflex after short primary aggravation was a characteristic peculiarity. At that, the dynamics of relation of main nervous processes in cortex was noted for significant instability increasing with radiation syndrome development. Enhancement of force of electro-defense support promoted more effective strengthening of temporary connections and conditioned high stability of trained-reflex reactions during serious functional disturbances resulted from sublethal dose irradiation.

  19. European otorhinolaryngology training programs: results of a European survey about training satisfaction, work environment and conditions in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, Naif H; Reichelt, A C; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, Andreas E

    2017-11-01

    ORL-students and residents have an ongoing debate about the "best" programme in Europe. Aim of this study was to comparatively assess differences among programmes in training, satisfaction, quality of life (QoL) of residents and recent otorhinolaryngologist (ORL) specialists in France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Austria, and Belgium. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, structured in ten sections including general information, provided guidance, working environment, training structure, teaching of medical students, publication work, QoL, and satisfaction with training, were emailed to residents and recent ORL specialists. 476 returned questionnaires from 6 countries revealed that daily work hours were the highest in France and Belgium with 11 and 10.4 h on average, respectively. QoL, work conditions, and salary were best in Germany followed by Austria in terms of possibility of part-time contracts, better respect for post-duty day off, and compensation for overtime. Satisfaction with training including support and guidance of seniors was lowest in Italy, but, on the other hand, the publication work and support had a more important place than in other countries. In Belgium, there was some gap between the quality of teaching and feedback from seniors as well as apprenticeship. The highest satisfaction with training was in France and Spain followed by Austria. The study results provide guidance before choosing an ORL training programme in Europe. Country-specific strengths could be included into future harmonization efforts to improve all programmes, facilitate professional exchange and, finally, establish standards-of-care carried out by well-trained doctors also looking after a satisfying work-life balance.

  20. Operant conditioning of facial displays of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Miriam; Rainville, Pierre; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    The operant model of chronic pain posits that nonverbal pain behavior, such as facial expressions, is sensitive to reinforcement, but experimental evidence supporting this assumption is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate in a healthy population a) whether facial pain behavior can indeed be operantly conditioned using a discriminative reinforcement schedule to increase and decrease facial pain behavior and b) to what extent these changes affect pain experience indexed by self-ratings. In the experimental group (n = 29), the participants were reinforced every time that they showed pain-indicative facial behavior (up-conditioning) or a neutral expression (down-conditioning) in response to painful heat stimulation. Once facial pain behavior was successfully up- or down-conditioned, respectively (which occurred in 72% of participants), facial pain displays and self-report ratings were assessed. In addition, a control group (n = 11) was used that was yoked to the reinforcement plans of the experimental group. During the conditioning phases, reinforcement led to significant changes in facial pain behavior in the majority of the experimental group (p .136). Fine-grained analyses of facial muscle movements revealed a similar picture. Furthermore, the decline in facial pain displays (as observed during down-conditioning) strongly predicted changes in pain ratings (R(2) = 0.329). These results suggest that a) facial pain displays are sensitive to reinforcement and b) that changes in facial pain displays can affect self-report ratings.

  1. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  2. Analysis of the repeatability of the exhaust pollutants emission research results for cold and hot starts under controlled driving cycle conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Artur; Kuszewski, Hubert; Ustrzycki, Adam; Balawender, Krzysztof; Lejda, Kazimierz; Woś, Paweł

    2018-04-20

    Measurement of car engines exhaust pollutants emissions is very important because of their harmful effects on the environment. This article presents the assessment of repeatability of the passenger car engine exhaust pollutants emission research results obtained in the conditions of a chassis dynamometer. The research was conducted in a climate chamber, enabling the temperature conditions to be determined from - 20 to + 30 °C. The emission of CO, CH 4 , CO 2 , NO X , THC, and NMHC was subjected to the analysis. The aim of the research is to draw attention to the accuracy of the pollutant emission research results in driving cycles, and the comparison of pollutant emission results and their repeatability obtained in successive NEDC cycles under cold and hot start conditions. The results of the analysis show that, in the case of a small number of measurements, the results repeatability analysis is necessary for a proper interpretation of the pollutant emission results on the basis of the mean value. According to the authors' judgment, it is beneficial to determine the coefficient of variation for a more complete assessment of exhaust emission result repeatability obtained from a small number of measurements. This parameter is rarely presented by the authors of papers on exhaust components emission research.

  3. High-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies on disordered materials. From ambient condition to an extreme condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Shinji; Ohishi, Yasuo; Suzuya, Kentaro; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    High-energy x-rays from synchrotron radiation source allow us to measure high-quality diffraction data of the disordered materials from under ambient condition to an extreme condition, which is necessary to reveal the detailed structure of glass, liquid, and amorphous materials. We introduce the high-energy x-ray diffraction beamline and dedicated diffractometer for glass, liquid, and amorphous materials with the recent developments of ancillary equipments. Furthermore our recent studies on the structures of disordered materials reviewed. (author)

  4. Muscular condition monitoring system using fiber bragg grating sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Lee, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors (FOS) have advantages such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity, corrosion resistance and multiplexing capability. For these reasons, they are widely used in various condition monitoring systems (CMS). This study investigated a muscular condition monitoring system using fiber optic sensors (FOS). Generally, sensors for monitoring the condition of the human body are based on electro-magnetic devices. However, such an electrical system has several weaknesses, including the potential for electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors overcome these weaknesses, along with simplifying the devices and increasing user convenience. To measure the level of muscle contraction and relaxation, which indicates the muscle condition, a belt-shaped FBG sensor module that makes it possible to monitor the movement of muscles in the radial and circumferential directions was fabricated in this study. In addition, a uniaxial tensile test was carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of this FBG sensor module. Based on the experimental results, a relationship was observed between the tensile stress and Bragg wavelength of the FBG sensors, which revealed the possibility of fabricating a muscular condition monitoring system based on FBG sensors.

  5. Muscular condition monitoring system using fiber bragg grating sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Young; Lee, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Fiber optic sensors (FOS) have advantages such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity, corrosion resistance and multiplexing capability. For these reasons, they are widely used in various condition monitoring systems (CMS). This study investigated a muscular condition monitoring system using fiber optic sensors (FOS). Generally, sensors for monitoring the condition of the human body are based on electro-magnetic devices. However, such an electrical system has several weaknesses, including the potential for electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors overcome these weaknesses, along with simplifying the devices and increasing user convenience. To measure the level of muscle contraction and relaxation, which indicates the muscle condition, a belt-shaped FBG sensor module that makes it possible to monitor the movement of muscles in the radial and circumferential directions was fabricated in this study. In addition, a uniaxial tensile test was carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of this FBG sensor module. Based on the experimental results, a relationship was observed between the tensile stress and Bragg wavelength of the FBG sensors, which revealed the possibility of fabricating a muscular condition monitoring system based on FBG sensors.

  6. Physical characteristics of conditioned anaerobic digested sludge - A fractal,transient and dynamic rheological viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yili Wang; Emilie Dieude-Fauvel; Steven K Dentel

    2011-01-01

    The changes in the physical characteristics of unconditioned and conditioned anaerobic digested sludge (ADS) biosolids,such as capillary suction time (CST),yield stress,average size and fractal dimensions,were investigated through a CST test,transient and dynamic rheological test and image analysis.The results showed that the optimum polymer dose range was observed when CST or its reciprocal value was employed as an indicator.There were good correlations between the yield stresses determined from both a controlled shear stress test and a strain amplitude sweep test.The yield stress and storage modulus (G') increased as the polymer dose increased in most cases.A frequency sweep test revealed that polymer conditioning could extend the frequency sweep ranges for their elastic behaviors over viscous behaviors as well as the gel-like structure in the linear viscoelastic range.These results implied that more deformation energy was stored in this rigid structure,and that elastic behavior became increasingly dominant with the addition of the polymer in most cases.In addition,both the average sizes and two-dimensional fractal dimensions for conditioned ADS biosolids presented a similar up-climax-down variation trend as the polymer doses increased,whereas the critical polymer doses at the highest average sizes or two-dimensional fractal dimensions,were different.Correlation analysis revealed that the conditioned ADS dewaterability was not correlated with the yield stresses,while the average sizes or the two-dimensional fractal dimensions for conditioned ADS biosolids could be taken as the indication parameters for ADS dewaterability.

  7. The microbiome of Brazilian mangrove sediments as revealed by metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dini Andreote

    Full Text Available Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct mangrove areas (BrMgv01 to 04 in Brazil. The taxonomic approaches applied revealed the dominance of Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the samples. Paired statistical analysis showed higher proportions of specific taxonomic groups in each dataset. The metabolic reconstruction indicated the possible occurrence of processes modulated by the prevailing conditions found in mangrove sediments. In terms of carbon cycling, the sequences indicated the prevalence of genes involved in the metabolism of methane, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. With respect to the nitrogen cycle, evidence for sequences associated with dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, nitrogen immobilization, and denitrification was detected. Sequences related to the production of adenylsulfate, sulfite, and H(2S were relevant to the sulphur cycle. These data indicate that the microbial core involved in methane, nitrogen, and sulphur metabolism consists mainly of Burkholderiaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Desulfobacteraceae. Comparison of our data to datasets from soil and sea samples resulted in the allotment of the mangrove sediments between those samples. The results of this study add valuable data about the composition of microbial communities in mangroves and also shed light on possible transformations promoted by microbial organisms in mangrove sediments.

  8. The microbiome of Brazilian mangrove sediments as revealed by metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Fernando Dini; Jiménez, Diego Javier; Chaves, Diego; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Lopez, Maryeimy Varon; Baena, Sandra; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; de Melo, Itamar Soares

    2012-01-01

    Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct mangrove areas (BrMgv01 to 04) in Brazil. The taxonomic approaches applied revealed the dominance of Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the samples. Paired statistical analysis showed higher proportions of specific taxonomic groups in each dataset. The metabolic reconstruction indicated the possible occurrence of processes modulated by the prevailing conditions found in mangrove sediments. In terms of carbon cycling, the sequences indicated the prevalence of genes involved in the metabolism of methane, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. With respect to the nitrogen cycle, evidence for sequences associated with dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, nitrogen immobilization, and denitrification was detected. Sequences related to the production of adenylsulfate, sulfite, and H(2)S were relevant to the sulphur cycle. These data indicate that the microbial core involved in methane, nitrogen, and sulphur metabolism consists mainly of Burkholderiaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Desulfobacteraceae. Comparison of our data to datasets from soil and sea samples resulted in the allotment of the mangrove sediments between those samples. The results of this study add valuable data about the composition of microbial communities in mangroves and also shed light on possible transformations promoted by microbial organisms in mangrove sediments.

  9. Influence of brewing conditions on taste components in Fuding white tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Li, Yulin; Lv, Yangjun; Jiang, Yulan; Pan, Junxian; Duan, Yuwei; Zhu, Yuejin; Zhang, Shikang

    2017-07-01

    White tea has received increasing attention of late as a result of its sweet taste and health benefits. During the brewing of white tea, many factors may affect the nutritional and sensory quality of the resulting infusions. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of various infusion conditions on the taste components of Fuding white tea, including infusion time, ratio of tea and water, number of brewing steps, and temperature. Brewing conditions had a strong effect on the taste compound profile and sensory characteristics. The catechin, caffeine, theanine and free amino acid contents generally increased with increasing infusion time and temperature. Conditions comprising an infusion time of 7 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:30 or 1:40, and a second brewing step, respectively, were shown to obtain the highest contents of most compounds. Regarding tea sensory evaluation, conditions comprising an infusion time of 3 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:50, and a first brewing step, resulted in the highest sensory score for comprehensive behavior of color, aroma and taste. The results of the present study reveal differences in the contents of various taste compounds, including catechins, caffeine, theanine and free amino acids, with respect to different brewing conditions, and sensory scores also varied with brewing conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Condition-based Human Reliability Assessment for digitalized control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. G.; Jang, S. C.; Eom, H. S.; Ha, J. J.

    2005-04-01

    In safety-critical systems, the generation failure of an actuation signal is caused by the concurrent failures of the automated systems and an operator action. These two sources of safety signals are complicatedly correlated. The failures of sensors or automated systems will cause a lack of necessary information for a human operator and result in error-forcing contexts such as the loss of corresponding alarms and indications. In the conventional analysis, the Human Error Probabilities (HEP) are estimated based on the assumption of 'normal condition of indications and alarms'. In order to construct a more realistic signal-generation failure model, we have to consider more complicated conditions in a more realistic manner. In this study, we performed two kinds of investigation for addressing this issue. We performed the analytic calculations for estimating the effect of sensors failures on the system unavailability and plant risk. For the single-parameter safety signals, the analysis result reveals that the quantification of the HEP should be performed by focusing on the 'no alarm from the automatic system and corresponding indications unavailable' situation. This study also proposes a Condition-Based Human Reliability Assessment (CBHRA) method in order to address these complicated conditions in a practical way. We apply the CBHRA method to the manual actuation of the safety features such as a reactor trip and auxiliary feedwater actuation in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants. In the case of conventional single HEP method, it is very hard to consider the multiple HE conditions. The merit of CBHRA is clearly shown in the application to the AFAS generation where no dominating HE condition exits. In this case, even if the HE conditions are carefully investigated, the single HEP method cannot accommodate the multiple conditions in a fault tree. On the other hand, the application result of the reactor trip in SLOCA shows that if there is a dominating condition, the use

  11. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massay Deodatus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews (IDIs with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation

  12. Physical Health Conditions Associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in U.S. Older Adults: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may increase risk for medical conditions in older adults. We present findings on past-year medical conditions associated with lifetime trauma exposure, and full and partial PTSD, in a nationally representative sample of U.S. older adults. Design, Setting, Participants, and Measurements Face-to-face diagnostic interviews were conducted with 9,463 adults aged 60 and older in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographics and psychiatric comorbidity evaluated associations between PTSD status and past-year medical disorders; linear regression models evaluated associations with past-month physical functioning. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid lifetime mood, anxiety, substance use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and personality disorders, respondents with lifetime PTSD were more likely than trauma controls to report being diagnosed by a healthcare professional with hypertension, angina pectoris, tachycardia, other heart disease, stomach ulcer, gastritis, and arthritis (odds ratios [ORs]=1.3–1.8); they also scored lower on a measure of physical functioning than controls and respondents with partial PTSD. Respondents with lifetime partial PTSD were more likely than controls to report past-year diagnoses of gastritis (OR=1.7), angina pectoris (OR=1.5), and arthritis (OR=1.4), and reported worse physical functioning. Number of lifetime traumatic event types was associated with most of the medical conditions assessed; adjustment for these events reduced the magnitudes of and rendered non-significant most associations between PTSD status and medical conditions. Conclusion Older adults with lifetime PTSD have elevated rates of several physical health conditions, many of which are chronic disorders of aging, and poorer physical functioning. Older adults with lifetime

  13. Adaptive learning can result in a failure to profit from good conditions: implications for understanding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Pete C; Higginson, Andrew D; Fawcett, Tim W; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2015-04-26

    Depression is a major medical problem diagnosed in an increasing proportion of people and for which commonly prescribed psychoactive drugs are frequently ineffective. Development of treatment options may be facilitated by an evolutionary perspective; several adaptive reasons for proneness to depression have been proposed. A common feature of many explanations is that depressive behaviour is a way to avoid costly effort where benefits are small and/or unlikely. However, this viewpoint fails to explain why low mood persists when the situation improves. We investigate whether a behavioural rule that is adapted to a stochastically changing world can cause inactivity which appears similar to the effect of depression, in that it persists after the situation has improved. We develop an adaptive learning model in which an individual has repeated choices of whether to invest costly effort that may result in a net benefit. Investing effort also provides information about the current conditions and rates of change of the conditions. An individual following the optimal behavioural strategy may sometimes remain inactive when conditions are favourable (i.e. when it would be better to invest effort) when it is poorly informed about the current environmental state. Initially benign conditions can predispose an individual to inactivity after a relatively brief period of negative experiences. Our approach suggests that the antecedent factors causing depressed behaviour could go much further back in an individual s history than is currently appreciated. The insights from our approach have implications for the ongoing debate about best treatment options for patients with depressive symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  14. Conditional inactivation of TNFα-converting enzyme in chondrocytes results in an elongated growth plate and shorter long bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Saito

    Full Text Available TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE is a membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme with essential roles in the functional regulation of TNFα and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ligands. Previous studies have demonstrated critical roles for TACE in vivo, including epidermal development, immune response, and pathological neoangiogenesis, among others. However, the potential contribution of TACE to skeletal development is still unclear. In the present study, we generated a Tace mutant mouse in which Tace is conditionally disrupted in chondrocytes under the control of the Col2a1 promoter. These mutant mice were fertile and viable but all exhibited long bones that were approximately 10% shorter compared to those of wild-type animals. Histological analyses revealed that Tace mutant mice exhibited a longer hypertrophic zone in the growth plate, and there were fewer osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction in the Tace mutant mice than in their wild-type littermates. Of note, we found an increase in osteoprotegerin transcripts and a reduction in Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in the TACE-deficient cartilage, indicating that dysregulation of these genes is causally related to the skeletal defects in the Tace mutant mice. Furthermore, we also found that phosphorylation of EGFR was significantly reduced in the cartilage tissue lacking TACE, and that suppression of EGFR signaling increases osteoprotegerin transcripts and reduces Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in primary chondrocytes. In accordance, chondrocyte-specific abrogation of Egfr in vivo resulted in skeletal defects nearly identical to those observed in the Tace mutant mice. Taken together, these data suggest that TACE-EGFR signaling in chondrocytes is involved in the turnover of the growth plate during postnatal development via the transcriptional regulation of osteoprotegerin, Rankl, and Mmp-13.

  15. QTL mapping of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity and conditional lethality in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding-related and conditionally expressed lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. The lethal effect was triggered by exposure to a cold shock. We used a North Carolina crossing Design 3 to establish the mapping population, as well as to estimate the average dominance ratio and heritability. We found two......Inbreeding depression is a central theme within genetics, and is of specific interest for researchers within evolutionary and conservation genetics and animal and plant breeding. Inbreeding effects are thought to be caused by the joint expression of conditional and unconditional deleterious alleles....... Whenever the expression of deleterious alleles is conditional, this can result in extreme environmental sensitivity in certain inbred lineages. Analysis of conditional lethal effects can reveal some of the loci that are sensitive to inbreeding. We performed a QTL (quantitative trait locus) mapping study...

  16. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  17. A General Model of Distant Hybridization Reveals the Conditions for Extinction in Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S.; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as “distant hybridization,” the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action. PMID:25003336

  18. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S Quilodrán

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  19. Early Cambrian oxygen minimum zone-like conditions at Chengjiang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Emma U.; Gaines, Robert R.; Prokopenko, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    in early Cambrian marine settings and the relationship of those conditions to early metazoan ecosystems is still emerging. Here, we report multi-proxy geochemical data from two drill cores through the early Cambrian (Series 2) Yu’anshan Formation of Yunnan, China. Results reveal dynamic water...... oxygen-minimum zones. The oxygenated benthic environments in which the Chengjiang biota thrived were proximal to, but sharply separated from, the open ocean by a persistent anoxic water mass that occupied a portion of the outer shelf. Oxygen depletion in the lower water column developed dynamically...

  20. Conditional Tests of Factor Augmented Asset Pricing Models with Human Capital and Housing: Some New Results

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Klinkowska

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I develop the asset pricing model in which the wealth portfolio is enriched with human capital and housing capital. These two types of capital account for a significant portion of the total wealth. Additionally I introduce dynamics into the model and represent conditioning information by common factors estimated with dynamic factor methodology. In this way I can use more accurate representative of the unobservable information set of the investors. Obtained results prove that ind...

  1. Initial results from dissolution rate testing of N-Reactor spent fuel over a range of potential geologic repository aqueous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.; Einziger, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Hanford N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (HSNF) may ultimately be placed in a geologic repository for permanent disposal. To determine whether the engineered barrier system that will be designed for emplacement of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuel will also suffice for HSNF, aqueous dissolution rate measurements were conducted on the HSNF. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether HSNF dissolves faster or slower than LWR spent fuel under some limited repository-relevant water chemistry conditions. The tests were conducted using a flowthrough method that allows the dissolution rate of the uranium matrix to be measured without interference by secondary precipitation reactions that would confuse interpretation of the results. Similar tests had been conducted earlier with LWR spent fuel, thereby allowing direct comparisons. Two distinct corrosion modes were observed during the course of these 12 tests. The first, Stage 1, involved no visible corrosion of the test specimen and produced no undissolved corrosion products. The second, Stage 2, resulted in both visible corrosion of the test specimen and left behind undissolved corrosion products. During Stage 1, the rate of dissolution could be readily determined because the dissolved uranium and associated fission products remained in solution where they could be quantitatively analyzed. The measured rates were much faster than has been observed for LWR spent fuel under all conditions tested to date when normalized to the exposed test specimen surface areas. Application of these results to repository conditions, however, requires some comparison of the physical conditions of the different fuels. The surface area of LWR fuel that could potentially be exposed to repository groundwater is estimated to be approximately 100 times greater than HSNF. Therefore, when compared on the basis of mass, which is more relevant to repository conditions, the HSNF and LWR spent fuel dissolve at similar rates

  2. {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Lemire, Bernard D., E-mail: bernard.lemire@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Systems Medicine (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  3. Pilot postal audits in radiotherapy for 60Co in non-reference conditions in Cuba: practical consideration and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Lores, S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Alonso Villanueva, G.

    2008-01-01

    Discusses the practical consideration and preliminary results of the Cuban's SSDL in Pilot Postal Audit in Radiotherapy for Co-60 in non-reference conditions under IAEA Coordinated Research Project E2.40.12. A strategy for national TLD audit programmes has been developed by the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It involves progression through three sequential dosimetry audit steps. The first step audits are for the beam output in reference conditions for photon beams. The second step audits are for the dose in reference and non-reference conditions on the beam axis for photon beams. The third step audits involve measurements of the dose in reference, and non-reference conditions off-axis for open and wedged symmetric and symmetric fields for photon beams. Under coordinated research project E2.40.12 were characterized 100 micro rods. All of these rods were identified individually with a consecutive number made over one of its sides, using a fine tip of graphite. The method used to determinate the individual sensibility of the TL detectors was: irradiating a group of them, with the same history of irradiation and readout. The TLD signal was read using HARSHAW 2000C/B reader. Based on the IAEA standard TLD holder for photon beams, a TLD holder was developed with horizontal arm to enable measurements 5 cm off the central axis. Successful results in two external trial carried out using the IAEA TLD service in the years 2003 - 2004 were obtained. Five 5 facilities were considered to be included in the Pilot Audit Audits in Radiotherapy for Co-60 in non reference conditions (on-axis) in the year 2003, according to recommendation of External Audit Group (EAG). For the year 2004 were considered only 3 facilities in the Pilot Audit Audits in Radiotherapy for Co-60 in non reference conditions (off-axis). Extend the postal dose audits to the rest of the institutions around the country. The participation in these audits promotes a major understanding of the physicists

  4. Single Turnover at Molecular Polymerization Catalysts Reveals Spatiotemporally Resolved Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Quinn T; Blum, Suzanne A

    2017-10-23

    Multiple active individual molecular ruthenium catalysts have been pinpointed within growing polynorbornene, thereby revealing information on the reaction dynamics and location that is unavailable through traditional ensemble experiments. This is the first single-turnover imaging of a molecular catalyst by fluorescence microscopy and allows detection of individual monomer reactions at an industrially important molecular ruthenium ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) catalyst under synthetically relevant conditions (e.g. unmodified industrial catalyst, ambient pressure, condensed phase, ca. 0.03 m monomer). These results further establish the key fundamentals of this imaging technique for characterizing the reactivity and location of active molecular catalysts even when they are the minor components. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Marketing communications in conditions of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanov Galjina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to reveal potential economic benefits deriving from implementation of regionally integrated marketing communications strategy in the period of the global financial crisis. Possibilities for implementation of regionally integrated marketing communications strategy in the Western Balkans are analyzed based on the assessment of macro-marketing environmental factors and consumers attitudes. Study results have shown satisfactory conditions for the implementation of regionally integrated marketing communications in four countries of the region. Consequently, in the period of the most recent economic crisis companies operating on this market which decide to implement regionally integrated marketing communications strategy may make significant cost-savings through centralization of their marketing communications activities, organizational learning and synergy rather then from cutting their media budgets.

  6. [Circadian blood pressure variation under several pathophysiological conditions including secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yutaka; Hosaka, Miki; Satoh, Michihiro

    2014-08-01

    Abnormality of circadian blood pressure (BP) variation, i.e. non-dipper, riser, nocturnal hypertension etc, is brought by several pathophysiological conditions especially by secondary hypertension. These pathophysiological conditions are classified into several categories, i.e. disturbance of autonomic nervous system, metabolic disorder, endocrine disorder, disorder of Na and water excretion (e.g. sodium sensitivity), severe target organ damage and ischemia, cardiovascular complications and drug induced hypertension. Each pathophysiological condition which brings disturbance of circadian BP variation is included in several categories, e.g. diabetes mellitus is included in metabolic disorder, autonomic imbalance, sodium sensitivity and endocrine disorder. However, it seems that unified principle of the genesis of disturbance of circadian BP variation in many pathophysiological conditions is autonomic imbalance. Thus, it is concluded that disturbance of circadian BP variation is not purposive biological behavior but the result of autonomic imbalance which looks as if compensatory reaction such as exaggerated Na-water excretion during night in patient with Na-water retention who reveals disturbed circadian BP variation.

  7. Correlation-study about the ambient dose rate and the weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Masato; Hatano, Yuko; Aoyama, Tomoo; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kita, Kazuyuki; Ishizuka, Masahide

    2016-04-01

    The long-term radiation risks are believed to be heavily affected by the resuspension process. We therefore focus on the surface-atmosphere exchange process of released radioactive materials in this study. Radioactive materials were deposited on the soil and float in the air, and such complicated process are influenced by the weather conditions deeply. We need to reveal the correlation between the weather conditions and the ambient dose rate. In this study, we study the correlation between the weather conditions and the ambient dose rate with the correction of the decrease due to the radioactive decay. We found that there is a negative correlation between the ambient dose rate and the soil water content by the correlation coefficient. Using this result, we reconstruct the ambient dose rate from the weather conditions by the multiple regression analysis and found that the reconstructed data agree with the observation very well. Using Kalman filter, which can be sequentially updates the state estimate, we obtained such a good agreement.

  8. Validation of feasibility and quality of chicken breast meat cooked under various water-cooking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-12-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the qualities of boneless chicken breasts are commonly determined by placing them in a bag and cooking them in a water bath. The results are often applied as references for comparing the influences of cooking techniques. However, whether a sample cooked under this "laboratory" condition actually represents the meat cooked under the "real-life" condition in which meat is frequently cooked directly in water without packaging remains unclear. Whether the two cooking conditions lead to comparable results in meat quality should be determined. This study evaluated the influence of cooking conditions, including "placed-in-bag and cooked in a water bath (BC)" and "cooked directly in hot water (WC)" conditions, on the quality of chicken meat. The results reveal that BC samples had a longer cooking time. Deboned-and-skinless BC samples had a higher cooking loss and lower protein solubility (P < 0.01). BC samples with bone and skin had a higher lightness in both skin and muscle. No significant differences were observed in attributes, including shear force, collagen solubility, microstructures, redness, yellowness and descriptive sensory characteristics between treatments. Based on the results, considering the quality attributes that might be influenced, is critical when conducting relevant research. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Serotonergic Modulation of Conditioned Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R. Homberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned fear plays a key role in anxiety disorders as well as depression and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Understanding how neuromodulators drive the associated learning and memory processes, including memory consolidation, retrieval/expression, and extinction (recall, is essential in the understanding of (individual differences in vulnerability to these disorders and their treatment. The human and rodent studies I review here together reveal, amongst others, that acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment facilitates fear conditioning, reduces contextual fear, and increases cued fear, chronic SSRI treatment reduces both contextual and cued fear, 5-HT1A receptors inhibit the acquisition and expression of contextual fear, 5-HT2A receptors facilitates the consolidation of cued and contextual fear, inactivation of 5-HT2C receptors facilitate the retrieval of cued fear memory, the 5-HT3 receptor mediates contextual fear, genetically induced increases in serotonin levels are associated with increased fear conditioning, impaired cued fear extinction, or impaired extinction recall, and that genetically induced 5-HT depletion increases fear conditioning and contextual fear. Several explanations are presented to reconcile seemingly paradoxical relationships between serotonin levels and conditioned fear.

  10. The 'revealed preferences' theory: Assumptions and conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    Being kind of intuitive psychology the 'Revealed-Preferences'- theory based approaches towards determining the acceptable risks are a useful method for the generation of hypotheses. In view of the fact that reliability engineering develops faster than methods for the determination of reliability aims the Revealed-Preferences approach is a necessary preliminary help. Some of the assumptions on which the 'Revealed-Preferences' theory is based will be identified and analysed and afterwards compared with experimentally obtained results. (orig./DG) [de

  11. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes

    2016-11-01

    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature ( PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  12. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Degrees of Cooperation in Household Consumption Models : A Revealed Preference Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a revealed preference approach to analyze non-unitary con- sumption models with intrahousehold allocations deviating from the cooper- ative (or Pareto e¢ cient) solution. At a theoretical level, we establish re- vealed preference conditions of household consumption models with varying

  14. Threshold condition for nonlinear tearing modes in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabiego, M.F. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Callen, J.D. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1996-04-01

    Low-mode-number tearing mode nonlinear evolution is analyzed emphasizing the need for a threshold condition, to account for observations in tokamaks. The discussion is illustrated by two models recently introduced in the literature. Introducing a threshold condition in the tearing mode stability analysis is found to reveal some bifurcation points and thus domains of intrinsic stability in the island dynamics operational space. (author). 19 refs.

  15. Threshold condition for nonlinear tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiego, M.F.; Callen, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    Low-mode-number tearing mode nonlinear evolution is analyzed emphasizing the need for a threshold condition, to account for observations in tokamaks. The discussion is illustrated by two models recently introduced in the literature. Introducing a threshold condition in the tearing mode stability analysis is found to reveal some bifurcation points and thus domains of intrinsic stability in the island dynamics operational space. (author)

  16. Role of classical conditioning in learning gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2007-07-07

    Nausea and/or vomiting are aversive gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Nausea and vomiting manifest unconditionally after a nauseogenic experience. However, there is correlative, quasiexperimental and experimental evidence that nausea and vomiting can also be learned via classical (Pavlovian) conditioning and might occur in anticipation of the nauseogenic event. Classical conditioning of nausea can develop with chemotherapy in cancer patients. Initially, nausea and vomiting occur during and after the administration of cytotoxic drugs (post-treatment nausea and vomiting) as unconditioned responses (UR). In addition, 20%-30% of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy report these side effects, despite antiemetic medication, when being re-exposed to the stimuli that usually signal the chemotherapy session and its drug infusion. These symptoms are called anticipatory nausea (AN) and/or anticipatory vomiting (ANV) and are explained by classical conditioning. Moreover, there is recent evidence for the assumption that post-chemotherapy nausea is at least partly influenced by learning. After summarizing the relevant assumptions of the conditioning model, revealing that a context can become a conditioned stimulus (CS), the present paper summarizes data that nausea and/or vomiting is acquired by classical conditioning and, consequently, may be alleviated by conditioning techniques. Our own research has focussed on two aspects and is emphasized here. First, a conditioned nausea model was established in healthy humans using body rotation as the nausea-inducing treatment. The validity of this motion-sickness model to examine conditioning mechanisms in the acquisition and alleviation of conditioned nausea and associated endocrine and immunological responses is summarized. Results from the rotation-induced motion sickness model showed that gender is an important moderator variable to be considered in further studies. This paper concludes with a review of the application of the

  17. Measuring Effectiveness of Persuasive Games Using an Informative Control Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Soekarjo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research about the effectiveness of persuasive games is still emerging. This article presents a literature review of studies that empirically evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive games. The review concluded that limited empirical evidence is currently available to prove their effectiveness in attitude change. It further revealed that almost no study employed an informative control condition, making it difficult to conclude that the game was more effective than a control condition. Next, in a pretest-posttest design an empirical study tested whether change in attitude was different for people playing the persuasive game "EnerCities" compared to a control condition where participants read a document with highly similar information. No significant differences in increase of attitude or knowledge between participants that played the game and participants in the informative control condition were found. Based on the results of the literature review and the empirical study presented, it hence cannot be concluded that playing a game leads to a greater change in attitude or knowledge acquisition than experiencing conventional media would. Future work should employ designs with proper control conditions and focus on which game features lead to significant effects.

  18. Dislocation Interactions in Olivine Revealed by HR-EBSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, David; Hansen, Lars N.; Britton, T. Ben; Wilkinson, Angus J.

    2017-10-01

    Interactions between dislocations potentially provide a control on strain rates produced by dislocation motion during creep of rocks at high temperatures. However, it has been difficult to establish the dominant types of interactions and their influence on the rheological properties of creeping rocks due to a lack of suitable observational techniques. We apply high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction to map geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density, elastic strain, and residual stress in experimentally deformed single crystals of olivine. Short-range interactions are revealed by cross correlation of GND density maps. Spatial correlations between dislocation types indicate that noncollinear interactions may impede motion of proximal dislocations at temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C. Long-range interactions are revealed by autocorrelation of GND density maps. These analyses reveal periodic variations in GND density and sign, with characteristic length scales on the order of 1-10 μm. These structures are spatially associated with variations in elastic strain and residual stress on the order of 10-3 and 100 MPa, respectively. Therefore, short-range interactions generate local accumulations of dislocations, leading to heterogeneous internal stress fields that influence dislocation motion over longer length scales. The impacts of these short- and/or long-range interactions on dislocation velocities may therefore influence the strain rate of the bulk material and are an important consideration for future models of dislocation-mediated deformation mechanisms in olivine. Establishing the types and impacts of dislocation interactions that occur across a range of laboratory and natural deformation conditions will help to establish the reliability of extrapolating laboratory-derived flow laws to real Earth conditions.

  19. Results of tests under normal and abnormal operating conditions concerning LMFBR fuel element behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Bergeonneau, P.; Essig, C.; Guerin, Y.

    1985-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the knowledge on LMFBR fuel element behaviour during protected and unprotected transients in RAPSODIE and PHENIX reactors in order to evaluate its reliability. The range of the tests performed in these reactors is sufficiently large to cover normal and also extreme off normal conditions such as fuel melting. Results of such tests allow to better establish transient design limits for reactor structural components in particular for fuel pin cladding which play a lead role in controlling the accident sequence. Three main topics are emphasized in this paper: fuel melting during slow over-power excursions; influence of the fuel element geometrical evolution on reactivity feedback effects and reactor dynamic behaviour; clad damage evaluation during a transient (essentially very severe loss of flow)

  20. PROFESSIONAL MOBILITY AND COMPETENCE CORRELATION OF RURAL SCHOOLS TEACHERS IN THE CONDITIONS OF EDUCATION MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Gavrilova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article deals with the problem of teacher's professional activity in conditions of education modernization. The subject of analysis is professional mobility and competence correlation of rural schools teachers and the conditions of its formation. The authors’ aim to reveal the concepts of teacher’s "professional mobility", "professional competence" in rural schools and to determine its nature and structure in the changing paradigm of education. Results. The results of this work are that the authors give the definition of teacher’s "professional competence" and "professional mobility" in rural schools; concern teacher’s professional competence as a part of professional mobility in rural schools and suggest the conditions of studying to improve teacher’s professional competence and mobility. Practical implications. The results of the study can be applied in the field of teachers retraining and advanced training in primary and secondary school.

  1. Role of crucible partition in improving Czochralski melt conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, I. H.; Prasad, V.; Anselmo, A. P.; Gupta, K. P.

    1995-09-01

    Many of the inhomogeneities and defects in the crystal grown from a pool of melt are because of the inherent unsteady growth kinetics and flow instabilities of the process. A scaled up version of the Czochralski process induces oscillatory and turbulent conditions in the melt, thereby resulting in the production of non-uniform silicon crystals. This numerical study reveals that a crucible partition shorter than the melt height can significantly improve the melt conditions. The obstruction at the bottom of the crucible is helpful but the variations in heat flux and flow patterns remain random. However, when the obstruction is introduced at the top of the melt, the flow conditions become much more desirable and oscillations are greatly suppressed. It is also found that a full-melt height partition or a double-crucible may not be a good choice. An optimal size of the blockage and its location to produce the most desirable process conditions will depend on the growth parameters including the melt height and the crucible diameter. These findings should be particularly useful in designing a solid polysilicon pellets-feed continuous Czochralski process for Si crystals.

  2. The Effect of Specific Conditions on Cu, Ni, Zn and Al Recovery from PCBS Waste Using Acidophilic Bacterial Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrážiková A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of static, stirring and shaking conditions on copper, zinc, nickel and aluminium dissolution from printed circuit boards (PCBs using the mixed acidophilic bacterial culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The results revealed that static conditions were the most effective in zinc and aluminium dissolution. Zinc was removed almost completely under static conditions, whereas maximum of nickel dissolution was reached under the stirring conditions. The highest copper recovery (36% was reached under stirring conditions. The shaking conditions appeared to be the least suitable. The relative importance of these systems for the bioleaching of copper and nickel decreased in the order: stirring, static conditions, shaking.

  3. Treatment and conditioning of low-level radioactive waste in Belgium: initial operating results of the Cilva facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsch, O.; Renard, C.; Deckers, J.; Luycx, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Belgian National Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Material Agency (ONDRAF), which is responsible for the management of all radioactive waste in Belgium, recently decided to commission the CILVA facility. Operation of this facility, which comprises a number of units for the treatment of low-level radwaste, has been contracted to ONDRAF's Belgoprocess subsidiary based at the Dessel site. A consortium comprising SGN and Fabricom was in charge of building the CILVA facility's waste preparation and conditioning (concrete solidification) units. The concrete solidification processes, which were devised and developed by SGN, have been qualified to secure ONDRAF certification of the process and the facility. This enabled active commissioning of the waste conditioning unit in mid-August 1994. Active commissioning of the waste preparation unit was carried out in several stages up to the beginning of 1995 in accordance with operating requirements. Initial operating results of the two units are presented. (author)

  4. Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under natural rain condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, M.; Kamiyama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Wang Zhiming; Zhao Yingjie; Li Zhengtang

    1993-01-01

    As one of the tests arranged by the cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI, field tracing tests using 3 H, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs were conducted in pits at the CIRP's field test site located on a loess tableland under natural rain condition. Precipitation amount and evaporation rate were measured to study complicated spatial-temporal behavior of soil water movement under that condition. The evaporation rate was obtained through an analysis on the measured data by a combined method of heat balance and eddy correlation. Numerical model, that is based on piston flow assumption of soil water movement, was developed and applied to determine the behavior of the soil water movement in the pits. Using the determined water movement, 3 H migration was evaluated by numerical simulation. Change of 3 H distribution as a function of elapsed time as well explained by careful evaluation of the soil water movement that carried out before the analysis. (5 figs.)

  5. Bridge pressure flow scour for clear water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The equilibrium scour at a bridge caused by pressure flow with critical approach velocity in clear-water simulation conditions was studied both analytically and experimentally. The flume experiments revealed that (1) the measured equilibrium scour pr...

  6. Accuracy of the hypothetical sky-polarimetric Viking navigation versus sky conditions: revealing solar elevations and cloudinesses favourable for this navigation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András; Kretzer, Balázs; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Ádám; Szabó, Gyula; Horváth, Gábor

    2017-09-01

    According to Thorkild Ramskou's theory proposed in 1967, under overcast and foggy skies, Viking seafarers might have used skylight polarization analysed with special crystals called sunstones to determine the position of the invisible Sun. After finding the occluded Sun with sunstones, its elevation angle had to be measured and its shadow had to be projected onto the horizontal surface of a sun compass. According to Ramskou's theory, these sunstones might have been birefringent calcite or dichroic cordierite or tourmaline crystals working as polarizers. It has frequently been claimed that this method might have been suitable for navigation even in cloudy weather. This hypothesis has been accepted and frequently cited for decades without any experimental support. In this work, we determined the accuracy of this hypothetical sky-polarimetric Viking navigation for 1080 different sky situations characterized by solar elevation θ and cloudiness ρ, the sky polarization patterns of which were measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry. We used the earlier measured uncertainty functions of the navigation steps 1, 2 and 3 for calcite, cordierite and tourmaline sunstone crystals, respectively, and the newly measured uncertainty function of step 4 presented here. As a result, we revealed the meteorological conditions under which Vikings could have used this hypothetical navigation method. We determined the solar elevations at which the navigation uncertainties are minimal at summer solstice and spring equinox for all three sunstone types. On average, calcite sunstone ensures a more accurate sky-polarimetric navigation than tourmaline and cordierite. However, in some special cases (generally at 35° ≤ θ ≤ 40°, 1 okta ≤ ρ ≤ 6 oktas for summer solstice, and at 20° ≤ θ ≤ 25°, 0 okta ≤ ρ ≤ 4 oktas for spring equinox), the use of tourmaline and cordierite results in smaller navigation uncertainties than that of calcite. Generally, under clear or less cloudy

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis by RNAseq of necrotic enteritis Clostridium perfringens during in vivo colonization and in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Valeria R; Russell, Kay; Athanasiadou, Spiridoula; Prescott, John F

    2016-08-12

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by netB-positive type A Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial disease of poultry. Through its complex regulatory system, C. perfringens orchestrates the expression of a collection of toxins and extracellular enzymes that are crucial for the development of the disease; environmental conditions play an important role in their regulation. In this study, and for the first time, global transcriptomic analysis was performed on ligated intestinal loops in chickens colonized with a netB-positive C. perfringens strain, as well as the same strain propagated in vitro under various nutritional and environmental conditions. Analysis of the respective pathogen transcriptomes revealed up to 673 genes that were significantly expressed in vivo. Gene expression profiles in vivo were most similar to those of C. perfringens grown in nutritionally-deprived conditions. Taken together, our results suggest a bacterial transcriptome responses to the early stages of adaptation, and colonization of, the chicken intestine. Our work also reveals how netB-positive C. perfringens reacts to different environmental conditions including those in the chicken intestine.

  8. Time, rate, and conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Gibbon, J

    2000-04-01

    The authors draw together and develop previous timing models for a broad range of conditioning phenomena to reveal their common conceptual foundations: First, conditioning depends on the learning of the temporal intervals between events and the reciprocals of these intervals, the rates of event occurrence. Second, remembered intervals and rates translate into observed behavior through decision processes whose structure is adapted to noise in the decision variables. The noise and the uncertainties consequent on it have both subjective and objective origins. A third feature of these models is their timescale invariance, which the authors argue is a very important property evident in the available experimental data. This conceptual framework is similar to the psychophysical conceptual framework in which contemporary models of sensory processing are rooted. The authors contrast it with the associative conceptual framework.

  9. Environmental, health and economic conditions perceived by 50 rural communities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Moji, Kazuhiko; Karim, Enamul; Yoshinaga, Mari

    2002-12-01

    For randomly selected 50 villages in Bangladesh, an interview survey with a structured questionnaire was conducted to reveal their perception on the environmental, health and economic conditions at present and for the past 10-year change. The eight following items were analyzed in this paper: air pollution and water pollution, which represent environmental conditions with close relation to health conditions, soil degradation and deforestation, which represent environmental conditions with close relation to economic conditions, epidemic diseases and malnutrition, which represent health conditions, and poverty and jobless, which represent economic conditions. Among the 50 villages, deforestation was most frequently perceived serious at present and worsened in the past 10 years. Of the remaining seven items, those related to economic conditions were more seriously perceived than those related to health and environmental conditions. As revealed by the cluster analysis for the inter-item relations, epidemic diseases, which formed the same cluster with the environmental items, were recognized less serious whereas malnutrition, which formed the same cluster with the economic items, was recognized more serious. These findings are useful not only for rural development programs but also for mitigation programs toward health and environmental hazards in Bangladesh.

  10. Potential Risk Analysis of Tailings Dam under Preloading Condition and Its Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuren Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for mine production safety to ensure the stability of the tailings dam. Taking a flatland tailings pond as the background, a threedimensional computational model was built based on a tailings dam under mullock heap preloading condition. Considering the current operating water level conditions, a liquid-solid coupling analysis of the model was conducted.The deformation characteristics of the tailings dam were revealed during successive preloading at the front of the dam. The safety factor and the potential slide face of the tailings dam were calculated under different conditions using the strength reduction method. The results show that the tailings dam in its current condition is basically stable, but if the mullock heap continues to be heightened, the tailings dam will become unstable. Therefore, in order to limit the height of the mullock heap, establishing a monitor and early warning mechanism are put forward to ensure mine production safety.

  11. STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PRACTICES OF IRAN Wrestling League STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Far Saeed Jamshidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study describes the results of a survey of the practices of Iranian Wrestling League strength and conditioning (IWL S&C coaches. Material: The response rate was 88.5% (100 of 113. The contents survey examines include: (a background information, (b physical testing, (c flexibility development, (d speed development, (e plyometrics, (f strength/power development, (g unique aspects, and (h comments from coaches providing additional information. Results: Results indicate, in part, that coaches assess an average of 7.3 parameters of fitness, with tests speed being the most common. All coaches used a variety of flexibility development strategies. Results reveal that all of IWL S&C coaches follow a periodization model. Speed as the first priority (100% and muscular endurance, power and strength as second priority (97% of importance in evaluating their athletes. Sixty-six percent coaches (66% indicated that their athletes used Olympic-style lifts. All coaches employed plyometric exercises with their athletes. Ninety-two percent (92% of the coaches reported that used plyometric trainings for increasing the speed of their wrestlers and 82% of the coaches used plyometric jump in place exercises as regular practice in their trainings. Conclusions: The squat and its variations, as well as the Olympic-style lifts and their variations, were the most frequently used exercises. The survey serves as a review and a source of applied information and new ideas.

  12. Forecasting Investment Risks in Conditions of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrenko Elena A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the topical problem of evaluation and forecasting risks of investment activity of enterprises in conditions of uncertainty. Generalizing the researches on qualitative and quantitative methods for evaluating investment risks has helped to reveal certain shortcomings of the proposed approaches, to note in most of the publications there are no results as to any practical application, and to allocate promising directions. On the basis of the theory of fuzzy sets, a model of forecasting the expected risk has been proposed, making use of the Gauss membership function, which has certain advantages over the multi-angular membership functions. Dependences of investment risk from the parameters characterizing the investment project have been obtained. Using the formulas obtained, the total risk of investing in innovation project depending on the boundary conditions has been defined. As the researched target, index of profitability has been selected. The model provides the potential investors and developers with forecasting possible scenarios of investment process to make informed managerial decisions about the appropriateness of introduction and implementation of a project.

  13. Primary pump vibration under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.M.; Currie, T.C.

    1984-06-01

    This report presents the results of an international survey on the subject of vibration in nuclear primary coolant pumps due to two-phase flow, accident conditions. The literature search also revealed few Canadian references other than those of Ontario Hydro. Ontario Hydro's work has been extensive. Confidence in the mechanical integrity of the pumpsets is good, given the extent of the testing. However, conclusions with respect to piping integrity and thermal-hydraulic performance are difficult to determine due to the inexact geometry of the piping and the difficulties in estimating fluid conditions at the pump. The tests help to understand the phenomena and provide background information for analysis, but should be applied with caution to plant analyses. Much of the discussion in the report relates to pump head instability. This is perceived to be the most important flow regime causing vibration, as attested by the emphasis of the reviewed literature. A method for quantitative assessment of the forcing functions acting on the pump-piping system due to void generation and collapse is recommended. A relatively fundamental analytical approach is proposed, supplemented by reduced scale testing in the latter stages. 151 refs

  14. Pipe rupture test results; 6 in. pipe whip test under BWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Rokuro; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1983-02-01

    A series of pipe rupture tests has been performed in JAERI to demonstrate the safety of the primary coolant circuits in the event of pipe rupture, in nuclear power plants. The present report summarizes the results of 6 in. pipe whip tests (RUN 5605, 5606), under BWR LOCA conditions (285 0 C, 6.8 MPa), which were performed in August, 1981. The test pipe is made of Type 304 stainless steel and its outer diameter is 6 in. and its thickness is 11.1 mm. The restraints are made of Type 304 stainless steel and its diameter is 16.0 mm. Two restraints were set on the restraint support with clearance of 100 mm. Overhang length was varied as the parameter in these tests and was 300 mm or 700 mm. The following results are obtained. (1) The deformations of a pipe and restraints are limited effectively by shorter overhang length of 300. However, they become larger when the overhang length is 700 mm, and the pipe deforms especially at the setting point of restraints. (2) Velocity at the free end of pipe becomes about 30 m/sec just after the break. However, velocity at the setting point of restraint becomes about only 4 m/sec just after the break. (3) It seems from the comparison between the 4 in. tests and 6 in. tests that the maximum restraint force of 6 in. tests is about two times as large as that of 4 in. tests. (author)

  15. Experimental Setup for Determining Ammonia-Salt Adsorption and Desorption Behavior Under Typical Heat Pump Conditions. Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Veldhuis, J.B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    For the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the performance of a salt-ammonia sorption reactor/heat exchanger a new test-rig was developed. This test-rig enables the measurement of the performance in adsorption and desorption mode of different sorption reactor designs. It measures the speed of uptake and release of ammonia gas of various salt-ammonia reactions under well-controlled and well-monitored process conditions, similar to the heat pump conditions. The test-rig measures the ammonia uptake and release under controlled pressure and temperature conditions. Temperatures of the salt reactor can be varied from ambient temperature up to 200{sup o}C and the ammonia pressure can be varied between 0.02 to 2 MPa. These conditions can be set independently and repeated at regular time-intervals. Besides NH3-mass-flow meters, pressure and temperature sensors, the setup also contains an endoscope to observe any macroscopic structural changes in the material during uptake and release of ammonia. Measurements so far have shown a liquid phase of LiCl.3NH3 at pressures of 0.5 MPa and temperatures exceeding 90{sup o}C. Voilent foaming is observed at 120{sup o}C resulting in salt losses. A correlation was determined between the reaction rate of MgCl{sub 2}(2-6)NH3 and the relative pressure gradient yielding a reaction time of about 1500 seconds for a relative pressure difference of 1. Multiple sorption cycles of the CaCl{sub 2}(2-4)NH3 reaction, showed a reduced activity from 85% of the theoretical maximum sorbed mass at the first sorption cycle, to 15% after 300+ cycles.

  16. Fibril growth kinetics link buffer conditions and topology of 3D collagen I networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbitzer, Liv; Pompe, Tilo

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional fibrillar networks reconstituted from collagen I are widely used as biomimetic scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo cell studies. Various physicochemical parameters of buffer conditions for in vitro fibril formation are well known, including pH-value, ion concentrations and temperature. However, there is a lack of a detailed understanding of reconstituting well-defined 3D network topologies, which is required to mimic specific properties of the native extracellular matrix. We screened a wide range of relevant physicochemical buffer conditions and characterized the topology of the reconstituted 3D networks in terms of mean pore size and fibril diameter. A congruent analysis of fibril formation kinetics by turbidimetry revealed the adjustment of the lateral growth phase of fibrils by buffer conditions to be key in the determination of pore size and fibril diameter of the networks. Although the kinetics of nucleation and linear growth phase were affected by buffer conditions as well, network topology was independent of those two growth phases. Overall, the results of our study provide necessary insights into how to engineer 3D collagen matrices with an independent control over topology parameters, in order to mimic in vivo tissues in in vitro experiments and tissue engineering applications. The study reports a comprehensive analysis of physicochemical conditions of buffer solutions to reconstitute defined 3D collagen I matrices. By a combined analysis of network topology, i.e., pore size and fibril diameter, and the kinetics of fibril formation we can reveal the dependence of 3D network topology on buffer conditions, such as pH-value, phosphate concentration and sodium chloride content. With those results we are now able to provide engineering strategies to independently tune the topology parameters of widely used 3D collagen scaffolds based on the buffer conditions. By that, we enable the straightforward mimicking of extracellular matrices of in vivo

  17. A persistent Holocene wetting trend in arid central Asia, with wettest conditions in the late Holocene, revealed by multi-proxy analyses of loess-paleosol sequences in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Jia, Jia; Chen, Jianhui; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Haichao; Xia, Dunsheng; Huang, Wei; An, Chengbang

    2016-08-01

    There are significant differences in the interpretation of the moisture (precipitation) history of arid central Asia (ACA) during the Holocene, as inferred on one hand from speleothem oxygen isotope records, and on the other from lake sediments. Here we present the results of measurements of climatically-sensitive magnetic properties and soil color from four well-dated loess-paleosol sequences from the northern slopes of the Tienshan Mountains and the Yili River valley, Xinjiang, China, in the core area of ACA. Our results demonstrate that the characteristic Holocene paleosol, indicating relatively moist conditions, generally formed after ∼6 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in the study region, and that the accumulation of unweathered loess prevailed during the early Holocene, indicating a dry climate at that time. The magnetic proxies further reveal a trend of generally increasing moisture since the Last Glacial Maximum, with the wettest climate occurring during the late Holocene. This trend of increasing moisture during the Holocene is representative of the Xinjiang region and possibly of the whole of the core area of ACA, and is in marked contrast both to the mid-Holocene moisture maximum observed in the East Asian summer monsoon region and to the general decrease in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon since the early Holocene. Our findings are supported by the results of a climate simulation which indicate a trend of increasing summer and winter precipitation during the Holocene in the core area of ACA, caused mainly by an increase in the strength of the westerlies effected by an increasing latitudinal insolation gradient and by a negative trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  18. Hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated immunologic control of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hair Pamela S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients are at increased risk for bacterial infections; these studies provide new insight into the role of the host defense complement system in controlling bacterial pathogens in hyperglycemic environments. Methods The interactions of complement C3 with bacteria in elevated glucose were assayed for complement activation to opsonic forms, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. C3 was analyzed in euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions by mass spectrometry to measure glycation and structural differences. Results Elevated glucose inhibited S. aureus activation of C3 and deposition of C3b and iC3b on the bacterial surface. S. aureus-generated C5a and serum-mediated phagocytosis by neutrophils were both decreased in elevated glucose conditions. Interestingly, elevated glucose increased the binding of unactivated C3 to S. aureus, which was reversible on return to normal glucose concentrations. In a model of polymicrobial infection, S. aureus in elevated glucose conditions depleted C3 from serum resulting in decreased complement-mediated killing of E. coli. To investigate the effect of differing glucose concentration on C3 structure and glycation, purified C3 incubated with varying glucose concentrations was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Glycation was limited to the same three lysine residues in both euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions over one hour, thus glycation could not account for observed changes between glucose conditions. However, surface labeling of C3 with sulfo-NHS-biotin showed significant changes in the surface availability of seven lysine residues in response to increasing glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the tertiary structure of C3 changes in response to hyperglycemic conditions leading to an altered interaction of C3 with bacterial pathogens. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated complement effectors important in the immunological

  19. Failure of PWR-RHRS under cold shutdown conditions: Experimental results from the PKL test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandl, R.M.; Umminger, K.J.; Logt, J.V.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) of a PWR is designed to transfer thermal energy from the core after plant shutdown and maintain the plant in cold shutdown or refuelling conditions for extended periods of time. Initial reactor cooling after shutdown is achieved by dissipating heat through the steam generators (SGs) and discharging steam to the condenser by means of the Turbine Bypass System (TBS). When the reactor coolant temperature has dropped to about 160C and pressure has been reduced to 30 bar the RHRS is placed into operation. it reduces the coolant temperature to 50C within 20 hours after shutdown. The time margin for establishing alternate methods of heat removal following a failure of the RHRS depends on the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) temperature, the decay heat rate and the amount of RCS inventory. During some shutdown operations the RCS may be partially drained (e. g. to perform SG inspections). Decreased primary system inventory can significantly reduce the time available to recover the RHRS's function prior to bulk boiling and possible core uncovery. In the PKL test facility, which simulates a 1,300 MWe 4-loop PWR on a scale 1:145, a failure of RHRS under cold shutdown conditions was performed. This presentation gives a brief description of the test facility followed by the test objectives and results of this experiment

  20. Metabolic profiling of hypoxic cells revealed a catabolic signature required for cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Frezza

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is one of the features of poorly vascularised areas of solid tumours but cancer cells can survive in these areas despite the low oxygen tension. The adaptation to hypoxia requires both biochemical and genetic responses that culminate in a metabolic rearrangement to counter-balance the decrease in energy supply from mitochondrial respiration. The understanding of metabolic adaptations under hypoxia could reveal novel pathways that, if targeted, would lead to specific death of hypoxic regions. In this study, we developed biochemical and metabolomic analyses to assess the effects of hypoxia on cellular metabolism of HCT116 cancer cell line. We utilized an oxygen fluorescent probe in anaerobic cuvettes to study oxygen consumption rates under hypoxic conditions without the need to re-oxygenate the cells and demonstrated that hypoxic cells can maintain active, though diminished, oxidative phosphorylation even at 1% oxygen. These results were further supported by in situ microscopy analysis of mitochondrial NADH oxidation under hypoxia. We then used metabolomic methodologies, utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, to determine the metabolic profile of hypoxic cells. This approach revealed the importance of synchronized and regulated catabolism as a mechanism of adaptation to bioenergetic stress. We then confirmed the presence of autophagy under hypoxic conditions and demonstrated that the inhibition of this catabolic process dramatically reduced the ATP levels in hypoxic cells and stimulated hypoxia-induced cell death. These results suggest that under hypoxia, autophagy is required to support ATP production, in addition to glycolysis, and that the inhibition of autophagy might be used to selectively target hypoxic regions of tumours, the most notoriously resistant areas of solid tumours.

  1. Competition effects in cation binding to humic acid: Conditional affinity spectra for fixed total metal concentration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Calin; Mongin, Sandrine; Rey-Castro, Carlos; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarnació; Garcés, José Luis; Salvador, José; Puy, Jaume; Cecilia, Joan; Lodeiro, Pablo; Mas, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    Information on the Pb and Cd binding to a purified Aldrich humic acid (HA) is obtained from the influence of different fixed total metal concentrations on the acid-base titrations of this ligand. NICA (Non-Ideal Competitive Adsorption) isotherm has been used for a global quantitative description of the binding, which has then been interpreted by plotting the Conditional Affinity Spectra of the H + binding at fixed total metal concentrations (CAScTM). This new physicochemical tool, here introduced, allows the interpretation of binding results in terms of distributions of proton binding energies. A large increase in the acidity of the phenolic sites as the total metal concentration increases, especially in presence of Pb, is revealed from the shift of the CAScTM towards lower affinities. The variance of the CAScTM distribution, which can be used as a direct measure of the heterogeneity, also shows a significant dependence on the total metal concentration. A discussion of the factors that influence the heterogeneity of the HA under the conditions of each experiment is provided, so that the smoothed pattern exhibited by the titration curves can be justified.

  2. Serum metabolomics analysis of patients with chikungunya and dengue mono/co-infections reveals distinct metabolite signatures in the three disease conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinet, Jatin; Shastri, Jayanthi S.; Gaind, Rajni; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Sunil, Sujatha

    2016-11-01

    Chikungunya and dengue are arboviral infections with overlapping clinical symptoms. A subset of chikungunya infection occurs also as co-infections with dengue, resulting in complications during diagnosis and patient management. The present study was undertaken to identify the global metabolome of patient sera infected with chikungunya as mono infections and with dengue as co-infections. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the metabolome of sera of three disease conditions, namely, chikungunya and dengue as mono-infections and when co-infected were ascertained and compared with healthy individuals. Further, the cohorts were analyzed on the basis of age, onset of fever and joint involvement. Here we show that many metabolites in the serum are significantly differentially regulated during chikungunya mono-infection as well as during chikungunya co-infection with dengue. We observed that glycine, serine, threonine, galactose and pyrimidine metabolisms are the most perturbed pathways in both mono and co-infection conditions. The affected pathways in our study correlate well with the clinical manifestation like fever, inflammation, energy deprivation and joint pain during the infections. These results may serve as a starting point for validations and identification of distinct biomolecules that could be exploited as biomarker candidates thereby helping in better patient management.

  3. The effect of presenteeism-related health conditions on employee work engagement levels: A comparison between groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T. de Beer

    2014-10-01

    Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the differences in work engagement levels based on groups of presenteeism-related conditions in employees. Motivation for the study: Awareness of the impact of presenteeism-related conditions on work engagement levels can aid in the crafting of interventions to assist employees who suffer from these conditions, which in turn can boost work engagement levels. Research design, approach and method: Cross-sectional data was collected from an availability sample of employees in the manufacturing sector (N = 3387. Main findings: The results of the multi-group structural equation modelling revealed significant mean differences in work engagement levels between the groups. Practical significance tests revealed significant differences between all the groups. The largest difference was between the group who suffered from no presenteeism-related conditions and the group who suffered from all three conditions included in this study concurrently. Practical/managerial implications: Organisational stakeholders are encouraged to take note of the effects that presenteeism-related health conditions have on work engagement and to consider relevant strategies and interventions to address and alleviate symptoms in order to tend to employee health and obviate the effect on productivity. Contribution: This study found that there were clear practical differences between employees who suffer from the presenteeism-related conditions and those who suffer from none of the conditions. Furthermore, there was also a clear difference when comparing the ‘no condition’ group to a general random sample in which employees might experience some symptoms but not comorbidity.

  4. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  5. Improvement of the prediction of fluid pressure from the results of techno-geophysical studies under complex geological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, B.L.; Esipko, O.A.; Dakhkilgov, T.D.

    1981-12-01

    Results of statistical processing of the data of prediction of pore pressures in the course of well sinking, according to the material of oil field and geophysical investigations in different areas, are presented. Likewise, the errors of pressure prediction, their causes, geological models of series with anomalously high formation pressure, and methods for prediction of pore and formation pressures under different geological conditions are considered. 12 refs.

  6. [Street food: analysis of hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Giovanna Carbonera; dos Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Andrade, Anderson Assunção; Alves, Luciene

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of street food is an economical and practical alternative for the population. However, concerns regarding the safety of these foods are increasing. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the street food trade in Uberaba in the State of Minas Gerais. For this purpose, 30 street vending sites were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and microbiological analysis of food handlers' hands and food contact recipients and surfaces. The findings showed low adequacy of street food regarding hand hygiene and food contact surfaces. With respect to surfaces, the results for mesophilic aerobic microorganisms revealed that only 23.3% had satisfactory sanitary conditions. The level of contamination of hands by fecal thermotolerant coliforms and/or Coagulase positive Staphylococci was unsatisfactory in approximately 47% of food handlers. The conclusion drawn is that the hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers in Uberaba are poor. It is therefore necessary to adopt effective and permanent training programs on food safety for food handlers urgently.

  7. Modeling of composite synthesis in conditions of controlled thermal explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukta, Yaroslav; Knyazeva, Anna

    2017-12-01

    The paper proposes the model for the titanium-based composite synthesis from powders of titanium and carbon of non-stoichiometric composition. The model takes into account the mixture heating from chamber walls, the dependence of liquidus and solidus temperatures on the composition of reacting mixture and the formation of possible irreversible phases. The reaction retardation by the reaction product is taken into consideration in kinetic laws. As an example, the results of temperature and conversion level calculation are presented for the system Ti-C with the summary reaction for different temperatures of chamber walls heating. It was revealed that the reaction retardation being the reaction product can be the cause of incomplete conversion in the thermal explosion conditions. Non-stoichiometric composition leads to the conditions of degenerated mode when some additional heating is necessary to complete the reaction.

  8. HEALTH CONDITION OF THE FIRST YEAR INFANTS IN MIGRANT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Yu. Albitsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex clinical social study of health status, life style and conditions of infants aged 3 months to 1 year in migrant families living in Pushkino district of Moscow region for more than 2 years was carried out. The study has revealed that children in migrant families fall behind in physical development, most of them show a delay of psychomotor development, the level of revealed pathology is significantly higher vs. children of famia lies permanently residing in the area. The data acquired indicate the need of intent attention to the children in migrant families from both medical and social authorities.Key words: children, health status, physical development, children's condition.

  9. Transferability of results of cost utility analyses for biologicals in inflammatory conditions for Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulácsi, László; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Brodszky, Valentin; Lopert, Ruth; Hevér, Noémi V; Baji, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Several Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries require cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to support reimbursement formulary listing. However, CUAs informed by local evidence are often unavailable, and the cost-effectiveness of the several currently reimbursed biologicals is unclear. To estimate the cost-effectiveness as multiples of per capita GDP/quality adjusted life years (QALY) of four biologicals (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab) currently reimbursed in six CEE countries in six inflammatory rheumatoid and bowel disease conditions. Systematic literature review of published cost-utility analyses in the selected conditions, using the United Kingdom (UK) as reference country and with study selection criteria set to optimize the transfer of results to the CEEs. Prices in each CEE country were pro-rated against UK prices using purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted per capita GDP, and local GDP per capita/QALY ratios estimated. Central and Eastern European countries list prices were 144-333% higher than pro rata prices. Out of 85 CUAs identified by previous systematic literature reviews, 15 were selected as a convenience sample for estimating the cost-effectiveness of biologicals in the CEE countries in terms of per capita GDP/QALY. Per capita GDP/QALY values varied from 0.42 to 6.4 across countries and conditions (Bulgaria: 0.97-6.38; Czech Republic: 0.42-2.76; Hungary: 0.54-3.54; Poland: 0.59-3.90; Romania: 0.77-5.07; Slovakia: 0.55-3.61). While results must be interpreted with caution, calculating pro rata (cost-effective) prices and per capita GDP/QALY ratios based on CUAs can aid reimbursement decision-making in the absence of analyses using local data.

  10. Use of a wine yeast deletion collection reveals genes that influence fermentation performance under low-nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Josephine J; Watson, Tommaso L; Walker, Michelle E; Gardner, Jennifer M; Lang, Tom A; Borneman, Anthony; Forgan, Angus; Tran, Tina; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    A deficiency of nitrogenous nutrients in grape juice can cause stuck and sluggish alcoholic fermentation, which has long been a problem in winemaking. Nitrogen requirements vary between wine yeast strains, and the ability of yeast to assimilate nitrogen depends on the nature and concentration of nitrogen present in the medium. In this study, a wine yeast gene deletion collection (1844 deletants in the haploid AWRI1631 background) was screened to identify genes whose deletion resulted in a reduction in the time taken to utilise all sugars when grown in a chemically defined grape juice medium supplemented with limited nitrogen (75 mg L-1 as a free amino acid mixture). Through micro-scale and laboratory-scale fermentations, 15 deletants were identified that completed fermentation in a shorter time than the wildtype (c.a. 15%-59% time reduction). This group of genes was annotated to biological processes including protein modification, transport, metabolism and ubiquitination (UBC13, MMS2, UBP7, UBI4, BRO1, TPK2, EAR1, MRP17, MFA2 and MVB12), signalling (MFA2) and amino acid metabolism (AAT2). Deletion of MFA2, encoding mating factor-a, resulted in a 55% decrease in fermentation duration. Mfa2Δ was chosen for further investigation to understand how this gene deletion conferred fermentation efficiency in limited nitrogen conditions.

  11. Ceres Revealed in a Grain of Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Fries, M.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Kebukawa, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Komatsu, M.; Ohsumi, K.; Steele, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zag and Monahans (1998) are H chondrite regolith breccias containing 4.5 giga-year-old halite crystals which contain abundant inclusions of aqueous fluids, solids and organics. These all originated on a cryo-volcanically-active C class asteroid, probably 1 Ceres; the halite was transported to the regolith of the H chondrite parent asteroid, potentially 6 Hebe. Detailed analysis of these solids will thus potentially reveal the mineralogy of Ceres. Mineralogy of solids in the Monahans Halite Solid grains are present in the halites, which were entrained within the mother brines during eruption, including material from the interior and surface of the erupting body. The solids include abundant, widely variable organics that could not have been significantly heated (which would have resulted in the loss of fluids from the halite). Our analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, UPLC-FD/QToF-MS, C-XANES and TEM reveal that these trapped grains include macromolecular carbon (MMC) similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, phyllosilicates, magnetite, sulfides, metal, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and zeolites. Conclusions: The halite in Monahans and Zag derive from a water and carbon-rich object that was cryo-volcanically active in the early solar system, probably Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft found that Ceres includes C chondrite materials. Our samples include both protolith and aqueously-altered samples of the body, permitting understanding of alteration conditions. Whatever the halite parent body, it was rich in a wide variety of organics and warm, liquid water at the solar system's dawn.

  12. Results of VVER fuel rods tests in the MIR.M1 reactor under power cycling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burukin, A.; Izhutov, A.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Kalygin, V.; Markov, D.; Pimenov, Y.; Novikov, V.; Medvedev, A.; Nesterov, B.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the main results of the 50 ... 60 MWd/kgU burnup VVER fuel rods tests performed in the MIR.M1 reactor loop facilities under power cycling. The non-destructive PIE results are presented as well. A series of experiments was performed, including overall measurement of fuel rod parameters test, in one of which 300 cycles were done. Irradiation under power cycling conditions and PIE of high-burnup VVER fuel rods showed the following: 1) all fuel rods claddings preserved their integrity under irradiation at linear heat rate (LHR) higher than the NPP operating one; 2) experimental data were obtained on the axial and radial cladding strain and fission gas release (FGR) from 50 ... 60 MWd/kgU burnup VVER-440 and VVER-1000 fuel rods as well as on the kinetics of the change in these parameters and fuel temperature under the power cycling; 3) non-destructive PIE results are in a satisfactory correlation with the data obtained by means of in-pile measurement gages during irradiation. (authors)

  13. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2014-04-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas, in the larger São Paulo area. Results from multilevel regression models indicate that wealthier households are more environmentally concerned, as suggested by affluence and post-materialist hypotheses. However, we also observe that increasing environmental concern correlates with a decline in objective environmental conditions. Interactions between objective environmental conditions and SES reveal some intriguing relationships: Among poorer individuals, a decline in environmental conditions increases environmental concern as suggested by the objective problems hypothesis, while for the wealthy, a decline in environmental conditions is associated with lower levels of environmental concern.

  14. Response of steel box columns in fire conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Yahyai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of elevated temperatures on the mechanical properties of steel, brings the importance of investigating the effect of fire on the steel structures anxiously. Columns, as the main load-carrying part of a structure, can be highly vulnerable to the fire. In this study, the behavior of steel gravity columns with box cross section exposed to fire has been investigated. These kinds of columns are widely used in common steel structures design in Iran. In current study, the behavior of such columns in fire conditions is investigated through the finite element method. To perform this, the finite element model of a steel column which has been previously tested under fire condition, was prepared. Experimental loading and boundary conditions were considered in the model and was analyzed. Results were validated by experimental data and various specimens of gravity box columns were designed according to the Iran’s steel buildings code, and modeled and analyzed using Abaqus software. The effect of width to thickness ratio of column plates, the load ratio and slenderness on the ultimate strength of the column was investigated, and the endurance time was estimated under ISO 834 standard fire curve. The results revealed that an increase in width to thickness ratio and load ratio leads to reduction of endurance time and the effect of width to thickness ratio on the ultimate strength of the column decreases with temperature increase.

  15. The transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environments. Recent research results in monsoon tropical condition of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Y, Truong; Sieu, Le Nhu; Ngo, Nguyen Trong; Phuc, Nguyen Van; Huong, Mai Thi; Quang, Nguyen Hao; Nhan, Dang Duc

    2003-01-01

    The data on Radionuclide transfer parameters in the environments, which are used in radioecological models, are very necessary for setting release limits of radioactive effluent and assessing the radiation dose to Man related to the releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. They strongly depend on climatic, geographic, environmental and pedological conditions. For temperate environments, they are abundant and have been established fairly well. Meanwhile the literature data are still scare and dispersal for Tropical and Sub-tropical zones. Besides, the improvement of Environmental Transfer Models and Parameters is an important problem so that they may be adapted for Southeast Asian countries including Japan as environmental conditions and foodstuffs in this Region are significantly different from those in Europe and North America. The paper presents measurements results of the dry deposition velocities of atmospheric aerosols carrying 7 Be, 137 Cs radionuclides and measurements results of soil to plant transfer factors (TF) for 60 Co, 65 Zn, 85 ASr and 134 Cs resulted from the out door radiotracer experiments with large pots. The selected soil types (Podzolic, Ferralitic, Ferralic Acrisols, Eutric Fluvisols and Orthi-thionic Fluvisols soil) and the plants (rice, black bean, cabbage, lettuce, tomato, cucumber, carrot, white radish, potato) used for the research are the most common in Vietnam. The measured Vg values (cm/s) are in the range of 0.01 - 1.84 for 7 Be and 1.95 - 49.77 for 137 Cs. An analysis of the associated meteorological parameters showed some correlations between 7 Be Vg with humidity and 137 Cs Vg with wind velocity. More than 400 TF (edible part) values were determined and their dependences on some soil parameters have been shown. (author)

  16. Comparative Circadian Metabolomics Reveal Differential Effects of Nutritional Challenge in the Serum and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondante, Serena; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Ceglia, Nicholas J; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-02-05

    Diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in pathological conditions rely upon clinical monitoring of key metabolites in the serum. Recent studies show that a wide range of metabolic pathways are controlled by circadian rhythms whose oscillation is affected by nutritional challenges, underscoring the importance of assessing a temporal window for clinical testing and thereby questioning the accuracy of the reading of critical pathological markers in circulation. We have been interested in studying the communication between peripheral tissues under metabolic homeostasis perturbation. Here we present a comparative circadian metabolomic analysis on serum and liver in mice under high fat diet. Our data reveal that the nutritional challenge induces a loss of serum metabolite rhythmicity compared with liver, indicating a circadian misalignment between the tissues analyzed. Importantly, our results show that the levels of serum metabolites do not reflect the circadian liver metabolic signature or the effect of nutritional challenge. This notion reveals the possibility that misleading reads of metabolites in circulation may result in misdiagnosis and improper treatments. Our findings also demonstrate a tissue-specific and time-dependent disruption of metabolic homeostasis in response to altered nutrition. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carolyn; Gredler, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Psychology students frequently have misconceptions of basic concepts in operant conditioning. Prior classroom observations revealed that most students defined positive reinforcement as reward and equated negative reinforcement and punishment. Students also labeled positive reinforcement as rewarding good behavior and negative reinforcement as…

  18. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). V. The physical conditions in low-mass protostellar outflows revealed by multi-transition water observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mottram, J. C.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bruderer, S.; San José-García, I.; Karska, A.; Visser, R.; Santangelo, G.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; van Kempen, T. A.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Wyrowski, F.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Outflows are an important part of the star formation process as both the result of ongoing active accretion and one of the main sources of mechanical feedback on small scales. Water is the ideal tracer of these effects because it is present in high abundance for the conditions expected in

  19. Floodplain forest succession reveals fluvial processes: A hydrogeomorphic model for temperate riparian woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Gregory; Politti, Emilio; Lautsch, Erwin; Benjankar, Rohan; Gill, Karen M; Rood, Stewart B

    2015-09-15

    River valley floodplains are physically-dynamic environments where fluvial processes determine habitat gradients for riparian vegetation. These zones support trees and shrubs whose life stages are adapted to specific habitat types and consequently forest composition and successional stage reflect the underlying hydrogeomorphic processes and history. In this study we investigated woodland vegetation composition, successional stage and habitat properties, and compared these with physically-based indicators of hydraulic processes. We thus sought to develop a hydrogeomorphic model to evaluate riparian woodland condition based on the spatial mosaic of successional phases of the floodplain forest. The study investigated free-flowing and dam-impacted reaches of the Kootenai and Flathead Rivers, in Idaho and Montana, USA and British Columbia, Canada. The analyses revealed strong correspondence between vegetation assessments and metrics of fluvial processes indicating morphodynamics (erosion and shear stress), inundation and depth to groundwater. The results indicated that common successional stages generally occupied similar hydraulic environments along the different river segments. Comparison of the spatial patterns between the free-flowing and regulated reaches revealed greater deviation from the natural condition for the braided channel segment than for the meandering segment. This demonstrates the utility of the hydrogeomorphic approach and suggests that riparian woodlands along braided channels could have lower resilience than those along meandering channels and might be more vulnerable to influences such as from river damming or climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous Movements of a Computer Mouse Reveal Egoism and In-group Favoritism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski, Norbert; Wojciechowski, Łukasz; Suszek, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to assess whether the first spontaneous movements of a computer mouse, when making an assessment on a scale presented on the screen, may express a respondent’s implicit attitudes. In Study 1, the altruistic behaviors of 66 students were assessed. The students were led to believe that the task they were performing was also being performed by another person and they were asked to distribute earnings between themselves and the partner. The participants performed the tasks under conditions with and without distractors. With the distractors, in the first few seconds spontaneous mouse movements on the scale expressed a selfish distribution of money, while later the movements gravitated toward more altruism. In Study 2, 77 Polish students evaluated a painting by a Polish/Jewish painter on a scale. They evaluated it under conditions of full or distracted cognitive abilities. Spontaneous movements of the mouse on the scale were analyzed. In addition, implicit attitudes toward both Poles and Jews were measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). A significant association between implicit attitudes (IAT) and spontaneous evaluation of images using a computer mouse was observed in the group with the distractor. The participants with strong implicit in-group favoritism of Poles revealed stronger preference for the Polish painter’s work in the first few seconds of mouse movement. Taken together, these results suggest that spontaneous mouse movements may reveal egoism (in-group favoritism), i.e., processes that were not observed in the participants’ final decisions (clicking on the scale). PMID:28163689

  1. Spontaneous Movements of a Computer Mouse Reveal Egoism and In-group Favoritism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski, Norbert; Wojciechowski, Łukasz; Suszek, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to assess whether the first spontaneous movements of a computer mouse, when making an assessment on a scale presented on the screen, may express a respondent's implicit attitudes. In Study 1, the altruistic behaviors of 66 students were assessed. The students were led to believe that the task they were performing was also being performed by another person and they were asked to distribute earnings between themselves and the partner. The participants performed the tasks under conditions with and without distractors. With the distractors, in the first few seconds spontaneous mouse movements on the scale expressed a selfish distribution of money, while later the movements gravitated toward more altruism. In Study 2, 77 Polish students evaluated a painting by a Polish/Jewish painter on a scale. They evaluated it under conditions of full or distracted cognitive abilities. Spontaneous movements of the mouse on the scale were analyzed. In addition, implicit attitudes toward both Poles and Jews were measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). A significant association between implicit attitudes (IAT) and spontaneous evaluation of images using a computer mouse was observed in the group with the distractor. The participants with strong implicit in-group favoritism of Poles revealed stronger preference for the Polish painter's work in the first few seconds of mouse movement. Taken together, these results suggest that spontaneous mouse movements may reveal egoism (in-group favoritism), i.e., processes that were not observed in the participants' final decisions (clicking on the scale).

  2. Condition-Dependent Trade-Off Between Weapon Size and Immunity in Males of the European Earwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Maximilian; Vogelweith, Fanny; Foitzik, Susanne; Meunier, Joël

    2017-08-11

    Investigating the expression of trade-offs between key life-history functions is central to our understanding of how these functions evolved and are maintained. However, detecting trade-offs can be challenging due to variation in resource availability, which masks trade-offs at the population level. Here, we investigated in the European earwig Forficula auricularia whether (1) weapon size trades off with three key immune parameters - hemocyte concentration, phenoloxidase and prophenoloxidase activity - and whether (2) expression and strength of these trade-offs depend on male body condition (body size) and/or change after an immune challenge. Our results partially confirmed condition dependent trade-offs between weapon size and immunity in male earwigs. Specifically, we found that after an immune challenge, weapon size trades off with hemocyte concentrations in low-condition, but not in good-condition males. Contrastingly, weapon size was independent of pre-challenge hemocyte concentration. We also found no trade-off between weapon size and phenoloxidase activity, independent of body condition and immune challenge. Overall, our study reveals that trade-offs with sexual traits may weaken or disappear in good-condition individuals. Given the importance of weapon size for male reproductive success, our results highlight how low-condition individuals may employ alternative life-history investment strategies to cope with resource limitation.

  3. Hypertension prevalence and living conditions related to air pollution: results of a national epidemiological study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Chahine, Mirna; Hallit, Souheil; Farah, Rita; Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Asmar, Roland; Hosseiny, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor of several diseases, linked to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries. Some studies have linked indoor and outdoor pollution exposure items to hypertension, but results were inconsistent. Our objective was to assess the association of living conditions related to air pollution to hypertension in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern country. A national cross-sectional study was conducted all over Lebanon. Blood pressure and its related medications were assessed to be able to classify participants as hypertensive or not. Moreover, in addition to living conditions related to air pollution exposure, we assessed potential predictors of hypertension, including sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health information and biological measurements. Furthermore, we assessed dose-effect relationship of air pollution items in relation with hypertension. Living conditions related to indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures were associated with hypertension, with or without taking biological values into account. Moreover, we found a dose-effect relationship of exposure with risk of disease (15% increase in risk of disease for every additional pollution exposure item), after adjustment for sociodemographics and biological characteristics (Ora = 1.15 [1.03-1.28]). Although additional studies would be necessary to confirm these findings, interventions should start to sensitize the population about the effect of air pollution on chronic diseases. The work on reducing pollution and improving air quality should be implemented to decrease the disease burden on the population and health system.

  4. STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS STERILANTS AND CULTURE CONDITIONS ON IN-VITRO SEED GERMINATION IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM)

    OpenAIRE

    K.B.Himabindu; M.Shanthi Priya; D.Mohan Reddy; P.Sudhakar; Y.Srinivasulu; M.Reddisekhar; P.Latha; B.Rupesh Kumar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of various sterilants and culture conditions on in-vitro seed germination in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. PKM-1 revealed that among three sterilants used, surface sterilization of seeds with 5 % NaOCl for 20 minutes was found to be more effective resulting in high germination rate and contamination free cultures. Similarly among the different media and culture conditions considered in the present experiment, MS medium without sucrose with dark incubation f...

  5. Investigation of actual conditions of mammography in Kagoshima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Natsuki; Tanimoto, Eriko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kuma, Kouji

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed the actual conditions of mammography with regard to image quality and radiation dose at 44 facilities in Kagoshima prefecture in 1999. In April 2004, guidelines for mammography newly included the standard of digital mammography. From September to October 2005, the survey was conducted at 48 facilities, and the results of the survey were compared with that in 1999. We visited 44 of the 48 facilities, and visually evaluated the image quality of mammograms for RMI156 and clinical mammograms. In addition, we measured average mammary gland dose at each facility. The number of the mammography device that satisfied the specified guideline criterion was larger than that in 1999. Image quality for the RMI156 mammograms improved. However, the results of the present survey revealed several problems. First, the number of facilities that had quality control instruments for mammography are few. Second, radiological technologists, medical doctors, and nurses did not share knowledge or information regarding mammography. Finally, there were differences in devices and image quality for mammography among the facilities. We achieved an understanding of the actual conditions of mammography in Kagoshima prefecture by visiting many facilities, evaluating image quality, and communicating with many staff members. Our results may be useful for the development of mammography examinations. (author)

  6. Degradation of Poly (lactic acid under Simulated Landfill Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomnutcha Boonmee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the physical and chemical properties change of poly(lactic acid after burying in the mixture of soil and sludge under thermophilic (61 °C oxygen limited conditions were investigated using various analytical techniques. The environmental factors under these setting conditions and microbial activities accelerated the degradation process of PLA. Under tested conditions, PLA loss their weight about 90% at the burying time of 90 days. During the degradation process, PLA samples were continuously broken to small fragile fragments and showed the size less than 1 mm at the end of degradation test. Change of the surface morphology change was revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Many pores, cracks and irregular roughness were presented on the PLA surface. Thermal decomposition was decreased from 387.8 to 289.2 °C. The percentage of carbon content in molecular structure decreased from 49.46% to 45.42%. In addition, the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed the change of ester bonds. This study can be used for developing PLA waste management process.

  7. Novel method reveals a narrow phylogenetic distribution of bacterial dispersers in environmental communities exposed to low hydration conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, U. S.; Bak, F.; Aamand, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we developed a method that provides community-level surface dispersal profiles under controlled hydration conditions from environmental samples and enables us to isolate and uncover the diversity of the fastest bacterial dispersers. The method expands on the Porous Surface Model (PSM...... Pseudomonas putida and Flavobacterium johnsoniae strains from their non-motile mutants. Applying the method to soil and lake water bacterial communities showed that community-scale dispersal declined as conditions became drier. However, for both communities, dispersal was detected even under low hydration...... dispersers were substantially less diverse than the total communities. The dispersing fraction of the soil microbial community was dominated by Pseudomonas which increased in abundance at low hydration conditions, while the dispersing fraction of the lake community was dominated by Aeromonas and, under wet...

  8. Facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 62 year-old-man with facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis (ChAc). He showed chorea that started 20 years ago. The orofacial dyskinisia with tongue and cheek biting resulted in facial cellulitis. The peripheral blood smear revealed acanthocytosis of 25%. The overall of chorea, orofacial dyskinetic ...

  9. Fate of para-toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) in groundwater under anoxic conditions: modelling results from a field site in Berlin (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffe, Raffaella; Kohfahl, Claus; Hamann, Enrico; Greskowiak, Janek; Massmann, Gudrun; Dünnbier, Uwe; Pekdeger, Asaf

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a field modelling study to investigate the processes controlling the plume evolution of para-toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) in anoxic groundwater in Berlin, Germany. The organic contaminant p-TSA originates from the industrial production process of plasticisers, pesticides, antiseptics and drugs and is of general environmental concern for urban water management. Previous laboratory studies revealed that p-TSA is degradable under oxic conditions, whereas it appears to behave conservatively in the absence of oxygen (O2). p-TSA is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment of Berlin and present in high concentrations (up to 38 μg L(-1)) in an anoxic aquifer downgradient of a former sewage farm, where groundwater is partly used for drinking water production. To obtain refined knowledge of p-TSA transport and degradation in an aquifer at field scale, measurements of p-TSA were carried out at 11 locations (at different depths) between 2005 and 2010. Comparison of chloride (Cl(-)) and p-TSA field data showed that p-TSA has been retarded in the same manner as Cl(-). To verify the transport behaviour under field conditions, a two-dimensional transport model was setup, applying the dual-domain mass transfer approach in the model sector corresponding to an area of high aquifer heterogeneity. The distribution of Cl(-) and p-TSA concentrations from the site was reproduced well, confirming that both compounds behave conservatively and are subjected to retardation due to back diffusion from water stagnant zones. Predictive simulations showed that without any remediation measures, the groundwater quality near the drinking water well galleries will be affected by high p-TSA loads for about a hundred years.

  10. Capability of space-spectral analysis used for studying underground nuclear explosions effect on ground surface condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melent'ev, M.I.; Velikanov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the results of the work of study of the influence underground nucleus blasts (UNB) on condition of the day surface of the site Balapan on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site using materials of remote space sensing. The estimation of the cosmic spectral analysis information density is given for revealing the post-explosive geo- dynamic processes. (author)

  11. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Uncertainty of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC Results as Related to Instrumental Conditions: Optimization and Robustness of BAC Analysis Headspace Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleigh A. Boswell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of blood alcohol concentration is a routine analysis performed in many forensic laboratories. This analysis commonly utilizes static headspace sampling, followed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Studies have shown several “optimal” methods for instrumental operating conditions, which are intended to yield accurate and precise data. Given that different instruments, sampling methods, application specific columns and parameters are often utilized, it is much less common to find information on the robustness of these reported conditions. A major problem can arise when these “optimal” conditions may not also be robust, thus producing data with higher than desired uncertainty or potentially inaccurate results. The goal of this research was to incorporate the principles of quality by design (QBD in the adjustment and determination of BAC (blood alcohol concentration instrumental headspace parameters, thereby ensuring that minor instrumental variations, which occur as a matter of normal work, do not appreciably affect the final results of this analysis. This study discusses both the QBD principles as well as the results of the experiments, which allow for determination of more favorable instrumental headspace conditions. Additionally, method detection limits will also be reported in order to determine a reporting threshold and the degree of uncertainty at the common threshold value of 0.08 g/dL. Furthermore, the comparison of two internal standards, n-propanol and t-butanol, will be investigated. The study showed that an altered parameter of 85 °C headspace oven temperature and 15 psi headspace vial pressurization produces the lowest percent relative standard deviation of 1.3% when t-butanol is implemented as an internal standard, at least for one very common platform. The study also showed that an altered parameter of 100 °C headspace oven temperature and 15-psi headspace vial pressurization

  13. Combining complexity measures of EEG data: multiplying measures reveal previously hidden information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have noted significant differences among human electroencephalograph (EEG) results when participants or patients are exposed to different stimuli, undertaking different tasks, or being affected by conditions such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. Such studies often use only one or two measures of complexity and do not regularly justify their choice of measure beyond the fact that it has been used in previous studies. If more measures were added to such studies, however, more complete information might be found about these reported differences. Such information might be useful in confirming the existence or extent of such differences, or in understanding their physiological bases. In this study we analysed publically-available EEG data using a range of complexity measures to determine how well the measures correlated with one another. The complexity measures did not all significantly correlate, suggesting that different measures were measuring unique features of the EEG signals and thus revealing information which other measures were unable to detect. Therefore, the results from this analysis suggests that combinations of complexity measures reveal unique information which is in addition to the information captured by other measures of complexity in EEG data. For this reason, researchers using individual complexity measures for EEG data should consider using combinations of measures to more completely account for any differences they observe and to ensure the robustness of any relationships identified.

  14. Starch nanoparticles resulting from combination of dry heating under mildly acidic conditions and homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jiyeon; Park, Eun Young; Kim, Jong-Yea

    2017-07-15

    To modify starch granular structure, normal maize starch was subjected to dry heating with various amounts of 1.0M HCl (1.2, 1.4 or 1.6mL) and different treatment times (2, 4 or 8h). For all reaction conditions, at least 80% of the starch substance was recovered, and amylose and amylopectin B1 chains were preferentially cleaved. As acidic condition and/or treatment time increased, the treated granules were readily fragmented by homogenization. The treatment appeared to alter short-range crystalline structure (FT-IR), but long-range crystalline structure (XRD) remained intact. Homogenization for 60min fragmented the treated starch granules (subjected to reaction condition of 1.4mL/4h, 1.6mL/2h, and 1.6mL/4h) into nanoparticles consisting of individual platelet-like and spherical particles with diameters less than 100nm. However, the fragmentation caused obvious damage in the long-range crystalline structure of starch nanoparticles, while the short-range chain associations remained relatively intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On the determination of the thermal comfort conditions of a metropolitan city underground railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Assimakopoulos, Margarita N; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N

    2016-10-01

    Although the indoor thermal comfort concept has received increasing research attention, the vast majority of published work has been focused on the building environment, such as offices, residential and non-residential buildings. The present study aims to investigate the thermal comfort conditions in the unique and complex underground railway environment. Field measurements of air temperature, air humidity, air velocity, globe temperature and the number of passengers were conducted in the modern underground railway of Athens, Greece. Environmental monitoring was performed in the interior of two types of trains (air-conditioned and forced air ventilation cabins) and on selected platforms during the summer period. The thermal comfort was estimated using the PMV (predicted mean vote) and the PPD (predicted percentage dissatisfied) scales. The results reveal that the recommended thermal comfort requirements, although at relatively low percentages are met only in air-conditioned cabins. It is found that only 33% of the PPD values in air-conditioned cabins can be classified in the less restrictive comfort class C, as proposed by ISO-7730. The thermal environment is "slightly warm" in air-conditioned cabins and "warm" in forced air ventilation cabins. In addition, differences of the thermal comfort conditions on the platforms are shown to be associated with the depth and the design characteristics of the stations. The average PMV at the station with small depth is 0.9 scale points higher than that of the station with great depth. The number of passengers who are waiting at the platforms during daytime reveals a U-shaped pattern for a deep level station and an inverted course of PMV for a small depth station. Further, preliminary observations are made on the distribution of air velocity on the platforms and on the impact of air velocity on the thermal comfort conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. THE RESULTS OF USING OF INDICATORS OF THE HIGH-TEST CAST IRON OF TYPE ICH STRUCTURE IN CONDITIONS OF PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Majorov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of development of the indicator of highstrength pig-iron are submitted in the report. The indicator using allows to carry out the testing of the pig-iron structure in conditions of manufacture without additional preparation of the casting surface.

  17. The extracellular proteome of two Bifidobacterium species reveals different adaptation strategies to low iron conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Gutierrez, Pamela; Stevens, Marc J. A.; Gehrig, Peter; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Lacroix, Christophe; Chassard, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Background Bifidobacteria are among the first anaerobic bacteria colonizing the gut. Bifidobacteria require iron for growth and their iron-sequestration mechanisms are important for their fitness and possibly inhibit enteropathogens. Here we used combined genomic and proteomic analyses to characterize adaptations to low iron conditions of B. kashiwanohense PV20-2 and B. pseudolongum PV8-2, 2 strains isolated from the feces of iron-deficient African infants and selected for their high iron-seq...

  18. Conditions of Educational Environment for the Development of Teenagers' Moral Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Shafikova, Gulnaz R.; Kapranova, Vera A.

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the fact that social relations require from a school graduator not only the subject specific competences, but also the ability to build interpersonal interaction based on moral norms. Therefore, this article is aimed to reveal the conditions of the school educational environment organization promoting…

  19. INTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY IN THE LEAN MANUFACTURING CONDITIONS ACCORDING TO THE LOT FOR LOT METHOD LOGIC - RESULTS OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Domański

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The review of literature and observations of business practice indicate that integration of production and supply is not a well-developed area of science. The author notes that the publications on the integration most often focus on selected detailed aspects and are rather postulative in character. This is accompanied by absence of specific utilitarian solutions (tools which could be used in business practice. Methods: The research was conducted between 2009 and 2010 in a company in Wielkopolska which operates in the machining sector. The solution of the research problem is based on the author's own concept - the integration model. The cost concept of the solution was built and verified (case study on the basis of conditions of a given enterprise (industrial data. Results: Partial verifiability of results was proved in the entire set of selected material indexes (although in two cases out of three the costs differences to the disadvantage of the lot-for-lot method were small. In case of structure of studied product range, a significant conformity of results in the order of 67% was achieved for items typically characteristic for the LfL method (group AX. Conclusions: The formulated research problem and the result of its solution (only 6 material items demand a lot (orthodoxy in terms of implementation conditions. The concept of the solution has a narrow field of application in the selected organizational conditions (studied enterprise. It should be verified by independent studies of this kind at other enterprises.

  20. New sample carrier systems for thermogravimetric analysis under forced flow conditions and their influence on microkinetic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, C; Fieback, T M

    2015-09-01

    For thermogravimetric analysis, it has been shown that, depending on the type of sample container, different kinetic results could be obtained despite regarding the same reaction under constant conditions. This is due to limiting macrokinetic effects which are strongly dependant on the type of sample carrying system. This prompted the need for sample containers which deliver results minimally limited by diffusive mass transport. In this way, two container systems were developed, both characterized by a forced flow stream through a solid, porous bed: one from bottom to top (counter-current flow) and one from top to bottom (co-current flow). Optical test measurements were performed, the results indicating that reaction proceedings are almost fully independent of the geometrical shape of the sample containers. The Boudouard reaction was investigated with a standard crucible and the new developed systems; the reaction rates determined differed significantly, up to a factor of 6.2 at 1373 K.

  1. DISTILLER: a data integration framework to reveal condition dependency of complex regulons in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Karen; De Bie, Tijl; Dhollander, Thomas; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C; Thijs, Inge M; Schoofs, Geert; De Weerdt, Ami; De Moor, Bart; Vanderleyden, Jos; Collado-Vides, Julio; Engelen, Kristof; Marchal, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    We present DISTILLER, a data integration framework for the inference of transcriptional module networks. Experimental validation of predicted targets for the well-studied fumarate nitrate reductase regulator showed the effectiveness of our approach in Escherichia coli. In addition, the condition dependency and modularity of the inferred transcriptional network was studied. Surprisingly, the level of regulatory complexity seemed lower than that which would be expected from RegulonDB, indicating that complex regulatory programs tend to decrease the degree of modularity.

  2. Assessment of GPM-IMERG and Other Precipitation Products against Gauge Data under Different Topographic and Climatic Conditions in Iran: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The new generation of weather observatory satellites, namely Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM constellation satellites, is the lead observatory of the 10 highly advanced earth orbiting weather research satellites. Indeed, GPM is the first satellite that has been designed to measure light rain and snowfall, in addition to heavy tropical rainfall. This work compares the final run of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG product, the post real time of TRMM and Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA-3B42 and the Era-Interim product from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF against the Iran Meteorological Organization (IMO daily precipitation measured by the synoptic rain-gauges over four regions with different topography and climate conditions in Iran. Assessment is implemented for a one-year period from March 2014 to February 2015. Overall, in daily scale the results reveal that all three products lead to underestimation but IMERG performs better than other products and underestimates precipitation slightly in all four regions. Based on monthly and seasonal scale, in Guilan all products, in Bushehr and Kermanshah ERA-Interim and in Tehran IMERG and ERA-Interim tend to underestimate. The correlation coefficient between IMERG and the rain-gauge data in daily scale is far superior to that of Era-Interim and TMPA-3B42. On the basis of daily timescale of bias in comparison with the ground data, the IMERG product far outperforms ERA-Interim and 3B42 products. According to the categorical verification technique in this study, IMERG yields better results for detection of precipitation events on the basis of Probability of Detection (POD, Critical Success Index (CSI and False Alarm Ratio (FAR in those areas with stratiform and orographic precipitation, such as Tehran and Kermanshah, compared with other satellite/model data sets. In particular, for heavy precipitation (>15 mm/day, IMERG is superior to

  3. Transient heat transfer into superfluid helium under confined conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, Yu.P.; Miklyaev, V.M.; Sergeev, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Transient thermal processes at solid-HeII interface at input of step pulse of heat load was investigated. Particular attention is given to the study of influence of geometry of experimental specimen upon the heat transfer dynamics. Abrupt breakdown of highly efficient transfer modes caused by the developmet of superfluid turbulence under confined condition is revealed, and accompanying temperature shift is registered. Some characteristic parameters are selected, their dependence on experimental conditions is established

  4. Health Effects of Unemployment in Denmark, Norway and Sweden 2007-2010: Differing Economic Conditions, Differing Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian

    2016-07-01

    This article investigates short-term health effects of unemployment for individuals in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden during an economic downturn (2007-2010) that hit the Scandinavian countries with diverging strength. The longitudinal part of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data material is analyzed, and results from generalized least squares estimation indicate that Denmark is the only Scandinavian country in which health status deteriorated among the unemployed. The individual-level (and calendar year) fixed-effect results confirm the negative relationship between unemployment and health status in Denmark. This result is robust across different subsamples, model specifications, and changes in both the dependent and independent variable. Health status deteriorated especially among women and people in prime working age (30-59 years). There is, however, only scant evidence of short-term health effects among the recently unemployed in Norway and Sweden. The empirical findings are discussed in light of: (1) the adequacy of the unemployment insurance system, (2) the likelihood of re-employment for the displaced worker, and (3) selection patterns into and out of employment in the years preceding and during the economic downturn. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. High temperature corrosion under conditions simulating biomass firing: depth-resolved phase identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    ) were coated with KCl and is o-thermally exposed at 560 o C for 168 h under a flue gas corresponding to straw firing. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization techniques were employed for comprehensive characterization......Both cross-sectional and plan view, ‘top-down’ characterization methods were employed , for a depth-resolved characterization of corrosion products resulting from high temperature corrosion under laboratory conditions simulating biomass firing. Samples of an austenitic stainless steel (TP 347H FG...... of the corrosion product. Results from this comprehensive characterization revealed more details on the morphology and composition of the corrosion product....

  6. The effects of operational conditions on the respiration rate of Tubificidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juqing Lou

    Full Text Available Tubificidae is often used in the wastewater treatment systems to minimize the sludge production because it can be fed on the activated sludge. The process conditions have effect on the growth, reproduction, and sludge reduction efficiency of Tubificidae. The effects of the water quality, density of worms, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO concentration on the respiration rate of Tubificidae were investigated to determine the optimal conditions for the growth and metabolism of the worms and reveal the mechanisms involving the efficient sludge reduction in terms of these conditions. It was observed that the respiration rate was highest in the water discharged from an ecosystem that included symbiotic Tubificidae and microbes and was lowest in distilled water. Considering density of the worms, the highest rate was 81.72±5.12 mg O2/g(dry weight·h·L with 0.25 g (wet weight of worms in 1 L test flask. The maximum Tubificidae respiration rate was observed at a pH of 8.0±0.05, a rate that was more than twice as high as those observed at other pH values. The respiration rate increased in the temperature range of ∼8°C-22°C, whereas the rate declined in the temperature range of ∼22°C-30°C. The respiration rate of Tubificidae was very high for DO range of ∼3.5-4.5 mg/L, and the rates were relatively low for out of this DO range. The results of this study revealed the process conditions which influenced the growth, and reproduction of Tubificidae and sludge reduction at a microscopic level, which could be a theoretical basis for the cultivation and application of Tubificidae in wastewater treatment plants.

  7. Fuel performance under normal PWR conditions: A review of relevant experimental results and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M.; Lemaignan, C.

    1992-06-01

    Experiments conducted at Grenoble (CEA/DRN) over the past 20 years in the field of nuclear fuel behaviour are reviewed. Of particular concern is the need to achieve a comprehensive understanding of and subsequently overcome the limitations associated with high burnup and load-following conditions (pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), fission gas release (FGR), water-side corrosion). A general view is given of the organization of research work as well as some experimental details (irradiation, postirradiation examination — PIE). Based on various experimental programmes (Cyrano, Medicis, Anemone, Furet, Tango, Contact, Cansar, Hatac, Flog, Decor), the main contributions of the thermomechanical behaviour of a PWR fuel rod are described: thermal conductivity, in-pile densification, swelling, fission gas release in steady state and moderate transient conditions, gap thermal conductance, formation of primary and secondary ridges under PCI conditions. Specific programmes (Gdgrif, Thermox, Grimox) are devoted to the behaviour of particular fuels (gadolinia-bearing fuel, MOX fuel). Moreover, microstructure-based studies have been undertaken on fission gas release (fine analysis of the bubble population inside irradiated fuel samples), and on cladding behaviour (PCI related studies on stress-corrosion cracking (SCO, irradiation effects on zircaloy microstructure).

  8. Occupational reporiductive system diseases in female workers employed at worplaces with harmful working conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Fesenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the data obtained in the course of long-term research dedicated to studying the extent to which re-productive system pathologies in workers with high-risk occupations are occupationally induced. Their peculiarity is joint impacts of various occupational factors (for example, impacts exerted by chemicals together with physical and biological factors, and labor hardness and intensity as well on a female body. Our research goal was to examine the extent to which reproductive system pathologies in workers with high-risk occupations were occupationally induced. To achieve it, we applied statistical estimate of correlation between health disorders and work. Our occupational group included a number of occupations with harmful or hazardous working conditions in civil en-gineering, metallurgy, chemical industry, polymer-processing industry, and health care as well. As a rule, working condi-tions class of workers from the examined groups varied from 3.1 to 3.3; and occupation with permissible working conditions were used as a comparative group. The research results revealed that there are certain occupations with high risk of reproductive health disorders evolvement and infants development pathologies evolvement. They are: – model makers and checkers in civil engineering and crane operators at a metallurgic plant; – analysts at chemical analysis laboratories, chemical engineers in chemical industry (including petrochemical plants, polymer-processing plants, and organic synthesis plants; – surgeons, obstetrician-gynecologists, midwives, surgical nurses working in in-patient departments. Estimate of correlation and occupational dependence of reproductive system diseases on working conditions revealed that women with harmful working conditions (3.1–3.3 hazard class had defective pregnancies or labor pathologies which had strong and average correlation with working conditions. Health disorders in newborns were estimated as per very

  9. A Panel of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Reveals the Variety and Dynamic of Pluripotent States in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Osteil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional rabbit embryonic stem cell (ESC lines are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM of pre-implantation embryos using methods and culture conditions that are established for primate ESCs. In this study, we explored the capacity of the rabbit ICM to give rise to ESC lines using conditions similar to those utilized to generate naive ESCs in mice. On single-cell dissociation and culture in fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2-free, serum-supplemented medium, rabbit ICMs gave rise to ESC lines lacking the DNA-damage checkpoint in the G1 phase like mouse ESCs, and with a pluripotency gene expression profile closer to the rabbit ICM/epiblast profiles. These cell lines can be converted to FGF2-dependent ESCs after culture in conventional conditions. They can also colonize the rabbit pre-implantation embryo. These results indicate that rabbit epiblast cells can be coaxed toward different types of pluripotent stem cells and reveal the dynamics of pluripotent states in rabbit ESCs.

  10. Support Seeking or Familial Obligation: An Investigation of Motives for Disclosing Genetic Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marisa; Smith, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Genetic test results reveal not only personal information about a person's likelihood of certain medical conditions but also information about the person's genetic relatives. Given the familial nature of genetic information, one's obligation to protect family members may be a motive for disclosing genetic test results, but this claim has not been methodically tested. Existing models of disclosure decision making presume self-interested motives, such as seeking social support, instead of other-interested motives, like familial obligation. This study investigated young adults' (N = 173) motives to share a genetic-based health condition, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, after reading a hypothetical vignette. Results show that social support and familial obligation were both reported as motives for disclosure. In fact, some participants reported familial obligation as their primary motivator for disclosure. Finally, stronger familial obligation predicted increased likelihood of disclosing hypothetical genetic test results. Implications of these results were discussed in reference to theories of disclosure decision-making models and the practice of genetic disclosures.

  11. Lateralized implicit sequence learning in uni- and bi-manual conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Rémy; Pasquali, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    It has been proposed that the right hemisphere (RH) is better suited to acquire novel material whereas the left hemisphere (LH) is more able to process well-routinized information. Here, we ask whether this potential dissociation also manifests itself in an implicit learning task. Using a lateralized version of the serial reaction time task (SRT), we tested whether participants trained in a divided visual field condition primarily stimulating the RH would learn the implicit regularities embedded in sequential material faster than participants in a condition favoring LH processing. In the first study, half of participants were presented sequences in the left (vs. right) visual field, and had to respond using their ipsilateral hand (unimanual condition), hence making visuo-motor processing possible within the same hemisphere. Results showed successful implicit sequence learning, as indicated by increased reaction time for a transfer sequence in both hemispheric conditions and lack of conscious knowledge in a generation task. There was, however, no evidence of interhemispheric differences. In the second study, we hypothesized that a bimanual response version of the lateralized SRT, which requires interhemispheric communication and increases computational and cognitive processing loads, would favor RH-dependent visuospatial/attentional processes. In this bimanual condition, our results revealed a much higher transfer effect in the RH than in the LH condition, suggesting higher RH sensitivity to the processing of novel sequential material. This LH/RH difference was interpreted within the framework of the Novelty-Routinization model [Goldberg, E., & Costa, L. D. (1981). Hemisphere differences in the acquisition and use of descriptive systems. Brain and Language, 14(1), 144-173] and interhemispheric interactions in attentional processing [Banich, M. T. (1998). The missing link: the role of interhemispheric interaction in attentional processing. Brain and Cognition, 36

  12. Phosphates of crandallite type (plumibogummite, goyazite, gorceixcite) results of amblygonite under weathering conditions from Coronel Murta's pegmatites (northeastern Miras Gerais) and your paleoecological meaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, J.M.C.; Marciano, V.R.P.R.O.; Lena, J.C. de; Soares, A.C.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with crandallite type phosphates (plumbogummite, go yazite gorceixcite) originating from amblygonite under weathering conditions active in very recent times in the Coronel Murta are (northeastern Minas Gerais). Amblygonite, the crystallization of which too place about 500 Ma ago within the replacement bodies of pegmatites emplaced in mia-bearing quartzites from the Proterozoic Salinas Group, was the start ing material for the above mentione supergene minerals. The pegmatitic veins, emplaced in the quartzites according to wo perpendicular joint systems, underwent a strong weathering which produced the total kaolinization of the pegmatitic primary feldspars observed at the present time. During the supergene processes, the amblygonite, after acting as a geochemical fence for Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb etc., which provided conditions for the formation of the crandallitic minerals, was transformed into kaolinite. The stability fields these crandallitic minerals, comparared to those of kaolinite and amblygonite, show that they are easily formed under rather high pH values. As the environment becomes more acid and keeping in mind the very low cationic activities in groundwaters, al these phosphates become unstable and, under SiO 2 metasomatism, envolve to kaolinite. This is thermodynamically sound as revealed not only by the calculated stability diagrams but by the identified mineral assemblages as well. These mineral assemblages and their widespread regional scaterring seem to be induced not only by climatic and relief conditions but also by their position within the weathering profile. In the Coronel Murta area the most effective factors seem to have the very recent climatic and relief changes. (author) [pt

  13. Magnitude of reactive thrombocytosis and associated clinical conditions in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Labrini V; Polizopoulou, Zoe S; Papavasileiou, Eleftheria G; Mpairamoglou, Efstathios L; Kantere, Maria C; Rousou, Xanthi A

    2017-09-09

    Previous studies on the underlying causes of thrombocytosis have raised scientific interest in its clinical relevance in dogs. The purpose of this study was: (1) to explore the clinical conditions associated with thrombocytosis; (2) to compare platelet counts among these conditions; and (3) to identify possible interactions with other haematological variables and associated conditions. Medical records of 195 dogs with thrombocytosis (platelet count >500×10 3 /μL) were reviewed for signalment, complete blood count results and definitive diagnosis. The prevalence of thrombocytosis was 6.02%. All cases included had reactive thrombocytosis, with non-neoplastic, non-inflammatory underlying conditions in 48.2%, inflammatory processes in 34.4% and neoplastic processes in 17.4%. Haemoglobin and white blood cell counts were negatively and positively associated with platelet count, respectively. This study revealed that mean platelet count in dogs with neoplasia and a packed cell volume of 35% or below was significantly higher than that for dogs with other disease categories. Therefore, for dogs with marked thrombocytosis and anaemia, it is recommended that neoplasia should be included in the list of differential diagnoses. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Segmentation precedes face categorization under suboptimal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlijn eVan Den Boomen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both categorization and segmentation processes play a crucial role in face perception. However, the functional relation between these subprocesses is currently unclear. The present study investigates the temporal relation between segmentation-related and category-selective responses in the brain, using electroencephalography (EEG. Surface segmentation and category content were both manipulated using texture-defined objects, including faces. This allowed us to study brain activity related to segmentation and to categorization. In the main experiment, participants viewed texture-defined objects for a duration of 800 ms. EEG results revealed that segmentation-related responses precede category-selective responses. Three additional experiments revealed that the presence and timing of categorization depends on stimulus properties and presentation duration. Photographic objects were presented for a long and short (92 ms duration and evoked fast category-selective responses in both cases. On the other hand, presentation of texture-defined objects for a short duration only evoked segmentation-related but no category-selective responses. Category-selective responses were much slower when evoked by texture-defined than by photographic objects. We suggest that in case of categorization of objects under suboptimal conditions, such as when low-level stimulus properties are not sufficient for fast object categorization, segmentation facilitates the slower categorization process.

  15. Segmentation precedes face categorization under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Boomen, Carlijn; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Snijders, Tineke M; Kemner, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Both categorization and segmentation processes play a crucial role in face perception. However, the functional relation between these subprocesses is currently unclear. The present study investigates the temporal relation between segmentation-related and category-selective responses in the brain, using electroencephalography (EEG). Surface segmentation and category content were both manipulated using texture-defined objects, including faces. This allowed us to study brain activity related to segmentation and to categorization. In the main experiment, participants viewed texture-defined objects for a duration of 800 ms. EEG results revealed that segmentation-related responses precede category-selective responses. Three additional experiments revealed that the presence and timing of categorization depends on stimulus properties and presentation duration. Photographic objects were presented for a long and short (92 ms) duration and evoked fast category-selective responses in both cases. On the other hand, presentation of texture-defined objects for a short duration only evoked segmentation-related but no category-selective responses. Category-selective responses were much slower when evoked by texture-defined than by photographic objects. We suggest that in case of categorization of objects under suboptimal conditions, such as when low-level stimulus properties are not sufficient for fast object categorization, segmentation facilitates the slower categorization process.

  16. Behavior of pre-irradiated fuel under a simulated RIA condition. Results of NSRR Test JM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Mori, Yukihide; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Kamata, Hiroshi; Homma, Kozo; Sakai, Haruyuki.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents results from the power burst experiment with pre-irradiated fuel rod, Test JM-5, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The data concerning test method, pre-irradiation, pre-pulse fuel examination, pulse irradiation, transient records and post-pulse fuel examination are described, and interpretations and discussions of the results are presented. Preceding to the pulse irradiation in the NSRR, test fuel rod was irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to a fuel burnup of 25.7 MWd/kgU with average linear heat rate of 33.4 kW/m. The fuel rod was subjected to the pulse irradiation resulting in a desposited energy of 223 ± 7 cal/g·fuel (0.93 ± 0.03 kJ/g·fuel) and a peak fuel enthalpy of 167 ± 5 cal/g·fuel (0.70 ± 0.02 kJ/g·fuel) under stagnant water cooling condition at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Test fuel rod behavior was assessed from pre- and post-pulse fuel examinations and transient records during the pulse. The Test JM-5 resulted in cladding failure. More than twenty small cracks were found in the post-test cladding, and most of the defects located in pre-existing locally hydrided region. The result indicates an occurrence of fuel failure by PCMI (pellet/cladding mechanical interaction) in combination with decreased integrity of hydrided cladding. (author)

  17. Speciation, behaviour, and fate of mercury under oxy-fuel combustion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Patricia; Maroto-Valer, M; Delgado, Miguel Angel; Diego, Ruth; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    The work presented here reports the first study in which the speciation, behaviour and fate of mercury (Hg) have been evaluated under oxy-fuel combustion at the largest oxy-Pulverised Coal Combustion (oxy-PCC) demonstration plant to date during routine operating conditions and partial exhaust flue gas re-circulation to the boiler. The effect of the CO2-rich flue gas re-circulation on Hg has also been evaluated. Results reveal that oxy-PCC operational conditions play a significant role on Hg partitioning and fate because of the continuous CO2-rich flue gas re-circulations to the boiler. Mercury escapes from the cyclone in a gaseous form as Hg(2+) (68%) and it is the prevalent form in the CO2-rich exhaust flue gas (99%) with lower proportions of Hg(0) (1.3%). The overall retention rate for gaseous Hg is around 12%; Hg(0) is more prone to be retained (95%) while Hg(2+) shows a negative efficiency capture for the whole installation. The negative Hg(2+) capture efficiencies are due to the continuous CO2-rich exhaust flue gas recirculation to the boiler with enhanced Hg contents. Calculations revealed that 44mg of Hg were re-circulated to the boiler as a result of 2183 re-circulations of CO2-rich flue gas. Especial attention must be paid to the role of the CO2-rich exhaust flue gas re-circulation to the boiler on the Hg enrichment in Fly Ashes (FAs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Micro Electrical Discharge Machining Process Conditions on Tool Wear Characteristics: Results of an Analytic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan; P., Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Micro electrical discharge machining is one of the established techniques to manufacture high aspect ratio features on electrically conductive materials. This paper presents the results and inferences of an analytical study for estimating theeffect of process conditions on tool electrode wear...... characteristicsin micro-EDM process. A new approach with two novel factors anticipated to directly control the material removal mechanism from the tool electrode are proposed; using discharge energyfactor (DEf) and dielectric flushing factor (DFf). The results showed that the correlation between the tool wear rate...... (TWR) and the factors is poor. Thus, individual effects of each factor on TWR are analyzed. The factors selected for the study of individual effects are pulse on-time, discharge peak current, gap voltage and gap flushing pressure. The tool wear rate decreases linearly with an increase in the pulse on...

  19. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an initial examination of the evaluative conditioning (EC) of consumers’ attitudes toward food technologies in China, including how EC can affect consumer acceptance of new technology when participants possess different levels of social trust. In a study using the EC paradigm...... and a combination of between-subjects control groups and within-subjects control conditions, participants considered three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic), paired with affectively positive, neutral, and negative images. Subsequent evaluative measurements revealed that EC can explain attitude...... formation toward food technologies in China when consumers see affective images, but the strength of the effects varies at different levels of social trust. Participants with a high level of trust in the institutions that promote and regulate the technologies can be conditioned both positively...

  20. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  1. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stecher, Dave [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, PA. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems—a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms—were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  2. Revealed social preference for potable groundwater: An Eastern Iowa case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunikar, R. P.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Forney, W.; Mishra, S.

    2011-12-01

    The spatially explicit land use and land cover information provided by Landsat moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is needed to more efficiently balance the production of goods and services over landscapes. For example, economic trade-offs are needed to provide both clean groundwater resources and other non-environmental goods and services produced by activities that affect the vadose zone and thus contribute to contamination of groundwater. These trade-off choices are made by numerous economic agents and are constrained by many social institutions including governmental regulations at many levels, contractual obligations and traditions. In effect, on a social level, society acts as if it values groundwater by foregoing other goods to protect these resources. The result of the protection afforded to groundwater resources is observable by measuring contamination in well samples. This observed level of groundwater contamination risk is the revealed preference of society as a whole for clean groundwater. We observed the risk of groundwater contamination in a sampling of well data from our study area (35 counties of Eastern Iowa.) We used a proportional hazard model to quantify the nitrate contamination survival implied by the panel of 19,873 well data, where remaining below a 10 mg/ml maximum contamination level (MCL) is defined as survival. We tested the data for evidence that the levels of protection provided to these resources is correlated with aquifer and vadose zone characteristics and geographic location and whether it changed over time and with economic and other conditions. We demonstrate the use of a nitrate conditioned hazard function for projecting the survival of wells based on nitrate exposure information over the 1940 to 2010 time period. We discuss results of simulations of the survival process that demonstrate the economic significance of this approach. We find that aquifer survival has been significantly improving over time. The principle of

  3. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning (EC procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50% and negative stimuli (50%. Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected. During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate, though behavioral effects are absent. Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices.

  4. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Zhang, Dingyuan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Zhu, Jinglei; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50%) and negative stimuli (50%). Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected. During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate, though behavioral effects are absent. Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices.

  5. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Different Glossing Conditions on EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Danesh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of different glossing conditions on English as a foreign language (EFL learners’ vocabulary recall. To this end, five glossing conditions were adopted (i.e., inference-gloss-gloss, gloss-retrieval-gloss, inference-gloss-retrieval-gloss, gloss-retrieval-gloss-retrieval, and full glossing. The participants were 140 MA students of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL. They were randomly assigned to one glossing condition to read an English reading passage. Five target words were glossed in different glossing conditions within a reading passage. To ensure the participants’ attention focused on the reading material, the participants were told that a multiple-choice reading comprehension test would be administrated. Afterward, two vocabulary tests (i.e., form recall and meaning recall were conducted. The results of one-way MANOVAs and the post hoc Scheffé tests revealed that the full glossing condition group did significantly better than other glossing groups in vocabulary form recall, whereas the gloss-retrieval-gloss-retrieval condition group outperformed other four groups in vocabulary meaning recall.

  6. [Air-conditioner disease. Results of an industrial medicine survey (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, C; Aiache, J M; Bedu, M; Menaut, P; Wahl, D; Brestowski, J; Grall, Y

    1982-07-03

    The results of a survey conducted in a company employing 1850 persons working in air-conditioned premises are reported. One hundred and five persons were examined, including 790 who mostly complained of respiratory disorders and 20 controls. Regular check-ups during the last two years have failed to reveal any serious disease. The most frequent complaints were rhinitis and tracheitis, especially among female employees. No alveolitis was observed. The finding of Bacillus subtilis in samples of ambient air and air-conditioner filters in conjunction with the presence of precipitating antibodies against crude extracts from these samples, suggested that the respiratory disorders might have been due to this microorganism. A multifactorial analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between clinical symptoms and immunological disorders. The air-conditioner disease, therefore, may present as a benign condition.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Insulator Contaminations Revealed by Daily Observations of Equivalent Salt Deposit Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ruan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of deposits adhering on insulators is of great significance to prevent pollution flashovers which cause huge costs worldwide. Researchers have developed sensors using different technologies to monitor insulator contamination on a fine time scale. However, there is lack of analysis of these data to reveal spatial and temporal characteristics of insulator contamination, and as a result the scheduling of periodical maintenance of power facilities is highly dependent on personal experience. Owing to the deployment of novel sensors, daily Equivalent Salt Deposit Density (ESDD observations of over two years were collected and analyzed for the first time. Results from 16 sites distributed in four regions of Hubei demonstrated that spatial heterogeneity can be seen at both the fine and coarse geographical scales, suggesting that current polluted area maps are necessary but are not sufficient conditions to guide the maintenance of power facilities. Both the local emission and the regional air pollution condition exert evident influences on deposit accumulation. A relationship between ESDD and PM10 was revealed by using regression analysis, proving that air pollution exerts influence on pollution accumulations on insulators. Moreover, the seasonality of ESDD was discovered for the first time by means of time series analysis, which could help engineers select appropriate times to clean the contamination. Besides, the trend component shows that the ESDD increases in a negative exponential fashion with the accumulation date (ESDD = a − b × exp(−time at a long time scale in real environments.

  8. Transcriptomics reveal transgenerational effects in purple sea urchin embryos: Adult acclimation to upwelling conditions alters the response of their progeny to differential pCO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Juliet M; Johnson, Kevin M; Kelly, Morgan W; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms with which organisms can respond to a rapidly changing ocean is an important research priority in marine sciences, especially in the light of recent predictions regarding the pace of ocean change in the coming decades. Transgenerational effects, in which the experience of the parental generation can shape the phenotype of their offspring, may serve as such a mechanism. In this study, adult purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, were conditioned to regionally and ecologically relevant pCO 2 levels and temperatures representative of upwelling (colder temperature and high pCO 2 ) and nonupwelling (average temperature and low pCO 2 ) conditions typical of coastal upwelling regions in the California Current System. Following 4.5 months of conditioning, adults were spawned and offspring were raised under either high or low pCO 2 levels, to examine the role of maternal effects. Using RNA-seq and comparative transcriptomics, our results indicate that differential conditioning of the adults had an effect on the gene expression patterns of the progeny during the gastrula stage of early development. For example, maternal conditioning under upwelling conditions intensified the transcriptomic response of the progeny when they were raised under high versus low pCO 2 conditions. Additionally, mothers that experienced upwelling conditions produced larger progeny. The overall findings of this study are complex, but do suggest that transgenerational plasticity in situ could act as an important mechanism by which populations might keep pace with rapid environmental change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Aerial somersault performance under three visual conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondzinski, J M; Darling, W G

    2001-07-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the visual contributions to performance of back aerial double somersaults by collegiate acrobats. Somersaults were performed on a trampoline under three visual conditions: (a) NORMAL acuity; (b) REDUCED acuity (subjects wore special contacts that blocked light reflected onto the central retina); and (c) NO VISION. Videotaped skill performances were rated by two NCAA judges and digitized for kinematic analyses. Subjects' performance scores were similar in NORMAL and REDUCED conditions and lowest in the NO VISION condition. Control of body movement, indicated by time-to-contact, was most variable in the NO VISION condition. Profiles of angular head and neck velocity revealed that when subjects could see, they slowed their heads prior to touchdown in time to process optical flow information and prepare for landing. There was not always enough time to process vision associated with object identification and prepare for touchdown. It was concluded that collegiate acrobats do not need to identify objects for their best back aerial double somersault performance.

  10. Unilateral proptosis revealing a fronto-ethmoidal mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajmi, Houda; Hmaied, Wassim; Ben Jalel, Wady; Ben Romdhane, Khaoula; Chelly, Zied; El Fekih, Lamia

    2017-06-01

    Backgroud: The fronto-ethmoidal mucocele is a benign condition leading commonly to limited eye movement or ocular pain but it could also induce visual acuity impairment by compressing the optic nerve Aim: To discuss, through a case report, different ophthalmologic manifestations of the fronto-ethmoidalmucocele. Reported case: A 46-years-old man with no general history consulted for a bilateral ocular redness and itching. He reported, however, a mild protrusion of his left globe evolving for oneyear. The clinical examination revealed a unilateral proptosis in the left eye with a discrete limitation of theadduction. A brain and orbital computer tomography (CT)and a magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)revealed a grade I exophthalmos caused by an oval formation of fluid density in the left anterior and posterior ethmoidal cells in addition to the frontal sinus,driving theeyeball and internal oculomotor muscles back and out.The patient was referred to otorhinolaryngology department for a precocious surgical management. The ophtalmologic manifestations of the disease depend on the location, the size of the formation and involvement of adjacent structures. The loss of vision and the apex syndrome due to the compressionof the ocular globe are the most serious complications.

  11. Data Assimilation by Conditioning of Driving Noise on Future Observations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Wonjung

    2014-08-01

    Conventional recursive filtering approaches, designed for quantifying the state of an evolving stochastic dynamical system with intermittent observations, use a sequence of i) an uncertainty propagation step followed by ii) a step where the associated data is assimilated using Bayes\\' rule. Alternatively, the order of the steps can be switched to i) one step ahead data assimilation followed by ii) uncertainty propagation. In this paper, we apply this smoothing-based sequential filter to systems driven by random noise, however with the conditioning on future observation not only to the system variable but to the driving noise. Our research reveals that, for the nonlinear filtering problem, the conditioned driving noise is biased by a nonzero mean and in turn pushes forward the filtering solution in time closer to the true state when it drives the system. As a result our proposed method can yield a more accurate approximate solution for the state estimation problem. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

  12. Pipe rupture test results: 4-inch pipe whip tests under PWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Kato, Rokuro; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of 4-inch pipe whip tests (RUN No. 5506, 5507, 5508 and 5604) under the PWR LOCA conditions. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and restraints were studied in the tests. In the tests, the gap between the test pipe and the restraints was kept at the constant value of 8.85 mm and the overhang length was varied from 250 mm to 650 mm. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and the restraint were made clear by the outputs of strain gages and the measurements of residual deformations. The data of water hammer in subcooled water were also obtained by the pressure transducers mounted on the test pipe. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are as follows. (1) The whipping of pipe can be prevented more effectively as the overhang length becomes shorter. (2) The load acting on the restraint-support structure becomes larger as the overhang length becomes shorter. (3) The restraint farther from the break location does not limit the pipe movement except for the first impact when the overhang length is long. (4) The ultimate moment M sub(u) of the pipe at the restraint location can be used to predict the plastic collapse of the whipping pipe. (5) The restraints slide along the pipe axis and are subjected to bending moment, when the overhang length is long. (author)

  13. Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Under a Loading Simulating Operation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Slovikov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of unidirectional composites based on basalt fibers and different marks of epoxy resins are presented. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out using a specimen fixation technique simulating the operation conditions of structures. The mechanical properties of the basalt-fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) were determined. The diagrams of loading and deformation of BFRP specimens were obtain. The formulations of the composites with the highest mechanical properties were revealed.

  14. Higher-order conditioning is impaired by hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Asaf; Sekeres, Melanie; Moscovitch, Morris; Winocur, Gordon

    2014-09-22

    Behavior in the real world is rarely motivated by primary conditioned stimuli that have been directly associated with potent unconditioned reinforcers. Instead, motivation and choice behavior are driven by complex chains of higher-order associations that are only indirectly linked to intrinsic reward and often exert their influence outside awareness. Second-order conditioning (SOC) [1] is a basic associative-learning mechanism whereby stimuli acquire motivational salience by proxy, in the absence of primary incentives [2, 3]. Memory-systems theories consider first-order conditioning (FOC) and SOC to be prime examples of hippocampal-independent nondeclarative memory [4, 5]. Accordingly, neurobiological models of SOC focus almost exclusively on nondeclarative neural systems that support motivational salience and reward value. Transfer of value from a conditioned stimulus to a neutral stimulus is thought to require the basolateral amygdala [6, 7] and the ventral striatum [2, 3], but not the hippocampus. We developed a new paradigm to measure appetitive SOC of tones in rats. Hippocampal lesions severely impaired both acquisition and expression of SOC despite normal FOC. Unlike controls, rats with hippocampal lesions could not discriminate between positive and negative secondary conditioned tones, although they exhibited general familiarity with previously presented tones compared with new tones. Importantly, normal rats' behavior, in contrast to that of hippocampal groups, also revealed different confidence levels as indexed by effort, a central characteristic of hippocampal relational memory. The results indicate, contrary to current systems models, that representations of intrinsic relationships between reward value, stimulus identity, and motivation require hippocampal mediation when these relationships are of a higher order. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting memory performance under conditions of proactive interference: immediate and delayed judgments of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N

    2011-07-01

    Four experiments examined the monitoring accuracy of immediate and delayed judgments of learning (JOLs) under conditions of proactive interference (PI). PI was produced using paired-associate learning tasks that conformed to variations of classic A-B, A-D paradigms. Results revealed that the relative monitoring accuracy of interference items was better for delayed than for immediate JOLs. However, delayed JOLs were overconfident for interference items, but not for items devoid of interference. Intrusions retrieved prior to delayed JOLs produced inflated predictions of performance. These results show that delayed JOLs enhance monitoring accuracy in PI situations, except when intrusions are mistaken for target responses.

  16. Enhancement the conditioning of waste activated sludge through a sequence of freeze/thaw-electro-Fenton process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahheidar Narjes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sludge conditioning is an important stage in sludge management. In the present study, a sequence of freeze/thaw-electro-Fenton process was designed and specific resistance filtration (SRF was monitored during sludge conditioning as an important factor in sludge dewaterability. Furthermore, protein and polysaccharide concentrations were measured during the experiments. Results showed that the lowest SRF value contributed to −10°C in freezing process which showed a reducing trend by decreasing solution pH. In addition, results revealed that solution pH less than 3 caused a significant improvement in sludge dewatering; so the lowest SRF has been registered at pH = 2. By increasing current intensity from 0.5 to 1A, SRF values were reduced and then followed by an enhancement with increasing current intensity to 3.2 A. The lowest SRF value (6.1 × 104 m/kg was obtained at H2O2 = 30 mg/L which was the best conditions for sludge dewatering.

  17. Anti-oxidant effect of gold nanoparticles restrains hyperglycemic conditions in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eom SooHyun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress is imperative for its morbidity towards diabetic complications, where abnormal metabolic milieu as a result of hyperglycemia, leads to the onset of several complications. A biological antioxidant capable of inhibiting oxidative stress mediated diabetic progressions; during hyperglycemia is still the need of the era. The current study was performed to study the effect of biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs to control the hyperglycemic conditions in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Results The profound control of AuNPs over the anti oxidant enzymes such as GSH, SOD, Catalase and GPx in diabetic mice to normal, by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and ROS generation during hyperglycemia evidence their anti-oxidant effect during hyperglycemia. The AuNPs exhibited an insistent control over the blood glucose level, lipids and serum biochemical profiles in diabetic mice near to the control mice provokes their effective role in controlling and increasing the organ functions for better utilization of blood glucose. Histopathological and hematological studies revealed the non-toxic and protective effect of the gold nanoparticles over the vital organs when administered at dosage of 2.5 mg/kilogram.body.weight/day. ICP-MS analysis revealed the biodistribution of gold nanoparticles in the vital organs showing accumulation of AuNPs in the spleen comparatively greater than other organs. Conclusion The results obtained disclose the effectual role of AuNPs as an anti-oxidative agent, by inhibiting the formation of ROS, scavenging free radicals; thus increasing the anti-oxidant defense enzymes and creating a sustained control over hyperglycemic conditions which consequently evoke the potential of AuNPs as an economic therapeutic remedy in diabetic treatments and its complications.

  18. Juvenile pumice and pyroclastic obsidian reveal the eruptive conditions necessary for the stability of Plinian eruption of rhyolitic magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachetti, T.; Shea, T.; Gonnermann, H. M.; McCann, K. A.; Hoxsie, E. C.

    2016-12-01

    Significant explosive activity generally precedes or coexists with the large effusion of rhyolitic lava (e.g., Mono Craters; Medicine Lake Volcano; Newberry; Chaitén; Cordón Caulle). Such explosive-to-effusive transitions and, ultimately, cessation of activity are commonly explained by the overall waning magma chamber pressure accompanying magma withdrawal, albeit modulated by magma outgassing. The tephra deposits of such explosive-to-effusive eruptions record the character of the transition - abrupt or gradual - as well as potential changes in eruptive conditions, such as magma composition, volatiles content, mass discharge rate, conduit size, magma outgassing. Results will be presented from a detailed study of both the gas-rich (pumice) and gas-poor (obsidian) juvenile pyroclasts produced during the Plinian phase of the 1060 CE Glass Mountain eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California. In the proximal deposits, a multitude of pumice-rich sections separated by layers rich in dense clasts suggests a pulsatory behavior of the explosive phase. Density measurements on 2,600 pumices show that the intermediate, most voluminous deposits have a near constant median porosity of 65%. However, rapid increase in porosity to 75-80% is observed at both the bottom and the top of the fallout deposits, suggestive of rapid variations in magma degassing. In contrast, a water content of pyroclastic obsidians of approximately 0.6 wt% does remain constant throughout the eruption, suggesting that the pyroclastic obsidians degassed up to a constant pressure of a few megapascals. Numerical modeling of eruptive magma ascent and degassing is used to provide constraints on eruption conditions.

  19. A New Perspective on Binaural Integration Using Response Time Methodology: Super Capacity Revealed in Conditions of Binaural Masking Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eLentz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180o out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demonstrated a much lower signal detection threshold for the dichotic versus the diotic conditions, but accuracy-based techniques do not allow for assessment of system dynamics or resource allocation across time. Further, reaction times allow comparisons between these conditions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we apply a reaction-time based capacity coefficient, which provides an index of workload efficiency and quantifies the resource allocations for single ear versus two ear presentations. We demonstrate that the release from masking generated by the addition of an identical stimulus to one ear is limited-to-unlimited capacity (efficiency typically less than 1, consistent with less gain than would be expected by probability summation. However, the dichotic presentation leads to a significant increase in workload capacity (increased efficiency – most specifically at lower signal-to-noise ratios. These experimental results provide further evidence that configural processing plays a critical role in binaural masking release, and that these mechanisms may operate more strongly when the signal stimulus is difficult to detect, albeit still with nearly 100% accuracy.

  20. A new perspective on binaural integration using response time methodology: super capacity revealed in conditions of binaural masking release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Jennifer J; He, Yuan; Townsend, James T

    2014-01-01

    This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time (RT) distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180° out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demonstrated a much lower signal detection threshold for the dichotic vs. the diotic conditions, but accuracy-based techniques do not allow for assessment of system dynamics or resource allocation across time. Further, RTs allow comparisons between these conditions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we apply a reaction-time based capacity coefficient, which provides an index of workload efficiency and quantifies the resource allocations for single ear vs. two ear presentations. We demonstrate that the release from masking generated by the addition of an identical stimulus to one ear is limited-to-unlimited capacity (efficiency typically less than 1), consistent with less gain than would be expected by probability summation. However, the dichotic presentation leads to a significant increase in workload capacity (increased efficiency)-most specifically at lower signal-to-noise ratios. These experimental results provide further evidence that configural processing plays a critical role in binaural masking release, and that these mechanisms may operate more strongly when the signal stimulus is difficult to detect, albeit still with nearly 100% accuracy.

  1. Conditional abrogation of Atm in osteoclasts extends osteoclast lifespan and results in reduced bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirozane, Toru; Tohmonda, Takahide; Yoda, Masaki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanai, Yae; Matsumoto, Morio; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2016-09-28

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is a central component involved in the signal transduction of the DNA damage response (DDR) and thus plays a critical role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Although the primary functions of ATM are associated with the DDR, emerging data suggest that ATM has many additional roles that are not directly related to the DDR, including the regulation of oxidative stress signaling, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial homeostasis, and lymphocyte development. Patients and mice lacking ATM exhibit growth retardation and lower bone mass; however, the mechanisms underlying the skeletal defects are not fully understood. In the present study, we generated mutant mice in which ATM is specifically inactivated in osteoclasts. The mutant mice did not exhibit apparent developmental defects but showed reduced bone mass due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoclasts lacking ATM were more resistant to apoptosis and showed a prolonged lifespan compared to the controls. Notably, the inactivation of ATM in osteoclasts resulted in enhanced NF-κB signaling and an increase in the expression of NF-κB-targeted genes. The present study reveals a novel function for ATM in regulating bone metabolism by suppressing the lifespan of osteoclasts and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  2. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after an Extreme Conditioning Competition: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramires Alsamir Tibana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes an instance of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by an extreme conditioning program (ECP competition. A 35-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and soreness, which began one day after she completed two days of ECPcompetition composed of five workouts. Three days after competition, creatine kinase (CK was 77,590 U/L accompanied by myalgia and abnormal liver function tests, while renal function was normal and this resulted in a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. A follow-up examination revealed that her serum level of CK was still elevated to 3034 U/L on day 10 and 1257 U/L on day 25 following the ECP competition. The subject reported myalgia even up to 25 days after the ECP competition. Exertional rhabdomyolysis can be observed in ECP athletes following competition and highlights a dangerous condition, which may be increasing in recent years due to the massive expansion of ECP popularity and a growing number of competitions. Future research should investigate the causes of rhabdomyolysis that occur as a result of ECP, especially training methods and/or tasks developed specifically for these competitions.

  3. What Persons with Chronic Health Conditions Need to Maintain or Return to Work-Results of an Online-Survey in Seven European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foitzek, Nicole; Ávila, Carolina C; Ivandic, Ivana; Bitenc, Črtomir; Cabello, Maria; Gruber, Sonja; Leonardi, Matilde; Muñoz-Murillo, Amalia; Scaratti, Chiara; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Vlachou, Anastasia; Esteban, Eva; Sabariego, Carla; Coenen, Michaela

    2018-03-26

    Chronic health conditions represent the major share of the disease burden in Europe and have a significant impact on work. This study aims to: (1) identify factors that have a negative or positive impact on the work lives of persons with chronic health conditions; (2) explore the needs of these persons to maintain a job or return to work and (3) compare these results with respect to these persons' occupational status. An online survey was performed in seven European countries. Open-ended survey questions were analyzed using qualitative methods. In total, 487 participants with six chronic health conditions participated. The majority of participants named work-related aspects (such as career development, stress at the workplace, work structure and schedule as well as workload), support of others and attitudes of others as being the factors positively and negatively impact their work lives the most. Our study shed light on the importance of changing the attitudes of supervisors and co-workers to counteract stigmatization of persons with chronic health conditions in the workplace. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for developing new strategies of integration and reintegration at work for persons with chronic health conditions in European countries.

  4. Conditional cooperation and confusion in public-goods experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A

    2016-02-02

    Economic experiments are often used to study if humans altruistically value the welfare of others. A canonical result from public-good games is that humans vary in how they value the welfare of others, dividing into fair-minded conditional cooperators, who match the cooperation of others, and selfish noncooperators. However, an alternative explanation for the data are that individuals vary in their understanding of how to maximize income, with misunderstanding leading to the appearance of cooperation. We show that (i) individuals divide into the same behavioral types when playing with computers, whom they cannot be concerned with the welfare of; (ii) behavior across games with computers and humans is correlated and can be explained by variation in understanding of how to maximize income; (iii) misunderstanding correlates with higher levels of cooperation; and (iv) standard control questions do not guarantee understanding. These results cast doubt on certain experimental methods and demonstrate that a common assumption in behavioral economics experiments, that choices reveal motivations, will not necessarily hold.

  5. New wireless data transmission system based on high frequency radio communication: design, development and testing results under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sineriz, J.L.; Barcena, I.; Espada, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Mayor, J.C.; Barnichon, J.D.; Dick, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. According to the starting basis of the MoDeRn project (FP7 232598), the design and development of a system capable of transmitting the evolution of the physical parameters inside a repository will be a challenging task due to the harsh working conditions imposed by both the element itself to be monitored (for instance the canister enclosing radioactive waste), the engineered barriers into which they will be embedded and the host rock that contains everything. The measuring devices will work exposed to high pressures, high temperatures, high humidity degrees, presence of radiation, etc., during an expected lifetime of several decades without any possibility of either being powered from any external source or being replaced in case of malfunction, as the operating area will be sealed and inaccessible. Therefore, a main objective of AITEMIN and ENRESA contribution to MoDeRn was focused on the design, development and test under 'real conditions' of a new wireless system, based on high frequency radio transmission (HF), capable of monitoring the physical parameters inside a repository cell independently of the host rock type. In order to achieve the aforementioned objectives and to obtain a suitable monitoring system for the target application, the following key points have been addressed: 1. Data transmission technology (transmission media); 2. Communication protocols; 3. Available power sources; 4. Expected environmental conditions; 5. Suitable sensors. The activities carried out for the development of the HF wireless system were structured in three steps: 1. Laboratory work, to select the best solutions under controlled environment. 2. Field testing, to validate under more realistic conditions the solutions selected at lab. 3. Demonstration: long-term evaluation of the real performance of the solutions proved to be applicable during the field testing Obtained results were as follows: 1. A suitable radio communication

  6. Sex differences in the stability of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) among patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Marc O; Wasan, Ajay D; Edwards, Robert R

    2013-11-01

    To examine the temporal stability of conditioned pain modulation (CPM), formerly termed diffuse noxious inhibitory controls, among a sample of patients with chronic pain. The study also examined the factors that might be responsible for the stability of CPM. In this test-retest study, patients underwent a series of standardized psychophysical pain-testing procedures designed to assess CPM on two separate occasions (i.e., baseline and follow up). Patients also completed self-report measures of catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS] and negative affect [NA]). Overall, results provided evidence for the stability of CPM among patients with chronic pain. Results, however, revealed considerable sex differences in the stability of CPM. For women, results revealed a significant test-retest correlation between baseline and follow-up CPM scores. For men, however, the test-retest correlation between baseline and follow-up CPM scores was not significant. Results of a Fisher's Z-test revealed that the stability of CPM was significantly greater for women than for men. Follow-up analyses revealed that the difference between men and women in the stability of CPM could not be accounted for by any demographic (e.g., age) and/or psychological factors (PCS and NA). Our findings suggest that CPM paradigms possess sufficient reliability to be incorporated into bedside clinical evaluation of patients with chronic pain, but only among women. The lack of CPM reproducibility/stability observed among men places limits on the potential use of CPM paradigms in clinical settings for the assessment of men's endogenous pain-inhibitory function. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Accuracy of the hypothetical sky-polarimetric Viking navigation versus sky conditions: revealing solar elevations and cloudinesses favourable for this navigation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András; Kretzer, Balázs; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Ádám; Szabó, Gyula; Horváth, Gábor

    2017-09-01

    According to Thorkild Ramskou's theory proposed in 1967, under overcast and foggy skies, Viking seafarers might have used skylight polarization analysed with special crystals called sunstones to determine the position of the invisible Sun. After finding the occluded Sun with sunstones, its elevation angle had to be measured and its shadow had to be projected onto the horizontal surface of a sun compass. According to Ramskou's theory, these sunstones might have been birefringent calcite or dichroic cordierite or tourmaline crystals working as polarizers. It has frequently been claimed that this method might have been suitable for navigation even in cloudy weather. This hypothesis has been accepted and frequently cited for decades without any experimental support. In this work, we determined the accuracy of this hypothetical sky-polarimetric Viking navigation for 1080 different sky situations characterized by solar elevation θ and cloudiness ρ , the sky polarization patterns of which were measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry. We used the earlier measured uncertainty functions of the navigation steps 1, 2 and 3 for calcite, cordierite and tourmaline sunstone crystals, respectively, and the newly measured uncertainty function of step 4 presented here. As a result, we revealed the meteorological conditions under which Vikings could have used this hypothetical navigation method. We determined the solar elevations at which the navigation uncertainties are minimal at summer solstice and spring equinox for all three sunstone types. On average, calcite sunstone ensures a more accurate sky-polarimetric navigation than tourmaline and cordierite. However, in some special cases (generally at 35° ≤  θ  ≤ 40°, 1 okta ≤  ρ  ≤ 6 oktas for summer solstice, and at 20° ≤  θ  ≤ 25°, 0 okta ≤  ρ  ≤ 4 oktas for spring equinox), the use of tourmaline and cordierite results in smaller navigation uncertainties than that of calcite

  8. Valve stem packing seal test results for primary heat transport system conditions in Canadian nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.F.; Farrell, J.M.; Coutinho, R.F.

    1978-06-01

    Valve stem packing tests were done to obtain performance data on packing already in CANDU-PHW reactor service and on alternative packings. Most of the tests were replicated. Results are presented for ten packings tested under two stem cycle modes; leakage, packing consolidation and packing friction were the main responses. Packing tests were performed with water at close to CANDU-PHW reactor primary heat transport (PHT) system conditions (288 deg C and 10 MPa), but without ionizing radiation. The test rigs had rising, rotating stems. Stuffing box dimensions were typical of a standard Velan valve; packings were spring loaded to control applied packing stress

  9. Trace conditioning in insects-keep the trace!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Kristina V; Galili, Dana S; Szyszka, Paul; Lüdke, Alja

    2013-01-01

    Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination-a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (Rut-AC), which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  10. Prefrontal-limbic Functional Connectivity during Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Douglas W; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2018-04-15

    This study is a new analysis to obtain novel metabolic data on the functional connectivity of prefrontal-limbic regions in Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction of tone-footshock conditioning. Mice were analyzed with the fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiographic method to metabolically map regional brain activity. New FDG data were sampled from the nuclei of the habenula and other regions implicated in aversive conditioning, such as infralimbic cortex, amygdala and periaqueductal gray regions. The activity patterns among these regions were inter-correlated during acquisition, extinction or pseudorandom training to develop a functional connectivity model. Two subdivisions of the habenular complex showed increased activity after acquisition relative to extinction, with the pseudorandom group intermediate between the other two groups. Significant acquisition activation effects were also found in centromedial amygdala, dorsomedial and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. FDG uptake increases during extinction were found only in dorsal and ventral infralimbic cortex. The overall pattern of activity correlations between these regions revealed extensive but differential functional connectivity during acquisition and extinction training, with less functional connectivity found after pseudorandom training. Interestingly, habenula nuclei showed a distinct pattern of inter-correlations with amygdala nuclei during extinction. The functional connectivity model revealed changing interactions among infralimbic cortex, amygdala, habenula and periaqueductal gray regions through the stages of Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction. This study provided new data on the contributions of the habenula to fear conditioning, and revealed previously unreported infralimbic-amygdala-habenula-periaqueductal gray interactions implicated in acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The MEXICO project (Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions): The database and first results of data processing and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snel, H; Schepers, J G; Montgomerie, B

    2007-01-01

    The Mexico (Model experiments in Controlled Conditions) was a FP5 project, partly financed by European Commission. The main objective was to create a database of detailed aerodynamic and load measurements on a wind turbine model, in a large and high quality wind tunnel, to be used for model validation and improvement. Here model stands for both the extended BEM modelling used in state-of-the-art design and certification software, and CFD modelling of the rotor and near wake flow. For this purpose a three bladed 4.5 m diameter wind tunnel model was built and instrumented. The wind tunnel experiments were carried out in the open section (9.5*9.5 m 2 ) of the Large Scale Facility of the DNW (German-Netherlands) during a six day campaign in December 2006. The conditions for measurements cover three operational tip speed ratios, many blade pitch angles, three yaw misalignment angles and a small number of unsteady cases in the form of pitch ramps and rotor speed ramps. One of the most important feats of the measurement program was the flow field mapping, with stereo PIV techniques. Overall the measurement campaign was very successful. The paper describes the now existing database and discusses a number of highlights from early data processing and interpretation. It should be stressed that all results are first results, no tunnel correction has been performed so far, nor has the necessary checking of data quality

  12. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of T91 Steel in Dry and Humid Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghao Leong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High temperature oxidation behavior of T91 ferritic/martensitic steel was examined over the temperature range of 500 to 700°C in dry and humid environments.  The weight gain result revealed that oxidation occurs at all range of temperatures and its rate is accelerated by increasing the temperature. The weight gain of the oxidized steel at 700°C in steam condition was six times bigger than the dry oxidation.. SEM/EDX of the cross-sectional image showed that under dry condition, a protective and steady growth of the chromium oxide (Cr2O3 layer was formed on the steel with the thickness of 2.39±0.34 µm. Meanwhile for the humid environment, it is found that the iron oxide layer, which consists of the hematite (Fe2O3 and magnetite (Fe3O4 was formed as the outer scale, and spinnel as inner scale. This result indicated that the oxidation behavior of T91 steel was affected by its oxidation environment. The existence of water vapor in steam condition may prevent the formation of chromium oxide as protective layer.

  13. Conditional RARα Knockout Mice Reveal Acute Requirement for Retinoic Acid and RARα in Homeostatic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica eSarti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (RA plays important roles in brain development through regulating gene transcription. Recently, a novel postdevelopmental role of RA in mature brain was proposed. Specifically, RA rapidly enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission independent of transcriptional regulation. RA synthesis was induced when excitatory synaptic transmission was chronically blocked, and RA then activated dendritic protein synthesis and synaptic insertion of homomeric GluA1 AMPA receptors, thereby compensating for the loss of neuronal activity in a homeostatic fashion. This action of RA was suggested to be mediated by its canonical receptor RARα but no genetic evidence was available. Thus, we here tested the fundamental requirement of RARα in homeostatic plasticity using conditional RARα knockout mice, and additionally performed a structure-function analysis of RARα. We show that acutely deleting RARα in neurons eliminated RA’s effect on excitatory synaptic transmission, and inhibited activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. By expressing various RARα rescue constructs in RARα knockout neurons, we found that the DNA-binding domain of RARα was dispensable for its role in regulating synaptic strength, further supporting the notion that RA and RARα act in a non-transcriptional manner in this context. By contrast, the ligand-binding domain (LBD and the mRNA-binding domain (F-domain are both necessary and sufficient for the function of RARα in homeostatic plasticity. Furthermore, we found that homeostatic regulation performed by the LBD/F domains leads to insertion of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. Our results confirm with unequivocal genetic approaches that RA and RARα perform essential non-transcriptional functions in regulating synaptic strength, and establish a functional link between the various domains of RARα and their involvement in regulating protein synthesis and excitatory synaptic transmission during

  14. Time-lapse imagery of Adélie penguins reveals differential winter strategies and breeding site occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; Lunn, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period. Here we show that Adélie penguins on the Yalour Islands in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are present year-round at the colony and undergo a mid-winter peak in abundance during winter. We found a negative relationship between daylight hours and penguin abundance when either open water or compact ice conditions were present, suggesting that penguins return to the breeding colony when visibility is lowest for at-sea foraging and when either extreme low or high levels of sea ice exist offshore. In contrast, Adélie penguins breeding in East Antarctica were not observed at the colonies during winter, suggesting that Adélie penguins undergo differential winter strategies in the marginal ice zone on the WAP compared to those in East Antarctica. These results demonstrate that cameras can successfully monitor wildlife year-round in areas that are largely inaccessible during winter.

  15. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  16. Evaluating sociodemographic and medical conditions of patients under home care service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Önder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study, we aimed to reveal medical conditions and the sociodemographic conditions of patients under home care service. Methods: Our study is planned on 52 patients who are under home care service at Sarıkamış State Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014. Patients' sex, education, social security status, comorbid diseases and general health status were recorded. Results: Fifty-two patients enrolled. 21 of them (40.4% were men, 31 of them (59.6 % were women. It is revealed that In 36 patients (69.2% did not receive formal education throughout their lives, while16 (30.8% of them had only primary education. All female patients were housewives. The most frequent diseases in home care patients were cerebrovascular disease in 18 (34.6% subjects, Alzheimer's disease in 9 (17.3%, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 4 (7.7% d. 38 patients (73.1% needed routine follow-up. Most of the patients (61.5% had green card health insurance. Only 6 patients (11.5% were in need of narcotic analgesics. Thirteen patients had pressure ulcers due to immobilization. Evaluating the exercise capacity of the patients; 43 (82.7% could not dressed themselves, 38 (73.1% could not use phone. Thirty-two patients had urinary incontinence and 31 had fecal incontinence. Conclusion: Today, population of patients who need home care service is increasing due to ease access to home care service and increase in survival. For a better care of patients, home care providers should be well educated and differences on features of patients and medical conditions it should be taken into consideration.

  17. Aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism: taking referent group norms and supervisor support into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Michal; Bamberger, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Past research reveals inconsistent findings regarding the association between aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism, suggesting that other, contextual factors may play a role in this association. Extending contemporary models of absence, we draw from the social identity theory of attitude-behavior relations to examine how peer absence-related norms and leader support combine to explain the effect of aversive workplace conditions on absenteeism. Using a prospective design and a random sample of transit workers, we obtained results indicating that perceived job hazards and exposure to critical incidents are positively related to subsequent absenteeism, but only under conditions of more permissive peer absence norms. Moreover, this positive impact of peer norms on absenteeism is amplified among employees perceiving their supervisor to be less supportive and is attenuated to the point of nonsignificance among those viewing their supervisor as more supportive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The strength and conditioning practices of strongman competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winwood, Paul W; Keogh, Justin W L; Harris, Nigel K

    2011-11-01

    This study describes the results of a survey of the strength and conditioning practices of strongman competitors. A 65-item online survey was completed by 167 strongman competitors. The subject group included 83 local, 65 national, and 19 international strongman competitors. The survey comprised 3 main areas of enquiry: (a) exercise selection, (b) training protocols and organization, and (c) strongman event training. The back squat and conventional deadlift were reported as the most commonly used squat and deadlift (65.8 and 88.0%, respectively). Eighty percent of the subjects incorporated some form of periodization in their training. Seventy-four percent of subjects included hypertrophy training, 97% included maximal strength training, and 90% included power training in their training organization. The majority performed speed repetitions with submaximal loads in the squat and deadlift (59.9 and 61.1%, respectively). Fifty-four percent of subjects incorporated lower body plyometrics into their training, and 88% of the strongman competitors reported performing Olympic lifts as part of their strongman training. Seventy-eight percent of subjects reported that the clean was the most performed Olympic lift used in their training. Results revealed that 56 and 38% of the strongman competitors used elastic bands and chains in their training, respectively. The findings demonstrate that strongman competitors incorporate a variety of strength and conditioning practices that are focused on increasing muscular size, and the development of maximal strength and power into their conditioning preparation. The farmers walk, log press, and stones were the most commonly performed strongman exercises used in a general strongman training session by these athletes. These data provide information on the training practices required to compete in the sport of strongman.

  19. Benchmark Analysis for Condition Monitoring Test Techniques of Aged Low Voltage Cables in Nuclear Power Plants. Final Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This publication provides information and guidelines on how to monitor the performance of insulation and jacket materials of existing cables and establish a programme of cable degradation monitoring and ageing management for operating reactors and the next generation of nuclear facilities. This research was done through a coordinated research project (CRP) with participants from 17 Member States. This group of experts compiled the current knowledge in a report together with areas of future research and development to cover aging mechanisms and means to identify and manage the consequences of aging. They established a benchmarking programme using cable samples aged under thermal and/or radiation conditions, and tested before and after ageing by various methods and organizations. In particular, 12 types of cable insulation or jacket material were tested, each using 14 different condition monitoring techniques. Condition monitoring techniques yield usable and traceable results. Techniques such as elongation at break, indenter modulus, oxidation induction time and oxidation induction temperature were found to work reasonably well for degradation trending of all materials. However, other condition monitoring techniques, such as insulation resistance, were only partially successful on some cables and other methods like ultrasonic or Tan δ were either unsuccessful or failed to provide reliable information to qualify the method for degradation trending or ageing assessment of cables. The electrical in situ tests did not show great promise for cable degradation trending or ageing assessment, although these methods are known to be very effective for finding and locating faults in cable insulation material. In particular, electrical methods such as insulation resistance and reflectometry techniques are known to be rather effective for locating insulation damage, hot spots or other faults in essentially all cable types. The advantage of electrical methods is that they can be

  20. Results of Recent DOE Research on Development of Cable Condition Monitoring and Aging Management Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.J.; McConkey, J.B.; Hashemian, H.M.; Sexton, C.D.; Cummins, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis and Measurement Services (AMS) Corporation has been conducting two research projects focused on understanding cable aging and developing cable condition monitoring technologies for nuclear power plants. The goal of the first project is to correlate cable faults with testing techniques that can identify and locate the faults whether they are in the cable, conductor, or the insulation. This project involves laboratory experiments using low and medium voltage cable types typically installed in nuclear power plants. The second project is focused on development of an integrated cable condition monitoring system for nuclear facilities. This system integrates a number of cable testing and cable condition monitoring techniques, such as the time domain reflectometry (TDR), frequency domain reflectometry (FDR), inductance, capacitance, resistance (LCR), reverse TDR (RTDR), current-to-voltage (IV) for testing of nuclear instrumentation sensors, insulation resistance (IR) and other techniques. The purpose of the project is to combine all proven technologies into one system to detect and pinpoint problems in cable circuits as well as cable insulation, shield, or jacket material. (author)

  1. Identifying a "default" visual search mode with operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

    2010-09-01

    The presence of a singleton in a task-irrelevant domain can impair visual search. This impairment, known as the attentional capture depends on the set of participants. When narrowly searching for a specific feature (the feature search mode), only matching stimuli capture attention. When searching broadly (the singleton detection mode), any oddball captures attention. The present study examined which strategy represents the "default" mode using an operant conditioning approach in which participants were trained, in the absence of explicit instructions, to search for a target in an ambiguous context in which one of two modes was available. The results revealed that participants behaviorally adopted the singleton detection as the default mode but reported using the feature search mode. Conscious strategies did not eliminate capture. These results challenge the view that a conscious set always modulates capture, suggesting that the visual system tends to rely on stimulus salience to deploy attention.

  2. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.H.; Guo, H., E-mail: ceguohai@polyu.edu.hk; Ou, J.M.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Halocarbon emissions from MVACS were characterized using bottom up approach. • Quantification of emission inventory was revealed using AUV Tools. • Potential emission reduction was estimated under 3 possible mitigation scenarios. • The results are useful for the policy makers to formulate and implement future phase-out schedule. - Abstract: During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO{sub 2}-equivelant (CO{sub 2}-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10{sup 5} tons CO{sub 2}-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

  3. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, H.H.; Guo, H.; Ou, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Halocarbon emissions from MVACS were characterized using bottom up approach. • Quantification of emission inventory was revealed using AUV Tools. • Potential emission reduction was estimated under 3 possible mitigation scenarios. • The results are useful for the policy makers to formulate and implement future phase-out schedule. - Abstract: During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO 2 -equivelant (CO 2 -eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10 5 tons CO 2 -eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

  4. EXAMINATION OF THE SIMULATED THERMAL CONDITIONS IN A POPULAR PLAYGROUND RELATED TO THE HUMAN REACTIONS AND THE JUDGMENT OF THE AREA DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. ÉGERHÁZI; A. KOVÁCS; N. KÁNTOR; J. UNGER

    2013-01-01

    In the field of urban bioclimatology an important and timely research direction today is to examine the thermal conditions of public places. In our study, human thermal comfort analysis was performed in a modern and well-attended children playground located in Szeged (Hungary). The aim of the paper is to reveal the changes in the thermal comfort conditions between two seasons and also the resulting subjective thermal reactions of visitors in this relatively small area. Thermal comfort conditi...

  5. Cell kinetics of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea reveal rapid cell turnover and shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeij, de J.M.; Kluijver, de A.; Duyl, van F.C.; Vacelet, J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Goeij, de A.F.P.M.; Cleutjens, J.P.M.; Schutte, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study reveals the peculiar in vivo cell kinetics and cell turnover of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea under steady-state conditions. The tropical coral reef sponge shows an extremely high proliferation activity, a short cell cycle duration and massive cell shedding. Cell turnover is

  6. Conditional Income Transfers in Latin America: Palliatives for poverty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gepherson Macêdo Espínola

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the implementation of conditional income transfer programs in Latin America as a strategy to confront poverty in the region. It synthetically contextualizes Latin American development over time, using statistical data to reveal not only the high levels of poverty, but also educational and health conditions. These programs, as a rule, seek to alleviate and overcome poverty through monetary disbursements and fulfillment of health and educational agendas that, in thesis, increase the human capital of the poor and allow overcoming poverty in the long term. It concludes that despite the benefits for the families, the conditional income transfer programs of Latin America, on their own, are still not capable of confronting the structural poverty that marks the region, and are promoting palliatives for the poor living conditions, without overcoming them.

  7. What Persons with Chronic Health Conditions Need to Maintain or Return to Work—Results of an Online-Survey in Seven European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Foitzek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic health conditions represent the major share of the disease burden in Europe and have a significant impact on work. This study aims to: (1 identify factors that have a negative or positive impact on the work lives of persons with chronic health conditions; (2 explore the needs of these persons to maintain a job or return to work and (3 compare these results with respect to these persons’ occupational status. An online survey was performed in seven European countries. Open-ended survey questions were analyzed using qualitative methods. In total, 487 participants with six chronic health conditions participated. The majority of participants named work-related aspects (such as career development, stress at the workplace, work structure and schedule as well as workload, support of others and attitudes of others as being the factors positively and negatively impact their work lives the most. Our study shed light on the importance of changing the attitudes of supervisors and co-workers to counteract stigmatization of persons with chronic health conditions in the workplace. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for developing new strategies of integration and reintegration at work for persons with chronic health conditions in European countries.

  8. Effect of annealing and heat moisture conditioning on the physicochemical characteristics of bambarra groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Lawal, O.S.

    2002-05-01

    Isolated starch of bambarra groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea) was subjected to hydrothermal modifications through annealing and heat moisture conditioning. Both annealing and heat moisture conditioning reduced the swelling power and solubility of the starch. Water binding capacity reduced after annealing, heat moisture conditioning at 18% moisture level (HMB 18 ) and heat moisture conditioning at 21% moisture level (HMB 21 ). Both heat moisture conditioning at 24% moisture level (HMB 24 ) and heat moisture conditioning at 27% moisture level (HMB 27 ) increased the water binding capacity. Hydrothermal modifications reduced the oil absorption capacity of the raw starch. Annealing and heat moisture conditioning reduced the peak viscosity, (Pv) viscosity at 95 deg C (Hv) and viscosity at 95 deg. C after 30 minutes holding (Hv 30 ). However, viscosity increased on cooling down to 50 deg. C after annealing. Annealing and heat moisture treatments as revealed by scanning electron micrograph and light micrograph did not alter the shape and size of the raw starch. The results indicate a rearrangement within the starch granule following hydrothermal treatments. (author)

  9. Attentional Demands of Balance Under Dual Task Conditions in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monire Nobahar Ahari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the role of attentional process in postural control using choice reaction time task while changing the visual and proprioceptive cues under difficult balance task (standing on one-leg. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted by participating 20 young people (22.75±2.29. Each subject performed one-leg standing as balance task for each of the following 2 test conditions: free balance position (single task, and balancing while performing secondary cognitive task (choice reaction time task. Each test was carried out for each of the following 3 sensory conditions: on hard surface with open eyes, on hard surface with closed eyes and on foam surface with closed eyes. One way ANOVA was used for analysis. Results: Analyses of the task conditions didn’t show significant difference between single and dual task under two sensory conditions, in open and in closed eye on hard surface (P>0.05, but there was significant difference between single and dual tasks on soft foam with closed eyes [t(19=-2.391, P=0.027]. Discussion: Findings revealed that significant difference in balance performance of individuals under three different sensory conditions caused by reduction in base of support and this effect can be seen in dual task condition as well. Therefore it can be concluded that the nature of the primary task have the most influence on balance performance and this is not the effect of dual task condition.

  10. Demand effects of consumers’ stated and revealed preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Per; Forsell, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of how consumers react to different quality signals is fundamental for understanding how markets work. We study the online market- place for Android apps where we compare the causal effects on demand from two quality related signals; other consumers' stated and revealed preferences toward an app. Our main result is that consumers are much more responsive to other consumers' revealed preferences, compared to others' stated preferences. A 10 percentile increase in displayed average ra...

  11. Recent results of μCF experiments at SIN [Swiss Institute For Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunlich, W.H.; Cargnelli, M.; Bistirlich, J.

    1986-09-01

    Important topics concerning Muon Catalyzed Fusion were investigated in experiments at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN), including transient and steady state rates for the main dμt cycle as well as detailed information about the competing dμd and tμt fusion branches. The basic kinetic parameters were determined and striking features of the resonant dμt formation process were revealed (density effect, epithermal behavior). DT sticking was measured with independent techniques, i.e., detection of fusion neutrons as well as μHe x-rays after fusion. Fusion yields per muon of 113 +- 10 were observed at liquid conditions, yields exceeding 200 are anticipated for optimal conditions from our results. 43 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Enhancement of laser induced damage threshold of fused silica by acid etching combined with UV laser conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Meng; Xiang Xia; Jiang Yong; Zu Xiaotao; Yuan Xiaodong; Zheng Wanguo; Wang Haijun; Li Xibin; Lu Haibing; Jiang Xiaodong; Wang Chengcheng

    2010-01-01

    Acid etching combined with UV laser conditioning is developed to enhance the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of fused silica. Firstly, the fused silica is etched for 1 ∼ 100 min with a buffered 1% HF solution. After acid etching, its transmittance, surface roughness and LIDT are measured. The results reveal that the fused silica has the highest LIDT and transmittance after etching for 10 min. Then UV laser (355 nm) conditioning is adopted to process the 10-min-etched fused silica. When the laser fluence is below 60% of fused silica's zero probability damage threshold, the LIDT increases gradually with the increase of laser conditioning fluence. However, the LIDT rapidly decreases to be lower than the threshold of the 10-min-etched fused silica when the conditioning fluence is up to 80% of the threshold. Proper acid etching and laser conditioning parameters will effectively enhance the laser damage resistance of fused silica. (authors)

  13. Social transmission of Pavlovian fear: fear-conditioning by-proxy in related female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn E; Riha, Penny D; Gore, Andrea C; Monfils, Marie-H

    2014-05-01

    Pairing a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., a tone) to an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a foot-shock) leads to associative learning such that the tone alone will elicit a conditioned response (e.g., freezing). Individuals can also acquire fear from a social context, such as through observing the fear expression of a conspecific. In the current study, we examined the influence of kinship/familiarity on social transmission of fear in female rats. Rats were housed in triads with either sisters or non-related females. One rat from each cage was fear conditioned to a tone CS+ shock US. On day two, the conditioned rat was returned to the chamber accompanied by one of her cage mates. Both rats were allowed to behave freely, while the tone was played in the absence of the foot-shock. The previously untrained rat is referred to as the fear-conditioned by-proxy (FCbP) animal, as she would freeze based on observations of her cage-mate's response rather than due to direct personal experience with the foot-shock. The third rat served as a cage-mate control. The third day, long-term memory tests to the CS were performed. Consistent with our previous application of this paradigm in male rats (Bruchey et al. in Behav Brain Res 214(1):80-84, 2010), our results revealed that social interactions between the fear conditioned and FCbP rats on day two contribute to freezing displayed by the FCbP rats on day three. In this experiment, prosocial behavior occurring at the termination of the cue on day two was significantly greater between sisters than their non-sister counterparts, and this behavior resulted in increased freezing on day three. Our results suggest that familiarity and/or kinship influences the social transmission of fear in female rats.

  14. Barcoded pyrosequencing reveals that consumption of galactooligosaccharides results in a highly specific bifidogenic response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M G Davis

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer health benefits to the host. However, the effects of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota are incomplete as most studies have relied on methods that fail to cover the breadth of the bacterial community. The goal of this research was to use high throughput multiplex community sequencing of 16S rDNA tags to gain a community wide perspective of the impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS on the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects. Fecal samples from eighteen healthy adults were previously obtained during a feeding trial in which each subject consumed a GOS-containing product for twelve weeks, with four increasing dosages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 gram of GOS. Multiplex sequencing of the 16S rDNA tags revealed that GOS induced significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbiota, principally by increasing the abundance of organisms within the Actinobacteria. Specifically, several distinct lineages of Bifidobacterium were enriched. Consumption of GOS led to five- to ten-fold increases in bifidobacteria in half of the subjects. Increases in Firmicutes were also observed, however, these changes were detectable in only a few individuals. The enrichment of bifidobacteria was generally at the expense of one group of bacteria, the Bacteroides. The responses to GOS and the magnitude of the response varied between individuals, were reversible, and were in accordance with dosage. The bifidobacteria were the only bacteria that were consistently and significantly enriched by GOS, although this substrate supported the growth of diverse colonic bacteria in mono-culture experiments. These results suggest that GOS can be used to enrich bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract with remarkable specificity, and that the bifidogenic properties of GOS that occur in vivo are caused by selective fermentation as well as by

  15. Mineralization of 14C-Pirimiphos-Methyl in Soil Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghly, M.; El-Maghrby, S.

    2006-01-01

    The mineralization of 14 C-ring labelled pirimiphos-methyl in clay loam soil was determined in a three months laboratory incubation period under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Evolution of 14 CO2 increased with time and reached 9.2% and 12 %, of the initial 14 C-concentration , within 90 days in case of anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively, at that time, soil contained about 61.5% of the applied dose as extractable residues under anaerobic conditions and 59% under aerobic conditions. the unextractable pesticide residues gradually increased with time and the highest binding capacity of about 11%-13% was observed after 90 days of incubation. the total 14 C-activity recovered from soil was generally between 82% and 92% of the applied radiocarbon. the nature of methanolic 14 C-residues was determined by chromatographic analysis and the results revealed the presence of pirimiphos- methyl as a main product together with its phenol. the principle of radio-respirometry has been used for evaluating the effect of different application rates of pirimiphos-methyl on soil microbial activity using U- 14 C-glucose as a substrate. At two concentrations used, pirimiphos-methyl showed an inhibition in the rate of 14 Co2 evolution over 14 days of incubation as a result of oxidation of 14 C-glucose by microorganisms especially in case of high concentration

  16. Boundary conditions in conformal and integrable theories

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B

    2000-01-01

    The study of boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories is not only physically important. It also reveals a lot on the structure of the theory ``in the bulk''. The same graphs classify both the torus and the cylinder partition functions and provide data on their hidden ``quantum symmetry''. The Ocneanu triangular cells -- the 3j-symbols of these symmetries, admit various interpretations and make a link between different problems.

  17. Monocyte Proteomics Reveals Involvement of Phosphorylated HSP27 in the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Daswani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral monocytes, precursors of osteoclasts, have emerged as important candidates for identifying proteins relevant to osteoporosis, a condition characterized by low Bone Mineral Density (BMD and increased susceptibility for fractures. We employed 4-plex iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification coupled with LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to identify differentially expressed monocyte proteins from premenopausal and postmenopausal women with low versus high BMD. Of 1801 proteins identified, 45 were differentially abundant in low versus high BMD, with heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 distinctly upregulated in low BMD condition in both premenopausal and postmenopausal categories. Validation in individual samples (n=80 using intracellular ELISA confirmed that total HSP27 (tHSP27 as well as phosphorylated HSP27 (pHSP27 was elevated in low BMD condition in both categories (P<0.05. Further, using transwell assays, pHSP27, when placed in the upper chamber, could increase monocyte migration (P<0.0001 and this was additive in combination with RANKL (receptor activator of NFkB ligand placed in the lower chamber (P=0.05. Effect of pHSP27 in monocyte migration towards bone milieu can result in increased osteoclast formation and thus contribute to pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Overall, this study reveals for the first time a novel link between monocyte HSP27 and BMD.

  18. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling Reveals Epigenetic Adaptation of Stickleback to Marine and Freshwater Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, Artem V; Mugue, Nikolai S; Rastorguev, Sergey M; Zhenilo, Svetlana; Mazur, Alexander M; Tsygankova, Svetlana V; Boulygina, Eugenia S; Kaplun, Daria; Nedoluzhko, Artem V; Medvedeva, Yulia A; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2017-09-01

    The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) represents a convenient model to study microevolution-adaptation to a freshwater environment. Although genetic adaptations to freshwater environments are well-studied, epigenetic adaptations have attracted little attention. In this work, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in the adaptation of the marine stickleback population to freshwater conditions. DNA methylation profiling was performed in marine and freshwater populations of sticklebacks, as well as in marine sticklebacks placed into a freshwater environment and freshwater sticklebacks placed into seawater. We showed that the DNA methylation profile after placing a marine stickleback into fresh water partially converged to that of a freshwater stickleback. For six genes including ATP4A ion pump and NELL1, believed to be involved in skeletal ossification, we demonstrated similar changes in DNA methylation in both evolutionary and short-term adaptation. This suggested that an immediate epigenetic response to freshwater conditions can be maintained in freshwater population. Interestingly, we observed enhanced epigenetic plasticity in freshwater sticklebacks that may serve as a compensatory regulatory mechanism for the lack of genetic variation in the freshwater population. For the first time, we demonstrated that genes encoding ion channels KCND3, CACNA1FB, and ATP4A were differentially methylated between the marine and the freshwater populations. Other genes encoding ion channels were previously reported to be under selection in freshwater populations. Nevertheless, the genes that harbor genetic and epigenetic changes were not the same, suggesting that epigenetic adaptation is a complementary mechanism to selection of genetic variants favorable for freshwater environment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Model-Driven Analysis of Eyeblink Classical Conditioning Reveals the Underlying Structure of Cerebellar Plasticity and Neuronal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonietti, Alberto; Casellato, Claudia; D'Angelo, Egidio; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    The cerebellum plays a critical role in sensorimotor control. However, how the specific circuits and plastic mechanisms of the cerebellum are engaged in closed-loop processing is still unclear. We developed an artificial sensorimotor control system embedding a detailed spiking cerebellar microcircuit with three bidirectional plasticity sites. This proved able to reproduce a cerebellar-driven associative paradigm, the eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), in which a precise time relationship between an unconditioned stimulus (US) and a conditioned stimulus (CS) is established. We challenged the spiking model to fit an experimental data set from human subjects. Two subsequent sessions of EBCC acquisition and extinction were recorded and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied on the cerebellum to alter circuit function and plasticity. Evolutionary algorithms were used to find the near-optimal model parameters to reproduce the behaviors of subjects in the different sessions of the protocol. The main finding is that the optimized cerebellar model was able to learn to anticipate (predict) conditioned responses with accurate timing and success rate, demonstrating fast acquisition, memory stabilization, rapid extinction, and faster reacquisition as in EBCC in humans. The firing of Purkinje cells (PCs) and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) changed during learning under the control of synaptic plasticity, which evolved at different rates, with a faster acquisition in the cerebellar cortex than in DCN synapses. Eventually, a reduced PC activity released DCN discharge just after the CS, precisely anticipating the US and causing the eyeblink. Moreover, a specific alteration in cortical plasticity explained the EBCC changes induced by cerebellar TMS in humans. In this paper, for the first time, it is shown how closed-loop simulations, using detailed cerebellar microcircuit models, can be successfully used to fit real experimental data sets. Thus, the changes of the

  20. Evaluation of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Genotypes for Their Trait Associations under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bashiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate sugar-beet genotypes for their trait associations, two separate RCBD experiments with three replications were conducted both under non-saline (normal and saline conditions at the Agricultural Research of Miandoab. Analysis of variance of the data collected showed that there were significant differences among genotypes for all traits studied under non-saline condition. But, differences of genotypes under saline condition were significant only for root yield, root potassium content, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Salinity stress, in this study, reduced root potassium content, root yield, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Mean comparisons of genotypes indicated that root yield of all genotypes, under non-saline condition, were higher than those of under saline one. As whole, genotypes number 1 and 2 produced higher root yields, impure and pure sugar yields respectively, under both saline and non-saline conditions. Based on the results obtained it was revealed that regression coefficients for the traits under study were significant. Step-wise regression and path coefficient analyses also indicated that traits like root yield, pure sugar and root nitrogen contents highly affected white sugar yield under non-saline conditions.

  1. Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Peach Growth under Commercial Orchard Management Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of vegetative growth to water deficit stress of a late-maturing peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Elberta under orchard conditions, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete-block design with three treatments and four repetitions in Shahdiran commercial orchard in Mashhad during 2011. Three irrigation treatments including 360 (low stress, 180 (moderate stress and 90 (severe stress m3ha-1week-1 using a drip irrigation system (minimum stem water potential near harvest: -1.2, -1.5 and -1.7 MPa, respectively from the mid-pit hardening stage (12th of June until harvest (23rd of Sep. applied. Predawn, stem and leaf water potentials, leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature, the number of new shoots on fruit bearing shoots and vegetative shoots lengths during growing season as well as leaf area at harvest were measured. The results showed that water deficit stress had negative effects on peach tree water status, thereby resulting in decreased leaf gas exchange and tree vegetative growth. As significant decreased assimilate production of tree was resulted from both decreased leaf assimilation rate (until about 23 % and 50 %, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions and decreased leaf area of tree (until about 57% and 79%, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions at harvest. The significant positive correlation between leaf water potential and vegetative growth of peach revealed that shoot growth would decrease by 30% and 50% of maximum at leaf water potential of –1.56 and –2.30 MPa, respectively.

  2. Fuel behaviour and fission product release under realistic hydrogen conditions comparisons between HEVA 06 test results and Vulcain computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.M.; Lhiaubet, G.

    1989-07-01

    The HEVA 06 test was designed to simulate the conditions existing at the time when fission products are released from irradiated fuel under hydrogen conditions occurring in a PWR core at low pressure. The test conditions were defined from results provided by the core degradation module of the ESCADRE system (1): VULCAIN. This computer code has been recently used to analyse the early core degradation of a 900 MWe PWR in the AF accident sequence (as defined in WASH - 1400, USNRC - 1975). In this scenario, the core would begin to uncover about one day after scram with the system pressure at about 0.4 MPa. The fission product release starts 70 minutes after core dewatering. The F.P. are transferred to the core outlet in an increasingly hydrogen-rich steam atmosphere. The carrier gas is nearly pure hydrogen in the time period 100 - 130 minutes after core uncovering. A large release of F.P. is predicted in the upper part of the core when the steam starvation occurs. At that time, two thirds of the cladding have been oxidised on an average. Before each HEVA test a fuel sample with a burn-up of 36 GWd/tU is reirradiated in order to observe the release of short-lived fission products. A pre-oxidation was primarely conducted in the HEVA 06 test at a temperature of 1300 0 C and controlled to reach a 2/3 cladding oxidation state. Then the steam was progressively replaced by hydrogen and a heat-up rate of 1.5 0 C/s was induced to reach a temperature of 2100 0 C. The fuel was maintained at this temperature for half an hour in hydrogen. The volatile F.P. release kinetics were observed by on-line gamma spectrometry. Pre test calculations of F.P. release kinetics performed with the EMIS module based on the CORSOR models (3) are compared with the test results. Measured releases of cesium and iodine are really lower than those predicted. Axial and radial F.P. distributions in the fuel pellets are available from gamma tomography measurements performed after the test. Tellurium seems

  3. A multi-scale model of hepcidin promoter regulation reveals factors controlling systemic iron homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Casanovas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic iron homeostasis involves a negative feedback circuit in which the expression level of the peptide hormone hepcidin depends on and controls the iron blood levels. Hepcidin expression is regulated by the BMP6/SMAD and IL6/STAT signaling cascades. Deregulation of either pathway causes iron-related diseases such as hemochromatosis or anemia of inflammation. We quantitatively analyzed how BMP6 and IL6 control hepcidin expression. Transcription factor (TF phosphorylation and reporter gene expression were measured under co-stimulation conditions, and the promoter was perturbed by mutagenesis. Using mathematical modeling, we systematically analyzed potential mechanisms of cooperative and competitive promoter regulation by the transcription factors, and experimentally validated the model predictions. Our results reveal that hepcidin cross-regulation primarily occurs by combinatorial transcription factor binding to the promoter, whereas signaling crosstalk is insignificant. We find that the presence of two BMP-responsive elements enhances the steepness of the promoter response towards the iron-sensing BMP signaling axis, which promotes iron homeostasis in vivo. IL6 co-stimulation reduces the promoter sensitivity towards the BMP signal, because the SMAD and STAT transcription factors compete for recruiting RNA polymerase to the transcription start site. This may explain why inflammatory signals disturb iron homeostasis in anemia of inflammation. Taken together, our results reveal why the iron homeostasis circuit is sensitive to perturbations implicated in disease.

  4. Stabilization process in Saccharomyces intra and interspecific hybrids in fermentative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the genetic stabilization of artificial intra- (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and interspecific (S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii) hybrids under wine fermentative conditions. Large-scale transitions in genome size and genome reorganizations were observed during this process. Interspecific hybrids seem to need fewer generations to reach genetic stability than intraspecific hybrids. The largest number of molecular patterns recovered among the derived clones was observed for intraspecific hybrids, particularly for those obtained by rare-mating. Molecular marker analyses revealed that unstable clones could change during the industrial process to obtain active dry yeast. When no changes in molecular markers and ploidy were observed after this process, no changes in genetic composition were confirmed by comparative genome hybridization, considering the clone as a stable hybrid. According to our results, under these conditions, fermentation steps 3 and 5 (30-50 generations) would suffice to obtain genetically stable interspecific and intraspecific hybrids, respectively. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  5. Ice-sheet flow conditions deduced from mechanical tests of ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Narita, Hideki; Hondoh, Takeo

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate....... It was revealed that cloudy bands affect ice-deformation processes, but the details remain unclear. Udgivelsesdato: June......Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate......-core samples with basal planes parallel to the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. The ice-flow enhancement factors show a gradual increase with depth down to approximately 2000 m. These results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in the fourth-order Schmid factor. Below 2000 m depth, the flow...

  6. Test results of a jet impingement from a 4 inch pipe under BWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Yano, Toshikazu; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Rokuro; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Ueda, Shuzo; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-09-01

    Hypothetical instantaneous pipe rupture is now considered to be one of the design basis accidents during the operation of the light water reactor. If a pipe rupture accidnet occurs, the pipe will start moving with the sudden discharge of internal fluid. So, the various apparatus such as pipe whip restraints and jet deflectors are being installed near the postulated break location to protect the nuclear power plants against the effect of postulated pipe rupture. Pipe whipping test and jet discharge test are now being conducted at the Division of Reactor Safety of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report describes the test results of the jet discharge from a 4 inch pipe under BWR LOCA condition. In front of the pipe exit the target disk of 1000 mm in diameter was installed. The distance between the pipe exit and the target was 500 mm. 13 pressure transducers and 13 thermocouples were mounted on the target disk to measure the pressure and temperature increase due to jet impingement on the target. (author)

  7. Ions, metabolites, and cells: Water as a reporter of surface conditions during bacterial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarisz, Tasha A.; Lane, Sarah; Gozdzialski, Lea; Hore, Dennis K.

    2018-06-01

    Surface-specific nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy, combined with bulk solution measurements and imaging, is used to study the surface conditions during the growth of E. coli. As a result of the silica high surface charge density, the water structure at the silica-aqueous interface is known to be especially sensitive to pH and ionic strength, and surface concentration profiles develop that can be appreciably different from the bulk solution conditions. We illustrate that, in the presence of growing cells, a unique surface micro-environment is established as a result of metabolites accumulating on the silica surface. Even in the subsequent absence of the cells, this surface layer works to reduce the interfacial ionic strength as revealed by the enhanced signal from surface water molecules. In the presence of growing cells, an additional boost in surface water signal is attributed to a local pH that is higher than that of the bulk solution.

  8. Transcriptome analysis reveals regulatory networks underlying differential susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in response to nitrogen availability in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eVega

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the main limiting nutrients for plant growth and crop yield. It is well documented that changes in nitrate availability, the main N source found in agricultural soils, influences a myriad of developmental programs and processes including the plant defense response. Indeed, many agronomical reports indicate that the plant N nutritional status influences their ability to respond effectively when challenged by different pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in N-modulation of plant susceptibility to pathogens are poorly characterized. In this work, we show that Solanum lycopersicum defense response to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is affected by plant N availability, with higher susceptibility in nitrate-limiting conditions. Global gene expression responses of tomato against B. cinerea under contrasting nitrate conditions reveals that plant primary metabolism is affected by the fungal infection regardless of N regimes. This result suggests that differential susceptibility to pathogen attack under contrasting N conditions is not only explained by a metabolic alteration. We used a systems biology approach to identify the transcriptional regulatory network implicated in plant response to the fungus infection under contrasting nitrate conditions. Interestingly, hub genes in this network are known key transcription factors involved in ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling. This result positions these hormones as key integrators of nitrate and defense against B. cinerea in tomato plants. Our results provide insights into potential crosstalk mechanisms between necrotrophic defense response and N status in plants.

  9. The effect of conditioning agents on the corrosive properties of molten urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, D E; Nguyen, D T; Norton, M M; Parker, B R; Daniels, L E

    1991-01-01

    From the process case histories of the failure of several heat exchanger tube bundles, it was revealed that molten urea containing lignosulfonate as a granulation conditioning-hardening agent (Urea LS[trademark]) is corrosive to Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The results of field and laboratory immersion corrosion tests indicated that the corrosivity of molten urea is strongly dependent on the process temperature rather than the conditioner composition. At temperatures below 295F, molten Urea LS[trademark] is not aggressive to these stainless steels. However, at temperatures above 300F, the corrosion of these stainless steels is extremely severe. The corrosion rate of Types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L is as high as hundreds of mils per year. The corrosion mechanism tends to be more general than localized. The results of the laboratory corrosion test also revealed that among alloying elements, copper is detrimental to corrosion resistance of stainless steel exposed to molten Urea LS[trademark], chromium is the most beneficial, and nickel has only a minor effect. Thus, copper-free and chromium stainless steels have superior corrosion resistance to the molten Urea LS[trademark] at a wide range of temperatures up to 345F.

  10. A novel mouse model reveals that polycystin-1 deficiency in ependyma and choroid plexus results in dysfunctional cilia and hydrocephalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claas Wodarczyk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycystin-1 (PC-1, the product of the PKD1 gene, mutated in the majority of cases of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD, is a very large (approximately 520 kDa plasma membrane receptor localized in several subcellular compartments including cell-cell/matrix junctions as well as cilia. While heterologous over-expression systems have allowed identification of several of the potential biological roles of this receptor, its precise function remains largely elusive. Studying PC-1 in vivo has been a challenging task due to its complexity and low expression levels. To overcome these limitations and facilitate the study of endogenous PC-1, we have inserted HA- or Myc-tag sequences into the Pkd1 locus by homologous recombination. Here, we show that our approach was successful in generating a fully functional and easily detectable endogenous PC-1. Characterization of PC-1 distribution in vivo showed that it is expressed ubiquitously and is developmentally-regulated in most tissues. Furthermore, our novel tool allowed us to investigate the role of PC-1 in brain, where the protein is abundantly expressed. Subcellular localization of PC-1 revealed strong and specific staining in ciliated ependymal and choroid plexus cells. Consistent with this distribution, we observed hydrocephalus formation both in the ubiquitous knock-out embryos and in newborn mice with conditional inactivation of the Pkd1 gene in the brain. Both choroid plexus and ependymal cilia were morphologically normal in these mice, suggesting a role for PC-1 in ciliary function or signalling in this compartment, rather than in ciliogenesis. We propose that the role of PC-1 in the brain cilia might be to prevent hydrocephalus, a previously unrecognized role for this receptor and one that might have important implications for other genetic or sporadic diseases.

  11. Novel instrument for characterizing comprehensive physical properties under multi-mechanical loads and multi-physical field coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyi; Zhao, Hongwei; Ma, Zhichao; Qiao, Yuansen; Hong, Kun; Ren, Zhuang; Zhang, Jianhai; Pei, Yongmao; Ren, Luquan

    2018-02-01

    Functional materials represented by ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics are widely used in advanced sensor and precision actuation due to their special characterization under coupling interactions of complex loads and external physical fields. However, the conventional devices for material characterization can only provide a limited type of loads and physical fields and cannot simulate the actual service conditions of materials. A multi-field coupling instrument for characterization has been designed and implemented to overcome this barrier and measure the comprehensive physical properties under complex service conditions. The testing forms include tension, compression, bending, torsion, and fatigue in mechanical loads, as well as different external physical fields, including electric, magnetic, and thermal fields. In order to offer a variety of information to reveal mechanical damage or deformation forms, a series of measurement methods at the microscale are integrated with the instrument including an indentation unit and in situ microimaging module. Finally, several coupling experiments which cover all the loading and measurement functions of the instrument have been implemented. The results illustrate the functions and characteristics of the instrument and then reveal the variety in mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the piezoelectric transducer ceramic, TbDyFe alloy, and carbon fiber reinforced polymer under coupling conditions.

  12. Body-size structure of Central Iberian mammal fauna reveals semidesertic conditions during the middle Miocene Global Cooling Event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Menéndez

    Full Text Available We developed new quantitative palaeoclimatic inference models based on the body-size structure of mammal faunas from the Old World tropics and applied them to the Somosaguas fossil site (middle Miocene, central Iberian Peninsula. Twenty-six mammal species have been described at this site, including proboscideans, ungulates, carnivores, insectivores, lagomorphs and rodents. Our analyses were based on multivariate and bivariate regression models correlating climatic data and body-size structure of 63 modern mammal assemblages from Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The results showed an average temperature of the coldest month higher than 26°C for the Somosaguas fossil site, a mean annual thermal amplitude around 10°C, a drought length of 10 months, and an annual total precipitation greater than 200 mm per year, which are climate conditions typical of an ecotonal zone between the savanna and desert biomes. These results are congruent with the aridity peaks described over the middle Aragonian of Spain and particularly in the local biozone E, which includes Somosaguas. The aridity increase detected in this biozone is associated with the Middle Miocene Global Cooling Event. The environment of Somosaguas around 14 Ma was similar to the current environment in the Sahel region of North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the boundary area between the Kalahari and the Namib in Southern Africa, south-central Arabia, or eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. The distribution of modern vegetation in these regions follows a complex mosaic of plant communities, dominated by scattered xerophilous shrublands, semidesert grasslands, and vegetation linked to seasonal watercourses and ponds.

  13. Body-size structure of Central Iberian mammal fauna reveals semidesertic conditions during the middle Miocene Global Cooling Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Iris; Gómez Cano, Ana R; García Yelo, Blanca A; Domingo, Laura; Domingo, M Soledad; Cantalapiedra, Juan L; Blanco, Fernando; Hernández Fernández, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    We developed new quantitative palaeoclimatic inference models based on the body-size structure of mammal faunas from the Old World tropics and applied them to the Somosaguas fossil site (middle Miocene, central Iberian Peninsula). Twenty-six mammal species have been described at this site, including proboscideans, ungulates, carnivores, insectivores, lagomorphs and rodents. Our analyses were based on multivariate and bivariate regression models correlating climatic data and body-size structure of 63 modern mammal assemblages from Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The results showed an average temperature of the coldest month higher than 26°C for the Somosaguas fossil site, a mean annual thermal amplitude around 10°C, a drought length of 10 months, and an annual total precipitation greater than 200 mm per year, which are climate conditions typical of an ecotonal zone between the savanna and desert biomes. These results are congruent with the aridity peaks described over the middle Aragonian of Spain and particularly in the local biozone E, which includes Somosaguas. The aridity increase detected in this biozone is associated with the Middle Miocene Global Cooling Event. The environment of Somosaguas around 14 Ma was similar to the current environment in the Sahel region of North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the boundary area between the Kalahari and the Namib in Southern Africa, south-central Arabia, or eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. The distribution of modern vegetation in these regions follows a complex mosaic of plant communities, dominated by scattered xerophilous shrublands, semidesert grasslands, and vegetation linked to seasonal watercourses and ponds.

  14. Natural variation in rosette size under salt stress conditions corresponds to developmental differences between Arabidopsis accessions and allelic variation in the LRR-KISS gene

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena

    2016-02-11

    Natural variation among Arabidopsis accessions is an important genetic resource to identify mechanisms underlying plant development and stress tolerance. To evaluate the natural variation in salinity stress tolerance, two large-scale experiments were performed on two populations consisting of 160 Arabidopsis accessions each. Multiple traits, including projected rosette area, and fresh and dry weight were collected as an estimate for salinity tolerance. Our results reveal a correlation between rosette size under salt stress conditions and developmental differences between the accessions grown in control conditions, suggesting that in general larger plants were more salt tolerant. This correlation was less pronounced when plants were grown under severe salt stress conditions. Subsequent genome wide association study (GWAS) revealed associations with novel candidate genes for salinity tolerance such as LRR-KISS (At4g08850), flowering locus KH-domain containing protein and a DUF1639-containing protein. Accessions with high LRR-KISS expression developed larger rosettes under salt stress conditions. Further characterization of allelic variation in candidate genes identified in this study will provide more insight into mechanisms of salt stress tolerance due to enhanced shoot growth.

  15. Preliminary results from uranium/americium affinity studies under experimental conditions for cesium removal from NPP ''Kozloduy'' simulated wastes solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforova, A.; Kinova, L.; Peneva, C.; Taskaeva, I.; Petrova, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use the approach described by Westinghouse Savannah River Company using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) to remove elevated concentrations of radioactive cesium to facilitate handling waste samples from NPP K ozloduy . Preliminary series of tests were carried out to determine the exact conditions for sufficient cesium removal from five simulated waste solutions with concentrations of compounds, whose complexing power complicates any subsequent processing. Simulated wastes solutions contain high concentrations of nitrates, borates, H 2 C 2 O 4 , ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and Citric acid, according to the composition of the real waste from the NPP. On this basis a laboratory treatment protocol was created. This experiment is a preparation for the analysis of real waste samples. In this sense the results are preliminary. Unwanted removal of non-cesium radioactive species from simulated waste solutions was studied with gamma spectrometry with the aim to find a compromise between on the one hand the AMP effectiveness and on the other hand unwanted affinity to AMP of Uranium and Americium. Success for the treatment protocol is defined by proving minimal uptake of U and Am, while at the same time demonstrating good removal effectiveness through the use of AMP. Uptake of U and Am were determined as influenced by oxidizing agents at nitric acid concentrations, proposed by Savannah River National laboratory. It was found that AMP does not significantly remove U and Am when concentration of oxidizing agents is more than 0.1M for simulated waste solutions and for contact times inherent in laboratory treatment protocol. Uranium and Americium affinity under experimental conditions for cesium removal were evaluated from gamma spectrometric data. Results are given for the model experiment and an approach for the real waste analysis is chosen. Under our experimental conditions simulated wastes solutions showed minimal affinity to AMP when U and Am are most probably in

  16. Lateral Vibration of Hydroelectric Generating Set with Different Supporting Condition of Thrust Pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Si

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the supporting condition, which change the stiffness of tilting pad thrust bearing, may alter the dynamic behavior of the rotor system. The effects of supporting condition of thrust pad on the lateral vibration of a hydroelectric generating set are investigated in this paper. The action of a thrust bearing is described as moments acting on the thrust collar, and the tilting stiffness coefficients of thrust bearing are calculated. A model based on typical beam finite element method is established to calculate the dynamic response, and the effects of supporting conditions such as elastic oil tank support, different heights of the thrust pads with rigid support are discussed. The results reveal that the influence of thrust bearing is small when the elastic oil tanks work normally. When the supporting conditions turn to be rigid due to the oil leakage, the differences of thrust pad heights have evident influence on the load distribution of the thrust pads; while the effects on the tilting stiffness of the thrust bearing and the amplitude of the lateral shaft vibration is small when the maximum load on thrust pads is smaller than the allowable value.

  17. Effects of forest cover changes in European Russia on regional weather conditions: results of numerical experiments with the COSMO-CLM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kuzmina, Ekaterina; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Rivin, Gdaly S.

    2017-04-01

    The forests have a significant effect on the climatic system. They capture CO2 from the atmosphere, regulate the surface evaporation and runoff, and influence the radiation and thermal conditions of the land surface. It is obvious, that their influence depends on many different factors including regional climate conditions, land use and vegetation structure, surface topography, etc. The main goal of the study is to assess the possible influence of forest cover changes (under deforestation and/or afforestation) on regional weather conditions in the central part of European Russia using the results of modeling experiments provided by the meso-scale COSMO-CLM model. The need of the study lies in a lack of the experimental and modeling data characterizing the influence of the forest and land-use changes on regional weather conditions in European part of Russia. The forest ecosystems in the study region play a very important biosphere role that is significantly increased in the last decades due to considerable strengthening of anthropogenic activity in the area of European Russia. The area selected for the study is located in the central part of European Russia between 55 and 59N and 28 and 37E. It comprises several geographical zones including dark-coniferous forests of the South-European taiga in the north, the mixed forests in the central part and the broad-leaved forests in the south. The forests within the study area are very heterogeneous. The total area covered by forests according to recent remote sensing data is about 50%. The numerical experiments were provided using the COSMO-CLM model with the spatial resolution 13.2 km. As initial and boundary conditions for the numerical experiments the global reanalysis ERA Interim (with the 6-hour resolution in time and 0.75° × 0.75° in space) were used. The weather conditions were simulated in a continuous cycle for several months for the entire area of European Russia using the results of global reanalysis on

  18. Threshold condition for nonlinear tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiego, M.F.; Callen, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    Low-mode-number tearing, mode nonlinear evolution is analyzed emphasizing the need for a threshold condition, to account for observations in tokamaks. The discussion is illustrated by two models recently introduced in the literature. The models can be compared with the available data and/or serve as a basis for planning some experiments in order to either test theory (by means of beta-limit scaling laws, as proposed in this paper) or attempt to control undesirable tearing modes. Introducing a threshold condition in the tearing mode stability analysis is found to reveal some bifurcation points and thus domains of intrinsic stability in the island dynamics operational space

  19. Time-dependent behavior of rough discontinuities under shearing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Shen, Mingrong; Ding, Wenqi; Jang, Boan; Zhang, Qingzhao

    2018-02-01

    The mechanical properties of rocks are generally controlled by their discontinuities. In this study, the time-dependent behavior of rough artificial joints under shearing conditions was investigated. Based on Barton’s standard profile lines, samples with artificial joint surfaces were prepared and used to conduct the shear and creep tests. The test results showed that the shear strength of discontinuity was linearly related to roughness, and subsequently an empirical equation was established. The long-term strength of discontinuity can be identified using the inflection point of the isocreep-rate curve, and it was linearly related to roughness. Furthermore, the ratio of long-term and instantaneous strength decreased with the increase of roughness. The shear-stiffness coefficient increased with the increase of shear rate, and the influence of shear rate on the shear stiffness coefficient decreased with the decrease of roughness. Further study of the mechanism revealed that these results could be attributed to the different time-dependent behavior of intact and joint rocks.

  20. Segregated populations of hippocampal principal CA1 neurons mediating conditioning and extinction of contextual fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronson, Natalie C; Schrick, Christina; Guzman, Yomayra F; Huh, Kyu Hwan; Srivastava, Deepak P; Penzes, Peter; Guedea, Anita L; Gao, Can; Radulovic, Jelena

    2009-03-18

    Learning processes mediating conditioning and extinction of contextual fear require activation of several key signaling pathways in the hippocampus. Principal hippocampal CA1 neurons respond to fear conditioning by a coordinated activation of multiple protein kinases and immediate early genes, such as cFos, enabling rapid and lasting consolidation of contextual fear memory. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) additionally acts as a central mediator of fear extinction. It is not known however, whether these molecular events take place in overlapping or nonoverlapping neuronal populations. By using mouse models of conditioning and extinction of fear, we set out to determine the time course of cFos and Erk activity, their cellular overlap, and regulation by afferent cholinergic input from the medial septum. Analyses of cFos(+) and pErk(+) cells by immunofluorescence revealed predominant nuclear activation of either protein during conditioning and extinction of fear, respectively. Transgenic cFos-LacZ mice were further used to label in vivo Fos(+) hippocampal cells during conditioning followed by pErk immunostaining after extinction. The results showed that these signaling molecules were activated in segregated populations of hippocampal principal neurons. Furthermore, immunotoxin-induced lesions of medial septal neurons, providing cholinergic input into the hippocampus, selectively abolished Erk activation and extinction of fear without affecting cFos responses and conditioning. These results demonstrate that extinction mechanisms based on Erk signaling involve a specific population of CA1 principal neurons distinctively regulated by afferent cholinergic input from the medial septum.

  1. Gallic Acid Promotes Wound Healing in Normal and Hyperglucidic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Joo Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the outermost layer of the human body that is constantly exposed to environmental stressors, such as UV radiation and toxic chemicals, and is susceptible to mechanical wounding and injury. The ability of the skin to repair injuries is paramount for survival and it is disrupted in a spectrum of disorders leading to skin pathologies. Diabetic patients often suffer from chronic, impaired wound healing, which facilitate bacterial infections and necessitate amputation. Here, we studied the effects of gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid; a plant-derived polyphenolic compound on would healing in normal and hyperglucidic conditions, to mimic diabetes, in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Our study reveals that GA is a potential antioxidant that directly upregulates the expression of antioxidant genes. In addition, GA accelerated cell migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in both normal and hyperglucidic conditions. Further, GA treatment activated factors known to be hallmarks of wound healing, such as focal adhesion kinases (FAK, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk, underpinning the beneficial role of GA in wound repair. Therefore, our results demonstrate that GA might be a viable wound healing agent and a potential intervention to treat wounds resulting from metabolic complications.

  2. Uniqueness theorems for differential pencils with eigenparameter boundary conditions and transmission conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Fu

    Inverse spectral problems are considered for differential pencils with boundary conditions depending polynomially on the spectral parameter and with a finite number of transmission conditions. We give formulations of the associated inverse problems such as Titchmarsh-Weyl theorem, Hochstadt-Lieberman theorem and Mochizuki-Trooshin theorem, and prove corresponding uniqueness theorems. The obtained results are generalizations of the similar results for the classical Sturm-Liouville operator on a finite interval.

  3. Separable roles of UFO during floral development revealed by conditional restoration of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufs, Patrick; Coen, Enrico; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Traas, Jan; Doonan, John

    2003-02-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis including specification of organ identity in the second and third whorls and the proper pattern of primordium initiation in the inner three whorls. UFO is expressed in a dynamic pattern during the early phases of flower development. Here we dissect the role of UFO by ubiquitously expressing it in ufo loss-of-function flowers at different developmental stages and for various durations using an ethanol-inducible expression system. The previously known functions of UFO could be separated and related to its expression at specific stages of development. We show that a 24- to 48-hour period of UFO expression from floral stage 2, before any floral organs are visible, is sufficient to restore normal petal and stamen development. The earliest requirement for UFO is during stage 2, when the endogenous UFO gene is transiently expressed in the centre of the wild-type flower and is required to specify the initiation patterns of petal, stamen and carpel primordia. Petal and stamen identity is determined during stages 2 or 3, when UFO is normally expressed in the presumptive second and third whorl. Although endogenous UFO expression is absent from the stamen whorl from stage 4 onwards, stamen identity can be restored by UFO activation up to stage 6. We also observed floral phenotypes not observed in loss-of-function or constitutive gain-of-function backgrounds, revealing additional roles of UFO in outgrowth of petal primordia.

  4. Coral transcriptome and bacterial community profiles reveal distinct Yellow Band Disease states in Orbicella faveolata

    KAUST Repository

    Closek, Collin J.

    2014-06-20

    Coral diseases impact reefs globally. Although we continue to describe diseases, little is known about the etiology or progression of even the most common cases. To examine a spectrum of coral health and determine factors of disease progression we examined Orbicella faveolata exhibiting signs of Yellow Band Disease (YBD), a widespread condition in the Caribbean. We used a novel combined approach to assess three members of the coral holobiont: the coral-host, associated Symbiodinium algae, and bacteria. We profiled three conditions: (1) healthy-appearing colonies (HH), (2) healthy-appearing tissue on diseased colonies (HD), and (3) diseased lesion (DD). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed health state-specific diversity in Symbiodinium clade associations. 16S ribosomal RNA gene microarrays (PhyloChips) and O. faveolata complimentary DNA microarrays revealed the bacterial community structure and host transcriptional response, respectively. A distinct bacterial community structure marked each health state. Diseased samples were associated with two to three times more bacterial diversity. HD samples had the highest bacterial richness, which included components associated with HH and DD, as well as additional unique families. The host transcriptome under YBD revealed a reduced cellular expression of defense- and metabolism-related processes, while the neighboring HD condition exhibited an intermediate expression profile. Although HD tissue appeared visibly healthy, the microbial communities and gene expression profiles were distinct. HD should be regarded as an additional (intermediate) state of disease, which is important for understanding the progression of YBD. © 2014 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

  5. Hippocampal-dependent Pavlovian conditioning in adult rats exposed to binge-like doses of ethanol as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Derick H

    2013-04-01

    Binge-like postnatal ethanol exposure produces significant damage throughout the brain in rats, including the cerebellum and hippocampus. In the current study, cue- and context-mediated Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult rats exposed to moderately low (3E; 3g/kg/day) or high (5E; 5g/kg/day) doses of ethanol across postnatal days 4-9. Ethanol-exposed and control groups were presented with 8 sessions of trace eyeblink conditioning followed by another 8 sessions of delay eyeblink conditioning, with an altered context presented over the last two sessions. Both forms of conditioning rely on the brainstem and cerebellum, while the more difficult trace conditioning also requires the hippocampus. The hippocampus is also needed to gate or modulate expression of the eyeblink conditioned response (CR) based on contextual cues. Results indicate that the ethanol-exposed rats were not significantly impaired in trace EBC relative to control subjects. In terms of CR topography, peak amplitude was significantly reduced by both doses of alcohol, whereas onset latency but not peak latency was significantly lengthened in the 5E rats across the latter half of delay EBC in the original training context. Neither dosage resulted in significant impairment in the contextual gating of the behavioral response, as revealed by similar decreases in CR production across all four treatment groups following introduction of the novel context. Results suggest ethanol-induced brainstem-cerebellar damage can account for the present results, independent of the putative disruption in hippocampal development and function proposed to occur following postnatal ethanol exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Time-lapse imagery of Adélie penguins reveals differential winter strategies and breeding site occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; Lunn, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period. Here we show that Adélie penguins on the Yalour Islands in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are present year-round at the colony and undergo a mid-winter peak in abundance during winter. We found a negative relationship between daylight hours and penguin abundance when either open water or compact ice conditions were present, suggesting that penguins return to the breeding colony when visibility is lowest for at-sea foraging and when either extreme low or high levels of sea ice exist offshore. In contrast, Adélie penguins breeding in East Antarctica were not observed at the colonies during winter, suggesting that Adélie penguins undergo differential winter strategies in the marginal ice zone on the WAP compared to those in East Antarctica. These results demonstrate that cameras can successfully monitor wildlife year-round in areas that are largely inaccessible during winter. PMID:29561876

  7. Atomic collisions under extreme conditions in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    1987-01-01

    In space, atoms and molecules are often placed under the extreme conditions which are very difficult to be realized on Earth. For instance, extremely hot and dense plasmas are found in and around various stellar objects (e.g., neutron stars) on one hand and extremely cold and diffuse gases prevail in interstellar space on the other. There is so strong a magnetic field that electron clouds in atoms and molecules are distorted. The study of atomic collisions under the extreme conditions is not only helpful in understanding the astrophysical environment but also reveals new aspects of the physics of atoms and molecules. This paper is an invitation to the study. (References are not exhaustive but only provide a clue with which more details can be found.) (author)

  8. Trace conditioning in insects – Keep the trace!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina V Dylla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS and an unconditioned stimulus (US following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination – a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase, which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  9. [Risk of certain obstetric pathologies in women employed in working conditions non-complying with the current legal status on work load and working conditions appropriate for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan-Włodarczyk, Zyta; Koszada-Włodarczyk, Wiesława

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the incidence of prematurity and small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants in occupationally involved pregnant women, and to find out how far working conditions departing from binding regulations contribute to the risk of the development of these pathologies. The study was carried out on a representative sample of 3050 women employed for longer than one week during pregnancy in the Łódź district. An interview conducted with the subjects few days after delivery was the source of information about working conditions. The obtained information was compared with the real situation in about 10% of randomly selected workposts. A high level of consistence was observed. The study revealed that almost 60% of women work in conditions, which do not comply with the Labor Code provisions setting working conditions permissible for pregnant women. In the study group, 4.68% of prematurity and 6.15% of SGA were recorded. A 66% excess in the risk of delivering SGA infants in case of at least one factor not complying with regulations was revealed. The excess was growing with the increased number of departures from regulations and continuation of employment during pregnancy. It was estimated that the number of SGA cases would decrease by 28% if the working conditions would have met the requirements. A prolonged time of work, local vibration for > 4h/shift, forced work pace, excessive effort and forced body position during the work performance contributed mostly to the risk of pathology. Interestingly, the risk of premature delivery was lower by about 40% in women working in unsatisfactory conditions, which is attributed to termination of work immediately after the occurrence of pregnancy-threatening symptoms. Only those women whose pregnancy was not threatened with pathology could continue their work. The study revealed a quite large number of workplaces not complying with regulations on working conditions permissible for pregnant women. Therefore

  10. Forthcoming Break-Even Conditions of Tokamak Plasma Performance for Fusion Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatari, Ryoji; Okano, Kunihiko; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Tokimatsu, Koji; Konishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi

    The present study reveals forthcoming break-even conditions of tokamak plasma performance for the fusion energy development. The first condition is the electric break-even condition, which means that the gross electric power generation is equal to the circulating power in a power plant. This is required for fusion energy to be recognized as a suitable candidate for an alternative energy source. As for the plasma performance (normalized beta value ΒN), confinement improvement factor for H-mode HH, the ratio of plasma density to Greenwald density fnGW), the electric break-even condition requires the simultaneous achievement of 1.2 market. By using a long-term world energy scenario, a break-even price for introduction of fusion energy in the year 2050 is estimated to lie between 65 mill/kWh and 135 mill/kWh under the constraint of 550 ppm CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. In the present study, this break-even price is applied to the economic break-even condition. However, because this break-even price is based on the present energy scenario including uncertainties, the economic break-even condition discussed here should not be considered the sufficient condition, but a necessary condition. Under the conditions of Btmax = 16 T, ηe = 40 %, plant availability 60 %, and a radial build with/without CS coil, the economic break-even condition requires ΒN ˜ 5.0 for 65 mill/kWh of lower break-even price case. Finally, the present study reveals that the demonstration of steady-state operation with ΒN ˜ 3.0 in the ITER project leads to the upper region of the break-even price in the present world energy scenario, which implies that it is necessary to improve the plasma performance beyond that of the ITER advanced plasma operation.

  11. A paradigm for operant conditioning in blow flies (Phormia terrae novae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Disma, Gérald; Abramson, Charles I

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly (Protophormia terrae novae) is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole decreases. Control procedures revealed that rate of responding is not a simple overall result of feeding or of aging. The flies entered into the hole only if the response was required to obtain the food.

  12. Evaluation of drought tolerance and yield capacity of barley (hordeum vulgare) genotypes under irrigated and water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, M.I.; Silva, J.A.T.D

    2012-01-01

    Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (Yi), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance. (author)

  13. Global transcription profiling reveals comprehensive insights into hypoxic response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenglong; Vantoai, Tara; Moy, Linda P; Bock, Geoffrey; Linford, Lara D; Quackenbush, John

    2005-03-01

    Plants have evolved adaptation mechanisms to sense oxygen deficiency in their environments and make coordinated physiological and structural adjustments to enhance their hypoxic tolerance. To gain insight into how plants respond to low-oxygen stress, gene expression profiling using whole-genome DNA amplicon microarrays was carried out at seven time points over 24 h, in wild-type and transgenic P(SAG12):ipt Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Transcript levels of genes involved in glycolysis and fermentation pathways, ethylene synthesis and perception, calcium signaling, nitrogen utilization, trehalose metabolism, and alkaloid synthesis were significantly altered in response to oxygen limitation. Analysis based on gene ontology assignments suggested a significant down-regulation of genes whose functions are associated with cell walls, nucleosome structures, water channels, and ion transporters and a significant up-regulation of genes involved in transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity, and auxin responses under conditions of oxygen shortage. Promoter analysis on a cluster of up-regulated genes revealed a significant overrepresentation of the AtMYB2-binding motif (GT motif), a sugar response element-like motif, and a G-box-related sequence, and also identified several putative anaerobic response elements. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions using 29 selected genes independently verified the microarray results. This study represents one of the most comprehensive analyses conducted to date investigating hypoxia-responsive transcriptional networks in plants.

  14. Long-term monitoring reveals cold-water corals in extreme conditions off the southeast US coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Davies, A. J.; Ross, S. W.; Lavaleye, M.; Van Weering, T.

    2011-12-01

    Cold-water corals are common on the SE slope of the US (SEUS) from Florida to Cape Hatteras between depths of 400-600 m. Near Cape Hatteras cold-water corals have formed mound structures that are up to 60 m high, which are mainly covered by living colonies of the coral species Lophelia pertusa. Past explorations of major reef sites of N Carolina using remote and manned submersibles have shown living Lophelia pertusa colonies on the current facing side of the mound structures and a high biodiversity of associated fauna, especially fish. The coral areas lie in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream characterized by strong currents transporting relatively warm water northwards along the SEUS slope. Thus far little is known about the environmental conditions inside the SEUS coral communities and particularly the effects of the nearby Gulf Stream. In December 2009 two autonomous benthic landers were deployed amidst Lophelia reefs off Cape Lookout (NC) for a period of 6 months to define oceanographic patterns that are relevant for the development and persistence of cold-water coral ecosystems. Landers recorded temperature, fluorescence, turbidity, and current speed and direction. Furthermore, a sediment trap was mounted on the landers that collected material at a 16-days interval. A first analysis of the lander data shows that instability of the Gulf Stream causes rapid rises in temperature, current speed and turbidity lasting for days to more than a week. Peak temperature and turbidity levels are the highest measured in coral habitats studied so far. We did not see clear cut effects of Gulf Stream instabilities on the near bed flux of phytodetritus as opposed to reports of meanders inducing upwelling and enhanced production in the photic zone. Data analyzed so far suggest that cwc habitats of Cape Lookout experience extreme and adverse conditions for prolonged periods. The findings of this study are compared with methodologically similar studies that have been conducted in

  15. Radioecological monitoring of south Caucasus - main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S; Chazaradze, R.E.; Katamadze, N.M.; Intskirveli, L.N.; Chxartishvili, A.G.; Gugushvili, B.S.; Tsitskishvili, N.B.; Saneblidze, O.I.

    2002-01-01

    Basing in surrounding ambience at present radioactive on its origin possible to split into two main groups: artificial and natural radioactive. How is obvious from the most names, natural based in the nature nearly with first days of its shaping and are its by the component. Artificial - not existed or not saved in the nature - having radioactive characteristics isotopes 'appeared' as a result artificial doing atoms. Getting into surrounding ambience as a result person activity artificial (systematically or episodic detectable there) possible conditionally split into three subgroups. Artificial radioactive isotopes, got into surrounding natural ambience as a result anthropogenic activity, in principal (ecological) are distinguished from the natural radioactive isotopes by fetters and particularities to migration on ecological chains, but, consequently, and nature 'influence'. Sufficiently remind that if in biosphere practically no ecological niches, in which goes an accumulation natural, capable to give significant dozing effect; for the artificial (isotopes of iodine, isotopes a strontium, caesium) exactly ability be accumulated in separate 'niches' ecological chain or in separate organs or weaving an organism (thyroid gland for the iodine) do artificial radioisotopes hygienic extremely dangerous. Location of Caucasus in the area of approximate location of firing ranges of test, (after the series 1961-1962 conducted by USSR in the North hemisphere this were test China) and damages on Chernobyl, in the area of most intensity stratosphere - troposphere exchange, manifests themselves: 1. Early approach spring-year maximum; 2. More clear maximum in the seasonal move; 3. The Greater fallout levels in contrast with other regions of country; 4. The Greater 'sensitivity' to 'fresh' products. Structure of global fallout on the under investigation region is stipulated: 1. Decreasing the fallout levels from the north on the south. 2. Vertical fallout levels (growth with the

  16. Direct measurement of time dependent diffusion for Ag and Au under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Pil Sun; Jo, Han Yeol; Kim, Tae Kyeong [Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Time-dependent diffusion for Ag and Au metal atoms was measured using the scanning tunneling microscope break-junction technique in ambient conditions. We observed that Ag contacts do not form long single-atomic chains compared to Au contacts during the elongation of each metal electrode, and Ag atoms diffuse more quickly than Au atoms after metal contact rupture. This is consistent with previous results of molecular dynamic simulations. Further, we found a correlation between diffusion length and the evolution time on an atomic scale to reveal the time-dependent diffusion for Ag and Au metal atoms.

  17. Changes In Growth Culture FDA Activity Under Changing Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1992-01-01

    The FDA hydrolysis capacities and bacterial biomass concentrations (estimated by determination of ATP content) of growth cultures prepared from activated sludge and wastewater, were measured to find out whether the FDA activity would reflect bacterial biomass under different physiological states...... of the bacteria. The FDA activity/ATP ratio was calculated for different concentrations of autoclaved sludge. A faster decay rate of ATP relative to FDA hydrolysis activity was observed, thus causing changes in the ratio. Furthermore, comparison between values obtained from pure cultures and different soils...... revealed differences up to two orders of magnitude of the ratio. Based on these results it was concluded that the FDA activity should not be applied for measurements of viable biomass in environments in which different physiological conditions occur....

  18. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M.; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  19. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G R; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  20. One year of downwelling spectral radiance measurements from 100 to 1400 cm-1 at Dome Concordia: Results in clear conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, R.; Arosio, C.; Maestri, T.; Palchetti, L.; Bianchini, G.; Del Guasta, M.

    2016-09-01

    The present work examines downwelling radiance spectra measured at the ground during 2013 by a Far Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Dome C, Antarctica. A tropospheric backscatter and depolarization lidar is also deployed at same site, and a radiosonde system is routinely operative. The measurements allow characterization of the water vapor and clouds infrared properties in Antarctica under all sky conditions. In this paper we specifically discuss cloud detection and the analysis in clear sky condition, required for the discussion of the results obtained in cloudy conditions. First, the paper discusses the procedures adopted for the quality control of spectra acquired automatically. Then it describes the classification procedure used to discriminate spectra measured in clear sky from cloudy conditions. Finally a selection is performed and 66 clear cases, spanning the whole year, are compared to simulations. The computation of layer molecular optical depth is performed with line-by-line techniques and a convolution to simulate the Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed-Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) measurements; the downwelling radiance for selected clear cases is computed with a state-of-the-art adding-doubling code. The mean difference over all selected cases between simulated and measured radiance is within experimental error for all the selected microwindows except for the negative residuals found for all microwindows in the range 200 to 400 cm-1, with largest values around 295.1 cm-1. The paper discusses possible reasons for the discrepancy and identifies the incorrect magnitude of the water vapor total absorption coefficient as the cause of such large negative radiance bias below 400 cm-1.

  1. METROLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF BOMB CALORIMETERS AT REAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Maksimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-usage measurement equipment for heat of combustion of organic fuels are bomb isoperibol calorimeters with a water thermostat. The stability of work of calorimeters at real conditions is important for maintenance of reliability of measurement results. The article purpose – the analysis of stability for parameters of calorimeters to environment changes. In this work influence room temperature (Тк and heat exchange conditions on metrological characteristics of two models of calorimeters is considered with different degree of thermal protection: V-08МА and BIC 100. For calorimeters V-08МА the increase in a effective heat capacity (W on 0,1 % by growth of Tк on everyone 5 °С is established. To use value W in all interval laboratory temperatures Tк = 14–28 °С it is necessary to correct W on 2,8 J/°C on everyone 1 °С changes of Tк. Updating W is required, if the correction exceeds error in determination W. For calorimeter BIC 100 it is not revealed dependences W from Tк. BIC 100 have constant-temperature cap, high stability a temperature in thermostat and stabilized heat exchange. It is established that an standard deviation of cooling constant for all calorimeters in direct proportional to standard deviation W. 

  2. Network motif frequency vectors reveal evolving metabolic network organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Nicole; Crofts, Jonathan J; Chuzhanova, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    At the systems level many organisms of interest may be described by their patterns of interaction, and as such, are perhaps best characterised via network or graph models. Metabolic networks, in particular, are fundamental to the proper functioning of many important biological processes, and thus, have been widely studied over the past decade or so. Such investigations have revealed a number of shared topological features, such as a short characteristic path-length, large clustering coefficient and hierarchical modular structure. However, the extent to which evolutionary and functional properties of metabolism manifest via this underlying network architecture remains unclear. In this paper, we employ a novel graph embedding technique, based upon low-order network motifs, to compare metabolic network structure for 383 bacterial species categorised according to a number of biological features. In particular, we introduce a new global significance score which enables us to quantify important evolutionary relationships that exist between organisms and their physical environments. Using this new approach, we demonstrate a number of significant correlations between environmental factors, such as growth conditions and habitat variability, and network motif structure, providing evidence that organism adaptability leads to increased complexities in the resultant metabolic networks.

  3. Using multiple cause-of-death data to investigate associations and causality between conditions listed on the death certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelings, Matthew D; Wise, Matthew; Sorvillo, Frank

    2007-07-01

    Death rarely results from only one cause, and it can be caused by a variety of factors. Multiple cause-of-death data files can list as many as 20 contributing causes of death in addition to the reported underlying cause of death. Analysis of multiple cause-of-death data can provide information on associations between causes of death, revealing common combinations of events or conditions which lead to death. Additionally, physicians report the causal train of events through which they believe that different conditions or events may have led to each other and ultimately caused death. In this paper, the authors discuss methods used in studying associations between reported causes of death and in investigating commonly reported causal pathways between events or conditions listed on the death certificate.

  4. Modifying Yeast Tolerance to Inhibitory Conditions of Ethanol Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Castillo, Tania; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption, and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S....... cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here, we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular...... functions, the key contributions of integrated -omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose....

  5. Stability studies on refined soybean oil stored in various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arawande, J.O.; Amoo, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 12 months stability study of freshly produced refined soybean oil revealed that refined soybean oil stored in plastic containers in dark was more hydrolytically and oxidatively stable than that stored in other containers in light condition. There was no significant difference at P < 0.05 in free fatty acids and acid value of oil stored under light and dark conditions in tin and glass containers but there was significant difference at P < 0.05 in peroxide value of oil stored in light and dark conditions in all the storage containers. Light increased the degree of oxidative rancidity of refined soybean oil, the most in tin containers, followed by glass containers and the least in plastic containers. (author)

  6. Conditioned [corrected] stimulus informativeness governs conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus associability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D; Gallistel, C R; Jensen, Greg; Richards, Vanessa L; Fairhurst, Stephen; Balsam, Peter D

    2012-07-01

    In a conditioning protocol, the onset of the conditioned stimulus ([CS]) provides information about when to expect reinforcement (unconditioned stimulus [US]). There are two sources of information from the CS in a delay conditioning paradigm in which the CS-US interval is fixed. The first depends on the informativeness, the degree to which CS onset reduces the average expected time to onset of the next US. The second depends only on how precisely a subject can represent a fixed-duration interval (the temporal Weber fraction). In three experiments with mice, we tested the differential impact of these two sources of information on rate of acquisition of conditioned responding (CS-US associability). In Experiment 1, we showed that associability (the inverse of trials to acquisition) increased in proportion to informativeness. In Experiment 2, we showed that fixing the duration of the US-US interval or the CS-US interval or both had no effect on associability. In Experiment 3, we equated the increase in information produced by varying the C/T ratio with the increase produced by fixing the duration of the CS-US interval. Associability increased with increased informativeness, but, as in Experiment 2, fixing the CS-US duration had no effect on associability. These results are consistent with the view that CS-US associability depends on the increased rate of reward signaled by CS onset. The results also provide further evidence that conditioned responding is temporally controlled when it emerges.

  7. Abnormal Condition Monitoring of Workpieces Based on RFID for Wisdom Manufacturing Workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunji Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology has been widely used in many fields. However, previous studies have mainly focused on product life cycle tracking, and there are few studies on real-time status monitoring of workpieces in manufacturing workshops. In this paper, a wisdom manufacturing model is introduced, a sensing-aware environment for a wisdom manufacturing workshop is constructed, and RFID event models are defined. A synthetic data cleaning method is applied to clean the raw RFID data. The Complex Event Processing (CEP technology is adopted to monitor abnormal conditions of workpieces in real time. The RFID data cleaning method and data mining technology are examined by simulation and physical experiments. The results show that the synthetic data cleaning method preprocesses data well. The CEP based on the Rifidi® Edge Server technology completed abnormal condition monitoring of workpieces in real time. This paper reveals the importance of RFID spatial and temporal data analysis in real-time status monitoring of workpieces in wisdom manufacturing workshops.

  8. Abnormal Condition Monitoring of Workpieces Based on RFID for Wisdom Manufacturing Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunji; Yao, Xifan; Zhang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in many fields. However, previous studies have mainly focused on product life cycle tracking, and there are few studies on real-time status monitoring of workpieces in manufacturing workshops. In this paper, a wisdom manufacturing model is introduced, a sensing-aware environment for a wisdom manufacturing workshop is constructed, and RFID event models are defined. A synthetic data cleaning method is applied to clean the raw RFID data. The Complex Event Processing (CEP) technology is adopted to monitor abnormal conditions of workpieces in real time. The RFID data cleaning method and data mining technology are examined by simulation and physical experiments. The results show that the synthetic data cleaning method preprocesses data well. The CEP based on the Rifidi® Edge Server technology completed abnormal condition monitoring of workpieces in real time. This paper reveals the importance of RFID spatial and temporal data analysis in real-time status monitoring of workpieces in wisdom manufacturing workshops. PMID:26633418

  9. Acoustics Reveals the Presence of a Macrozooplankton Biocline in the Bay of Biscay in Response to Hydrological Conditions and Predator-Prey Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa; Irigoien, Xabier; Chaigneau, Alexis; Quiroz, Zaida; Lebourges-Dhaussy, Anne; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Bifrequency acoustic data, hydrological measurements and satellite data were used to study the vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Bay of Biscay in relation to the hydrological conditions and fish distribution during spring 2009. The most noticeable result was the observation of a ‘biocline’ during the day i.e., the interface where zooplankton biomass changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. The biocline separated the surface layer, almost devoid of macrozooplankton, from the macrozooplankton-rich deeper layers. It is a specific vertical feature which ties in with the classic diel vertical migration pattern. Spatiotemporal correlations between macrozooplankton and environmental variables (photic depth, thermohaline vertical structure, stratification index and chlorophyll-a) indicate that no single factor explains the macrozooplankton vertical distribution. Rather a set of factors, the respective influence of which varies from region to region depending on the habitat characteristics and the progress of the spring stratification, jointly influence the distribution. In this context, the macrozooplankton biocline is potentially a biophysical response to the search for a particular depth range where light attenuation, thermohaline vertical structure and stratification conditions together provide a suitable alternative to the need for expending energy in reaching deeper water without the risk of being eaten. PMID:24505374

  10. Acoustics reveals the presence of a macrozooplankton biocline in the Bay of Biscay in response to hydrological conditions and predator-prey relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Lezama-Ochoa

    Full Text Available Bifrequency acoustic data, hydrological measurements and satellite data were used to study the vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Bay of Biscay in relation to the hydrological conditions and fish distribution during spring 2009. The most noticeable result was the observation of a 'biocline' during the day i.e., the interface where zooplankton biomass changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. The biocline separated the surface layer, almost devoid of macrozooplankton, from the macrozooplankton-rich deeper layers. It is a specific vertical feature which ties in with the classic diel vertical migration pattern. Spatiotemporal correlations between macrozooplankton and environmental variables (photic depth, thermohaline vertical structure, stratification index and chlorophyll-a indicate that no single factor explains the macrozooplankton vertical distribution. Rather a set of factors, the respective influence of which varies from region to region depending on the habitat characteristics and the progress of the spring stratification, jointly influence the distribution. In this context, the macrozooplankton biocline is potentially a biophysical response to the search for a particular depth range where light attenuation, thermohaline vertical structure and stratification conditions together provide a suitable alternative to the need for expending energy in reaching deeper water without the risk of being eaten.

  11. Acoustics reveals the presence of a macrozooplankton biocline in the Bay of Biscay in response to hydrological conditions and predator-prey relationships.

    KAUST Repository

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa; Irigoien, Xabier; Chaigneau, Alexis; Quiroz, Zaida; Lebourges-Dhaussy, Anne; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Bifrequency acoustic data, hydrological measurements and satellite data were used to study the vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Bay of Biscay in relation to the hydrological conditions and fish distribution during spring 2009. The most noticeable result was the observation of a 'biocline' during the day i.e., the interface where zooplankton biomass changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. The biocline separated the surface layer, almost devoid of macrozooplankton, from the macrozooplankton-rich deeper layers. It is a specific vertical feature which ties in with the classic diel vertical migration pattern. Spatiotemporal correlations between macrozooplankton and environmental variables (photic depth, thermohaline vertical structure, stratification index and chlorophyll-a) indicate that no single factor explains the macrozooplankton vertical distribution. Rather a set of factors, the respective influence of which varies from region to region depending on the habitat characteristics and the progress of the spring stratification, jointly influence the distribution. In this context, the macrozooplankton biocline is potentially a biophysical response to the search for a particular depth range where light attenuation, thermohaline vertical structure and stratification conditions together provide a suitable alternative to the need for expending energy in reaching deeper water without the risk of being eaten.

  12. Acoustics reveals the presence of a macrozooplankton biocline in the Bay of Biscay in response to hydrological conditions and predator-prey relationships.

    KAUST Repository

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa

    2014-02-04

    Bifrequency acoustic data, hydrological measurements and satellite data were used to study the vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Bay of Biscay in relation to the hydrological conditions and fish distribution during spring 2009. The most noticeable result was the observation of a \\'biocline\\' during the day i.e., the interface where zooplankton biomass changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. The biocline separated the surface layer, almost devoid of macrozooplankton, from the macrozooplankton-rich deeper layers. It is a specific vertical feature which ties in with the classic diel vertical migration pattern. Spatiotemporal correlations between macrozooplankton and environmental variables (photic depth, thermohaline vertical structure, stratification index and chlorophyll-a) indicate that no single factor explains the macrozooplankton vertical distribution. Rather a set of factors, the respective influence of which varies from region to region depending on the habitat characteristics and the progress of the spring stratification, jointly influence the distribution. In this context, the macrozooplankton biocline is potentially a biophysical response to the search for a particular depth range where light attenuation, thermohaline vertical structure and stratification conditions together provide a suitable alternative to the need for expending energy in reaching deeper water without the risk of being eaten.

  13. Summarizing evaluation of the results of in-pile experiments for the transient fission gas release under accidental conditions of fast breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.A.; Vaeth, L.

    1989-04-01

    The transient fission gas behaviour and the fission gas induced fuel motion were studied in in-pile experiments in different countries, under conditions typical for hypothetical accidents. This report summarizes first the different experiment series and the main results. Then, a comparative evaluation is given, which provides a basis for the choice of the fission gas parameters in the accident code SAS3D

  14. Model predictions of the results of interferometric observations for stars under conditions of strong gravitational scattering by black holes and wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatskiy, A. A., E-mail: shatskiy@asc.rssi.ru; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Novikov, I. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    The characteristic and distinctive features of the visibility amplitude of interferometric observations for compact objects like stars in the immediate vicinity of the central black hole in our Galaxy are considered. These features are associated with the specifics of strong gravitational scattering of point sources by black holes, wormholes, or black-white holes. The revealed features will help to determine the most important topological characteristics of the central object in our Galaxy: whether this object possesses the properties of only a black hole or also has characteristics unique to wormholes or black-white holes. These studies can be used to interpret the results of optical, infrared, and radio interferometric observations.

  15. Model predictions of the results of interferometric observations for stars under conditions of strong gravitational scattering by black holes and wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatskiy, A. A.; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Novikov, I. D.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic and distinctive features of the visibility amplitude of interferometric observations for compact objects like stars in the immediate vicinity of the central black hole in our Galaxy are considered. These features are associated with the specifics of strong gravitational scattering of point sources by black holes, wormholes, or black-white holes. The revealed features will help to determine the most important topological characteristics of the central object in our Galaxy: whether this object possesses the properties of only a black hole or also has characteristics unique to wormholes or black-white holes. These studies can be used to interpret the results of optical, infrared, and radio interferometric observations

  16. Case 252: Acute Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy Resulting from Late-Onset Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershman, Michelle; Carmody, Raymond; Udayasankar, Unni K

    2018-04-01

    History A 19-year-old woman with no pertinent medical history was brought to the emergency department after being found unconscious on her bathroom floor by her roommate. In the preceding weeks, she had reported intractable nausea and vomiting, for which she had been taking ondansetron. No other medications had been prescribed. The day prior to presentation, she had contacted her mother and described increasing confusion. Glasgow coma scale score on arrival in the emergency department was 4. Intravenous naloxone was administered, without immediate response. Initial blood glucose level was 232 mg/dL (12.8 mmol/L) (normal range, 79-140 mg/dL [4.4- 7.7 mmol/L]), and other routine laboratory test results were normal. Urine toxicology results were negative. Cerebrospinal fluid evaluation revealed levels were within normal limits. Neurologic examination revealed dilated pupils, which showed a sluggish response to light, and left lower extremity rigidity with intermittent tremors. Initial unenhanced cranial computed tomographic (CT) findings were negative. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain was performed. The patient's condition deteriorated, with increasing cerebral edema over the next week, and she was declared brain dead. Her liver was transplanted into an adult recipient, who subsequently developed cerebral edema and elevated plasma ammonia levels, resulting in death in the immediate postoperative period.

  17. Aspects regarding the hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of certain dental medicine cabinets in Iasi County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernei, E R; Maxim, Dana Cristiana; Indrei, L L

    2013-01-01

    This baseline study aims to find out the evaluation of hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of dental medicine cabinets through the verification of certain hygienic aspects. The study conducted consists in monitoring the hygienic/sanitary conditions at the level of 68 dental medicine cabinets (40 private cabinets and 28 school/university dental cabinets in Iasi county), using sheets for the assessment of the hygienic/sanitary conditions adapted from the control sheets of existing dental medicine cabinets at the level of DSP (Public Health Department) Iasi. The sheets for the assessment of the hygienic/sanitary conditions were evaluated by a specialized team and the results were i llustrated in the specific charts. At the level of all the dental cabinets the study revealed nonconformities regarding the means to carry out cleaning, disinfection operations, including the management of perilous waste, the control of medical personnel. An optimization of the hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of dental medicine cabinets is still necessary, through participation to the activity of personnel training, who is directly involved in dental medical assistance.

  18. Total body irradiation in conditioning patients for bone marrow transplantation. Irradiation technique and preliminary results at the West German Tumour Centre, Universitaetsklinikum Essen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, G.; Schaefer, U.W.; Nowrousian, M.R.; Oehl, S.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary results of bone marrow transplantation of 8 patients are presented with particular reference to the irradiation technique. 5 patients died 0.5 to 8 months after transplantation. 3 patients are alive and in good condition 2 to 15 months after transplantation

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS ON CREDIT RISK: CASE OF ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the interactions between macroeconomic conditions, such as: real GDP growth rate, inflation rate, market interest rate, broad money supply, foreign exchange rate fluctuation and unemployment rate, and credit risk in Romanian banking sector during 2008-2013. The interrelations of indicators’ complexity imply a multidimensional statistical analysis in order to find a relation between the macroeconomic conditions and the credit risk. Our regression analysis findings confirm the hypothesis according to which the money supply growth rate and the market foreign exchange rate are negatively related with credit risk and the unemployment rate is positively related with it. Furthermore, our findings revealed that the credit risk is significantly and negatively affected by the exchange rate fluctuation and significantly and positively affected by the unemployment rate. The results do not indicate a significant relationship between credit risk and real GDP growth rate.

  20. [Flowmetric assessment of coronary bypass grafts in the conditions of artificial circulation and on the beating heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylev, V V; Nemchenko, E V; Karnakhin, V A; Pavlov, A A; Mikulyak, A I

    2016-01-01

    Advantages and shortcomings of aortocoronary bypass grafting on the beating heart and in the conditions of artificial circulation (AC) have long been discussed. The data on patency of bypass grafts in the remote period are indicative of comparable results of operations with and without AC or advantages of using AC. In order to determine benefits of each method it is necessary to reveal intraoperative predictors of bypass grafts occlusion in the remote period. We analyzed the results of ultrasound flowmetry of the blood flow through the left internal thoracic artery during bypass grafting of the anterior descending artery with the use of AC and on the beating heart. A retrospective study included a total of 352 patients subdivided into 2 groups: Group One was composed of 120 patients undergoing surgery in the conditions of AC and Group Two comprised 232 patients subjected to similar operations on the beating heart. Blood flow was measured with the help of flowmeter VeryQ MediStim® after termination of AC and inactivation of heparin by protamine, with systolic pressure of 100-110 mm Hg. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups by the diameter and degree of stenosis of the anterior descending artery, diameter of the left internal thoracic artery. The mean volumetric blood flow velocity (Qmean) along the shunts in Group One was higher (p=0.01). No statistically significant differences by the pulsatility index (PI) between the groups were revealed (p=0.2). A conclusion was drawn that coronary bypass grafting of the anterior descending artery by the left internal thoracic artery in the conditions of artificial circulation made it possible to achieve higher volumetric velocity of blood flow through the conduit as compared with operations on the beating heart, with similar resistance index. The immediate results of the operations with the use of the both techniques did not differ.

  1. Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering characterization of diesel/gasoline soot: sizes and particle-packing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameya, Yuki; Lee, Kyeong O.

    2013-10-01

    Regulations on particulate emissions from internal combustion engines tend to become more stringent, accordingly the importance of particulate filters in the after-treatment system has been increasing. In this work, the applicability of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) to diesel soot cake and gasoline soot was investigated. Gasoline-direct-injection engine soot was collected at different fuel injection timings. The unified fits method was applied to analyze the resultant scattering curves. The validity of analysis was supported by comparing with carbon black and taking the sample images using a transmission electron microscope, which revealed that the primary particle size ranged from 20 to 55 nm. In addition, the effects of particle-packing conditions on the USAXS measurement were demonstrated by using samples suspended in acetone. Then, the investigation was extended to characterization of diesel soot cake deposited on a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Diesel soot was trapped on a small piece of DPF at different deposition conditions which were specified using the Peclet number. The dependence of scattering curve on soot-deposition conditions was demonstrated. To support the interpretation of the USAXS results, soot cake samples were observed using a scanning electron microscope and the influence of particle-packing conditions on scattering curve was discussed.

  2. Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering characterization of diesel/gasoline soot: sizes and particle-packing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Yuki; Lee, Kyeong O.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations on particulate emissions from internal combustion engines tend to become more stringent, accordingly the importance of particulate filters in the after-treatment system has been increasing. In this work, the applicability of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) to diesel soot cake and gasoline soot was investigated. Gasoline-direct-injection engine soot was collected at different fuel injection timings. The unified fits method was applied to analyze the resultant scattering curves. The validity of analysis was supported by comparing with carbon black and taking the sample images using a transmission electron microscope, which revealed that the primary particle size ranged from 20 to 55 nm. In addition, the effects of particle-packing conditions on the USAXS measurement were demonstrated by using samples suspended in acetone. Then, the investigation was extended to characterization of diesel soot cake deposited on a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Diesel soot was trapped on a small piece of DPF at different deposition conditions which were specified using the Peclet number. The dependence of scattering curve on soot-deposition conditions was demonstrated. To support the interpretation of the USAXS results, soot cake samples were observed using a scanning electron microscope and the influence of particle-packing conditions on scattering curve was discussed

  3. Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering characterization of diesel/gasoline soot: sizes and particle-packing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameya, Yuki, E-mail: ykameya@anl.gov; Lee, Kyeong O. [Argonne National Laboratory, Center for Transportation Research (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Regulations on particulate emissions from internal combustion engines tend to become more stringent, accordingly the importance of particulate filters in the after-treatment system has been increasing. In this work, the applicability of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) to diesel soot cake and gasoline soot was investigated. Gasoline-direct-injection engine soot was collected at different fuel injection timings. The unified fits method was applied to analyze the resultant scattering curves. The validity of analysis was supported by comparing with carbon black and taking the sample images using a transmission electron microscope, which revealed that the primary particle size ranged from 20 to 55 nm. In addition, the effects of particle-packing conditions on the USAXS measurement were demonstrated by using samples suspended in acetone. Then, the investigation was extended to characterization of diesel soot cake deposited on a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Diesel soot was trapped on a small piece of DPF at different deposition conditions which were specified using the Peclet number. The dependence of scattering curve on soot-deposition conditions was demonstrated. To support the interpretation of the USAXS results, soot cake samples were observed using a scanning electron microscope and the influence of particle-packing conditions on scattering curve was discussed.

  4. Synaptic Homeostasis and Allostasis in the Dentate Gyrus Caused by Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Rui Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been generally accepted that pain can cause imbalance between excitation and inhibition (homeostasis at the synaptic level. However, it remains poorly understood how this imbalance (allostasis develops in the CNS under different pain conditions. Here, we analyzed the changes in both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission and modulation of the dentate gyrus (DG under two pain conditions with different etiology and duration. First, it was revealed that the functions of the input-output (I/O curves for evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs following the perforant path (PP stimulation were gained under both acute inflammatory and chronic neuropathic pain conditions relative to the controls. However, the functions of I/O curves for the PP-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs differed between the two conditions, namely it was greatly gained under inflammatory condition, but was reduced under neuropathic condition in reverse. Second, both the frequency and amplitude of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs were increased under inflammatory condition, however a decrease in frequency of mIPSCs was observed under neuropathic condition. Finally, the spike discharge of the DG granule cells in response to current injection was significantly increased by neuropathic pain condition, however, no different change was found between inflammatory pain condition and the control. These results provide another line of evidence showing homeostatic and allostatic modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by inhibitory controls under different pathological pain conditions, hence implicating use of different therapeutic approaches to maintain the homeostasis between excitation and inhibition while treating different conditions of pathological pain.

  5. New concept for condition management of plants as a result of the KUNTO project. New operations approach reduces costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiven, U.; Tamminen, L.

    1998-07-01

    IVO Generation Services Ltd. has carried out a project at the IVO Naantali power plant to develop the plants condition management. The project defines critical and monitored components for each system. In addition, recommendations for further action, investment proposals and suggestions for changes in maintenance and operations practices were supplied for the various systems in the plant. The systematic approach which was the result of the projects integrated into maintenance and operations practices where data collection and analysis is part of the routine. Up-to-date data is utilized in focusing maintenance and investments, in planning and reporting functions

  6. Effect of greenhouse conditions on the leaf apoplastic proteome of Coffea arabica plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Guimarães, Leonor; Vieira, Ana; Chaves, Inês; Pinheiro, Carla; Queiroz, Vagner; Renaut, Jenny; Ricardo, Cândido P

    2014-06-02

    This work describes the coffee leaf apoplastic proteome and its modulation by the greenhouse conditions. The apoplastic fluid (APF) was obtained by leaf vacuum infiltration, and the recovered proteins were separated by 2-DE and subsequently identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry, followed by homology search in EST coffee databases. Prediction tools revealed that the majority of the 195 identified proteins are involved in cell wall metabolism and in stress/defense responses. Although most of the proteins follow the classical secretory mechanism, a low percentage of them seem to result from unconventional secretion (leaderless secreted proteins). Principal components analysis revealed that the APF samples formed two distinct groups, with the temperature amplitude mostly contributing for this separation (higher or lower than 10°C, respectively). Sixty one polypeptide spots allowed defining these two groups and 28 proteins were identified, belonging to carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall modification and proteolysis. Interestingly stress/defense proteins appeared as more abundant in Group I which is associated with a higher temperature amplitude. It seems that the proteins in the coffee leaf APF might be implicated in structural modifications in the extracellular space that are crucial for plant development/adaptation to the conditions of the prevailing environment. This is the first detailed proteomic study of the coffee leaf apoplastic fluid (APF) and of its modulation by the greenhouse conditions. The comprehensive overview of the most abundant proteins present in the extra-cellular compartment is particularly important for the understanding of coffee responses to abiotic/biotic stress. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Environmental and structural proteomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Membrane protein profiling of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae under various growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ge, Mengyu; Wang, Yanli; Mannan, Shazia; Asif, Muhammad; Sun, Guochang

    2015-06-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs) of plant pathogenic bacteria have been reported to be able to regulate many essential cellular processes associated with plant disease. The aim of the current study was to examine and compare the expression of MPs of the rice bacterial pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 under Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, M9 medium, in vivo rice plant conditions and leaf extract (LE) medium mimicking in vivo plant condition. Proteomic analysis identified 95, 72, 75, and 87 MPs under LB, in vivo, M9 and LE conditions, respectively. Among them, six proteins were shared under all tested growth conditions designated as abundant class of proteins. Twenty-six and 21 proteins were expressed uniquely under in vivo versus LB medium and LE versus M9 medium, respectively, with 17 proteins common among these uniquely induced proteins. Moreover, most of the shared proteins are mainly related to energy metabolism, transport of small molecules, protein synthesis and secretion as well as virulence such as NADH, OmpA, secretion proteins. Therefore, the result of this study not only suggests that it may be an alternate method to analyze the in vivo expression of proteins by using LE medium to mimic plant conditions, but also reveals that the two sets of differentially expressed MPs, in particular the common MPs between them, might be important in energy metabolism, stress response and virulence of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1.

  8. Ocean acidification impacts bacteria-phytoplankton coupling at low-nutrient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornick, Thomas; Bach, Lennart T.; Crawfurd, Katharine J.; Spilling, Kristian; Achterberg, Eric P.; Woodhouse, Jason N.; Schulz, Kai G.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Riebesell, Ulf; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    The oceans absorb about a quarter of the annually produced anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting in a decrease in surface water pH, a process termed ocean acidification (OA). Surprisingly little is known about how OA affects the physiology of heterotrophic bacteria or the coupling of heterotrophic bacteria to phytoplankton when nutrients are limited. Previous experiments were, for the most part, undertaken during productive phases or following nutrient additions designed to stimulate algal blooms. Therefore, we performed an in situ large-volume mesocosm ( ˜ 55 m3) experiment in the Baltic Sea by simulating different fugacities of CO2 (fCO2) extending from present to future conditions. The study was conducted in July-August after the nominal spring bloom, in order to maintain low-nutrient conditions throughout the experiment. This resulted in phytoplankton communities dominated by small-sized functional groups (picophytoplankton). There was no consistent fCO2-induced effect on bacterial protein production (BPP), cell-specific BPP (csBPP) or biovolumes (BVs) of either free-living (FL) or particle-associated (PA) heterotrophic bacteria, when considered as individual components (univariate analyses). Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA) revealed a significant effect of the fCO2 treatment on entire assemblages of dissolved and particulate nutrients, metabolic parameters and the bacteria-phytoplankton community. However, distance-based linear modelling only identified fCO2 as a factor explaining the variability observed amongst the microbial community composition, but not for explaining variability within the metabolic parameters. This suggests that fCO2 impacts on microbial metabolic parameters occurred indirectly through varying physicochemical parameters and microbial species composition. Cluster analyses examining the co-occurrence of different functional groups of bacteria and phytoplankton further revealed a separation of

  9. Preliminary results of the BTF-104 experiment: an in-reactor test of fuel behaviour and fission-product release and transport under LOCA/LOECC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, L W; Elder, P H; Devaal, J W; Irish, J D; Yamazaki, A R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The BTF-104 experiment is one of a series of in-reactor tests being performed to measure fuel behaviour and fission-product release from nuclear fuel subjected to accident conditions. The primary objective of the BTF-104 experiment was to measure fission-product releases from a CANDU-sized fuel element under combined Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Loss-of-Emergency-Core-Cooling (LOECC) conditions at an average fuel temperature of about 1550 deg C. The preliminary results of the BTF-104 experiment are presented in this paper. (author). 6 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Neural systems underlying aversive conditioning in humans with primary and secondary reinforcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R Delgado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Money is a secondary reinforcer commonly used across a range of disciplines in experimental paradigms investigating reward learning and decision-making. The effectiveness of monetary reinforcers during aversive learning and its neural basis, however, remains a topic of debate. Specifically, it is unclear if the initial acquisition of aversive representations of monetary losses depends on similar neural systems as more traditional aversive conditioning that involves primary reinforcers. This study contrasts the efficacy of a biologically defined primary reinforcer (shock and a socially defined secondary reinforcer (money during aversive learning and its associated neural circuitry. During a two-part experiment, participants first played a gambling game where wins and losses were based on performance to gain an experimental bank. Participants were then exposed to two separate aversive conditioning sessions. In one session, a primary reinforcer (mild shock served as an unconditioned stimulus (US and was paired with one of two colored squares, the conditioned stimuli (CS+ and CS-, respectively. In another session, a secondary reinforcer (loss of money served as the US and was paired with one of two different CS. Skin conductance responses were greater for CS+ compared to CS- trials irrespective of type of reinforcer. Neuroimaging results revealed that the striatum, a region typically linked with reward-related processing, was found to be involved in the acquisition of aversive conditioned response irrespective of reinforcer type. In contrast, the amygdala was involved during aversive conditioning with primary reinforcers, as suggested by both an exploratory fMRI analysis and a follow-up case study with a patient with bilateral amygdala damage. Taken together, these results suggest that learning about potential monetary losses may depend on reinforcement learning related systems, rather than on typical structures involved in more biologically based

  11. Water-Yield Relations of Drip Irrigated Watermelon in Temperate Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Borivoj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study, conducted in Vojvodina a northern part of the Serbia Republic, was to analyse the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of watermelon (Cirullus lanatus Thunb. grown with plasticulture. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration was computed using the reference evapotranspiration and crop coefficient. The yield of watermelon in irrigation conditions (37,28 t/ha was significantly higher compared to non irrigated (9,98 t/ha. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions was 398 mm and 117 mm on non irrigated variant. The crop yield response factor of 1,04 for the whole growing season reveals that relative yield decrease was nearly equal to the rate of evapotranspiration deficit. The values of irrigation water use efficiency and evapotranspiration water use efficiency were 9,93 kg/m3 and 10,29 kg/m3 respectively. The determined results could be used as a good platform for watermelon growers in the region, in terms of improvement of the optimum utilization of irrigation water.

  12. The Natural History and Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Conditions Resulting in Disability Among US Army Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lincoln, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    We describe the natural history of 13 musculoskeletal conditions requiring hospitalization and identify demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, occupational, and clinical characteristics most strongly...

  13. Relationship between Air Pollution and Weather Conditions under Complicated Geographical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.; Jiang, P.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious issues all over the world, especially in megacities with constrained geographical conditions for air pollution diffusion. However, the dynamic mechanism of air pollution diffusion under complicated geographical conditions is still be confused. Researches to explore relationship between air pollution and weather conditions from the perspective of local atmospheric circulations can contribute more to solve such problem. We selected three megacities (Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) under different geographical condition (mountain-plain transition region, coastal alluvial plain and coastal hilly terrain) to explore the relationship between air pollution and weather conditions. RDA (Redundancy analysis) model was used to analyze how the local atmospheric circulation acts on the air pollutant diffusion. The results show that there was a positive correlation between the concentration of air pollutants and air pressure, while temperature, precipitation and wind speed have negative correlations with the concentration of air pollutants. Furthermore, geographical conditions, such as topographic relief, have significant effects on the direction, path and intensity of local atmospheric circulation. As a consequence, air pollutants diffusion modes in different cities under various geographical conditions are diverse from each other.

  14. Sport Engagement by Accelerometry under Field Conditions in German Adolescents: Results from GINIPlus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Smith

    Full Text Available Sporting activities differ in their ability to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. To assess adolescents' engagement in sport under field conditions we used accelerometers to measure their MVPA levels during sport. We pay special attention to differences between team and individual sport and between common sports.Diary data and 7-day accelerometry from 1054 Germans ages 15-17 were combined to measure physical activity. 1373 diaried episodes of more than 40 common sports were identified from 626 participants and grouped into team and individual sport. We modeled the effect of team and individual sport, and described levels of MVPA and episodes of no MVPA for all recorded sports.German boys and girls averaged 43 (SD 21 and 37 (SD 24 minutes MVPA per day. Boys got 2.2 times as much MVPA per minute during team compared to individual sport (p<0.0001 but there was no significant difference for girls. Percent of time spent in MVPA during sport ranged from 6% for weight training to 74% for jogging, with individual sports averaging 10-30% and team sports 30-50%. 11% of sport episodes had no MVPA: half of episodes of cycling, 5% of jogging, and none for tennis or badminton. An episode of individual sport was 17 times more likely to have no MVPA than an episode of team sport (p<0.0001.Under field condition, adolescents were active for only a fraction of diaried sporting time. As measured by accelerometry, individual sport often produced no MVPA. Characteristics of the sport, such as team vs. individual, were more predictive of MVPA than were characteristics of the participant, such as background activity levels.

  15. Modifying yeast tolerance to inhibitory conditions of ethanol production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eCaspeta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular functions, the key contributions of integrated –omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose.

  16. Fixed or adapted conditioning intensity for repeated conditioned pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegh, M; Petersen, K K; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-12-29

    Aims Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is used to assess descending pain modulation through a test stimulation (TS) and a conditioning stimulation (CS). Due to potential carry-over effects, sequential CPM paradigms might alter the intensity of the CS, which potentially can alter the CPM-effect. This study aimed to investigate the difference between a fixed and adaptive CS intensity on CPM-effect. Methods On the dominant leg of 20 healthy subjects the cuff pressure detection threshold (PDT) was recorded as TS and the pain tolerance threshold (PTT) was assessed on the non-dominant leg for estimating the CS. The difference in PDT before and during CS defined the CPM-effect. The CPM-effect was assessed four times using a CS with intensities of 70% of baseline PTT (fixed) or 70% of PTT measured throughout the session (adaptive). Pain intensity of the conditioning stimulus was assessed on a numeric rating scale (NRS). Data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA. Results No difference was found comparing the four PDTs assessed before CSs for the fixed and the adaptive paradigms. The CS pressure intensity for the adaptive paradigm was increasing during the four repeated assessments (P CPM-effect was higher using the fixed condition compared with the adaptive condition (P CPM paradigms using a fixed conditioning stimulus produced an increased CPM-effect compared with adaptive and increasing conditioning intensities.

  17. The association of early life socioeconomic conditions with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: results from the Maastricht study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.M. Derks (Ivonne P. M.); A. Koster (Annemarie); M.T. Schram (Miranda); C.D. Stehouwer (Coen); P.C. Dagnelie (Pieter); D.A.I. Groffen (Danielle A. I.); H. Bosma (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: Using cross-sectional data from The Maastricht Study, we examined the association of socioeconomic conditions in early life with prediabetes and T2DM in adulthood. We also examined potential mediating pathways via both adulthood socioeconomic conditions and adult BMI and

  18. Chitosan production by psychrotolerant Rhizopus oryzae in non-sterile open fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-01

    A new chitosan producing fungus was locally isolated from soil samples collected around Erzurum, Turkey and identified as Rhizopus oryzae PAS 17 (GenBank accession number KU318422.1). Cultivation in low cost non-sterile conditions was achieved by exploiting its ability to grow at low temperature and pH, thus, undesired microbial contamination could be eliminated when appropriate culture conditions (incubation temperature as 15°C and initial pH of the medium as 4.5) were selected. Medium composition and culture conditions were optimized using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE). An OA layout of L16 (4(5)) was constructed with five most influensive factors at four levels on chitosan production like, carbon source (molasses), metal ion (Mg(2+)), inoculum amount, agitation speed and incubation time. The optimal combinations of factors (molasses, 70ml/l; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.5g/l; inoculum, 6.7×10(6) spores/disc; agitation speed, 150rpm and incubation time, 8days) obtained from the proposed DOE methodology was further validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the results revealed the increment of chitosan and biomass yields of 14.45 and 8.58 folds from its unoptimized condition, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pipe rupture test results; 4 inch pipe whip tests under BWR operational condition-clearance parameter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Syuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Kato, Rokuro; Saito, Kazuo; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of pipe rupture studies in JAERI is to perform the model tests on pipe whip, restraint behavior, jet impingement and jet thrust force, and to establish the computational method for analyzing these phenomena. This report describes the experimental results of pipe whip on the pipe specimens of 4 inch in diameter under BWR condition on which the pressure is 6.77 MPa and the temperature is 285 0 C. The pipe specimens were 114.3 mm (4 inch) in diameter and 8.6 mm in thickness and 4500 mm in length. Four pipe whip restraints used in the tests were the U-bar type of 8 mm in diameter and fabricated from type 304 stainless steel. The experimental parameter was the clearance (30, 50 and 100 mm). The dynamic strain behavior of the pipe specimen and the restraints was investigated by strain gages and their residual deformation was obtained by measuring marking points provided on their surface. The Pressure-time history in the pipe specimens was also obtained by pressure gages. The maximum pipe strain is caused near the restraints and increases with increase of the clearance. The experimental results of pipe whip tests indicate the effectiveness of pipe whip restraints. The ratio of absorbed strain energy of the pipe specimen to that of the restraints is nearly constant for different clearances at the overhang length of 400 mm. (author)

  20. Numerical analysis and simulation of behavior of high burn-up PWR fuel pulse-irradiated in reactivity-initiated accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; Sugiyama, T.; Udagawa, Y.; Nagase, F.; Fuketa, T.

    2010-01-01

    The four cases of the NSRR experiments, consisting of two room temperature tests and two high temperature tests, using high burn-up PWR fuel rods are analyzed by using the RANNS code to discuss the fuel behavior in hypothetical pulse-irradiation conditions, and the results are compared with metallography observations of ruptured claddings. The cladding rupture occurred by a shear sliding which starts from the tip of incipient crack generated in the hydride dense layer. The analyses reveal that the onset of shear sliding leading to cladding rupture can be closely associated with the stress intensity factor KI at the crack tip and local plastic strain evolution around the tip as well, and that these two factors depend also on the temperature of cladding. Simulation calculations on the basis of experimental conditions reveals that the cladding stress is dependent on the height and half-width of pulse power, and for the same integral enthalpy of pulse a larger half-width mitigates the severity of transient and decreases KI to allow plastic strain by temperature rise, thus failure possibility would be markedly decreased

  1. Forthcoming break-even conditions of tokamak plasma performance for fusion energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, Ryoji; Okano, Kunihiko; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Tokimatsu, Koji; Konishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    The present study reveals forthcoming break-even conditions of tokamak plasma performance for the fusion energy development. The first condition is the electric break-even condition, which means that the gross electric power generation is equal to the circulating power in a power plant. This is required for fusion energy to be recognized as a suitable candidate for an alternative energy source. As for the plasma performance (normalized beta value β N , confinement improvement factor for H-mode HH, the ratio of plasma density to Greenwald density fn GW ), the electric break-even condition requires the simultaneous achievement of 1.2 N GW tmax =16 T, thermal efficiency η e =30%, and current drive power P NBI N ∼1.8, HH≠1.0, and fn GW ∼0.9, which correspond to the ITER reference operation parameters, have a strong potential to achieve the electric break-even condition. The second condition is the economic break-even condition, which is required for fusion energy to be selected as an alternative energy source in the energy market. By using a long-term world energy scenario, a break-even price for introduction of fusion energy in the year 2050 is estimated to lie between 65 mill/kWh and 135 mill/kWh under the constraint of 550 ppm CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. In the present study, this break-even price is applied to the economic break-even condition. However, because this break-even price is based on the present energy scenario including uncertainties, the economic break-even condition discussed here should not be considered the sufficient condition, but a necessary condition. Under the conditions of B tmax =16 T, η e =40%, plant availability 60%, and a radial build with/without CS coil, the economic break-even condition requires β N ∼5.0 for 65 mill/kWh of lower break-even price case. Finally, the present study reveals that the demonstration of steady-state operation with β N ∼3.0 in the ITER project leads to the upper region of the break

  2. Original article Future perspectives as a condition of positive adaptation of young adults after traumatic experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzanna Farnicka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The paper presents the results of a study on the possible role of sense of influencing one’s life and expectations towards the future as a personal condition of adaptation. In accordance with the theory of formulation of temporal perspectives, these variables were assumed to be related to construction of the psychological reality of the subjects. Participants and procedure The study involved 162 adults in two groups, with traumatic experience and without such experience, aged 18-35. The tools used in the study included: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Boszkiewicz Questionnaire: Life Experience Questionnaire, events evaluation and expectations of changes in the future. Results The study revealed significant differences between people from the two groups in the scope of self-evaluation, sense of influence on events and future expectations. Conclusions The results pointed to the need for adjustment of therapeutic and preventive treatment to future expectations, evaluation of events and the current stage of development, as indicated by personal conditions of adaptation.

  3. Semantic conditioning of salivary pH for communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Carolin A; De Massari, Daniele; Wagner-Podmaniczky, Franziska; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels

    2013-10-01

    Semantic conditioning of salivary pH was investigated as a new paradigm for binary communication. In a sample of eleven healthy participants, affirmation or negation of presented statements were paired with milk and lemon to condition changes in salivary pH level. Significant differences between the conditioned reactions were found at the group level. However, the analysis of pH changes on single-subject level revealed significant differences between affirmative and negative responses to the presented statements only for isolated samples in few participants. When classifying a change in pH value of more than .01 as correct response to a statement, only responses to affirmative statements reached mean accuracies of more than 60%. Improvements in the paradigm are necessary before testing it with the critical target population of patients to prove its profit for basic yes/no communication in case no other reliable means of communication could be preserved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of artificial aging conditions on yttria-stabilized zirconia implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílio, Mariana de Almeida; Cardoso, Kátia Vieira; Antonio, Selma Gutierrez; Rizkalla, Amin Sami; Santos Junior, Gildo Coelho; Arioli Filho, João Neudenir

    2016-08-01

    Most ceramic abutments are fabricated from yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). However, Y-TZP undergoes hydrothermal degradation, a process that is not well understood. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effects of artificial aging conditions on the fracture load, phase stability, and surface microstructure of a Y-TZP abutment. Thirty-two prefabricated Y-TZP abutments were screwed and tightened down to external hexagon implants and divided into 4 groups (n = 8): C, control; MC, mechanical cycling (1×10(6) cycles; 10 Hz); AUT, autoclaving (134°C; 5 hours; 0.2 MPa); and TC, thermal cycling (10(4) cycles; 5°/55°C). A single-load-to-fracture test was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min to assess the assembly's resistance to fracture (ISO Norm 14801). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was applied to observe and quantify the tetragonal-monoclinic (t-m) phase transformation. Representative abutments were examined with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the surface characteristics of the abutments. Load-to-fracture test results (N) were compared by ANOVA and Tukey test (α=.05). XRD measurements revealed the monoclinic phase in some abutments after each aging condition. All the aging conditions reduced the fracture load significantly (Paging conditions. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  6. Metagenomics of the Svalbard reindeer rumen microbiome reveals abundance of polysaccharide utilization loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip B Pope

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass remains a largely untapped source of renewable energy predominantly due to its recalcitrance and an incomplete understanding of how this is overcome in nature. We present here a compositional and comparative analysis of metagenomic data pertaining to a natural biomass-converting ecosystem adapted to austere arctic nutritional conditions, namely the rumen microbiome of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. Community analysis showed that deeply-branched cellulolytic lineages affiliated to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are dominant, whilst sequence binning methods facilitated the assemblage of metagenomic sequence for a dominant and novel Bacteroidales clade (SRM-1. Analysis of unassembled metagenomic sequence as well as metabolic reconstruction of SRM-1 revealed the presence of multiple polysaccharide utilization loci-like systems (PULs as well as members of more than 20 glycoside hydrolase and other carbohydrate-active enzyme families targeting various polysaccharides including cellulose, xylan and pectin. Functional screening of cloned metagenome fragments revealed high cellulolytic activity and an abundance of PULs that are rich in endoglucanases (GH5 but devoid of other common enzymes thought to be involved in cellulose degradation. Combining these results with known and partly re-evaluated metagenomic data strongly indicates that much like the human distal gut, the digestive system of herbivores harbours high numbers of deeply branched and as-yet uncultured members of the Bacteroidetes that depend on PUL-like systems for plant biomass degradation.

  7. Genomic analysis of primordial dwarfism reveals novel disease genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Faqeih, Eissa; Ansari, Shinu; Abdel-Salam, Ghada; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Al-Shidi, Tarfa; Alomar, Rana; Sogaty, Sameera; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2014-02-01

    Primordial dwarfism (PD) is a disease in which severely impaired fetal growth persists throughout postnatal development and results in stunted adult size. The condition is highly heterogeneous clinically, but the use of certain phenotypic aspects such as head circumference and facial appearance has proven helpful in defining clinical subgroups. In this study, we present the results of clinical and genomic characterization of 16 new patients in whom a broad definition of PD was used (e.g., 3M syndrome was included). We report a novel PD syndrome with distinct facies in two unrelated patients, each with a different homozygous truncating mutation in CRIPT. Our analysis also reveals, in addition to mutations in known PD disease genes, the first instance of biallelic truncating BRCA2 mutation causing PD with normal bone marrow analysis. In addition, we have identified a novel locus for Seckel syndrome based on a consanguineous multiplex family and identified a homozygous truncating mutation in DNA2 as the likely cause. An additional novel PD disease candidate gene XRCC4 was identified by autozygome/exome analysis, and the knockout mouse phenotype is highly compatible with PD. Thus, we add a number of novel genes to the growing list of PD-linked genes, including one which we show to be linked to a novel PD syndrome with a distinct facial appearance. PD is extremely heterogeneous genetically and clinically, and genomic tools are often required to reach a molecular diagnosis.

  8. Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Amemiya

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.

  9. Numerical doubly-periodic solution of the (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation with initial conditions by the variational iteration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inc, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, a scheme is developed to study numerical doubly-periodic solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation with initial condition by the variational iteration method. As a result, the approximate and exact doubly-periodic solutions are obtained. For different modulus m, comparison between the approximate solution and the exact solution is made graphically, revealing that the variational iteration method is a powerful and effective tool to non-linear problems

  10. Evaluation of thermal perception in schoolyards under Mediterranean climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, D.; Katsoulas, N.; Papanastasiou, D.; Christidou, V.; Kittas, C.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to study qualitatively and quantitatively the thermal perception and corresponding heat stress conditions that prevail in two schoolyards in a coastal city in central Greece. For this purpose, meteorological parameters (i.e., wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation) were recorded at 70 and 55 measuring points in the schoolyards, from 14:00 to 15:30 local time, during May and June of 2011. The measuring points were distributed so as to get measurements at points (a) directly exposed to the sun, (b) under the shadow of trees and building structures, and (c) near building structures. Cluster analysis was applied to group observations and revealed places that are microclimatically homogeneous. Thermal perception and heat stress conditions were assessed by means of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET, °C), and the results are presented in relevant charts. The impact of material's albedo, radiation's reflection by structures and obstacles, and different tree species on thermal perception and heat stress conditions was also assessed. The analysis showed that trees triggered a reduction of incident solar radiation that ranged between 79 and 94 % depending on tree's species, crown dimension, tree height, and leaf area. PET values were mainly affected by solar radiation and wind speed. Trees caused a reduction of up to 37 % in PET values, while a 1-m s-1 increase in wind speed triggered a reduction of 3.7-5.0 °C in PET value. The effective shading area in the two schoolyards was small, being 27.5 and 11 %. The results of this study could be exploited by urban planning managers when designing or improving the outdoor environment of a school complex.

  11. A psychophysical study of endogenous analgesia: the role of the conditioning pain in the induction and magnitude of conditioned pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Rony-Reuven; Granovsky, Yelena; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Granot, Michal

    2011-05-01

    Endogenous analgesia (EA) can be examined experimentally using a conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm. While noxious conditioning stimulation intensities (CSIs) are mainly used, it has not been fully investigated in the same experimental design whether the experienced conditioning pain level affects CPM responses. The principal goal of the present study was to characterize CPM induction and magnitudes evoked by various conditioning pain levels. Furthermore, we explored associations between conditioning pain reports and CPM responses across various CSIs. Thirty healthy, young, right-handed males were tested with a parallel CPM paradigm. Three different CSIs (hand water-immersion) induced mild, moderate and intense pain levels, rated 12.41 ± 7.85, 31.57 ± 9.56 and 58.1 ± 11.43, respectively (0-100 numerical pain scale) (P < 0.0001). Contact-heat 'test-stimulus' levels were compared before and during conditioning. Within the group, (i) CPM was induced only by the moderate and intense CSIs (Ps ≤ 0.001); (ii) no difference was demonstrated between the magnitudes of these CPM responses. Regression analysis revealed that CPM induction was independent of the perceived conditioning pain level, but associated with the absolute CSI (P < 0.0001). Conditioning pain levels were correlated across all CSIs, as were CPM magnitudes (Ps ≤ 0.01). We conclude that among males, (i) once a CPM response is evoked by a required conditioning pain experience, its magnitude is not further affected by increasing conditioning pain and (ii) CPM magnitudes are inter-correlated, but unrelated to conditioning pain reports. These observations may suggest that CPM responses represent an intrinsic element of an individual's EA processes, which are not significantly affected by the experienced conditioning pain. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Central Hemodynamics and Microcirculation in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosovskikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare central hemodynamic and microcirculatory changes in critical conditions caused by different factors and to reveal their possible differences for a further differentiated approach to intensive therapy. Subjects and methods. The study covered 16 subjects with severe concomitant injury (mean age 41.96±2.83 years and 19 patients with general purulent peritonitis (mean age 45.34±2.16 years. Their follow-up was 7 days. The central hemodynamics was estimated by transpulmonary thermodilution using a Pulsion PiCCO Plus system (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany. The microcirculatory bed was evaluated by cutaneous laser Doppler flowmetry using a LAKK-02 capillary blood flow laser analyzer (LAZMA Research-and-Production Association, Russian Federation. Results. The pattern of central hemodynamic and microcirculatory disorders varies with the trigger that has led to a critical condition. Central hemodynamics should be stabilized to ensure the average level of tissue perfusion in victims with severe concomitant injury. In general purulent peritonitis, microcirculatory disorders may persist even if the macrohemodynamic parameters are normal. Conclusion. The macrohemodynamic and microcirculatory differences obtained during the study suggest that a complex of intensive therapy should be differentiated and, if the latter is used, it is necessary not only to be based on the central hemodynamics, but also to take into consideration functional changes in microcirculation. Key words: severe concomitant injury, general purulent peritonitis, micro-circulation, central hemodynamics, type of circulation.

  13. Sequential path analysis for determining interrelationships between yield and related traits in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. under normal and abiotic stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the relationships between yield and its related traits were investigated in tobacco genotypes under normal and abiotic stress conditions (Orobanche aegyptiaca weed at Urmia Tobacco Research Centre, Iran, during 2006-2009 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in each condition every year. Analysis of variance revealed extent genetic variability among the genotypes for most of the traits studied. In comparison with normal condition, the mean value of studied traits decreased in stress condition. LAI and FD showed the maximum and minimum diminution in the mean values under stress condition compared to normal one so known as more sensitive and more tolerant traits, respectively. Based on CV values, the traits FD and DLYP showed the minimum and maximum variation among traits in both normal and stress conditions. Correlation analysis revealed significant and positive correlations between DLYP with all studied traits in both normal and stress conditions. Path analysis detected the traits including biomass, APDW and DWR as the first-order variables at normal condition and biomass, APDW, DWR and harvest index as the first-order variables under abiotic stress condition. Based on results, the traits such as biomass, APDW, DWR detected as more important factors in both conditions can be used in tobacco breeding programs for increasing yield. Abbreviation: aerial part fresh weight without leaves weight (APFW, aerial part dry weight without leaves weight (APDW, biomass (BIO, coefficient of variation (CV, dry weight of root (DWR, flowering date (FD, fresh weight of leaf (FWL, fresh weight of root (FWR, harvest index (HI, leaf area index (LAI, dry leaf yield per plant (DLYP, number of leaf (NL, plant height (PH, randomized complete block design (RCBD, standard deviation (Std.

  14. Rapid Integration of Artificial Sensory Feedback during Operant Conditioning of Motor Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Mario; Galiñanes, Gregorio L; Huber, Daniel

    2017-02-22

    Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex. This artificial signal was necessary to rapidly learn to increase the conditioned activity, detect correct performance, and maintain the learned behavior. Population imaging in M1 revealed that learning-related activity changes are observed in the conditioned cell only, which highlights the functional potential of individual neurons in the neocortex. Our findings demonstrate the capacity of animals to use an artificially induced cortical channel in a behaviorally relevant way and reveal the remarkable speed and specificity at which this can occur. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Symbolic joint entropy reveals the coupling of various brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofei; Huang, Xiaolin; Du, Sidan; Liu, Hongxing; Ning, Xinbao

    2018-01-01

    The convergence and divergence of oscillatory behavior of different brain regions are very important for the procedure of information processing. Measurements of coupling or correlation are very useful to study the difference of brain activities. In this study, EEG signals were collected from ten subjects under two conditions, i.e. eyes closed state and idle with eyes open. We propose a nonlinear algorithm, symbolic joint entropy, to compare the coupling strength among the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes and between two different states. Instead of decomposing the EEG into different frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta, gamma etc.), the novel algorithm is to investigate the coupling from the entire spectrum of brain wave activities above 4Hz. The coupling coefficients in two states with different time delay steps are compared and the group statistics are presented as well. We find that the coupling coefficient of eyes open state with delay consistently lower than that of eyes close state across the group except for one subject, whereas the results without delay are not consistent. The differences between two brain states with non-zero delay can reveal the intrinsic inter-region coupling better. We also use the well-known Hénon map data to validate the algorithm proposed in this paper. The result shows that the method is robust and has a great potential for other physiologic time series.

  16. Analytical results for a conditional phase shift between single-photon pulses in a nonlocal nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Balakrishnan; Gea-Banacloche, Julio

    2018-03-01

    It has been suggested that second-order nonlinearities could be used for quantum logic at the single-photon level. Specifically, successive two-photon processes in principle could accomplish the phase shift (conditioned on the presence of two photons in the low-frequency modes) |011 〉→i |100 〉→-|011 〉 . We have analyzed a recent scheme proposed by Xia et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 023601 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.023601 to induce such a conditional phase shift between two single-photon pulses propagating at different speeds through a nonlinear medium with a nonlocal response. We present here an analytical solution for the most general case, i.e., for an arbitrary response function, initial state, and pulse velocity, which supports their numerical observation that a π phase shift with unit fidelity is possible, in principle, in an appropriate limit. We also discuss why this is possible in this system, despite the theoretical objections to the possibility of conditional phase shifts on single photons that were raised some time ago by Shapiro [Phys. Rev. A 73, 062305 (2006)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.062305 and by Gea-Banacloche [Phys. Rev. A 81, 043823 (2010)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.043823 one of us.

  17. Blockade of the Naloxone-induced Aversion in Morphine-conditioned Wistar Rats by L-Arginine Intra-central Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Rahimpour

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sSingle injection of naloxone, a selective antagonist of morphine, prior to the drug conditioning testing was used to investigate on morphine dependence.Materials and MethodsConditioning to morphine (2.5-10 mg/kg, s.c. was established in adult male Wistar rats (weighing 200-250 g using an unbiased procedure. Nitric oxide agents were microinjected into the central amygdala prior to naloxone-paired place conditioning testing.ResultsThe results showed that morphine produced a significant dose-dependent place preference in animals. Naloxone (0.1-0.4 mg/kg, i.p. injections pre-testing of the response to morphine (7.5 mg/kg, s.c. caused a significant aversion at the higher doses (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.. This response was reversed by microinjection of L-arginine (0.3-3 µg/rat, intra-central amygdala prior to naloxone on the day of the testing. The response to L-arginine was blocked by pre-injection of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (intra-central amygdala.ConclusionA single injection of naloxone on the test day of morphine place conditioning may simply reveal the occurrence of morphine dependence in rats, and that the nitric oxide in the central amygdala most likely plays a key role in this phenomenon.

  18. Future aridity under conditions of global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Zarch, Mohammad Amin; Sivakumar, Bellie; Malekinezhad, Hossein; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-11-01

    Global climate change is anticipated to cause some major changes in hydroclimatic conditions around the world. As aridity is a reliable indicator of potential available water, assessment of its changes under future climatic conditions is important for proper management of water. This study employs the UNESCO aridity/humidity index, which is a derivative of precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET), for assessment of aridity. Historical (1901-2005) simulations and future (2006-2100) projections of 22 global climate models (GCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are studied. The Nested Bias Correction (NBC) approach is used to correct possible biases of precipitation (simulated directly by the GCMs) and PET (estimated by applying FAO56-Penman-Monteith model on simulated parameters of the GCMs). To detect future aridity changes, the areal extents of the aridity zones in the past and future periods as well as through four sub-periods (2006-2025, 2026-2050, 2051-2075, and 2076-2100) of the future are compared. The results indicate that changes in climate will alter the areal extents of aridity zones in the future. In general, from the first sub-period towards the last one, the area covered by hyper-arid, arid, semi-arid, and sub-humid zones will increase (by 7.46%, 7.01%, 5.80%, and 2.78%, respectively), while the area of the humid regions will decrease (by 4.76%), suggesting that there will be less water over the global land area in the future. To understand the cause of these changes, precipitation and PET are also separately assumed to be stationary throughout the four future sub-periods and the resulting aridity changes are then analyzed. The results reveal that the aridity changes are mostly caused by the positive PET trends, even though the slight precipitation increase lessens the magnitude of the changes.

  19. Research on the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weili, L; Jinling, L; Xingqi, L; Yuan, L

    2010-01-01

    The sediment concentration in many rivers in our world is very high, and the Kaplan turbine running in these rivers are usually seriously abraded. Since the existence of sand, the probability of cavitation is greatly enhanced. Under the joint action and mutual promotion of cavitation and sand erosion, serious abrasion could be made, the hydraulic performance of the Kaplan turbine may be descended, and the safety and stability of turbine are greatly threatened. Therefore, it is very important and significant to investigate the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition. In this paper, numerical simulation of cavitation characteristic in pure water and solid-liquid two-phase flow in Kaplan turbine was performed. The solid-liquid two-fluid model were adopted in the numerical simulation, and the pressure, velocity and particle concentration distributive regularity on turbine blade surface under different diameter and concentration was revealed. Particle trajectory model was used to investigate the region and degree of runner blade abrasion in different conditions. The results showed that serious sand abrasion could be found near the blade head and outlet in large flow rate working condition. Relatively slight abrasion may be found near blade flange in small flow rate working condition. The more the sediment concentration and the large the sand diameter, the serious the runner is abraded, and the greater the efficiency is decreased. further analysis of the combined effects of wear and abrasion was performed. The result shows that the cavitation in silt flow is more serious than in pure water. The runner cavitation performance become worse under high sand concentration and large particle diameter, and the efficiency decrease greatly with the increase of sediment concentration.

  20. Research on the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weili, L; Jinling, L; Xingqi, L; Yuan, L, E-mail: liaoweili2004@163.co [Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-Electric Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology No.5 South Jinhua Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi, 710048 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The sediment concentration in many rivers in our world is very high, and the Kaplan turbine running in these rivers are usually seriously abraded. Since the existence of sand, the probability of cavitation is greatly enhanced. Under the joint action and mutual promotion of cavitation and sand erosion, serious abrasion could be made, the hydraulic performance of the Kaplan turbine may be descended, and the safety and stability of turbine are greatly threatened. Therefore, it is very important and significant to investigate the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition. In this paper, numerical simulation of cavitation characteristic in pure water and solid-liquid two-phase flow in Kaplan turbine was performed. The solid-liquid two-fluid model were adopted in the numerical simulation, and the pressure, velocity and particle concentration distributive regularity on turbine blade surface under different diameter and concentration was revealed. Particle trajectory model was used to investigate the region and degree of runner blade abrasion in different conditions. The results showed that serious sand abrasion could be found near the blade head and outlet in large flow rate working condition. Relatively slight abrasion may be found near blade flange in small flow rate working condition. The more the sediment concentration and the large the sand diameter, the serious the runner is abraded, and the greater the efficiency is decreased. further analysis of the combined effects of wear and abrasion was performed. The result shows that the cavitation in silt flow is more serious than in pure water. The runner cavitation performance become worse under high sand concentration and large particle diameter, and the efficiency decrease greatly with the increase of sediment concentration.

  1. Research on the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weili, L.; Jinling, L.; Xingqi, L.; Yuan, L.

    2010-08-01

    The sediment concentration in many rivers in our world is very high, and the Kaplan turbine running in these rivers are usually seriously abraded. Since the existence of sand, the probability of cavitation is greatly enhanced. Under the joint action and mutual promotion of cavitation and sand erosion, serious abrasion could be made, the hydraulic performance of the Kaplan turbine may be descended, and the safety and stability of turbine are greatly threatened. Therefore, it is very important and significant to investigate the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition. In this paper, numerical simulation of cavitation characteristic in pure water and solid-liquid two-phase flow in Kaplan turbine was performed. The solid-liquid two-fluid model were adopted in the numerical simulation, and the pressure, velocity and particle concentration distributive regularity on turbine blade surface under different diameter and concentration was revealed. Particle trajectory model was used to investigate the region and degree of runner blade abrasion in different conditions. The results showed that serious sand abrasion could be found near the blade head and outlet in large flow rate working condition. Relatively slight abrasion may be found near blade flange in small flow rate working condition. The more the sediment concentration and the large the sand diameter, the serious the runner is abraded, and the greater the efficiency is decreased. further analysis of the combined effects of wear and abrasion was performed. The result shows that the cavitation in silt flow is more serious than in pure water. The runner cavitation performance become worse under high sand concentration and large particle diameter, and the efficiency decrease greatly with the increase of sediment concentration.

  2. Genome-wide analysis reveals the vacuolar pH-stat of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Brett

    Full Text Available Protons, the smallest and most ubiquitous of ions, are central to physiological processes. Transmembrane proton gradients drive ATP synthesis, metabolite transport, receptor recycling and vesicle trafficking, while compartmental pH controls enzyme function. Despite this fundamental importance, the mechanisms underlying pH homeostasis are not entirely accounted for in any organelle or organism. We undertook a genome-wide survey of vacuole pH (pH(v in 4,606 single-gene deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under control, acid and alkali stress conditions to reveal the vacuolar pH-stat. Median pH(v (5.27±0.13 was resistant to acid stress (5.28±0.14 but shifted significantly in response to alkali stress (5.83±0.13. Of 107 mutants that displayed aberrant pH(v under more than one external pH condition, functional categories of transporters, membrane biogenesis and trafficking machinery were significantly enriched. Phospholipid flippases, encoded by the family of P4-type ATPases, emerged as pH regulators, as did the yeast ortholog of Niemann Pick Type C protein, implicated in sterol trafficking. An independent genetic screen revealed that correction of pH(v dysregulation in a neo1(ts mutant restored viability whereas cholesterol accumulation in human NPC1(-/- fibroblasts diminished upon treatment with a proton ionophore. Furthermore, while it is established that lumenal pH affects trafficking, this study revealed a reciprocal link with many mutants defective in anterograde pathways being hyperacidic and retrograde pathway mutants with alkaline vacuoles. In these and other examples, pH perturbations emerge as a hitherto unrecognized phenotype that may contribute to the cellular basis of disease and offer potential therapeutic intervention through pH modulation.

  3. Validation of AEGIS/SCOPE2 system through actual core follow calculations with irregular operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, M.; Tatsumi, M.; Ohoka, Y.; Nagano, H.; Ishizaki, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes overview of AEGIS/SCOPE2 system, an advanced in-core fuel management system for pressurized water reactors, and its validation results of actual core follow calculations including irregular operational conditions. AEGIS and SCOPE2 codes adopt more detailed and accurate calculation models compared to the current core design codes while computational cost is minimized with various techniques on numerical and computational algorithms. Verification and validation of AEGIS/SCOPE2 has been intensively performed to confirm validity of the system. As a part of the validation, core follow calculations have been carried out mainly for typical operational conditions. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, however, all the nuclear reactors in Japan suffered from long suspension and irregular operational conditions. In such situations, measured data in the restart and operation of the reactors should be good examinations for validation of the codes. Therefore, core follow calculations were carried out with AEGIS/SCOPE2 for various cases including zero power reactor physics tests with irregular operational conditions. Comparisons between measured data and predictions by AEGIS/SCOPE2 revealed the validity and robustness of the system. (author)

  4. Analysis of overload conditions in distance relay under severe system contingencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim Abu Bakar, Ab. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Malaya (Malaysia); Yatim, Fazilah Mat; Othman, Mohd Ridzal [Transmission Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia); Yusof, Sallehuddin [Advanced Powor Solutions (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Distance relay protection is widely used worldwide for protection scheme on high voltage transmission lines. This protection tends to be prone to load encroachment condition causing possible undesired tripping condition. Investigations of two system disturbances that occurred in TNB's (Tenaga Nasional Berhad) Grid in the year 2003 and 2005 have clearly revealed the occurrence of load encroachment condition following line overloads after large number of line tripping. Examination of the impedance locus trajectory during the overload events have enabled a distinction be made between power swing and load encroachment phenomena. This paper presents the analysis and findings of the investigation of the load encroachment phenomena of the two events, including other related transmission line contingencies. (author)

  5. Transformation of environmental conditions in large former Soviet countries: regional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityukova, V. R.; Borovikov, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    The article studies changes in the structure of environmental conditions of regions in the large former Soviet countries (case study of Russia and Kazakhstan) that have formed considerable contrasts in the placement of industrial complex and population settlement during the previous development stages. The changes related to the transition to market economy have led to essential transformation of environmental conditions. A complex index allowing to assess changes at the regional level in Kazakhstan and Russia and to reveal main similarities and differences between those changes is applied to studying the transformation of regional and industry structure. The article examines both industry-specific and spatial patterns forming environmental conditions at the regional level.

  6. Ingestion of Brachionus plicatilis under different microalgae conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenli; Tang, Xuexi; Qiao, Xiuting; Wang, You; Wang, Renjun; Feng, Lei

    2009-09-01

    The effects of four microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas helgolandicavar, Isochrysis galbana, and Nitzschia closterium on the grazing and filtering rates of the marine rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The grazing rates in separate cultures of the four microalga were as follows: C. vulgaris > P. helgolandicavar > I. galbana > N. closterium. However, the filtering rates occurred in the following order: P. helgolandicavar > N. closterium > C. vulgaris > I. galbana. A mixed diets experiment revealed that P. helgolandicavar was the preferred diet of B. plicatilis. In addition, the grazing rate of B. plicatilis increased gradually as the density of the microalgae increased, until concentrations of 2.5×106 cells mL-1 for C. vulgaris and 1.5×106 cells mL-1 for I. galbana were obtained. Furthermore, the filtering rate increased slightly when the density of the microalgae was low, after which it declined as the microalgal density increased. The grazing rates of B. plicatilis were as follows during the different growth phases: stationary phase > exponential phase > lag phase > decline phase. Additionally, the filtering rates during the growth phases were: exponential phase > lag phase > stationary phase > decline phase. The results of this study provide foundational information that can be used to explore the optimal culture conditions for rotifers and to promote the development of aquaculture.

  7. Competitive Semantic Memory Retrieval: Temporal Dynamics Revealed by Event-Related Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Hellerstedt

    Full Text Available Memories compete for retrieval when they are related to a common retrieval cue. Previous research has shown that retrieval of a target memory may lead to subsequent retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF of currently irrelevant competing memories. In the present study, we investigated the time course of competitive semantic retrieval and examined the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying RIF. We contrasted two theoretical accounts of RIF by examining a critical aspect of this memory phenomenon, namely the extent to which it depends on successful retrieval of the target memory. Participants first studied category-exemplar word-pairs (e.g. Fruit-Apple. Next, we recorded electrophysiological measures of brain activity while the participants performed a competitive semantic cued-recall task. In this task, the participants were provided with the studied categories but they were instructed to retrieve other unstudied exemplars (e.g. Fruit-Ma__?. We investigated the event-related potential (ERP correlates of retrieval success by comparing ERPs from successful and failed retrieval trials. To isolate the ERP correlates of continuous retrieval attempts from the ERP correlates of retrieval success, we included an impossible retrieval condition, with incompletable word-stem cues (Drinks-Wy__ and compared it with a non-retrieval presentation baseline condition (Occupation-Dentist. The participants' memory for all the studied exemplars was tested in the final phase of the experiment. Taken together, the behavioural results suggest that RIF is independent of target retrieval. Beyond investigating the mechanisms underlying RIF, the present study also elucidates the temporal dynamics of semantic cued-recall by isolating the ERP correlates of retrieval attempt and retrieval success. The ERP results revealed that retrieval attempt is reflected in a late posterior negativity, possibly indicating construction of candidates for completing the word-stem cue and retrieval

  8. Competitive Semantic Memory Retrieval: Temporal Dynamics Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstedt, Robin; Johansson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Memories compete for retrieval when they are related to a common retrieval cue. Previous research has shown that retrieval of a target memory may lead to subsequent retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) of currently irrelevant competing memories. In the present study, we investigated the time course of competitive semantic retrieval and examined the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying RIF. We contrasted two theoretical accounts of RIF by examining a critical aspect of this memory phenomenon, namely the extent to which it depends on successful retrieval of the target memory. Participants first studied category-exemplar word-pairs (e.g. Fruit—Apple). Next, we recorded electrophysiological measures of brain activity while the participants performed a competitive semantic cued-recall task. In this task, the participants were provided with the studied categories but they were instructed to retrieve other unstudied exemplars (e.g. Fruit—Ma__?). We investigated the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of retrieval success by comparing ERPs from successful and failed retrieval trials. To isolate the ERP correlates of continuous retrieval attempts from the ERP correlates of retrieval success, we included an impossible retrieval condition, with incompletable word-stem cues (Drinks—Wy__) and compared it with a non-retrieval presentation baseline condition (Occupation—Dentist). The participants’ memory for all the studied exemplars was tested in the final phase of the experiment. Taken together, the behavioural results suggest that RIF is independent of target retrieval. Beyond investigating the mechanisms underlying RIF, the present study also elucidates the temporal dynamics of semantic cued-recall by isolating the ERP correlates of retrieval attempt and retrieval success. The ERP results revealed that retrieval attempt is reflected in a late posterior negativity, possibly indicating construction of candidates for completing the word-stem cue and retrieval

  9. Competitive Semantic Memory Retrieval: Temporal Dynamics Revealed by Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstedt, Robin; Johansson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Memories compete for retrieval when they are related to a common retrieval cue. Previous research has shown that retrieval of a target memory may lead to subsequent retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) of currently irrelevant competing memories. In the present study, we investigated the time course of competitive semantic retrieval and examined the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying RIF. We contrasted two theoretical accounts of RIF by examining a critical aspect of this memory phenomenon, namely the extent to which it depends on successful retrieval of the target memory. Participants first studied category-exemplar word-pairs (e.g. Fruit-Apple). Next, we recorded electrophysiological measures of brain activity while the participants performed a competitive semantic cued-recall task. In this task, the participants were provided with the studied categories but they were instructed to retrieve other unstudied exemplars (e.g. Fruit-Ma__?). We investigated the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of retrieval success by comparing ERPs from successful and failed retrieval trials. To isolate the ERP correlates of continuous retrieval attempts from the ERP correlates of retrieval success, we included an impossible retrieval condition, with incompletable word-stem cues (Drinks-Wy__) and compared it with a non-retrieval presentation baseline condition (Occupation-Dentist). The participants' memory for all the studied exemplars was tested in the final phase of the experiment. Taken together, the behavioural results suggest that RIF is independent of target retrieval. Beyond investigating the mechanisms underlying RIF, the present study also elucidates the temporal dynamics of semantic cued-recall by isolating the ERP correlates of retrieval attempt and retrieval success. The ERP results revealed that retrieval attempt is reflected in a late posterior negativity, possibly indicating construction of candidates for completing the word-stem cue and retrieval monitoring

  10. Twenty years of children’s health monitoring: organization, results, conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep understanding of human potential reproduction, presenting it as a continuous cycle and reflecting the continuity of generations, is significant for the formation of health and development of children. Today’s children will determine the future of Russian society. It is they who in 10–15 years will be a major part of the labor and creative population, a demographic base of the country. The research into children’s problems through the prism of socio-economic development helps identify targets of the state many-sided policy. The article presents results of the long-term medical sociological monitoring on the formation of child health carried out by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS with the support of the Vologda Oblast Healthcare Department since 1995. The special monitoring study of health dynamics in real time is unique not only for the Vologda Oblast, but for Russia as well. It reveals the transformation of a personality and the dependence of these changes on direct and indirect factors. The work’s feature is that it addresses an extremely important and wide range of issues: whether man was born healthy or not, if he/she is unhealthy, then why and why he/she was born unhealthy; whether his/her health after the birth is improving or deteriorating; if health is changing, what causes the changes. The 15 year observations disclose the dynamics of child health in the conditions of transformation processes taking place in the country. If the official statistics only records certain health trends, the monitoring results allow us to talk about them at a qualitatively new level. They reveal the underlying causes of demographic processes. The conclusion is, on the one hand, obvious and, on the other hand, it can not be neglected: economic stability and orderly development of the social sphere are critical for family well-being and child health. The reverse situation leads to the destruction of the family

  11. Relative Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Brucella abortus Reveals Metabolic Adaptation to Multiple Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Xiaodong; Yang, Qiaoling; Yin, Ying; Li, Ruihua; Qian, Mengying; Zhao, Taoran; Li, Yaohui; Zhang, Jun; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause chronic brucellosis in humans and animals. The virulence of Brucella primarily depends on its successful survival and replication in host cells. During invasion of the host tissue, Brucella is simultaneously subjected to a variety of harsh conditions, including nutrient limitation, low pH, antimicrobial defenses, and extreme levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the host immune response. This suggests that Brucella may be able to regulate its metabolic adaptation in response to the distinct stresses encountered during its intracellular infection of the host. An investigation into the differential proteome expression patterns of Brucella grown under the relevant stress conditions may contribute toward a better understanding of its pathogenesis and adaptive response. Here, we utilized a mass spectrometry-based label-free relative quantitative proteomics approach to investigate and compare global proteomic changes in B. abortus in response to eight different stress treatments. The 3 h short-term in vitro single-stress and multi-stress conditions mimicked the in vivo conditions of B. abortus under intracellular infection, with survival rates ranging from 3.17 to 73.17%. The proteomic analysis identified and quantified a total of 2,272 proteins and 74% of the theoretical proteome, thereby providing wide coverage of the B. abortus proteome. By including eight distinct growth conditions and comparing these with a control condition, we identified a total of 1,221 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that were significantly changed under the stress treatments. Pathway analysis revealed that most of the proteins were involved in oxidative phosphorylation, ABC transporters, two-component systems, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, the citrate cycle, thiamine metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism; constituting major response mechanisms toward the reconstruction of cellular homeostasis and metabolic

  12. Ion permeabilities in mouse sperm reveal an external trigger for SLO3-dependent hyperpolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C Chávez

    Full Text Available Unlike most cells of the body which function in an ionic environment controlled within narrow limits, spermatozoa must function in a less controlled external environment. In order to better understand how sperm control their membrane potential in different ionic conditions, we measured mouse sperm membrane potentials under a variety of conditions and at different external K(+ concentrations, both before and after capacitation. Experiments were undertaken using both wild-type, and mutant mouse sperm from the knock-out strain of the sperm-specific, pH-sensitive, SLO3 K(+ channel. Membrane voltage data were fit to the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. Our study revealed a significant membrane permeability to both K(+ and Cl(- before capacitation, as well as Na(+. The permeability to both K(+ and Cl(- has the effect of preventing large changes in membrane potential when the extracellular concentration of either ion is changed. Such a mechanism may protect against undesired shifts in membrane potential in changing ionic environments. We found that a significant portion of resting membrane potassium permeability in wild-type sperm was contributed by SLO3 K(+ channels. We also found that further activation of SLO3 channels was the essential mechanism producing membrane hyperpolarization under two separate conditions, 1 elevation of external pH prior to capacitation and 2 capacitating conditions. Both conditions produced a significant membrane hyperpolarization in wild-type which was absent in SLO3 mutant sperm. Hyperpolarization in both conditions may result from activation of SLO3 channels by raising intracellular pH; however, demonstrating that SLO3-dependent hyperpolarization is achieved by an alkaline environment alone shows that SLO3 channel activation might occur independently of other events associated with capacitation. For example sperm may undergo stages of membrane hyperpolarization when reaching alkaline regions of the female genital tract

  13. Spatio-temporal patterns and environmental controls of small pelagic fish body condition from contrasted Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosset, Pablo; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Lloret, Josep; Marques, Virginie; Basilone, Gualtiero; Bonanno, Angelo; Carpi, Piera; Donato, Fortunata; Čikeš Keč, Vanja; De Felice, Andrea; Ferreri, Rosalia; Gašparević, Denis; Giráldez, Ana; Gücü, Ali; Iglesias, Magdalena; Leonori, Iole; Palomera, Isabel; Somarakis, Stylianos; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Torres, Pedro; Ventero, Ana; Zorica, Barbara; Ménard, Frédéric; Saraux, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Small pelagic fish are among the most ecologically and economically important marine fish species and are characterized by large fluctuations all over the world. In the Mediterranean Sea, low catches and biomass of anchovies and sardines have been described in some areas during the last decade, resulting in important fisheries crises. Therefore, we studied anchovy and sardine body condition variability, a key index of population health and its response to environmental and anthropogenic changes. Wide temporal and spatial patterns were investigated by analyzing separately data from scientific surveys and fisheries in eight Mediterranean areas between 1975 and 2015. Results showed that anchovy and sardine body condition as well as maximum size in some areas sharply decreased in most Mediterranean areas along years (except in the Northern Alboran Sea). Despite this general pattern, well-marked environmental differences between sub-regions were highlighted by several analyses and variations in body condition were not found to be homogeneous over all the Mediterranean Sea. Further, other analyses revealed that except for the Adriatic where major changes towards a lower body condition were concomitant with a decrease in river runoffs and chl-a concentration, no concomitant environmental regime shift was detected in other areas. Together, these analyses highlighted the current poor body condition of almost all small pelagic fish populations in the Mediterranean. Yet, global environmental indices could not explain the observed changes and the general decrease in condition might more likely come from regional environmental and/or anthropogenic (fishing) effects. A prolonged state of poor fish body condition, together with an observed reduced size and early age-at-maturity may have strong ecological, economic and social consequences all around the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Super-low dose endotoxin pre-conditioning exacerbates sepsis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keqiang; Geng, Shuo; Yuan, Ruoxi; Diao, Na; Upchurch, Zachary; Li, Liwu

    2015-04-01

    Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditionings with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP). This is in opposite to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks.

  15. Super-low Dose Endotoxin Pre-conditioning Exacerbates Sepsis Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqiang Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditioning with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP. This is in contrast to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks.

  16. The Emotional and Academic Consequences of Parental Conditional Regard: Comparing Conditional Positive Regard, Conditional Negative Regard, and Autonomy Support as Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Guy; Assor, Avi; Niemiec, Christopher P.; Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 studies of 9th-grade Israeli adolescents (169 in Study 1, 156 in Study 2) to compare the parenting practices of conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support using data from multiple reporters. Two socialization domains were studied: emotion control and academics. Results were consistent…

  17. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Derous, D.; Stelt, van der I.; Masania, J.; Rabbani, N.; Thornalley, P.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a

  18. [Indicator condition guided human immunodeficiency virus requesting in primary health care: results of a collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuelas-Redondo, Laia; Menacho-Pascual, Ignacio; Noguera-Sánchez, Pablo; Goicoa-Gago, Carmen; Pollio-Peña, Gernónimo; Blanco-Delgado, Rebeca; Barba-Ávila, Olga; Sequeira-Aymar, Ethel; Muns, Mercè; Clusa, Thais; García, Felipe; León, Agathe

    2015-12-01

    The search of HIV infected patients guided by indicator conditions (IC) is a strategy used to increase the early detection of HIV. The objective is to analyze whether a collaboration to raise awareness of the importance of early detection of HIV in 3 primary care centers influenced the proportion of HIV serology requested. Multicenter retrospective study was conducted comparing the baseline and a post-collaboration period. The collaboration consisted of training sessions and participation in the HIDES study (years 2009-2010). Patients between 18 and 64 years old with newly diagnosed herpes zoster, seborrheic eczema, mononucleosis syndrome, and leucopenia/thrombocytopenia in 3 primary care centers in 2008 (baseline period) and 2012 (post-collaboration period). The sociodemographic variables, HIV risk conditions, requests for HIV serology, and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 1,219 ICs were included (558 in 2008 and 661 in 2012). In 2008 the number of HIV tests in patients with an IC was 3.9%, and rose to 11.8% in 2012 (Pde Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Adverse Housing Conditions and Early-Onset Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Newsome, Jamie; Lynch, Kellie R

    2017-09-01

    Housing constitutes an important health resource for children. Research has revealed that, when housing conditions are unfavorable, they can interfere with child health, academic performance, and cognition. Little to no research, however, has considered whether adverse housing conditions and early-onset delinquency are significantly associated with one another. This study explores the associations between structural and non-structural housing conditions and delinquent involvement during childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) were employed in this study. Each adverse housing condition was significantly associated with early-onset delinquency. Even so, disarray and deterioration were only significantly linked to early delinquent involvement in the presence of health/safety hazards. The predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to housing risks in the presence of health/safety hazards was nearly three times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed only to disarray and/or deterioration, and nearly four times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to none of the adverse housing conditions. The findings suggest that minimizing housing-related health/safety hazards among at-risk subsets of the population may help to alleviate other important public health concerns-particularly early-onset delinquency. Addressing household health/safety hazards may represent a fruitful avenue for public health programs aimed at the prevention of early-onset delinquency. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  20. On conditional residual lifetime and conditional inactivity time of k-out-of-n systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavangar, Mahdi; Bairamov, Ismihan

    2015-01-01

    In designing structures of technical systems, the reliability engineers often deal with the reliability analysis of coherent systems. Coherent system has monotone structure function and all components of the system are relevant. This paper considers some particular models of coherent systems having identical components with independent lifetimes. The main purpose of the paper is to study conditional residual lifetime of coherent system, given that at a fixed time certain number of components have failed but still there are some functioning components. Different aging and stochastic properties of variables connected with the conditional residual lifetimes of the coherent systems are obtained. An expression for the parent distribution in terms of conditional mean residual lifetime is provided. The similar result is obtained for the conditional mean inactivity time of the failed components of coherent system. The conditional mean inactivity time of failed components presents an interest in many engineering applications where the reliability of system structure is important for designing and constructing of systems. Some illustrative examples with given particular distributions are also presented. - Highlights: • Comparisons of conditional residual lifetime of k-out-of-n systems are derived. • The behavior of the coherent system is explored for IHR distributions. • The parent distribution is expressed in terms of conditional MRL and MIT. • Some illustrative examples are given to clarify the results of the paper.

  1. FIDIC Conditions of Subcontract as a Model for General Conditions of Subcontract in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umer Zubair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fair allocation of risks in conditions of contract is pivotal for coordination, unhindered execution, dispute resolution and maintenance of positive relationship among the parties executing the contract. Pakistani construction industry despite subcontracting a large percentage of construction projects lacks standard conditions of subcontract and they are primarily based on the will of the prime contractor that is onerous for the subcontractor. Therefore in order to develop a model for the general conditions of subcontract in Pakistan the conditions proposed by Associated General Contractors of California, FIDIC in 1994 and 2011, Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia, American Institute of Architects and by the Government of Hong Kong were compared to determine the similarities and differences among them. Afterwards a questionnaire based on the significant provisions of these subcontracts was conducted in the construction industry of Pakistan to determine the appropriate conditions for model subcontract. The results of the survey were further subjected to discussions with the legal experts. Out of 35 suggestions made for the general conditions of subcontract 23 originated from FIDIC in which 20 are recommended by its 2011’s version. It can therefore be implemented in Pakistan with certain amendments and additions as proposed in light of conditions of other subcontracts and the results of the survey and discussions with legal experts.

  2. The Pavlovian analysis of instrumental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, I; Tait, R W

    1976-01-01

    An account was given of the development within the Russian literature of a uniprocess formulation of classical and instrumental conditioning, known as the bidirectional conditioning hypothesis. The hypothesis purports to offer a single set of Pavlovian principles to account for both paradigms, based upon a neural model which assumes that bidirectional (forward and backward) connections are formed in both calssical and instrumental conditioning situations. In instrumental conditioning, the bidirectional connections are hypothesized to be simply more complex than those in classical conditioning, and any differences in empirical functions are presumed to lie not in difference in mechanism, but in the strength of the forward and backward connections. Although bidirectional connections are assumed to develop in instrumental conditioning, the experimental investigation of the bidirectional conditioning hypothesis has been essentially restricted to the classical conditioning operations of pairing two CSs (sensory preconditioning training), a US followed by a CS (backward conditioning training) and two USs. However, the paradigm involving the pairing of two USs, because of theoretical and analytical considerations, is the one most commonly employed by Russian investigators. The results of an initial experiment involving the pairing of two USs, and reference to the results of a more extensive investigation, leads us to tentatively question the validity of the bidirectional conditioning account of instrumental conditioning.

  3. Novel candidate genes important for asthma and hypertension comorbidity revealed from associative gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saik, Olga V; Demenkov, Pavel S; Ivanisenko, Timofey V; Bragina, Elena Yu; Freidin, Maxim B; Goncharova, Irina A; Dosenko, Victor E; Zolotareva, Olga I; Hofestaedt, Ralf; Lavrik, Inna N; Rogaev, Evgeny I; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A

    2018-02-13

    Hypertension and bronchial asthma are a major issue for people's health. As of 2014, approximately one billion adults, or ~ 22% of the world population, have had hypertension. As of 2011, 235-330 million people globally have been affected by asthma and approximately 250,000-345,000 people have died each year from the disease. The development of the effective treatment therapies against these diseases is complicated by their comorbidity features. This is often a major problem in diagnosis and their treatment. Hence, in this study the bioinformatical methodology for the analysis of the comorbidity of these two diseases have been developed. As such, the search for candidate genes related to the comorbid conditions of asthma and hypertension can help in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the comorbid condition of these two diseases, and can also be useful for genotyping and identifying new drug targets. Using ANDSystem, the reconstruction and analysis of gene networks associated with asthma and hypertension was carried out. The gene network of asthma included 755 genes/proteins and 62,603 interactions, while the gene network of hypertension - 713 genes/proteins and 45,479 interactions. Two hundred and five genes/proteins and 9638 interactions were shared between asthma and hypertension. An approach for ranking genes implicated in the comorbid condition of two diseases was proposed. The approach is based on nine criteria for ranking genes by their importance, including standard methods of gene prioritization (Endeavor, ToppGene) as well as original criteria that take into account the characteristics of an associative gene network and the presence of known polymorphisms in the analysed genes. According to the proposed approach, the genes IL10, TLR4, and CAT had the highest priority in the development of comorbidity of these two diseases. Additionally, it was revealed that the list of top genes is enriched with apoptotic genes and genes involved in

  4. Evaporation under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Satoshi; Shibata, Yuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear fusion reactor design, an event of water coolant ingress into its vacuum vessel is now being considered as one of the most probable accidents. In this report, the evaporation under vacuum condition is evaluated by using the evaporation model we have developed. The results show that shock-wave by the evaporation occurs whose behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions of vacuum. And in the case of lower initial pressure and temperature, the surface temp finally becomes higher than other conditions. (author)

  5. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  6. The long-term behaviour of cemented research reactor waste under the geological disposal conditions of the Boom Clay Formation: results from leach experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, A.; Fays, J.; Iseghem, P. van

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN has carried out a number of studies to evaluate the long-term behaviour of cemented research reactor waste under the geological disposal conditions of the Boom Clay Formation. Static leach experiments in synthetic clay water were performed on active samples of cemented research reactor waste. The leach experiments were carried out under anaerobic conditions at two testing temperatures (23 and 85 o C). Leach rates of seven radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 154 Eu and 241 Am) were measured. Most investigated radionuclides are well retained within the cement matrix over a 280 days testing period. Results on the source term of radionuclides were complemented with data on the leaching behaviour of cement matrix constituents as Ca, Si, Al, Na, K, Mg and SO 4 as well as with data from performance assessment calculations and in situ tests. Despite limitations inherent to short-term experiments, combined results from these investigations indicate only limited interactions of disposed research reactor waste with the near field of a geological repository in clay. (author)

  7. Tissue Damage Caused by Myeloablative, but Not Non-Myeloablative, Conditioning before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Results in Dermal Macrophage Recruitment without Active T-Cell Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van Balen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionConditioning regimens preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT can cause tissue damage and acceleration of the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. T-cell-depleted alloSCT with postponed donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI may reduce GVHD, because tissue injury can be restored at the time of DLI. In this study, we investigated the presence of tissue injury and inflammation in skin during the period of hematologic recovery and immune reconstitution after alloSCT.MethodsSkin biopsies were immunohistochemically stained for HLA class II, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, CD54, CD68, CD86, CD206, CD3, and CD8. HLA class II-expressing cells were characterized as activated T-cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs, or tissue repairing macrophages. In sex-mismatched patient and donor couples, origin of cells was determined by multiplex analysis combining XY-FISH and fluorescent immunohistochemistry.ResultsNo inflammatory environment due to pretransplant conditioning was detected at the time of alloSCT, irrespective of the conditioning regimen. An increase in HLA class II-positive macrophages and CD3 T-cells was observed 12–24 weeks after myeloablative alloSCT, but these macrophages did not show signs of interaction with the co-localized T-cells. In contrast, during GVHD, an increase in HLA class II-expressing cells coinciding with T-cell interaction was observed, resulting in an overt inflammatory reaction with the presence of activated APC, activated donor T-cells, and localized upregulation of HLA class II expression on epidermal cells. In the absence of GVHD, patient derived macrophages were gradually replaced by donor-derived macrophages although patient-derived macrophages were detectable even 24 weeks after alloSCT.ConclusionConditioning regimens cause tissue damage in the skin, but this does not result in a local increase of activated APC. In contrast to the inflamed situation in GVHD, when interaction takes place between

  8. Cognitive load and task condition in event- and time-based prospective memory: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azizuddin; Sharma, Narendra K; Dixit, Shikha

    2008-09-01

    Prospective memory is memory for the realization of delayed intention. Researchers distinguish 2 kinds of prospective memory: event- and time-based (G. O. Einstein & M. A. McDaniel, 1990). Taking that distinction into account, the present authors explored participants' comparative performance under event- and time-based tasks. In an experimental study of 80 participants, the authors investigated the roles of cognitive load and task condition in prospective memory. Cognitive load (low vs. high) and task condition (event- vs. time-based task) were the independent variables. Accuracy in prospective memory was the dependent variable. Results showed significant differential effects under event- and time-based tasks. However, the effect of cognitive load was more detrimental in time-based prospective memory. Results also revealed that time monitoring is critical in successful performance of time estimation and so in time-based prospective memory. Similarly, participants' better performance on the event-based prospective memory task showed that they acted on the basis of environment cues. Event-based prospective memory was environmentally cued; time-based prospective memory required self-initiation.

  9. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS AND HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES OF THE "SIBERIAN LIFT CO., LTD."].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, V P; Usatov, A N

    2015-01-01

    There was carried out a hygienic assessment of the working conditions and health of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". When studying occupational factors on workplaces intensity, the temperature radiation, natural and artificial lighting, and also the content of chemicals they were revealed to fail to answer to the hygienic specifications. It is established that in 82% of employees the class of working conditions was detected as admissible (2) and in 18%--harmful (3.1 and 3.2). Results of the performed periodic medical examination of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". It is testified that 6.14% out of them are persistently unfit of the work with harmful and (or) dangerous substances and occupational factors also. 4.68% of employees demand an additional examination. 11,70% of workers need for out-patient examination and treatment. Sanatorium treatment is required for 1 (0.29%) the person. 4,68% of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd." need dispensary supervision. There are suggested measures for the improvement of working conditions and health of the employees.

  10. Conditional inactivation of Brca1 in the mouse ovarian surface epithelium results in an increase in preneoplastic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark-Knowles, Katherine V.; Garson, Kenneth; Jonkers, Jos; Vanderhyden, Barbara C.

    2007-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is thought to arise from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE); however, the molecular events underlying this transformation are poorly understood. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene result in a significantly increased risk of developing EOC and a large proportion of sporadic EOCs display some sort of BRCA1 dysfunction. Using mice with conditional expression of Brca1, we inactivated Brca1 in the murine OSE and demonstrate that this inactivation results in the development of preneoplastic changes, such as hyperplasia, epithelial invaginations, and inclusion cysts, which arise earlier and are more numerous than in control ovaries. These changes resemble the premalignant lesions that have been reported in human prophylactic oophorectomy specimens from women with BRCA1 germline mutation. We also report that inactivation of Brca1 in primary cultures of murine OSE cells leads to a suppression of proliferation due to increased apoptosis that can be rescued by concomitant inactivation of p53. These observations, along with our finding that these cells display an increased sensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent cisplatin, indicate that loss of function of Brca1 in OSE cells impacts both cellular growth control and DNA-damage repair which results in altered cell behavior manifested as morphological changes in vivo that arise earlier and are more numerous than what can be attributed to ageing

  11. Performance of diverse wheat genetic stocks under moisture stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seher, M.; Shabbir, G.; Rasheed, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate divergent wheat germplasm for their performance under drought and control conditions. The germplasm consists of wheat land races of Pakistan, advanced D-genome synthetic derivatives and high yielding varieties of Pakistan. This wide array of germplasm was selected to identify sources, which can be opted later by the wheat breeders while breeding for drought tolerance. The evaluation parameters involved some important physiochemical testing and morphological characteristics in the field under drought and control conditions. Based on these parameters, 13 wheat genotypes were selected on the basis of their best performance regarding morphological and physiological parameters. These genotypes exhibited higher yield under drought stress conditions and increased percentage of proline, sugar, SOD and protein content under laboratory conditions as compared to the susceptible genotypes. Correlation studies revealed that grains per spike (GPS) and thousand grain weight (TGW) had direct relationship with spike length (SL), proline and sugar content under both control and drought conditions. Thus, these parameters can be used as selection criteria for the identification of tolerant genotypes. (author)

  12. Metabolomics reveals reduction of metabolic oxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome after pioglitazone-flutamide-metformin polytherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vinaixa

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a variable disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, body adiposity, low-grade inflammation and increased cardiovascular disease risks. Recently, a new polytherapy consisting of low-dose flutamide, metformin and pioglitazone in combination with an estro-progestagen resulted in the regulation of endocrine clinical markers in young and non-obese PCOS women. However, the metabolic processes involved in this phenotypic amelioration remain unidentified. In this work, we used NMR and MS-based untargeted metabolomics to study serum samples of young non-obese PCOS women prior to and at the end of a 30 months polytherapy receiving low-dose flutamide, metformin and pioglitazone in combination with an estro-progestagen. Our results reveal that the treatment decreased the levels of oxidized LDL particles in serum, as well as downstream metabolic oxidation products of LDL particles such as 9- and 13-HODE, azelaic acid and glutaric acid. In contrast, the radiuses of small dense LDL and large HDL particles were substantially increased after the treatment. Clinical and endocrine-metabolic markers were also monitored, showing that the level of HDL cholesterol was increased after the treatment, whereas the level of androgens and the carotid intima-media thickness were reduced. Significantly, the abundance of azelaic acid and the carotid intima-media thickness resulted in a high degree of correlation. Altogether, our results reveal that this new polytherapy markedly reverts the oxidant status of untreated PCOS women, and potentially improves the pro-atherosclerosis condition in these patients.

  13. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CONDITIONED MUNICIPAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work was focused on the rheological characteristics of conditioned fresh activated sludge using TA rheometer HR-2. The effect of cationic polyelectrolyte conditioner has been investigated for floc size, surface properties and yield stress at different pH values in a comparative fashion. Our approach was to reveal the effect of polymer on the municipal activated sludge with high organic contents up to 80%. The results indicated an improvement of 50% in settling properties by addition polyelectrolyte up to 4 mg/g solid/l. Rheological data analysis showed that responses of shear stress - shear rate were found to be closest to Bingham model and gave almost similar and smaller k values of average 6.2×10-3. The results of shear creep indicated that all sludge samples have less rigid structures with no reconstruction behavior. The optical analyses of the samples indicated that the floc sizes were increased with successive addition of polyelectrolyte. The increase of floc sizes caused large stresses especially for solution with pH=9. As the flocculation accorded despite the negative zeta potential, this phenomenon can be referred to that interparticles hydrogen bridging was governing flocculation rather than charge neutralization. Also, during the experiment, bacterial growth showed an adaption despite the conditioning with polyelectrolyte.

  14. Soil acidification occurs under ambient conditions but is retarded by repeated drought: Results of a field-scale climate manipulation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, G.R.; Tietema, A., E-mail: A.Tietema@uva.nl; Verstraten, J.M.

    2012-11-15

    Acid atmospheric emissions within Europe and North America have decreased strongly since 1985 and most recent acidification studies have focused on the changes occurring within ecosystems as a result of this decreased deposition. This current study documents a soil acidification trend under ambient N deposition conditions over a 13 year period, suggesting that acidification continues to be a process of concern at this Calluna vulgaris dominated heathland with an acidic sandy soil. The annual manipulation of climatic conditions on this heathland simulated the predicted summer rainfall reduction (drought) and resulted in a long term retardation of the soil acidification trend. The pH of the soil solution significantly decreased over the course of the trial for both treatments, however, in the final 2 years the decline continued only in the Control treatment. This retardation is primarily associated with the reduction in rainfall leading to lower drainage rates, reduced loss of cations and therefore reduced lowering of the soil acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). However, a change in the underlying mechanisms also indicated that N transformations became less important in the Drought treatment. This change corresponded to an increase in groundcover of an air-pollution tolerant moss species and it is hypothesized that this increasing moss cover filtered an increasing quantity of deposited N, thus reducing the N available for transformation. A soil acidification lag time is expected to increase between the two treatments due to the cumulative disparity in cation retention and rates of proton formation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in which such acidification trends have been demonstrated in a field-scale climate manipulation experiment. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A unique investigation of acidification on a field-scale climate manipulation trial. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil acidification occurred over 13 years of ambient N

  15. Non-chondritic iron isotope ratios in planetary mantles as a result of core formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elardo, Stephen M.; Shahar, Anat

    2017-02-01

    Information about the materials and conditions involved in planetary formation and differentiation in the early Solar System is recorded in iron isotope ratios. Samples from Earth, the Moon, Mars and the asteroid Vesta reveal significant variations in iron isotope ratios, but the sources of these variations remain uncertain. Here we present experiments that demonstrate that under the conditions of planetary core formation expected for the Moon, Mars and Vesta, iron isotopes fractionate between metal and silicate due to the presence of nickel, and enrich the bodies' mantles in isotopically light iron. However, the effect of nickel diminishes at higher temperatures: under conditions expected for Earth's core formation, we infer little fractionation of iron isotopes. From our experimental results and existing conceptual models of magma ocean crystallization and mantle partial melting, we find that nickel-induced fractionation can explain iron isotope variability found in planetary samples without invoking nebular or accretionary processes. We suggest that near-chondritic iron isotope ratios of basalts from Mars and Vesta, as well as the most primitive lunar basalts, were achieved by melting of isotopically light mantles, whereas the heavy iron isotope ratios of terrestrial ocean floor basalts are the result of melting of near-chondritic Earth mantle.

  16. Metabolic profiling reveals potential metabolic markers associated with Hypoxia Inducible Factor-mediated signalling in hypoxic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Emily G; Kotze, Helen L; Allwood, J William; Dunn, Warwick B; Goodacre, Royston; Williams, Kaye J

    2015-10-28

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) plays an important role in oxygen compromised environments and therefore in tumour survival. In this research, metabolomics has been applied to study HIFs metabolic function in two cell models: mouse hepatocellular carcinoma and human colon carcinoma, whereby the metabolism has been profiled for a range of oxygen potentials. Wild type cells have been compared to cells deficient in HIF signalling to reveal its effect on cellular metabolism under normal oxygen conditions as well as low oxygen, hypoxic and anoxic environments. Characteristic responses to hypoxia that were conserved across both cell models involved the anti-correlation between 2-hydroxyglutarate, 2-oxoglutarate, fructose, hexadecanoic acid, hypotaurine, pyruvate and octadecenoic acid with 4-hydroxyproline, aspartate, cysteine, glutamine, lysine, malate and pyroglutamate. Further to this, network-based correlation analysis revealed HIF specific pathway responses to each oxygen condition that were also conserved between cell models. From this, 4-hydroxyproline was revealed as a regulating hub in low oxygen survival of WT cells while fructose appeared to be in HIF deficient cells. Pathways surrounding these hubs were built from the direct connections of correlated metabolites that look beyond traditional pathways in order to understand the mechanism of HIF response to low oxygen environments.

  17. Identity of active methanotrophs in landfill cover soil as revealed by DNA-stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Bodrossy, Levente; Chen, Yin; Singer, Andrew C; Thompson, Ian P; Prosser, James I; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-10-01

    A considerable amount of methane produced during decomposition of landfill waste can be oxidized in landfill cover soil by methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The identity of active methanotrophs in Roscommon landfill cover soil, a slightly acidic peat soil, was assessed by DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Landfill cover soil slurries were incubated with (13)C-labelled methane and under either nutrient-rich nitrate mineral salt medium or water. The identity of active methanotrophs was revealed by analysis of (13)C-labelled DNA fractions. The diversity of functional genes (pmoA and mmoX) and 16S rRNA genes was analyzed using clone libraries, microarrays and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the cover soil was mainly dominated by Type II methanotrophs closely related to the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa and to Methylocystis species. These results were supported by analysis of mmoX genes in (13)C-DNA. Analysis of pmoA gene diversity indicated that a significant proportion of active bacteria were also closely related to the Type I methanotrophs, Methylobacter and Methylomonas species. Environmental conditions in the slightly acidic peat soil from Roscommon landfill cover allow establishment of both Type I and Type II methanotrophs.

  18. Speciation, behaviour, and fate of mercury under oxy-fuel combustion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Córdoba, Patricia; Maroto-Valer, M.; Delgado, Miguel Angel; Diego, Ruth; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The work presented here reports the first study in which the speciation, behaviour and fate of mercury (Hg) have been evaluated under oxy-fuel combustion at the largest oxy-Pulverised Coal Combustion (oxy-PCC) demonstration plant to date during routine operating conditions and partial exhaust flue gas re-circulation to the boiler. The effect of the CO 2 -rich flue gas re-circulation on Hg has also been evaluated. Results reveal that oxy-PCC operational conditions play a significant role on Hg partitioning and fate because of the continuous CO 2 -rich flue gas re-circulations to the boiler. Mercury escapes from the cyclone in a gaseous form as Hg 2+ (68%) and it is the prevalent form in the CO 2 -rich exhaust flue gas (99%) with lower proportions of Hg 0 (1.3%). The overall retention rate for gaseous Hg is around 12%; Hg 0 is more prone to be retained (95%) while Hg 2+ shows a negative efficiency capture for the whole installation. The negative Hg 2+ capture efficiencies are due to the continuous CO 2 -rich exhaust flue gas recirculation to the boiler with enhanced Hg contents. Calculations revealed that 44 mg of Hg were re-circulated to the boiler as a result of 2183 re-circulations of CO 2 -rich flue gas. Especial attention must be paid to the role of the CO 2 -rich exhaust flue gas re-circulation to the boiler on the Hg enrichment in Fly Ashes (FAs). - Highlights: • The fate of gaseous Hg has been evaluated under oxy-fuel combustion. • The Hg oxidation process is enhanced in CO 2 -rich flue gas recirculation. • Hg 2+ is the prevalent gas species in the CO 2 -rich exhaust flue gas. • Hg 2+ (g) shows a negative efficiency capture for the whole installation. • Especial attention must be paid to the Hg enrichment in Fly Ashes.

  19. Speciation, behaviour, and fate of mercury under oxy-fuel combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdoba, Patricia, E-mail: pc247@hw.ac.uk [Centre for Innovation on Carbon Capture and Storage (CICCS), Institute of Mechanical, Process and Energy Engineering (IMPEE), Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Maroto-Valer, M. [Centre for Innovation on Carbon Capture and Storage (CICCS), Institute of Mechanical, Process and Energy Engineering (IMPEE), Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Delgado, Miguel Angel; Diego, Ruth [Fundacion Ciudad de la Energia (CIUDEN), Avenida Segunda, No 2 (Compostilla), 24004 Ponferrada, León (Spain); Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    The work presented here reports the first study in which the speciation, behaviour and fate of mercury (Hg) have been evaluated under oxy-fuel combustion at the largest oxy-Pulverised Coal Combustion (oxy-PCC) demonstration plant to date during routine operating conditions and partial exhaust flue gas re-circulation to the boiler. The effect of the CO{sub 2}-rich flue gas re-circulation on Hg has also been evaluated. Results reveal that oxy-PCC operational conditions play a significant role on Hg partitioning and fate because of the continuous CO{sub 2}-rich flue gas re-circulations to the boiler. Mercury escapes from the cyclone in a gaseous form as Hg{sup 2+} (68%) and it is the prevalent form in the CO{sub 2}-rich exhaust flue gas (99%) with lower proportions of Hg{sup 0} (1.3%). The overall retention rate for gaseous Hg is around 12%; Hg{sup 0} is more prone to be retained (95%) while Hg{sup 2+} shows a negative efficiency capture for the whole installation. The negative Hg{sup 2+} capture efficiencies are due to the continuous CO{sub 2}-rich exhaust flue gas recirculation to the boiler with enhanced Hg contents. Calculations revealed that 44 mg of Hg were re-circulated to the boiler as a result of 2183 re-circulations of CO{sub 2}-rich flue gas. Especial attention must be paid to the role of the CO{sub 2}-rich exhaust flue gas re-circulation to the boiler on the Hg enrichment in Fly Ashes (FAs). - Highlights: • The fate of gaseous Hg has been evaluated under oxy-fuel combustion. • The Hg oxidation process is enhanced in CO{sub 2}-rich flue gas recirculation. • Hg{sup 2+} is the prevalent gas species in the CO{sub 2}-rich exhaust flue gas. • Hg{sup 2+}{sub (g)} shows a negative efficiency capture for the whole installation. • Especial attention must be paid to the Hg enrichment in Fly Ashes.

  20. Study of containment air cooler capacity in steam air environment during accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, M.; Mohan, N.; Bhawal, R.N.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The air coolers are provided for controlling the temperature in the reactor building during normal operation. These air coolers also serve as the main heat sink for the removal of energy from high enthalpy air-steam mixture expected in reactor building under accident conditions. A subroutine COOLER has been developed to estimate the heat removal rate of the air coolers at high temperature and steam conditions. The subroutine COOLER has been attached with the code PACSR (post accident containment system response) used for containment pressure temperature calculation. The subroutine was validated using design parameters at normal operating condition. A study was done to estimate the heat removal rate for some postulated accident conditions. The study reveals that, under accident conditions, the heat removal rate of air coolers increases several times compared with normal operating conditions

  1. Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography reveals retinal phlebitis in Susac's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klufas, Michael A; Dinkin, Marc J; Bhaleeya, Swetangi D; Chapman, Kristin O; Riley, Claire S; Kiss, Szilárd

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman with history of headaches and auditory changes presented with acute-onset visual field loss in the right eye. The combination of multiple retinal branch artery occlusions of the right eye on funduscopic examination, characteristic white matter lesions in the corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging, and hearing loss on audiometric testing led to a diagnosis of Susac's syndrome. Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography revealed involvement of the retinal veins, which has not been previously reported with this condition. Additionally, ultra-widefield indocyanine green angiography demonstrated changes in the choroidal circulation, which are controversial in this syndrome. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Revealing time bunching effect in single-molecule enzyme conformational dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H Peter

    2011-04-21

    In this perspective, we focus our discussion on how the single-molecule spectroscopy and statistical analysis are able to reveal enzyme hidden properties, taking the study of T4 lysozyme as an example. Protein conformational fluctuations and dynamics play a crucial role in biomolecular functions, such as in enzymatic reactions. Single-molecule spectroscopy is a powerful approach to analyze protein conformational dynamics under physiological conditions, providing dynamic perspectives on a molecular-level understanding of protein structure-function mechanisms. Using single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, we have probed T4 lysozyme conformational motions under the hydrolysis reaction of a polysaccharide of E. coli B cell walls by monitoring the fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) between a donor-acceptor probe pair tethered to T4 lysozyme domains involving open-close hinge-bending motions. Based on the single-molecule spectroscopic results, molecular dynamics simulation, a random walk model analysis, and a novel 2D statistical correlation analysis, we have revealed a time bunching effect in protein conformational motion dynamics that is critical to enzymatic functions. Bunching effect implies that conformational motion times tend to bunch in a finite and narrow time window. We show that convoluted multiple Poisson rate processes give rise to the bunching effect in the enzymatic reaction dynamics. Evidently, the bunching effect is likely common in protein conformational dynamics involving in conformation-gated protein functions. In this perspective, we will also discuss a new approach of 2D regional correlation analysis capable of analyzing fluctuation dynamics of complex multiple correlated and anti-correlated fluctuations under a non-correlated noise background. Using this new method, we are able to map out any defined segments along the fluctuation trajectories and determine whether they are correlated, anti-correlated, or non-correlated; after which, a

  3. Conditioning technology of spent radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Sik; Kim, K. J.; Jang, K. D.

    2001-03-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could be resulted from improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for safe conditioning of spent radium sources by IAEA has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this report is to understand well and apply the technology that was applied in conditioning the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in Myanmar, as a part of IAEA's project by the Korean expert team. The report is the result that the Korean expert team carried out in Myanmar under the project title 'Radium Conditioning Service in Myanmar(INT4131-06646C)'. As a result of the mission, a whole inventory, 1,429.5 mCi of spent radium sources was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the manual under the supervision of IAEA's technical officer, Mr. Al-Mughrabi, and under the control of DAE authority. These sources were encapsuled in 27 small capsules and 3 large capsules, and conditioned in 3 lead shields, producing 3 packages. The inventories were distributed into 3 shielding devices, holding 500, 459.5, and 470 mCi

  4. Social interaction and cocaine conditioning in mice increase spontaneous spike frequency in the nucleus accumbens or septal nuclei as revealed by multielectrode array recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Kai K; El Rawas, Rana; Kress, Michaela; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Both cocaine and social interaction place preference conditioning lead to increased neuronal expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 in the nucleus accumbens, a central region of the reward pathway, suggesting that both drug and natural rewards may be processed in similar brain regions. In order to gain novel insights into the intrinsic in vitro electrical activity of the nucleus accumbens and adjacent brain regions and to explore the effects of reward conditioning on network activity, we performed multielectrode array recordings of spontaneous firing in acute brain slices of mice conditioned to either cocaine or social interaction place preference. Cocaine conditioning increased the spike frequency of neurons in the septal nuclei, whereas social interaction conditioning increased the spike frequency in the nucleus accumbens compared to saline control animals. In addition, social interaction conditioning decreased the amount of active neuron clusters in the nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that place preference conditioning for both drug and natural rewards may induce persistent changes in neuronal network activity in the nucleus accumbens and the septum that are still preserved in acute slice preparations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A method for simultaneously counterbalancing condition order and assignment of stimulus materials to conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René; Pecher, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Counterbalanced designs are frequently used in the behavioral sciences. Studies often counterbalance either the order in which conditions are presented in the experiment or the assignment of stimulus materials to conditions. Occasionally, researchers need to simultaneously counterbalance both condition order and stimulus assignment to conditions. Lewis (1989; Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 25:414-415, 1993) presented a method for constructing Latin squares that fulfill these requirements. The resulting Latin squares counterbalance immediate sequential effects, but not remote sequential effects. Here, we present a new method for generating Latin squares that simultaneously counterbalance both immediate and remote sequential effects and assignment of stimuli to conditions. An Appendix is provided to facilitate implementation of these Latin square designs.

  6. Periodontal conditions in vegetarians: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, I; Weinspach, K; Förster, G; Geurtsen, W; Günay, H

    2013-08-01

    Investigations about possible correlations between vegetarian diet and periodontal conditions are rare and characterized by small case numbers. The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the influence of a vegetarian diet on periodontal parameters with an appropriate sample size. A total of 200 patients, 100 vegetarians and 100 non-vegetarians, were included in the study. All patients were examined including a full mouth assessment of the periodontal and dental conditions. In addition, a questionnaire was handed out to ask for patients' oral hygiene habits and level of education. For statistical analysis the Mann-Whitney Test (χ(2) for analysis of the questionnaire) was applied (level of significance: Pvegetarians versus 41.72 years non-vegetarians). Vegetarians had significantly lower probing pocket depths (P=0.039), bleeding on probing (P=0.001), periodontal screening index (P=0.012), a better hygiene index (Pvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians had a higher level of education (PVegetarians revealed better periodontal conditions (less inflammation signs, less periodontal damage and a better dental home care). However, it should be considered that vegetarians are not only avoiding meat in their nutrition but are also characterized by an overall healthier life style.

  7. Geomagnetic storm under laboratory conditions: randomized experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu I.; Vasin, A. L.; Pishchalnikov, R. Yu; Sarimov, R. M.; Sasonko, M. L.; Matveeva, T. A.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the previously recorded geomagnetic storm (GS) on human cardiovascular system and microcirculation has been studied under laboratory conditions. Healthy volunteers in lying position were exposed under two artificially created conditions: quiet (Q) and storm (S). The Q regime playbacks a noise-free magnetic field (MF) which is closed to the natural geomagnetic conditions on Moscow's latitude. The S regime playbacks the initially recorded 6-h geomagnetic storm which is repeated four times sequentially. The cardiovascular response to the GS impact was assessed by measuring capillary blood velocity (CBV) and blood pressure (BP) and by the analysis of the 24-h ECG recording. A storm-to-quiet ratio for the cardio intervals (CI) and the heart rate variability (HRV) was introduced in order to reveal the average over group significant differences of HRV. An individual sensitivity to the GS was estimated using the autocorrelation function analysis of the high-frequency (HF) part of the CI spectrum. The autocorrelation analysis allowed for detection a group of subjects of study which autocorrelation functions (ACF) react differently in the Q and S regimes of exposure.

  8. Geomagnetic storm under laboratory conditions: randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu I; Vasin, A L; Pishchalnikov, R Yu; Sarimov, R M; Sasonko, M L; Matveeva, T A

    2018-04-01

    The influence of the previously recorded geomagnetic storm (GS) on human cardiovascular system and microcirculation has been studied under laboratory conditions. Healthy volunteers in lying position were exposed under two artificially created conditions: quiet (Q) and storm (S). The Q regime playbacks a noise-free magnetic field (MF) which is closed to the natural geomagnetic conditions on Moscow's latitude. The S regime playbacks the initially recorded 6-h geomagnetic storm which is repeated four times sequentially. The cardiovascular response to the GS impact was assessed by measuring capillary blood velocity (CBV) and blood pressure (BP) and by the analysis of the 24-h ECG recording. A storm-to-quiet ratio for the cardio intervals (CI) and the heart rate variability (HRV) was introduced in order to reveal the average over group significant differences of HRV. An individual sensitivity to the GS was estimated using the autocorrelation function analysis of the high-frequency (HF) part of the CI spectrum. The autocorrelation analysis allowed for detection a group of subjects of study which autocorrelation functions (ACF) react differently in the Q and S regimes of exposure.

  9. Perceptions of Undergraduate University Students about Working Conditions of Women Academic Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice YALÇIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women constitute nearly 41%of academic staff in our country. Among all academic staff, the ratio of female academicians is increasing as it is approached to rural areas from suburbs. This study aims to reveal the perceptions of undergraduate education students about female academicians’ working life conditions. Considering available time and facilities, the universe of research was limited within a university; as it was primarily intended to reveal students’ individual perceptions on the conditions of women academics, the students’ being at the undergraduate level was at the fore front of study rather than the academic departments of the university. The survey data form were applied to 157 female and 104 male undergraduate students (N = 261 studying at faculties and schools of the university where the survey was applied excluding freshmen classes.. Descriptive tests were used to evaluate the data. The findings were evaluated by x ² test, which were formerly tested according to the desires of students on what to get on their education and whether they were willing to be academicians. 54%of female students involved in the research stated that they were “partially” satisfied with the female academics. While 74,3%of the students agreed on the question “Should women work as academicians?”, only 2.2%percent stated that women should not work as academicians. 47,8%consider that there is a partial discrimination between the male and female members of academic life. 47,1%mentioned that working as an academician was a barrier to being a good mother or a good wife and 69,7%stated that working as a female academician was a tough work. 23,7%of the students think that being an academician is mostly beneficial in terms of personal development for a woman. 79,6%stated that the biggest challenge for female academics is to sustain the academic studies as well as being a mother and a wife. The best advantage of being female academician was revealed

  10. Dupuytren’s Disease: Predicting Factors and Associated Conditions. A Single Center Questionnaire-Based CaseControl Study

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    Ilaria Morelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conflicting studies link several conditions and risk factors to Dupuytren’s disease (DD. A questionnaire-based case-control study was set to investigate associated conditions and clinical features of DD in a sample of Italian patients. The main purpose was the identification of predicting factors for: DD development; involvement of multiple rays; involvement of both hands; development of radial DD; development of recurrences and extensions. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to investigate medical and drug histories, working and life habits, DD clinical features, familial history, recurrences and extensions. Binary logistic regression, Mann Whitney U-test and Fisher’s exact test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: A role in DD development was found for male sex, cigarette smoking, diabetes and heavy manual work. The development of aggressive DD has been linked to age, male sex, high alcohol intake, dyslipidemias and positive familial history. Conclusion: Further studies might explain the dual relationship between ischemic heart disease and DD. According to our results, the questionnaire used for this study revealed to be an easy-handling instrument to analyze the conditions associated to DD. Nevertheless, its use in further and larger studies is needed to confirm our results as well as the role of the questionnaire itself as investigation tool for clinical studies.

  11. Impact of different environmental conditions on the aggregation of biogenic U(IV) nanoparticles synthesized by Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şengör, S. Sevinç; Singh, Gursharan; Dohnalkova, Alice; Spycher, Nicolas; Ginn, Timothy R.; Peyton, Brent M.; Sani, Rajesh K.

    2016-09-13

    This study investigates the impact of specific environmental conditions on the formation of colloidal U(IV) nanoparticles by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB, Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20). The reduction of soluble U(VI) to less soluble U(IV) was quantitatively investigated under growth and non-growth conditions in bicarbonate or 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid (PIPES) buffered environments. The results showed that under non-growth conditions, the majority of the reduced U nanoparticles aggregated and precipitated out of solution. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that only a very small fraction of cells had reduced U precipitates in the periplasmic spaces in the presence of PIPES buffer, whereas in the presence of bicarbonate buffer, reduced U was also observed in the cytoplasm with greater aggregation of biogenic U(IV) particles at higher initial U(VI) concentrations. The same experiments were repeated under growth conditions using two different electron donors (lactate and pyruvate) and three electron acceptors (sulfate, fumarate, and thiosulfate). In contrast to the results of the non-growth experiments, even after 0.2 m filtration, the majority of biogenic U(IV) remained in the aqueous phase resulting in potentially mobile biogenic U(IV) nanoparticles. Size fractionation results showed that U(IV) aggregates were between 18 and 200 nm in diameter, and thus could be very mobile. The findings of this study are helpful to assess the size and potential mobility of reduced U nanoparticles under different environmental conditions, and would provide insights on their potential impact affecting U(VI) bioremediation efforts at subsurface contaminated sites.

  12. Effect of Animal Condition and Fluvoxamine on the Result of [18F]N 3 Fluoropropyl-2β carbomethoxy-3β (4-iodophenyl) Nortropane ([18F]FP-CIT) PET Study in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kwang Ho; Lee Sang Ju; Oh, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Seung; Park, Su A; Kim, Seog Young

    2012-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) is a noninvasive imaging technique, visualizing biological aspects in vivo. In animal models, the result of PET study can be affected more prominently than in humans by the animal conditions or drug pretreatment. We assessed the effects of anesthesia, body temperature, and pretreatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on the results of [ 18F ]N 3 fluoropropyl 2β carbomethoxy 3β (4-iodophenyl) nortropane ([ 18F ]FP CIT) PET in mice. [ 18F ]FP CIT PET of C57BL/6 mice was performed in three different conditions: (1) anesthesia (isoflurane) with active warming (38.deg.C) as a reference; (2) no anesthesia or warming; (3) anesthesia without warming at room temperature. Additional groups of mine pretreated with escalating doses of fluvoxamine (5, 20, 40, 80 mg/kg) were imaged in condition (1). The time activity curve and standardized uptake value of the striatum, cerebral cortex, and bone were compared among these conditions. In all conditions, radioactivities of the striatum and cortex tended to form a plateau after rapid uptake and washout, but that of bone tended to increase gradually. When anesthetized without any warming, all the mice developed hypothermia and showed reduced bone uptake compared to the reference condition. In conditions without anesthesia, striatal and cortical uptakes compared to the reference condition. In conditions without anesthesia, striatal and cortical uptakes were reduced, whereas the bone uptake showed no change. Pretreatment with fluvoxamine increased the striatal uptake and striatal specific to cortical non specific uptake ratio, whereas the bone uptake was reduced. Anesthesia, body temperature, and fluvoxamine affect the result of [ 18F ]FP CIT PET in mice by altering striatal and bone uptakes

  13. Effect of Alcohol on Diesel Engine Combustion Operating with Biodiesel-Diesel Blend at Idling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi. Y.; A, M. Mukhtar N.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, A. Adam

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine. However, its blends have not been properly investigated during idling as it is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additives such as butanol and ethanol on combustion parameters under idling conditions when a single cylinder diesel engine operates with diesel, diesel-biodiesel blends, and diesel biodiesel-alcohol blends. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, heat release rate and ignition delay were computed. This investigation has revealed that alcohol blends with diesel and biodiesel, BU20 blend yield higher maximum peak cylinder pressure than diesel. B5 blend was found with the lowest energy release among all. B20 was slightly lower than diesel. BU20 blend was seen with the highest peak energy release where E20 blend was found advance than diesel. Among all, the blends alcohol component revealed shorter ignition delay. B5 and B20 blends were influenced by biodiesel interference and the burning fraction were found slightly slower than conventional diesel where BU20 and E20 blends was found slightly faster than diesel So, based on the result, it can be said that among the alcohol blends butanol and ethanol can be promising alternative at idling conditions and can be used without any engine modifications.

  14. Conditional Selection of Genomic Alterations Dictates Cancer Evolution and Oncogenic Dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Marco; Raynaud, Franck; Tavernari, Daniele; Battistello, Elena; Sungalee, Stephanie; Saghafinia, Sadegh; Laessle, Titouan; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Schultz, Nikolaus; Oricchio, Elisa; Ciriello, Giovanni

    2017-08-14

    Cancer evolves through the emergence and selection of molecular alterations. Cancer genome profiling has revealed that specific events are more or less likely to be co-selected, suggesting that the selection of one event depends on the others. However, the nature of these evolutionary dependencies and their impact remain unclear. Here, we designed SELECT, an algorithmic approach to systematically identify evolutionary dependencies from alteration patterns. By analyzing 6,456 genomes from multiple tumor types, we constructed a map of oncogenic dependencies associated with cellular pathways, transcriptional readouts, and therapeutic response. Finally, modeling of cancer evolution shows that alteration dependencies emerge only under conditional selection. These results provide a framework for the design of strategies to predict cancer progression and therapeutic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sociality Affects REM Sleep Episode Duration Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions in the Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

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    Nadine Gravett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rock hyrax, Procavia capensis, is a highly social, diurnal mammal. In the current study several physiologically measurable parameters of sleep, as well as the accompanying behavior, were recorded continuously from five rock hyraxes, for 72 h under solitary (experimental animal alone in the recording chamber, and social conditions (experimental animal with 1 or 2 additional, non-implanted animals in the recording chamber. The results revealed no significant differences between solitary and social conditions for total sleep times, number of episodes, episode duration or slow wave activity (SWA for all states examined. The only significant difference observed between social and solitary conditions was the average duration of rapid eye movement (REM sleep episodes. REM sleep episode duration was on average 20 s and 40 s longer under social conditions daily and during the dark period, respectively. It is hypothesized that the increase in REM sleep episode duration under social conditions could possibly be attributed to improved thermoregulation strategies, however considering the limited sample size and design of the current study further investigations are needed to confirm this finding. Whether the conclusions and the observations made in this study can be generalized to all naturally socially sleeping mammals remains an open question.

  16. Global Transcription Profiling Reveals Comprehensive Insights into Hypoxic Response in Arabidopsis1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenglong; VanToai, Tara; Moy, Linda P.; Bock, Geoffrey; Linford, Lara D.; Quackenbush, John

    2005-01-01

    Plants have evolved adaptation mechanisms to sense oxygen deficiency in their environments and make coordinated physiological and structural adjustments to enhance their hypoxic tolerance. To gain insight into how plants respond to low-oxygen stress, gene expression profiling using whole-genome DNA amplicon microarrays was carried out at seven time points over 24 h, in wild-type and transgenic PSAG12:ipt Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Transcript levels of genes involved in glycolysis and fermentation pathways, ethylene synthesis and perception, calcium signaling, nitrogen utilization, trehalose metabolism, and alkaloid synthesis were significantly altered in response to oxygen limitation. Analysis based on gene ontology assignments suggested a significant down-regulation of genes whose functions are associated with cell walls, nucleosome structures, water channels, and ion transporters and a significant up-regulation of genes involved in transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity, and auxin responses under conditions of oxygen shortage. Promoter analysis on a cluster of up-regulated genes revealed a significant overrepresentation of the AtMYB2-binding motif (GT motif), a sugar response element-like motif, and a G-box-related sequence, and also identified several putative anaerobic response elements. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions using 29 selected genes independently verified the microarray results. This study represents one of the most comprehensive analyses conducted to date investigating hypoxia-responsive transcriptional networks in plants. PMID:15734912

  17. Modeling of acetate-type fermentation of sugar-containing wastewater under acidic pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Pan, Xin-Rong; Wang, Ya-Zhou; Li, Chen-Xuan; Chen, Chang-Bin; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a kinetic model was developed based on Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 to provide insights into the directed production of acetate and methane from sugar-containing wastewater under low pH conditions. The model sufficiently described the dynamics of liquid-phase and gaseous products in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor by comprehensively considering the syntrophic bioconversion steps of sucrose hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis under acidic pH conditions. The modeling results revealed a significant pH-dependency of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and ethanol-producing processes that govern the sucrose fermentative pathway through changing the hydrogen yield. The reaction thermodynamics of such acetate-type fermentation were evaluated, and the implications for process optimization by adjusting the hydraulic retention time were discussed. This work sheds light on the acid-stimulated acetate-type fermentation process and may lay a foundation for optimization of resource-oriented processes for treatment of food wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in the blood indicators and body condition of high yielding Holstein cows with retained placenta and ketosis

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    Zenon Nogalski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of changes in body condition in the dry period and the early lactation period on the incidence of retained placenta and ketosis in 94 high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows. Body condition scoring was performed every two weeks from the beginning of the dry period until week 18 of lactation. Blood for the measuring of indicators of metabolism was sampled in weeks 1 and 2 ante partum and in weeks 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 post partum. Retained placenta was reported in 11 cows, and ketosis was diagnosed in 18 animals. One week ante partum, the serum profile of cows diagnosed with ketosis during lactation revealed 0.52 mmol/l β-hydroxybutyric acid and 0.29 mmol/l non-esterified fatty acids on average. One week post partum, the serum profile of cows with ketosis revealed 1.59 mmol/l β-hydroxybutyric acid and 1.09 mmol/l non-esterified fatty acids and cows with retained placenta 1.65 and 1.41, respectively. From the week 5 ante partum to the point of lowest body condition the average body condition loss reached 1.4 points in cows with retained placenta, 1.1 points in cows with ketosis, and 0.8 points in healthy cows. Retained placenta and ketosis increased significantly conception rates by 0.47 and 0.50, respectively. Our results show that monitoring changes in the body condition and non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyric acid blood levels in high-yielding cows in the transition period, followed by taking relevant disease-control measures, may be effective in reducing the incidence of retained placenta and ketosis in dairy cattle herds.

  19. Study some mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete with nano silica under severe saline environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habeeb Ghalib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to evaluate the performance of Nano silica self-compacting concrete which is subjected to severe saline conditions that contain sulfates and chlorides at concentrations similar to those existing in the soils and ground water of the middle and southern parts of Iraq. For this purpose, ordinary and sulfate resistant Portland cement without and with 3% Nano silica addition by weight of cementitious materials were used. Splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity were investigated for all exposure conditions and all types of mixes of self-compacting concrete at ages of 28, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days. Test results revealed that the inclusion of Nano Silica in concrete mixes improved clearly the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete compared with reference concrete.

  20. Congenital cardiac disease in childhood x socioeconomic conditions: a relationship to be considered in public health?

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    Thayanny Lopes do Vale Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital heart defects, cardiac malformations that occur in the embryonic period, constitute a serious health problem. They cover a proportion of 8-10 per 1000 live births and contribute to infant mortality. Objective: To identify the socioeconomic status of children undergoing cardiac surgery at the Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Maranhão, in São Luis, the existence of material elements that contribute to worsening conditions. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study with a quantitative approach, descriptive and reflective, from the interviews conducted by the Social Service Social with families of children with heart disease from January 2011 to July 2012. Results: A total of 95 interviews, the results reveal that (75.79% of children have elements that suggest poor socioeconomic conditions. It also shows that only 66.33% lived in brick house, while (31.73% in mud, adobe and straw houses. With regard to income, it showed that only 4.08% received 1-2 minimum wages, while the remaining (95.9% with benchmarks oscillating half the minimum wage (27.55%, 1/4 of the minimum wage and (24.48% and income below 70 dollars per person, featuring extreme poverty. On the social security situation prevailing at children with no ties to 61.22%. With respect to benefits, we found that only (12.24% of children were in the enjoyment of the Continuous Cash Benefit - CCB. Conclusion: Poor socioeconomic conditions listed as major obstacles in meeting the needs, resulting in the maintenance of health conditions and even allowing the aggravation of an existing pathology.

  1. IMPACTS OF REMITTANCE ON THE SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITION OF BANGLADESH: AN ANALYSIS

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    Iqbal Ahmed Chowdhury

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Remittance is considered to be one of the influential sectors of the socioeconomic development of the Third World countries, particularly countries like Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, remittance contributes to the socioeconomic development, maintain foreign exchange reserves, and manage balance of payment, etc. This paper particularly explains the impacts of remittance on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. The paper is written based on secondary sources, published documents on the impacts of remittance. The paper reveals that remittance has both positive and negative impacts on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. However, the positive impacts are more influential than negative one. In Bangladesh, remittance helps people generate income, provide children advanced education, increase social status, create employment opportunities for poor, and above all empower women. People can avail material and non-material culture and can enjoy civic amenities of the modern era. Although, it creates inequality in the society and cultural lag among people, its influential aspect to the socioeconomic development of Bangladesh is more prevailing. As a result, this paper recommends for necessary initiatives from Government Organizations and Non Government Organizations to maintain both remittance and migration flow normal and congenial.

  2. Turbocharging Normalization in Highland Conditions

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    I. V. Filippov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure many production processes are used compressors of various types, including turbochargers, which produce compressed air. The actual performance values of turbochargers used in highlands are significantly different from the certified values, and parameters of compressed air do not always guarantee the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.The paper presents research results of the turbochargers of 4CI 425MX4 type, a series of "CENTAC", manufactured by INGERSOL – RAND Company. The research has been conducted in industrial highland conditions in difficult climatic environment. There were almost no investigations of turbochargers running in highland conditions. The combination of lo