WorldWideScience

Sample records for conditions perceived work

  1. Perceived Work Conditions and Turnover Intentions: The Mediating Role of Meaning of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux-Nicolas, Caroline; Sovet, Laurent; Lhotellier, Lin; Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Perceived working conditions lead to various negative outcomes for employee behaviors, including turnover intentions. Although potential mediators for these relationships were previously identified, the importance of meaning of work has not yet been investigated. This study examines the role of this psychological resource as a mediator for the relationships between perceived working conditions and turnover intentions in a sample of 336 French workers from different job contexts. Results show that adverse working conditions were positively and significantly associated with turnover intentions. Meaning of work is negatively related to both perceived working conditions and turnover intentions. Mediation analyses for meaning of work demonstrated indirect effects of several adverse working conditions on turnover intentions. The role of meaning of work as a psychological resource for employees facing adverse working conditions is discussed, especially regarding its implications for research and practice within organizational contexts.

  2. A prospective study of return to work across health conditions: perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F; Bültmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to RTW differ across different health conditions. The study was based on a sample of 926 workers on sickness absence (6-12 weeks). The participants filled out a baseline questionnaire and were subsequently followed until the tenth month after listing sick. Perceived work attitude was measured with a Dutch language version of the Work Involvement Scale. Perceived social support was measured with a self-constructed standardized scale reflecting a person's perception of social support regarding RTW. Self-efficacy was measured with the standardised Dutch version of the General self-efficacy scale, assessing the subjects' expectations of their general capacities. The sample was divided into three subgroups: musculoskeletal health conditions, other physical health conditions and mental health conditions. Anova analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify differences in association between the three factors and the time to RTW between different subgroups. The associations between the perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and the time to RTW vary across different health condition subgroups, not only with regard to the strength of the association but also for the type of factor. In the multivariate model, hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75) in the musculoskeletal subgroup, and 1.26 (95% CI 0.89-1.78) in the other physical subgroup were found in perceived work attitude. With regard to perceived social support HRs of 1.39 (95% CI 1.12-1.99) respectively 1.51 (1.05-2.17) in the same subgroups were found. Only self-efficacy remained in the multivariate model in all subgroups with HRs of 1.49 (95% CI 1.12-1.99) in the musculoskeletal subgroup, 1.53 (95% CI 1

  3. A Prospective Study of Return to Work Across Health Conditions : Perceived Work Attitude, Self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F.; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to RTW differ across different health con

  4. Perceived Working Conditions and Personal Resources Predicting Mental Health Counselor Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Isabel A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of counselor perceived working conditions, length of time in field, counselor gender, mindfulness attitudes, compassion satisfaction, emotion-focused coping, problem focused coping, and maladaptive coping on levels of burnout and compassion fatigue in a sample of 213 mental health counselors. Cross-sectional…

  5. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massay Deodatus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews (IDIs with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation

  6. The secret to job satisfaction is low expectations: How perceived working conditions differ from actual ones

    OpenAIRE

    Cicognani, Simona; Cioni, Martina; Savioli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions exert a major influence on accidents and illnesses at work as well as on job satisfaction and health, yet very little research has examined the determinants of working conditions. By exploiting the Italian Labour Force Survey, this paper provides evidence on the underlying factors affecting working conditions. It provides a behavioural interpretation of the results, which stems from the discrepancy between actual and expected working conditions. In light of this interpretat...

  7. Association between perceived present working conditions and demands versus attitude to early retirement among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebens, Einar; Medbø, Jon I; Knutsen, Oddvar; Mamen, Asgeir; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2014-01-01

    Early retirement is an increasing problem in the construction industry. There is limited information about causes leading employees to leave working life early. We have compared construction workers present situation with their perception of future demands at work to avoid early retirement. All 87 employees in a medium-sized Norwegian construction company participated in the study. All were men and answered questionnaires on health and pain, work ability, mechanical exposure, psychosocial conditions, and demands regarding future working conditions. Most workers showed good work ability, irrespective of age. Many reported high levels of mechanical exposure at work. The level of musculoskeletal pain was higher in the middle-aged (30-50 year old) age groups and seniors aged over 50 years than among the youngest workers less than 30 years of age. All workers reported that good health was important for continued working. Most workers stated that future work must not be too physically demanding. Many workers reported relatively low job satisfaction; consequently an interesting job was rated as important for continuing work. Good social conditions were a high priority. According to the examined construction workers, good health and reduced levels of mechanical exposure at work are essential to avoid early retirement.

  8. Working conditions, self-perceived stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimansyah Bin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationships between working conditions [job demand, job control and social support]; stress, anxiety, and depression; and perceived quality of life factors [physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships and environmental conditions] were assessed using a sample of 698 male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia. Methods The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF were used. A structural equation modelling (SEM analysis was applied to test the structural relationships of the model using AMOS version 6.0, with the maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The results of the SEM supported the hypothesized structural model (χ2 = 22.801, df = 19, p = 0.246. The final model shows that social support (JCQ was directly related to all 4 factors of the WHOQOL-BREF and inversely related to depression and stress (DASS. Job demand (JCQ was directly related to stress (DASS and inversely related to the environmental conditions (WHOQOL-BREF. Job control (JCQ was directly related to social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF. Stress (DASS was directly related to anxiety and depression (DASS and inversely related to physical health, environment conditions and social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF. Anxiety (DASS was directly related to depression (DASS and inversely related to physical health (WHOQOL-BREF. Depression (DASS was inversely related to the psychological wellbeing (WHOQOL-BREF. Finally, stress, anxiety and depression (DASS mediate the relationships between job demand and social support (JCQ to the 4 factors of WHOQOL-BREF. Conclusion These findings suggest that higher social support increases the self-reported quality of life of these workers. Higher job control increases the social relationships, whilst higher job demand increases the self-perceived stress and decreases

  9. A four-year follow-up study of physical working conditions and perceived mental and physical strain among food industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Subas; Virtanen, Pekka; Luukkaala, Tiina; Siukola, Anna; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2014-05-01

    This study hypothesized that in a longitudinal setting deteriorating physical working conditions increases the perceived physical and mental strain among food processing employees. The study was conducted in 2003 and 2007. It examined 248 blue-collar workers, all of whom were in the same occupation throughout the entire follow-up period. The data were obtained through a structural questionnaire distributed to the employees at the workplace. Mental strain had increased (7%) significantly among younger employees during the follow-up. The changes in mental strain for the younger employees were positively associated with the changes in physical strain. The changes in physical strain were also significantly associated with the changes in physical working conditions among both younger and the older workers. The results of this study partly support the study hypothesis, namely that deteriorating physical working condition increases physical strain and also increases mental strain, especially among younger employees.

  10. Work perceiving by employees and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Izabela Baruk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of work perceiving by employees of scientific organizations in the context of marketing orientation rules were presented. It has the theoretical-empirical character. The following research goals were to be gained: identifying the way of work perceiving by respondents; defining the potential dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially its stress dimension and chosen aspects of professional life. 4 research hypotheses were to be verified. In the empirical part the results of the field researches were presented. To analyse gathered field data the method of correspondence analysis was used. It allowed to gain the research goals and to verify the hypotheses. All of these hypotheses were confirmed. It means that there are statistically significant dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially as stress factor and analysed row variables. They are relatively the strongest in the case of respondents’ openness for improvement of their intellectual potential. The gained results show that scientific organizations playing the role of employers must conduct activities leading up to positive work perceiving by employees. In this case employees want to improve their knowledge and skills. They are ready to co-create the positive image of given employer too.

  11. Well-being perceived and working conditions at ENEA research center; La valutazione soggettiva del benessere lavorativo in un campione di dipendenti ENEA dell'area bolognese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenni, P.; Fagarazzi, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Sarchielli, M.; Zanobini, F. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Psicologia

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this research on 143 workers of the ENEA area in Bologna, has been to survey the degree of well-being perceived and expressed by these workers with respect to different factors of the work environment. This study follows some training/information seminars on environment, health and safety organized in ENEA by Occupational Medicine Group to comply with Leg. Decr. 626/94. In a multidisciplinary approach the health idea has been interpreted not as lack of illness but as pursuit and preservation of the well-being in the work environment. For this purpose, also the involvement and participation of the workers seem to be very useful for subjective reports about individual task, equipment, interfaces, workplace and work organization. In this research, we have adopted an ergonomic checklist based on guiding principles to be applied to the design of optimal working conditions with regard to human well-being, safety and health (see UNI ENV 26385, 1991). Data processing and analysis have requested occupational medicine, ergonomics and statistics competencies. [Italian] La ricerca condotta su un campione ENEA di 143 dipendenti dell'area bolognese ha inteso verificare il grado di benessere percepito ed espresso dai lavoratori in rapporto alle diverse variabili presenti nel contesto lavorativo. Tale indagine e' stata preceduta da specifici seminari di formazione/informazione su ambiente, salute e sicurezza, organizzati a cura della Medicina del Lavoro di Bologna presso le sedi ENEA, a seguito delle disposizioni contenute nel D.Lvo. 626/94. In un'ottica multidisciplinare, il concetto di salute e' stato interpretato non tanto come assenza di malattia quanto come ricerca e mantenimento del benessere lavorativo e, per raggiungere questo scopo, sembra essere molto utile anche il diretto coinvolgimento e la partecipazione dei lavoratori per valutazioni soggettive sulle mansioni assegnate, le attrezzature, le interfacce, la postazione di lavoro e l

  12. A follow-up study on the association of working conditions and lifestyles with the development of (perceived) mental symptoms in workers of a telecommunication enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwazono, Y; Okubo, Y; Kobayashi, E; Kido, T; Nogawa, K

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the association of working conditions and lifestyle with mental health in Japanese workers. A follow-up study was carried out in the Kanto district of Japan of workers in a telecommunications enterprise who received their first annual health check-up between 1992 and 1996 and were between 20 and 54 years old. Workers who reported mental symptoms, had a past history of disease, or current illness at their first check-up were excluded from the analysis. In total, the study included 23 837 workers. The association between working conditions and lifestyle and the development of mental symptoms was investigated by pooled logistic regression analyses. Working long hours and part-time work, as opposed to normal daytime hours of work, were factors associated with the development of mental symptoms in males, as were smoking, short sleeping hours, little physical exercise, rarely taking three meals a day, frequently eating within 1 h before sleep, much preference for salty meals and little preference for vegetables. Consumption of alcohol was negatively associated with the development of mental symptoms in males. Overall, the results suggested that the lower the Healthy Work and Lifestyle Score, the higher the risk of developing mental symptoms. Working conditions and lifestyle, especially food preferences, have an apparent influence on the mental health of Japanese workers. Moreover, the Healthy Work and Lifestyle Score indicates that working conditions and lifestyle appear to have a cumulative influence upon the mental health of Japanese workers.

  13. Working conditions for welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferro dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examines from the point of view of ergonomics, the possibilities of intervention onimprovements in working conditions of industrial welders. We raised the main factors leading todifficulties and constraints in this activity, especially with regard to biomechanical conditions. Inaddition, the study presents a structured approach as the requirements of ergonomics Frenchconfronting the real problems of welders, which are not in work, performed by outsideconsultants who, in a sense, hide real conditions of work. It was through a case study, the majority ofwork in both the scientific literature on the work of external consulting expertise. The constraints of thewelders are characterized as postural and behavioral risks, not showing that behind these, there arecharacteristics of requirements the solder that force the worker to adopt efforts biomechanical posture to which they are unable to behave properly as stated in the research.

  14. Being a trainer in the French vocational training system: a case study of job status and working conditions in relation to perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgoulet, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This communication presents part of an international project focused on the work of trainers from an ergonomics perspective. The objective is to identify in the French vocational training system the various types of job status of trainers and their impact on working conditions and health. In order to explore this issue, we met with 11 trainers, all volunteers, working in the music or human resources sectors. Semi-structured interviews and transcriptions of two weeks of the trainers' professional schedules form the data collected. The analyses show that trainers have various job statuses as trainers and sometimes hold down several jobs at the same time. These working situations create freedom but lack security. With very long daily or weekly working hours, the relationships with trainees and clients are qualified as both very interesting, but also one of the most difficult aspects of the work. The 11 trainers, who considered themselves to be in good health, do however declare infra-pathological disorders, which they often relate to their working conditions. These findings are discussed with regard to the literature and raise issues relating to ergonomic methods in activity analysis and situated action.

  15. The Curvilinear Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support, Work Engagement and Its Boundary Conditions%组织支持感与工作投入的曲线关系及其边界条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健敏; 陆欣欣; 孙嘉卿

    2015-01-01

    its boundary condi -tions.Through integrating JD-R model and social exchange theory , we uncovered the dual-faceted nature of perceived organiza-tional support.That is, it provided employees with job resources while at the same time employees are expected to reciprocate with extra efforts .The finding indicated that it was necessary to understand organizational phenomenon from different perspec -tives.On the other hand , the moderation of affective commitment on the non-linear relationship between perceive organizational support and work engagement indicated that employees affectively committed with their organization were more likely to recipro -cate with extra-role performance in response to organizational support .In consistence with previous research , our findings con-firmed that affective commitment prescribed individual role definitions .When it comes to work engagement , affective commitment shapes individual preference in resource allocation between in-role engagement and extra-role performance , which finally deter-mines pattern of the POS-work engagement relation .In summary, our research calls for more research into non-linear relationship between antecedents and work engagement and the correspondent boundary conditions .%作为一种工作资源,组织支持感是员工工作投入的重要预测变量。但是,基于社会交换理论,组织支持感也可能增加员工角色外的投入、减少对工作角色的投入。在一定条件下,组织支持感与工作投入可能存在非线性的关系。采用302名证券行业员工问卷,考察组织支持感与工作投入的曲线关系,进一步探索情感承诺对该曲线关系的调节作用。在检验共同方法偏差的基础上,采用多项式回归对研究假设进行检验。研究结果表明,在控制员工的情感承诺后,组织支持感与工作投入呈显著U形曲线关系。情感承诺显著调节组织支持感与工作投入的曲线关系,

  16. Work family conflict in its relations to perceived working situation and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2016-02-15

    These days physicians' work is characterized by an increase in economic demands, pressure and challenges in establishing a balance between work and family life. The current study investigates the relationship between physicians' job demands and resources, perceived job stress, work-family conflict, work engagement and job satisfaction. 564 clinicians specialising in different medical fields participated in the cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the COPSOQ and the UWES- Scale were administered. Our results illustrated significant relationships between physicians' work engagement and their job satisfaction as well as between job stress and work family conflict. Moreover, perceived job stress moderated the effect of high job demands on work family conflict. In addition, significant gender differences have been found in perceived stress levels, work family conflict and work engagement. This study proves and verified associations between work engagement, work-family conflict, job demands and resources that may influence employees' satisfaction. Implications for both working physicians and hospital management are given.

  17. Ethics policies, perceived social responsibility, and positive work attitude

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sean Valentine; Lynn Godkin

    2016-01-01

    ...) enhance employee attitudes is still subject toinvestigation. Consequently, this study explored how ethics training and an ethics code work with perceived social responsibility to encourage positive feelings about work...

  18. Teacher Working Conditions that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithwood, Ken; McAdie, Pat

    2007-01-01

    To advance understanding of the issues concerning teachers' working conditions, the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario commissioned one of the authors to do an analytical review of literature on teachers' working conditions. This resulted in the publication, "Teacher Working Conditions That Matter: Evidence for Change." The…

  19. Why Does Mentoring Work? The Role of Perceived Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranik, Lisa E.; Roling, Elizabeth A.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the mediating role of perceived organizational support in the relationship between mentoring support received and work attitudes. Perceived organizational support partly mediated the relationship between specific types of mentoring support and job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. Specifically, sponsorship,…

  20. Work organisation, technology and working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.; Sloten, G. van

    2002-01-01

    The personal computer, computer networks and the Internet have brought the Union into the Information Age. These technological changes have inevitably led to changes in the work environment and the quality of working conditions. For the third time, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Livi

  1. Relationships among perceived career support, affective commitment, and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, June M L

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to test the predictive effects of perceived career support and affective commitment on work engagement. It was hypothesized that perceived career support would relate positively to work engagement and this relationship would be transmitted through affective commitment. Survey data were collected from 115 full-time employees enrolled as part-time graduate students in a large public university in Malaysia. Multiple regression analysis yielded results indicating that the relationship between perceived career support and work engagement was mediated by affective commitment. This finding suggests that employers can promote employee work engagement by ensuring employees perceive their organization to be supportive of their career and increasing employees' level of affective commitment.

  2. Relationship between perceived work ability and productivity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vänni, Kimmo; Virtanen, Pekka; Luukkaala, Tiina; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to assessing presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss) that is related to perceived work ability. The aim of this explorative research was to find out if perceived work ability could be a robust indicator, interchangeable with presenteeism, in Finnish food industry organizations. The developed approach was based on existing presenteeism research as well as on register and survey data. The approach demonstrates that one step downward on the 10-point perceived work ability scale theoretically reduces employees' on-the-job productivity by ˜5 percentage points. At the company level, on-the-job productivity loss was 3.7% (mdn 0), while sickness absence was 5.0% (mdn 2.2). The probability of productivity loss among factory workers was fourfold compared to women in office work. The developed approach makes it possible to assess perceived productivity loss at the level of an individual and an organization. Perceived work ability may, in fact, be a robust indicator for assessing perceived productivity loss.

  3. Perceived suprathreshold depth under conditions that elevate the stereothreshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Harold E; Gantz, Liat; Jackson, Danielle N

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies considered the possibility that individuals with impaired stereoacuity can be identified by estimating the perceived depth of a target with a suprathreshold retinal image disparity. These studies showed that perceived suprathreshold depth is reduced when the image presented to one eye is blurred, but they did not address whether a similar reduction of perceived depth occurs when the stereothreshold is elevated using other manipulations. Stereothresholds were measured in six adult observers for a pair of bright 1-degree vertical lines during normal viewing and under five conditions that elevated the stereothreshold: monocular dioptric blur, monocular glare, binocular luminance reduction, monocular luminance reduction, and imposed disjunctive image motion. The observers subsequently matched the perceived depth of degraded targets presented with crossed or uncrossed disparities corresponding to two, four, and six times the elevated stereothreshold for each stimulus condition. The image manipulations used elevated the stereothreshold by a factor of 3.7 to 5.5 times. For targets with suprathreshold disparities, monocular blur, monocular luminance reduction, and disjunctive image motion resulted in a significant decrease in perceived depth. However, the magnitude of perceived suprathreshold depth was unaffected when monocular glare was introduced or the binocular luminance of the stereotargets was reduced. Not all conditions that increase the stereothreshold reduce the perceived depth of targets with suprathreshold disparities. Observers who have poor stereopsis therefore may or may not exhibit an associated reduction of perceived suprathreshold depth.

  4. Time management training and perceived control of time at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of time management training, which was based on psychological theory and research, on perceived control of time, perceived stress, and performance at work. The authors randomly assigned 71 employees to a training group (n = 35) or a waiting-list control group (n = 36). As hypothesized, time management training led to an increase in perceived control of time and a decrease in perceived stress. Time management training had no impact on different performance indicators. In particular, the authors explored the use and the perceived usefulness of the techniques taught. Participants judged the taught techniques as useful, but there were large differences concerning the actual use of the various techniques.

  5. Working Conditions, Lifestyles and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottini, Elena; Ghinetti, Paolo

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether employee health is affected by the environment in which the individual works - in terms of both physical and psychosocial working conditions - and by his or her lifestyle. Health measures are computed from Danish data, and refer to both self assessed...... general health and two more objective health measures: mental health specific to work-related problems, and physical health. We find that both bad working conditions and bad lifestyles reduce health, especially in its self-assessed component. The impact of lifetsyle indicators have a more modest health...

  6. The Perceived Business Value of Social Media at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    is customizable to specific user needs, empowering employees to design specific workflows thus helping them to work more effectively. Using social media, personal knowledge can be synergized into collective knowledge through social collaborative processes that may facilitate externalization of knowledge...... of knowledge sharing and collaboration in organizations is difficult. Based on quantitative as well as qualitative data from 13 Danish organizations, we investigate the following research question: What is the business value of social media in organizations as perceived by the employees? Based on the data...... analysis, the paper derives a model of factors associated with the perceived business value of social media....

  7. Disability mediates the impact of common conditions on perceived health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Alonso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: WHO World Mental Health (WMH Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate. We assessed nine common mental conditions with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, and ten chronic physical with a checklist. A visual analog scale (VAS score (0, worst to 100, best measured perceived health in the previous 30 days. Disability was assessed using a modified WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS, including: cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, role functioning (life activities, family burden, stigma, and discrimination. Path analysis was used to estimate total effects of conditions on perceived health VAS and their separate direct and indirect (through the WHODAS dimensions effects. Twelve-month prevalence was 14.4% for any mental and 51.4% for any physical condition. 31.7% of respondents reported difficulties in role functioning, 11.4% in mobility, 8.3% in stigma, 8.1% in family burden and 6.9% in cognition. Other difficulties were much less common. Mean VAS score was 81.0 (SD = 0.1. Decrements in VAS scores were highest for neurological conditions (9.8, depression (8.2 and bipolar disorder (8.1. Across conditions, 36.8% (IQR: 31.2-51.5% of the total decrement in perceived health associated with the condition were mediated by WHODAS disabilities (significant for 17 of 19 conditions. Role functioning was the dominant mediator for both mental and physical conditions. Stigma and family burden were also important mediators for mental conditions, and mobility for physical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: More than a third of the decrement in perceived health associated with common conditions is mediated by disability. Although the decrement is similar for physical and mental conditions, the pattern of

  8. Yoga for reducing perceived stress and back pain at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfiel, N; Burton, C; Rycroft-Malone, J; Clarke, G; Havenhand, J; Khalsa, S B; Edwards, R T

    2012-12-01

    Stress and back pain are two key factors leading to sickness absence at work. Recent research indicates that yoga can be effective for reducing perceived stress, alleviating back pain, and improving psychological well-being. To determine the effectiveness of a yoga-based intervention for reducing perceived stress and back pain at work. Participants were recruited from a British local government authority and randomized into a yoga group who received one 50 min Dru Yoga session each week for 8 weeks and a 20 min DVD for home practice and a control group who received no intervention. Baseline and end-programme measurements of self-reported stress, back pain and psychological well-being were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. There were 37 participants in each group. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression showed that in comparison to the control group, the yoga group reported significant reductions in perceived stress and back pain, and a substantial improvement in psychological well-being. When compared with the control group at the end of the programme, the yoga group scores were significantly lower for perceived stress, back pain, sadness and hostility, and substantially higher for feeling self-assured, attentive and serene. The results indicate that a workplace yoga intervention can reduce perceived stress and back pain and improve psychological well-being. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the broader efficacy of yoga for improving workplace productivity and reducing sickness absence.

  9. Compression of perceived depth as a function of viewing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ann; Delshad, Rebecca; Sedgwick, Harold A

    2012-12-01

    The magnification produced by a low-vision telescope has been shown to compress perceived depth. Looking through such a telescope, however, also entails monocular viewing and visual field restriction, and these viewing conditions, taken together, were also shown to compress perceived depth. The research presented here quantitatively explores the separate effects of each of these viewing conditions on perceived depth. Participants made verbal estimates of the length, relative to the width, of rectangles presented in a controlled table-top setting. In experiment 1, the rectangles were either in the frontal plane or receding in depth, and they were viewed either binocularly or monocularly with an unrestricted field of view (FOV). In experiment 2, the rectangles were in depth and were viewed monocularly with an unrestricted FOV, a moderately (40 degrees) restricted FOV, or a severely (11.5 degrees) restricted FOV. Viewed in the frontal plane, either monocularly or binocularly, the vertical dimension was expanded by about 10%. Viewed in depth, with an unrestricted FOV, the (projectively vertical) depth dimension was compressed by 12% when seen binocularly or 24% when seen monocularly. A monocular moderately (40 degrees) restricted FOV was very similar to the unrestricted monocular FOV. A severely (11.5 degrees) restricted FOV, however, produced a substantially greater 44% compression of perceived depth. Even under near-optimal binocular viewing conditions, there is some compression of perceived depth. The compression found when viewing through a low-vision telescope has been shown to be substantially greater. In addition to the previously demonstrated contribution of telescopic magnification to this effect, we have now shown that the viewing conditions of monocularity and severely restricted (11.5 degrees) FOV can each produce substantial increments in the compression of perceived depth. We found, however, that a moderately restricted (40 degrees) FOV does not increase

  10. States Scrutinize Teacher Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Access to reliable technology. Help from classroom aides. Out-of-classroom duties. Planning time with colleagues. Administrator accessibility. All those working conditions and more play a vital part in whether good teachers feel sufficiently satisfied to stay in their schools. Now, policymakers are beginning to gather evidence on just how much…

  11. Working conditions in international seafaring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C; Sørensen, Jens F L; Thomas, Michelle;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seafaring is a global profession and seafarers have their second home on board and live there for several months at a time. AIM: To assess self-rated health status and the main characteristics of seafarers' working conditions. METHODS: Questionnaire study concerning the most recent to...

  12. Disability Mediates the Impact of Common Conditions on Perceived Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Adroher, Nuria D.; Chatterji, Somnath; He, Yanling; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; O'Neill, Siobhan; Hormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. Methods and Findings: WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate).

  13. Disability Mediates the Impact of Common Conditions on Perceived Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Adroher, Nuria D.; Chatterji, Somnath; He, Yanling; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; O'Neill, Siobhan; Hormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. Methods and Findings: WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate). W

  14. Perceived Stress in Breastfeeding Working Mothers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Valizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Working breastfeeding mothers because of multiple and conflicting roles and demands in home and work-place experience high level of stress. Identifying perceived stress of this group of mothers can be helpful in their life promotion. This study aimed to describe the experiences of sixteen Iranian breastfeeding mothers who returned to work and to discover, through in depth, semi-structured interviews their perceived stress. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic-analysis. Two main themes emerged by analyzing data about perceived stress: 1 "Not being a good mother" with subthemes of aFeeling of cruelty toward the child and b Child neglect of maternal care; and 2 "Feeling trapped" with subthemes of a Inflexible expectations and 2 Forgotten identity. Findings of this study emphasize the need to promote awareness of spouses of this group of mothers about the difficult situation which mothers face with and planning to promote their participation especially in care of child. Providing family-friendly policies in work-place is suggested.

  15. Work-family conflict and enrichment in nurses: between job demands, perceived organisational support and work-family backlash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio G

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how work relationships (perceived organisational support, supervisor and co-worker work-family backlash) and job demands (workload, emotional dissonance) can interact with work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Despite the extensive literature on the work-family interface, few studies on the nursing profession have considered the role of job demands and work relationships, focusing on both the positive and negative side of the work-family interface. The study involved a sample of 500 nurses working in an Italian hospital. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to test hypotheses. Analyses showed that work-family conflict has a positive relationship with job demands and supervisor backlash, and a negative relationship with perceived organisational support. Work-family enrichment was found to have a negative relationship with job demands and a positive relationship with perceived organisational support. No significant relationships were found between work-family enrichment and both backlash dimensions. The study confirmed the importance of promoting a balance between job demands and resources in order to create favourable conditions for work-family enrichment and to prevent work-family conflict. The findings suggest that it may be advisable for health-care organisations to invest in measures at individual, team and organisational levels, specifically in training and counselling for nurses and supervisors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Working conditions, compensation and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Solveig Osborg

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines absence behaviour in relation to the working environment. A theoretical model is built in order to separate the effects of voluntary absences and absences related to ill health, where health effects are assumed to be tied to working conditions. This model is based on the Shapiro and Stiglitz efficiency wage model. In addition, work environment is introduced as a part of the compensation package. The model gives a testable hypothesis of compensating wage differentials. A panel of quarterly firm level data from 1990 to 1998 are used and the theoretical model is supported by the empirical findings. The result indicates that the workers may not be fully compensated when experiencing high levels of noise in the work area, or when the job involves a high degree of monotonous work, heavy or frequent lifting or poor work postures. Ill health, and thus increased long-term absence, is not highly related to economic variables. However, long-term absence is relatively higher if the firm is troubled with many accidents or near misses. In addition, disamenities for which workers are not fully compensated cause ill health and increased long-term absence.

  17. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  18. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Perceived unfairness at work, social and personal resources, and resting blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T

    2014-02-01

    By drawing from theoretical perspectives suggesting that unfair conditions threaten fundamental psychological needs, perceived unfairness at work was proposed and tested as a predictor of resting blood pressure. As part of the Midlife Development in the United States Biomarkers project, participants completed questionnaires measuring perceived unfairness, self-esteem and coworker support. Resting blood pressure readings were also recorded as part of a larger physical examination. Results indicate that perceived unfairness at work was associated with higher resting diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Perceived unfairness was most strongly related to diastolic and systolic blood pressure among women with low levels of coworker support. Contrary to predictions, self-esteem did not moderate the association between perceived unfairness and blood pressure. These results suggest that high blood pressure may be a mechanism linking unfairness to negative health outcomes and point to coworker support as a moderator of the perceived unfairness-blood pressure relationship among women. Further research is needed exploring the mediating mechanisms linking unfair treatment at work to blood pressure and health.

  20. Survey of perceived stress and work demands of consultant doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, R M; Blenkin, H; Deary, I J; Zealley, H E; Wood, R A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the work demands as potential stressors of health service consultants, and to describe the development of tools for measuring stress experiences of consultants. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 500 NHS consultants in Scotland was targeted by a postal questionnaire and 375 (75%) returned a valid response. They completed questionnaires, including information on demographic factors, work demands, occupational stressors, and burnout. RESULTS: Principal components analysis showed that professional work demands of consultants fell into three categories: clinical, academic, and administrative. Their perceived stressors separated into four main factors: clinical responsibility, demands on time, organisational constraints, and personal confidence. These were assessed by 25 questions in the specialist doctors' stress inventory. Specific questions about perceived stressors which resulted in a high positive response included questions about demands on time, and organisational change in the NHS. CONCLUSION: These self reported data characterise and measure the consultants' work demands and their role as potential stressors. These measurements could form the basis for strategies to reduce occupational stress in these workers. PMID:8664957

  1. [Study on work stress perceived by clinical nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J Y; Suh, M J

    1989-12-01

    This study was designed to measure the degree of work stress perceived by clinical nurses working in psychiatric ward, and to identify the factors influencing the difference of work stress. The survey method was used and the subjects of this study consisted of 135 psychiatric nurses from 7 university hospitals and 4 provincial general hospitals. The data were collected from August 1 to 20, 1988. The instrument used for this study was PNOSS (Psychiatric Nurse Occupational Stress Scale) which was developed by Bai (1989). The confidence verification of this instrument was computed and the Cronbach alpha was 0.94050. Data were analysed by t-test and ANOVA on 5% significant level with SPSS program. The results of study were summarized as follow: 1) The degree of perceived stress among psychiatric nurses was considerably high (4.32 out of 6.00). 2) Among the stressors, inadequate staffing (5.04), hospital administration problems (4.7) and the conflict of nurse-patient relationship were identified as the stress factors with high rank of degree of stress. 3) There was significant relationship between the degree of stress and the demographic variables of nurses such as the marital status, educational level, and the motivation of working in psychiatric ward. 4) There was significant relationship between the job-related variables such as the working duration, the motivation of working and nurse's attitude toward the psychiatric patients. 5) The relationship between several stress factors and some of the demographic and the job-related variables were significantly identified.

  2. Approaches to Learning at Work: Investigating Work Motivation, Perceived Workload, and Choice Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Raes, Elisabeth; Dochy, Filip; Janssens, Els

    2013-01-01

    Learning and development are taking up a central role in the human resource policies of organizations because of their crucial contribution to the competitiveness of those organizations. The present study investigates the relationship of work motivation, perceived workload, and choice independence with employees' approaches to learning at work.…

  3. Approaches to Learning at Work: Investigating Work Motivation, Perceived Workload, and Choice Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Raes, Elisabeth; Dochy, Filip; Janssens, Els

    2013-01-01

    Learning and development are taking up a central role in the human resource policies of organizations because of their crucial contribution to the competitiveness of those organizations. The present study investigates the relationship of work motivation, perceived workload, and choice independence with employees' approaches to learning at work.…

  4. WORK CONDITIONS OF CHAINSAW OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Roberto Malinovski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the human factors and the work conditions in clear-cutting operations using chainsaws in mountainous areas. Data were colected in a forestry company in Minas Gerais, Brazil, by interviews with 29 chainsaw operators. The results indicated that the operators average age was 32.3 years, height 1.68m and body weight 64.4Kg. The average job time in the company was 112 months and the average time of chainsaw operation experience was 81.5 months. Most (93.1% were dexterous and 6.9% were left-handed. The high incidence of backache (41.4% indicated that the task demands an overload of lumbar column, so that the company should take preventive measures to avoid backaches, using educational strategies or changing the opera-tional system. The high level of accidents (44.8% indicated that some precautions are needed to im-prove work safety.

  5. Perceived psychological pressure at work, social class, and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, Poul; Andersen, Lars; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Investigate if the association between perceived psychological work pressure and risk of stroke is modified by socioeconomic status.......Investigate if the association between perceived psychological work pressure and risk of stroke is modified by socioeconomic status....

  6. Work related perceived stress and muscle activity during standardized computer work among female computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....

  7. Workers' intrinsic work motivation when job demands are high : The role of need for autonomy and perceived opportunity for blended working

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Wörtler, Burkhard; de Jonge, Kiki M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Work overload or work pressure may undermine workers' intrinsic motivation. In the present research, we tested the conditions under which this may (not) occur, including the perceived opportunity to blend on-site and off-site working through the effective use of computers and modern information and

  8. The perceived quality of working life and job facet satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Coster

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve our understanding of the influence of the domains of the quality of working life on job satisfaction, recent research suggests that job facet satisfaction may be more strongly related to specific job domains than to overall job satisfaction. This study examined the relationships between job facet satisfaction, in eleven specific job facets, overall satisfaction and the perceived quality of working life. The results supported the hypothesis. Similar results were obtained after factor analysing the specific job facets indicating the use of studying specific job domains and their respective job facet satisfactions. Opsomming Ter uitbreiding van ons begrip van watter uitwerking die domeine van die gehalte van werklewe op werkbevrediging het, dui onlangse navorsing daarop dat werkfasetbevrediging moontlik 'n sterker verband met spesifieke werkdomeine as met algemene werkbevrediging toon. In hierdie studie is die verhouding tussen werkfasetbevrediging t.o.v. elf spesifieke werkfasette, algehele bevrediging en die waargenome gehalte van werklewe ondersoek. Die bevindinge ondersteun die gestelde hipotese. Soortgelyke resultate is verkry na faktoranalise van die spesifieke werkfasette, wat daarop dui dat dit nuttig kan wees om spesifieke werkdomeine en die ooreenstemmende werkfasetbevrediging daaraan verbonde te bestudeer.

  9. Work-Family Conflict and Working Conditions in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Duncan; Russell, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the influence of working conditions on work-family conflict (WFC) among married/cohabiting employees across seven European countries. Using data from the European Social Survey, the paper first investigates the role of working conditions relative to household level characteristics in mediating work-family conflict at the…

  10. Employment status and working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Andries, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the 1990s an increasing number of employees were engaged in non-permanent contract work in the European Union. This can, to a large extent, be explained by an active labour market policy where job creation was the focus, and this type of employment provided a way of meeting the increased demand f

  11. Perceived competence and warmth influence respect, liking and trust in work relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleszkiewicz Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies confirmed the positive effect of trust on human relations and performance in organizations. As a social judgment, trust should be related to perceived competence and warmth as two basic dimensions of person perception. Surprisingly, to date no attempts have been made to examine the influence of attributed competence and warmth on social judgments in interpersonal relations at work. To this end, we examine the influence of perceived competence and warmth on trust, liking and respect in upward and downward work relations. A study involving 190 middle-stage managers revealed that the two fundamental dimensions of social cognition (competence and warmth influence respect, liking and trust. Competence had a stronger effect on respect than warmth; the opposite was true for liking. Trust was conditioned by both competence and warmth to an equal, high extent. At the same time, warmth expressed by supervisors led to higher results in liking, respect and trust in them than warmth expressed by subordinates.

  12. Studying the Relationship between Incivility in Work Environment and Perceived Organizational Justice in Rafsanjan Executive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ziaaddini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the relationship between incivility in work environment and perceived organizational justice in Rafsanjan executive systems. Statistical society of the research includes 1737 employees in Rafsanjan executive systems from which 321 people were selected as the sample by Cochrane formulation. The instruments of measuring are two questionnaires. Questionnaire of incivility in work environment designed and made by researcher for which validity and reliability are obtained 0.92 and 0.94 respectively. To measure the questionnaire of organizational justice the questionnaire by validity of 0.93 was used. Reliability of both questionnaires was obtained 0.92 and 0.74 by Cronbach Alpha respectively. To test hypotheses Kendal and Spearman correlation coefficient was used. All statistical analyses were done by spss statistical software. Regarding obtained results it is determined that there is a meaningful, reverse relationship between incivility in work environment and perceived organizational justice in Rafsanjan executive systems. Based on the results of the research it is suggested that decreasing incivility in work environment provides conditions of perceiving justice and fair in organizations.

  13. Physical activity intervention effects on perceived stress in working mothers: the role of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Working mothers often report elevated stress, and efforts to improve their coping resources are needed to buffer the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study examined the impact of changes in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation across the course of a brief intervention on subsequent levels of stress in working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (2:1 ratio). The intervention was conducted in Illinois between March 2011 and January 2012 and consisted of two group-mediated workshop sessions with content based on social cognitive theory. Participants completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and perceived stress at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Stress levels declined across the 6-month period in both groups. Changes in stress were negatively associated with changes in self-efficacy and self-regulation among intervention participants only. Regression analyses revealed the intervention elicited short-term increases in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, but only changes in self-efficacy predicted perceived stress at 6-month follow-up. These results suggest that enhancing self-efficacy is likely to improve working mothers' perceived capabilities to cope with stressors in their lives. Future interventions should continue to focus on increasing self-efficacy to promote improvements in physical activity and psychological well-being in this population.

  14. Stable working conditions with decline in work disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of work in the Netherlands remains quite stable, with a small increase in exposure to time pressure. Despite the stable working conditions, fewer workers feel that protective measures are needed. Changes in work disability regulations have led to far fewer workers dropping out of employm

  15. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  16. PERSONAL ATTITUDES, PERCEIVED SOCIAL NORMS, AND HEALTH RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS WITH CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Mussatto, Kathleen A.; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary Ellen; Lerand, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Methods 68 females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Results Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent’s current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Conclusions Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs. PMID:23524992

  17. Toward a Conceptualization of Perceived Work-Family Fit and Balance: A Demands and Resources Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voydanoff, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Using person-environment fit theory, this article formulates a conceptual model that links work, family, and boundary-spanning demands and resources to work and family role performance and quality. Linking mechanisms include 2 dimensions of perceived work-family fit (work demands--family resources fit and family demands--work resources fit) and a…

  18. Women and Working Conditions: Prospects for Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguret, Marie-Claire

    1983-01-01

    Women's difficult working conditions are due to factors such as the nature and form of women's employment, their reproductive role, and family responsibilities. The relative importance of these factors must be assessed in order to redress inequalities. (SK)

  19. Perceived religious discrimination as predictor of work engagement, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda van der Walt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although perceived religious discrimination has been studied in the past, much remains unknown about the topic. The focus of this study was the Rastafari religion, because this religious group has up to now been excluded from research studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a sample of 80 employees belonging to the Rastafari religion, chosen from organisations in two provinces in South Africa. The findings emanating from the quantitative research study indicated that, on average, the respondents perceived to be discriminated against. Furthermore, a positive relationship was established between perceived religious discrimination and work engagement. These findings advanced the understanding of perceived religious discrimination, and the impact that it may have on work engagement, particularly with reference to the Rastafari religion.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article contributes to the interdisciplinary discourse regarding perceived religious discrimination, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion which is a minority religious group in South Africa. Perceived religious discrimination is discussed and investigated in the context of the workplace, and the aim was to establish whether perceived religious discrimination influences work-related attitudes, such as work engagement. Because previous studies have associated perceived discrimination with less job involvement and career satisfaction, fewer career prospects, greater work conflict, lower feelings of power, decreased job prestige, and less organisational citizenship behaviour (Thomas 2008:80, it was expected that perceived religious discrimination would have a negative influence on work engagement. The findings show that religion possibly provides individuals with the necessary personal resources to persevere when faced with religious discrimination, and sustain performance as well as attain success within the context of the

  20. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity during the Mars 520 study

    OpenAIRE

    Šolcová, I. (Iva); Gushin, V. (1); Vinokhodova, A.; Lukavský, J. (Jiří)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the dynamics of changes in emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity in the crew of the Mars 520 experimental study that simulated traveling to Mars, orbiting it, landing, and returning to Earth. The study comprised six volunteers, all men, between 27–38 yr of age. During the simulation, measures of emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity were repeated every month. Emotional energy, work self-effica...

  1. A Social Dialogue to improve working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinsmeister, J.; Meerman, G.M. M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the project is to empower older workers in communication and self-regulation in work and working conditions (Houben 2002). The project is an example of a developmental approach of an age diversity policy. The large scale project started in September 2005 in different organizations: an ind

  2. The Relationship between Work Engagement Behavior and Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Akif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between work engagement and perceived organizational support and organizational climate. The present study, in which quantitative methods have been used, is carried out in the relational screening model. Perceived organizational support scale, organizational climate scale, and work…

  3. PERCEIVED RECIPROCITY, SOCIAL SUPPORT, AND STRESS AT WORK - THE ROLE OF EXCHANGE AND COMMUNAL ORIENTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUUNK, BP; DOOSJE, BJ; Jans, G.J.M.; HOPSTAKEN, LEM

    1993-01-01

    Perceived reciprocity regarding support in relationships at work was examined among employees of a psychiatric hospital (Study 1) and in a study of employees of the Dutch National Railway Company (Study 2). Relationships with colleagues were more often perceived as reciprocal than relationships with

  4. The Perceived Business Value of Social Media at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    of knowledge sharing and collaboration in organizations is difficult. Based on quantitative as well as qualitative data from 13 Danish organizations, we investigate the following research question: What is the business value of social media in organizations as perceived by the employees? Based on the data......Social Media is a new phenomenon that impacts businesses, society and individuals. Social media has swept into the business world, disrupting businesses, bringing new opportunities and challenges. The use of social media in organizations has the potential to shape the “future of the work”. Both...... consultancy reports and scholarly articles highlight and discuss the new opportunities and organizational benefits provided by social media to change the current top-down (i.e. initiated by management) business model to a more collaborative and bottom-up (i.e. initiated by employees) approach. Such a model...

  5. Perceived Time, Temporal Order and Control in Boundaryless Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Kamp, Annette

    2010-01-01

    psychological illnesses. This paradoxical tendency questions our basic knowledge about well being at work. For decades employee control has been seen as universal solution to work related psychosocial hazards, but this is now questioned. We find that control is still as important but needs to be studied in new......, habits, breaks, norms and meetings that occur through the inter-personal relationships. Therefore work life research can make use of time sociology concepts to understand and study how control is gained and lost in contemporary work. The results of our study show that individualized time conflicts leave...... self-managing and empowered workers with feelings of being unable to get control of their work life. Time conflicts due to an increasing amount of social interactions and complexity at work have become a major psychosocial working environment problem because the sense of control erodes....

  6. [Nursing workloads and working conditions: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoeller, Roseli; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Neis, Márcia Binder; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires

    2011-06-01

    This study reviews theoretical production concerning workloads and working conditions for nurses. For that, an integrative review was carried out using scientific articles, theses and dissertations indexed in two Brazilian databases, Virtual Health Care Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) and Digital Database of Dissertations (Banco Digital de Teses), over the last ten years. From 132 identified studies, 27 were selected. Results indicate workloads as responsible for professional weariness, affecting the occurrence of work accidents and health problems. In order to adequate workloads studies indicate some strategies, such as having an adequate numbers of employees, continuing education, and better working conditions. The challenge is to continue research that reveal more precisely the relationships between workloads, working conditions, and health of the nursing team.

  7. Working conditions, work style, and job satisfaction among Albanian teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, Marion; Tarifa, Fatos

    1994-03-01

    For the first time in Albania, a large-scale study investigating teachers' working conditions was conducted. 349 teachers from many parts of the country and from all school levels answered an extensive questionnaire, providing a comprehensive description of their working situation. As data for parts of the study exist from the USA, Germany, Singapore, England, and Poland, results could be discussed in comparison to the conditions in these countries, showing that self-reported job satisfaction and engagement in effective classroom practices is relatively high among Albanian teachers, while the economic and physical conditions are bad. Stepwise regression analyses reveal that the items measuring professional autonomy account for a considerable part of the variance of the job satisfaction measure; while work efficiency is mainly predicted by items measuring social support and, again, professional autonomy.

  8. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2016-03-01

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education.

  9. Low-perceived work ability, ageing and intention to leave nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Van der Heijden, Beatrice Isabella Johanna Maria

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study exploring nurses' perceived work ability and its associations with age and intention to leave nursing in a representative sample of registered nurses in 10 european countries....

  10. Perceived Time, Temporal Order and Control in Boundaryless Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Kamp, Annette

    2010-01-01

    , habits, breaks, norms and meetings that occur through the inter-personal relationships. Therefore work life research can make use of time sociology concepts to understand and study how control is gained and lost in contemporary work. The results of our study show that individualized time conflicts leave...... ways. The way work has developed, the concept of time becomes a key to understand the actual degree of employee control. We cannot study control without taking the qualities of time into consideration. Hence to understand control we must study the qualities of time by looking into common routines...

  11. Does perceived unfairness exacerbate or mitigate interpersonal counterproductive work behaviors related to envy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Mueller, Jennifer S

    2007-05-01

    The authors examined how the interaction between perceived unfairness and episodic envy predicts interpersonal counterproductive work behaviors toward the envied other. In 2 studies using different samples and methods to elicit envy, predictions were compared based on the social exchange and attribution models of fairness. The results support the social exchange model of fairness, showing that higher levels of envy and perceived unfairness result in higher levels of interpersonal counterproductive work behavior (Study 1), especially among high self-esteem individuals (Study 2).

  12. Empowerment variables for rehabilitation clients on perceived beliefs concerning work quality of life domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Molly K; Frain, Michael P; Bishop, Malachy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and presents an initial analysis of variables generally associated with empowerment towards perceived beliefs concerning quality of life work domains for individuals with disabilities. The model examines the domains of importance, satisfaction, control and degree of interference of disability that an individual feels towards work. The internet based study used results from 70 individuals with disabilities in varying aspects of work. The variables composing empowerment that correlated strongly with the work domains include: self-advocacy, self-efficacy, perceived stigma, and family resiliency as measured through coping. Quality of Life concerning work was measured through the DSC-C a domain specific QOL instrument.

  13. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  14. Perceived discontinuities and continuities in transdisciplinary scientific working groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowston, Kevin; Specht, Alison; Hoover, Carol; Chudoba, Katherine M; Watson-Manheim, Mary Beth

    2015-11-15

    We examine the DataONE (Data Observation Network for Earth) project, a transdisciplinary organization tasked with creating a cyberinfrastructure platform to ensure preservation of and access to environmental science and biological science data. Its objective was a difficult one to achieve, requiring innovative solutions. The DataONE project used a working group structure to organize its members. We use organizational discontinuity theory as our lens to understand the factors associated with success in such projects. Based on quantitative and qualitative data collected from DataONE members, we offer recommendations for the use of working groups in transdisciplinary synthesis. Recommendations include welcome diverse opinions and world views, establish shared communication practices, schedule periodic synchronous face-to-face meetings, and ensure the active participation of bridge builders or knowledge brokers such as librarians who know how to ask questions about disciplines not their own. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  16. Pay, Working Conditions, and Teacher Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2007-01-01

    Eric Hanushek and Steven Rivkin examine how salary and working conditions affect the quality of instruction in the classroom. The wages of teachers relative to those of other college graduates have fallen steadily since 1940. Today, average wages differ little, however, between urban and suburban districts. In some metropolitan areas urban…

  17. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  18. Perceived stress and self-esteem mediate the effects of work-related stress on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Kyeong-Sook

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of perceived stress and self-esteem on work-related stress and depression. Two hundred and eighty-four Korean nurses participated in the study. The participants completed four questionnaires, including the Korean short version of the occupational stress scale, the perceived stress scale, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Beck depression inventory. Structural equation modelling was used to determine the relationships among work-related stress, perceived stress, self-esteem, and depression. Work-related stress was positively associated with depression. Perceived stress was inversely related to self-esteem and positively associated with work-related stress and depression, respectively. Self-esteem was negatively associated with work-related stress and depression. Structural equation modelling revealed that self-esteem and perceived stress fully mediate the relationship between work-related stress and depression. Future studies should further investigate the effect of psychological characteristics on work-related stress and symptoms of depression.

  19. Perceived competence and warmth influence respect, liking and trust in work relations

    OpenAIRE

    Oleszkiewicz Anna; Lachowicz-Tabaczek Kinga

    2016-01-01

    Many studies confirmed the positive effect of trust on human relations and performance in organizations. As a social judgment, trust should be related to perceived competence and warmth as two basic dimensions of person perception. Surprisingly, to date no attempts have been made to examine the influence of attributed competence and warmth on social judgments in interpersonal relations at work. To this end, we examine the influence of perceived competence and warmth on trust, liking and respe...

  20. Working conditions, health and productivity among dentists in Swedish public dental care - a prospective study during a 5-year period of rationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolander, B.; Jonker, D.; Winkel, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    patients per dentist increased, and perceived physical working conditions improved while perceived work control and leadership deteriorated. Structural equation modelling showed that physical factors were important for health and productivity. When assessing risks in the work environment, there is a need...... that the present rationalisations resulted in improved perceived physical working conditions. Aspects of the psychosocial working environment had deteriorated, however. This is a concern as health and workability are important for workplace efficiency. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  1. Perceived versus used workplace flexibility in Singapore: predicting work-family fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L; Scoville, D Phillip; Hill, E Jeffrey; Childs, Geniel; Leishman, Joan M; Nally, Kathryn S

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship of 2 types of workplace flexibility to work-family fit and work, personal, and marriage-family outcomes using data (N = 1,601) representative of employed persons in Singapore. We hypothesized that perceived and used workplace flexibility would be positively related to the study variables. Results derived from structural equation modeling revealed that perceived flexibility predicted work-family fit; however, used flexibility did not. Work-family fit related positively to each work, personal, and marriage-family outcome; however, workplace flexibility only predicted work and personal outcomes. Findings suggest work-family fit may be an important facilitating factor in the interface between work and family life, relating directly to marital satisfaction and satisfaction in other family relationships. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Development and Validation of the Perceived Social Work Competence Scale in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yean; Chui, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This article reports a study that developed and validated the Perceived Social Work Competence Scale (PSWCS) for assessing social work students' competence in Mainland China. Method: The indicators were generated by a broad empirical review of recent literature, confirmed by experts, and indigenized by means of two focus groups of…

  3. The effects of atmospheric optical conditions on perceived scenic beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Douglas A.; Hogo, Henry; Daniel, Terry C.

    This paper describes the results from the first year of a currently on-going study, the objective of which is to investigate the relationships between atmospheric optical conditions and human perceptions of scenic beauty. Color photographs and atmospheric optical measurements, using telephotometers and nephelometers, were taken in the western U.S.A. (Grand Canyon National Park and Mt. Lemmon near Tucson, Arizona) and in the eastern United States (Great Smoky Mountains and Shenandoah national parks). Over 1300 individual observers rated color slides for either visual air quality or scenic beauty using a 10-point rating scale. Ratings were transformed to indices using standard psychophysical techniques. Relationships between these perceptual indices and physical parameters characteristic of the given landscape represented in the color slides were investigated using scatter plots, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression. Physical parameters included visual range, horizon sky chromaticity and luminance, solar zenith and scattering angles, and cloud conditions. Results show that observers' ratings of visual air quality and scenic beauty are sensitive to visual range, sky color, and scattering angle. However, in some of the areas investigated, scenic beauty ratings were not affected by changes in visual range. The sensitivity of the scenic beauty of a vista to changes in the extinction coefficient may be useful for establishing visibility goals and priorities.

  4. The relationship between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress among nurses working with foreign patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Özge; Sevinç, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    To determine the relationship between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress of nurses working at Kilis State Hospital. As foreigners live in and visit Turkey for various reasons, it is essential to provide culturally appropriate healthcare. Descriptive and cross-sectional design. This study was implemented at the State Hospital in Kilis on the southeast border of Turkey, between June-July 2014. The study sample consisted of 120 nurses. Data collection tools included a questionnaire about the socio-demographic and professional characteristics of participants, the Chen and Starosta's Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. The average score for nurse cultural sensitivity was 84·32 (SD, 11·40) and the average score for perceived stress was 27·97 (SD, 7·32), corresponding to a medium level. We identified negative correlation between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress. Nurses working at Kilis State Hospital have a medium level of cultural sensitivity and perceived stress, and cultural sensitivity tended to be affected by perceived stress. This study suggests that training programmes for cultural sensitivity and stress management should be available for nurses. Furthermore, patient care plans should be adapted to consider different cultural backgrounds of patients. These findings should be considered when designing nurses' education and continuing education programmes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Women's perceived work environment after stress-related rehabilitation: experiences from the ReDO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wästberg, Birgitta A; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate (a) if women's perceptions of their work environment changed during a 16-week rehabilitation period and at a 12-month follow-up; (b) whether such changes were related to outcomes in terms of return to work, well-being and valued occupations. Eighty-four gainfully employed women on sick-leave due to stress-related disorders responded to instruments assessing perceptions of the work environment, well-being (self-esteem, self-mastery, quality of life, perceived stress, self-rated health) and perceived occupational value. Data about return to work were collected from registers. Non-parametric statistics were used. The increase in the women's ratings of their work environment was non-significant between baseline and completed rehabilitation but was statistically significant between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. No relationships were found between changes in perceptions of the work environment and outcomes after the rehabilitation. At the follow-up, however, there were associations between perceived work environment changes in a positive direction and return to work; improved self-esteem, self-mastery, quality of life, perceived occupational value and self-rated health; and reduced stress. It seems important to consider the work environment in rehabilitation for stress-related problems, and a follow-up appears warranted to detect changes and associations not visible immediately after rehabilitation. Work environment Perceptions of the work environment seem important for return to work, although other factors are likely to contribute as well. Perceptions of the work environment are associated with several aspects of well-being. When developing rehabilitation interventions a focus on the clients' perceptions of their work environment seems vital.

  6. Psychosocial stress at work and perceived quality of care among clinicians in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jens; Grosse Frie, Kirstin; Blum, Karl; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2011-05-20

    Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians' well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) and the demand-control model (job strain). The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians' self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting suboptimal quality of care. Magnitude of the association varies depending on the respective job stress model and the indicator of health care quality used. Odds ratios, adjusted for gender, occupational position and job experience vary between 1.04 (CI 0.70-1.57) and 3.21 (CI 2.23-4.61). Findings indicate that theoretical models of psychosocial stress at work can enrich the analysis of effects of working conditions on health care quality. Moreover, results suggest interventions for job related health promotion measures to improve the clinicians' working conditions, their quality of care and their patients' health.

  7. Psychosocial stress at work and perceived quality of care among clinicians in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von dem Knesebeck Olaf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians' well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Methods Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI and the demand-control model (job strain. The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians' self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting suboptimal quality of care. Magnitude of the association varies depending on the respective job stress model and the indicator of health care quality used. Odds ratios, adjusted for gender, occupational position and job experience vary between 1.04 (CI 0.70-1.57 and 3.21 (CI 2.23-4.61. Conclusion Findings indicate that theoretical models of psychosocial stress at work can enrich the analysis of effects of working conditions on health care quality. Moreover, results suggest interventions for job related health promotion measures to improve the clinicians' working conditions, their quality of care and their patients' health.

  8. The contribution of work engagement to self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan J W; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether work engagement influences self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related characteristics. Methods: Employees of two organizations participated in a 6-month longitudinal study (n = 733). Using questionnaires, infor

  9. The influence of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain on work performance and work ability in Swedish health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegård, A; Larsman, P; Hadzibajramovic, E; Ahlborg, G

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of perceived stress and musculoskeletal ache/pain, separately and in combination, at baseline, on self-rated work ability and work performance at two-year follow-up. Survey data were collected with a 2-year interval. Health care workers participating at both waves were included. Inclusion criteria were good self-reported work ability and unchanged self-rated work performance at baseline, resulting in 770 participants; 617 women and 153 men. Musculoskeletal pain was assessed using the question "How often do you experience pain in joints and muscles, including the neck and low back?", perceived stress with a modified version of a single item from the QPS-Nordic questionnaire, work performance by the question "Have your work performance changed during the preceding 12 months?" and work ability by a single item from the work ability index. Associations between baseline data and the two outcomes at follow-up were analysed by means of the log binomial model and expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A combination of frequent musculoskeletal pain and perceived stress constituted the highest risk for reporting decreased work performance (RR 1.7; CI 1.28-2.32) and reduced work ability (RR 1.7; CI 1.27-2.30) at follow-up. Separately, frequent pain, but not stress, was clearly associated with both outcomes. The results imply that proactive workplace interventions in order to maintain high work performance and good work ability should include measures to promote musculoskeletal well-being for the employees and measures, both individual and organizational, to minimize the risk of persistent stress reactions.

  10. Engagement in Academic Work: The Role of Learning Goals, Future Consequences, Pleasing Others, and Perceived Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller; Greene; Montalvo; Ravindran; Nichols

    1996-10-01

    Engagement in academic work was viewed from a multiple goals perspective. Two studies were conducted in which high school math students completed an instrument measuring five goals students might have for doing academic work (learning goals, performance goals, obtaining future consequences, pleasing the teacher, and pleasing the family), perceived math ability, self-regulatory activities, strategies (deep or shallow) used when studying for math, and the amount of effort and persistence expended on the class. Factor analysis indicated that the five goals scales and the perceived ability scale represented unique factors. The correlations among the variables revealed theoretically consistent interrelationships. Multiple regression analyses indicated that various goals (e.g., learning goals, obtaining future consequences, and pleasing the teacher), perceived ability, and some interactions accounted for significant amounts of variance in the task engagement measures (self-regulation, strategy use, effort, and persistence) and achievement. Results are discussed in relation to current theory and their practical implications.

  11. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Sarah A; Lin, Katherine Y

    2013-08-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance.

  12. The contributions of self-efficacy and perceived organisational support when taking charge at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike E. Onyishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Taking charge as an extra role in the workplace is necessary for the survival of modern firms. Therefore, understanding the personal and organisational factors when one takes charge is critical for organisations.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the contributions of self-efficacy and perceived organisational support when taking charge at work.Motivation for the study: Although many previous studies have examined the antecedents of taking charge in North American business environments, we know little about taking charge in the developing economies of Africa. Research about taking charge will provide valuable information for managers of businesses in developing countries in Africa.Research design, approach and method: This study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine the contributions of self-efficacy and perceived organisational support to taking charge at work amongst 201 bank workers in Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria.Main findings: Regression analysis results showed that self-efficacy had a significant relationship with taking charge at work. The results also showed a statistically significant relationship between perceived organisational support and taking charge at work.Practical/managerial implications: The implications of the results are that interventions that focus on improving self-efficacy will contribute to the behaviours of employees who take charge. In addition, organisations that develop strategies to make employees perceive the organisation as supportive will also have members that engage in more supervisory behaviours.Contribution/value-add: This study was one of the first attempts to investigate taking charge at work in a developing economy of Africa. The results of the study, that self-efficacy and perceived organisational support have relationships with taking charge at work, will contribute to a better understanding of the concept and to building robust theories.

  13. Multicultural student group work in higher education: a study on challenges as perceived by students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, V.; Brinkman, B.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Noroozi, O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine challenges that are inherent in multicultural student group work (MCSG) in higher education and the differences between students from different cultural backgrounds in how they perceive the importance of challenges in MCSG. For this purpose, a 19-item survey was completed

  14. An Examination of Intraoccupational Differences: Personality, Perceived Work Climate, and Outcome Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossholder, Kevin W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Public and industrial accountants (N=425) completed the California Psychological Inventory (CPI). CPI scales successfully discriminated suboccupations within male and female samples. Results indicated that individuals belonging to intraoccupational concentrations were distinguishable in terms of personality, perceived work climate, and outcome…

  15. Market Competition in Upper Secondary Education: Perceived Effects on Teachers' Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Ulf; Holm, Ann-Sofie

    2011-01-01

    The development and expansion of market solutions is one of the most important changes in Swedish education in the last 30 years. The aim of the article is to describe and analyse how students and staff in upper secondary schools perceive the impact of market competition on teachers' work. Three groups of actors in two Swedish regions were…

  16. Teacher Working Conditions Are Student Learning Conditions: A Report on the 2006 North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Governor Easley of North Carolina has made a sustained commitment to listening to educators and reforming schools to create the working conditions necessary for student and teacher success. With three iterations of the working conditions survey and about 150,000 responses to critical questions about their workplace, analyses have been consistent…

  17. Modelling the effect of perceived interdependence among mental healthcare professionals on their work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Marie-Pierre; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of mental healthcare system reform was to enhance service efficiency by strengthening primary mental healthcare and increasing service integration in communities. Reinforcing interprofessional teamwork also intended to address the extensive and multidimensional needs of patients with mental disorders by bringing together a broader array of expertise. In this context, mental healthcare professionals (MHCPs) from various health and social care professions are more interdependent in many aspects of their work (tasks, resources, and goals). We wanted to examine the effect of perceived interdependence among MHCPs on their work role performance in the context of mental healthcare. For this purpose, we developed and tested a model coherent with the Input-Mediator-Outcome-Input (IMOI) framework of team effectiveness. Data from questionnaires administered to 315 MHCPs from four local health service networks in Quebec, Canada were analysed through structural equation modelling and mediation analysis. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data and explained 51% of the variance of work role performance. Perceived collaboration, confidence in the advantages of interprofessional collaboration, involvement in the decision process, knowledge sharing, and satisfaction with the nature of the work partially mediated the effect of perceived interdependence among team members on work role performance. Therefore, perceived interdependence among team members had a positive impact on the work role performance of MHCPs mostly through its effect on favourable team functioning features. This implies, in practice, that increased interdependence of MHCPs would be more likely to truly enhance work role performance if team-based interventions to promote collaborative work and interprofessional teaching and training programs to support work within interprofessional teams were jointly implemented. Participation in the decision process and knowledge sharing should

  18. Emotional labour and work engagement among nurses: examining perceived compassion, leadership and work ethic as stress buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Ruokolainen, Mervi; Kinnunen, Ulla; De Bloom, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    The study examined whether three resources, that is, compassion, transformational leadership and work ethic feasibility, buffer against the negative effects of emotional labour on work engagement. Emotional labour is a common job stressor among nurses, but little is known about whether certain personal and work resources buffer against it in relation to work engagement. Revealing buffers of emotional labour would help organizations to design tailored interventions. Cross-sectional online survey conducted in 2014. Participants were 3466 Finnish nurses. Hypotheses were tested via hierarchical moderated regression analyses. Higher emotional labour related to lower engagement. Two interaction effects were found. First, work ethic feasibility buffered against emotional labour: the nurses who perceived work ethic feasibility as high in a situation of high emotional labour, scored higher on engagement compared with those nurses who in this stress situation perceived work ethic feasibility to be low. Second, high compassion was detrimental to engagement in the presence of high emotional labour. Transformational leadership did not act as a buffer but showed a positive relationship with engagement. Work ethic feasibility (being able to work according to high ethical standards) is an important resource in nursing as it protects an employee against the negative effects of emotional labour and as it also directly promotes engagement. However, compassion may not always be beneficial in nursing, especially if co-occurring with high job stress. Transformational leadership has potential to improve engagement in nursing although it may not operate as a stress buffer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Analysis of Superheater Work Under Creep Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Duda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is work modelling of superheater SH3. It is made of the austenitic stainless steel Super 304H. Its design temperature T is 604 C, and the design pressure P acting on the inner surface of the pipes is 284 bar. The high temperature is the reason of the superheater work under creep conditions. In this article calculations of the optimally mounted coil superheater SH3 are presented. The calculations are carried out first on the basis of the applicable European standards and with the help of the Auto Pipe program. Then, calculations are performed using the ANSYS program based on conducted creep tests and proposed creep equation. The coefficients in creep equation are determined based on the research conducted at the Instytut Metalurgii Żelaza in Gliwice. The model approximates the creep strain as the function of time and stress and this function is presented in the form of a three-dimensional surface . The results of calculations by both methods will be compared and conclusions will be presented. The performed analyzes can estimate the superheater coil remnant life and the usage after the selected time of its operation.

  20. Core self-evaluations and job performance: the role of the perceived work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacmar, K Michele; Collins, Brian J; Harris, Kenneth J; Judge, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    Using trait activation theory as a framework, the authors examined the moderating role of two situational variables-perceptions of organizational politics and perceptions of leader effectiveness-on the relationship between core self-evaluations and job performance. Results from two samples (N = 137 and N = 226) indicate that employee perceptions of their work environment moderated the relationship between their core self-evaluations and supervisor ratings of their performance. In particular, those with higher core self-evaluations received higher performance ratings in environments perceived as favorable than in environments perceived as unfavorable.

  1. The Influence of Perceived Organizational Injustice towards Workplace Personal Web Usage and Work Productivity in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Fathonah; Yanki Hartijasti

    2014-01-01

    Workplace personal web usage (WPWU) is an employee’s activity in using internet for non-related task during working hours. It is considered a counterproductive behavior when done excessively because it can interrupt employee’s productivity, but it can increase creativity and eliminate bore- dom when used in a rational amount. The objective of this study was to prove whether perceived organizational injustice had influence on WPWU which affected work productivity. A total of 222 respondents wo...

  2. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  3. Are All Latinas the Same?: Perceived Breast Cancer Screening Barriers and Facilitative Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buki, Lydia P.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.; Feigal, Benjamin M.; Carrillo, Iris Y.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we examine perceived breast cancer screening barriers and facilitative conditions for immigrant women from Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, El Salvador, and South America (N=58). Focus groups conducted separately with women of each ancestry were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Identified barriers comprise secrecy, lack of…

  4. Are All Latinas the Same?: Perceived Breast Cancer Screening Barriers and Facilitative Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buki, Lydia P.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.; Feigal, Benjamin M.; Carrillo, Iris Y.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we examine perceived breast cancer screening barriers and facilitative conditions for immigrant women from Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, El Salvador, and South America (N=58). Focus groups conducted separately with women of each ancestry were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Identified barriers comprise secrecy, lack of…

  5. Beyond disability: perceived participation in people with a chronic disabling condition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Jong, B.A. de; Bos, G.A.M. van den; Beelen, A.; Groot, J.M. de; Haan, R.J. de

    2002-01-01

    To describe the impact of a chronic disabling condition on participation and to identify variables that may explain perceived restrictions in participation. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: People were recruited from the outpatient clinics of two rehabilitation centres and the rehabilitation

  6. Effects of perceived affectionless control parenting on working models of the self and other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Enokido, Masanori; Shirata, Toshinori

    2016-08-30

    Attachment theory contends that insecure working models of the self and other built through negative attachment experiences are predisposing factors for depression and anxiety disorders. Meanwhile, patients with these psychiatric disorders tend to perceive that they received the affectionless control parenting, which is a combination of lack of care and overprotection. To test the hypothesis that the affectionless control parenting impairs the formation of positive working models, we examined the effects of perceived parenting styles on qualities of working models. The subjects were 691 healthy Japanese volunteers. Working models of the self and other were assessed by the Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the care and protection subscales. Parental rearing was classified into one of the four types defined by combinations of levels of care and protection. In all combinations of recipient sexes and parental sexes, the subjects with the affectionless control parenting (low care/high protection) had lower scores of the self-model and other-model than those with the optimal parenting (high care/low protection). The present study suggests that the affectionless control parenting impairs the formation of positive working models of the self and other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Working Overtime in Community Mental Health: Associations With Clinician Burnout and Perceived Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Gearhart, Timothy; Fukui, Sadaaki; Morse, Gary; Rollins, Angela L; Salyers, Michelle P

    2016-10-27

    Objective: Funding cuts have increased job demands and threatened clinicians' ability to provide high-quality, person-centered care. One response to increased job demands is for clinicians to work more than their official scheduled work hours (i.e., overtime). We sought to examine the frequency of working overtime and its relationships with job characteristics, work-related outcomes, and quality of care in community health clinicians. Method: One hundred eighty-two clinicians completed demographic and job characteristics questions and measures of burnout, job satisfaction, turnover intention, work-life conflict, and perceived quality of care. Clinicians also reported the importance of reducing stress and their confidence in reducing their stress. Clinicians who reported working overtime were compared to clinicians that did not on demographic and job characteristics and work-related outcomes. Results: Ninety-four clinicians (52%) reported working overtime in a typical week. Controlling for exempt status and group differences in time spent supervising others, those working overtime reported significantly increased burnout and work-life conflict and significantly lower job satisfaction and quality of care than those not working overtime. Clinicians working overtime also reported significantly greater importance in reducing stress but less confidence in their ability to reduce stress than those not working overtime. There were no significant group differences for turnover intention. Conclusion and Implications for Practice: Working overtime is associated with negative consequences for clinician-related work outcomes and perceived quality of care. Policies and interventions aimed at reducing overtime and work-related stress and burnout may be warranted in order to improve quality of care. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Working conditions remain stable in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.; Hooftman, W.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant changes in the national questionnaires on work and health, the quality of work as well as health complaints in the Netherlands appear to be relatively stable. Pace of work seems to be on the increase again and more people are working in excess of their contractual hours. Notwiths

  9. Impact of Work Conditions on Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Petričević

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every institution should monitor its productivity. If productivity is decreasing, particular measures should be taken. The aim of the paper was to analyse the situation in four institutions by means of questionnaires filled in by 135 respondents, and to point to the problems that were detected through questionnaires. To increase productivity, high levels of worker responsibility should be introduced within the framework of work process, taking into account work potentials of workers, quantity and quality of work. From the results obtained through this survey it was noted that an adequately motivated worker in comfortable work environment is willing to be fully devoted to work and achieve best results, thus ultimately contributing to the overall productivity. There should be a tendency to adequately reward every worker who is willing to commit to work during full working hours and to be responsible for his or her work. Every type of work can be defined by productivity function.

  10. 20 CFR 627.315 - Benefits and working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefits and working conditions. 627.315... Benefits and Working Conditions § 627.315 Benefits and working conditions. (a) In the development and... surroundings or under working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to the...

  11. Difference between Leisure and Work Contexts: The Roles of Perceived Enjoyment and Perceived Usefulness in Predicting Mobile Video Calling Use Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Feng, Caihong

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing body of literature on mobile video calling, which is a promising communication technology; however, little research has focused on user acceptance of mobile video calling, especially in different use contexts. This study explored factors (especially perceived enjoyment) influencing the intention of users to employ video calling in different contexts (a work and a leisure context) by applying the technology acceptance model (TAM) combined with the theory of planned behavior. The revised research model differentiated external factors (subjective norms and personal innovativeness) from internal factors (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use (PEU), perceived enjoyment, and intention to use mobile video calling). In addition, the current study investigated predictors of perceived enjoyment across these two contexts. With the use of a structured questionnaire, participants were divided in two groups and completed self-report measures related to one context; a total of 386 student respondents' responses were analyzed. The results indicated that users' intentions were directly predicted by their perceived enjoyment of video calling (β ≥ 0.35) and the call's perceived usefulness (β ≥ 0.27) and PEU (β = 0.13, only for the leisure context), which jointly explained at least 55.6% of the variance in use intention. In addition to the effects of these predictors on mobile video calling use acceptance, an assessment of the moderating effects of different contexts indicated that perceived enjoyment played a more important role in influencing intention for the leisure context, while perceived usefulness appeared to be more important for the work context. This study's findings are important in that they provide strong support for the necessity of distinguishing among different types of contexts when predicting users' intentions to use video calling. Furthermore, the results showed that perceived enjoyment was most significantly influenced by

  12. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF WORKING CONDITIONS IN GALVANIC WORKSHOPS

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Lazarenkov; S. A. Khoreva; V. V. Melnichenko

    2013-01-01

    The results of complex evaluation of working conditions in galvanic workshops, and based on research of industrial environmental factors jobs are given. The hygienic overview of working conditions classification in working stations of galvanic workshops is given.

  13. Health workers' perception on the work, working conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Family Practice ... the philosophy that ensures proper utilization of human resources that would produce beneficial outcomes revolves around the emphasis on improving the employees' quality of work life, compensation ... their positive perception on recognition for good work performance was 42% (OR ...

  14. The Role of Work-Integrated Learning in Developing Students' Perceived Work Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddan, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The notion of work self-efficacy is significant as the self-efficacy beliefs of an individual have considerable influence on his/her level of motivation and performance in the workplace. This paper aims to determine the effects of the learning activities of a work-integrated learning course in Exercise Science in relation to students' perceived…

  15. Working alliance, interpersonal trust and perceived coercion in mental health review hearings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Vidis

    2011-11-10

    Abstract Background There is some evidence that when mental health commitment hearings are held in accordance with therapeutic jurisprudence principles they are perceived as less coercive, and more just in their procedures leading to improved treatment adherence and fewer hospital readmissions. This suggests an effect of the hearing on therapeutic relationships. We compared working alliance and interpersonal trust in clinicians and forensic patients, whose continued detentions were reviewed by two different legal review bodies according to their legal category. Methods The hearings were rated as positive or negative by patients and treating psychiatrists using the MacArthur scales for perceived coercion, perceived procedural justice (legal and medical) and for the impact of the hearing. We rated Global assessment of Function (GAF), Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) and Interpersonal Trust in Physician (ITP) scales six months before the hearing and repeated the WAI and ITP two weeks before and two weeks after the hearing, for 75 of 83 patients in a forensic medium and high secure hospital. Results Psychiatrists agreed with patients regarding the rating of hearings. Patients rated civil hearings (MHTs) more negatively than hearings under insanity legislation (MHRBs). Those reviewed by MHTs had lower scores for WAI and ITP. However, post-hearing WAI and ITP scores were not different from baseline and pre-hearing scores. Using the receiver operating characteristic, baseline WAI and ITP scores predicted how patients would rate the hearings, as did baseline GAF and PANSS scores. Conclusions There was no evidence that positively perceived hearings improved WAI or ITP, but some evidence showed that negatively perceived hearings worsened them. Concentrating on functional recovery and symptom remission remains the best strategy for improved therapeutic relationships.

  16. Working alliance, interpersonal trust and perceived coercion in mental health review hearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly Vidis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some evidence that when mental health commitment hearings are held in accordance with therapeutic jurisprudence principles they are perceived as less coercive, and more just in their procedures leading to improved treatment adherence and fewer hospital readmissions. This suggests an effect of the hearing on therapeutic relationships. We compared working alliance and interpersonal trust in clinicians and forensic patients, whose continued detentions were reviewed by two different legal review bodies according to their legal category. Methods The hearings were rated as positive or negative by patients and treating psychiatrists using the MacArthur scales for perceived coercion, perceived procedural justice (legal and medical and for the impact of the hearing. We rated Global assessment of Function (GAF, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, Working Alliance Inventory (WAI and Interpersonal Trust in Physician (ITP scales six months before the hearing and repeated the WAI and ITP two weeks before and two weeks after the hearing, for 75 of 83 patients in a forensic medium and high secure hospital. Results Psychiatrists agreed with patients regarding the rating of hearings. Patients rated civil hearings (MHTs more negatively than hearings under insanity legislation (MHRBs. Those reviewed by MHTs had lower scores for WAI and ITP. However, post-hearing WAI and ITP scores were not different from baseline and pre-hearing scores. Using the receiver operating characteristic, baseline WAI and ITP scores predicted how patients would rate the hearings, as did baseline GAF and PANSS scores. Conclusions There was no evidence that positively perceived hearings improved WAI or ITP, but some evidence showed that negatively perceived hearings worsened them. Concentrating on functional recovery and symptom remission remains the best strategy for improved therapeutic relationships.

  17. Influential Factors for Knowledge Creation Practices of CTE Teachers: Mutual Impact of Perceived School Support, Transformational Leadership, and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Hye Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the structural relationships among perceived school support, transformational leadership, teachers' work engagement, and teachers' knowledge creation practices. It also investigated the mediating effects of transformational leadership and work engagement in explaining the association between perceived school support…

  18. Influential Factors for Knowledge Creation Practices of CTE Teachers: Mutual Impact of Perceived School Support, Transformational Leadership, and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Hye Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the structural relationships among perceived school support, transformational leadership, teachers' work engagement, and teachers' knowledge creation practices. It also investigated the mediating effects of transformational leadership and work engagement in explaining the association between perceived school support…

  19. Relation of Cognitive Measures to Perceived Work Limitations in Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    cocktail. Chemotherapy side effects include nausea, Masters Thesis 12 anemia , anorexia, and fatigue as well as other side effects (Courneya, 2003...30, 2009 APPROV AL SHEET Title of Thesis : "Relation of Cognitive Measures to Perceived Work Limitations in Cancer Survivors" Name of Candidate...Mark Peugeot Clinical Psychology Master of Science Date Thesis and Abstract Approved: ’J /’ rl t j ~ 1\\ I - j . ~ V \\ !) ~().0! .. ~o

  20. Lifetime report of perceived stress at work and cancer among men: A case-control study in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Lapierre, Audrey; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Weiss, Deborah; El-Zein, Mariam; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Élise

    2017-03-01

    The association between perceived workplace psychological stress, over the entire work career, and cancer among men has never been assessed. This was explored in the context of a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada. 3103 incident cancer cases (11 types) diagnosed in 1979-1985 and 512 population controls were interviewed. Subjects described in detail each job held during their lifetime, including the occurrence of stress, and its reason. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between perceived workplace stress and its duration, and each cancer site, adjusting for lifestyle and occupational factors. Employment in at least one stressful job was associated with increased odds of cancers of the lung (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75), colon (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.15-1.98), bladder (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.03-1.81), rectal (OR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.10-2.10), and stomach (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-2.15). A duration-response trend was found for cancers of the lung, colon, rectum, stomach, and for NHL. Subjects reported changes in stress level over their career. Perceived stress was ascribed to several sources, including high demand and time pressure, financial issues, job insecurity, and hazardous conditions. Prolonged exposure to perceived stress at work was associated with greater odds of cancer at 5 out of 11 sites. While over reporting of stress by cases cannot be fully ruled out, these associations, if substantiated, would bear important public health significance. Prospective studies building on detailed stress assessment protocols considering all sources and changes over the career are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Work-Based Social Interactions, Perceived Stress, and Workload Incongruence as Antecedents of Athletic Trainer Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreese, J D; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-01-01

    Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Cross-sectional study. Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P stress perceptions and social support drive the dimensional AT burnout experience, whereas workload incongruence (emotional exhaustion) and negative social interactions (depersonalization) were linked to specific burnout dimensions. Social interactions and markers of stress and workload should be considered when seeking to understand ATs' experiences with burnout and to design workplace interventions.

  2. Personal attitudes, perceived social norms, and health-risk behavior among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jennifer H; Greenley, Rachel N; Mussatto, Kathleen A; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary E; Lerand, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Sixty-eight females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent's current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs.

  3. Perceived Stress, Multimorbidity, and Risk for Hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care-sensitive Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens; Davydow, Dimitry S;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders are associated with an increased risk for ambulatory care-sensitive condition (ACSC)-related hospitalizations, but it remains unknown whether this holds for individuals with nonsyndromic stress that is more prevalent in the general population. OBJECTIVES......: To determine whether perceived stress is associated with ACSC-related hospitalizations and rehospitalizations, and posthospitalization 30-day mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND MEASURES: Population-based cohort study with 118,410 participants from the Danish National Health Survey 2010, which included data...... on Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, followed from 2010 to 2014, combined with individual-level national register data on hospitalizations and mortality. Multimorbidity was assessed using health register information on diagnoses and drug prescriptions within 39 condition categories. RESULTS: Being...

  4. The Impact of Work Stressors on Identity Threats and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Berjot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this study was to explore which kinds of working situations are regarded by psychologists as being particularly detrimental to their identity (personal and professional, how these situations are appraised in terms of threat and/or challenge, and what their impact is on perceived stress, work satisfaction, and perceived threat to occupational status. In all, 842 French psychologists answered an open format question requesting them to report a situation that was particularly difficult for them as a person and/or as a psychologist (analyzed by the way of a content analysis, and a questionnaire containing our dependant variables. Four major categories of situations were highlighted. While the first three were positively linked to threat, the “patient relations” category was negatively correlated with it. “Threat to personal identity” mediated the relationship between difficult situations and perceived stress. Situations appraised as being identity-threatening are mostly the same than those found in the stress literature and are stressful because of their impact on personal identity. Moreover, for psychologists, relations to patients, which are at the heart of the profession, seem to be protective regarding stress and identity threats.

  5. Returning to work after suffering from burnout syndrome: Perceived changes in personality, views, values, and behaviors connected with work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjančič Eva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date only a few studies have focused on returning to work after suffering from burnout syndrome. Participants were asked about their perceived work effectiveness, changes in their personal values, and obstacles and support factors that they encountered when they returned to work. Among the 27 individuals of various professions included in the study, 18 achieved an average or a high score on the Maslach Burnout Inventory, which was used to conduct a semi-structured interview. The answers were later processed by analyzing the content. The results showed that burned-out individuals only slowly return to work after recovery. When they return to work, they encounter changes in personality, personal values, and work effectiveness, and they only receive partial support from the environment. The results draw attention to insufficient detection of the disease by medical staff and employers in Slovenia. Recovering from burnout is a long-term process, which depends most on individuals themselves. At the same time, they can receive the necessary support from their family and coworkers, especially in terms of understanding them and partially adapting their responsibilities at work when they return. This study draws attention to a number of factors that can influence an individual’s process of returning to work and can be used as a basis for developing systematic rehabilitation programs.

  6. Medical yoga in the workplace setting-perceived stress and work ability-a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axén, Iben; Follin, Gabriella

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using an intervention of Medical Yoga in the workplace and investigated its effects on perceived stress and work ability. This was a quasi-experimental pilot study comparing a group who received Medical Yoga (intervention group, N=17), with a group waiting to receive Medical Yoga (control group, N=15). Medical Yoga in nine weekly sessions led by a certified instructor, as well as an instruction film to be followed at home twice weekly. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment, eligibility, willingness to participate, response to questionnaires and adherence to the intervention plan. Stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale, work ability with the Work Ability Index. Convincing unit managers to let their employees participate in this intervention was difficult. Eligibility was perfect, but only 40% of workers were willing to participate. The subjects adhered to a great extent to the intervention and answered the questionnaires satisfactorily. Reaching target individuals requires careful attention to informing participants. The intervention showed no significant effects on stress and work ability, though the two measures correlated significantly over time. Factors limiting feasibility of this workplace intervention were identified. Work place interventions may need to be sanctioned at a higher managerial level. The optimal time, length and availability of the workplace intervention should be explored further. Knowledge from this study could be used as a foundation when planning a larger scale study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The work-family interface and job performance: moderating effects of conscientiousness and perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, L A; Carlson, Dawn S

    2006-10-01

    Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, the authors hypothesized that two aspects of the work-family interface--family-to-work conflict (FWC) and family-to-work enrichment (FWE)--are related to job performance. The authors also hypothesized that two variables moderate those relationships--individual differences in conscientiousness and aspects of the work environment in terms of perceived organizational support (POS). Data collected from a matched set of 136 private sector workers and their respective supervisors revealed that high FWC was more strongly related to lower job performance: (1) among high- than low-conscientiousness workers and (2) among workers reporting low rather than high levels of organizational support. However, FWE was unrelated to job performance.

  8. Latent Profiles of Perceived Time Adequacy for Paid Work, Parenting, and Partner Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; King, Rosalind B.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N=880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified three profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: Family Time Protected, Family Time Sacrificed, and Time Balanced. Drawing upon the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the Family Time Sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the Family Time Protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the Time Balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the Family Time Protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the Family Time Protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. PMID:26075739

  9. Pedagogical Staff in Children's Day Care Centres in Germany--Links between Working Conditions, Job Satisfaction, Commitment and Work-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Inge; Krause, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates links between staff working conditions in children's day care centres ("Kindertageseinrichtungen"--known as "Kitas" in Germany), job satisfaction, commitment and perceived stress at work. Data are based on the nationwide, representative questionnaire survey AQUA ("Arbeitsplatz und Qualität in…

  10. Pedagogical Staff in Children's Day Care Centres in Germany--Links between Working Conditions, Job Satisfaction, Commitment and Work-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Inge; Krause, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates links between staff working conditions in children's day care centres ("Kindertageseinrichtungen"--known as "Kitas" in Germany), job satisfaction, commitment and perceived stress at work. Data are based on the nationwide, representative questionnaire survey AQUA ("Arbeitsplatz und Qualität in…

  11. ORIGINALITY - CONDITION FOR PROTECTION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel ROŞ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Doctrine defines originality as a combination of fancy, audacity, individuality and novelty. This ensemble of ideas meant to define originality appeals to the patents/ certificates Law for which novelty/ innovation is not enough. It shall be accompanied by inventive activity. The aim of the paper below is to clarify the question of the scientific works originality, by referring to the two appearantly contradictory norms and to their consequences over counterfeit/ imitation.

  12. Mathematical simulation of heat exchanger working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavlas, Stanislav; Ďurčanský, Peter; Lenhard, Richard; Jandačka, Jozef

    2015-05-01

    One of the When designing a new heat exchanger it is necessary to consider all the conditions imposed on the exchanger and its desired properties. Most often the investigation of heat transfer is to find heat surface. When applying exchanger for proposed hot air engine, it will be a counter-flow heat exchanger of gas - gas type. Gas, which transfers the heat will be exhaust gas from the combustion of biomass. An important step in the design and verification is to analyze exchanger designed using numerical methods, the verification of the correctness of design and verification of boundary conditions which include temperatures, flow rates and pressure drops. Due to the fact that the heat transfer in the heat exchanger is a three-dimensional plot and timeindependent, the system is described by partial differential equations that need to be solved by numerical methods.

  13. Constraints perceived by psychiatrists working in community mental health services. Development and pilot study of a novel instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Mackinnon, Andrew; Curci, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    An inventory of institutional constraints perceived as limiting therapeutic choices was developed and completed by psychiatrists working in Italian public mental health services. Constraints considered most limiting were social and institutional pressures toward social control, violence risk assessment and prevention, and lack of control over workload. The total mean score of the perceived constraints instrument was significantly negatively correlated with ratings of perceived freedom in therapeutic choices and with overall job satisfaction. Reliability was good (alpha = 0.85). Addressing perceived constraints may result in more choice options to reach therapeutic goals in a collaborative framework with patients, and improve job satisfaction.

  14. PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT, KARAKTERISTIK TIM, QUALITY OF WORK LIFE DAN KOMITMEN ORGANISASI: STUDI PADA PEGAWAI UNIVERSITAS NEGERI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Santosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to obtain information concerning the effect of perceived organizational support, team characteristics and quality of work life toward employee organizational commitment at the State University of Jakarta by using a survey method with path analysis applied in testing hypothesis. It involved 64 employee at the State University of Jakarta as respondent who were selected by simple random sampling. This research findings were as follows (1 there was a direct effect of perceived organizational support toward organizational commitment; (2 there was a direct effect of team characteristics toward organizational commitment; (3 there was a direct effect of quality of work life toward organizational commitment; (4 there was a direct effect of perceived organizational support toward quality of work life; (5 there was a direct effect of team characteristics toward quality of work life. Therefore, organizational commitment could be improving by rising the effect of perceived organizational support, team characteristics and quality of work life.

  15. Perceived stress at work is associated with lower levels of DHEA-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Rockwood, Alan L; Kushnir, Mark M; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-01-01

    It is known that long-term psychosocial stress may cause or contribute to different diseases and symptoms and accelerate aging. One of the consequences of prolonged psychosocial stress may be a negative effect on the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S). The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of DHEA and DHEA-S differ in individuals who report perceived stress at work compared to individuals who report no perceived stress at work. Morning fasting DHEA-S and DHEA levels were measured in serum in a non-stressed group (n = 40) and a stressed group (n = 41). DHEA and DHEA-S levels were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, controlling for age. The mean DHEA-S levels were 23% lower in the subjects who reported stress at work compared to the non-stressed group. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) showed a significant difference in DHEA-S levels between the groups (p = 0.010). There was no difference in DHEA level between the groups. This study indicates that stressed individual have markedly lower levels of DHEA-S. Given the important and beneficial functions of DHEA and DHEA-S, lower levels of DHEA-S may constitute one link between psychosocial stress, ill health and accelerated ageing.

  16. Perceived stress at work is associated with lower levels of DHEA-S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Lennartsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that long-term psychosocial stress may cause or contribute to different diseases and symptoms and accelerate aging. One of the consequences of prolonged psychosocial stress may be a negative effect on the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulphated metabolite dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S. The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of DHEA and DHEA-S differ in individuals who report perceived stress at work compared to individuals who report no perceived stress at work. METHODS: Morning fasting DHEA-S and DHEA levels were measured in serum in a non-stressed group (n = 40 and a stressed group (n = 41. DHEA and DHEA-S levels were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, controlling for age. RESULTS: The mean DHEA-S levels were 23% lower in the subjects who reported stress at work compared to the non-stressed group. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA showed a significant difference in DHEA-S levels between the groups (p = 0.010. There was no difference in DHEA level between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that stressed individual have markedly lower levels of DHEA-S. Given the important and beneficial functions of DHEA and DHEA-S, lower levels of DHEA-S may constitute one link between psychosocial stress, ill health and accelerated ageing.

  17. Barriers perceived by teachers at work, coping strategies, self-efficacy and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech Betoret, Fernando; Gómez Artiga, Amparo

    2010-11-01

    This study examines the relationships among stressors, coping strategies, self-efficacy and burnout in a sample of 724 Spanish primary and secondary teachers. We understood stressors as barriers perceived by teachers that interfere with their work meeting learning objectives and which cause them stress and burnout. An analysis of teacher responses using hierarchical regression revealed that pedagogical barriers had significant positive effects on the burnout dimensions. Furthermore, the results show not only the moderator role played by coping strategies in the pedagogical barriers-burnout dimensions relationship, but also the association between self-efficacy and the coping strategies used by teachers. Practical implications are discussed.

  18. Individual reactions to high involvement work processes: investigating the role of empowerment and perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Marcus M; Vandenberg, Robert J; DeJoy, David M; Schaffer, Bryan S; Wilson, Mark G

    2009-04-01

    This study sought to understand how high involvement work processes (HIWP) are processed at the employee level. Using structural equation modeling techniques, the authors tested and supported a model in which psychological empowerment mediated the effects of HIWP on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and job stress. Furthermore, perceived organizational support (POS) was hypothesized to moderate the relationships between empowerment and these outcomes. With exception for the empowerment-job satisfaction association, support was found for our predictions. Future directions for research and the practical implications of our findings for both employees and organizations are discussed.

  19. Interaction of core self-evaluations and perceived organizational support on work-to-family enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNall, Laurel A; Masuda, Aline D; Shanock, Linda Rhoades; Nicklin, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to offer an empirical test of J. H. Greenhaus and G. N. Powell's (2006) model of work-family enrichment by examining dispositional (i.e., core self-evaluations; CSEs) and situational (i.e., perceived organizational support; POS) factors associated with work-to-family enrichment (WFE) and whether these variables interact in predicting WFE. In a survey of 220 employed adults, our hierarchical regression analysis revealed that in highly supportive work environments, individuals reported high WFE regardless of CSE. However, when POS was low, individuals high in CSEs reported higher WFE than those low in CSEs, in support of conservation of resources theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  20. Workplace rehabilitation and supportive conditions at work: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Linda; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the impact of rehabilitation measures on work ability and return to work (RTW), specifically the association between workplace rehabilitation/supportive conditions at work and work ability and RTW over time, among women on long-term sick leave. Questionnaire data were collected (baseline, 6 and 12 months) from a cohort of women (n = 324). Linear mixed models were used for longitudinal analysis of the repeated measurements of work ability index (WAI), work ability score and working degree. These analyses were performed with different models; the explanatory variables for each model were workplace rehabilitation, supportive conditions at work and time. The individuals provided with workplace rehabilitation and supportive conditions (e.g. influence at work, possibilities for development, degree of freedom at work, meaning of work, quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and work satisfaction) had significantly increased WAI and work ability score over time. These individuals scored higher work ability compared to those individuals having workplace rehabilitation without supportive conditions, or neither. Additionally, among the individuals provided with workplace rehabilitation and supportive conditions, working degree increased significantly more over time compared to those individuals with no workplace rehabilitation and no supportive conditions. The results highlight the importance of integrating workplace rehabilitation with supportive conditions at work in order to increase work ability and improve the RTW process for women on long-term sick leave.

  1. Expectancies mediate the relationship between perceived injustice and return to work following whiplash injury: A 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, J S; Thibault, P; Adams, H; Milioto, M; Ditto, B; Sullivan, M J L

    2017-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that perceived injustice is a risk factor for work disability in individuals with whiplash injury. At present, however, little is known about the processes by which perceived injustice impacts on return to work. The purpose of this study was to examine whether expectancies mediated the relationship between perceived injustice and return to work in patients with whiplash injury. One hundred and fifty-two individuals (81 men, 71 women) with a primary diagnosis of whiplash injury completed self-report measures of pain intensity, perceived injustice and return-to-work expectancies following admission to a rehabilitation programme. Work status was assessed 1 year after discharge. Consistent with previous research, high scores on a measure of perceived injustice were associated with prolonged work disability. Results indicated that high perceptions of injustice were associated with low return-to-work expectancies. Causal mediation analyses revealed that expectancies fully mediated the relationship between perceived injustice and return to work. The findings suggest that intervention techniques designed to target expectancies could improve return-to-work outcomes in patients with whiplash injury. Discussion addresses the processes by which expectancies might impact on return-to-work outcomes and the manner in which negative return-to-work expectancies might be modified through intervention. The study confirms that expectancies are the mechanism through which perceived injustice impacts return to work following whiplash injury. The findings suggest that interventions designed to specifically target return-to-work expectancies might improve rehabilitation outcomes in patients with whiplash injury. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  2. The Relationship of On-Call Work with Fatigue, Work-Home Interference, and Perceived Performance Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Ziebertz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study examined the relationship between on-call duty exposure (active and total on-call hours a month, number of calls per duty and employees’ experiences of being on-call (stress due to unpredictability, ability to relax during inactive on-call periods, restrictions during on-call duties, on-call work demands, and satisfaction with compensation for on-call duties on the one hand and fatigue, strain-based and time-based work-home interference (WHI, and perceived on-call performance difficulties (PPD on the other hand. Methods. Cross-sectional survey data were collected among a large heterogeneous sample of Dutch employees (N=5437. The final sample consisted of 157 on-call workers (23–69 years, 71% males. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for age and job characteristics. Results. Differences in on-call work exposure were not systematically related to fatigue, WHI, and PPD (all p’s >0.50. The experience of being on-call explained a medium proportion of the variation in fatigue and strain-based WHI and a medium to large proportion of the variation in time-based WHI and PPD over and above the control variables. Conclusions. Our results suggest that it is employees’ experience of being on-call, especially the experience of stress due to the unpredictability, rather than the amount of exposure, that is related to fatigue, WHI, and perceived on-call performance difficulties.

  3. CREATIVE WORK UNDER COGNITIVE CAPITALISM CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Barhatov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of production relations, which we have all witnessed during the last 20 years, has shown outdated existing theoretical approaches toward an understanding of the economy. The search for alternative ways of the economic development involves representatives of various scientific fields: post industrialism, information economy, sustainable economic development, new economy and others. Of particular interest is the concept of cognitive capitalism, which allows us to consider the transformation occurring “inside” of capitalism. This article proposes an approach to the study of the cognitive capitalism nature from the perspective of the Marxian theory, productive forces of society, and psychology. Methodological framework used has revealed contradictions of existing liberal-capitalist vector of development and the innovation-oriented economic formation.  This is based on the exploitation of economic agent’s creative work.  The technique, which allows us to assess the involvement of management in cognitive capitalism, is provided.

  4. Association of job strain with working hours, shift-dependent perceived workload, sleepiness and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship of job strain with working hours, shift-dependent perceived workload, sleepiness and recovery. Nurses/nursing assistants (n = 95) were recruited from wards that belonged to either the top (high-strain group, HJS) or the bottom (low-strain group, LJS) job strain quartiles of a Job Content Questionnaire survey of employees in five health care districts and four cities in Finland. Three-week field measurements during naturally occurring shift schedules and a subset of pre-selected shift arrangements consisted of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, perceived workload and recovery. The HJS group (n = 42) had more single days off and quick returns than the LJS group (n = 53, p HJS group only in quick returns (p = 0.04) and the HJS group recovered on average more poorly from work after all shifts (p = 0.01) and morning shifts (p = 0.02). During pre-selected shift arrangements, the differences between the groups were only minor. In conclusion, job strain-related differences in sleepiness and recovery were mostly attributable to differences in shift arrangements.

  5. [Characteristics of working conditions at metallurgy-related plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, A M

    2008-01-01

    Working conditions at more versus less advanced technology steel plants of the Volgograd Region are analyzed. The working conditions at the less advanced technology plants are referred to as a very high occupational risk. It is necessary to work out measures to lower the poor impact of microclimate, dust, noise, to improve illumination, and to regulate labor at steel plants.

  6. Working Conditions in the Industrial Nations: What Lies Ahead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulos, Georges

    1984-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, traditional concepts of working conditions and of work have been challenged in industrialized nations. The improvement of working conditions has become a basic issue, affected by the economic situation, technological advances, social climate, labor relations, and individual behavior. (Author/SK)

  7. Perceived factors in return to work after acquired brain injury: A qualitative meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frostad Liaset, Ingeborg; Lorås, Håvard

    2016-11-01

    A substantial proportion of survivors after brain injuries originating from trauma, tumour, or stroke may experience reduced ability to work due to a number of challenges. The purpose of this review is to summarize and highlight factors that have been perceived and reported as important in order to return to work after an acquired brain injury. A qualitative ethnographic meta-synthesis is used to interpret and develop concepts from studies retrieved from systematic searches in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Science. A total of 16 studies were included in the meta-synthesis. Four key concepts were identified as important for return to work after an acquired brain injury: empowerment, self-awareness, motivation, and facilitation. The results of the meta-synthesis indicate that personal development is experienced as essential in order to return to work after an acquired brain injury, involving identification of each individual's strengths and weaknesses. These personal factors intersect with an emphasis of the employer providing a certain degree of facilitation in the workplace. All of these aspects will affect one's motivation to return to work and can therefore be crucial to succeed.

  8. The Influence of Perceived Organizational Injustice towards Workplace Personal Web Usage and Work Productivity in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Fathonah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Workplace personal web usage (WPWU is an employee’s activity in using internet for non-related task during working hours. It is considered a counterproductive behavior when done excessively because it can interrupt employee’s productivity, but it can increase creativity and eliminate bore- dom when used in a rational amount. The objective of this study was to prove whether perceived organizational injustice had influence on WPWU which affected work productivity. A total of 222 respondents working in various industries were gathered through web-survey. By using multino- mial logistic regression analysis, this study found that high level use of internet for unrelated jobs between 2 to 4 hours a day was influenced by respondents’ perception of not getting fair treatment and incentive for being good performer, which then caused them to perform very low completion of tasks. There were two contrasting views regarding this result; organizations considered it as deviant behavior because it reduced employees’ performance whereas employees regarded it as just short breaks to get rid of stress. Hence, this finding suggested that companies should redesign its internet policies to accommodate “Work-Life Blend”; blending work and personal lives, as a consequence of cultural shift in the era of globalization and new technologies.

  9. Perceived reciprocal value of health professionals' participation in global child health-related work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Sarah; Wigle, Jannah; Akseer, Nadia; Barac, Raluca; Barwick, Melanie; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2017-05-22

    Leading children's hospitals in high-income settings have become heavily engaged in international child health research and educational activities. These programs aim to provide benefit to the institutions, children and families in the overseas locations where they are implemented. Few studies have measured the actual reciprocal value of this work for the home institutions and for individual staff who participate in these overseas activities. Our objective was to estimate the perceived reciprocal value of health professionals' participation in global child health-related work. Benefits were measured in the form of skills, knowledge and attitude strengthening as estimated by an adapted Global Health Competency Model. A survey questionnaire was developed following a comprehensive review of literature and key competency models. It was distributed to all health professionals at the Hospital for Sick Children with prior international work experience (n = 478). One hundred fifty six health professionals completed the survey (34%). A score of 0 represented negligible value gained and a score of 100 indicated significant capacity improvement. The mean respondent improvement score was 57 (95% CI 53-62) suggesting improved overall competency resulting from their international experiences. Mean scores were >50% in 8 of 10 domains. Overall scores suggest that international work brought value to the hospital and over half responded that their international experience would influence their decision to stay on at the hospital. The findings offer tangible examples of how global child health work conducted outside of one's home institution impacts staff and health systems locally.

  10. How Do Students Perceive the International Dimension in Social Work Education?: An Enquiry among Swedish and German Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trygged, Sven; Eriksson, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    Globalization, internationalization, and regionalization affect domestic social work. This paper explores how undergraduate students perceive international aspects of their social work education. A questionnaire was distributed to social work undergraduates in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 97), and Darmstadt, Germany (n = 43). Results showed that a…

  11. The psychological well-being of disability caregivers: examining the roles of family strain, family-to-work conflict, and perceived supervisor support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew; Shaffer, Jonathan; Bagger, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We draw on the cross-domain model of work-family conflict and conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship between disability caregiving demands and the psychological well-being of employed caregivers. Using a sample of employed disability caregivers from a national survey, we found that the relationship between caregiving demands and family-to-work conflict was stronger when employees experienced high levels of strain from family. Additionally, we found high levels of family to-work conflict were subsequently associated with decreases in life satisfaction and increases in depression, but only when perceived supervisor support was low. Overall, our findings suggest an indirect relationship between caregiving demands and psychological well-being that is mediated by family-to-work conflict and is conditional on family strain and perceived supervisor support. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Residents' perceived barriers to communication skills learning: comparing two medical working contexts in postgraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eertwegh, Valerie; van Dalen, Jan; van Dulmen, Sandra; van der Vleuten, Cees; Scherpbier, Albert

    2014-04-01

    Contextual factors are known to influence the acquisition and application of communication skills in clinical settings. Little is known about residents' perceptions of these factors. This article aims to explore residents' perceptions of contextual factors affecting the acquisition and application of communication skills in the medical workplace. We conducted an exploratory study comprising seven focus groups with residents in two different specialities: general practice (n=23) and surgery (n=18). Residents perceive the use of summative assessment checklists that reduce communication skills to behavioural components as impeding the learning of their communication skills. Residents perceive encouragement to deliberately practise in an environment in which the value of communication skills is recognised and support is institutionalised with appropriate feedback from role models as the most important enhancing factors in communication skills learning. To gradually realise a clinical working environment in which the above results are incorporated, we propose to use transformative learning theory to guide further studies. Provided it is used continuously, an approach that combines self-directed learning with observation and discussion of resident-patient consultations seems an effective method for transformative learning of communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived Workplace Culture as an Antecedent of Job Stress: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminah Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Few studies have tested the mediating effect of work-family conflict on the relationship between workplace culture and job stress. Approach: This study tested a mediation model consisting of job stress as the dependent variable, perceived family-supportive work culture as the independent variable and work-family conflict as the mediator. Data were gathered from 693 employees from private service organizations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, using self-administered questionnaires. The data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Results: Results of correlation analysis revealed that perceived family-supportive work culture was related to work-family conflict and job stress and work-family conflict was related to job stress. Results of a series of multiple regression analyses indicated that work-family conflict partially mediates the relationship between perceived family-supportive work culture and job stress. Conclusion/Recommendations: Employees who perceive that their organizations are family-supportive seem to experience less stress at the workplace and less work-family conflict. Employers should take into consideration employees’ perceptions of how supportive the organization is of their family needs as a factor that could reduce the experience of work-family conflict and job stress. Employers should also look into the possibility of developing programmes to assist employees in managing work-family roles.

  14. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  15. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  16. Effect of work duration on physiological and rating scale of perceived exertion responses during self-paced interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Stephen; Sjursen, Jarl Espen

    2004-10-01

    This study compared running velocity, physiological responses, and perceived exertion during self-paced interval training bouts differing only in work bout duration. Twelve well-trained runners (nine males, three females, 28+/-5 years, VO2 max 65+/-6 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) performed preliminary testing followed by four "high-intensity" interval sessions (Latin squares, 1 session week(-1) over 4 weeks) consisting of 24 x 1, 12 x 2, 6 x 4, or 4 x 6-min running bouts with a 1:1 work-to-rest interval (total session duration 48 min). The average running velocity decreased (93%, 88%, 86%, 84% vVO2 max, P VO2 averaged about 92+/-4% of VO2 max for 2-, 4-, and 6-min intervals compared with only 82+/-5% for 1-min bouts (P VO2 and heart rate during 4-min intervals. The average RPEpeak (rating scale of perceived exertion) was approximately 17+/-1 for all four interval sessions. RPE increased by 2-4 U during an interval training session. The mean lactate concentration was similar across sessions (4.3+/-1.1-4.6+/-1.5 mmol L(-1)). Under self-paced conditions, well-trained runners perform "high-intensity" intervals at an RPE of approximately 17, independent of interval duration. The optimal interval duration for eliciting a high physiological load is 3-5 min under these training conditions. Increases in RPE during an interval bout are not associated with increasing blood lactate concentration.

  17. Researchers´ perceptions on their health and working conditions in Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia P. Díaz M

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze how male and female scientific researchers working at public and private universities in Antioquia (Colombia perceive their health and working conditions. Methodology: a qualitative study conducted through interviews and a literature review. Participants belonged to research groups classified as A1, A, and B, according to the standards issued by Colciencias (Colombia’s national Department of Science, Technology and Innovation. Results: researchers perceive the relationship between their work and health as a blend of work-related demands, challenges, and personal and collective rewards. Demands on intellectual productivity are high; there is a mismatch between the actual time devoted to work and the time established in the work plans negotiated with the administration for every semester. In some points of the research process, these factors overload the daily work schedules, thus causing physical pain, stress, and malaise. Nevertheless, researchers find their work worthy because of the passion that research arouses in them. Discussion: The high demands defined within the framework of the National System for Science and Technology (Spanish acronym: SNCT have created a field in which intellectual productivity takes priority over the researchers’ health conditions.

  18. Structural Model for the Effects of Perceived Indoor Work Environment on Sick Building Syndrome and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nor Hazana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sick Building syndrome (SBS and stress have a prevalent influence on organizational productivity and competitiveness. Unhealthy employees not only tend to have high medical leaves but also low productivity due to ailments and discomforts. Studies that investigate the effects of indoor work environment on Sick Building Syndrome (SBS have yielded mixed results while their effect on stress has not been empirically established. Furthermore, studies that simultaneously investigate both SBS and stress are almost non-existent. Thus, this study aimed to study the effects of perceived indoor work environment on SBS and stress and the link between SBS and stress. A cross-sectional survey participated by 598 employees from various industries was conducted from September to October 2015. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM to assess both the measurement model and the path structure. The results suggest that indoor work environment has significant yet the weak effect on SBS while it has no effect on stress. However, SBS has a strong significant relationship with stress. The implication of this study on the importance of conducive indoor work environment is discussed with suggestions for future studies.

  19. U.S. Food System Working Conditions as an Issue of Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Megan L; Smith, Katherine C; Pollack, Keshia M; Neff, Roni A; Rutkow, Lainie

    2017-02-01

    Food workers' health and hygiene are common pathways to foodborne disease outbreaks. Improving food system jobs is important to food safety because working conditions impact workers' health, hygiene, and safe food handling. Stakeholders from key industries have advanced working conditions as an issue of public safety in the United States. Yet, for the food industry, stakeholder engagement with this topic is seemingly limited. To understand this lack of action, we interviewed key informants from organizations recognized for their agenda-setting role on food-worker issues. Findings suggest that participants recognize the work standards/food safety connection, yet perceived barriers limit adoption of a food safety frame, including more pressing priorities (e.g., occupational safety); poor fit with organizational strategies and mission; and questionable utility, including potential negative consequences. Using these findings, we consider how public health advocates may connect food working conditions to food and public safety and elevate it to the public policy agenda.

  20. Assessment of the relationship between physical working conditions and different levels of work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-04-20

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability.

  1. Physicians' working conditions and job satisfaction: does hospital ownership in Germany make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Vitzthum, Karin; Nienhaus, Albert; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Background A growing number of German hospitals have been privatized with the intention of increasing cost effectiveness and improving the quality of health care. Numerous studies investigated what possible qualitative and economic consequences these changes issues might have on patient care. However, little is known about how this privatization trend relates to physicians' working conditions and job satisfaction. It was anticipated that different working conditions would be associated with different types of hospital ownership. To that end, this study's purpose is to compare how physicians, working for both public and privatized hospitals, rate their respective psychosocial working conditions and job satisfaction. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional comparison using questionnaire data from 203 physicians working at German hospitals of different ownership types (private for-profit, public and private nonprofit). Results The present study shows that several aspects of physicians' perceived working conditions differ significantly depending on hospital ownership. However, results also indicated that physicians' job satisfaction does not vary between different types of hospital ownership. Finally, it was demonstrated that job demands and resources are associated with job satisfaction, while type of ownership is not. Conclusion This study represents one of a few studies that investigate the effect of hospital ownership on physicians work situation and demonstrated that the type of ownership is a potential factor accounting for differences in working conditions. The findings provide an informative basis to find solutions improving physicians' work at German hospitals. PMID:19678932

  2. Physicians' working conditions and job satisfaction: does hospital ownership in Germany make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhaus Albert

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of German hospitals have been privatized with the intention of increasing cost effectiveness and improving the quality of health care. Numerous studies investigated what possible qualitative and economic consequences these changes issues might have on patient care. However, little is known about how this privatization trend relates to physicians' working conditions and job satisfaction. It was anticipated that different working conditions would be associated with different types of hospital ownership. To that end, this study's purpose is to compare how physicians, working for both public and privatized hospitals, rate their respective psychosocial working conditions and job satisfaction. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional comparison using questionnaire data from 203 physicians working at German hospitals of different ownership types (private for-profit, public and private nonprofit. Results The present study shows that several aspects of physicians' perceived working conditions differ significantly depending on hospital ownership. However, results also indicated that physicians' job satisfaction does not vary between different types of hospital ownership. Finally, it was demonstrated that job demands and resources are associated with job satisfaction, while type of ownership is not. Conclusion This study represents one of a few studies that investigate the effect of hospital ownership on physicians work situation and demonstrated that the type of ownership is a potential factor accounting for differences in working conditions. The findings provide an informative basis to find solutions improving physicians' work at German hospitals.

  3. The "I believe" and the "I invest" of Work-Family Balance: The indirectinfluences of personal values and work engagement via perceived organizational climate and workplace burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Chernyak-Hai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on Schwartzs (1992, 1994 Human Values Theory and the Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1988, 1998, 2001, the present research sought to advance the understanding of Work-Family Balance antecedents by examining personal values and work engagement as predictors of Work-Family Conflict via their associations with perceived organizational climate and work burnout. The results of two studies supported the hypotheses, and indicated that perceived organizational climate mediated the relations between values of hedonism, self-direction, power, and achievement and Work-Family Conflict, and that work burnout mediated the relations between work engagement and Work-Family Conflict. Theoretical and practical implications regarding individual differences and experiences of Work-Family Balance are discussed.

  4. 33 CFR 142.7 - Reports of unsafe working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... working conditions. (a) Any person may report a possible violation of any regulation in this subchapter or any other hazardous or unsafe working condition on any unit engaged in OCS activities to an Officer in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports of unsafe...

  5. 76 FR 44265 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN 1218-AB50 General Working Conditions in... rule on General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment published in the Federal Register of May...

  6. The double whammy of a work handicap (differential) effects of health on working conditions and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbeek, Romy; Giesen, Femke B M; Ybema, Jan Fekke

    2009-08-01

    To determine the effect of health on working conditions and outcomes. Data were collected in the longitudinal Study on Health at Work (n = 1597 employees), using multiple regression analyses and focusing on three groups of employees: 1) healthy, 2) chronic health complaints without a work handicap, and 3) chronic health complaints with a work handicap. 1) Employees with a work handicap experienced less favorable working conditions and outcomes than other employees. 2) Employees with a work handicap experienced less favorable working conditions and outcomes over time. 3) Employees with chronic health complaints were more vulnerable to the influence of working conditions on outcomes, whereas employees with a work handicap, unexpectedly, benefited from high work pressure and low autonomy. 1) Employees with a work handicap differ considerably from employees with chronic health complaints. 2) Employees with a work handicap drift into less favorable working conditions and outcomes. 3) Healthy employees, employees with chronic health complaints, and employees with a work handicap, all are vulnerable to different working conditions.

  7. Toward an integrated understanding of perceived biodiversity values and environmental conditions in a national park

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Carena J.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Sherrouse, Ben C.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Sutton, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    In spatial planning and management of protected areas, increased priority is being given to research that integrates social and ecological data. However, public viewpoints of the benefits provided by ecosystems are not easily quantified and often implicitly folded into natural resource management decisions. Drawing on a spatially explicit participatory mapping exercise and a Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) analysis tool, the present study empirically examined and integrated social values for ecosystem services and environmental conditions within Channel Islands National Park, California. Specifically, a social value indicator of perceived biodiversity was examined using on-site survey data collected from a sample of people who visited the park. This information was modeled alongside eight environmental conditions including faunal species richness for six taxa, vegetation density, categories of marine and terrestrial land cover, and distance to features relevant for decision-makers. Results showed that biodiversity value points assigned to places by the pooled sample of respondents were widely and unevenly mapped, which reflected the belief that biodiversity was embodied to varying degrees by multiple locations in the park. Models generated for two survey subgroups defined by their self-reported knowledge of the Channels Islands revealed distinct spatial patterns of these perceived values. Specifically, respondents with high knowledge valued large spaces that were publicly inaccessible and unlikely to contain on-ground biodiversity, whereas respondents with low knowledge valued places that were experienced first-hand. Accessibility and infrastructure were also important considerations for anticipating how and where people valued the protected land and seascapes of Channel Islands National Park.

  8. A new quantitative approach to measure perceived work-related stress in Italian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, Gabriele; Fratini, Ilaria; Gambassi, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    We propose a method for a reliable quantitative measure of subjectively perceived occupational stress applicable in any company to enhance occupational safety and psychosocial health, to enable precise prevention policies and intervention and to improve work quality and efficiency. A suitable questionnaire was telephonically administered to a stratified sample of the whole Italian population of employees. Combined multivariate statistical methods, including principal component, cluster and discriminant analyses, were used to identify risk factors and to design a causal model for understanding work-related stress. The model explained the causal links of stress through employee perception of imbalance between job demands and resources for responding appropriately, by supplying a reliable U-shaped nonlinear stress index, expressed in terms of values of human systolic arterial pressure. Low, intermediate and high values indicated demotivation (or inefficiency), well-being and distress, respectively. Costs for stress-dependent productivity shortcomings were estimated to about 3.7% of national income from employment. The method identified useful structured information able to supply a simple and precise interpretation of employees' well-being and stress risk. Results could be compared with estimated national benchmarks to enable targeted intervention strategies to protect the health and safety of workers, and to reduce unproductive costs for firms.

  9. Perceived competence in computer use as a moderator of musculoskeletal strain in VDU work: an ergonomics intervention case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomivaara, S; Ketola, R; Huuhtanen, P; Toivonen, R

    2008-02-01

    Musculoskeletal strain and other symptoms are common in visual display unit (VDU) work. Psychosocial factors are closely related to the outcome and experience of musculoskeletal strain. The user-computer relationship from the viewpoint of the quality of perceived competence in computer use was assessed as a psychosocial stress indicator. It was assumed that the perceived competence in computer use moderates the experience of musculoskeletal strain and the success of the ergonomics intervention. The participants (n = 124, female 58%, male 42%) worked with VDU for more than 4 h per week. They took part in an ergonomics intervention and were allocated into three groups: intensive; education; and reference group. Musculoskeletal strain, the level of ergonomics of the workstation assessed by the experts in ergonomics and amount of VDU work were estimated at the baseline and at the 10-month follow-up. Age, gender and the perceived competence in computer use were assessed at the baseline. The perceived competence in computer use predicted strain in the upper and the lower part of the body at the follow-up. The interaction effect shows that the intensive ergonomics intervention procedure was the most effective among participants with high perceived competence. The interpretation of the results was that an anxiety-provoking and stressful user-computer relationship prevented the participants from being motivated and from learning in the ergonomics intervention. In the intervention it is important to increase the computer competence along with the improvements of physical workstation and work organization.

  10. Professions and Working Conditions Associated With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Palomera, Elisabet; Roig, Jordi; Boixeda, Ramon; Bartolomé, Maria; de la Torre, Mari; Parra, Olga; Torres, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not considered a professional disease, and the effect of different occupations and working conditions on susceptibility to CAP is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine whether different jobs and certain working conditions are risk factors for CAP. Over a 1-year period, all radiologically confirmed cases of CAP (n=1,336) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=1,326) were enrolled in a population-based case-control study. A questionnaire on CAP risk factors, including work-related questions, was administered to all participants during an in-person interview. The bivariate analysis showed that office work is a protective factor against CAP, while building work, contact with dust and sudden changes of temperature in the workplace were risk factors for CAP. The occupational factor disappeared when the multivariate analysis was adjusted for working conditions. Contact with dust (previous month) and sudden changes of temperature (previous 3 months) were risk factors for CAP, irrespective of the number of years spent working in these conditions, suggesting reversibility. Some recent working conditions such as exposure to dust and sudden changes of temperature in the workplace are risk factors for CAP. Both factors are reversible and preventable. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceptions of working conditions amongst health workers in state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... There is little information on the health workers' perceptions of working conditions in ..... Supervision and interpersonal relationships. One hundred sixty-six ..... understand factors that motivate health workers and cause job ...

  12. Does Hard Work Pay Off? The Influence of Perceived Effort on Romantic Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Dwiggins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how a person’s willingness to exert effort affects how others perceive their romantic desirability. The study also examines whether the participants’ implicit theory of personality (incremental or entity influences ratings of the target’s romantic desirability based on the target’s level of effort. Seventy-eight (17 males, 61 females single college students participated in the study. Participants read one of four descriptions of a target. The descriptions manipulated both the target’s ability (hard work or natural ability and success (successful or unsuccessful. Participants also completed a measure to assess their implicit theory of personality. Participants then rated the target’s desirability. There was a significant difference in desirability ratings of the target for the main effect of ability. There were no other significant differences found between the variables. The findings suggest that when a person expends effort, they are more romantically desirable regardless of how successful they are. Findings also suggest that a person’s implicit theory of personality does not interact with the target’s effort to affect romantic desirability.

  13. Perceived Safety at Work in the Wake of Terror: The Importance of Security Measures and Emergency Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Alexander; Heir, Trond

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to explore how perceived safety after terrorism is connected to views on security measures and emergency preparedness in a workplace setting. Using a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study of ministerial employees in Norway who were targeted in a terrorist attack in 2011 (n=3344), we investigated how employees' perceived safety at work 9 to 10 months after the attack was associated with their perceptions of whether security measures were sufficiently prioritized at work, whether there had been sufficient escape and evacuation training, and whether they were confident with evacuation procedures. We found strong evidence of increasing perceived safety at work the more employees believed security measures were sufficiently prioritized at work (partially confounded by post-traumatic stress disorder), and the better their knowledge of evacuation procedures (modified by gender and education). The present study suggests that employers may enhance perceived safety at work for terror-exposed employees by showing a commitment to security measures and by ensuring employees know evacuation procedures well. More research is needed to investigate causality patterns behind the associations found in this cross-sectional study. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:805-811).

  14. Perceived external prestige as a mediator between quality of work life and organisational commitment of public sector employees in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyinka Ojedokun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research efforts have been directed at understanding the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment, but these studies have not elucidated the mediating role of perceived external prestige in this relationship.Research purpose: This research seeks to close a research gap by determining the role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment amongst public sector employees in Ghana.Research approach, design and method: Theoretically guided hypotheses and models were formulated and tested with hierarchical multiple regression statistics using data from a sample of 137 employees from two public sector organisations in Ghana.Main findings: The results support the hypothesis that quality of work life is positively related to both perceived external prestige and organisational commitment. Also, perceived external prestige was found to predict organisational commitment and partially mediate the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: The findings imply that one sure way to enhance organisational commitment of employees is by improving their quality of work life and boosting their perceptions of external prestige of the organisation. These results will be of particular interest to policymakers, public organisations and stakeholders interested in increasing organisational commitment of their employees.Contribution/value-add: The findings extend previous research by establishing the mediating role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment. If managers of organisations wish to improve organisational commitment, it is wise to institutionalise an organisational culture that promotes good quality of work life and boost the external prestige of the organisation in the employees’ mind.

  15. How readers perceive translated literary works: an analysis of reader reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela D'Egidio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The aim of this paper is to investigate the reader’s reception of translated literary texts and to explore the reader’s expectations about literary works. For this purpose, three comparable corpora of British, American and Italian online book reviews commenting on the English version of Andrea Camilleri’s La forma dell’acqua (The Shape of Water and on the Italian version of Stephen King’s Joyland were assembled and analysed. The way active target language readers perceive and evaluate a translated literary work was then explored by taking the language they actually used in book recommendation websites. The analysis demonstrates that the Anglo-American and Italian readers’ reception of the translated text is different, in terms of focus and perception. Riassunto - Il presente articolo esplora il modo in cui i lettori recepiscono testi letterari tradotti e quali sono le loro aspettative. A tale scopo sono stati raccolti e analizzati tre corpora comparabili di recensioni online scritte da lettori britannici, americani e italiani sulla versione inglese de La forma dell’acqua di Andrea Camilleri e sulla versione italiana di Joyland di Stephen King. In particolare, l’articolo esplora il modo in cui i lettori della lingua di arrivo percepiscono e valutano un’opera letteraria tradotta partendo dal linguaggio da usato dai lettori nei siti web di recensioni di libri. L’analisi dimostra che i lettori anglo-americani e italiani percepiscono un testo tradotto in modo differente e ne commentano aspetti differenti.

  16. Nigerian agriculture workers’ outcomes from perceived organisational support and protestant work ethics: Job satisfaction as a mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga J. Ladebo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The mechanism facilitating the development of organisational commitment and performance of citizenship behaviours is of research interest to scholars. Recent research trends suggest that job satisfaction can mediate the development of employee commitment and citizenship behaviours.Research purpose: The present study hypothesised that job satisfaction mediated the relationships between the predictors (perceived organisational support and protestant work ethics and outcomes (organisational citizenship behaviours and organisational commitment.Motivation for the study: There is paucity of literature on the mediating influence of job satisfaction on predictors-outcomes linkages amongst agriculture workers in Nigeria. Available studies either examined the main effect of perceived organisational support on citizenship behaviours or the mediating influence of satisfaction on citizenship behaviours and not the proposed model.Research design, approach and method: The present study was survey-correlational in design. Data were obtained from 223 heterogeneous samples from different organisations (such as ministry of agriculture, parastatals, banks, private agro-allied companies, and insurance companies.Main findings: Results showed that job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between perceived organisational support and citizenship behaviours and partially mediated the relationship between perceived organisational support and organisational commitment. Further, employee satisfaction partially mediated the relationships between protestant work ethics and citizenship behaviours and organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: This study indicated that both protestant work ethics and perceived organisational support are important in motivating employees to engage in cooperative behaviours and exhibit greater commitment through job satisfaction.Contribution/value-add: The present study showed that job satisfaction is a

  17. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...

  18. North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Since 2002, North Carolina, under the leadership of Governor Mike Easley and the North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards Commission, has worked to improve understanding of a critical factor in student learning and teacher retention: the conditions under which teachers work. In 2006, 66 percent (more than 75,000) school-based licensed…

  19. Working conditions in the European meat processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nossent, S.; Groot, B. de; Verschuren, R.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the main results of one part of the study 'Monitoring the work environment at sectorial level'. This part regards the meat processing industry in Europe. In this study, which was a project of the European Foundation for Living and Working Conditions, ten member states of the

  20. The Netherlands: Working conditions in central public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.

    2013-01-01

    This report deals with the development of working conditions for employees working in Central Public Administration in The Netherlands. Contrary to many countries, the distinction between public and private employees is very small. The main changes in the situation for public employees are a further

  1. Low-perceived work ability, ageing and intention to leave nursing: a comparison among 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Estryn-Behar, Madeleine; Consonni, Dario; Gould, Dinah; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2006-01-01

    Aim: This paper reports a study exploring nurses' perceived work ability and its associations with age and intention to leave nursing in a representative sample of Registered Nurses in 10 European countries. Background: Throughout Europe, there is now a substantial shortage of Registered Nurses and

  2. Dementia-Related Work Activities of Home Care Nurses and Aides: Frequency, Perceived Competence, and Continuing Education Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debra G.; Kosteniuk, Julie G.; O'Connell, Megan E.; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Stewart, Norma J.; Karunanayake, Chandima

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the specific dementia learning needs of home care staff is needed to plan relevant continuing education (CE) programs and supports. The study's objective was to examine frequency and perceived competence in performing 20 dementia-related work activities, and identify CE priorities among home care staff. A cross-sectional survey…

  3. The Impact of Perceived College Students and Psychosocial Factors on Missed Class and Work in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jenifer J.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of how missed class and work are influenced by psychosocial factors is important. The authors collected data from 303 college students through self-report questionnaires. Moderation analysis indicated that with higher perceived stress, students were more likely to miss class if they were less satisfied with social support and less…

  4. The Impact of Perceived College Students and Psychosocial Factors on Missed Class and Work in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jenifer J.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of how missed class and work are influenced by psychosocial factors is important. The authors collected data from 303 college students through self-report questionnaires. Moderation analysis indicated that with higher perceived stress, students were more likely to miss class if they were less satisfied with social support and less…

  5. Impact of Performance Obstacles on Intensive Care Nurses‘ Workload, Perceived Quality and Safety of Care, and Quality of Working Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Ayse P; Carayon, Pascale; Wall, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the impact of performance obstacles on intensive care nurses‘ workload, quality and safety of care, and quality of working life (QWL). Performance obstacles are factors that hinder nurses‘ capacity to perform their job and that are closely associated with their immediate work system. Data Sources/Study Setting Data were collected from 265 nurses in 17 intensive care units (ICUs) between February and August 2004 via a structured questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 80 percent. Study Design A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were analyzed by correlation analyses and structural equation modeling. Principal Findings Performance obstacles were found to affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL of ICU nurses. Workload mediated the impact of performance obstacles with the exception of equipment-related issues on perceived quality and safety of care as well as QWL. Conclusions Performance obstacles in ICUs are a major determinant of nursing workload, perceived quality and safety of care, and QWL. In general, performance obstacles increase nursing workload, which in turn negatively affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL. Redesigning the ICU work system to reduce performance obstacles may improve nurses‘ work. PMID:19207589

  6. Balancing Healthy Meals and Busy Lives: Associations between Work, School, and Family Responsibilities and Perceived Time Constraints among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize associations between perceived time constraints for healthy eating and work, school, and family responsibilities among young adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: A large, Midwestern metropolitan region. Participants: A diverse sample of community college (n = 598) and public university (n = 603) students.…

  7. The research on the optimum working conditions of photoconductive antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Dai, Yang; Zhang, Like; Yang, Lei; Yan, Zhijin; Chen, Suguo; Hou, Lei

    2015-11-01

    The photoconductive antenna (PCA) is one of the most common devices to generate terahertz (THz) wave, whose radiation efficiency is largely determined by the working conditions. In order to improve the power of THz wave, the influence of pump laser and bias voltage on the intensity of the THz wave radiated by PCA was studied through experiment and the optimum working conditions of PCA was obtained through the theoretical analysis, these are the maximum safe voltage and saturated laser energy. Only under the optimum conditions can the signal-to-noise ratio(SNR)of THz wave radiated by PCA be the highest and the PCA would not breakdown.

  8. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Working Conditions: How Predictive of Policy-Relevant Outcomes? Working Paper 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study uses data from North Carolina to examine the extent to which survey based perceptions of working conditions are predictive of policy-relevant outcomes, independent of other school characteristics such as the demographic mix of the school's students. Working conditions emerge as highly predictive of teachers' stated…

  9. Perception of orchestral musicians about work environment and conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Stefani Teixeira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of 11 orchestral string (viola and violin musicians of both genders with respect to their work environment and conditions. We applied a questionnaire with demographic information and the scale Profile of Work Environment and Working Conditions by Nahas et al. (2009, which analyzes the following components: physical environment, social environment, development and professional achievement, salary and benefits, and social relevance. The social environment component presented the highest score - 8.00 (1.50 points, followed by professional achievement - 7.11 (1.96 points, and physical environment - 6.89 (0.93 points. The salary and benefits provided by the orchestra presented the lowest score - 6.78 (1.56 points. In general, the musicians showed positive perceptions of the components related to work environment and working conditions. However, remuneration and social relevance are work bases that could contribute to improve the working conditions of these professionals.

  10. On-Duty Nonfatal Injury that Lead to Work Absences Among Police Officers and Level of Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christine; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Harlow, Siobán; Bingham, C Raymond; McCullagh, Marjorie; Park, Sung Kyun; Violanti, John

    2017-08-14

    We examined prevalence, frequency, duration, and recency of injury leave and the association of duty-related injury with perceived stress in U.S. police officers. This cross-sectional study contained 422 active duty police officers from a mid-sized urban police department. For each participating officer, work history records were used to assess on-duty injuries that lead to work absences. Linear regression analyses were used for analyses. Most participants had experienced at least one injury (62%), and among those injured, 67% experienced more than one duty-related injury. The average number of injuries per officer was three (range 1 to 12). There was a significant linear trend in mean perceived stress across injury count even after adjusting for age, rank, and sex (P = 0.025). Findings suggest that work-related injury is common and repeated work-related injuries are psychologically distressing in U.S. police officers.

  11. Examining Perceived Family Support and Family Environment under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman İLĞAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the family support and family environment level according to students’ perceptions under socio-economic variables. The sample of the research consists of 747 middle and high school students in Izmir, Menderes town. In respect of finding out family support and environment ‘family support and environment’ scale has been developed by researchers. As a descriptive survey model research has revealed that students’ perception about family support was in high level. In terms of perceived family support, middle school students have more positive perception than high school student. Students whose fathers don’t work have less positive perception in comparison to students whose fathers are freelancers and officials; students’ whose mothers are alive have higher perception of family support and environment than whose mothers are dead; students whose mothers and fathers live together have higher perception of family support and environment in comparison to the others; students who live with their families have higher perception of family support and environment in comparison to the others; students who have health problems have less perception of family support and environment than those who have no health problems; students’ perception of family support and environment differed according to number of brothers and sisters in the family.

  12. Perceived stress, disturbed sleep, and cognitive impairments in patients with work-related stress complaints: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Kristensen, Simon Bang; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2017-07-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often present with cognitive impairments as well as sleep disturbances. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of perceived stress and sleep disturbances in the longitudinal development in cognitive impairments in a group of patients with prolonged work-related stress (N = 60) during a period of 12 months following initial professional care-seeking. Objective cognitive impairments (neuropsychological tests) were measured on two occasions - at initial professional care-seeking and at 12-month follow-up. Questionnaires on perceived stress, sleep disturbances, and cognitive complaints were completed seven times during the 12 months which facilitated multilevel analysis with segregation of within-person (change) and between-person (baseline level) components of the time-varying predictors (perceived stress and sleep disturbances). Change in perceived stress was associated with concurrent and subsequent change in self-reported cognitive complaints over the period of 12 months and to a lesser extent the change in performance on neuropsychological tests of processing speed from baseline to 12-month follow-up. Change in sleep disturbances was also associated with concurrent and subsequent change in self-reported cognitive complaints over the 12 months but not with change on neuropsychological test performance. Although the mechanism behind the improvement in cognitive impairments in patients with work-related stress should be further explored in future studies, the results could suggest that improvement in cognitive impairments is partly mediated by decreasing levels of perceived stress and, to a lesser extent, decreasing levels of sleep disturbances. Lay summary This study examines the role of perceived stress and sleep disturbances in respect to the development of cognitive impairments (e.g. memory and concentration) in a group of patients with work-related stress. We found that change in

  13. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYEES OF BROADCASTING CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A V; Brusentsova, A V; Sokhoshko, I A; Rostikov, V P

    2015-01-01

    Hygienic assessment of working conditions of employees of the Omsk Regional Broadcasting Centre was performed on data of the analysis of materials of certification of workplaces. There were examined materials concerning 65 core profile workplaces, where 130 persons, including 35 women work. There was determined health risk for personnel in dependence on working conditions. The staff was noted to be exposed to the adverse impact of the following factors: chemical, physical (noise, general and local vibration, non-ionizing radiation, microclimate, lighting), severity and intensity ofwork. Class working conditions for 13,5% of workplaces on noise, 35.4% on non-ionizing radiation was assessed as a harmful of the first degree. Lightness indices at 78.5% of the workplaces did not meet the requirements of sanitary norms. At 7.7% of the workplaces levels of hardness of labor were assessed as harmful. The impact of such factors as biological, infrasound, ultrasound, ionizing radiation, aerosols with mainly fibrogenic action, was absent, their assessment was not carried out. Working conditions at 83.1% of workplaces were characterized as hazardous, including at 52.3% of the workplaces where there was established hazard class 3.1, at 30.7% of workplaces--Class 3.2. Among all the factors of occupational environment the largest contribution into the overall assessment of working conditions was made by the lightness factor (50.9%) and non-ionizing radiation (20.6%). The most harmful working conditions have been identified for workplaces of the operator of masthead antenna, engineer of radiocommunications, broadcasting and television, electromechanician of television (radiocommunication), (broadcasting), car driver.

  14. The impact of shift work on nurses' job stress, sleep quality and self-perceived health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Liao, Wen-Chun; Chen, Mei-Yen; Fan, Jun-Yu

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the current state of nurses' shift work in Taiwan and how it affects nurses' stress, sleep quality and self-perceived health status. To enable the provision of 24-hour patient care, nurses need to work various shifts. Long-term shift work significantly affects nurses' overall physical and mental health. Nurses from four Chiayi County district hospitals in Taiwan (n = 266) participated in this cross-sectional study from August to September 2010. Demographics, work schedule forms, a stress checklist, a sleep-quality measure and a health-status measure were used to collect data. Independent t-test, one-way anova, Pearson's r, and hierarchical regression were applied for analysis. The results showed that regardless of the amount of shift work they performed, nurses reported moderate job stress, poor sleep quality and moderate self-perceived health. The following significant relationships were observed: job stress was inversely related to sleep quality, which was directly related to self-perceived health status. Hospital managers need to ensure more healthy shift work scheduling in order to improve nurses' clinical performance and personal health status, thereby also improving the quality of patient care. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mexican-Origin Parents’ Work Conditions and Adolescents’ Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Crouter, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Mexican-origin parents’ work experiences are a distal extra-familial context for adolescents’ adjustment. This two-wave multi-informant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents’ work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents’ adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents’ psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, two-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers’ occupational self-direction on all three aspects of adolescents’ adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents’ adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents’ gender moderated the associations between fathers’ self-direction and girls’ depressive symptoms, and fathers’ experiences of discrimination and boys’ risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents’ adjustment across the transition to high school. PMID:25938710

  16. Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Neural Plastic Effects of Working Memory Training Influenced by Self-perceived Stress in Stroke: A Case Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ada W S; Barrett, Lauren M; Butterworth, Darcy; Werther, Karin; Dawson, Deirdre R; Brintnell, E Sharon

    2016-01-01

    This case study examined the effects of auditory working memory (WM) training on neuroplastic changes in stroke survivors and how such effects might be influenced by self-perceived stress. Two participants with a history of stroke participated in the study. One of them had a higher level of self-perceived stress. Both participants underwent a course of auditory WM training and completed baseline and post-training assessments such as self-perceived stress, performance satisfaction questionnaires, behavioral task performance, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. They were trained on a computerized auditory WM task (n-back) 5 days a week for 6 weeks, for a total of 20 h. Participant 1 had high levels of perceived stress, both pre- and post-training, and showed improvement on the satisfaction aspect of functional engagement only. Participant 2 had lower levels of perceived stress and demonstrated improvements on all performance tasks. Neuroimaging results showed evidence of improved neural efficiency on the trained task for participant 2. The results shed light on the need to evaluate psychological influences, e.g., stress, when studying the neuroplastic changes in people with stroke. However, the case design approach and other factors that might have positively influenced outcomes mean that these results must be interpreted with a great deal of caution. Future studies using a larger sample are recommended to verify the findings.

  18. Neural plastic effects of working memory training influenced by self-perceived stress in stroke: A case illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada W.S. Leung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study examined the effects of auditory working memory (WM training on neuroplastic changes in stroke survivors and how such effects might be influenced by self-perceived stress. Two participants with a history of stroke participated in the study. One of them had a higher level of self-perceived stress. Both participants underwent a course of auditory WM training and completed baseline and post-training assessments such as self-perceived stress, performance satisfaction questionnaires, behavioral task performance, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. They were trained on a computerized auditory WM task (n-back five days a week for six weeks, for a total of 20 hours. Participant 1 had high levels of perceived stress, both pre- and post-training, and showed improvement on the satisfaction aspect of functional engagement only. Participant 2 had lower levels of perceived stress and demonstrated improvements on all performance tasks. Neuroimaging results showed evidence of improved neural efficiency on the trained task for participant 2. The results shed light on the need to evaluate psychological influences, e.g., stress, when studying the neuroplastic changes in people with stroke. However, the case design approach and other factors that might have positively influenced outcomes mean that these results must be interpreted with a great deal of caution. Future studies using a larger sample are recommended to verify the findings.

  19. [Work conditions and occupational morbidity on mining industry enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovkova, N P; Chebotarev, A G; Leskina, L M

    2006-01-01

    The authors analysed contemporary work conditions on metallurgic mining industry enterprises, revealed intensity of main occupational hazards, summarized results of workplaces certification at these enterprises. The article covers parameters, structure of occupational morbidity among workers engaged into underground winning of ores, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, aluminium plants since 2002 till 2006. Materials on workplaces certification are compared with results of periodic medical examinations in separate industrial entities. The authors outlined major directions of research in occupational medicine for healthy and safe work conditions.

  20. Thermodynamic performance analysis of ramjet engine at wide working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Min; Yan, Li; Tang, Jing-feng; Huang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-qian

    2017-03-01

    Although ramjet has the advantages of high-speed flying and higher specific impulse, the performance parameters will decline seriously with the increase of flight Mach number and flight height. Therefore, the investigation on the thermodynamic performance of ramjet is very crucial for broadening the working range. In the current study, a typical ramjet model has been employed to investigate the performance characteristics at wide working conditions. First of all, the compression characteristic analysis is carried out based on the Brayton cycle. The obtained results show that the specific cross-section area (A2 and A5) and the air-fuel ratio (f) have a great influence on the ramjet performance indexes. Secondly, the thermodynamic calculation process of ramjet is given from the view of the pneumatic thermal analysis. Then, the variable trends of the ramjet performance indexes with the flow conditions, the air-fuel ratio (f), the specific cross-sectional area (A2 and A5) under the fixed operating condition, equipotential dynamic pressure condition and variable dynamic pressure condition have been discussed. Finally, the optimum value of the specific cross-sectional area (A5) and the air-fuel ratio (f) of the ramjet model at a fixed work condition (Ma=3.5, H=12 km) are obtained.

  1. Perceived Quality of Work Life and Risk for Compassion Fatigue Among Oncology Nurses: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denigris, Jami; Fisher, Kathleen; Maley, MaryKay; Nolan, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    To examine factors that influenced the nurse's perceived quality of work life and risk for compassion fatigue (CF). The specific aims of the study were to describe the (a) relationship among nurse characteristics and perceived quality of work life, (b) relationship between personal life stress and perceived quality of work life, and (c) the nurse's beliefs about his or her risk for CF.
. A descriptive, mixed-methods study.
. A hematology-oncology unit in a large urban teaching hospital in Pennsylvania.
. 20 oncology nurses. 
. Descriptive study using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The variables were nurse characteristics, personal life stress, and quality of work life. Data were analyzed descriptively and thematically. Scores on the self-report questionnaires were compared to themes.
. Personal life stressors, measured by combining the Impact of Events Scale and Life Events Scale, identified powerful or severe impacts on well-being for 30% of nurse respondents in this study, theoretically placing them at risk for CF. However, qualitative data did not complement the results of the Life Events Scale, and 55% of the nurses described their overall work experiences as "life-affirming and rewarding." The participants provided multiple sources of their work-related stress, including subcategories of communication breakdown, work environment/institution, and care-driven factors. 
. Overall, oncology nurses experienced positive reinforcement at work and they had little concern about individual or organizational effectiveness. Positive experiences offset the negative and balanced out the risk for CF.
. The identification of personal and social contributors, as well as solutions to work-related stress, supports the philosophical premises (i.e., conceptual model) that the circumstances that place a nurse at risk for CF are socially constructed. Nurses can achieve greater empathy through self-understanding and translate this learning to patient care.

  2. The Family Time Squeeze: Perceived Family Time Adequacy Buffers Work Strain in Certified Nursing Assistants With Multiple Caregiving Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, Nicole; Mogle, Jacqueline; Zarit, Steven H; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Almeida, David M

    2017-01-10

    This study examined how certified nursing assistants (CNAs) with unpaid family caregiving roles for children ("double-duty-child caregivers"), older adults ("double-duty-elder caregivers"), and both children and older adults ("triple-duty caregivers") differed from their nonfamily caregiving counterparts ("workplace-only caregivers") on four work strain indicators (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and work climate for family sacrifices). The moderating effects of perceived family time adequacy were also evaluated. Regression analyses were conducted on survey data from 972 CNAs working in U.S.-based nursing homes. Compared with workplace-only caregivers, double-and-triple-duty caregivers reported more emotional exhaustion and pressure to make family sacrifices for the sake of work. Triple-duty caregivers also reported less job satisfaction. Perceived family time adequacy buffered double-duty-child and triple-duty caregivers' emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions, as well as reversed triple-duty caregivers' negative perceptions of the work climate. Perceived family time adequacy constitutes a salient psychological resource for double-duty-child and triple-duty caregivers' family time squeezes. Amid an unprecedented demand for long-term care and severe direct-care workforce shortages, future research on workplace factors that increase double-and-triple-duty caregiving CNAs' perceived family time adequacy is warranted to inform long-term care organizations' development of targeted recruitment, retention, and engagement strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Statement on the Status and Working Conditions of Contingent Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Mike; Doe, Sue; McDonald, James; Newman, Beatrice Mendez; Samuels, Robert; Schell, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors call for an approach that, in recognizing the economic realities facing most institutions, attempts to put aside objections that funding is simply not available to support an expansion of the current tenure system. In calling for the changes in faculty working conditions, the authors recognize that change will…

  4. EU road freight transport sector : work and employment conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Berg, R. van der; Heuvel, F. van den

    2004-01-01

    International competition and technological developments have had both positive and negative effects on the road freight transport sector. These changes have significantly influenced work and employment conditions in the sector. As this report highlights, creating more and better jobs while enhancin

  5. Technology Change And Working Conditions – A Cultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2004-01-01

    When technology change improves working conditions, the success is often attributed to skilful change agents. When it is not, the blame is on “resistance to change” and “resilient cultures”. How can these failures be understood differently? A cultural perspective on technology change might be a way...

  6. Caregivers in older peoples' care: perception of quality of care, working conditions, competence and personal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    From, Ingrid; Nordström, Gun; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Johansson, Inger

    2013-09-01

    The aim was to describe and compare nursing assistants', enrolled nurses' and registered nurses' perceptions of quality of care, working conditions, competence and personal health in older peoples' care. Altogether 70 nursing assistants, 163 enrolled nurses and 198 registered nurses completed a questionnaire comprising Quality from the Patient's Perspective modified for caregivers, Creative Climate Questionnaire, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, items on education and competence and Health Index. The caregivers reported higher perceived reality of quality of care in medical-technical competence and physical-technical conditions than in identity-oriented approach and socio-cultural atmosphere. In subjective importance, the highest rating was assessed in one of the physical-technical items. The organisational climate was for three of the dimensions rather close/reached the value for a creative climate, for seven dimensions close to a stagnant climate. In perceived stress of conscience, there were low values. Nursing assistants had lower values than enrolled nurses and registered nurses. The caregivers reported highest values regarding previous education making them feel safe at work and lowest value on the item about education increasing the ability for a scientific attitude. Registered nurses could use knowledge in practice and to a higher degree than nursing assistants/enrolled nurses reported a need to gain knowledge, but the latter more often received education during working hours. The health index among caregivers was high, but registered nurses scored lower on emotional well-being than nursing assistants/enrolled nurses. The caregivers' different perceptions of quality of care and work climate need further attention. Although stress of conscience was low, it is important to acknowledge what affected the caregivers work in a negative way. Attention should be paid to the greater need for competence development among registered nurses during working hours.

  7. Associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity, and body weight among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Perceived Impact of Quality Audit on the Work of Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Quality audit has become the dominant means of assessing the quality of university teaching and learning. This paper addresses this international trend through the analysis of academics' perception of quality audit. It presents a new way to understand quality audit through the interpretation of how frontline academics in England perceived and…

  9. Current Levels of Perceived Stress among Mental Health Social Workers Who Work with Suicidal Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Mental health social workers are at increased risk of being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behavior (CSB). Research has documented personal and professional reactions to CSB; however, empirical evidence describing the potential long-term effects is scarce. This study examined current reactions of perceived stress and continual…

  10. Examining Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice with Homeless Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, James P.

    2014-01-01

    School social workers are at the forefront of serving homeless children and youths as they pursue education. Because of the negative impact homelessness can have on academic outcomes for children, understanding what factors are perceived to either hinder or facilitate practice and what factors might influence perceptions of practice with this…

  11. Technology Change And Working Conditions – A Cultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2004-01-01

    When technology change improves working conditions, the success is often attributed to skilful change agents. When it is not, the blame is on “resistance to change” and “resilient cultures”. How can these failures be understood differently? A cultural perspective on technology change might be a way...... to facilitate technology change processes that lead to improved working conditions. The research based project described here has developed a special homepage that explains how this might be achieved. The homepage is targeted at working life professionals. The homepage presents theoretical explanations...... of the concept of organizational culture, a model for analysis and several practical case stories. This paper explains how the project tries to reach a broad spectrum of professionals in order to facilitate their use of a cultural perspective. It also discusses the ethical consequences of the cultural...

  12. Influence of Conditioned Surface Textures on Plain Journal Bearing Performance Working on HL Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vélez-Restrepo J.M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As an answer to the need for reducing friction losses on bearings, dynamic seals, piston rings, cutting tools and others, a lot of work has been dedicated to mechanical systems study whose surfaces have been textured in a controlled way. Theoretical models and experimental results have shown improvements on the tribological performance of these systems regarding untextured systems, working under the same conditions. This paper presents a numerical model for getting relationships among the operational conditions (load, speed, and dynamic viscosity, the minimum lubricate film thickness, the friction coefficient and the conditioned micro-topography of a plain sliding bearing working under a hydrodynamic regime. Moreover, regarding other similar works the constructed model allows studying the combined effect of the micro-wedges that work as micro-bearings, and the typical convergent macro-wedge of these study elements.

  13. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M; O'Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J Michael; Casper, Lynne

    Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals' perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals' work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees' mental health. We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a "private trouble" and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work.

  14. Determinants of perceived risk and initial trust on a team leader. Impact of working environment and leader traits

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Guinalíu Blasco; Pau Jordán Blasco

    2014-01-01

    Aspects such as the growing importance of teamwork and the emergence of new organizational schemes based on information and communication technologies highlight the need for understanding the mechanisms that promote effective leadership. In this sense, this paper analyzes the determinants of perceived risk and trust on a team leader. The research consists of two experiments. The first analyzes the influence of working environment—virtual or traditional—on the two dependent variables considere...

  15. Health, work and working conditions: a review of the European economic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnay, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Economists have traditionally been very cautious when studying the interaction between employment and health because of the two-way causal relationship between these two variables: health status influences the probability of being employed and, at the same time, working affects the health status. Because these two variables are determined simultaneously, researchers control endogeneity skews (e.g., reverse causality, omitted variables) when conducting empirical analysis. With these caveats in mind, the literature finds that a favourable work environment and high job security lead to better health conditions. Being employed with appropriate working conditions plays a protective role on physical health and psychiatric disorders. By contrast, non-employment and retirement are generally worse for mental health than employment, and overemployment has a negative effect on health. These findings stress the importance of employment and of adequate working conditions for the health of workers. In this context, it is a concern that a significant proportion of European workers (29 %) would like to work fewer hours because unwanted long hours are likely to signal a poor level of job satisfaction and inadequate working conditions, with detrimental effects on health. Thus, in Europe, labour-market policy has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the number of hours worked. Overall, a specific "flexicurity" (combination of high employment protection, job satisfaction and active labour-market policies) is likely to have a positive effect on health.

  16. Long working hours in Korea: results of the 2010 Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Kwon, Oh Jun; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-01

    Long working hours adversely affect workers' safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation limiting the working week to 40 h, to improve quality-of-life and to increase business competitiveness. In the present study, we explored the characteristics of work in Korea and compared our data of the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) with those of the first KWCS. We found that the average number of hours worked weekly has been reduced but the proportions of workers who work for more than 48 h per week has increased over the 4 yr between the two Korean surveys in all categories studied (male, female, employee, self-employed, and employer). We also found that self-employed and employers work much longer hours than do employees, who are protected by the Labor Standards Act. This was particularly true in the accommodation and food service sectors. In conclusion, Korean workers work longer than do workers of EU countries. The use of average figures masks differences in the numbers of working hours among those engaged in various types of employment, or in certain work sectors. Therefore, the Korean government should not simply monitor reductions in average weekly working hours, but should identify employees working for over 60 h weekly, and reduce their working time.

  17. [Influence of the working conditions on sickness absence due to common diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Álvarez, Manuel; Álvarez-Theurer, Esther; Romero Saldaña, Manuel

    2017-06-13

    To estimate the importance of the working environment in sickness absence, as well as to show possible relationships with clinical-work variables. A descriptive observational study. SITE: Medical Inspection of an Andalusian province. A total of 1016 workers on certified sick leave due to a common illness. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, profession, activity, risk assessment, and perceived occupational cause, on patients who voluntarily gave their consent when they were reviewed during 2015. The illness that caused certified sickness absences was verified in the computerised medical records. Using criteria applied by experts, the role of working conditions in each episode of certified sick leave was assessed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine any relationships between the variables. An inadequate work environment was found in 17.1% of the sickness processes. Health and hospitality services activities have a significant association with working conditions as a cause of sick leave (P<.001). With respect to diagnosis, anxiety-depressive disorders (P<.01) and low back pain (P<.05) were associated with working conditions. The factors related to certified sickness absence and work environment were: residence (OR=0.34, 0.21-0.6), normal/higher education (OR=1.7, 1.2-2.4), (OR=2.0 1.3-3.1), large companies (OR=1.97, 1.3-2.9), and job (OR=2.7, 1.6-3, 2). Sickness absence is affected by factors related to the work environment. Specific preventive actions for workers at their workplace could reduce work related diseases classified as a common illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychosocial working conditions and cognitive complaints among Swedish employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia U D Stenfors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751 and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. CROSS/SECTIONAL RESULTS: High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT demands, under qualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and over qualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. PROSPECTIVE RESULTS: Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and under qualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively

  19. Psychosocial Working Conditions and Cognitive Complaints among Swedish Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Theorell, Töres; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751) and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart) sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. Cross-sectional results High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT) demands, underqualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and overqualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. Prospective results Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and underqualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively associated with future

  20. Working in hot conditions in mining: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graveling, R.A.; Morris, L.A.; Graves, R.J. (Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (UK). Ergonomics Branch)

    1988-01-01

    The HSE's Mine and Quarry Inspectorate initiated a review to enable them to decide whether any problems relating to hot conditions developing in mining would require legislative action. The document provides a detailed review of the effects of working in hot conditions on the workforce. It describes the underlying physiological changes which occur on exposure to heat and looks at the health implications of such changes. Hot conditions may also influence behaviour with concomitant effects on safety - the review also examines the scientific literature on these topics. Physiological changes form the basis of any monitoring procedures either through direct monitoring of the physiological status of the workforce or indirectly by using predictive equations or indices. A wide variety of these indices are described and compared within the context of the thermal conditions encountered in hot deep mining in the United Kingdom. Finally, the use of various control measures is examined from the viewpoint of their likely effect on the workforce. These measures are viewed against a background of the various legislative measures which have been adopted in some countries to minimise the risk to health and safety of individuals working in hot conditions. 230 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Does psychosocial competency training for junior physicians working in pediatric medicine improve individual skills and perceived job stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Monika; Baresi, Lisa; Groneberg, David; Mache, Stefanie

    2016-12-01

    Pediatricians' job performance, work engagement, and job satisfaction are essential for both the individual physician and quality of care for their little patients and parents. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly augment pediatricians' individual and professional competencies. In this study, we developed and implemented a psychosocial competency training (PCT) teaching different psychosocial competencies and stress coping techniques. We investigated (1) the influence of the PCT on work-related characteristics: stress perception, work engagement, job satisfaction and (2) explored pediatricians' outcomes and satisfaction with PCT. Fifty-four junior physicians working in pediatric hospital departments participated in the training and were randomized in an intervention (n = 26) or a control group (n = 28). In the beginning, at follow-up 1 and 2, both groups answered a self-rated questionnaire on perceived training outcomes and work-related factors. The intervention group showed that their job satisfaction significantly increased while perceived stress scores decreased after taking part in the PCT. No substantial changes were observed with regard to pediatricians' work engagement. Participating physicians evaluated PCT with high scores for training design, content, received outcome, and overall satisfaction with the training.

  2. Perceived and Objective Conditions as Predictors of the Life Satisfaction of Urban and Non Urban Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Alfred P.; Jensen, Leif

    1981-01-01

    Studied life satisfaction of urban and nonurban elderly Vermonters (N=1405). Results confirm that there are few significant objective differences, however, the nonurban felt subjectively that they were better off. Perceived evaluations of status were found to be better predictors of life satisfaction than objective measures. (Author)

  3. Factors associated with pharmacists' perceptions of their working conditions and safety and effectiveness of patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Nicole W; Lynd, Larry D; Gastonguay, Louise; Li, Kathy; Nakagawa, Bob; Marra, Carlo A

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the role of pharmacists has changed, as have various provincial legislations, which now allow pharmacists to provide additional health services to patients. With these changes comes growing concern about how well the current pharmacy working environment is adapting and whether it may also be creating work-related stress that may contribute to potentially unsafe practices of patient care. To characterize the current working conditions of pharmacists in British Columbia, an online survey was developed and distributed to all College of Pharmacists of BC (CPBC) registrants by email. The survey consisted of questions on pharmacists' demographics, practice setting and perceptions of workplace conditions. Responses were collected from October 1 to November 10, 2013. All data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and regression models were constructed to assess the association between various factors and pharmacists' self-reported working conditions. Twenty-three percent (1241/5300) of pharmacists registered with the CPBC responded, with 78% working in the community pharmacy setting (58% chain, 19% independent). Pharmacists mostly disagreed with the statements that they had enough time for breaks or lunches or to do their jobs, as well as enough staffing support. Pharmacists' perceptions of their workplace environment were negatively associated with workplace-imposed advanced service quotas (for medication reviews, immunizations and prescription adaptations); being employed at chain store pharmacies, compared to independent pharmacies or hospitals/long-term care settings; and higher prescription volume. Pharmacists working in chain community pharmacies who are required to meet monthly quotas for expanded services reported a substantial negative impact on their working conditions and perceived safety of patient care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx.

  4. Principles for shaping working conditions according to ILO conventions and EC directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koradecka, D

    2001-01-01

    The strategy for the improvement of occupational safety and health is presented. The role of the state and the workers in shaping working conditions has changed over the years, and this process is traced through ILO and EC documents. There must be a coherent up-to-date national policy in this field. Safety and the protection of the workers' health is perceived by the Community legislation not only in the terms of the worker's individual interest, but also from a social viewpoint, consisted in striving for general improvement of the work environment. The Community regulations aspire to satisfy the public interest, and directives set the maximum level of protection but also serve as minimum standards not infringing the more favourable national regulations. They define requirements that should already be met at the planning and designing stages.

  5. Paid caregiver motivation, work conditions, and falls among senior clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Lee A; Tam, Karen; Friesema, Elisha; Martin, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the motivation of paid non-familial caregivers of seniors, understand more about their work conditions, and identify any links to negative outcomes among their senior clients. Ninety-eight paid caregivers (eighty-five female and thirteen male), recruited from multiple sites (i.e. senior centers, shopping malls, local parks, lobbies of senior apartments, caregiver agency meetings) completed face-to-face questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. We found that 60.7% of participants chose to become a caregiver because they enjoyed being with seniors while 31.7% were unable to obtain other work, and 8.2% stated it was a prerequisite to a different health related occupation. Caregivers stated that the most challenging conditions of their work were physical lifting (24.5%), behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (24.5%), senior depression/mood changes (18.4%), attachment with impending death (8.2%), missing injuries to client (5.1%), lack of sleep (4.1%), and lack of connection with outside world (3.1%). Caregivers who reported that the best part of their job was the salary, flexible hours, and ease of work were significantly more likely to have clients who fell and fractured a bone than those who enjoyed being with seniors (job characteristics, 62.5% vs. senior enjoyment, 25.6%; pmotivated commonly by their love of seniors and also by their lack of other job opportunities. Paid caregivers frequently face challenging work conditions. When seeking a caregiver for a senior, motivation of the caregiver should be considered when hiring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of the Pallet Clamping Conditions in Work Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kolesnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pallets of automatic transfer lines serve as the technological and work-transfer equipment. However, their design is based on the general principles of designing machine accessories. Calculation of the basic design parameters of work based on their functioning features is fairly relevant.In pallet transfer movement over work positioning there is a mismatch between axes of the basic bushing of a pallet and the clamping locks of positioning. The paper identifies the factors influencing it, and defines the conditions to ensure the trouble-free clamping lock. The circular and rhombic clamping of pallet is simultaneous. Further, a clamping load is calculated from the pallet mass (together with the work-piece and the geometric parameters of the pallet clamping.The paper reveals three movement stages of the clamping lock in a vertical plane when setting the pallet in work positioning:- a clamping lock free play till it encounters with the location bushing;- a clamping lock play length when the lead-in chamfer contacts the bushing chamfer;- a clamping lock play length over the circular surface of bushing.The study of this process has allowed us to calculate the time of pallet clamping and dynamic loads acting on the clamping lock. These calculations made it possible to calculate the required diameter of the clamping lock. The presented calculations allow a reasonable assigning the main design parameters of work positioning for the pallet automatic lines.

  7. Study on Braking Sensation Based on Urban Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi Lanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we researched the vehicle braking sense in three aspects of human, vehicle and environment and analysed their impacts on brake feeling. Through the real vehicle test we analysed the relationship among pedal force, pedal travel and deceleration. We used dynamometer test method to study the brake noise question. We designed a fixture which could imitate the suspension and made the test more close to the true level. Moreover we discussed how to establish the evaluation system of vehicle braking condition. Through real vehicle test of braking, we can test and record the brake system parameters in the braking process under urban working conditions. We recorded the brake frequency, the change of brake speed and brake disc temperature. Meanwhile, based on the analysis of braking condition, we put forward the index of brake load to reflect the city’s traffic conditions. Experiment show that the braking condition and brake feel are related, braking condition also provides theoretical support for the design of brake system.

  8. Working conditions in industrial kitchens and musculoskeletal disorders of workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Baracho de Alencar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study based on an experience report of Occupational Therapy internship in Occupational Health. The objective of this study was to analyze the working conditions in an industrial kitchen of an Elementary School near Santos city, state of Sao Paulo and the appearance of musculoskeletal disorders. The materials and methods consisted in the elaboration and application of a questionnaire with demographic data related to work and the questions of the Nordic musculoskeletal disorder questionnaire. In addition, anthropometric and tasks surveys and systematic observations of some activities based on Ergonomics were performed. Five female workers aged in between 41 and 53 participated in this study. The musculoskeletal regions referred were wrists/hands, shoulders, hips/thighs, among others. Some organizational and psychosocial aspects that highlight the importance of these evaluations were verified. As an experience, it presents discussions and contributions of the Occupational Therapy to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs.

  9. Optimal working conditions for thermoelectric generators with realistic thermal coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Apertet, Y; Glavatskaya, O; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, P

    2011-01-01

    We study how maximum output power can be obtained from a thermoelectric generator(TEG) with nonideal heat exchangers. We demonstrate with an analytic approach based on a force-flux formalism that the sole improvement of the intrinsic characteristics of thermoelectric modules including the enhancement of the figure of merit is of limited interest: the constraints imposed by the working conditions of the TEG must be considered on the same footing. Introducing an effective thermal conductance we derive the conditions which permit maximization of both efficiency and power production of the TEG dissipatively coupled to heat reservoirs. Thermal impedance matching must be accounted for as well as electrical impedance matching in order to maximize the output power. Our calculations also show that the thermal impedance does not only depend on the thermal conductivity at zero electrical current: it also depends on the TEG figure of merit. Our analysis thus yields both electrical and thermal conditions permitting optima...

  10. The association between workplace smoking bans and self-perceived, work-related stress among smoking workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azagba Sunday

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial empirical evidence on the benefits of smoking bans; however, the unintended consequences of this anti-smoking measure have received little attention. This paper examines whether workplace smoking bans (WSB's are associated with higher self-perceived, work-related stress among smoking workers. Methods A longitudinal representative sample of 3,237 individuals from the Canadian National Population Health Survey from 2000 to 2008 is used. Work-related stress is derived from a 12-item job questionnaire. Two categories of WSB's, full and partial, are included in the analysis, with no ban being the reference category. Analysis also controls for individual socio-demographic characteristics, health status, provincial and occupational fixed-effects. We use fixed-effects linear regression to control for individual time-invariant confounders, both measured and unmeasured, which can affect the relationship between WSB's and work-related stress. To examine the heterogeneous effects of WSB's, the analysis is stratified by gender and age. We check the robustness of our results by re-estimating the baseline specification with the addition of different control variables and a separate analysis for non-smokers. Results Multivariate analysis reveals a positive and statistically significant association between full (β = 0.75, CI = 0.19-1.32 or partial (β = 0.69, CI = 0.12-1.26 WSB's, and the level of self-perceived, work-related stress among smoking workers compared to those with no WSB. We also find that this association varies by gender and age. In particular, WSB's are significantly associated with higher work stress only for males and young adults (aged 18-40. No statistically significant association is found between WSB's and the level of self-perceived work-related stress among non-smoking workers. Conclusion The results of this study do not imply that WSB's are the main determinant of self-perceived, work

  11. Monitoring psychosocial stress at work: development of the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerszal-Bazyl, M; Cieślak, R

    2000-01-01

    Many studies on the impact of psychosocial working conditions on health prove that psychosocial stress at work is an important risk factor endangering workers' health. Thus it should be constantly monitored like other work hazards. The paper presents a newly developed instrument for stress monitoring called the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC). Its structure is based on Robert Karasek's model of job stress (Karasek, 1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990). It consists of 3 main scales Job Demands, Job Control, Social Support and 2 additional scales adapted from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (Elo, Leppanen, Lindstrom, & Ropponen, 1992), Well-Being and Desired Changes. The study of 8 occupational groups (bank and insurance specialists, middle medical personnel, construction workers, shop assistants, government and self-government administration officers, computer scientists, public transport drivers, teachers, N = 3,669) indicates that PWC has satisfactory psychometrics parameters. Norms for the 8 groups were developed.

  12. The relationship between working conditions and health status in working population that is affiliated to the colombian general system for occupational risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Y. Caro V

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the relationship between working conditions and health status using the data provided by The First Colombian National Survey on Health and Working Conditions (I-ENCST. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted on 931 workers from 737 work centers. The outcome variable was self-perceived health status (good/poor. Exposure variables were working conditions, i.e. hygiene, safety, ergonomic, and psychosocial risk factors. Additional variables were: sex, age, social class, education level, geographic region, and economic activity. We estimated the relationship between working conditions and health status using crude odds ratios (OR that were adjusted through logistic regression with their confidence intervals at 95% (CI95%. Results: workers exposed to the following factors had a higher probability of having a poor health status: insufficient working space (aOR 3.9; 95%CI 1.9-8.3, “the position held does not make it possible to develop skills” (aOR 6.2; 95%CI 2.6-14.7, the work center is very unsafe or not very safe (aOR 7.5; 95%CI 3.0-18.6, and the tools or workstation are inadequate (aOR 5.6; 95%CI 2.3-14.0. Discussion: of the analyzed population, individuals exposed to precarious working conditions had a higher risk of having a poor health status.

  13. Academic Work, Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction (CPP RPS 48/2013)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this analysis of changing academic work, working conditions and job satisfaction in Europe, we will present the academics’ assessment of facilities, resources, and personnel. Subsequently, an overview will be provided about the academic workloads and allocation of time between the four major types of academic activities: teaching, research, service, and administration. A further section will discuss job satisfaction and, related to it, the academics’ income. The chapter provides a gener...

  14. Field Measurements of Perceived Air Quality in the Test-Bed for Innovative Climate Conditioning Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Kabrhel, Michal

    , relative humidity and CO2 concentration. Results showed that the mean sensory pollution load in the tested offices was 0.09±0.02 olf/m2 (mean±SEM). This refers to a low-polluting building according to CEN Report CR 1752. The acceptability of the air quality was worst in unoccupied offices ventilated at 20...... m3/h. Application of DCV decreased the CO2 concentration, but did not result in statistically significant improvement of the perceived air quality. It was not possible to quantify the influence on the sensory pollution load of particular technologies tested as part of the Clear-up. However......Field measurements of perceived air quality were conducted in an experimental test bed for innovative building technologies situated at the Czech Technical University in Prague. The technologies included photocatalytically active paint, vacuum porous insulation and wall plaster containing phase...

  15. [Working conditions in outpatient clinics adjacent to private pharmacies in Mexico City: perspective of physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Portillo, Sandra P; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Cuadra-Hernández, Silvia Magali; Idrovo, Álvaro J; Nigenda, Gustavo; Dreser, Anahí

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the working conditions of physicians in outpatient clinics adjacent to pharmacies (CAFs) and their organizational elements from their own perspective. We carried out an exploratory qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 CAF physicians in Mexico City. A directed content analysis technique was used based on previously built and emerging codes which were related to the experience of the subjects in their work. Respondents perceive that work in CAFs does not meet professional expectations due to low pay, informality in the recruitment process and the absence of minimum labour guarantees. This prevents them from enjoying the benefits associated with formal employment, and sustains their desire to work in CAF only temporarily. They believe that economic incentives related to number of consultations, procedures and sales attained by the pharmacy allow them to increase their income without influencing their prescriptive behaviour. They express that the monitoring systems and pressure exerted on CAFs seek to affect their autonomy, pushing them to enhance the sales of medicines in the pharmacy. Physicians working in CAFs face a difficult employment situation. The managerial elements used to induce prescription and enhance pharmacy sales create a work environment that generates challenges for regulation and underlines the need to monitor the services provided at these clinics and the possible risk for users. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Conditioned Surface Textures on Plain Journal Bearing Performance Working on HL Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez-Restrepo J.M.; Toro-Botero F.M.; Suárez-Bustamante F.A.

    2012-01-01

    As an answer to the need for reducing friction losses on bearings, dynamic seals, piston rings, cutting tools and others, a lot of work has been dedicated to mechanical systems study whose surfaces have been textured in a controlled way. Theoretical models and experimental results have shown improvements on the tribological performance of these systems regarding untextured systems, working under the same conditions. This paper presents a numerical model for getting relationships among the ope...

  17. [Shift Work among Men and Women on the Threshold to Higher Working Age - Working Conditions and Health Status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, C; Tisch, A; Tophoven, S

    2016-11-01

    Background: The number of older employees in shift and night work has increased significantly in recent years. Furthermore, the proportion of women in shift and night work has increased markedly. This is due to the aging workforce and the expansion of shift work in the tertiary sector. Previous research shows that shift work is often associated with health risks. Against this background, the aim of the present study is to examine the situation of working men and women on the threshold to higher working age with regard to the relationship between shift work and physical health. Methods: We employed data from the study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit" German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health, a survey of the German baby boom cohorts born in 1959 and 1965 (n=5 637). Linear regression models are used to study the effect of shift work - with and without night work - and of further work exposures on the baby boomers' physical health status. The models control for sleep and health-related behaviour and are stratified by gender. Among women, also the scope of work was taken into account. Results: The results show that male shift workers are burdened by their on average lower occupational status and by physical exposure; female shift workers additionally suffer from high personal effort and low rewards and female part-time shift workers also from overcommitment. Conclusion: Working conditions of shift workers are strongly characterised by work stress. In order to preserve aging shift workers' work ability, some organisational measures seem necessary. In this context, occupational safety and health management as well as opportunities for recovery and encouraging leadership should be considered.

  18. Academics in a New Work Environment: The Impact of New Public Management on Work Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    New public management (NPM) approaches have informed policy in the public sector in advanced countries in the last decade. Some authors suggest that the main objective of NPM at the organisational level is to change the traditional way professionals are regulated. This study examines the impact of NPM on the working conditions of Portuguese higher…

  19. Work-Family Conflict, Perceived Supervisor Support and Organizational Commitment among Brazilian Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Wendy Jean; Harris, Christopher; Taylor-Bianco, Amy; Wayne, Julie Holliday

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines a variety of relationships pertaining to work-family conflict among a sample of Brazilian professionals, in order to shed light on work-family issues in this cultural context. Drawing from the cultural values of Brazil and social identity theory, we examine the relationships of two directions of work-family conflict…

  20. Attitudes and working conditions of ICES advisory scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

    2009-01-01

    give a fuller picture. One important task is to compare the experience of fisheries scientists who are more involved in the advice generation system with that of their colleagues who are less involved. Most of the tables draw comparisons between scientists who work for different kinds of employers......ABSTRACT: The focus of this chapter is the experience and attitudes of individual scientists within the fisheries advisory system. Most of the information is taken from the survey of fisheries scientists, but we have added a number of quotes from meetings and in-depth interviews where this helps...... of the advisory system on scientists’ careers and working conditions. The second focuses on scientist’s attitudes towards the precautionary approach that frame much of how fisheries scientists see the meaning of their advisory task. The third section focuses on scientists’ attitudes towards the advisory task...

  1. New Working Conditions for the SPS from 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Nonis, M

    2000-01-01

    After the long shutdown (December 2000 to May 2001), the SPS complex will work with the main water-cooling loop in closed circuit. This will affect the working conditions because of the higher temperature of the supplied water (24 ° C, i.e. 15 K higher) and therefore of the air in the tunnel. The cooling installations will consequently be upgraded or replaced to meet the new needs, and several new chilled-water stations will be installed to supply the present users. The author will thoroughly explain the main aspects of all these modifications and report the results of the preliminary tests carried out in September 1996. Finally, an overview of the global costs (operational and linked to the project) will be given, taking into account the different consumption of water, electricity and the effects on the magnet components.

  2. Retirement in the Context of the Changes of Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noêmia Lazzareschi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims: (i to present work relations that emerged from the process of flexibility labour markets in the 90 and the distinction between the processes of  flexibility, deregulation and news precarious labor relations, understood by most authors as part of the neoliberal reforms of the last decades of the twentieth century. This distinction  is necessary because, in Brazil, labor relations are rigidly regulated since the promulgation of the Consolidation of Labor Laws in 1943 and have always been precarious; (ii to present social security reforms undertaken by governments Fernando Henrique Cardoso and  Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the new reform bill and its impact on the calculation of the value of retirement in the context of the changes of working conditions that made new labor relations.  

  3. Working fluid concentration measurement in solar air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, R.J.; Basurto-Pensado, M.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001. Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Jimenez-Heredia, A.H.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.J. [Departamento de Optica, Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Tonantzintla, Apartado Postal 51 y 216, C.P. 72000, Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-02-15

    In order to evaluate on-line corrosive electrolyte concentration in solar air conditioning systems, an optical technique to determine the concentration is being proposed. With this optical sensing method, it is possible to measure the percentage concentration of the aqueous corrosive lithium bromide solution at temperatures ranging from 25{sup o}C to 70{sup o}C and a maximum concentration of 60%. The measurement system is based on the refractive index of the solution and the data correlation, at several temperature and concentration values. The results of this work present a direct method for concentration measurement of corrosive liquids and also show the correlation among the three parameters: refractive index, temperature and weight concentration. This correlation can be used to develop the optical device for solar air conditioning systems to control and improve efficiency. (author)

  4. Perceived fairness of pay among people with and without disabilities: a propensity score matched analysis of working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Krnjacki, Lauren; Bentley, Rebecca; Blakely, Tony; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2015-09-01

    Equity and fairness at work are associated with a range of organizational and health outcomes. Past research suggests that workers with disabilities experience inequity in the workplace. It is difficult to conclude whether the presence of disability is the reason for perceived unfair treatment due to the possible confounding of effect estimates by other demographic or socioeconomic factors. The data source was the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey (2001-2012). Propensity for disability was calculated from logistic models including gender, age, education, country of birth, and father's occupational skill level as predictors. We then used nearest neighbor (on propensity score) matched analysis to match workers with disabilities to workers without disability. Results suggest that disability is independently associated with lower fairness of pay after controlling for confounding factors in the propensity score matched analysis; although results do suggest less than half a standard deviation difference, indicating small effects. Similar results were apparent in standard multivariable regression models and alternative propensity score analyses (stratification, covariate adjustment using the propensity score, and inverse probability of treatment weighting). Whilst neither multivariable regression nor propensity scores adjust for unmeasured confounding, and there remains the potential for other biases, similar results for the two methodological approaches to confounder adjustment provide some confidence of an independent association of disability with perceived unfairness of pay. Based on this, we suggest that the disparity in the perceived fairness of pay between people with and without disabilities may be explained by worse treatment of people with disabilities in the workplace.

  5. Personal factors and working conditions as predictors of work injuries among industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, M I; Atta, H Y; Foda, N T; Mostafa, Y A; Youssef, R M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the personal factors and working conditions that predict work injuries among industrial workers. To fulfill this aim, a case control study was conducted including 2003 industrial workers who sustained a work injury and an equal number of controls. All were subjected to an interview questionnaire to collect relevant information. Moreover, records were reviewed to obtain the medical history of enrolled workers. Data revealed that workers in the index and control groups are comparable in respect to their sociodemographic characteristics. The multivariate logistic regression analysis pointed out that safety training significantly reduces the risk of work accidents among industrial workers. On the other hand, work accidents are more likely to occur in the main working shift. Moreover, workers who suffer from chronic health problems calling for surgical treatment, as well as those who reported family problems, are more likely to experience work accidents. These workers should receive considerable attention to reduce the extent of work injuries. More importantly, safety-training programs are mandatory for accident prevention in industrial settings.

  6. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain and long-term sickness absence. Physical exertion (RPE) reflects the balance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the individual. Thus, increasing the physical capacity through physical...... exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. METHODS: 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity......: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per...

  7. EMPLOYMENT AND WORKING CONDITIONS OF THE UKRAINIAN WORKING-AGE POPULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    According to the research carried out by the Sociological Group "Rating" in December 2016, 60% of the respondents were employed, 40% - unemployed. Among the unemployed, one-third (32%) – pensioners, 27% – housekeeping and childcare, 13% – students, 21% – unemployed and looking for work, 6......% - unemployed and not looking for work. When analyzing their working conditions, the majority of the employed respondents mentioned, on the one hand, an absence of vibration, noise, air pollution, minor physical effort, and on the other, comfortable lighting and temperature. Along with that, almost half....... 88% of the respondents were hired workers, 12% – self-employed (businessmen, family business etc.). Higher rate of self-employment was recorded among married individuals, the middle-aged group, and respondents with high income. The majority (89%) of the respondents worked full time, 11% – part time...

  8. Examining the Effects of Perceived Relevance and Work-Related Subjective Well-Being on Individual Performance for Co-Op Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewery, Dave; Pretti, T. Judene; Barclay, Sage

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between co-op students' perceived relevance of their work term, work-related subjective well-being (SWB), and individual performance at work. Data were collected using a survey of co-op students (n = 1,989) upon completion of a work term. Results of regression analyses testing a…

  9. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell; Canifield, James P.; Archuleta, Adrian J.; Crutchfield, Jandel; Chavis, Annie McCullough

    2012-01-01

    Understanding barriers to practice is a growing area within school social work research. Using a convenience sample of 284 school social workers, this study replicates the efforts of a mixed-method investigation designed to identify barriers and facilitators to school social work practice within different geographic locations. Time constraints and…

  10. Expectancy Work Motivation, Central Life Interests, Voluntarism, Organizational Situation, Job Satisfaction, and Perceived Teaching Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskel, Cecil; And Others

    This study tested the hypotheses that expectancy work motivation, individual attitudes toward work, and structural and environmental components are predictions of teacher job satisfaction and effectiveness. Samples were selected from junior high school and higher education faculties. Subjects responded to open-ended questionnaires, and results…

  11. Working and training conditions of residents in pediatric surgery: a nationwide survey in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reismann, M; Ellerkamp, V; Dingemann, J

    2010-09-01

    As in other surgical specialties, increasing concern has been expressed worldwide about the shortage of trainees in pediatric surgery training programs. We performed a nationwide survey to investigate the current situation in Germany. An internet-based nationwide survey comprising 36 questions on training conditions in pediatric surgery was linked to the homepage of the German Society of Pediatric Surgery from June to September 2008. Statements on the following aspects were evaluated by responding residents using a scale from 1 (I do not agree at all) to 5 (I fully agree): workplace, cooperation with colleagues, head of the department, cooperation with other specialties, training and research conditions. A median value of 3 indicated an unsatisfactory assessment, with at least 50% of respondents giving an indifferent or negative response. 70 questionnaires were completed. Some of the evaluations revealed problematic areas. In particular, statements regarding working hours revealed dissatisfaction among the responding doctors. The median value accorded the statement "I am satisfied with the current working time regulation" was 2.9. With regard to departmental heads, some criticisms were directed against a perceived lack of soft skills. According to the respondents, their involvement in decision-making processes was insufficient ("We are involved in decision-making processes affecting our working conditions" - median value 2.4). Residents were also dissatisfied with the feedback they received for their work ("I get enough feedback regarding my achievement" - median value 2.6). Another problem area was career development ("I will finish my specialist training in time" - median value 2.9). However, these points did not affect overall satisfaction. Trainee satisfaction with regulations on working hours is low. Despite a general satisfaction with all fields appraised, improvements in various individual areas, e. g., the attitude of departmental heads and strategies of

  12. Collaborative group work: effects of group size and assignment structure on learning gain, student satisfaction and perceived participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G M; Klaassen, Tim; Vereijken, Mayke; Van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Vorstenbosch, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative group sessions in Nijmegen include 15 students who work all together on a group assignment. Sometimes, the group is split-up in three and every subgroup elaborates a part of the assignment. At the end, they peer-teach each other. It is believed that the split-up enhances participation and therefore learning gain. To establish the effect of group size and structure of the assignment on the perceived participation, the satisfaction and learning gain of collaborative group sessions. In this study, 27 groups of 15 students were equally divided into: A-group: all 15 students working on the complete assignment. B-group: subgroups of 5 students working on the complete assignment. C-group: subgroups of 5 students working on a smaller part, and peer-teaching each other at the end of the group session. All students took a pre-test, a post-test and a follow-up test and completed a questionnaire. Questionnaires were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc by multiple comparisons. Learning gain was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. A group size effect is observed in favor of working in subgroups. Perceived participation of the students differs between A and B (p ≤ 0.001) and between A and C (p ≤ 0.001), but not between B and C. Also, an assignment effect is found in favor of the smaller assignment combined with peer-teaching. The students' satisfaction differs between A and C (p ≤ 0.003) and between B and C (p ≤ 0.001), but not between A and B. The C-group also shows higher test results (p ≤ 0.043). The students prefer smaller groups as well as smaller assignments including peer-teaching. A possible larger learning gain of this format needs to be re-investigated.

  13. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-11-01

    High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain and long-term sickness absence. Physical exertion (RPE) reflects the balance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the individual. Thus, increasing the physical capacity through physical exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5×10 minutes per week. Physical exertion was assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. Physical exertion was reduced more in WORK than HOME (pworkplace appears more effective than home-based exercise in reducing physical exertion during daily work tasks in healthcare workers. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Demand-specific work ability, poor health and working conditions in middle-aged full-time employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of reduced demand-specific work ability, its association with age, gender, education, poor health, and working conditions, and the interaction between poor health and working conditions regarding reduced demand-specific work ability. We used cross......-sectional questionnaire data from 3381 full-time employees responding to questions about vocational education, job demands and social support (working conditions), musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and major depression (MD) (poor health) and seven questions about difficulty managing different job demands (reduced demand...... was associated with six measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. We found no interaction between working conditions and poor health regarding reduced demand-specific work ability....

  15. The effects of exercise reminder software program on office workers' perceived pain level, work performance and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, A; Bumin, G; Irmak, R

    2012-01-01

    In direct proportion to current technological developments, both the computer usage in the workplaces is increased and requirement of leaving the desk for an office worker in order to photocopy a document, send or receive an e-mail is decreased. Therefore, office workers stay in the same postures accompanied by long periods of keyboard usage. In recent years, with intent to reduce the incidence of work related musculoskeletal disorders several exercise reminder software programs have been developed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the exercise reminder software program on office workers' perceived pain level, work performance and quality of life. 39 healthy office workers accepted to attend the study. Participants were randomly split in to two groups, control group (n = 19) and intervention group (n = 20). Visual Analogue Scale to evaluate the perceived pain was administered all of the participants in the beginning and at the end of the study. The intervention group used the program for 10 weeks. Findings showed that the control group VAS scores remained the same, but the intervention group VAS scores decreased in a statistically significant way (p office workers. Further long term studies with more subjects are needed to describe the effects of these programs and the mechanism under these effects.

  16. Balancing healthy meals and busy lives: associations between work, school, and family responsibilities and perceived time constraints among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N

    2012-01-01

    To characterize associations between perceived time constraints for healthy eating and work, school, and family responsibilities among young adults. Cross-sectional survey. A large, Midwestern metropolitan region. A diverse sample of community college (n = 598) and public university (n = 603) students. Time constraints in general, as well as those specific to meal preparation/structure, and perceptions of a healthy life balance. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression (α = .005). Women, 4-year students, and students with lower socioeconomic status perceived more time constraints (P students with lower socioeconomic status were less likely to have a healthy balance (P ≤ .003). Having a heavy course load and working longer hours were important predictors of time constraints among men (P nutrition-related messaging to achieve healthy diets on a low time budget may be more successful if tailored to the factors that contribute to time constraints separately among men and women. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived reciprocal value of health professionals participation in global child health-related work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah Carbone; Jannah Wigle; Nadia Akseer; Raluca Barac; Melanie Barwick; Stanley Zlotkin

    2017-01-01

    ...’ participation in global child health-related work. Benefits were measured in the form of skills, knowledge and attitude strengthening as estimated by an adapted Global Health Competency Model...

  18. Gauging Perceived Benefits from ‘Working from Home’ as a Job Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Farideh Church

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers working from home as an employee benefit and looks to gauge the advantages and disadvantages for both employees and employers. The focus is on employees that work from home on behalf of an employer, not self-employed individuals. The article reviews secondary research on working from home. The primary research included in this paper was conducted via anonymous online surveys. Respondents were assured of anonymity, and ranged in their functional roles. The survey included ranking questions, as well as freeform short answer questions. This primary research is not positioned to be statistically representative of all employees and employers. This primary research does reflect a gauge on perspectives on working from home as a job benefit. Ultimately the results suggest that employees hold a very positive perspective on working from home, however, more can be done to help ensure perceptions on workplace promotional opportunities remain consistent for employees that work in an office or for home. Research also suggests that the greatest challenge for managers remains a lack of trust in results from employees they cannot physically see in the same location. Managers will find driving their employees’ performance through clearly defined metrics which will improve the trust.

  19. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement. PMID:28168198

  20. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  1. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  2. Impact of Telework On the Perceived Work Environment of Older Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvola René

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Telework has become a natural part of regular work life of employees who use the information communication technology (ICT. Telework has a potential to support postponing retirement for mental workers. The objective of this research was to find out interaction between senior employees′ teleworking and well-being. The main research question was - can telework improve elderly employees′ well-being? Over 100 respondents from different areas in mental work were involved in a quantitative survey. The results of a conducted survey showed that telework is exaggerated to some extent as teleworkers’ well-being (M = 7.79; SD = 1.28 does not diverge from non-teleworkers′ wellbeing (M = 7.75; SD = 1.40. However, telework can be neither underestimated nor taken as interchangeable with traditional work. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to telework as a different way of working with its specialties. Systematic approach to telework enables companies to employ elderly by providing diversity of work forms.

  3. Parenting Needs as Perceived by Agency Personnel Working with Parents and Young Children in Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YaeBin

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators have used different methods to collect information for a needs assessment, including advisory committees, survey questionnaires, focus groups, interviews with key informants, or a combination of the former. This article describes the use of key informant interviews (agency personnel working with parents and young children) that…

  4. Perceived Work-Life Balance Ability, Job Satisfaction, and Professional Commitment among Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Tyson J.; McKim, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture teachers participate in various work and life roles, which can create challenges when trying to balance the pressures and responsibilities associated with each role. When one is unable to balance and prioritize between roles, both satisfaction and professional commitment may be reduced. The purpose of this study was to describe Oregon…

  5. Nursing Students' Intentions to Work in Dementia Care: Influence of Age, Ageism, and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Ellen L.; Brown, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given a projected threefold increase in people living with dementia globally by 2050 (World Health Organization, 2012), attracting nurses to work in this area will be critical to meet demand. This study examined the role of age, positive ageism, negative ageism, and aged-care placement completion in predicting nursing students' intentions to work…

  6. Classroom acoustics and hearing ability as determinants for perceived social climate and intentions to stay at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Kristiansen, Jesper; Lund, Søren P; Shibuya, Hitomi; Nielsen, Per Møberg

    2013-01-01

    Background noise and room acoustics may impede social interactions by interfering with oral communication and other cognitive processes. Accordingly, recent research in school environments has showed that social relationships with peers and teachers are described more negatively in rooms with long reverberation times (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate how RT and hearing ability (i.e., hearing thresholds [HT] and distortion product oto-acoustic emissions) were associated with school teachers' perceptions of the social climate at work and their intentions to stay on the job. School teachers (n = 107) from 10 schools that worked in classrooms classified by acoustical experts as "short RT" (3 schools, mean RT 0.41-0.47 s), "medium RT" (3 schools, mean RT 0.50-0.53 s), and "long RT" (4 schools, mean RT 0.59-0.73 s) were examined. Teachers who worked in classrooms with long RT perceived their social climate to be more competitive, conflict laden, and less relaxed and comfortable. They were more doubtful about staying on the job. Even if the teachers were generally satisfied with their work the results suggest that the comfort at work may have been further improved by acoustical interventions that focus on reducing sound reflections in the classrooms. Yet, due the study design and the novelty of the findings the potential practical significance of our observations remains to be evaluated.

  7. Classroom acoustics and hearing ability as determinants for perceived social climate and intentions to stay at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Persson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background noise and room acoustics may impede social interactions by interfering with oral communication and other cognitive processes. Accordingly, recent research in school environments has showed that social relationships with peers and teachers are described more negatively in rooms with long reverberation times (RT. The purpose of this study was to investigate how RT and hearing ability (i.e., hearing thresholds [HT] and distortion product oto-acoustic emissions were associated with schoolteachers′ perceptions of the social climate at work and their intentions to stay on the job. Schoolteachers (n = 107 from 10 schools that worked in classrooms classified by acoustical experts as "short RT" (3 schools, mean RT 0.41-0.47 s, "medium RT" (3 schools, mean RT 0.50-0.53 s, and "long RT" (4 schools, mean RT 0.59-0.73 s were examined. Teachers who worked in classrooms with long RT perceived their social climate to be more competitive, conflict laden, and less relaxed and comfortable. They were more doubtful about staying on the job. Even if the teachers were generally satisfied with their work the results suggest that the comfort at work may have been further improved by acoustical interventions that focus on reducing sound reflections in the classrooms. Yet, due the study design and the novelty of the findings the potential practical significance of our observations remains to be evaluated.

  8. Expatriates’ Multiple Fears, from Terrorism to Working Conditions: Development of a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Montani, Francesco; Fiz-Perez, Javier; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Companies’ internationalization appears to be fundamental in the current globalized and competitive environment and seems important not only for organizational success, but also for societal development and sustainability. On one hand, global business increases the demand for managers for international assignment. On the other hand, emergent fears, such as terrorism, seem to be developing around the world, enhancing the risk of expatriates’ potential health problems. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between the emergent concept of fear of expatriation with further workplace fears (economic crisis and dangerous working conditions) and with mental health problems. The study uses a quantitative design. Self-reported data were collected from 265 Italian expatriate workers assigned to both Italian and worldwide projects. Structural equation model analyses showed that fear of expatriation mediates the relationship of mental health with fear of economic crisis and with perceived dangerous working conditions. As expected, in addition to fear, worries of expatriation are also related to further fears. Although, the study is based on self-reports and the cross-sectional study design limits the possibility of making causal inferences, the new constructs introduced add to previous research. PMID:27790173

  9. EXPATRIATES’ MULTIPLE FEARS, FROM TERRORISM TO WORKING CONDITIONS – DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Giorgi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Companies’ internationalization appears to be fundamental in the current globalized and competitive environment and seems important not only for organizational success, but also for societal development and sustainability. On one hand, global business increases the demand for managers for international assignment. On the other hand, emergent fears, such as terrorism, seem to be developing around the world, enhancing the risk of expatriates’ potential health problems. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between the emergent concept of fear of expatriation with further workplace fears (economic crisis and dangerous working conditions and with mental health problems. The study uses a quantitative design. Self-reported data were collected from 265 Italian expatriate workers assigned to both Italian and worldwide projects. Structural equation model analyses showed that fear of expatriation mediates the relationship of mental health with fear of economic crisis and with perceived dangerous working conditions. As expected, in addition to fear, worries of expatriation are also related to further fears. Although the study is based on self-reports and the cross-sectional study design limits the possibility of making causal inferences, the new constructs introduced add to previous research.

  10. How Home Health Caregivers’ Perceive the Influence of Professionalism on Theirr Experienced Work Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange

    2017-01-01

    contributes by emphasizing an individual perspective of engagement and by providing empirical evidence of links between professionalism and engagement. Additionally, by focusing on relatively low-educated employees, the article highlights how professionalism challenges the perception of caregiving as a job......This article explores how the perception of increasing professionalism of home health-care influences caregivers’ experienced work engagement. A qualitative study including 24 interviews, 85 hr of observations and the think-aloud technique was applied in three Danish caregiving organizations. Using...... a consensual qualitative research approach, analysis of the data suggests that increasing professionalism is experienced among caregivers and influences caregivers’ engagement in three distinct ways: through their identification with their work, psychological safety, and feelings of insecurity. This article...

  11. Determinants of perceived risk and initial trust on a team leader. Impact of working environment and leader traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guinalíu Blasco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspects such as the growing importance of teamwork and the emergence of new organizational schemes based on information and communication technologies highlight the need for understanding the mechanisms that promote effective leadership. In this sense, this paper analyzes the determinants of perceived risk and trust on a team leader. The research consists of two experiments. The first analyzes the influence of working environment—virtual or traditional—on the two dependent variables considered. The second experiment focuses on the virtual environment and analyzes the importance of the inclusion of a photo on the electronic leader’s profile in order to generate trust. Moreover, it analyzes the impact of perceived leader traits (attractive or expert on the ability to build trust and the perception of risk. It shouldbe noted that these analyzes are contextualized in the initial stage of team development, poorly studied in the literature. Among others, the results reveal the greater difficulty of building trust in virtual environments, as well as the relevance of including graphical information on the profile and that the leader with expert traits has the greatest potential to buildtrust. These results have interesting managerial implications, which are discussed along with the main future research lines and limitations.

  12. Otorhinolaryngology residency in Spain: training satisfaction, working environment and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, N H; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, A E

    2016-06-01

    Europe-wide efforts are being initiated to define quality standards and harmonize Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS)-specialty-training by creating an European board examination. However, differences within and between countries remain and are underinvestigated making comparisons and further improvement more difficult. The study aimed at assessing quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL-HNS specialists in Spain and to trace similarities and differences to France and Germany administering anonymous online-questionnaire to ORL-HNS-residents and recent specialists. 146 questionnaires were returned with answers of 75.6 % of residents, a mean age of 30 years and a female to male ratio of 1.46:1. The global satisfaction of training was high as 76 % would choose the same ENT training again, 86 % confirmed that responsibilities which were given to them were adapted to their level of training and 97 % felt well considered in their department. Ninety-two confirmed that helpful seniors contributed to a good work environment (75 %) and to a good organization within the department (69 %). The respondents spent on average 8.8 h per day at the hospital and covered on average 4.8 night duties or week-end shifts per month with mostly no post-day off (86 %). Seventy-four percent participated regularly at complementary training sessions. Research work was supported and guided in 59 %. This study is the first one, to our best of knowledge, to assess the ORL-HNS-training in Spain and to trace parallelisms and differences to other European countries, such as France and Germany. The satisfaction of training and supervision was high in Spain, but there are still efforts to make concerning resident's quality of life. Compared to France and Germany, satisfaction with ORL-HNS-training and the support and guidance provided by seniors was similar. Work conditions were comparable to those in France. Motivation, teaching and

  13. Through doctors' eyes: A qualitative study of hospital doctor perspectives on their working conditions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, Yvonne

    2013-03-11

    BACKGROUND: Hospital doctors face significant challenges in the current health care environment, working with staff shortages and cutbacks to health care expenditure, alongside increased demand for health care and increased public expectations. OBJECTIVE: This article analyses challenges faced by junior hospital doctors, providing insight into the experiences of these frontline staff in delivering health services in recessionary times. DESIGN: A qualitative methodology was chosen. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 doctors from urban Irish hospitals. Interviews were recorded via note taking. Full transcripts were analysed thematically using NVivo software. RESULTS: Dominant themes included the following: (1) unrealistic workloads: characterised by staff shortages, extended working hours, irregular and frequently interrupted breaks; (2) fatigue and its impact: the quality of care provided to patients while doctors were sleep-deprived was questioned; however, little reflection was given to any impact this may have had on junior doctors own health; (3) undervalued and disillusioned: insufficient training, intensive workloads and a perceived lack of power to influence change resulted in a sense of detachment among junior doctors. They appeared immune to their surroundings. CONCLUSION: Respondents ascribed little importance to the impact of current working conditions on their own health. They felt their roles were underappreciated and undervalued by policy makers and hospital management. Respondents were concerned with the lack of time and opportunity for training. This study highlighted several \\'red flags\\

  14. [Trade unionism, working conditions and health: the perspective of educational professionals in Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Kátia Reis; de Brito, Jussara Cruz

    2012-02-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze and interpret the problems and prospects of trade union activity, in order to achieve changes in the workplace and promote health in schools by means of the experience of the Training Program in Health, Gender and Work in Public Schools. In order to conduct this research we staged interviews with union leaders and education professionals. In our analysis we concentrated on the report of a specific case, namely the State Union of Education Professionals in Rio de Janeiro (SEPE-RJ). We perceived that, after the training program, the campaign began to focus not only on the defense of certain rights that are traditionally present on the union agenda. The concept of health broadens the union concept of working conditions; it also allows workers in schools to be the protagonists of movements for change. We note, moreover, the sense of renewal that the theme "work"--in its relation to health--has given to trade union militancy.

  15. Influence of overtime work, sleep duration, and perceived job characteristics on the physical and mental status of software engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikitani, Mariko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Karita, Kanae; Nomura, Kyoko; Yano, Eiji

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the impact of overtime work, sleep duration, and perceived job characteristics on physical and mental status, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 377 workers (average age; 28 years old) in an information-technology (IT) company, engaged in consultation, system integration solution, and data management relevant to IT system. The psychophysical outcomes of overtime work were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS), Profile of Mood Status (POMS), major physical symptoms, and overtime work data for the preceding three-months. Sleep duration was directly asked by a physician. A job strain index was defined as the ratio of job-demands to job-control scores evaluated using the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). In a univariate analysis, overtime work was significantly related with HDS scores, POMS anger-hostility scores, and the total physical symptom count in both sexes (all p job strain index. Sleep duration was negatively related to the symptom count in men and to POMS tension-anxiety scores in women (both p job strain index was positively related to POMS anger-hostility scores in both sexes and to HDS scores and POMS tension-anxiety scores in men (all p job strain index seemed to be better indicators for physical and mental distress in overloaded workers.

  16. Association between perceived self-efficacy related to meal management and food coping strategies among working parents with preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Demers, Karine; Turcotte, Sylvain; Mongeau, Lyne

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the associations between the perception of self-efficacy related to meal management and food coping strategies among working parents with preschool children. In this cross-sectional study, 417 working parents with at least one child between the ages of 2 and 5 years completed a self-administered questionnaire. The association between perceived self-efficacy related to meal management and food coping strategies referred to as home-based or "away from home" food strategies, and was verified with logistic regression analysis. High self-efficacy among working parents was associated with planning a menu for the upcoming week (OR=1.171-1.959), preparation of healthy meals with only few ingredients on hand (OR=1.152-1.495), and preparation of meals in advance (OR=1.131-1.364), which are home-based food strategies. Low self-efficacy was linked to adoption of «away from home» food strategies such as eating in fast-food restaurants (OR=0.713-0.898). self-efficacy related to meal management stands out as one of the priority consideration in planning nutrition interventions targeting working parents. Actions related to acquiring cooking skills, planning menus, and drawing up grocery lists would also be of value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 26 CFR 1.132-5T - Working condition fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Working condition fringe-1985 through 1988....132-5T Working condition fringe—1985 through 1988 (temporary). (a) In general—(1) Definition. Gross income does not include the value of a working condition fringe. The term “working condition...

  18. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency.

  19. 76 FR 24575 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... work a common practice on vessels under construction and repair, maintaining dry work surfaces at all... docks. James Thornton, of Northrop Grumman--Newport News, commented: ``Shipbuilding and repair, by... consider that these vessels do ongoing maintenance work, not just at the dock, but while they move to other...

  20. The effects of leadership competencies and quality of work on the perceived readiness for organizational change among nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Hamad, Sawsan; Darawad, Muhammad; Maharmeh, Mahmoud

    2017-09-28

    Purpose This paper aims to set a leadership guidance program that can promote nurses' knowledge of leadership and, at the same time, to enhance their leadership competencies and quality of work to promote their readiness for change in healthcare organizations. Design/methodology/approach A pre-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest design was utilized. Out of 90 invited to participate in this study, 61 nurses were accepted to participate. Findings The statistical analyses suggested several significant differences between pre- and in-service nurse managers about leadership competencies, quality of work and readiness for change. Yet, findings from the background characteristics were not found to be significant and had no effects on the perceived readiness for change. Research limitations/implications The present study highlights the importance of leadership competencies and quality of work that healthcare policymakers identify for the success of organizational change efforts. Practical implications Healthcare policymakers, including directors of nursing, should focus on applications that increase leadership competencies and overall satisfaction of the nurse managers to support the changes in hospitals and supporting learning organization. Hence, they should establish policies that decrease the possible negative impact of planned change efforts. Originality/value Competent nurse managers enhance their readiness for change, which in turn helps nurses in constructive change processes. A leadership guidance program should be set for nurse managers. This study has important implications for hospital administrators and directors of nursing.

  1. Organizational Justice and Perceived Organizational Support: Impact on Negative Work-Home Interference and Well-being Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Babic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that negative work-home interference (NegWHI impacts upon several work attitudes and behaviors. In the interests of both organizational effectiveness and employee well-being, it is important to identify concepts related to NegWHI and investigate their effects on well-being outcomes. This study examines the mediating role of (1 perceived organizational support (POS in the relationship between organizational justice (OJ and NegWHI; and (2 NegWHI in the relationships between POS and four well-being outcomes. A total of 509 employees of a Belgian hospital were surveyed. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and the bootstrapping method. Results showed that POS partially mediates the relationships between distributive and passive procedural justice and NegWHI, and fully mediates the relationship between the other justice dimensions and NegWHI. NegWHI partially mediates the relationships between POS and both job satisfaction and intention to quit, and fully mediates the relationship between POS and job strain. Furthermore, POS is positively related to job engagement. This study showed that organizations can help employees to better manage their work and family lives and reduce the impact of NegWHI by enhancing employees’ feeling that they are supported by their organization. In order to increase POS, organizations need to promote justice in the workplace.

  2. Effects of the workplace health promotion activities soccer and zumba on muscle pain, work ability and perceived physical exertion among female hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barene, Svein; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This 40-week workplace physical training RCT investigated the effect of soccer and Zumba, respectively, on muscle pain intensity and duration, work ability, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during work among female hospital employees. Methods: 107 hospital employees were cluster...

  3. The influence of perceived stress on work-family conflict and mental health: the moderating effect of person-environment fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2014-07-01

    This study examines whether higher perceived stress among female hospital workers can result in more serious work-family conflict (WFC) and poorer mental health, and also identifies the role that person-environment (P-E) fit plays in moderating these relationships. Female hospital workers with higher perceived stress tend to report greater WFC and worse mental health than others with less perceived stress. A better fit between a person and her environment may lead to lower perceived stress. As a result, she may experience less WFC and better mental health. This study adopts a longitudinal design with 273 participants, all of whom are employed by hospitals in Taiwan. All hypotheses are tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The results show that perceived stress is an effective predictor of WFC and mental health status, whereas the P-E fit can moderate these relationships. Hospitals should pay more attention to the negative effects of perceived high stress on the WFC levels and mental health of their female employees. The P-E fit can buffer effectively the impact of perceived stress on both WFC and mental health. If hospitals can adopt appropriate human resource management practices as well as monitor and manage the P-E fit continuously, they can better help their employees to fit into the overall hospital environment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Achilles tendon: US diagnosis of pathologic conditions. Work in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blei, C.L.; Nirschl, R.P.; Grant, E.G.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-three patients were prospectively examined with ultra-sound (US) for acute or recurrent Achilles tendon symptoms. Three types of pathologic conditions of the Achilles tendon were found: tendinitis/tenosynovitis, acute tendon trauma, and postoperative changes. US appears to enable differentiation of these conditions and to contribute to the diagnosis of a broad range of Achilles tendon disorders.

  5. 29 CFR 1960.30 - Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. 1960... unhealthful working conditions. (a) The agency shall ensure the prompt abatement of unsafe and unhealthful conditions. Where a Notice of an Unsafe or Unhealthful Working Condition has been issued, abatement shall...

  6. Perceived employer-related barriers and facilitators for work participation of cancer survivors: A systematic review of employers' and survivors' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greidanus, M A; de Boer, A G E M; de Rijk, A E; Tiedtke, C M; Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Tamminga, S J

    2017-07-28

    To identify employer-related barriers and facilitators for work participation of cancer survivors from the perspective of both employers and cancer survivors, and to synthesise these perceived barriers and facilitators to understand their perceived consequences. A systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on employers' and cancer survivors' perspectives on the work participation of cancer survivors was performed. Four databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Business Source Premier) were systematically searched, and the quality of studies included was assessed using the CASP checklist. Perceived barriers and facilitators were extracted and synthesised to conduct a content analysis. Five studies representing the employers' perspectives and 47 studies representing the cancer survivors' perspectives were included. Employers perceived barriers and facilitators related to support, communication, RTW policies, knowledge about cancer, balancing interests and roles, and attitude. Survivors perceived barriers and facilitators related to support, communication, work environment, discrimination, and perception of work ability. The synthesis found that the employers' willingness to support can be understood by perceptions they have of the survivor, goals of the employer, and national or organisational policies. Employers require knowledge about cancer and RTW policies to be able to support survivors. This review identified a plurality of and a large variety in perceived employer-related barriers and facilitators for work participation of cancer survivors, which can be understood to be related to both employers' willingness and ability to support. There is a need for interventions targeting employers, with the aim of enhancing the sustainable work participation of cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Perceived Work Ability in the Light of Long-Term and Stress-Related Unhealthy Behaviors-a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanperä, Nina; Seitsamo, Jorma; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Remes, Jouko; Hopsu, Leila; Auvinen, Juha; Tammelin, Tuija; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laitinen, Jaana

    2016-04-01

    Most of the few studies that exist on the longitudinal associations between health behaviors and work ability target to single health behaviors. To investigate how lifetime clusters of unhealthy behaviors associate with perceived work ability in early midlife. The study population consisted of 46-year-old men and women (n = 3107) born in Northern Finland in 1966. Their current perceived work ability compared to lifetime best, and their unhealthy behaviors (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) were assessed by questionnaires. We determined clusters of unhealthy behaviors at the ages of 14, 31, and 46 and created lifetime development trajectories of health behaviors. We also assessed stress-related eating and drinking at the ages of 31 and 46. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between clusters of health behaviors, stress-related eating and drinking, and work ability at 46 years. The analyses were controlled for basic education and physical strenuousness of work, psychosocial job characteristics, perceived work ability, and BMI (kg/m(2)) at 31 years. Four health behavior trajectories emerged: always healthy, moderate (reference group), deteriorated. and always unhealthy. Among men, always unhealthy behaviors [OR (95 % confidence interval) 2.81 (1.35, 5.86)], and among women, deteriorated health behaviors [1.67 (1.07, 2.58)] associated with poor perceived work ability at 46 years. In addition, stress-related eating and drinking associated independently with poor perceived work ability at 46 years [men 2.58 (1.62, 4.12) and women 2.48 (1.70, 3.61)]. Long-lasting and stress-related unhealthy behaviors increase the risk of poor work ability in midlife.

  8. A static organization in a dynamic context--A qualitative study of changes in working conditions for Swedish engine officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Monica; Rydstedt, Leif W

    2016-07-01

    During the last decades the shipping industry has undergone rapid technical developments and experienced hard economic conditions and increased striving for profitability. This has led to reduced staffing and changes in task performance, which has been reported to increase workload for the remaining seafarers. The working conditions on board have a number of distinct and in many ways unique characteristics, which makes the job demands and resources for seafarers unique in several ways. The purpose of this study was to assess how engine room staff perceives how these major technical and organizational changes in the shipping industry have affected job demands as well as resources. The study compiled individual interviews and focus groups interviews with engine crew members where they were asked to elaborate on the psychosocial work environment and the major changes in the working conditions on board. Engine crew describes a work situation where they feel a lack of resources. The content of the work has changed, staffing has been reduced, new tasks are being added but the organization of the crew and the design of the work place remains unaltered.

  9. On the working conditions of a two-pan balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Carlos R.

    2016-07-01

    In this article we address the assumptions concerning the equilibrium of rigid bodies, commonly used in textbooks, that can lead to completely wrong conclusions. In particular, we show that in an idealised world, where frictions and deformations don’t occur, a steelyard or two-pan balance would not work. This apparent contradiction, that one needs imperfections to make things work, doesn’t appear in textbooks because the corresponding topics are presented in the equilibrium configuration, where the imperfections’ role is no longer necessary. At the end, taking the two-pan balance as example, we show that to avoid of working with imperfections, one must deal with a device whose design has a subtle difference from that one we are used to think about.

  10. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meaningfulness of the job, collaboration among colleagues, trustworthiness of the closest superior and bullying have previously been shown to be major covariates of intention to quit the job. AIMS: To test if these elements of the psychosocial work environment are also the most...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer...... high sickness absence and 29 psychosocial work elements were analysed, adjusting for relevant confounders. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, three elements had an independent statistically significant association with high sickness absence: no exposure to bullying (odds ratio (95...

  11. Arizona Teacher Working Conditions: Designing Schools for Educator and Student Success. Results of the 2006 Phase-In Teacher Working Conditions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Many schools across the country face persistent teacher working condition challenges that are closely related to high teacher turnover rates and chronic difficulties in recruiting and retaining teachers. Center for Teaching Quality (CTQ) research examining working conditions survey results in both North Carolina and South Carolina demonstrates…

  12. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  13. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  14. Analysis of dynamic pulmonary functions in air conditioned work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu T. E.

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that the subjects working in AC environment for a long duration are prone to develop restrictive lung diseases. Hence, study concludes that periodic pulmonary function assessment should be made mandatory. Further, regular maintenance of ACs is also recommended. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2661-2664

  15. Relationships between Working Conditions and Special Educators' Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Elizabeth A.; Crockett, Jean B.; Brownell, Mary T.; Merrill, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities (SWDs) depend upon special education teachers (SETs) to provide effective instruction. SETs, in turn, depend upon school leaders to provide conditions necessary to learn and engage in effective instructional practices for students with the most significant learning needs. A promising body of research indicates that…

  16. [Nurses' work in Peru: origin and social conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, M C; de Martos, M V; da Fonseca, R M

    2000-07-01

    The study aimed at reviewing the history of the genesis and social formation of nurses work in Peru in order to understand it according to women's social situation in the context of a masculine society organized under capitalism. Thus, nursing formation was influenced by the Nightingale School and the exercise of the Peruvian nurses was characterized by the reproduction of social functions that are historically feminine, with a knowledge and practice subordinated to medical knowledge, that is mainly directed by a masculine ideology.

  17. 29 CFR 1960.28 - Employee reports of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. (a) The purpose of employee reports is to inform agencies of the existence of, or potential for, unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. A report under... to assure prompt analysis and response to reports of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions...

  18. 77 FR 18 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment; Approval of Information Collection Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1915 RIN 1218-AB50 General Working Conditions in... information requirements contained in the General Working Conditions Standard under the Paperwork Reduction...- 2222. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OSHA published a final rule for General Working Conditions in...

  19. 20 CFR 632.82 - Benefits and working conditions for participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefits and working conditions for... Benefits and working conditions for participants. The provisions of sections 142 and 143 of the Act shall apply to benefits and working conditions....

  20. Perceived Organizational Support Impacts on the Associations of Work-Family Conflict or Family-Work Conflict with Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Junhui; Wang, Jiana; Liu, Li; Wu, Wei; Wu, Hui

    2016-03-16

    As a common mental disorder, depressive symptoms had been studied extensively all over the world. However, positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese doctors were rarely studied. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) with depressive symptoms among Chinese doctors. Meanwhile, the role of perceived organizational support (POS) in this association was explored at an organizational level. The investigation was conducted between March and April 2014. Questionnaires that measured WFC, FWC, depressive symptoms and POS were distributed to 1200 doctors in Shenyang, China. The final study subjects were 931 doctors (effective response rate: 77.6%). In all analyses, male and female doctors were analyzed separately because of possible gender differences. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to examine the moderating role of POS. Baron and Kenny's technique and asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of POS on the associations of WFC or FWC with depressive symptoms. WFC and FWC had positive relations with depressive symptoms among doctors. POS played a partial mediating role on the correlation of FWC with depressive symptoms among male doctors, and POS played a partial mediating role on the correlation of WFC with depressive symptoms among female doctors. POS had a positive moderating effect on the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms among doctors. WFC and FWC could aggravate doctors' depressive symptoms, and POS, as an organizational resource, could fight against doctors' depressive symptoms. When POS functioned as a mediator, FWC had a negative effect on POS, which could increase male doctors' depressive symptoms, and WFC had a negative effect on POS, which could increase female doctors' depressive symptoms. In the meantime, POS, as a moderator, could enhance the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms.

  1. Does an Exercise Intervention Improving Aerobic Capacity Among Construction Workers Also Improve Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Ability, Productivity, Perceived Physical Exertion, and Sick Leave? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Bultmann, Ute; Sjogaard, Gisela; Sogaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether an exercise intervention shown to increase aerobic capacity, would also lead to less musculoskeletal pain; improved work ability, productivity, and perceived physical exertion; and less sick leave. Methods: Sixty-seven construction workers were randomized into an ex

  2. Relationship of Perceived Barriers to Employment and Return to Work Five Years Later: A Pilot Study among 343 Participants with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S.; Pickelsimer, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors identified perceived barriers to employment in 1998 among 343 unemployed participants with spinal cord injury and correlated these data with employment status 5 years later. Actively looking for work was associated with the greatest likelihood of employment. Health factors, not disincentives or resources, were the primary barriers to…

  3. Relationship of Perceived Barriers to Employment and Return to Work Five Years Later: A Pilot Study among 343 Participants with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S.; Pickelsimer, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors identified perceived barriers to employment in 1998 among 343 unemployed participants with spinal cord injury and correlated these data with employment status 5 years later. Actively looking for work was associated with the greatest likelihood of employment. Health factors, not disincentives or resources, were the primary barriers to…

  4. Minor mental disorders in Taiwanese healthcare workers and the associations with psychosocial work conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ju Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Despite the fact that healthcare workers work longer hours and shift work, there were several modifiable psychosocial work conditions that should be targeted to improve their mental health.

  5. Netherlands EWCO CAR on Working conditions in the retail sector – National contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.; Kwantes, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Netherlands Working Condition Survey (NWCS), this report exaines working conditions in the retail sector in the Netherlands. It concludes that the retail sector is a sector in which many young employees work. These employees often work part-time and have a temporary contract. The retail

  6. Netherlands EWCO CAR on Working conditions in the retail sector – National contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.; Kwantes, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Netherlands Working Condition Survey (NWCS), this report exaines working conditions in the retail sector in the Netherlands. It concludes that the retail sector is a sector in which many young employees work. These employees often work part-time and have a temporary contract. The retail

  7. Evaluation of working conditions of workers engaged in tending horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. A growing interest in the horse business has resulted in the increased engagement of many people in this area, and the health problems occurring among workers create the need to search for prophylactic measures. [b]objective[/b]. The objective of the study was evaluation of the level of exposure to air pollution in a stable, and estimation of the degree of work load among workers engaged in tending horses. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study was conducted twice, during the winter season, in a stable maintaining race horses, and in a social room. In order to evaluate workers’ exposure, air samples were collected by the aspiration method. After the incubation of material, the total number of bacteria and fungi in the air was determined, as well as the number of aerobic mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, expressed as the number of colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m[sup]3[/sup]. The measurement of total dust concentration in the air was also performed, simultaneously with the measurement of microclimatic parameters. The study of work load also covered the measurement of energy expenditure, evaluation of static physical load, and monotony of movements performed. [b]conclusions[/b]. The stable may be considered as a workplace with considerable risk of the occurrence of unfavourable health effects.

  8. Do psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U.; Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Rikke Voss;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work unit-levels of psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: A total of 5,416 Danish female eldercare workers from 309 work units were surveyed...... using questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and psychosocial working conditions. LTSA was derived from a national register. We aggregated scores of psychosocial working conditions to the work unit-level and conducted multi-level Poisson regression analyses. Results: Depressive symptoms......, but not psychosocial working conditions, predicted LTSA. Psychosocial working conditions did not statistically significantly modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. Conclusions: Psychosocial working conditions did not modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. The results, however, need...

  9. Demand-specific work ability, poor health and working conditions in middle-aged full-time employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of reduced demand-specific work ability, its association with age, gender, education, poor health, and working conditions, and the interaction between poor health and working conditions regarding reduced demand-specific work ability. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from 3381 full-time employees responding to questions about vocational education, job demands and social support (working conditions), musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and major depression (MD) (poor health) and seven questions about difficulty managing different job demands (reduced demand-specific work ability). Reduced demand-specific work ability varied from 9% to 19% among the 46-year old and from 11% to 21% among the 56-year old. Age was associated with two, gender with four, and education with all measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. MSP was associated with four and MD was associated with six measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. We found no interaction between working conditions and poor health regarding reduced demand-specific work ability.

  10. Managing work–family conflict in the medical profession: working conditions and individual resources as related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Vitzthum, Karin; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study developed and tested a research model that examined the effects of working conditions and individual resources on work–family conflict (WFC) using data collected from physicians working at German clinics. Material and methods This is a cross-sectional study of 727 physicians working in German hospitals. The work environment, WFC and individual resources were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the WFC Scale, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale and the Questionnaire for Self-efficacy, Optimism and Pessimism. Descriptive, correlation and linear regression analyses were applied. Results Clinical doctors working in German hospitals perceived high levels of WFC (mean=76). Sociodemographic differences were found for age, marital status and presence of children with regard to WFC. No significant gender differences were found. WFCs were positively related to high workloads and quantitative job demands. Job resources (eg, influence at work, social support) and personal resources (eg, resilient coping behaviour and self-efficacy) were negatively associated with physicians’ WFCs. Interaction terms suggest that job and personal resources buffer the effects of job demands on WFC. Conclusions In this study, WFC was prevalent among German clinicians. Factors of work organisation as well as factors of interpersonal relations at work were identified as significant predictors for WFC. Our results give a strong indication that both individual and organisational factors are related to WFC. Results may play an important role in optimising clinical care. Practical implications for physicians’ career planning and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:25941177

  11. Working conditions in the engine department - A qualitative study among engine room personnel on board Swedish merchant ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Monica; Lützhöft, Margareta; Rydstedt, Leif; Dahlman, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    The specific problems associated with the work on board within the merchant fleet are well known and have over the years been a topic of discussion. The work conditions in the engine room (ER) are demanding due to, e.g. the thermal climate, noise and awkward working postures. The work in the engine control room (ECR) has over recent years undergone major changes, mainly due to the introduction of computers on board. In order to capture the impact these changes had implied, and also to investigate how the work situation has developed, a total of 20 engine officers and engine ratings were interviewed. The interviews were semi-structured and Grounded Theory was used for the data analysis. The aim of the present study was to describe how the engine crew perceive their work situation and working environment on board. Further, the aim was to identify areas for improvements which the engine crew consider especially important for a safe and effective work environment. The result of the study shows that the design of the ECR and ER is crucial for how different tasks are performed. Design which does not support operational procedures and how tasks are performed risk inducing inappropriate behaviour as the crew members' are compelled to find alternative ways to perform their tasks in order to get the job done. These types of behaviour can induce an increased risk of exposure to hazardous substances and the engine crew members becoming injured.

  12. Does an Exercise Intervention Improving Aerobic Capacity Among Construction Workers Also Improve Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Ability, Productivity, Perceived Physical Exertion, and Sick Leave?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Bültmann, Ute;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To investigate whether an exercise intervention shown to increase aerobic capacity, would also lead to less musculoskeletal pain; improved work ability, productivity, and perceived physical exertion; and less sick leave. METHODS:: Sixty-seven construction workers were randomized...... into an exercise group training 3 × 20 minutes per week and a control group. Questionnaires and text messages were completed before and after the 12-week intervention. RESULTS:: No significant changes were found in musculoskeletal pain, work ability, productivity, perceived physical exertion, and sick leave...... with the intervention. Questionnaires and text messages provided similar results of pain and work ability. CONCLUSIONS:: Although the intervention improved aerobic capacity, it was not successful in improving musculoskeletal pain and other work-related factors. A detectable improvement presumably requires a more...

  13. Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research.

  14. Work situation operative model MOST: linking diagnosis and intervention to improve work conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Karen Lange; García-Acosta, Gabriel; Urueña-Télleze, William; Pérez, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the model "Work Situation Operative Model" - MOST (after its Spanish acronym). It offers a comprehensive, systemic approach to analysing work stations and/or work processes, serving also as a framework for pursuing various ergonomic and occupational health and safety goals. Originally produced for a food sector company, the model has been extended and successfully applied in several industries in Colombia and Ecuador, including cement, oil, and paper industries. Based on a systemic understanding of work systems and tasks, the model not only allows different, commonly-used methods and tools for evaluating or assessing the risk of muscular-sketetal disorders to be included, but also supports occupational risk management strategies. Hence, one of its more important contributions relies on providing meaningful information that is useful for improving the work station and/or work process through design and re-design, by focusing on the interactions between all system elements.

  15. Peculiarities of Corporate Culture Development under Conditions of Remote Working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchetinina Ludmila V

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the significance and peculiarities of corporate culture formation for remote employees. Particular attention is paid to instruments that allow creating a team in the absence of the usual office environment. There have been defined the signs of trust manifestation that distinguish the corporate culture in a team with experience of teamwork and without such experience — a level of weakness manifestation and recognition of mistakes, presence of critics from colleagues, asking for recourse, interest in colleagues’ experience and skills. According to the signs the necessary management practices for the development and creation of the corporate culture has been offered. It is noted that the team with the experience of teamwork at the early stages acts quite consistently adhering to the declared standards, rules and basic values. However, even under these conditions, the corporate culture is growing weaker in time. And here it would be helpful to use the management practices that do not replace personal contact but are maximally close to it. All management practices are classified in accordance with the directions of the corporate culture development, namely, creation of effective social intranet, establishment of quality communication, transparent motivation and clear description of the control sequences, description and establishment of clear guidelines, development of personal effectiveness of employees, simplification of the project communication process, creation of “virtual coolers”, the philosophy of “getting into the body” of a remote employee, monitoring professional burnout, etc.

  16. Working conditions and psychosocial risk factors of employees in French electricity and gas company customer support departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anne; Dessery, Michel; Boursier, Marie-Françoise; Grizon, Marie Catherine; Jayet, Christian; Reymond, Catherine; Thiebot, Michelle; Zeme-Ramirez, Monique; Calvez, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the real impact of working conditions on the health of call center employees. The aim of this article is to describe the working conditions of French electricity and gas company customer service teams, especially those spending more than 75% of their working time handling calls in order to determine their subjective experience of their work and identify situations at risk of psychosocial constraints. A cross-sectional study using a self-completion questionnaire was conducted on a representative sample of 2,000 employees working in customer service centers. The questions focused on the variety of tasks performed, the organization of working time, the physical environment of the workstation, violent situations and psychosocial factors (Job Content Questionnaire). Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the wish to leave the sector and with a high level of psychosocial constraints. Women made up 66% of the sample. Despite a high educational level, the average socio-professional level of the employees was relatively low. Although the vast majority of employees had chosen this career (74%), just over half would like to leave. The main factors associated with iso-strain were inadequate breaks (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0), low perceived quality of work (OR = 2.4), high proportion of working time spent handling calls (≥75% of working time: OR = 5.9, between 50 and customers (often or very often: OR = 1.8) and an unsatisfactory workplace (OR = 2.0). Employees who spend more than 75% of their working time on the phone cumulate every factor linked with a high level of constraints, but all employees of the EDF and Gaz de France customer service centers are concerned. These workers share many characteristics with other call centers: predominantly female workforce; high educational level; wish to leave this sector despite the initial choice; high level of psychosocial risk factors.

  17. User participation in a Municipal Acute Ward in Norway: dilemmas in the interface between policy ideals and work conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Anne-Kari; Tveiten, Sidsel; Werner, Anne

    2017-08-23

    User participation has become an increasingly important principle in health care over the last few decades. Healthcare professionals are expected to involve patients in treatment decisions. Clear guidance as to what this should entail for professionals in clinical work is not accounted for in legislation. In this study, we explore how healthcare professionals in a Municipal Acute Ward perceived, experienced and performed user participation. The ward represents a new short-time service model for emergency assistance in Norway. We focused on the challenges the professionals faced in clinical work and how they dealt with these. Data were drawn from qualitative interviews with 11 healthcare professionals and from 10 observations in relation to previsits and physician's rounds in the ward. Transcripts of interviews and observations were analysed using a method for systematic text condensation. In the analysis, we applied Lipsky's perspective on dilemmas of street-level bureaucrats. The results show that that the professionals perceived user participation as an important and natural part of their work. They experienced difficulties related to collaboration with patients, caregivers, and professionals in other services, and with framework conditions that caused conflicting expectations, responsibility, and priorities. The professionals seemed to take a pragmatic approach to user participation, managing it within narrow perspectives. Our study indicates that the participants dealt with the dilemmas at the cost of user participation. The results demonstrate that there is a gap between the outlined health policy and the professionals' opportunities to fulfil this policy in clinical work regarding user participation. The policy decision-makers should recognise the balancing work required of healthcare professionals to deal with difficulties in clinical work. The knowledge that professionals possess as performers of services and the need for valuing in policy processes should

  18. The Importance of Self-Determination to Perceived Quality of Life for Youth and Young Adults with Chronic Conditions and Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Janette; Evans, Jan; Baldwin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-determination and perceived quality of life for youth and young adults with chronic conditions and disabilities over time. A total of 34 individuals completed the "Life Satisfaction Index-Adolescents" and the "Arc's Self-Determination Scale" at study baseline and again 1 year…

  19. Morningness-eveningness interferes with perceived health, physical activity, diet and stress levels in working women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Purebl, Gyorgy; Salavecz, Gyongyver; Poole, Lydia; Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Sleep and health are closely interrelated and sleep quality is a well-known contributor to perceived health. However, effects of sleep-timing preference i.e. morningness-eveningness on health has yet to be revealed. In this study, we explored the relationship between morningness-eveningness and perceived health in a sample of female working professionals (N = 202). Sleep-timing preference was measured using the Composite Scale of Morningness. Perceived health was characterized by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, WHO Well-Being Scale-5 and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 scores. We also investigated possible mechanisms, including stress and health-impairing behaviours. In accordance with previous data, we found more depressive mood, lower well-being and poorer perceived health among evening types. To assess health-impairing behaviours we collected data on smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. Among the possible mechanism variables, greater stress, less frequent physical activity and less healthy diet were associated with eveningness. Furthermore, stress diminished the strength of the association between morningness-eveningness and depressed mood. Physical activity attenuated the strength of the association between morningness-eveningness and well-being. No effects of alcohol consumption could be identified. Our data show that evening preference behaves as a health risk in terms of associating with poor perceived health. Our findings also suggest that this effect might be mediated by health behaviours and stress.

  20. Role of Perceived Fair Interpersonal Treatment and Organization-Based Self-Esteem in Innovative Work Behavior in a Nigerian Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyinka Ojedokun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the role of perceived fair interpersonal treatment, organization-based self-esteem, and some demographic characteristics in innovative work behavior among employees of a Nigerian bank. Data were collected from a randomly selected sample of 185 employees through a structured questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression and One-Way Analysis of Variance were carried out to test hypotheses. The results reveal significant positive influence of perceived fair interpersonal treatment and organization-based self-esteem on innovative work behavior. Lastly, the results show significant effect of level of education on innovative work behavior. The findings suggest that perceived fair interpersonal treatment and organization-based self-esteem are important predictors of innovative work behavior. Therefore, organizations should focus on improving the levels of organizational based self-esteem among employees who scored low on this trait by providing more recognition and importance. They should also strive to ensure fair interpersonal treatment among employees in order to promote motivation to engage in innovative work behavior.

  1. Sleep complaints in middle-aged women and men: the contribution of working conditions and work-family conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Arber, Sara

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to examine how physical working conditions, psychosocial working conditions and work-family conflicts are associated with sleep complaints, and whether health behaviours explain these associations. We used pooled postal questionnaire surveys collected in 2001-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%). Participants were classified as having sleep complaints if they reported sleep complaints at least once a week on average (24% of women and 20% of men). Independent variables included environmental work exposures, physical workload, computer work, Karasek's job strain and work-family conflicts. Age, marital status, occupational class, work arrangements, health behaviours and obesity were adjusted for. Most working conditions were associated strongly with sleep complaints after adjustment for age only. After adjustment for work-family conflicts, the associations somewhat attenuated. Work-family conflicts were also associated strongly with women's [odds ratio (OR) 5.90; confidence interval (CI) 4.16-8.38] and men's sleep (OR 2.56; CI 1.34-4.87). The associations remained robust even after controlling for unhealthy behaviours, obesity, health status, depression and medications. Physically strenuous working conditions, psychosocial job strain and work-family conflicts may increase sleep complaints. Efforts to support employees to cope with psychosocial stress and reach a better balance between paid work and family life might reduce sleep complaints. Sleep complaints need to be taken into account in worksite health promotion and occupational health care in order to reduce the burden of poor sleep.

  2. Participation and influence of migrant workers on working conditions: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jacob, María J; Safont, Eva Canaleta; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil, Angel; Benavides, Fernando G

    2010-01-01

    Workers participation in the management of employment and working conditions is an important determinant of both positive and negative effects of work on human health. Through a qualitative approach, this study analyzes the degree of control and influence that migrant workers in different Spanish cities have over their own working conditions (Immigration, Work, and Health [ITSAL] Project). Results showed that migrant workers had little influence on employment and working conditions. Immigrant workers are mostly interested in issues such as salaries, hiring, and hours of work. Fear of dismissal makes immigrant workers reluctant to demand improved working conditions. We received limited information about immigrant workers' understanding of their rights and their perceptions of the possibilities to influence working conditions through trade union activity. Informal social networks play an essential role in disseminating information on workers' rights, although the effect is not always positive. Unions need to increase attention to and adapt measures for this particularly vulnerable group of workers.

  3. Psychosocial work conditions and registered sickness absence : a 3-year prospective cohort study among office employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Bultmann, U.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between a wide variety of psychosocial work conditions and sickness absence in a medium-sized company. Methods Prospective cohort study of 395 employees working in an insurance office. Self-reported psychosocial work conditions were measured by questionnaire in Ja

  4. Flexibility and working conditions : a qualitive and comparative study in seven EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Nanteuil, M. de

    2000-01-01

    Within the context of profound transformations in work and employment, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has undertaken a qualitative and comparative study concerning the impact of flexibility on working conditions in the European Union. Complementing other

  5. Working conditions and major weight gain-a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Eira; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations of working conditions with major weight gain. Three different groups of work-related factors were examined: (i) work arrangements, (ii) physical working conditions, and (iii) psychosocial working conditions. The data are based on the Helsinki Health Study (HHS) questionnaire surveys. A baseline mail survey was made among middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2002. A follow-up survey was made in 2007. Regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. During the 5- to 7-year follow-up, 26% of women and 24% of men gained in weight 5 kg or more. Working conditions were mostly unassociated with weight gain. However, nighttime shift work, physical threat at work, and hazardous exposures at work were moderately associated with weight gain. More attention should be devoted to the prevention of weight gain in general and among risk groups in particular.

  6. Medical school predictors of later perceived mastery of clinical work among Norwegian doctors: a cohort study with 10-year and 20-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfrage, Anna; Grotmol, Kjersti Støen; Lien, Lars; Moum, Torbjørn; Wiese, Ragna Veslemøy; Tyssen, Reidar

    2017-09-24

    Doctors' self-perceived mastery of clinical work might have an impact on their career and patient care, in addition to their own health and well-being. The aim of this study is to identify predictors at medical school of perceived mastery later in doctors' careers. A cohort of medical students (n=631) was surveyed in the final year of medical school in 1993/1994 (T1), and 10 (T2) and 20 (T3) years later. Nationwide healthcare institutions. Medical students from all universities in Norway. Perceived mastery of clinical work was measured at T2 and T3. The studied predictors measured at T1 included personality traits, medical school stress, perceived medical recording skills, identification with the role of doctor, hazardous drinking and drinking to cope, in addition to age and gender. Effects were studied using multiple linear regression models. Response rates: T1, 522/631 (83%); T2, 390/522 (75%); and T3, 303/522 (58%). Mean scores at T2 and T3 were 22.3 (SD=4.2) and 24.5 (3.0) (t=8.2, pmedical recording skills (β=0.13; p=0.02; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.24) and drinking to cope (β=-2.45; p=0.001; 95% CI -3.88 to -1.03). Adjusted association at T3 was perceived medical recording skills (β=0.11; p=0.015; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.21). Perceived medical recording skills and role identification were associated with higher perceived mastery. Medical schools should provide experiences, teaching and assessment to enhance students' physician role identification and confidence in their own skills. Drinking to cope was associated with lower perceived mastery, which indicates the importance of acquiring healthier coping strategies in medical school. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. [The changes in mental working capacity of operators during 24-hour shift work conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal'nysh, V V; Shvets', A V; Ieshchenko, O I

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysiological peculiarities of influence of a 24-hour shift work on the efficiency of operators have been discussed. It was shown that servicemen operators develop significant fatigue as a result of 24 hrs duty services. The informative psychophysiological characteristics which can be reliable indicators of fatigue level are highlighted. Individual psychophysiological indicators of fatigue level, according to different mechanisms of its development, have been proposed. The hypothesis about the existence of several compensatory mechanisms for maintenance of long duty operators' working capacity has been formulated.

  8. Organisation of working time: Implications for productivity and working conditions. Overview Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Dhondt, S.; Vergeer, R.; Oeij, P.; Leede, J. de; Adrichem, K. van C; Csizmadia, P.; Makó, C.; Illésy, M.; Tóth, A.

    2012-01-01

    Companies in search of improved productivity use a wide range of approaches, from financial incentives and skills upgrading and training to increased autonomy of individuals and teams. Working time flexibility has the added advantage in that it can benefit both workers and employers: it gives worker

  9. Organisation of working time: Implications for productivity and working conditions. Overview Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Dhondt, S.; Vergeer, R.; Oeij, P.; Leede, J. de; Adrichem, K. van C; Csizmadia, P.; Makó, C.; Illésy, M.; Tóth, A.

    2012-01-01

    Companies in search of improved productivity use a wide range of approaches, from financial incentives and skills upgrading and training to increased autonomy of individuals and teams. Working time flexibility has the added advantage in that it can benefit both workers and employers: it gives

  10. Opening the gender diversity black box: causality of perceived gender equity and locus of control and mediation of work engagement in employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radha R; Sharma, Neha P

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalizing the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity.

  11. Opening the Gender Diversity Black Box: Causality of Perceived Gender Equity & Locus of Control and Mediation of Work Engagement in Employee Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha R. Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout. Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalising the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity.

  12. Opening the gender diversity black box: causality of perceived gender equity and locus of control and mediation of work engagement in employee well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radha R.; Sharma, Neha P.

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalizing the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity. PMID:26500566

  13. Industrial working conditions and the treatment of child workers in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkan, Gülcihan; Sohbet, Rabia

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine working conditions for children working at industry descriptive study was conducted between May and June 2010 and included 249 workers 18 years at a Kahramanmaras industry site. Study data demonstrated that 33.3% of the children were 18 working in a mechanics store, 82.3% were working 9 to 12 hours a day, 68.7% were earning a Turkish Liras, and only 22 were using annual leave. These children started working under the age entered into the work force and quit school. Also, it was found that working conditions were was instituted in many workplaces.

  14. Choosing a Group Representative : The Impact of Perceived Organizational Support on the Preferences for Deviant Representatives in Work Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, Stephanie; Teixeira, Catia Pinto; Gillis, Celine; Goldoni, Edwine; Stinglhamber, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Group representative selection in negotiation is a topic that has only recently attracted researchers' attention. This article focuses on workplace negotiations and examines how employees' selection of representatives depends on their level of perceived organizational support (POS). We predict and s

  15. Choosing a Group Representative : The Impact of Perceived Organizational Support on the Preferences for Deviant Representatives in Work Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, Stephanie; Teixeira, Catia Pinto; Gillis, Celine; Goldoni, Edwine; Stinglhamber, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Group representative selection in negotiation is a topic that has only recently attracted researchers' attention. This article focuses on workplace negotiations and examines how employees' selection of representatives depends on their level of perceived organizational support (POS). We predict and s

  16. What Might Work? Exploring the Perceived Feasibility of Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically…

  17. Labour market specific institutions and the working conditions of labour migrants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions of...... such as institutionalized wage variability within sectors and the decentralized regulation of working conditions are important when assessing the potential implication of migrant workers in the labour market....

  18. Part of the job: the role of physical work conditions in the nurse turnover process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaman, James M; Cornell, Paul T; Allen, David G; Gondo, Maria B; Muslin, Ivan S; Mobley, Robin N; Brock, Meagan E; Sigmon, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Retention of nursing staff remains an important issue for health care managers. Turnover research has focused primarily on motivational and social factors as keys to retention, whereas the role of the physical work conditions has received considerably less attention. However, work design theory suggests that physical work conditions may be an important factor in fostering retention among nursing staff. The aim of this study was to integrate work design theory with turnover process models to explore the influence of perceptions of physical work conditions on the development of turnover intentions among nursing staff. Drawing on two samples of registered nurses working in cancer units in metropolitan hospitals in the southeastern United States, this study explores the impact of perceptions of physical work conditions on turnover intentions using ordinary least squares regression. Hypotheses are tested in Study 1 and replicated in Study 2. A measure of perceptions of physical work conditions is also developed and validated using exploratory (Study 1) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses. Perceptions of physical work conditions explain variance in turnover intentions above than that explained by motivational and social factors. Specifically, employee perceptions of noisy work conditions are found to significantly increase turnover intentions, whereas perceptions that work conditions facilitate tasks were found to significantly reduce turnover intentions. Perceptions of temperature and health hazard did not show significant effects. Results suggest that health care managers and scholars should re-examine the role of physical work conditions in the turnover process. Investments in upgrades that facilitate tasks may foster retention better than investments that simply improve employee comfort. Negative perceptions of work conditions may have no impact if they are considered a normal "part of the job," although negative perceptions of conditions that are viewed as

  19. Working Conditions and Wellbeing: A multilevel analysis of 34 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stornes, Per

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of working conditions on wellbeing in 34 European countries. The background for the study is an interest in work as a social determinant of health, in this case mental health as captured in the concept of wellbeing.Working conditions are theorized at three levels. At the micro level, the psychosocial theories on stress and the work environment are reviewed; the demand-control-support model, effort-reward imbalance, organizational justice and emotional labour. Th...

  20. PERCEIVED AUTONOMY SUPPORT AND BEHAVIORAL ENGAGEMENT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION: A CONDITIONAL PROCESS MODEL OF POSITIVE EMOTION AND AUTONOMOUS MOTIVATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin

    2015-06-01

    A variety of theoretical perspectives describe the crucial behavioral roles of motivation and emotion, but how these interact with perceptions of social contexts and behaviors is less well understood. This study examined whether autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement in physical education and whether this mediating process was moderated by positive emotion. A sample of 592 Korean middle-school students (304 boys, 288 girls; M age = 14.0 yr., SD = 0.8) completed questionnaires. Autonomous motivation partially mediated the positive association between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement. Positive emotion moderated the relationship between autonomous motivation and behavioral engagement. This indirect link was stronger as positive emotion increased. These findings suggest the importance of integrating emotion into motivational processes to understand how and when perceived autonomy support is associated with behavioral engagement in physical education.

  1. The power of informal communication and perceived organizational support on energy at work and extra-role behavior: A survey on teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Alparslan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the effect of energy at work, internal-external informal communication and perceived organisational support on extra role behaviour. The population of survey included teachers (479 teachers at 25 elementary and middle schools at The Ministry of National Education located in the Burdur in Turkey. Research method is a survey with a questionnaire and participants has been reached with the convenience sampling method. Two model (purposed and revised was examined by structural equation model approach. According to the findings, internal informal communication increases energy at work, and therefore, energy at work has a considerably positive effect on extra role behaviour. Besides that, perceived organisational support has seriously positive effect on internal informal communication. As inferred from these findings, the increase of perceived organisational support will also increase internal informal communication, and the increase of communication will enable lecturers to be more energetic, and hence, such energy will trigger lecturers to make extra efforts for their organizations.

  2. Women working at university restaurants: life and work conditions and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Maxima Pereira Venancio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a quantitative approach that aimed to understand the social production and reproduction processes of women working at university restaurants and the occurrence and the magnitude of gender-based violence committed against them by their intimate partners. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The analysis categories used were social production and reproduction, gender and gender-based violence. The interviewees held a subordinate social position during the productive and reproductive periods of their lives. Approximately 70% reported having experienced gender-based violence from an intimate partner (66% psychological violence, 36.3% physical violence and 28.6% sexual violence. Most of the health problems resulting from violence were related to mental health. The results indicate that the situation requires immediate interventions, mostly guided by the instrumentalization of these women and the support by the state and the university as appropriate to address violence.

  3. [Work process and working conditions in poultry processing plants: report of a survey on occupational health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Antonio Barros; Mendes, Jussara Maria Rosa

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the report of a survey on health surveillance activities performed in poultry processing plants in the south of Brazil. It aims to contribute to an understanding of the work process developed, the growth of the sector, the organization of labor and the confrontation with the economic model of this sector, which has been exposing employees to working conditions that undermine their health. The working conditions identified are considered largely incompatible with health and human dignity. The study supports interinstitutional intervention, especially with the Public Ministry of Labor, criticizes the weak implementation of specific government interventions in health conditions in the industry and introduces the new Regulatory Standard 36 as a positive perspective for the near future.

  4. OVERVIEW AND CLASSIFICATION OF PERMANENT OFFSHORE PLATFORMS FOR WORKING IN ICE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Nikolay A. Taranukha; Mr Andrey S. Mironov

    2016-01-01

    This article is dedicated to permanent offshore platforms for working in ice conditions. The authors focus on creating constructions for working in ice conditions. The article presents drawings of ice-resistant permanent offshore platforms according to their attachment to the seabed. The article also describes the scheme of the general arrangement of the ice-resistant tetrahedral permanent offshore platforms.

  5. 29 CFR 1620.18 - Jobs performed under similar working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs performed under similar working conditions. 1620.18... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.18 Jobs performed under similar working conditions. (a) In general. In order for the equal pay standard to apply, the jobs are required to be performed under similar...

  6. A Study of Leadership Strategies and Their Impact on Teacher Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbalm, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout this study, the researcher sought to find the key strategies needed to improve school culture and working conditions. These findings were measured by the 2010 and 2012 North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey (NC TWCS) data, as well as staff focus-group dialogue at three selected schools. The participant groups consisted of an…

  7. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Working Conditions: How Predictive of Planned and Actual Teacher Movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study examines the relationship between teachers' perceptions of their working conditions and their intended and actual departures from schools. Based on rich administrative data for North Carolina combined with a 2006 statewide survey administered to all teachers in the state, the study documents that working conditions are…

  8. How Much Do School Principals Matter When It Comes to Teacher Working Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhauser, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Teacher turnover is a challenge for U.S. public schools. Research suggests that teachers' perceptions of their school working conditions influence their leaving decisions. Related research suggests that principals may be in the best position to influence school working conditions. Using 4 years of panel data constructed from the North Carolina…

  9. 20 CFR 633.305 - General benefits and working conditions for program participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General benefits and working conditions for program participants. 633.305 Section 633.305 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... § 633.305 General benefits and working conditions for program participants. (a) Payments for...

  10. Final Report on the Mississippi Project CLEAR Voice Teacher Working Conditions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett; Fuller, Ed

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the state of Mississippi conducted a web-based survey of all school-based licensed educators in which they were asked to share their perceptions of the state of teacher working conditions in Mississippi. This report of the Mississippi Teacher Working Conditions Survey, Project CLEAR Voice (Cultivate Learning Environments to Accelerate…

  11. [Ways to optimize working conditions of medical personnel servicing modern hi-tech medical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, O K

    2007-01-01

    The author analyzed health state of medical personnel through various parameters. Hygienic characteristics of work conditions for medical personnel subjected to physical factors when servicing modern hi-tech medical equipment are presented. Occupational groups at high risk are defined. The article covers main directions in improving work conditions and preserving health for medical personnel in these groups.

  12. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of severe depressive symptoms. Do effects differ by occupational grade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Siegrist, Johannes; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined b

  13. Working Conditions and Mental Health of Nursing Staff in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Mawn, Barbara; Gore, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    Nursing staff in nursing homes suffer from poor mental health, probably associated with stressful working conditions. Working conditions may distribute differently among nursing assistants, licensed practical nurses, and registered nurses due to their different levels in the organizational hierarchy. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the association between working conditions and mental health among different nursing groups, and examine the potential moderating effect of job group on this association. Self-administered questionnaires were collected with 1,129 nursing staff in 15 for-profit non-unionized nursing homes. Working conditions included both physical and psychosocial domains. Multivariate linear regression modeling found that mental health was associated with different working conditions in different nursing groups: physical safety (β = 2.37, p work-family conflict (β = -2.44, p work-family conflict (β = -4.17, p working conditions and mental health. Future workplace interventions to improve mental health should reach to nursing staff at different levels and consider tailored working condition interventions in different nursing groups.

  14. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.

  15. Differences in Perceived Mental Effort Required and Discomfort during a Working Memory Task between Individuals At-risk And Not At-risk for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Fen; Eastwood, John D.; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The avoidance of mental effort is a symptom criterion for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but the experience of mental effort has received relatively little attention in the empirical study of individuals at-risk for ADHD. We explored a novel method to assess the experience of effort and discomfort during a working memory task in a sample of young adults at-risk and not at-risk for ADHD. Method: A sample of 235 undergraduate students (Mean age = 21.02, 86 males) were included in this study. Based on an ADHD-screener (ASRS), 136 participants met criteria for the ADHD-risk group and 99 were in the non-ADHD risk group. Results: Individuals at-risk for ADHD reported higher mental effort and discomfort than individuals not at-risk for ADHD, even when performance on the working memory task was comparable or statistically controlled. Mental effort required and discomfort were more strongly correlated for at-risk compared to not at-risk participants. Individuals at-risk for ADHD displayed a stronger correlation between mental effort required and actual accuracy, but individuals not at-risk for ADHD displayed a stronger association between perceived accuracy and actual accuracy for the hardest experimental conditions. The most intense moment of effort required predicted retrospective discomfort ratings of the task in the ADHD-risk group, but not in the non-risk group. Conclusion: The subjective experience of in the moment mental effort is an important and viable construct that should be more carefully defined and measured. In particular, the experience of effort required (or how taxing a task is) differentiated between individuals at-risk and individuals not at-risk for ADHD in the present study. Whereas previous ADHD research has explored effort exerted, the present work demonstrated that investigating the experience of being mentally taxed might provide a productive line of investigation that could be used to advance our understanding of the

  16. 组织支持感与护士工作投入水平的关系%Correlation between Perceived Organizational Support and Work Engagement of Nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晶晶; 常虹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between perceived organizational support and work engagement of nurses and to explore an effective way to increase nurses' work engagement. Methods A convenience sampling method was used to select 355 nurses in four Grade-Ⅲ Level-A hospitals of Tianjin u-sing the general questionnaire, perceived organizational support scale and Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES)in November 2011. Results The total score of the perceived organizational support was 2. 879±0. 637, and the total score of the work engagement was 2. 919±0. 912. The perceived organizational support and work engagement were positively correlated(P<0. 01). The stepwise regression analysis showed that the emotional support and the instrumental support could predict the work engagement of nurses. Conclusion Strengthened organizational support has a significant role in elevating the level of nurses' work engagement and improving quality of nursing service.%目的 研究护理人员组织支持感与护士工作投入的相关性,探索提高护士工作投入水平的方法.方法 2011年11月,便利抽样法选择天津市四所三级甲等医院355名护士为研究对象,采用自制的一般情况调查表和组织支持感量表及工作投入量表对其进行问卷调查.结果 护理人员组织支持感总分为(2.879±0.637)分;工作投入总分为(2.919±0.912)分;组织支持感与工作投入呈显著正相关(P<0.01).回归分析显示,情感性支持和工具性支持均影响护士工作投入水平.结论 管理者应采取措施,提高组织支持感,对促使护士以积极状态投入工作,并改善护理服务质量有重要的作用.

  17. The Netherlands : Working conditions of young entrants to the labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankers, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine people with paid employment between 15-30 years and compare their working conditions to people older than 30 years in Block 1. It is shown that older workers experience more autonomy in work and more often have a permanent contract. In Block 2 we examine differences between the young work

  18. Sector surveys on working conditions : hotels and restaurants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Jettinghoff, K.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2003-01-01

    The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has asked TNO Work & Employment to report on the quality of work and employment in the sector of Hotels & Restaurants in The Netherlands. Other research institutes were asked to do the same for the situation in the other EU

  19. Sector surveys on working conditions : hotels and restaurants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Jettinghoff, K.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2003-01-01

    The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has asked TNO Work & Employment to report on the quality of work and employment in the sector of Hotels & Restaurants in The Netherlands. Other research institutes were asked to do the same for the situation in the other EU

  20. The "I believe" and the "I invest" of Work-Family Balance: The indirectinfluences of personal values and work engagement via perceived organizational climate and workplace burnout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lily Chernyak-Hai; Aharon Tziner

    2016-01-01

    ... (Hobfoll, 1988, 1998, 2001), the present research sought to advance the understanding of Work-Family Balance antecedents by examining personal values and work engagement as predictors of Work-Family Conflict via...

  1. Physicians' Psychosocial Work Conditions and Quality of Care: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Angerer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physician jobs are associated with adverse psychosocial work conditions. We summarize research on the relationship of physicians' psychosocial work conditions and quality of care. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and PsycINFO. All studies were classified into three categories of care quality outcomes: Associations between physicians' psychosocial work conditions and (1 the physician-patient-relationship, or (2 the care process and outcomes, or (3 medical errors were examined. Results: 12 publications met the inclusion criteria. Most studies relied on observational cross-sectional and controlled intervention designs. All studies provide at least partial support for physicians’ psychosocial work conditions being related to quality of care. Conclusions: This review found preliminary evidence that detrimental physicians’ psychosocial work conditions adversely influence patient care quality. Future research needs to apply strong designs to disentangle the indirect and direct effects of adverse psychosocial work conditions on physicians as well as on quality of care.Keywords: psychosocial work conditions, physicians, quality of care, physician-patient-relationship, hospital, errors, review, work stress, clinicians

  2. Working condition of nurses in Japan: awareness of work-life balance among nursing personnel at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko; Maruyama, Yukie; Ooshima, Satoko; Ito, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the awareness of work-life balance (WLB) among the nursing personnel at a university hospital in Japan. Survey. A questionnaire was sent to 1236 nursing personnel working at a university hospital and 1081 (87·5%) responses received. The questions concerned the following: (1) respondent demographical characteristics, (2) living background, (3) wishes for working environments and (4) motivation to work and health condition. The data were analysed by simple and cross-tabulations. The results can be summarised as follows: (1) the concept and significance of WLB has not yet been established among nurses in Japan, (2) three factors were found, which nurses need as working environment, 1st quality-of-life benefits, 2nd flexible working style, 3rd lifelong learning and (3) nurses who reported good WLB also reported higher job satisfaction and job motivation. The concept and significance of WLB has not yet been established among nurses. Thus, it is needed to enlighten nurses on the concept and significance of WLB as well as how they should practise WLB. Approximately half of the nurses gave their jobs first priority in reality, although they had various needs for their private lives and household affairs, as well as jobs. WLB cannot be achieved only by individual attitudes; thus, organisational efforts are necessary. In the correlation between WLB and 'job satisfaction' and 'job motivation,' nurses who were satisfied with their job and those who were highly motivated showed higher WLB. There was a significant correlation between satisfaction and motivation. It is necessary that nurses understand and have any information about working policy to improve working conditions to get better conditions which they need. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Working in a hot environment; perspiration loss; a drink for persons working under hot conditions, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, H.

    1978-01-01

    Losses of various nutrients through sweat of persons working under hot conditions were considered. On the basis of these considerations a supplemental drink was formulated consisting of 1 liter of water per hour containing salt, potassium chloride, iron, thiamine and ascorbic acid.

  4. Working conditions as risk factors for disability retirement: a longitudinal register linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahelma Eero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early retirement due to disability is a public health and work environment problem that shortens working careers. Transition to disability retirement is based on ill-health, but working conditions are also of relevance. We examined the contributions of work arrangements, physical working conditions and psychosocial working conditions to subsequent disability retirement. Methods The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Information on working conditions was obtained from the baseline surveys conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002. These data were linked with register data on disability retirement and their main diagnoses obtained from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Follow up by the end of 2008 yielded 525 disability retirement events. The analysed data included 6525 participants and 525 disability retirement events. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated from Cox regression analysis. Results Several working conditions showed own associations with disability retirement before adjustment. After adjustment for all working conditions, the primary risk factors for all-cause disability retirement were physical workload among women (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.57-2.59 and men (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.18-3.38, and low job control among women (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29-1.99. In addition, for disability retirement due to musculoskeletal causes, the risk factors were physical workload and low job control. For disability retirement due to mental causes the risk factors were computer work and low job control. Furthermore, occupational class was a risk factor for disability retirement due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusions Among various working conditions, those that are physically demanding and those that imply low job control are potential risk factors for disability retirement. Improving the physical working environment and enhancing control over

  5. Personality Disorders in DSM-5: A Commentary on the Perceived Process and Outcome of the Proposal of the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    There has been much discussion and controversy concerning the process undertaken and the decisions made with respect to the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group (PPDWG) proposal for DSM-5, as well as the rejection of the work group's final proposal, by the American Psychiatric Association Board of Trustees. This commentary suggests that the way the PPDWG members were selected and the perceived secrecy associated with the PPDWG's deliberations almost assured that, despite the hard work and good intentions of the group members, the proposal would raise controversy and could ultimately fail. This commentary provides a personal perspective on some of the issues, assumptions, and preconceptions that arose between members of different theoretical and conceptual camps within the field of personality disorders. It concludes with suggestions as to how we might avoid these mistakes in the future and also how we might take advantage of the PPDWG's substantive work as we make future attempts to improve diagnosis in the area of personality disorders.

  6. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe de Vries

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors. RESULTS: Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon, Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician. All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.

  7. Joint association of sleep problems and psychosocial working conditions with registered long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E. H.; Larsen, Ann D.; Thorsen, Sannie V.

    2016-01-01

    questionnaire response. We defined sleep problems by self-reported symptoms and/or register data on hypnotics purchases of hypnotics. Psychosocial working conditions included quantitative and emotional demands, influence, supervisor recognition and social support, leadership quality, and social support from......Objectives: Sleep problems and adverse psychosocial working conditions are associated with increased risk of long-term sickness absence. Because sleep problems affect role functioning they may also exacerbate any effects of psychosocial working conditions and vice versa. We examined whether sleep...... problems and psychosocial working conditions interact in their associations with long-term sickness absence. Methods: We linked questionnaire data from participants to two surveys of random samples of the Danish working population (N=10 752) with registries on long-term sick leave during five years after...

  8. Working Conditions of Agricultural Workers: A Reflection of Socio-economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R.K. Sinha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Working conditions of agricultural workers, like industrial, are one of the burning issues in a developing region. It is related to agricultural activities of the workers and their socio-economic status. Working conditions may be both favourable and unfavourable. Those working conditions which are unfavourable to health may be considered as occupational hazards or as a part of occupational environment. It is generally observed that a large section of the agricultural workers remains engaged in agricultural practices at the time of hunger, thirst, pregnancy (women and even despite their unpleasant state of health, both mental and physical. They also continue to work for more than the prescribed standard hours and also having half-fed. These are not positive or favourable working conditions to their health as they normally cause general weakness, fatigue, stomach disorder, dizziness, headache, loss of energy and some other similar physical, mental and psychological problems. The major driving forces behind as such adverse working conditions and its consequences are the pressure of work, pressure of land owners and of timely completion of works, shortage of manpower, psychological attitude, ignorance, weather constraints, poverty, illiteracy, lack of work related health awareness, lower social and economic status, etc. Such forces compel the workers to be engaged in their agricultural practices under the above circumstance. Adverse working conditions of agricultural workers vary widely with reference to space, time, activities, demographics, society, economy and consequently affect both the mental and physical, social and psychological conditions of the agricultural workers. Persons in varying number in the age groups from 15-34 and 35-49 to 60 & + year were reported working under different types of undesirable working conditions. The people from the S.C. and S.T. categories are the major sufferers as most of them continue their work during

  9. MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF THE MOBILE PLATFORM UNDER ITS WORK CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał GOSZYC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the calculation model of mobile platform, type HAULOTTE - H1150E, and its strength analysis under work conditions have been completed. The model has been obtained by using finite element method with application of the SolidWorks package. The model can be useful as well in static, free vibration and stability analyses for any arbitrary chosen work configuration and load of the object. In the work the sample numerical results concerning the strength and free vibration analysis for the chosen platform work configuration have been presented. The conclusion concerning the analysis results have been added.

  10. Small Is Not Always Beautiful – A Comparative Study Of Working Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Hasle, Peter; Bach, Elsa;

    2004-01-01

    When considering working conditions, the myth sometimes holds that small is beautiful. Some studies of occupational accidents show that small companies have fever accidents than large. This indicates that small companies have better working conditions than large. A Danish study based on a random...... sample of employees in the general industry rejects this myth. The figures show that physical working conditions become systematically worse the smaller the size of privately owned companies. The study also supports international data that small companies underreport accidents, and that this might...

  11. Associations of work characteristics, employee strain and self-perceived quality of care in Emergency Departments: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Matthias; Schneider, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The individual and shared effects of adverse work characteristics on patient care in Emergency Departments (ED) are yet not well understood. We investigated the associations of self-reported ED work characteristics, work-related strain, and perceived quality of care. Questionnaire-based survey with standardized measures among N=53 ED professionals (i.e., nurses, physicians, and administration staff). The study was conducted in the interdisciplinary ED of a German community hospital. A high prevalence of work-related strain was observed: 66.0% of ED professionals showed high levels of emotional exhaustion and 55.6% showed irritation scores above the cut-off value. ED staff reported high supervisor support and autonomy, paired with high time pressure and patient-related stressors. Multivariate analyses revealed that high time pressure and low supervisor support were associated with high work-related strain. Low staffing was related to inferior quality of ED care. ED work systems involve high competing demands for ED professionals with substantial risks for work-related strain. Moreover, adverse ED work characteristics comprise risks for high quality patient care. Our results suggest that promoting work characteristics might foster ED staff functioning on the job as well as improve ED patient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing three measures of health status (perceived health with Likert-type scale, EQ-5D, and number of chronic conditions) in Chinese and white Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brenda; Luo, Nan; So, Lawrence; Quan, Hude

    2007-07-01

    Measures of perceived health status may be vulnerable to ethnic and sociodemographic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported health status in Chinese and whites using 3 measures: physical and mental health status with the 5-point Likert-type scale, the EQ-5D together with a modified health index scale (0-100), and number of chronic conditions. A cross-sectional telephone survey of Chinese and white Canadians was conducted in a large city in Alberta, Canada. We analyzed 830 Chinese and 789 white respondents. Chinese, compared with whites, reported better health status using the EQ-5D health index (0.94 vs. 0.86) and had fewer chronic conditions surveyed (51.9% vs. 79.2% had one or more conditions). However, Chinese rated their health status fair or poor more often than whites (27.3% vs. 9.7% for physical health and 24.0% vs. 5.0% for mental health) and both groups rated similarly on the health index scale (80.0 for Chinese vs. 77.9 for white). Health status measurements performed inconsistently across ethnic populations. The EQ-5D health index was consistent with the number of chronic conditions, whereas results from the 5-point Likert-type scale and the health index scale were not consistent with the number of chronic conditions. Perceived health status differed by the measures used and ethnicity.

  13. The financial repercussions of new work-limiting health conditions for older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Jody; Stapleton, David C

    2012-01-01

    This analysis used propensity score matching to construct a comparison sample that is observationally similar at baseline interview to older workers who later experience the onset of a medical condition that limits their ability to work. Using these matched onset and comparison samples, we studied trajectories in earnings and income around onset of the work limitation. Earnings two years after onset for the work-limitation group were 50% lower and poverty rates were nearly double. Income from unemployment insurance, workers' compensation, and retirement and disability benefits offset only a small amount of the earnings declines, resulting in decreased overall household income after onset of the work-limiting condition.

  14. [Management in nursing in the current state impoverishment of working conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellato, Roseney; Pereira, Wilza Rocha

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to provide reflection points on the nursing management process in the current state impoverishment financial conditions facing nursing work in a public health service in the State of Mato Grosso. We used the concepts of vulnerability, user rights and ethic to seek to understand how these concepts can broaden the view of citizenship in the search for better health care conditions for the users and workers in the institution studied. The blatant impoverishment of conditions that was detected point to the need for more awareness raising all levels where we think about, carry out and submit ourselves to the health care Nursing, working conditions, nursing ethics.

  15. [Arduous working conditions for beginners: when workplace prevention becomes an economic risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latil, François

    2015-01-01

    The French law of 20.01.2014 recently instituted an arduous working conditions allowance. This innovated legislation is designed to improve the status of workers subject to arduous working conditions either by allowing lighter work schedules or job reclassification or early retirement. The impact of arduous working conditions on health has been clearly established, but no consensual solution has yet been proposed. Life expectancy without disability can differ by as much as 9 years between higher executives and manual workers, but the proposed solutions comprise a multitude of perverse effects. Workers may benefit from maintaining their arduous working conditions in order to preserve their right to early retirement. Companies do not necessarily have the desire or the resources to invest in prevention, which is the only consensually accepted effective measure, if they are also required to finance both training and retirement. In particular, management of the arduous working conditions allowance is very complex and entirely financed by companies. Consequently, company productivity can be impacted, leading to transfers of company headquarters, outsourcing to interim workers, replacement of jobs by automation. Unemployment could be the big winner of this conflict. Politically, arduous working conditions allowance appears to be very difficult to put into practice and can be considered to be more a promise by the government to the left and to the trade unions.

  16. Hospital nurses' working conditions in relation to motivation and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of empirical knowledge about nurses' perceptions of their workplace characteristics and conditions, such as level of autonomy and decision authority, work climate, teamwork, skill exploitation and learning opportunities, and their work motivation in relation to practice outputs such as patient safety. Such knowledge is needed particularly in countries, such as Estonia, where hospital systems for preventing errors and improving patient safety are in the early stages of development. This article reports the findings from a cross-sectional survey of hospital nurses in Estonia that was aimed at determining their perceptions of workplace characteristics, working conditions, work motivation and patient safety, and at exploring the relationship between these. Results suggest that perceptions of personal control over their work can affect nurses' motivation, and that perceptions of work satisfaction might be relevant to patient safety improvement work.

  17. [Working conditions of traditional birth attendants: some characteristics of rural home situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, L F

    1999-09-01

    This is a study of qualitative and dialectical approach, which subject is to analyze the working conditions of the traditional birth attendants, in a reproductive perspective of work, and for this reason, economically undervalued. The analysis has been constructed having as central category the work, under marxist and feminist premises. Obtained results permit us to state these traditional birth attendants do their work in material and financial poor conditions, related to transportation, access, and still, working environment. The analysis of this practice has given us a possibility to present a discussion on some traits of the traditional birth attendant's work, which is characterized as a reproductive work, economically undervalued, autonomous and eminently feminine. It still configures as a social practice of popular health, legitimated by the community. In the rural domestic obstetrics practice, unequal relations were in evidence since men and women play different roles in the same occupation, being women's responsability the reproduction of the feminine role.

  18. Working Conditions and Workplace Barriers to Vocal Health in Primary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Caitriona; Farrell, Rory

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the working conditions and workplace barriers to vocal health in primary school teachers. The relationship between working conditions and voice is analyzed. This is a survey study in 42 randomized schools from a restricted geographical area. An 85-item questionnaire was administered to 550 primary school teachers in 42 schools in Dublin. It was designed to obtain information on demographics, vocal use patterns, vocal health, work organization, working conditions, and teacher's perceptions of the conditions in teaching that might cause a voice problem. The relationship between voice and overstretched work demands, and voice and class size, was examined. A chi-squared test was run to test the null hypothesis that the variables overstretched work demands and voice and class size and voice are independent. Subjects were given the opportunity to give their opinion on their working conditions and on the availability of advice and support within the workplace. A final question sought their opinion on what should be included in a voice care program. A 55% response rate was obtained (n = 304). It was found with 96.52% confidence that the variables overstretched work demands and voice are related. Likewise, it was found that the variables class size and voice are related with 99.97% confidence. There are workplace barriers to vocal health. The working conditions of primary school teachers need to be fully adapted to promote vocal health. Changes by education and health policy makers are needed to achieve this goal. There is a need for future research which focuses on the working conditions of teachers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Less work, less respect: authors' perceived importance of research contributions and their declared contributions to research articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaniš, Ana; Hren, Darko; Marušić, Matko; Marušić, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes towards authorship are connected with authors' research experience and with knowledge of authorship criteria of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The objective of this study was to assess association between authors' perceived importance of contributions for authorship qualification and their participation in manuscripts submitted to a journal. Authors (n = 1181) of 265 manuscripts submitted to the Croatian Medical Journal were asked to identify and rate their contribution in the preparation of the submitted manuscript (0-none to 4-full for 11 listed contributions) and the importance of these contributions as authorship qualifications (0-none to 4-full). They were randomly allocated into 3 groups: the first (n = 90 manuscripts, n = 404 authors) first received the contribution disclosure form and then contribution importance-rating questionnaire; the second (n = 88 manuscripts, n = 382 authors) first received the rating questionnaire and then the contribution disclosure form, and the third group (n = 87 manuscripts, n = 395 authors) received both questionnaires at the same time. We compared authors' perception of importance of contribution categories. 1014 (85.9%) authors of 235 manuscripts responded. Authors who declared contribution to a specific category rated it as more important for authorship than those authors who did not contribute to the same category (P>0.005 for all contribution categories, Mann-Withney test). Authors qualifying for ICMJE authorship rated all contribution categories higher than non-qualifying authors. For all contributions, associations between perceived importance of contribution and actual author's contribution were statistically significant. Authorship seems to be not a normative issue subjective to categorization into criteria, but also a very personal view of the importance and value of one's contributions.

  20. [Hygienic characteristics of work conditions at large Hydroelectric Power Plants with mechanization and automatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, L D

    1997-01-01

    The article touches upon hygienic problems associated with mechanization and automation of major hydroelectric power stations. The authors present criteria to evaluate work conditions of the main occupations participating in the technologic process of hydroelectric power stations.

  1. Sickness absence and workplace levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions at public service workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Agerbo, Esben;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of psychosocial work conditions on sickness absence while addressing methodological weaknesses in earlier studies. METHODS: The participants were 13,437 employees from 698 public service workplace units in Aarhus County, Denmark....... Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was rated on a scale from 0 (low) to 10 (high). Individual ratings were aggregated to workplace scores. Analysis of variance was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence in three groups with different levels of satisfaction...... with psychosocial work conditions. RESULTS: Sickness absence was 30.8% lower in the most satisfied group (11.7 days/year (CI 95%: 10.2; 13.1)) than in the least satisfied group (16.9 days/year (CI 95%: 15.3; 18.6)) adjusted for the covariates included. CONCLUSIONS: Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions has...

  2. Technical characteristics and working conditions of long-term orbiting Salyut-type space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The technical characteristics and working conditions of the Salyut-type orbiting space stations which affect the selection of preliminary versions of scientific programs and the selection of plans in conjunction with space shuttle operations are presented.

  3. IMPORTANT FACTORS OF THE WORKING CONDITIONS FOR REQRUITMENT OF UNIVERSITY GRADUATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov, A.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify the most important criteria about working condition for students who are going to graduate and looking for a job.  Gaining knowledge of attractive factors of current graduating students for working condition will allow company to attract talented candidates and to keep them from competitors. The results of this research show potential attractive factors of the working conditions which can be formed into advertising logo to print on recruitment ads for recruiting university graduating students. Survey questions have been formed, which are relating to students’ future career preferences about the working conditions. The results of interviewing were grouped by specialties of the students. The analysis of the research results allows formulating recommendations for companies’ human resources departments to make a recruitment process more successful and efficient.

  4. Work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and displaced aggression toward others: the moderating roles of workplace interpersonal conflict and perceived managerial family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihao; Wang, Mo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang; Shi, Junqi; Zhou, Le; Shao, Ruodan

    2015-05-01

    Taking a resource-based self-regulation perspective, this study examined afternoon emotional exhaustion as a mediator linking the within-person relations between morning work-family conflict and later employee displaced aggression in the work and family domains. In addition, it examined resource-related contextual factors as moderators of these relations. The theoretical model was tested using daily diary data from 125 employees. Data were collected at 4 time points during each workday for 3 consecutive weeks. Multilevel modeling analysis showed that morning family-to-work conflict was positively related to afternoon emotional exhaustion, which in turn predicted displaced aggression toward supervisors and coworkers in the afternoon and displaced aggression toward family members in the evening. In addition, morning workplace interpersonal conflict exacerbated the impact of morning work-to-family conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion, whereas perceived managerial family support alleviated the impact of morning family-to-work conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion. These findings indicate the importance of adopting a self-regulation perspective to understand work-family conflict at work and its consequences (i.e., displaced aggression) in both work and family domains.

  5. The role of working memory and declarative memory in trace conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, David A; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    Translational assays of cognition that are similarly implemented in both lower and higher-order species, such as rodents and primates, provide a means to reconcile preclinical modeling of psychiatric neuropathology and clinical research. To this end, Pavlovian conditioning has provided a useful tool for investigating cognitive processes in both lab animal models and humans. This review focuses on trace conditioning, a form of Pavlovian conditioning typified by the insertion of a temporal gap (i.e., trace interval) between presentations of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US). This review aims to discuss pre-clinical and clinical work investigating the mnemonic processes recruited for trace conditioning. Much work suggests that trace conditioning involves unique neurocognitive mechanisms to facilitate formation of trace memories in contrast to standard Pavlovian conditioning. For example, the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) appear to play critical roles in trace conditioning. Moreover, cognitive mechanistic accounts in human studies suggest that working memory and declarative memory processes are engaged to facilitate formation of trace memories. The aim of this review is to integrate cognitive and neurobiological accounts of trace conditioning from preclinical and clinical studies to examine involvement of working and declarative memory.

  6. Multicriteria ranking of workplaces regarding working conditions in a mining company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Dejan; Stanković, Vladimir; Urošević, Snežana; Stojanović, Miloš

    2016-12-01

    Ranking of workplaces with respect to working conditions is very significant for each company. It indicates the positions where employees are most exposed to adverse effects resulting from the working environment, which endangers their health. This article presents the results obtained for 12 different production workplaces in the copper mining and smelting complex RTB Bor - 'Veliki Krivelj' open pit, based on six parameters measured regularly which defined the following working environment conditions: air temperature, light, noise, dustiness, chemical hazards and vibrations. The ranking of workplaces has been performed by PROMETHEE/GAIA. Additional optimization of workplaces is done by PROMETHEE V with the given limits related to maximum permitted values for working environment parameters. The obtained results indicate that the most difficult workplace is on the excavation location (excavator operator). This method can be successfully used for solving similar kinds of problems, in order to improve working conditions.

  7. Laws, Costs, Norms, and Learning: Improving Working Conditions in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Drusilla; Dehejia, Rajeev; Robertson, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions in developing countries, such as those associated with the 2013 Rana Plaza collapse in Bangladesh, remain stubbornly low despite strict laws regulating hours, pay practices and occupational safety and health. Recent theoretic and empirical work suggests that norms and learning may play a significant role in determining conditions. We exploit the natural experiment of Cambodia's 15-year experience with the Better Factories Cambodia program to identify variation that reveals ...

  8. Did Nongovernmental Monitoring improve Working Conditions in the case of Nike and the Footwear Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    FERDOUS AHAMED, Ph.D

    2013-01-01

    This article examines working conditions in the RMG sector of Bangladesh could improve through effective monitoring system. In a significant case Nike suggested that working conditions and labour rights can be improved through a systematic approach and a comprehensive and transparent monitoring system. External pressure from NGOs and other advocacy groups motivated Nike to introduce a Code of Conduct and a monitoring system. The process is discussed in this section. Conclusion: In conclusion,...

  9. Dependency in autonomous caring--night nurses' working conditions for caring in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Christine; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Asp, Margareta

    2010-06-01

    Few research studies have focused on nurses' working conditions for caring provided at night, and these studies have mainly described nurses' work in hospital settings, not in a municipal, social-care context. In Swedish municipal care, nurses have responsibility for hundreds of older people in need of care. This working condition compromises caring encounters; instead the nurses' caring is mainly mediated through care staff (or relatives). In considering that caring based on caring encounters is fundamental to ethical nursing practice questions leads to the aim: to explore Swedish municipal night nurses' experiences of their working conditions for caring in nursing. All municipal night-duty nurses (n = 7) in a medium-sized community in Sweden participated in interviews, while six of them also wrote diaries. Thematic content analysis has been used in analysing the data. The findings revealed that the nurses experienced their working conditions for caring in nursing in the themes of Dependency in the Organisation and Other Staff, Vocational Responsibility, Deficiency in Conditions for Caring and Autonomous Caring. The findings illustrate privileged, as well as, poor working conditions for caring in nursing. The nurses' role as consultants emerge as their main function. The consultant function implies that nurses do not participate in ordinary bed-side caring, which makes it easier for them to find time for caring in situations that arise when nurses' skills, expertise and authority are called upon. Conversely the consultancy function entails short-term solution of complex caring problems, which can signify deficient caring due to prevailing working conditions. The findings also point to nurses' possible problems in fulfilling their own and vocational demands for ethics in the practice of caring in nursing related to existing working conditions.

  10. STUDY OF WORK CONDITIONS AS A FACTOR IN STRESS IN SEWING INDUSTRY WORKERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Stoilova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewing production is traditionally well developed in Bulgaria. With the development of production and technical progress, new health problems for workers appear. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of work conditions as a factor in the occurrence of stress in sewing industry workers. Subject of the study are 70 persons, employed in small and medium enterprises. Conclusions are made and recommendations given for improvement of the work conditions and psycho-climate.

  11. 20 CFR 667.274 - What health and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... working conditions of participants in activities under title I of WIA? 667.274 Section 667.274 Employees... and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities under title I of... working conditions of employees are equally applicable to working conditions of participants engaged...

  12. Burnout, working conditions and gender - results from the northern Sweden MONICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl Bernt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick-leave because of mental and behavioural disorders has increased considerably in Sweden since the late nineties, and especially in women. The aim of this study was to assess the level of burnout in the general working population in northern Sweden and analyse it's relation to working conditions and gender. Methods In this cross-sectional study the survey from the MONICA-study (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease in northern Sweden 2004 was used. A burnout instrument, the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ, was incorporated in the original survey which was sent to a random sample of 2500 individuals with a response rate of 76%. After including only actively working people, aged 25-64 years, our study population consisted of 1000 participants (497 women and 503 men. ANOVA and multiple linear regression models were used. Results The prevalence of a high level of burnout (SMBQ >4.0 was 13%. Women had a higher level of burnout than men with the most pronounced difference in the age group 35-44 years. In both sexes the level of burnout decreased with age. Demand and control at work, and job insecurity were related to burnout. In women the level of education, socioeconomic position, work object, and working varying hours were of importance. Interaction effects were found between sex and work object, and sex and working hours. In a multiple regression analysis almost half of the gender difference could be explained by work related and life situational factors. Conclusions Working life conditions contributed to the level of burnout in this actively working sample from the general population in northern Sweden. Especially in women, socioeconomic position was associated with burnout. The high level of burnout in women compared to men was partly explained by more unfavourable working conditions and life situational factors. Efforts to level out gender differences in burnout should probably focus on

  13. Relationship between work-related accidents and hot weather conditions in Tuscany (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Crisci, Alfonso; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Orlandini, Simone

    2006-07-01

    Nowadays, no studies have been published on the relationship between meteorological conditions and work-related mortality and morbidity in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hot weather conditions and hospital admissions due to work-related accidents in Tuscany (central Italy) over the period 1998-2003. Apparent temperature (AT) values were calculated to evaluate human weather discomfort due to hot conditions and then tested for work accident differences using non-parametric procedures. Present findings showed that hot weather conditions might represent a risk factor for work-related accidents in Italy during summer. In particular early warming days during June, characterized by heat discomfort, are less tolerated by workers than warming days of the following summer months. The peak of work-related accidents occurred on days characterized by high, but not extreme, thermal conditions. Workers maybe change their behaviour when heat stress increases, reducing risks by adopting preventive measures. Results suggested that days with an average daytime AT value ranged between 24.8 degrees C and 27.5 degrees C were at the highest risk of work-related accidents. In conclusion, present findings might represent the first step for the development of a watch/warning system for workers that might be used by employers for planning work activities.

  14. Analysis of conditions and organization of work of notebook computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malińska, Marzena; Bugajska, Joanna; Kamińska, Joanna; Jędryka-Góral, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate working conditions with a notebook computer (notebook) as a potential cause of musculoskeletal disorders. The study had 2 stages. The first one was a questionnaire survey among 300 notebook users. The next stage was an expert analysis of 53 randomly selected workstations. The questionnaire survey included questions about the participants, their working conditions, work organization and also duration of work with a notebook. The results of the research showed that most examined operators used a notebook as a basic working tool. The most important irregularities included an unadjustable working surface, unadjustable height of the seat pan and backrest, unadjustable height and distance between the armrests and no additional ergonomic devices (external keyboard, docking station, notebook stand or footstool).

  15. Examining the Influence of Selected Factors on Perceived Co-Op Work-Term Quality from a Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewery, David; Nevison, Colleen; Pretti, T. Judene; Cormier, Lauren; Barclay, Sage; Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses and tests a conceptual model of co-op work-term quality from a student perspective. Drawing from an earlier exploration of co-op students' perceptions of work-term quality, variables related to role characteristics, interpersonal dynamics, and organizational elements were used in a multiple linear regression analysis to…

  16. A Quantitative Study of Factors Contributing to Perceived Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals Working in California Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, James Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this replication study was to understand job satisfaction factors (work, pay, supervision, people, opportunities for promotion, and job in general) as measured by the abridged Job Descriptive Index (aJDI) and the abridged Job in General (aJIG) scale for information technology (IT) professionals working in California…

  17. 20 CFR 655.732 - What is the second LCA requirement, regarding working conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the second LCA requirement, regarding... Visas in Specialty Occupations § 655.732 What is the second LCA requirement, regarding working... working conditions requirement. The second LCA requirement shall be satisfied when the employer...

  18. Working Conditions of Foreign Language Teachers: Results from a Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gomez, Coral; Albright, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has consistently shown that teacher working conditions are highly predictive of faculty turnover and student performance. However, very little work investigates specifically the experiences of foreign-language instructors. This paper reports results from a pilot survey of language teachers in public and private schools from across…

  19. The Views of New Teachers at Private Teaching Institutions about Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the research was to determine the views of teachers about working conditions working at private teaching institutions for 5 years or less. The research was designed as a phenomenology model. The data were collected by focus group interview technique of qualitative research method. 10 teachers from private teaching institutions…

  20. Research progress and prospects on machinery monitoring under varying working condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jing; Zhao Ming

    2013-01-01

    A general review is given about the research progress of the rotating machinery condition monitoring under varying working condition.The major typical methods for analyzing are reviewed,including their progress,deficiencies and capabilities.Some prospects are given finally.

  1. Personality Development at Work: Workplace Conditions, Personality Changes, and the Corresponsive Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Kimdy; Donnellan, M Brent; Conger, Rand

    2014-02-01

    Investigations concerning adult personality development have increasingly focused on factors that are associated with apparent personality trait changes. The current study contributes to this literature by replicating and extending previous research concerning personality trait development in young adulthood and perceptions of workplace conditions. Analyses were based on up to 442 individuals who participated in the ongoing Family Transitions Project (e.g., Conger & Conger, 2002). The current analyses included personality trait data from 1994 and 2003, high school grades and socioeconomic status indicators from 1994, and reports about work conditions in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Personality attributes were prospectively associated with work conditions and income. Findings also support the corresponsive principle of personality development (e.g., Roberts, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2003): Traits that were prospectively associated with particular workplace conditions often seemed to be accentuated by those conditions. Personality traits are prospectively associated with perceptions of the workplace. Workplace conditions are also associated with trait development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Safe mining face advance and support installation practice in mechanical miner workings under different geotechnical conditions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Canbulat, I

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Safe mining face advance and support installation practice in mechanical miner workings under different geotechnical conditions I Canbulat and JN van der Merwe Research agency : CSIR : Division of Mining Technology Project..., including changing the organisation of work and the design of safe systems of work, necessary to (a) eliminate any recorded risk; (b) control the risk at source; (c) minimise the risk; and (d) in so far as the risk remains (i) provide for personal...

  3. [Worker's health: conditions of work of the nursing staff in psychiatric hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianey, Edilene Lima; Brasileiro, Marislei Espíndula

    2003-01-01

    This study deals with the concern shown by health care professionals, especially by those working in the psychiatric nursing area, with the stress they experience due to particular characteristics of their work activity. We tried to learn about the relationship between work conditions in nursing, an anxiety-builder environment, and physical and psychological exhaustion. We found the need to implement programs aimed at reducing professional risks ran by psychiatric nursing staff.

  4. Nurses' shift length and overtime working in 12 European countries: the association with perceived quality of care and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Peter; Dall'Ora, Chiara; Simon, Michael; Ball, Jane; Lindqvist, Rikard; Rafferty, Anne-Marie; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Tishelman, Carol; Aiken, Linda H

    2014-11-01

    Despite concerns as to whether nurses can perform reliably and effectively when working longer shifts, a pattern of two 12- to 13-hour shifts per day is becoming common in many hospitals to reduce shift to shift handovers, staffing overlap, and hence costs. To describe shift patterns of European nurses and investigate whether shift length and working beyond contracted hours (overtime) is associated with nurse-reported care quality, safety, and care left undone. Cross-sectional survey of 31,627 registered nurses in general medical/surgical units within 488 hospitals across 12 European countries. A total of 50% of nurses worked shifts of ≤ 8 hours, but 15% worked ≥ 12 hours. Typical shift length varied between countries and within some countries. Nurses working for ≥ 12 hours were more likely to report poor or failing patient safety [odds ratio (OR)=1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-1.76], poor/fair quality of care (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.53), and more care activities left undone (RR=1.13; 95% CI, 1.09-1.16). Working overtime was also associated with reports of poor or failing patient safety (OR=1.67; 95% CI, 1.51-1.86), poor/fair quality of care (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.23-1.42), and more care left undone (RR=1.29; 95% CI, 1.27-1.31). European registered nurses working shifts of ≥ 12 hours and those working overtime report lower quality and safety and more care left undone. Policies to adopt a 12-hour nursing shift pattern should proceed with caution. Use of overtime working to mitigate staffing shortages or increase flexibility may also incur additional risk to quality.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE WORK CONDITIONS OF ACTIVITIES OF URBAN TREE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fiedler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available this work analyzed the work environment in the trees pruning activities in the urban arborization, comparison with the values of the legislation and the practical application of results to provide a better comfort, security, health, welfare to workers, and also a better efficiency and quality of the work. The weather conditions, the noise levels, the light conditions and vibration were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The weather conditions in the work environment were according the permissible values in the legislation (NR15 for index of humid bulb and globe thermometer (IBUTG of 25°C for the activities of pruning, with exception of the schedule to twelve hours (26,2°C, the hours of working should be of 30 minutes of work and 30 minutes of rest. The noise levels found in the activities of cut were 105,7 dB (A and bucking were 103.9 dB (A, above the level permited by legislation (NR15. The minimum light conditions values were acceptable for legislation (NBR 5413/92, but the global indices were too high being able to cause problems to the worker health. The vibration conditions were acceptable.

  6. Why some employees adopt or resist reorganization of work practices in health care: associations between perceived loss of resources, burnout, and attitudes to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Carl-Ardy; Bentein, Kathleen; Mansour, Jamal Ben; Gilbert, Frédéric; Bédard, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-20

    In recent years, successive work reorganization initiatives have been implemented in many healthcare settings. The failure of many of these change efforts has often been attributed in the prominent management discourse to change resistance. Few studies have paid attention to the temporal process of workers' resource depletion/accumulation over time and its links with workers' psychological states and reactions to change. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory, this study examines associations between workers' perceptions of loss of resources, burnout, and attitudes to change. The study was conducted in five health and social service centres in Quebec, in units where a work reorganization project was initiated. A prospective longitudinal design was used to assess workers' perceptions at two time points 12 months apart. Our findings are consistent with the conservation of resources theory. The analysis of latent differences scores between times 1 and 2 showed that the perceived loss of resources was associated with emotional exhaustion, which, in turn, was negatively correlated with commitment to change and positively correlated with cynicism. In confirming the temporal relationship between perceived loss of resources, occupational burnout, and attitude to change, this research offers a new perspective to explain negative and positive reactions to change implementation.

  7. Why Some Employees Adopt or Resist Reorganization of Work Practices in Health Care: Associations between Perceived Loss of Resources, Burnout, and Attitudes to Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Ardy Dubois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, successive work reorganization initiatives have been implemented in many healthcare settings. The failure of many of these change efforts has often been attributed in the prominent management discourse to change resistance. Few studies have paid attention to the temporal process of workers’ resource depletion/accumulation over time and its links with workers’ psychological states and reactions to change. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory, this study examines associations between workers’ perceptions of loss of resources, burnout, and attitudes to change. The study was conducted in five health and social service centres in Quebec, in units where a work reorganization project was initiated. A prospective longitudinal design was used to assess workers’ perceptions at two time points 12 months apart. Our findings are consistent with the conservation of resources theory. The analysis of latent differences scores between times 1 and 2 showed that the perceived loss of resources was associated with emotional exhaustion, which, in turn, was negatively correlated with commitment to change and positively correlated with cynicism. In confirming the temporal relationship between perceived loss of resources, occupational burnout, and attitude to change, this research offers a new perspective to explain negative and positive reactions to change implementation.

  8. Participation in a US community-based cardiovascular health study: investigating nonrandom selection effects related to employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Leslie A; Fujishiro, Kaori; Howard, Virginia J; Landsbergis, Paul; Hein, Misty J

    2017-08-15

    Participation in health studies may be inversely associated with employment and stress. We investigated whether employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving were related to participation in a longitudinal US community-based health study of black and white men and women aged ≥45 years. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were estimated for completion of the second stage (S2) of a two-stage enrollment process by employment (status, type), and stress (perceived stress, work-related stress, caregiving), adjusting for age, sex, race, region, income, and education. Eligibility and consent for a follow-up occupational survey were similarly evaluated. Wage- but not self-employed participants were less likely than the unemployed to complete S2. Among the employed, S2 completion did not vary by stress; however, family caregivers with a short time burden of care (<2 hour/d) were more likely to complete S2, compared to noncaregivers. Eligibility and participation in the follow-up occupational survey were higher among those employed (vs. unemployed) at enrollment but were not associated with enrollment stress levels. Limited evidence of selection bias was seen by employment and stress within a large US community-based cohort, but findings suggest the need for enrollment procedures to consider possible barriers to participation among wage-employed individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Working Conditions of Elite Politicians and Administrators at the National and Local Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, Ulf; Holm Pedersen, Lene; Bhatti, Yosef

    of politicians, specifically between elite politicians working at different layers of government (ministers versus mayors). The results indicate that top politicians work longer hours compared to their top administrators, their work-life balance is more damaging to their families, and they are to a larger extent......This paper compares the working conditions of elite politicians and administrators. These groups allegedly have overlapping roles, which sometimes is characterized by politicians dominating managers, and in other cases as bureaucrats dominating the powerless politicians. But how do the working...... conditions of the political and administrative elites compare? This is a central question in order to understand not just the power balance between the two groups but also the attractiveness of recruitment into the respective professions. We take departure in a unique survey of all Danish ministers...

  10. Comparison of working conditions and prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dairy farmers in southern Sweden over a 25-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ePinzke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002.All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419 were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%, of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men, 25% women in 199 enterprises are included in this study.The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males ¯x = 43.9, 40.7; females ¯x = 37.9, 33.9. Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system.In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002.In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002.The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013.Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are

  11. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers.

  12. [The migratory process, working conditions and health in immigrant workers in Spain (the ITSAL project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; García, Ana M; García-Benavides, Fernando; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; López-Jacob, M José; Porthé, Victoria; Sousa, Emily

    2009-12-01

    To describe the migratory process (reasons for migrating, time of residence), legal status and the personal, working and health characteristics of the immigrants with work experience in Spain. We performed a cross sectional survey in a sample stratified by country of origin (Colombia, Ecuador, Morocco and Romania), legal status and sex. Personal interviews were conducted with 2434 workers (57.4% men). Information on the migratory process, working conditions, health profile, and work and life expectations was analyzed. A frequency comparison by country of origin was carried out. Ninety percent of the sample was agedpolicies and strategies.

  13. Working condition and health hazards in beedi rollers residing in the urban slums of Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali V Sabale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beedi rollers are exposed to unburnt tobacco dust through cutaneous and pharyngeal route. They are not aware of their rights. Studies have been conducted on beedi workers but not many studies are carried out in urban areas. Thus, study was carried out to understand working condition and health hazards in beedi workers residing in the urban slums of Mumbai and to know whether beedi roller are in better condition in urban areas. Aim: To study working condition and health hazard in beedi rollers in the urban slums. Materials and Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, community based study was carried in the urban slums of Mumbai with population of 8985 from April 2011 to June 2011. With snow balling sampling technique, 52 beedi workers were interviewed regarding their socio-economic status, working conditions and health problems after informed consent. Data entry and statistical analysis were performed using the SPSS windows version 14.0 software. Results: The mean age was 45 years with SD of 12 years. All were Hindu females. Around 42.31% were illiterate. Mean years of service were 30 years and they work on an average for eight hours. Children were not involved in beedi rolling. Most common morbidity was fatigue. None were aware of the benefits provided for them. Awareness regarding health hazard and safety measures was poor. Conclusions: The working condition of beedi rollers in the urban areas is not favourable.

  14. Health Inequalities among Workers with a Foreign Background in Sweden: Do Working Conditions Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Rostila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status.

  15. Working Conditions in Carpet Weaving Workshops and Muscu-loskeletal Complaints among Workers in Tabriz - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Nazari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Carpet weaving operations usualy involve poor working conditions that can lead to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. This study investigated MSDs among car-pet weavers in relation to working conditions from workers' view in Tabriz City, Northwest Iran.Method: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in city of Tabriz, Iran. Data were col-lected using interviews and questionnaires. The study population consisted of 200 randomly selected healthy weavers from twenty five active carpet weaving workshops.Results: The results showed a high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among the study population. The most commonly affected body areas were neck, lower back, ankles/feet, hands/wrists, upper back, shoulders and knees, respectively. More than half of the weavers were not satisfied with the thermal con-dition, noise level and cleanliness of the air in the workshops. The result indicated a significant relation-ship between upper back symptoms and daily working time and between lower back symptoms and the numbers of rows of knots woven in a day. Weavers' satisfaction with hand tools shape and thermal condi-tion of the workshops were associated with lower back symptoms, whereas satisfaction with weaving looms were associated with upper back complaints.Conclusion: The poor working condition of hand-woven carpet workshops such as environmental conditionsand work station design and tools should be the subject of ergonomics interventions.

  16. Working conditions and related neuropsychiatric problems among shoemakers in Turkey: Do child workers differ from others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elci Omur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we investigated working conditions and related neuropsychiatric problems of shoemakers, including child workers, working in poor conditions with high health risks. Clinical diagnosis was not the objective of this study. Materials and Methods: We collected data from 318 workers ranging from 8-66 years of age. We evaluated working conditions, neuropathy symptoms and signs; urinary 2,5-hexanedione was used to estimate hexane exposure. We used the Zung depression scale for adult shoemakers to evaluate depression. Results: All workshops employed fewer than 10 workers with median daily work duration of 12h. Smoking and alcohol consumption were high among all workers including children. Peripheral neuropathy symptoms and signs were observed in 88 workers (27.8% and it was related to alcohol consumption. Sixty-eight workers (47.9% had depression and it was associated with daily work duration. Conclusion: Extremely poor, unhygienic, working conditions and a high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders were the main problems observed among shoemakers. A high number of child workers increased the scale of these observed problems.

  17. Neonatal Intensive Care and Child Psychiatry Inpatient Care: Do Different Working Conditions Influence Stress Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalotte Mörelius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses often experience work-related stress. High stress can negatively affect job satisfaction and lead to emotional exhaustion with risk of burnout. Aim. To analyse possible differences in biological stress markers, psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being between nurses working in two different departments. Methods. Stress was evaluated in nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU (n=33 and nurses working in a child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient ward (CAP (n=14 using salivary cortisol and HbA1c. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day on two consecutive days during two one-week periods, seven weeks apart (= 12 samples/person. Psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being were measured once. Results. NICU nurses had better social support and more self-determination. CAP nurses had a lower salivary cortisol quotient, poorer general health, and higher client-related burnout scores. Conclusion. When comparing these nurses with existing norm data for Sweden, as a group their scores reflect less work-related stress than Swedes overall. However, the comparison between NICU and CAP nurses indicates a less healthy work situation for CAP nurses. Relevance to Clinical Practice. Healthcare managers need to acknowledge the less healthy work situation CAP nurses experience in order to provide optimal support and promote good health.

  18. Assesment of psychosocial work conditions of nurses at selected hospital wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Rotter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good organisation of work, clear division of responsibilities, support from superiors are factors that positively influence the satisfaction of the profession. The purpose of the work was the assessment of psychosocial working conditions of nurses. Material and Methods: The research included 388 nurses working at surgical wards, medical treatment wards, and psychiatric wards. The research method was a diagnostic survey carried out by means of a questionnaire called Psychosocial Work Conditions. The obtained results were statistically analysed. Results: Nearly a half of the nurses considers the requirements at work as moderate, and 36.66% as high. Nurses from medical treatment wards indicate the highest level of requirements. Nurses working at psychiatric wards and in a shift system significantly more often feel the requirements relating to overload and resulting from a conflict of roles. Nurses working in the profession for more than 10 years considerably more often describe the level of behavioural control as high in comparison to those working for a shorter time. Regardless of the character of a ward, nurses most often (44.33% assess the support from co-workers as average, and 1/5 considered this as low. Conclusions: The results indicate the correctness of introducing psychosocial training for professionally active nurses. Med Pr 2014;65(2:173–179

  19. Audit Cultures and Quality Assurance Mechanisms in England: A Study of Their Perceived Impact on the Work of Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Proponents of the concept of the audit culture in UK higher education argue that from the late 1990s onward audit functioned as a form of power control and had a profound effect on academics and their work. Such arguments continued to be made into the early 2000s. Since then, however, the level of external scrutiny surrounding UK academics'…

  20. Perceived Training Needs of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments Who Work with Students from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Torres, Silvia M.; Durando, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to identify the needs of educators in the field of visual impairment who work with students from diverse backgrounds. The 204 participants reported areas of need, including culturally responsive teaching and practicum opportunities. Additional findings, recommendations, limitations, and suggestions for…

  1. Factors associated with the self-perceived ability of nursing staff to remain working until retirement: a questionnaire survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurits, E.E.M.; Veer, A.J.E. de; Hoek, L.S. van der; Francke, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is important to learn how employers in European countries can prevent nursing staff from changing occupation or taking early retirement in order to counteract expected nursing shortages. However, to date research on nursing staff’s ability to remain working until retirement age has

  2. Academic Optimism, Hope and Zest for Work as Predictors of Teacher Self-Efficacy and Perceived Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Ferudun; Erdogan, Onur

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the predictive influence of primary school teachers' academic optimism, hope and zest for work on perceptions of their self-efficacy and success. A total of 600 teachers were selected through stratified sampling from 27 primary schools in central districts of Ankara, Turkey, to form the research sample. Intervariable…

  3. Nurses' shift length and overtime working in 12 European countries: the association with perceived quality of care and patient safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, P.; Dall'Ora, C.; Simon, M.; Ball, J.; Lindqvist, R.; Rafferty, A.M.; Schoonhoven, L.; Tishelman, C.; Aiken, L.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite concerns as to whether nurses can perform reliably and effectively when working longer shifts, a pattern of two 12- to 13-hour shifts per day is becoming common in many hospitals to reduce shift to shift handovers, staffing overlap, and hence costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe shift

  4. Audit Cultures and Quality Assurance Mechanisms in England: A Study of Their Perceived Impact on the Work of Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Proponents of the concept of the audit culture in UK higher education argue that from the late 1990s onward audit functioned as a form of power control and had a profound effect on academics and their work. Such arguments continued to be made into the early 2000s. Since then, however, the level of external scrutiny surrounding UK academics'…

  5. Nursing Students' Intentions to Work in Dementia Care: Influence of Age, Ageism, and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Ellen L.; Brown, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given a projected threefold increase in people living with dementia globally by 2050 (World Health Organization, 2012), attracting nurses to work in this area will be critical to meet demand. This study examined the role of age, positive ageism, negative ageism, and aged-care placement completion in predicting nursing students' intentions to…

  6. The application of a selection of decision-making techniques by employees in a transport work environment in conjunction with their perceived decision-making success and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theuns F.J. Oosthuizen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A lack of optimum selection and application of decision-making techniques, in conjunction with suitable decision-making practice and perception of employees in a transport work environment demands attention to improve overall performance. Although multiple decision-making techniques exist, five prevalent techniques were considered in this article, namely the Kepner-Tregoe, Delphi, stepladder, nominal group and brainstorming techniques. A descriptive research design was followed, using an empirical survey which was conducted among 210 workers employed in a transport work environment and studying in the field of transport management. The purpose was to establish to what extent the five decision-making techniques are used in their work environment and furthermore how the decision-making practice of using gut-feel and/or a step-by-step decision-making process and their perception of their decision-making success relate. The research confirmed that the use of decision-making techniques is correlated to perceived decision-making success. Furthermore, the Kepner-Tregoe, stepladder, Delphi and brainstorming techniques are associated with a step-by-step decision-making process. No significant association was confirmed between the use of gut-feel and decision-making techniques. Brainstorming was found to be the technique most frequently used by transport employees; however, it has limitations as a comprehensive decision-making technique. Employees working in a transport work environment need training in order to select and use the four comprehensive decision-making techniques.

  7. How a small enterprise improved the conditions of night and shift work using local resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khai, T T; Kawakami, T; Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    A small oxygen factory in Cantho Province located in the Mekong Delta Area in the southern part of Vietnam was studied to provide practical support measures to improve night and shift work. A direct observation study and a fatigue symptom survey during the work were conducted. The factory applied discontinuous two-shift systems in two teams. Depending on customers' demands, they frequently prolonged oxygen production until midnight. The study results showed work-related risks such as carrying heavy oxygen cylinders, workers' sleepiness during the night work, and increased fatigue feelings among production operators. Based on the study results, better strategies for night and shift work schedules such as regular work hours minimizing overtime and night work were discussed with the managers and workers. A follow-up visit three months later confirmed many improvements undertaken in the factory. Better work arrangements for night and shift workers were made including local lighting, resting corners, filling the height gaps on the work floors, and clear work instructions. Prolonged mid-night shift was stopped. It was concluded that local small enterprises in Vietnam have much potential to improve their conditions of shift and night work once practical support measures based on their local practice is given.

  8. SUFFERING: THE ADVERSE MEANING OF WORK CONDITIONS AT THE FLEXIBLE PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILMARA CIMBALISTA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the vision, the consciousness, and the tolerance of workers at the assembly line in automotiveindustries and the car supply industry sited at the Metropolitan area in Curitiba (RMC, trying to demonstrate theirdaily strife at work. It explains about the flexible production work organization and the conditions of work inside theactivities developed at the work quotidian and the effects over workers’ physical and subjective dimensions. The worksituations reported try to demonstrate some kinds of suffering or physical and mental deterioration created throughoutthe work. The data and workers’ reports are from interviews performed as a part of my doctorate thesis. In spite of theresearcher’s difficulties so as to not express feelings before the workers’ narrative, we got to interpret them with the helpof sociology of work and organizational behaviour authors.

  9. Organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction among Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaki, Zohreh; Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl

    2009-12-01

    Employee commitment to the organization is a crucial issue in today's health-care market. In Iran, few studies have sought to evaluate the factors that contribute to forms of commitment. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nurses' organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction. A cross-sectional design was utilized. Questionnaires were distributed to all the staff nurses who had permanent employment (with at least 2 years of experience in nursing) in the five hospitals affiliated to Birjand Medical Sciences University. Two hundred and fifty participants returned completed questionnaires. Most were female and married. The correlation of the total scores of nurses' affective organizational commitment and work environment conditions indicated a significant and positive relationship. Also, a statistically significant relationship was found between affective organizational commitment and life satisfaction. The implementation of a comprehensive program to improve the work conditions and life satisfaction of nurses could enhance their organizational commitment.

  10. A Descriptive Study of Perceived Impact of Gender on Employment Status, Type of Work, Industry Relationships, Working Environment & Job Satisfaction in Livestock Industry Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A two-part study examined the employment status, distribution, job satisfaction, and promotion opportunities of women working for livestock industry magazines. Livestock publications were chosen for this research because they are typical of industry-related magazines and are traditionally dominated by males. The mastheads of 59 magazines were…

  11. Perceived job stress but not individual cardiovascular reactivity to stress is related to higher blood pressure at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, J P; Quelin, P; Ducher, M; Rakotomalala, H; Laville, M

    2001-07-01

    Psychological stress has been reported to be related to higher blood pressure (BP) and unfavorable cardiovascular profile. However, because of the complexity of personal stress management, a multilevel stress measurement strategy is needed. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the respective influences of the subjective perception of professional strain (high demand and low latitude) and cardiovascular reactivity to a stress test (Stroop stress test) on BP. Worksite BP was measured in 303 healthy normotensive subjects, 18 to 55 years of age, who worked in the same chemical company. In a subset of 70 randomly selected subjects, 24-hour ambulatory BP was performed to assess BP during working hours. The 20% of subjects who reported the highest job strain (high-strain group) or the highest BP stress reactivity (high-responder group) were compared with the remaining subjects (80%) (non-high-strain or low-responder groups). Subjects who submitted to the highest job strain had significantly higher ambulatory diastolic BP (4.5 mm Hg, P=0.015) during only working hours, whereas BP was similar during the remaining hours. Worksite BP and stress cardiovascular reactivity were similar between job strain groups. BP stress reactivity did not influence worksite and ambulatory BP. Spontaneous BP variability assessed by standard deviation and spectral analysis was equivalent between complementary groups. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was significantly higher in the high-responder group (8.2% versus 2.5% in low responders) and only slightly higher in the high-strain group (6.2% versus 3.2% in non-high strain). Potential confounding factors, such as age, gender, alcohol consumption, salt intake, body mass index, and occupation, which were equivalent between groups, did not interfere with our results. Our study quantifies high-professional strain effects on BP levels that appear to be higher only during the working period and to be independent from spontaneous BP

  12. Occupational noise exposure, psychosocial working conditions and the risk of tinnitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther Frederiksen, Thomas; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of occupational noise (current and cumulative doses) and psychosocial work factors (psychological demands and decision latitude) on tinnitus occurrence among workers, using objective and non-self-reported exposure measures to prevent...... protection) are not associated with tinnitus. Also, results indicated that the psychosocial working conditions we observed in this cohort of mainly industrial workers were not associated with tinnitus. Therefore, psychosocial working conditions comparable to those observed in this study are probably...... reporting bias. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from a Danish survey from 2009 to 2010 that included 534 workers from children day care units and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between risk factors (current noise exposure, cumulative noise exposure and psychosocial working...

  13. Relationships among employees' working conditions, mental health, and intention to leave in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Gore, Rebecca

    2014-02-01

    Employee turnover is a large and expensive problem in the long-term care environment. Stated intention to leave is a reliable indicator of likely turnover, but actual predictors, especially for nursing assistants, have been incompletely investigated. This quantitative study identifies the relationships among employees' working conditions, mental health, and intention to leave. Self-administered questionnaires were collected with 1,589 employees in 18 for-profit nursing homes. A working condition index for the number of beneficial job features was constructed. Poisson regression modeling found that employees who reported four positive features were 77% less likely to state strong intention to leave (PR = 0.23, p employee mental health. Effective workplace intervention programs must address work organization features to reduce employee intention to leave. Healthy workplaces should build better interpersonal relationships, show respect for employee work, and involve employees in decision-making processes.

  14. Psychosocial Working Conditions Among High-Skilled Workers: A Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujacz, Aleksandra; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Rigotti, Thomas; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Lindfors, Petra

    2017-03-30

    Theories of psychosocial working conditions assume an interaction of different work environment characteristics. Most studies detail various aspects of such interactions, while fewer investigate the comprehensive patterns of interrelated variables. This exploratory study distinguishes patterns of psychosocial working conditions, describes their characteristics, and investigates their change over 6 years. The working conditions of 1,744 high-skilled workers in Sweden, of a representative sample of the working population, were empirically classified into 4 distinct patterns: (a) the Supporting pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy; (b) the Constraining pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, low learning opportunities, medium creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; (c) the Demanding pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; and (d) the Challenging pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, very high learning opportunities, very high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy. Importantly, these patterns were associated with significant differences in worker well-being. From an individual perspective, working conditions most often changed from patterns with a high workload and time pressure to patterns with lower levels of these demands. Over time, the prevalence of the Constraining pattern increased while that of the Challenging pattern decreased. To conclude, a person-centered approach broadens the understanding of the complex interplay between psychosocial working conditions and their longitudinal change, which can improve the tailoring of occupational health interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Alcohol use and misuse: What are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchand Alain

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research examines the specific contribution of occupation and work organization conditions to alcohol use and misuse. It is based on a social-action model that takes into account agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Methods Data come from a representative sample of 10,155 workers in Quebec, Canada. Multinomial regression models corrected for sample design effect have been used to predict low-risk and high-risk drinking compared to non-drinkers. The contribution of occupation and work organization conditions (skill used, decision authority, physical and psychological demands, hours worked, irregular work schedule, harassment, unionization, job insecurity, performance pay, prestige have been adjusted for family situation, social network outside the workplace, and individual characteristics. Results Compared to non-qualified blue-collars, both low-risk and high-risk drinking are associated with qualified blue-collars, semi-qualified white-collars, and middle managers; high-risk drinking is associated with upper managers. For constraints-resources related to work organization conditions, only workplace harassment is an important determinant of both low-risk and high-risk drinking, but it is modestly moderated by occupation. Family situation, social support outside work, and personal characteristics of individuals are also associated with alcohol use and misuse. Non-work factors mediated/suppressed the role of occupation and work organization conditions. Conclusion Occupation and workplace harassment are important factors associated with alcohol use and misuse. The results support the theoretical model conceptualizing alcohol use and misuse as being the product of stress caused by constraints and resources brought to bear simultaneously by agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Occupational alcohol researchers must expand their theoretical perspectives to

  16. Alcohol use and misuse: what are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain

    2008-09-24

    This research examines the specific contribution of occupation and work organization conditions to alcohol use and misuse. It is based on a social-action model that takes into account agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Data come from a representative sample of 10,155 workers in Quebec, Canada. Multinomial regression models corrected for sample design effect have been used to predict low-risk and high-risk drinking compared to non-drinkers. The contribution of occupation and work organization conditions (skill used, decision authority, physical and psychological demands, hours worked, irregular work schedule, harassment, unionization, job insecurity, performance pay, prestige) have been adjusted for family situation, social network outside the workplace, and individual characteristics. Compared to non-qualified blue-collars, both low-risk and high-risk drinking are associated with qualified blue-collars, semi-qualified white-collars, and middle managers; high-risk drinking is associated with upper managers. For constraints-resources related to work organization conditions, only workplace harassment is an important determinant of both low-risk and high-risk drinking, but it is modestly moderated by occupation. Family situation, social support outside work, and personal characteristics of individuals are also associated with alcohol use and misuse. Non-work factors mediated/suppressed the role of occupation and work organization conditions. Occupation and workplace harassment are important factors associated with alcohol use and misuse. The results support the theoretical model conceptualizing alcohol use and misuse as being the product of stress caused by constraints and resources brought to bear simultaneously by agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Occupational alcohol researchers must expand their theoretical perspectives to avoid erroneous conclusions about the specific role of the

  17. Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Leon T; Pienaar, Jaco; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes.

  18. The role and working conditions of Movement Science students employed in sport and recreational facilities: An Italian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallè, Francesca; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Arpesella, Marisa; Bacci, Silvia; Bianco, Antonino; Brandi, Giorgio; Bruno, Stefania; Anastasi, Daniela; Carraro, Elisabetta; Flacco, Maria Elena; Giampaoli, Saverio; Izzotti, Alberto; Leoni, Erica; Bertoncello, Chiara; Minelli, Liliana; Napoli, Christian; Nobile, Carmelo; Pasquarella, Cesira; Liguori, Giorgio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, students from Movement Science (MS) Degree Courses often work in sport and recreational facilities before graduation. The employment conditions of Movement Science students working in sport/recreational facilities were investigated, and the management and structural features of the facilities were evaluated, including safety policies. Regional differences were also considered. Questionnaires were administered to undergraduate and graduate students (N = 4,217) in 17 Universities. Students' perceptions of the quality of the facilities where they had been employed was evaluated using multivariate analysis. A latent class model with covariates was used to evaluate how variables relating to participants, employment facilities or regions influence their opinions. A high proportion of MS students were employed in sporting facilities (undergraduate level: 33% ; graduate level: 55%), in most cases without any formal employment contracts. Both the structural and hygienic features, as well as the professional knowledge of the staff, were considered good to excellent by the majority of participants (about 70%). Communication of the basic behavioral rules was considered adequate by 61-63% of undergraduate students and 71-75% of graduate students, while nearly half of the participants were dissatisfied with the staff safety training. Correlations between the perceived good structural/hygienic conditions, the presence of regulations and training programs for the staff were investigated. Differences regarding occupational level and safety training among different regions of Italy were also observed. Italian students in Movement Science were easily employed in sport/recreational facilities, but frequently without a formal contract. This is a consequence of the lack of specific regulations in the field of recreational/leisure employment and could have negative implications, especially in terms of safety.

  19. The Cabin Crew Blues. Middle-aged Cabin Attendants and Their Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Bergman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how an airline company uses the labor of a group of middle-aged cabin attendants in an industry increasingly characterized by deregulation and competiveness. The study was based on in-depth interviews with seven women, all with between 24 and 30 years of work experience as cabin attendants. The article focuses on the women’s working conditions and well-being and the analysis reveals three key aspects—intensification of work, vulnerability, and aging—that affect the cabin attendants’ experiences and emotions in relation to the work. It is at the intersection of these three aspects that the cabin attendants’ concerns must be understood. The study’s findings indicated that positive emotions such as job satisfaction and commitment have diminished because of exploitative and otherwise poor working conditions. Taking the cabin attendants’ concerns as its point of departure, the article shows that there is a need to move away from a discussion about emotional labor toward a discussion of working conditions.

  20. Stressful working conditions and poor self-rated health among financial services employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sérgio Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health among bank employees. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including a sample of 2,054 employees of a government bank was conducted in 2008. Self-rated health was assessed by a single question: "In general, would you say your health is (...." Exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions was evaluated by the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model. Information on other independent variables was obtained through a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed and odds ratio calculated to assess independent associations between adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of poor self-rated health was 9%, with no significant gender difference. Exposure to high demand and low control environment at work was associated with poor self-rated health. Employees with high effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment also reported poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. Social support at work was inversely related to poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to adverse psychosocial work factors assessed based on the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model is independently associated with poor self-rated health among the workers studied.

  1. Work conditions and occupational health of dentists in Brazilian Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba Moimaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: work healthy conditions are essential for a great professional performance. Objective: To verify the perception of dentists regarding structural and healthy conditions of dental offices in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS and their satisfaction with work and public job. Material and Method: In this cross-sectional study, type inquiry, 24 Brazilian dentists were interviewed. The follow variables were asked: cleaning and asepsis; maintenance and time of use of dental equipment; satisfaction with work and public job. Results: The professionals were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with cleaning and asepsis (66.67%; Dental equipment (54.17%, reflectors (54.17% and the dental chairs (54.17% had more than 24 years of use; 20% of all professionals said that the equipment had maintenance but only to fix them. Of total, 58.33% had already given no attendance for patients and broken equipment was the most frequent cause (92.86%. It was observed satisfaction with work (79.1% and public job (95.83%. It was concluded that dentists who worked in SUS were satisfied with public job, although they had said the need for improvement on structural and healthy work conditions.

  2. Perceived orofacial pain and its associations with reported bruxism and insomnia symptoms in media personnel with or without irregular shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Kristiina; Ahlberg, Jari; Könönen, Mauno; Alakuijala, Anniina; Partinen, Markku; Savolainen, Aslak

    2005-08-01

    A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (n = 750) and to an equal number of randomly selected controls in the same company with regular 8-hour daytime work. The aims were to investigate the prevalence and severity of perceived orofacial pain (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders Axis II) and to analyze whether current orofacial pain was associated with reported bruxism and insomnia symptoms (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders Revised). The response rate in the irregular shift-work group was 82.3% (56.6% men) and in the regular daytime-work group 34.3% (46.7% men). Current orofacial pain was found overall in 19.6%, of which 88.3% had experienced the pain over 6 months. All claimed that their pain fluctuated. No subjects with chronic orofacial pain reported disabling pain, and grades III and IV were not found. Insomnia symptoms and frequent bruxism were significantly more prevalent in chronic pain grade II than in lower grades. According to logistic regression, current orofacial pain was significantly positively associated with frequent bruxism (p orofacial pain and reported bruxism. The association held with both chronic orofacial pain intensity and current pain. Based on the multivariate analyses, it can be concluded that disrupted sleep and bruxism may be concomitantly involved in the development of orofacial pain.

  3. Perceived work ability, quality of life, and fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after a 6-month course of TNF inhibitors: prospective intervention study and partial economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, J L; Bartelds, G M; Sluiter, J K; Sadiraj, K; Groot, I; Lems, W F; Dijkmans, B A C; Wijbrandts, C A; Tak, P P; Nurmohamed, M T; Voskuyl, A E; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the effects and costs of a 6-month course of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors on work ability, quality of life, and fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this prospective single-arm intervention study 59 consecutive patients of working age with established RA were recruited from an outpatient clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. All patients received fortnightly subcutaneous injections of 40 mg adalimumab. The three outcomes at baseline and 6 months were: perceived work ability [Work Ability Index (WAI)], quality of life [Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life instrument (RAQoL)], and fatigue [Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), Need for Recovery (NFR) scale]. Cost data of the preceding 6 months were collected using a self-administered patient questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. At 6 months, all outcomes showed a statistically significant improvement in mean scores from baseline, ranging from 10.0% (WAI), to 11.7% (RAQoL), to 15% (NFR) (subgroup paid work, n = 26). The total mean costs showed a twofold increase in mean costs per week per patient [difference EUR 169, 95% confidence interval (CI) EUR 113-226]. In this short-term exploratory evaluation, a 6-month course of TNF inhibitors improved work ability and quality of life, and reduced fatigue in patients with established RA. These effects are associated with an increase in total healthcare costs, attributable to the costs of TNF inhibitors. Randomized controlled trials with a longer follow-up are needed to show a long-term effect on work disability and the potential cost-effectiveness of TNF inhibitors.

  4. Working conditions of Iranian hand-sewn shoe workers and associations with musculoskeletal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Salimi, Arezou

    2014-01-01

    The working conditions and the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms among 180 Iranian hand-sewn shoe workers were evaluated in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected using both questionnaire (for assessing musculoskeletal symptoms and associated risk factors) and direct observations of posture (by the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment [RULA] method). The prevalence and severity of symptoms was very high among the study population. The mean RULA grand score of 6.2 indicates that in most cases the workers' postures at their workstations need to be investigated and some changes are required immediately. Multiple logistic regression models indicated that the job experience, daily working hours, duration of continuous work without breaks, feeling pressure due to work and working postures were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms of different body regions. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for hand-sewing tasks. These findings can help to better understand the working conditions of those jobs involving hand-sewing operation and highlight the potential for ergonomic interventions to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms among these working groups.

  5. The Education Penalty: Schooling, Learning and the Diminishment of Wages, Working Conditions and Worker Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarieh, Mayssoun; Tannock, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Currently dominant human capital and knowledge economy rhetoric holds that education can raise wages, empower workers and enhance working conditions. Education, however, can also have the opposite impact in the workplace and labour market, an impact that has received only limited attention. In this article we draw together a broad range of…

  6. High-power UV-LED degradation: Continuous and cycled working condition influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques-Orobon, F. J.; Nuñez, N.; Vazquez, M.; Segura-Antunez, C.; González-Posadas, V.

    2015-09-01

    High-power (HP) UV-LEDs can replace UV lamps for real-time fluoro-sensing applications by allowing portable and autonomous systems. However, HP UV-LEDs are not a mature technology, and there are still open issues regarding their performance evolution over time. This paper presents a reliability study of 3 W UV-LEDs, with special focus on LED degradation for two working conditions: continuous and cycled (30 s ON and 30 s OFF). Accelerated life tests are developed to evaluate the influence of temperature and electrical working conditions in high-power LEDs degradation, being the predominant failure mechanism the degradation of the package. An analysis that includes dynamic thermal and optical HP UV-LED measurements has been performed. Static thermal and stress simulation analysis with the finite element method (FEM) identifies the causes of package degradation. Accelerated life test results prove that HP UV-LEDs working in cycled condition have a better performance than those working in continuous condition.

  7. Psychological States and Working Conditions Buffer Beginning Teachers' Intention to Leave the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The high turnover rates of beginning teachers are an issue of continuing concern in education. However, little is known about the motivational process that encourages beginning teachers to stay in the teaching profession. This study investigated how working conditions (job insecurity, teacher autonomy, collective responsibility, reflective…

  8. Psychological States and Working Conditions Buffer Beginning Teachers' Intention to Leave the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The high turnover rates of beginning teachers are an issue of continuing concern in education. However, little is known about the motivational process that encourages beginning teachers to stay in the teaching profession. This study investigated how working conditions (job insecurity, teacher autonomy, collective responsibility, reflective…

  9. Dimensional comparability of psychosocial working conditions as covered in European monitoring questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formazin, M.; Burr, H.; Aagestad, C.; Tynes, T.; Thorsen, S.V.; Perkio-Makela, M.; Díaz Aramburu, C.I.; Pinilla García, F.J.; Galiana Blanco, L.; Vermeylen, G.; Parent-Thirion, A.; Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background.In most countries in the EU, national surveys are used to monitor working conditions and health. Since the development processes behind the various surveys are not necessarily theoretical, but certainly practical and political, the extent of similarity among the dimensions covered in

  10. Good Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drobnic, Sonja; Beham, Barbara; Prag, Patrick; Drobnič, S.; Präg, P.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons generally show large differences in life satisfaction of individuals within and between European countries. This paper addresses the question of whether and how job quality and working conditions contribute to the quality of life of employed populations in nine strategical

  11. Situating Special Educators' Instructional Quality and Their Students' Outcomes within the Conditions Shaping Their Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Elizabeth; Park, Yujeong; Benedict, Amber; Kimerling, Jenna; Leite, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined relationships among special education teachers' working conditions (e.g., classroom characteristics, administrative support), personal characteristics (e.g., experience, certification status, self-efficacy), instructional quality, and students with disabilities' reading achievement and behavioral outcomes. Data from the…

  12. Collegial Support and Novice Teachers' Perceptions of Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodzinski, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data gathered from novice teachers at the elementary and middle school level across 11 districts, this study examined variation in perceptions of working conditions related to workload and access to resources and further identified the association between these perceptions and the quality of support the novices received from their…

  13. Teacher Working Conditions: What Matters and Why. The Informed Educator Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherika; Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This "Informed Educator" looks at recent research on teacher opinions about their working conditions to address the question "what matters to teachers?" District and school leaders can use this information to strengthen their efforts to recruit and retain high-quality teachers and, in addition, better support teacher efforts to educate students.…

  14. Good Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnic, Sonja; Beham, Barbara; Prag, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons generally show large differences in life satisfaction of individuals within and between European countries. This paper addresses the question of whether and how job quality and working conditions contribute to the quality of life of employed populations in nine strategically selected EU countries: Finland, Sweden, the…

  15. The Impact of Principal Leadership on Working Conditions and Teacher Retention in North Carolina Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomon, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that administrative leadership is the most important factor in determining the climate of a school, and there are specific leadership attributes such as improving working conditions that promote retention. This study seeks to identify leadership behaviors that positively affect quality teacher retention among two particular…

  16. Impact of Teacher Perceptions of Their Working Conditions on Elementary School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vause, Bonnie W.

    2012-01-01

    Reading and math proficiency is important for all students because education is a leading indicator of personal health and success and national prosperity. Improved student performance has also been linked to teacher satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of teacher perceptions of their working conditions on student…

  17. Summer student report - Upgrade work for the Fast Beam Condition Monitor at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tsrunchev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Report on summer student internship at CERN. Describes work done towards the replacement of the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F) - activities related to the test beam conducted by the BRIL (Background Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity) experiment in July 2016, analog opto-hybrids testing and XDAQ development for the uTCA readout system currently under development.

  18. Worsening Work Conditions and Rising Levels of Job Satisfaction? Measuring the Happiness of Academics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Theresa; Fankhauser, Peter; Goodman, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Working conditions in academia are generally considered to be deteriorating. Data from surveys which look at the job satisfaction of academics, however, do not clearly support this notion. This appears to be especially true for the case of Japan. Much of the recent literature on academics' job satisfaction globally relies on the comparison of two…

  19. Work Conditions and the Food Choice Coping Strategies of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible…

  20. Good Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnic, Sonja; Beham, Barbara; Prag, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons generally show large differences in life satisfaction of individuals within and between European countries. This paper addresses the question of whether and how job quality and working conditions contribute to the quality of life of employed populations in nine strategically selected EU countries: Finland, Sweden, the…

  1. Malawi - Public Works Programme : Conditional Cash Transfers as an Emergency Response to a National Food Shortage

    OpenAIRE

    Kalanda, Boniface; Mandala, Charles; Magwira, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports that in the 2004-2005 growing season, Malawi experienced a drought which affected farm produce and subsequently led to country-wide food shortages. Due to the food shortage, the Malawi Government implemented a Public Works Programme -- Conditional Cash Transfers (PWP-CCT) to transfer cash income to vulnerable households to enable them buy food and agricultural inputs for...

  2. Sickness absence and workplace levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions at public service workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Agerbo, Esben

    2009-01-01

    . Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was rated on a scale from 0 (low) to 10 (high). Individual ratings were aggregated to workplace scores. Analysis of variance was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence in three groups with different levels of satisfaction...

  3. The relationships of working conditions, recent stressors and childhood trauma with salivary cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, Michiel; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Dekker, Jack J. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An etiological model has been suggested where stress leads to high cortisol levels and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, resulting in somatic diseases and psychopathology. To evaluate this model we examined the association of different stressors (working conditions

  4. [Mobilization and traction therapy for lumbar dorsopathies in obese individuals working in sedentary conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, V A; Strepetov, O M; Gerasomenko, O N

    2014-01-01

    Obese individuals working in sedentary conditions, if having neurologic symptoms in lumbar dorsopathies, when subjected to mobilization and traction therapy in rehabilitation complex, demonstrated less pain, increased spine mobility and prospective observations proved longer clinical remission, if compared to standard treatment.

  5. Work Conditions and the Food Choice Coping Strategies of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible…

  6. The Cabin Crew Blues. Middle-aged Cabin Attendants and Their Working Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergman, Ann; Gillberg, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    ... must be understood. The study's findings indicated that positive emotions such as job satisfaction and commitment have diminished because of exploitative and otherwise poor working conditions. Taking the cabin attendants' concerns as its point of departure, the article shows that there is a need to move away from a discussion about emotional ...

  7. Dimensional comparability of psychosocial working conditions as covered in European monitoring questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formazin, M.; Burr, H.; Aagestad, C.; Tynes, T.; Thorsen, S.V.; Perkio-Makela, M.; Díaz Aramburu, C.I.; Pinilla García, F.J.; Galiana Blanco, L.; Vermeylen, G.; Parent-Thirion, A.; Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background.In most countries in the EU, national surveys are used to monitor working conditions and health. Since the development processes behind the various surveys are not necessarily theoretical, but certainly practical and political, the extent of similarity among the dimensions covered in thes

  8. [Working conditions and professional risk for operational personnel of energy facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, N Kh; Ilyukhin, N E; Rusin, M N; Krasnoshchekova, V N

    2013-01-01

    Features of working conditions and a state of health of operation personnel of the network companies of power industry were studied for the purpose of justification and introduction of preventive actions for the decrease in influence of factors of professional risk.

  9. Teacher Working Conditions in Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongmei

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Teachers affect student performance through their interaction with students in the context of the classrooms and schools where teaching and learning take place. Although it is widely assumed that supportive working conditions improve the quality of instruction and teachers' willingness to remain in a school, little is known…

  10. Impact of Work Conditions and Minority Patient Populations on Quality and Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita B. Varkey MD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether workplace conditions affect care quality and errors, especially in primary care clinics serving minority patients. Methods: We conducted a 3-year assessment of work conditions and patient outcomes in 73 primary care clinics in the upper Midwest and New York City. Study participants included 287 physicians and 1204 patients with hypertension and/or diabetes. Chart audit data were contrasted between clinics with ≥30% minority patients (minority-serving clinics, or MSCs and those with <30% (nonminority-serving clinics, or NMSCs. Physicians reported on time pressure, work control, clinical resources, and specialty referral access; managers described room availability; and chart audits determined care errors and quality. Two-level hierarchical models tested work conditions as mediators between MSC status and clinical outcomes. Results: Error rates were higher in MSCs than NMSCs (29.6% vs 24.8%, P < .05. Lack of clinical resources explained 41% of the effect of MSC status on errors (P < .05. Diabetes control was poorer in MSCs than in NMSCs (53.8% controlled vs 76.1%, P < .05; lack of clinical resources explained 24% of this difference (P < .05. Room availability increased quality in both MSCs and NMSCs by 5.95% for each additional room per clinician per session. Lack of access to rooms and specialists decreased the likelihood of blood pressure control in MSCs. Conclusion: Work conditions such as clinical resources, examination room availability, and access to referrals are significantly associated with errors and quality, especially in MSCs.

  11. Working Conditions as Risk or Resiliency Factors for Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Susan Fread; Johns, Beverley H.; Mounsteven, Joyce; Olorunda, Olufunmilola

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study examined working conditions reported by special education teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) to identify factors common to teachers likely to leave their positions within the next 2 years and factors common to those likely to stay. Survey responses from an international sample of 776 teachers and…

  12. Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in Single-Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lleras, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of employment status and work conditions on the quality of the home environment provided by single mothers of preschool-age children. Multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results indicate that employment status is not a significant predictor of the…

  13. Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in Single-Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lleras, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of employment status and work conditions on the quality of the home environment provided by single mothers of preschool-age children. Multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results indicate that employment status is not a significant predictor of the…

  14. [Requirements of optimal working conditions and patient-centered care in hospital nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, A; Merboth, H; Böger, S

    1997-12-01

    Nursing--a human service increasing in size and significance--is facing deep changes. The organization of hospital wards is also influenced by these profound changes. The aim of this psychological research project sponsored by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) and part of the Saxonian Public Health Association was to determine the external and individual working conditions that put the personnel's health at risk, particularly in regard to burnout syndromes. Investigations should show possibilities in work organization that minimize such risks. Organizational designs have to ensure high quality levels of nursing care, as well as high quality of working conditions in nursing for the individual employee. This empirical study presents the results of an investigation of 53 medical, surgical and intensive care units of 7 Saxonian hospitals with 336 employees of the nursing departments. The size of the hospital, the service profile, the nursing standards and the organizational conditions of the nursing service influence work pressure and working attitude.

  15. Working Conditions in Carpet Weaving Workshops and Muscu-loskeletal Complaints among Workers in Tabriz - Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Jalil; Mahmoudi, Nader; Dianat, Iman; Graveling, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Carpet weaving operations usualy involve poor working conditions that can lead to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This study investigated MSDs among car¬pet weavers in relation to working conditions from workers' view in Tabriz City, Northwest Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in city of Tabriz, Iran. Data were col¬lected using interviews and questionnaires. The study population consisted of 200 randomly selected healthy weavers from twenty five active carpet weaving workshops. Results: The results showed a high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among the study population. The most commonly affected body areas were neck, lower back, ankles/feet, hands/wrists, upper back, shoulders and knees, respectively. More than half of the weavers were not satisfied with the thermal con¬dition, noise level and cleanliness of the air in the workshops. The result indicated a significant relation¬ship between upper back symptoms and daily working time and between lower back symptoms and the numbers of rows of knots woven in a day. Weavers' satisfaction with hand tools shape and thermal condi¬tion of the workshops were associated with lower back symptoms, whereas satisfaction with weaving looms were associated with upper back complaints. Conclusion: The poor working condition of hand-woven carpet workshops such as environmental con¬ditions and work station design and tools should be the subject of ergonomics interventions. PMID:24688943

  16. Work Conditions and the Food Choice Coping Strategies of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective How work conditions relate to parents’ food choice coping strategies Design Pilot telephone survey Setting Northeastern U.S. city Participants Black, white, Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low/moderate income zip codes; 78% of reached and eligible Variables Measure(s) Socio-demographic characteristics; work conditions (hours, shift, schedule, job security, satisfaction, food access); food choice coping strategies (22 behavioral items for managing food in response to work and family demands (i.e.: food prepared at/away from home, missing meals, individualizing meals, speeding up, planning)) Analysis Two-tailed chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests (p=food choice coping strategies. Long hours and non-standard hours and schedules were positively associated among fathers with take-out meals, missed family meals, prepared entrees, and eating while working; and among mothers with restaurant meals, missed breakfast, and prepared entrees. Job security, satisfaction and food access were also associated with gender-specific strategies. Conclusions and Implications Structural work conditions among parents such as job hours, schedule, satisfaction, and food access are associated with food choice coping strategies with importance for dietary quality. Findings have implications for worksite interventions but need examination in a larger sample. PMID:19717121

  17. The Study of Living Conditions and Perceived Needs for Social Security among Clergy in China: A Case Study of Guanzhong Qinling Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shaoguo; Zhuang, Qi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Zhaoxi; Coyte, Peter C

    2017-02-17

    This study used quantitative and qualitative data collected in the Guanzhong Qinling area of China to examine living conditions and perceived needs for social security among men and women of the clergy. The survey finds that most respondent clergy are Buddhists. When the clergy have economic difficulties, their main types of support include self-support (28.8%), help from other believers (25.6%), and assistance from other community residents (18.4%). When the clergy are old, they tend to live alone (25%), receive institutional care from religious organizations (19%), and receive support from other believers (18%). When the clergy are ill, they will often select self-treatment (primarily the use of traditional Chinese medicine [25%], and spiritual healing [25%], including meditation, prayers, and psychotherapy) and receive treatment at hospitals (20%). The study found that the clergy perceived their needs for social security as either great (19.7%) or modest (36.5%). Very few clergy (10%) indicate the absence of social security needs. Most clergy believe that the key social security priorities should be medical care (34%), elderly care (29%), and charitable assistance (21%).

  18. [Conditions for going back to work on a part-time basis as a therapeutic objective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaouil, Cécile; Graser, Marie; Jardé, Olivier

    2003-07-12

    AFTER MEDICAL ASSESSMENT: In the general system, therapeutic part-time work is a temporary disposition which allows a progressive readaptation to work. In principle, when an employee goes back to work, daily sickness benefits stop being paid by the Social Security Service. The decision to go back to work on a part-time basis is conditioned by a preliminary medical estimation which justifies the fact that it is impossible for the patient to go on with his professional occupation on a full-time basis or which shows the need for a progressive resumption. THE ATTENDING PHYSICIAN: During the part-time resumption, he has to continue to fill-out the sick leave certificates and add the comment "part-time work resumption". After an industrial accident or an occupational disease (work stoppage/occupational disease), on the extension medical certificate, the doctor should check the "work resumption" box, and add "therapeutic part-time job". The doctor should not produce a final medical certificate but only extension certificates. A part-time work resumption cannot be prescribed after the consolidation date, which stops the payment of the daily sickness benefits granted for a work disease. THE ROLE OF THE EMPLOYER: In principle, the employer has to subject the employee to a work resumption medical consultation by the company doctor. If a medical control authorization from the Social Security and the ability certificate for the part-time work resumption provided by the company doctor are produced, the employee has to be employed on a part-time basis by the employer, excepting when this is not compatible with the firm's activity. CIVIL SERVICE: Part-time work resumption is a therapeutic part-time job (50% only), and cannot follow after an ordinary sick leave. Its allocation depends on the medial committee decision after a long sick leave, or the reform commission decision after an industrial accident or an occupational disease.

  19. [The relationship between self-awareness of fatigue symptoms and working conditions in female nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Ishii, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between self-awareness of fatigue symptoms and working conditions, in female nurses. We studied personal background, working conditions, physical symptoms, "Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index - Japanese version (PSQI-J)", and 13 items that represented the parts related to self-awareness of the "the self-Diagnosis Checklist for Workers' Accumulated Fatigue" in 3,855 female nurses. The targets for analysis were 983 nurses ("all subjects") and among those, 765 "shift workers". The total score (fatigue symptoms self-awareness score) was calculated for 13 items that represented the parts related to self-awareness of the "the self-Diagnosis Checklist for Workers' Accumulated Fatigue". The Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were performed, and the fatigue symptoms self-awareness score was studied, based on personal background, working conditions, physical symptoms and the PSQI-J score. For "all subjects", there was a significant difference in the fatigue symptoms self-awareness score for department in which they work, the form the work takes, and the PSQI-J score. The fatigue symptoms self-awareness score of nurses with a PSQI-J score of 5.5 or higher was a significantly high value. For "shift workers", there was a significant difference in the fatigue symptoms self-awareness score for presence or absence of a caregiver role, department in which they work, the form the work takes, the form the nap takes during night work and PSQI-J score. There was a significantly high value in the fatigue symptoms self-awareness score of subjects with a caregiver role, subjects working in surgical wards or internal medicine wards, subjects working on a three-shift system, and subjects who were unable to take naps during night work, subjects with a PSQI-J score of 5.5 or higher. These survey results suggest that it is important to set up a system that will ensure the ability to have naps during night work. It will also be

  20. The relationship between sleep and working memory in children with neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Marie; Bayliss, Donna M; Pestell, Carmela; Hill, Catherine M; Bucks, Romola S

    2016-10-03

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether sleep problems might account for the increased working memory deficits observed in school-aged children with neurological conditions. A novel, transdiagnostic approach to the investigation was chosen, and sleep is treated as a process that can potentially account for working memory difficulties across a range of neurological conditions. Prevalence estimates of sleep problems are also examined. Archival data of 237 children aged 6 to 11 years were collected from a Western Australian statewide neuropsychological service for the period 26 July 2011 to 14 January 2014. Measures of parent-reported sleep quality, snoring, and daytime sleepiness were obtained, in addition to objective measures of verbal and spatial working memory, storage capacity, and processing speed. The results of the data analysis reveal that over one third of participants reported having clinically-significant levels of sleep problems and that poor sleep quality is significantly associated with verbal working memory difficulties. This association remains after partialling out the variance contributed to performance by storage capacity and processing speed, suggesting that sleep is impacting upon an executive component of working memory. No other significant associations are observed. The results suggest that poor sleep quality is associated with an executive component of verbal (rather than spatial) working memory in children with neurological conditions. This has implications for the biological mechanisms thought to underlie the relationship between sleep and cognition in children. The results also demonstrate the clinical utility of a transdiagnostic approach when investigating sleep and cognition in children with neurological conditions.

  1. Social responsibility and work conditions: building a reference label, Démarche T®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biquand, Sylvain; Zittel, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is now considered in large and global companies and the recent publication of the ISO 26000 standard clarifies the targets. Based on our consultancy's experience for fifteen years in ergonomics mainly in French small and medium enterprises, we developed a label to coax and value efforts of companies in dealing with health and safety at the work place as required by ISO 26000 paragraph 6.4. The formal approach of ISO describes what should be achieved but gives no cue on how actual conditions of work should be improved. The label, called Démarche T (ie Process W where W stands for work) aims the management of work conditions as a process, giving visibility and credit to companies for their continuous involvement in the matter. We describe the items and processes that are part of our assessment. We first conduct an ergonomic diagnosis including the analysis of records on health, physical and psychological well-being, observations at the workplace and interviews with the workers. This diagnosis is followed by recommendations. The fulfillment of these is assessed yearly. Items under assessment include: - ergonomics, health and safety in the companies statements and their impact in actual project management; - relations with workers through the committee for health and safety; - actual results on health, safety and work conditions. On a local level, we give the companies passing the label a competitive edge in recruiting better candidates motivated by good work conditions, and help them fulfill ISO 26000 requirements, an increasingly decisive advantage to benefit from public regional and European support. Our paper describes the diagnosis and follow-up process.

  2. At Work..., and Poor? A Look at the Czech Working Poor Population in the Living Conditions Survey (EU-SILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarka Sustova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to analyse the working poor employees and their household's social situation in the national income and living conditions survey (EU-SILC. The analysis starts with the definition of the two main groups of employees according to the number of months spent in the full-time employment - those working whole year and those employed for 6 to 11 months. Poverty in earned income concept is used to evaluate poverty at individual level, confronting employee's income with single person household poverty line benchmark. The study then moves to the household level poverty measure based on household's disposable equivalised income. When shifting from the individual income to the household's one the economies of scale represented by an implicit or explicit equivalence scale used in the construction of the household poverty measure play a crucial role. Therefore, attention is paid to the comparison of poverty level based on equivalised disposable income using equivalence scales and per-capita income. At the end, material deprivation of different subgroups of employees according to their poverty status is examined.

  3. Managing Organized Insecurity: The Consequences for Care Workers of Deregulated Working Conditions in Elderly Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Ede

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Part-time work is more than twice as common among women than men in Sweden. New ways of organizing working hours to allow for more full-time jobs have been introduced for care workers in elderly care, which means unscheduled working hours based on the needs of the workplace. The aim of the study is to analyze how the organization of the unscheduled working hours affect employees’ daily lives and their possibility to provide care. The Classic Grounded Theory method was used in a secondary analysis of interviews with employees and managers in Swedish municipal elderly care. The implementation of unscheduled working hours plunged employees into a situation of managing organized insecurity. This main concern for the care workers involved a cyclic process of first having to be available for work because of economic and social obligations to the employer and the co-workers, despite sacrifices in the private sphere. Then, they had to be adaptable in relation to unknown clients and co-workers and to the employer, which means reduced possibilities to provide good care. Full-time jobs were thus created through requiring permanent staff to be flexible, which in effect meant eroded working conditions with high demands on employee adaptability. Solving the part-time problem in elderly care by introducing unscheduled working hours may in effect be counter-productive.

  4. A conceptual framework for studying emotions-cognitions-performance linkage under conditions that vary in perceived pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Gershon; Hatfield, Bradley D; Eklund, Robert C; Land, William M; Calmeiro, Luis; Razon, Selen; Schack, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A unified conceptual framework, which integrates the structural components of human performance, such as emotional processes (i.e., feelings, mood), cognitive processes and structures (e.g., knowledge architecture, long-term working memory), motor processes (coordination, endurance), and the neurophysiologic basis of these structural components (i.e., activation of cortical areas) is introduced. Recent developments in the cognitive, neurological, expertise, and emotion sciences provide a sound evidence for this conceptualization. The unified conceptual framework enables a better understanding of human performance, and allows generating applications, which share scientific validity.

  5. Understanding unskilled work as a condition for participation in adult education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    2015-01-01

    in adult education and training reveal and explain distinctive participation patterns. These traditions are critically reviewed in order to identify how they provide certain understandings and entail certain blind spots. The review reveals a striking absence of research into unskilled work and thus......This article discusses how to comprehend why people working unskilled jobs are less likely than other groups to position themselves as educable subjects and engage in adult education and training. This article outlines how different research traditions examining recruitment to and participation...... a tendency to overlook how engagement in specific kinds of work condition people’s perception of adult education and training. It is finally argued that future research must pay closer attention to people’s specific work-life and examine how engagement in specific historical, social and material (changing...

  6. Working the Night Shift: The Impact of Compensating Wages and Local Economic Conditions on Shift Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colene Trent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of compensating differentials asserts that night shift workers should receive compensating wage differentials due to undesirable work conditions. In weak local economies, workers may have difficulty finding jobs; thus, these workers might be more likely to accept night shift work and be less concerned with the size of the compensating differential for night shifts. Using CPS data from 2001, this paper employs maximum likelihood estimation of an endogenous switching regression model to analyze wages of day and night shift workers and shift choice. The findings indicate the presence of selection bias, thus emphasizing the importance of correcting for self-selection into night shifts. The average of the estimated wage differentials for night shift work is negative for the overall sample, with differentials varying by worker characteristics. The shift differential is found to be a statistically significant predictor of shift choice, indicating that shift premiums play an important role in motivating individuals to select night shift work. Using two measures of local economic conditions and a new method of analyzing interaction effects in the context of an endogenous switching regression model, this paper finds limited evidence that weak local economic conditions lessen the impact of compensating differentials on shift choice.

  7. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS AND HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES OF THE "SIBERIAN LIFT CO., LTD."].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, V P; Usatov, A N

    2015-01-01

    There was carried out a hygienic assessment of the working conditions and health of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". When studying occupational factors on workplaces intensity, the temperature radiation, natural and artificial lighting, and also the content of chemicals they were revealed to fail to answer to the hygienic specifications. It is established that in 82% of employees the class of working conditions was detected as admissible (2) and in 18%--harmful (3.1 and 3.2). Results of the performed periodic medical examination of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". It is testified that 6.14% out of them are persistently unfit of the work with harmful and (or) dangerous substances and occupational factors also. 4.68% of employees demand an additional examination. 11,70% of workers need for out-patient examination and treatment. Sanatorium treatment is required for 1 (0.29%) the person. 4,68% of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd." need dispensary supervision. There are suggested measures for the improvement of working conditions and health of the employees.

  8. Temperature dependence of the work function of caesiated materials under ion source conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, R.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    The key parameter for the performance of negative hydrogen ion sources based on surface conversion is the work function of the converter surface. In order to enhance the negative ion yield caesium is introduced into the source which lowers the converter work function upon adsorption. However, the Cs layer is subject to background pressures of 10-7-10-6 mbar and to H2 or D2 low-temperature plasmas which can have a major impact on the resultant work function. In order to determine the work function of caesiated surfaces under ion source relevant conditions and to identify influencing parameters, systematic investigations are performed at the laboratory experiment ACCesS. It is confirmed, that the work function of a sample surface in a vacuum of 10-6 mbar is decreased upon the evaporation and adsorption of caesium. However, the adsorbed layer is determined by the formation of Cs compounds with residual gases from the background pressure leading to an increased work function by about 0.6 eV compared to pure Cs layers. Elevated surface temperatures are beneficial for cleaning and against degradation in absence of Cs evaporation, but no further enhancement of the work function can be achieved by temperatures up to 260 °C if a Cs flux onto the surface is already present. Thus, the minimally achievable work function of a stainless steel surface in ion source relevant vacuum conditions is 2.75 eV. The influence of the substrate material and plasma surface interaction will be investigated next.

  9. Conditions of work and nursing: the transverseness of the suffering in the daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Maria de Medeiros

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about a master’s thesis academicals work. It had as objective to analyze the suffering of nursing workers through the increase of the working hours, of the multi work or the extra scales of work, of the laboring conditions in these workers’ daily lives. The research was developed in a public hospital in Natal/RN. The methodology was led by a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The technique of information collecting was employed. The individual interviews were guided by a script with open and half-structuralized questions. The period of information collecting corresponds to the months of July and August of 2003. In the analysis of data, the transcribed interviews were organized according to the group it belonged, an exhaustive reading of the texts was realized for the grouping of informations with common characteristics. Each unity of register was being grouped according to empiric categories that arose during the process. The analysis of informations was realized based in elements of the dialectic method. The results of the research lead to: the existence of an emptiness feeling and imbrutement of the affective bows with relatives; conflicts of values concerning the relation of being/having; anxiety and stress caused by impotence feelings in daily work; the feeling of dreams capture and loss as result of the working hours accumulation; recognition of the suffering through a transversal line under the sort optics. It is concluded therefore that the increase of the working hours is bringing to the workers physical and emotional consuming, and the suffering in the daily life is a result of the precariousness of the work conditions. All these factors are generating unsatisfied workers, compromising the given assistance, as well as making it difficult the interpersonal relations into the public and private dimensions of the daily life.

  10. The effects of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team-based performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Vander Wood, Melissa A; O'Connell, Kristina L

    2011-07-01

    Teamwork is becoming increasingly common in today's workplaces; however, little research has examined how well teams perform under sleep deprivation conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team performance. A total of 24 participants were sleep deprived for 30 h and completed 16 h of sustained operations during the last portion of the sleep deprivation period. The participants completed the Wombat, a complex task including vigilance and cognitive components, with a partner in four 24-min testing sessions during the sustained operations period. The results indicated that team performance increased during the work period while, within each testing session, team performance on vigilance tasks remained stable and overall performance decreased. The current results suggest that performance on two-person teams results in improved performance but does not fully counteract the decreases in performance within each work period. Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation.

  11. Hygienic assessment of working conditions and occupational risk for workers health at railway transport objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Loginova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed hygienic assessment of working conditions at railway transport over 2011–2015. We detected a decreasing trend in specific weight of working places where physical factors were higher than hygienic standards and where steam and gases content in working area air was higher than maximum permissible concentrations (MPC. Working conditions of locomotive teams remain most unfavorable as per risk factors. We detected that a priori occupation risk for locomotive teams was characterized with parameters varying from moderate to considerable ones. Occupational noise was determined as a priority risk factor making working conditions category a hazardous one and it corresponded to occupational morbidity structure. We detected that sensorineural hearing loss took a leading place in morbidity both in the branch in general and among locomotive team workers. We also clarified that such workers as engine drivers and their assistants (up to 43 % had the greatest specific weight among railway workers with occupational diseases; occupational morbidity among locomotive team workers amounted to 3.0 per 10,000 workers in 2015 while average morbidity among all railway workers amounted to only 1.32 per 10,000 workers. We revealed that occupational diseases were most frequently detected in workers aged 51–60 (51.9 % in 2014 who had worked under hazardous occupational factors influence for longer than 15 years. While there was an overall decreasing trend in occupa-tional morbidity in the branch in 2011–2015 from 1.68 to 1.32 per 10,000 workers, we detected a brunch peculiarity in the risk group, namely, an unsatisfactory trend for growing share of workers with occupational diseases aged 31–40 (from 2.6 % in 2011 to 12 % in 2014 and it requires special attention in terms of risk management.

  12. Work organisation conditions, alcohol misuse: the moderating role of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, Sabine L; Marchand, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The moderating role of personality traits between work organization conditions and alcohol misuse by Canadian workers was examined. Longitudinal data came from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Data had a hierarchical structure and were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression models. The multilevel analyis revealed that skill utilisation at work increased by 7% the risk of being part of an alcohol misuse group. Similarly, psychological demands at work, and being confronted with an irregular work schedule increased alcohol misuse respectively by 69 and 611%. Inversely, workers confronted with a job insecurity and those benefitting from social support at work had a respective 12 and 5% lower risk of being part of an alcohol misuse group. As for personnality traits, self-esteem increased by 17% the risk of alcohol misuse, while sense of coherence decreased the risk by 1%. Finally, self-esteem moderated by 3% the impact of physical demands at work on workers'alcohol misuse. This study builds upon previous research, since no prior study was able to identify the moderating role that self-esteem plays between physical demands at work, and worker's alcohol misuse.

  13. Adverse working conditions and mental illness in poultry slaughterhouses in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Simon Hutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness is one of the reasons for the great number of absences from work due to incapacity in Brazil. Recently, mental disorders were included in the list of occupational diseases of the International Labour Office. In spite of the difficulty in attributing a causal link between an inappropriate work environment and mental illness, studies have shown that workers exposed to high levels of stress are more likely to present psychopathological symptoms. The present study investigated the relationship between working conditions and the Neuroticism personality factor. Participants were 951 workers from southern Brazilian poultry slaughterhouses, who work in positions with varied levels of risk and stress. The neuroticism scores of such employees were compared with those of other samples. A scale which measures the Neuroticism factor in the model of the Big Five Personality Factor validated for use in Brazil was employed. The results showed that workers of the sectors in which the working conditions are highly stressful presented higher levels in all sub-factors of neuroticism than workers in other sectors and groups. These sectors also showed higher indexes of mental disorders.

  14. Nurses' Burnout: The Influence of Leader Empowering Behaviors, Work Conditions, and Demographic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudallal, Rola H; Othman, Wafa'a M; Al Hassan, Nahid F

    2017-01-01

    Nurse burnout is a widespread phenomenon characterized by a reduction in nurses' energy that manifests in emotional exhaustion, lack of motivation, and feelings of frustration and may lead to reductions in work efficacy. This study was conducted to assess the level of burnout among Jordanian nurses and to investigate the influence of leader empowering behaviors (LEBs) on nurses' feelings of burnout in an endeavor to improve nursing work outcomes. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. Leader Empowering Behaviors Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were employed to collect data from 407 registered nurses, recruited from 11 hospitals in Jordan. The Jordanian nurses exhibited high levels of burnout as demonstrated by their high scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) and moderate scores for Personal Accomplishment (PA). Factors related to work conditions, nurses' demographic traits, and LEBs were significantly correlated with the burnout categories. A stepwise regression model-exposed 4 factors predicted EE: hospital type, nurses' work shift, providing autonomy, and fostering participation in decision making. Gender, fostering participation in decision making, and department type were responsible for 5.9% of the DP variance, whereas facilitating goal attainment and nursing experience accounted for 8.3% of the PA variance. This study highlights the importance of the role of nurse leaders in improving work conditions and empowering and motivating nurses to decrease nurses' feelings of burnout, reduce turnover rates, and improve the quality of nursing care.

  15. Burnout: Interpreting the perception of Iranian primary rural health care providers from working and organizational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Keshvari

    2012-01-01

    Results: During the content analysis process, six themes were obtained; "instability and frequent changes", "involved in laws and regulations", "pressure and stress due to unbalanced workload and manpower", "helplessness in performing the tasks and duties", "sense of identity threat and low self-concept", and "deprivation of professional development". The mentioned themes indicate a main and more important theme called "burnout". Conclusions: Health services providers in the rural health centers are working in stressful and challenging work conditions and are suffered from deprivation of something for which are responsible to the community.

  16. A Comparison between the Second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS and the First KWCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sun Kim

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: KWCS data included many aspects of working conditions as a nationwide sample. In addition, because this is a periodic nationwide survey, the labor force, working hours, harmful factor exposure, and the change in health problems characteristics according to the flow of time could be investigated. The information comparing the main results of the first survey conducted in 2006 and the second survey conducted in 2010 obtained through this study can be used as an important base material for the establishment of the national policy.

  17. Occupation, work organization conditions, and alcohol misuse in Canada: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Blanc, Marie-Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the specific contribution of occupations and work organization conditions to the onset and recurrent alcohol misuse in Canadian workers between 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. Longitudinal data were derived from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey, totaling 6,526 and 6,582 workers (45% females) nested in 1,337 and 1,413 neighborhoods for onset and recurrent alcohol misuse, respectively. Data were analyzed with multilevel logistic regression models. Results suggested a limited contribution for work factors to the onset of alcohol misuse, a stronger influence for them on recurrent alcohol misuse. The study's limitations are discussed.

  18. A participatory model for improving occupational health and safety: improving informal sector working conditions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manothum, Aniruth; Rukijkanpanich, Jittra; Thawesaengskulthai, Damrong; Thampitakkul, Boonwa; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Arphorn, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of an Occupational Health and Safety Management Model for informal sector workers in Thailand. The studied model was characterized by participatory approaches to preliminary assessment, observation of informal business practices, group discussion and participation, and the use of environmental measurements and samples. This model consisted of four processes: capacity building, risk analysis, problem solving, and monitoring and control. The participants consisted of four local labor groups from different regions, including wood carving, hand-weaving, artificial flower making, and batik processing workers. The results demonstrated that, as a result of applying the model, the working conditions of the informal sector workers had improved to meet necessary standards. This model encouraged the use of local networks, which led to cooperation within the groups to create appropriate technologies to solve their problems. The authors suggest that this model could effectively be applied elsewhere to improve informal sector working conditions on a broader scale.

  19. Consumer demand as a driver of improved working conditions: the 'Ergo-Brand' proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, W Patrick; Dixon, Shane M; Nordvall, Anna-Carin

    2014-01-01

    This article develops and explores the 'Ergo-Brand' proposition, which posits that consumers may prefer to buy goods that are made under good working conditions (GWCs). This preference would enhance a differentiation strategy for companies, thereby fostering the application of ergonomics in production. This proposition is developed in the context of a narrative review of the literature on 'ethical consumerism'. This is supplemented with a survey study, conducted in both Canada and Sweden (n = 141) to explore this proposition. Results indicate that consumers would prefer goods made under GWCs, but not unconditionally as quality and price concerns were ranked higher. Access to information on the working conditions in production was seen as a barrier. Nevertheless, the Ergo-Brand concept may be a viable avenue in promoting attention towards ergonomics in companies - particularly if consumer habits are subject to intervention by advertising. Further research on this strategy is warranted.

  20. HEALTH AND SAFETY CONDITIONS AT WORK – THE PERCEPTION OF STUDENTS IN A COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernandes Barreto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the perceptions of students from a college located near the city of São Paulo, the working conditions that they were subjected to the workers in their contracting firms. Was used as a research instrument, a questionnaire, adapted, developed by Miranda Junior (2009, with agreement scale Likert five points, and by means of literature know the importance of the management system of health and safety at work. The research is characterized as exploratory, whose methods are employed qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the model used. The results were analyzed with the application of non-parametric statistical analysis of the medians and comparing data, obtaining as a result the neutral conditions of Safety and Occupational Health demonstrated by the sample surveyed, and reliability of the instrument used and confirmation of literature researched.