WorldWideScience

Sample records for conditions affecting acorn

  1. Quantitative and qualitative parameters in Acorn squash cultivar in the conditions of the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Šlosár

    2018-02-01

    Brix. On the contrary, the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH was found in the patisson cultivar 'Orfeus' (10.80 %. On the basis of obtained results, it is possible to state that Acorn cultivars are very interesting squash type with promising yield potential for possible growing in conditions of Slovak Republic. In addition, Acorn squashes were expressed by higher content of several nutritional parameters compared to the typical squash type - patisson. Thus, these squashes could be an interesting vegetable for human nutrition.

  2. Factors affecting acorn production and germination and early growth of seedlings and seedling sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. Olson; Stephen G. Boyce

    1971-01-01

    Acorn production is extremely variable and unpredictable. Flowering is copious, but many climatic factors influence acorn development from initiation of flowers to acorn maturity. Acorns are consumed by birds, animals, insects, and microorganisms. The establishment of seedlings is more closely related to favorable site factors than to size of crops. A majority of oaks...

  3. Context dependence of acorn handling by the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, D.; Morán-López, T.; Torre, I.; Navarro-Castilla, Á.; Barja, I.; Díaz, M.

    2017-10-01

    Perceived predation risk and competition for acorns are expected to affect scatter-hoarding decisions by Algerian mice (Mus spretus). We manipulated both factors by means of predator fecal scents and ungulate exclosures. We hypothesized that high-risk perception and ungulate presence would promote acorn dispersal. In the former case, it would stimulate acorn mobilization to safe microhabitats rather than in situ consumption. In the latter, increased competition for acorns would promote their storage for later consumption. We also expected that mice would adapt their foraging behavior to previous experience modulating the strength of these effects. In the presence of ungulates, mice focused their foraging activities on food acquisition at the expenses of vigilant behaviors. However, a more efficient foraging did not entail enhanced dispersal services. Lack of anti-predatory cover in tree surroundings may have deterred mice from transporting seeds outside canopies. Increased risk interacted with previous experience. In control trees (no predator odor), mice confidence increased throughout the night resulting in decreased vigilance and enhanced acorn mobilization rates. In contrast, in risky conditions (trees with predator odor) mice maintained a base-line vigilant behavior. Contrary to our expectations, increased risk did not result in higher acorn mobilization, but the opposite. Again, the scarcity of safe microhabitats for mobilization may have been the underlying cause of this behavior. Our results show that successful acorn dispersal depends, at least partly, on plant-animal relationships that are beyond the oak-rodent mutualism. Thus, any conservation policy aimed at restoring natural regeneration of oaks should take into account the interaction network in which oak-rodent encounters are embedded. In addition, they suggest that mice incorporate direct and indirect cues of risks (habitat structure) through recent experience. A better understanding of this process

  4. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1993-01-01

    Survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with...

  5. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  6. Acorn storage: Can you really fool Mother Nature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina Connor

    2009-01-01

    Moisture levels in acorns before storage are critical. Two years after being dried before storage, water oak (Quercus nigra) acorns had 17% to 25% germination, while cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda) acorns were dead. Acorns stored fully hydrated faired far better after 2 years in storage, with germination ranging from 48% to 53% in water...

  7. Millipede damage to germinating acorns of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford; L. R. Auchmoody; Russell S. Walters; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1992-01-01

    Millipedes have not been reported as pests of germinating acorns. Studies in Pennsylvania on the impact of insects on northern red (Quercus rubra L. seedling establishment revealed that the millipede Ptyoiulus impressus (Say) damaged the radicles of germinating acorns. Up to 17 percent of the acorn radicles in areas with heavy acorn crops were damaged in 1'991....

  8. Acorns - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds322

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data are the characteristics and acorn counts from 2005 of individual live oak trees found in 0.05-ha circular habitat plots at Spears and Didion Ranches,...

  9. A test of the predator satiation hypothesis, acorn predator size, and acorn preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Greenberg; S.J. Zarnoch

    2018-01-01

    Mast seeding is hypothesized to satiate seed predators with heavy production and reduce populations with crop failure, thereby increasing seed survival. Preference for red or white oak acorns could influence recruitment among oak species. We tested the predator satiation hypothesis, acorn preference, and predator size by concurrently...

  10. Systemic conditions affecting the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbitt, P.L.; DeParedes, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    While the mammogram is most often used in the evaluation of diseases specific to the breast, manifestations of systemic conditions may also be recognized. Congenital systemic conditions such as neurofibromatosis and ectodermal dysplasia have graphic mammographic findings. The effects of diet, hormonal, and medication therapy can also have a dramatic impact on the appearance of the mammogram, as can common clinical states such as congestive heart failure or renal failure. Metastases to the breast from extramammary primaries may be seen mammographically as discrete masses, as causing diffusely increased density of the breast or as abnormal axillary adenopathy. The authors review a variety of conditions and their mammographic appearance

  11. Dung beetles eat acorns to increase their ovarian development and thermal tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects.

  12. Future Plans for the ACORNE Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Lee F

    2007-01-01

    A summary of the future plans for ACORNE collaboration are presented. Of particular note is the intended development of an acoustic calibrator to be deployed in the deep sea above the Rona hydrophone array. Crucial to this goal is work recently completed on the understanding of hydrophone response and the generation of bipolar acoustic signals; this work is presented in detail

  13. Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Walter D; Walters, Eric L

    2015-10-07

    Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). In general, fecundity variance decreased with increasing sociality, at least when controlling for annual variation in ecological conditions. Nonetheless, decreased fecundity variance was insufficient to compensate for reduced per capita reproductive success of larger, more social groups, which typically suffered lower estimated mean fitness. We did, however, find evidence that sociality in the form of larger group size resulted in increased fitness in years following a small acorn crop due to reduced fecundity variance. Bet-hedging, although not the factor driving sociality in general, may play a role in driving acorn woodpecker group living when acorns are scarce and ecological conditions are poor. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Acorn consumption improves the immune response of the dung beetle Thorectes lusitanicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Thorectes lusitanicus, a typically coprophagous species is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming, burying them, and conferring ecophysiological and reproductive advantages to both the beetle and the tree. In this study, we explored the possible relation between diet shift and the health status of T. lusitanicus using a generalist entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae as a natural pathogen. To measure the health condition and immune response of beetles, we analysed the protein content in the haemolymph, prophenoloxidase (proPO content, phenoloxidase (PO activity and mortality of beetles with diets based on either acorns or cow dung. Protein content, proPO levels and PO levels in the haemolymph of T. lusitanicus were found to be dependent on the type of diet. Furthermore, the beetles fed with acorns developed a more effective proPO-PO system than the beetles fed with cow dung. Furthermore, a significant decrease in mortality was observed when infected individuals were submitted to an acorn-based diet. In addition to enhancing an understanding of the relevance of dietary change to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results provide a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection in the context of fitness.

  15. Manipulating affective state influences conditioned appetitive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2017-10-06

    Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g. preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide behaviour under negative mood. Two studies tested the effects of the induction of a negative affective state on appetitive Pavlovian learning, in which neutral stimuli were associated with chocolate (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) rewards. In both experiments, participants showed enhanced approach tendencies towards predictors of reward after a negative relative to a positive performance feedback manipulation. This increase was related to a reduction in positive affect in Experiment 1 only. No effects of the manipulation on conditioned reward expectancies, craving, or consumption were observed. Overall, our findings support the idea of counter-regulation, rather than emotional congruency effects. Negative affective states might therefore serve as a vulnerability factor for addiction, through increasing conditioned approach tendencies.

  16. Automation of the Acorn Scarification Process as a Contribution to Sustainable Forest Management. Case Study: Common Oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Tadeusiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle of silviculture is the rational use of natural regeneration. The acceleration and equalisation of seed germination and an increase of the field seed germination ability are affected by seed scarification, which results in the destruction or weakening of the seed cover. Acorn scarification is performed manually, in the standing position, most often in adapted work stations, whose geometry is adjusted by the staff to their own anthropometric dimensions. An added value of acorn scarification consists in the ability to visually assess the health status of the cotyledons visible on the cross-section, making it possible to infer the potential use of a seed for sowing. However, due to the scope and duration of the activities involved, manual scarification is a process that is monotonous and physically as well as psychologically tiring for its performer. Automating of this process allows for effective replacement of human labour. The results obtained from the use of the vision system designed to determine the length and orientation of acorns may be considered satisfactory. The implementation of the seed orientation detection algorithm using the Harris detector was 90% accurate. Studies and analyses have shown that the process of acorn scarification has a positive effect on the later improvement of uniformity and acceleration of seedling emergence. In the case of seeds subjected to scarification, 83% of the acorns germinated within 4 to 6 weeks after sowing.

  17. Management and long term storage of cork-oak acorns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Tesnier, K.

    2002-01-01

    Cork-oak trees can have unpredictable reproduction patterns, with some trees producing seeds only one every 2 to 5 years. The problem of the irregularity of mast-years is complicated by dormancy-related heterogeneity in germination of freshly harvested acorns. The long time taking by acorn to

  18. Acorn production and utilization in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Overstreet; Seongmin Choi; Chan-Ryul Park; Dowon Lee; Thomas Gradziel

    2015-01-01

    Oak acorns have historically provided food for humans and animals in cultures across Asia, North Africa, Europe, and North America. The advent of the twentieth-century saw acorns become marginalized as a food crop in the United States and most of the world, but they have remained a constant part of the cuisine of the Korean Peninsula. Consequently, Korea is often cited...

  19. Nest-site selection in the acorn woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Koenig, Walter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) at Hastings Reservation in central California prefer to nest in dead limbs in large, dead valley oaks (Quercus lobata) and California sycamores (Platanus racemosa) that are also frequently used as acorn storage trees. Based on 232 nest cavities used over an 18-year period, we tested whether preferred or modal nest-site characters were associated with increased reproductive success (the "nest-site quality" hypothesis). We also examined whether more successful nests were likely to experience more favorable microclimatic conditions or to be less accessible to terrestrial predators. We found only equivocal support for the nest-site quality hypothesis: only 1 of 5 preferred characters and 2 of 10 characters exhibiting a clear modality were correlated with higher reproductive success. All three characteristics of nests known or likely to be associated with a more favorable microclimate, and two of five characteristics likely to render nests less accessible to predators, were correlated with higher reproductive success. These results suggest that nest cavities in this population are built in part to take advantage of favorable microclimatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, to reduce access to predators. However, despite benefits of particular nest characteristics, birds frequently nested in apparently suboptimal cavities. We also found a significant relationship between mean group size and the history of occupancy of particular territories and the probability of nest cavities being built in microclimatically favorable live limbs, suggesting that larger groups residing on more stable territories were better able to construct nests with optimal characteristics. This indicates that there may be demographic, as well as ecological, constraints on nest-site selection in this primary cavity nester.

  20. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  1. Experimental winter warming modifies thermal performance and primes acorn ants for warm weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacLean, Heidi J.; Penick, Clint A.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness...... outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species. Here we use the acorn ant, Temnothorax curvispinosus, to explore how thermal...... performance (temperature-driven plasticity) in running speed is influenced by experimental winter warming of 3–5 °C above ambient in a field setting. We used running speed as a measure of performance as it is a common locomotor trait that influences acquisition of nest sites and food in acorn ants...

  2. Effect of drying temperatures on starch-related functional and thermal properties of acorn flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, P R; Beirão-da-Costa, M L

    2011-03-01

    The application of starchy flours from different origins in food systems depends greatly on information about the chemical and functional properties of such food materials. Acorns are important forestry resources in the central and southern regions of Portugal. To preserve these fruits and to optimize their use, techniques like drying are needed. The effects of different drying temperatures on starch-related functional properties of acorn flours obtained from dried fruits of Quercus rotundifolia (QR) and Quercus suber (QS) were evaluated. Flours were characterized for amylose and resistant starch (RS) contents, swelling ability, and gelatinization properties. Drying temperature mainly affected amylose content and viscoamylographic properties. Amylograms of flours from fruits dried at 60 °C displayed higher consistency (2102 B.U. and 1560 B.U., respectively, for QR and QS). The transition temperatures and enthalpy were less affected by drying temperature, suggesting few modifications in starch structure during drying. QR flours presented different functional properties to those obtained from QS acorn flours. The effect of drying temperatures were more evident in QR.

  3. Recalcitrant Behavior of Cherrybark Oak Seed: An FT-IR Study of Desiccation Sensitivity in Quercus pagoda Raf. Acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Sowa; Kristina F. Connor

    2003-01-01

    The recalcitrant behavior of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) acorns was examined in terms of effects of moisture content on seed storage longevity and (short term) seed germination. Seed samples collected over two consecutive years were fully hydrated, then subjected to drying under ambient conditions of temperature and relative humidity on the...

  4. Acorn Lodge, Ballykelly, Cashel, Tipperary.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watkins, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the "gold standard." Moreover, the use of prebiotics as an aid for the development of a healthy gut microbiome is equally as important in maintaining gut homeostasis. Breastmilk, a natural prebiotic source, provides optimal active ingredients for the growth of beneficial microbial species. However, early life disorders such as necrotising enterocolitis, childhood obesity, and even autism have been associated with an altered\\/disturbed gut microbiome. Subsequently, microbial therapies have been introduced, in addition to suitable prebiotic ingredients, which when administered, may aid in the prevention of a microbial disturbance in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this mini-review is to highlight the beneficial effects of different probiotic and prebiotic treatments in early life, with particular emphasis on the different conditions which negatively impact microbial colonisation at birth.

  5. Characterization of the cork oak transcriptome dynamics during acorn development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Andreia; de Vega-Bartol, José; Marum, Liliana; Chaves, Inês; Santo, Tatiana; Leitão, José; Varela, Maria Carolina; Miguel, Célia M

    2015-06-25

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) has a natural distribution across western Mediterranean regions and is a keystone forest tree species in these ecosystems. The fruiting phase is especially critical for its regeneration but the molecular mechanisms underlying the biochemical and physiological changes during cork oak acorn development are poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome of the cork oak acorn, including the seed, was characterized in five stages of development, from early development to acorn maturation, to identify the dominant processes in each stage and reveal transcripts with important functions in gene expression regulation and response to water. A total of 80,357 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were de novo assembled from RNA-Seq libraries representative of the several acorn developmental stages. Approximately 7.6 % of the total number of transcripts present in Q. suber transcriptome was identified as acorn specific. The analysis of expression profiles during development returned 2,285 differentially expressed (DE) transcripts, which were clustered into six groups. The stage of development corresponding to the mature acorn exhibited an expression profile markedly different from other stages. Approximately 22 % of the DE transcripts putatively code for transcription factors (TF) or transcriptional regulators, and were found almost equally distributed among the several expression profile clusters, highlighting their major roles in controlling the whole developmental process. On the other hand, carbohydrate metabolism, the biological pathway most represented during acorn development, was especially prevalent in mid to late stages as evidenced by enrichment analysis. We further show that genes related to response to water, water deprivation and transport were mostly represented during the early (S2) and the last stage (S8) of acorn development, when tolerance to water desiccation is possibly critical for acorn viability. To our knowledge this work

  6. A rapid hard-mast index from acorn presence-absence tallies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Gordon S. Warburton

    2007-01-01

    We used 21 years of acorn data from visual surveys of oak (Quercus spp.) trees (n ¼ 20,113) conducted in western North Carolina, USA, to develop predictive equations for hard-mast indices (HMIs) based on the proportion of trees bearing acorns (PBA). We calculated PBA using visual estimates of the percentage of oak crown with acorns (PCA), assigning acorn presence if...

  7. Variable Acorn Crops: Responses of White-Tailed Deer and Other Mast Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. McShea; Georg Schwede

    1993-01-01

    We examined movements and behavior of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to the acorn mast-fall from 1986 through 1989 in a mature deciduous forest in Front Royal, Virginia. Ten white-tailed deer with radiotransmitters increased their home range to incorporate acorn-producing areas during mast-fall. Consumption of acorns by...

  8. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  9. Physical conditions affecting pyrethroid toxicity in arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to obtain mechanistic information about how the toxicity of pesticides in the field is affected by physical factors, pesticide bioavailability and arthropod behaviour. The pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin and linyphiid spiders were selected as pesticide-effect

  10. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  11. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  12. Broiler-Housing Conditions Affect the Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last decades animal production has considerably increased worldwide to sustain an ever-growing human population. Among animal reared for consumption purposes, chickens are undoubtedly one of the most successful, mainly due to their rapid growth rate. The development of broiler farming has been accompanied in recent years by a substantial attention to animal welfare. This study is aimed at assessing the effects of different housing conditions on both feed conversion ratio and mortality of male broiler flocks through a large-scale study (more than 100 million birds involving 977 farms belonging to one major producer. For this, we evaluated nine features of the housing system using a linear model with random effect. The features were: roofing, floor, drinkers, feeders, water source, color curtain color, management, light and ventilation. A total of 3516 poultry flocks were assessed. Positive ventilation, metal and clay roof, dirt floor and owner management were shown to reduced mortality. Concrete floor, negative ventilation, blue curtains, fluorescent lightening, owner management, tap water and well water significantly improved FCR. We discuss our findings in relation with economic constraints and provide advices to encourage farmers using simple devices that will improve both production and chicken survival.

  13. Acorn Yield During 1988 and 1989 on California's Central Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergio L. Garcia; Wayne A. Jensen; William H. Weitkamp; William D. Tietje

    1991-01-01

    In 1988, a study was began to evaluate acorn yield of valley oak (Quercus lobata), coast live oak (Q. agrifolia), and blue oak (Q. douglasii) in three of California's central coast counties: Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and San Benito. The purpose of the study was to examine the degree and variability of...

  14. Wild Boar Impact to the Natural Regeneration of Oak and Acorn Importance in its Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Zeman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of wild boar on the natural regeneration of oak and importance of acorns in the wild boar diet were surveyed. The data were collected near Moravian Krumlov (Czech Republic in three types of oak stands differing in the canopy density: fully-stocked stand (1, open-canopy stand (2 and the forest stand in a conversion to the coppice forest (3. Within each stand 150 m long lines were set out. Seed traps to collect acorn harvest and control plots were installed on these lines. The plots were inspected at weekly intervals. After the end of acorn fall the average amount of fallen acorns was evaluated. The quantity of metabolizable energy in acorns was assessed and daily survival dose of energy for average weight of wild boar was counted. In spring 2014 the number of seedlings was counted at the same plots. Production of acorns per hectare and basic energy needs for one individual wild boar per day were evaluated for each chosen stand type. The found seedling density amounted to 29,600, 32,000 and 14,000 ind./ha in the first, second and third stand under study, respectively. Wild boar is a major consumer of acorns. In the studied area the production of acorns sufficiently supplied the local wild boar population during winter. Necessary amount of acorns remained for the natural regeneration.

  15. Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Verbal Conditioning of Affective Self-Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Hamid

    1971-01-01

    Subjects were assigned to four experimental groups: neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts, and a control group. Results indicated that introversion, and not neuroticism, facilitated conditioning processes. Neuroticism, however, did not interact on the conditioning of affective self disclosures. Introverted…

  16. A Comparison of Trap Versus Ground Collection of Acorns to Assess Insect Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Alex. Mangini

    1997-01-01

    Oak (Quercus spp.) species are a significant portion of the forest in the Eastern United States. Oaks provide valuable timber products and habitat for many wildlife species. Acorns are essential for oak regeneration and are a major food source for more than 186 species of birds and mammals. Great variation in annual acorn production causes dramatic fluctuations in seed...

  17. A laboratory assessment of various treatment conditions affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conditions affecting the ammoniation of wheat straw by urea. 1. The effect of temperature, moisture level ... levels of 250 and 375 g/kg wheat straw and treatment periods of 0;. 1; 2; 4; 6 and 8 weeks. Dependent variables .... chloride solution containing 5 mg phenyl mercury acetate per litre. In vitro organic matter digestibility ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png Ptycho...dera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+fla...va&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  19. Culture conditions affect photoreactivating enzyme levels in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, B.M.; Oliver, R.

    1976-01-01

    Photoreactivation of pyrimidine dimers occured under the experimental conditions given in this study, but has not been observed under conditions used by others. Three possible differences were tested in experimental procedures including dimer separation and analysis methods, illumination conditions and cell culture techniques. The methods in this study of dimer separation and analysis indeed measure cis-syn pyrimidine dimers and give results in quantitative agreement with the methods of others. It was found that white light pre-illumination of fibroblasts from the xeroderma pigmentosum line XP12BE or of normal cells does not affect the cellular capacity for dimer photoreactivation. However, the cell culture conditions can affect photoreactivating enzyme levels, and thus cellular dimer photoreactivation capacity. Cells grown in Eagle's minimal essential medium (supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum) contain very low levels of photoreactivating enzyme and cannot photoreactivate dimers in their DNA; but companion cultures maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimal medium do contain photoreactivating enzyme and can reactivate photoreactive cellular dimers

  20. Influence of Scarification on the Germination Capacity of Acorns Harvested from Uneven-Aged Stands of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kaliniewicz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scarification involves the partial removal of the seed coat on the side of the hilum, opposite the radicle, to speed up germination in acorns. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of scarification on the germination capacity of pedunculate oak acorns, selected and prepared for sowing. The diameter, length and mass of acorns were measured before and after scarification in four batches of acorns harvested from uneven-aged trees (76, 91, 131 and 161 years. The measured parameters were used to determine the correlations between acorn dimensions and mass, and to calculate the dimensional scarification index and the mass scarification index in acorns. Individual complete and scarified acorns from every batch were germinated on sand and peat substrate for 28 days. The analyzed acorns were characterized by average size and mass. Scarification decreased acorn mass by around 22% and acorn length by around 31% on average. Scarification and the elimination of infected acorns increased germination capacity from around 64% to around 81% on average. Acorns can be divided into size groups before scarification to obtain seed material with varied germination capacity. Larger acorns with higher germination capacity can be used for sowing in container nurseries, whereas smaller acorns with lower germination capacity can be sown in open-field nurseries.

  1. Investigation of Acorn fruit Ash Efficiency in Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions: Adsorption Isotherm and Kinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Zarei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals are known as significant pollutants because of toxicity and nonbiodegradable characteristics. Cadmium is one of the heavy metals that have carcinogen potential. So, this study carried out in order to investigate the acorn fruit ash efficiency in cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. Methods: This study was done in the batch laboratory conditions. In this study, the effect of different parameters including pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial cadmium concentration were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used for analysis of the equilibrium isotherm. Adsorption kinetics of cadmium by different models were also investigated. The measurement of residual cadmium in the samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 228.8 nm. The SPSS-16 software was used for analysis of data. Results: According to the results, the maximum adsorption capacity of cadmium was 9.29 mg/g at pH=7 and 8 g/L adsorbent dose. The removal efficiency was increased with increasing contact time and decreased with increasing of cadmium initial concentration. Investigation of achieving data showed that the adsorption process followed better by Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetic. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it could be concluded that the acorn fruit ash had high ability in cadmium adsorption and could be used as a cheap adsorbent in the removal of cadmium.

  2. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  3. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  4. Physicochemical conditions in affecting the distribution of spring phytoplankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuqiu; Liu, Haijiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Xue, Bing; Munir, Sonia; Sun, Jun

    2017-11-01

    To better understand the physicochemical conditions in affecting regional distribution of phytoplankton community, one research cruise was carried out in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea during 3rd and 23th May, 2010. The phytoplankton community, including Bacillariophyta (105 taxa), Pyrrophyta (54 taxa), Chrysophyta (1 taxon) and Chlorophyta (2 taxa), had been identified and clearly described from six ecological provinces. And, the six ecological provinces were partitioned based on the top twenty dominant species related with notable physicochemical parameters. In general, the regional distributions of phytoplankton ecological provinces were predominantly influenced by the physicochemical properties induced by the variable water masses and circulations. The predominant diatoms in most of water samples showed well adaptability in turbulent and eutrophic conditions. However, several species of dinoflagellates e.g., Protoperidinium conicum, Protoperidinium triestinum, Protoperidinium sp. and Gymnodinium lohmanni preferred warmer, saltier and nutrient-poor environment. Moreover, the dinoflagellates with high frequency in the Yellow Sea might be transported from the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The horizontal distribution of phytoplankton was depicted by diatoms and controlled by phosphate concentration, while the vertical distribution was mainly supported by light and nutrients availability in the subsurface and bottom layers, respectively.

  5. Is muscle coordination affected by loading condition in ballistic movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Caroline; Guilhem, Gaël; Couturier, Antoine; Chollet, Didier; Rabita, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of loading on lower limb muscle coordination involved during ballistic squat jumps. Twenty athletes performed ballistic squat jumps on a force platform. Vertical force, velocity, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity of lower limb muscles were recorded during the push-off phase and compared between seven loading conditions (0-60% of the concentric-only maximal repetition). The increase in external load increased vertical force (from 1962 N to 2559 N; P=0.0001), while movement velocity decreased (from 2.5 to 1.6 ms(-1); P=0.0001). EMG activity of tibialis anterior first peaked at 5% of the push-off phase, followed by gluteus maximus (35%), vastus lateralis and soleus (45%), rectus femoris (55%), gastrocnemius lateralis (65%) and semitendinosus (75%). This sequence of activation (P=0.67) and the amplitude of muscle activity (P=0.41) of each muscle were not affected by loading condition. However, a main effect of muscle was observed on these parameters (peak value: Ppush-off phase. Our findings suggest that muscle coordination is not influenced by external load during a ballistic squat jump. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, Justin; Masum, Hassan; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation.Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn's innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009.Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies.Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. A key to Acorn's achievements was identifying entrepreneurs with technologies with health and

  7. Acorn selection by the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus: a semi-controlled experiment in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Nóbrega, Filomena; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Teixeira, Generosa; Rebelo, Rui

    2013-09-01

    Fruits are highly important food resources for mammals in Mediterranean Europe, and due to the dominance of oaks (Quercus sp.), acorns are among those used by a vast array of species, including rodents. The metabolic yield of acorn intake may determine a selection pattern: preference for fat, carbohydrate, and consequently energy-rich fruits; or avoidance of fruits containing high concentrations of secondary chemical compounds (e.g., tannic acid). We studied the acorn feeding selection pattern of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting a mixed oak woodland, southwest Portugal, using an experiment conducted in an open-air enclosure. We tested which variables associated with the wood mouse (e.g., sex) and acorns (e.g., size and nutrient content) from three oak species (holm Q. rotundifolia, Portuguese Q. faginea and cork Q. suber oak) could be constraining acorn consumption. Our results indicate that wood mice are selecting acorns of the most common oak species (Q. suber), probably due to their previous familiarization with the fruit due to its dominance in the ecosystem but probably also because its chemical characteristics (sugar contents). Rodent gender and acorn morphology (width) are also influential, with females more prone to consume acorns with smaller width, probably due to handling limitation. This selective behaviour may have consequences for dispersion and natural regeneration of the different oak species.

  8. The Insect Guild of White Oak Acorns: Its Effect on Mast Quality in the Ozark and Ouachita National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Mangini; Roger W. Perry

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Hardwood regeneration, especially of oaks, is an essential component of ecosystem management in the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. In addition, oak mast is an important wildlife food. Several species of insects inhabit and consume acorns. Data on the insect guild inhabiting white oak (Quercus alba L.) acorns...

  9. Removal of acorns of the alien oak Quercus rubra on the ground by scatter-hoarding animals in Belgian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merceron, NR.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Quercus rubra L. is considered an invasive species in several European countries. However, little is known about its dispersal in the introduced range. Objectives. We investigated the significance of animal dispersal of Q. rubra acorns on the ground by vertebrates in its introduced range, and identified the animal species involved. Method. During two consecutive autumns, the removal of acorns from Q. rubra and from a native oak was assessed weekly in forest sites in Belgium. We used automated detection camera traps to identify the animals that removed acorns. Results. Quercus rubra acorns were removed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L., red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L., rats (Rattus sp., and wild boars (Sus scrofa L.. The two former are scatter-hoarding rodents and can be considered potential dispersers. Conclusions. Dispersal of Q. rubra acorns in Western Europe by scatter-hoarding animals may help the species increasingly colonize forest ecosystems.

  10. Biocrust spectral response as affected by changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Guirado, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Reyes, Andres; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Drylands are characterized by scarce vegetation coverage and low rates of biological activity, both constrained by water scarcity. Under these conditions, biocrusts form key players of ecosystem functioning. They comprise complex poikilohydric communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea and fungi, which cover the uppermost soil layer. Biocrusts can cope with prolonged phases of drought, being rapidly re-activated when water becomes available again. Upon reactivation, biocrusts almost immediately turn green, fixing atmospheric carbon and nitrogen and increasing ecosystem productivity. However, due to their inconspicuous growth they have only rarely been analysed and spatially and temporally continuous information on their response to water pulses is missing. These data are particularly important under changing climatic conditions predicting an increase in aridity and variations in precipitation patterns within most of the dryland regions. In the present study, we used multi-temporal series of NDVI obtained from LANDSAT images to analyze biocrust and vegetation response to water pulses within the South African Succulent Karoo and we predicted their future response under different climate change scenarios. The results showed that biocrust and vegetation greenness are controlled by aridity, solar radiation and soil water content, showing similar annual patterns, with minimum values during dry periods that increased within the rainy season and decreased again after the onset of drought. However, biocrusts responded faster to water availability and turned green almost immediately after small rains, producing a small NDVI peak only few days after rainfall, whereas more time was needed for vegetation to grow new green tissue. However, once the photosynthetic tissue of vegetation was restored, it caused the highest increase of NDVI values after the rain. Predicted changes in precipitation patterns and aridity

  11. Conditioned pain modulation is affected by occlusion cuff conditioning stimulus intensity, but not duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Pedler, A

    2018-01-01

    Various conditioned pain modulation (CPM) methodologies have been used to investigate diffuse noxious inhibitory control pain mechanisms in healthy and clinical populations. Occlusion cuff parameters have been poorly studied. We aimed to investigate whether occlusion cuff intensity and/or duration influenced CPM magnitudes. We also investigated the role of physical activity levels on CPM magnitude. Two studies were performed to investigate the role of intensity and duration of occlusion cuff conditioning stimulus on test stimulus (tibialis anterior pressure pain thresholds). In Study 1, conditioning stimulus intensity of 2/10 or 5/10 (duration CPM magnitude. In Study 1, 27 healthy volunteers (mean ± SD: 24.9 years (±4.5); eight female) demonstrated that an occlusion cuff applied to the upper arm eliciting 5/10 local pain resulted in a significant (mean ± SD: 17% ± 46%) increase in CPM magnitude, when compared to 2/10 intensity (-3% ± 38%, p = 0.026), whereas in Study 2, 25 healthy volunteers (22.5 years (±2.7); 13 female) demonstrated that 3 min of 2/10 CS intensity did not result in a significant change in CPM (p = 0.21). There was no significant relationship between physical activity levels and CPM in either study (p > 0.22). This study demonstrated that an occlusion cuff of 5/10 conditioning stimulus intensity, when compared to 2/10, significantly increased CPM magnitude. Maintaining 2/10 conditioning stimulus for 3 min did not increase CPM magnitude. Dysfunctional conditioned pain modulation (CPM) has been associated with poor health outcomes. Various factors can influence CPM outcomes. The role of occlusion cuff conditioning stimulus intensity and duration has not been previously investigated. Intensity (5/10), but not duration of lower intensity (2/10) conditioning stimulus, affects CPM magnitude. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  12. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  13. Factors affecting working conditions in public hospitals: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodwa M. Manyisa

    2017-01-01

    Findings: Workload, HIV/AIDS epidemic, shift work, long working hours, poor infrastructure, inadequate resources and shortage of staff were found to be the main factors attributed to poor working conditions.

  14. Conditions affecting the release of phosphorus from surface lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophoridis, Christophoros; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of pH and redox conditions, as well as the effect of Fe, Mn, Ca, Al, and organic matter, on the release of ortho-phosphates in lake sediments taken from Lakes Koronia and Volvi (Northern Greece). Results were evaluated in combination with experiments to determine P fractionation in the sediment. The study revealed the major effect of redox potential and pH on the release of P from lake sediments. Both lakes showed increased release rates under reductive conditions and high pH values. The fractionation experiments revealed increased mobility of the reductive P fraction as well as of the NaOH-P fraction, indicating participation of both fractions in the overall release of sediment-bound P, depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. The results were assessed in combination with the release patterns of Fe, Mn, Ca, Al, and organic matter, enabling the identification of more specific processes of P release for each lake. The basic release patterns included the redox induced reductive dissolution of P-bearing metal oxides and the competitive exchange of phosphate anions with OH- at high pH values. The formation of an oxidized surface microlayer under oxic conditions acted as a protective film, preventing further P release from the sediments of Lake Volvi, while sediments from Lake Koronia exhibited a continuous and increased tendency to release P under various physicochemical conditions, acting as a constant source of internal P loading.

  15. A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist

    OpenAIRE

    R Waxman; K Khorasani; A Lenny; S Bhalerao

    2009-01-01

    It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A) work days vs. off days, B) a 27 hour...

  16. Reasoning about Natural Selection: Diagnosing Contextual Competency Using the ACORNS Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Opfer, John E.; Ha, Minsu

    2012-01-01

    Studies of students' thinking about natural selection have revealed that the scenarios in which students reason evoke different types, magnitudes, and arrangements of knowledge elements and misconceptions. Diagnostic tests are needed that probe students' thinking across a representative array of evolutionary contexts. The ACORNS is a diagnostic…

  17. Effects of acorn size and mass on seedling quality of northern red oak (Quercus rubra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2018-01-01

    Oaks are not sustainable in many upland temperate forests because of poor recruitment resulting from natural regeneration. Artificial regeneration is an alternative to natural regeneration, but is difficult, in part, due to large variation in seedling quality.  In this study, we examined the effects of acorn size and mass on nursery...

  18. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire. It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was

  19. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was identifying entrepreneurs

  20. Economic Conditions affect Support for Prime Minister Parties in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2016-01-01

    between unemployment, economic growth and support for prime minister parties is re-examined in two datasets. The first is a dataset of Scandinavian elections, and the second is a yearly Danish vote function, which was constructed using election polls. Across both datasets, it is found that if one simply......Previous research has not been able to identify a relationship between objective economic indicators and support for governing parties in the Scandinavian countries. This is potentially problematic, as it suggests that political leaders are not held electorally accountable for the economic...... correlates support for the prime minister's party with economic conditions, there is no relationship; however, if one specifies a statistical model, which takes the Scandinavian context into account, it is possible to identify a statistically significant effect of economic conditions on electoral support...

  1. Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

    2012-09-28

    The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

  2. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  3. Acorn: A grid computing system for constraint based modeling and visualization of the genome scale metabolic reaction networks via a web interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushell Michael E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constraint-based approaches facilitate the prediction of cellular metabolic capabilities, based, in turn on predictions of the repertoire of enzymes encoded in the genome. Recently, genome annotations have been used to reconstruct genome scale metabolic reaction networks for numerous species, including Homo sapiens, which allow simulations that provide valuable insights into topics, including predictions of gene essentiality of pathogens, interpretation of genetic polymorphism in metabolic disease syndromes and suggestions for novel approaches to microbial metabolic engineering. These constraint-based simulations are being integrated with the functional genomics portals, an activity that requires efficient implementation of the constraint-based simulations in the web-based environment. Results Here, we present Acorn, an open source (GNU GPL grid computing system for constraint-based simulations of genome scale metabolic reaction networks within an interactive web environment. The grid-based architecture allows efficient execution of computationally intensive, iterative protocols such as Flux Variability Analysis, which can be readily scaled up as the numbers of models (and users increase. The web interface uses AJAX, which facilitates efficient model browsing and other search functions, and intuitive implementation of appropriate simulation conditions. Research groups can install Acorn locally and create user accounts. Users can also import models in the familiar SBML format and link reaction formulas to major functional genomics portals of choice. Selected models and simulation results can be shared between different users and made publically available. Users can construct pathway map layouts and import them into the server using a desktop editor integrated within the system. Pathway maps are then used to visualise numerical results within the web environment. To illustrate these features we have deployed Acorn and created a

  4. Climate conditions, and changes, affect microalgae communities… should we worry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez Papiol, Gemma

    2018-03-01

    Microalgae play a pivotal role in the regulation of Earth's climate and its cycles, but are also affected by climate change, mainly by changes in temperature, light, ocean acidification, water stratification, and precipitation-induced nutrient inputs. The changes and impacts on microalgae communities are difficult to study, predict, and manage, but there is no doubt that there will be changes. These changes will have impacts beyond microalgae communities, and many of them will be negative. Some actions are currently ongoing for the mitigation of some of the negative impacts, such as harmful algal blooms and water quality, but global efforts for reducing CO 2 emissions, temperature rises, and ocean acidification are paramount for reducing the impact of climate change on microalgae communities, and eventually, on human well-being. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:181-184. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  5. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiu Liu

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA, a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  6. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiu; Wang, Chunjie; Jiang, Haibo; He, Hongjian; Chen, Feiyan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM) resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items) during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  7. A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Waxman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A work days vs. off days, B a 27 hour work week vs. 22 hour work week, and C in 5 different modalities including 1 Meeting with department head 2 Individual psychotherapy with patients 3 Group therapy with patients 4 Supervision of residents 5 Personal psychoanalysis. The results showed more than a 3-fold increase of arrhythmogenic activity during the 27-hour work week vs. 22 and a 5-fold increase in arrhythmogenic activity on work days compared to days off. Department Head meetings were found to be most arrhythmogenic and personal psychoanalysis was least. The data suggest that the psychiatrist’s lack of emotional expression in his clinical work has been demonstrated to markedly worsen his arrhythmia. The results also point to the potential ameliorating effects of the therapist’s own psychotherapy.

  8. Germination conditions affect physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-01-01

    Germinated brown rice has been reported to be nutritious due to increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The physicochemical properties of brown rice (BR) and glutinous brown rice (GNBR) after germination as affected by different steeping times (24, 36, 48, and 72 h depending on the rice variety) and pHs of steeping water (3, 5, 7, and as-is) were determined and compared to those of the nongerminated one (control). As the steeping time increased or pH of steeping water decreased, germinated brown rice flours (GBRF) from both BR and GNBR had greater reducing sugar, free GABA and alpha-amylase activity; while the total starch and viscosity were lower than their respective controls. GBRFs from both BR and GNBR prepared after 24-h steeping time at pH 3 contained a high content of free GABA at 32.70 and 30.69 mg/100 g flour, respectively. The peak viscosity of GBRF obtained from both BR and GNBR (7.42 to 228.22 and 4.42 to 58.67 RVU, respectively) was significantly lower than that of their controls (255.46 and 190.17 RVU, respectively). The principal component analysis indicated that the important variables for discriminating among GBRFs, explained by the first 2 components at 89.82% of total explained variance, were the pasting profiles, alpha-amylase activity, and free GABA.

  9. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  10. Effect of acorn meal-water combinations on technological properties and fine structure of gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skendi, Adriana; Mouselemidou, Panagiota; Papageorgiou, Maria; Papastergiadis, Efthimios

    2018-07-01

    Gluten-free breads were developed from rice flour and corn starch at a constant ratio 1:1 with acorn meal addition (5, 15, 25%), at three levels of water (65, 70, 75%). Acorn supplemented gluten free breads better met sensory preference than rice breads in terms of colour (brown hue was enhanced) and were also nutritionally improved in terms of total phenolics. The specific volume of breads significantly decreased with increasing acorn addition while crumb hardness was also increased. SEM images confirmed that the decrease in the ΔH values at low water level (65%) was due to less swelling of starch as observed from large starch granule remnants present after baking. XRD measurements revealed coexistence of "B" and "V" type starch structures. Increasing of acorn concentration enhanced the intensity of FTIR bands at 994, 1016 and 1077 cm -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Culture Conditions Affect Expression of DUX4 in FSHD Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachchida Nand Pandey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is believed to be caused by aberrant expression of double homeobox 4 (DUX4 due to epigenetic changes of the D4Z4 region at chromosome 4q35. Detecting DUX4 is challenging due to its stochastic expression pattern and low transcription level. In this study, we examined different cDNA synthesis strategies and the sensitivity for DUX4 detection. In addition, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone and knockout serum replacement (KOSR on DUX4 expression in culture. Our data showed that DUX4 was consistently detected in cDNA samples synthesized using Superscript III. The sensitivity of DUX4 detection was higher in the samples synthesized using oligo(dT primers compared to random hexamers. Adding dexamethasone to the culture media significantly suppressed DUX4 expression in immortalized (1.3 fold, p < 0.01 and primary (4.7 fold, p < 0.01 FSHD myoblasts, respectively. Culture medium with KOSR increased DUX4 expression and the response is concentration dependent. The findings suggest that detection strategies and culture conditions should be carefully considered when studying DUX4 in cultured cells.

  12. Effects of different concentrations of ground oak acorn on growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics of goat kids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froutan, Eisa; Azizi, Osman; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of ground oak acorn on growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics. Twenty-four goat kids averaging 16.93 1.25 kg initial bodyweight were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a comple...... without any adverse effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. At this level of acorns, the goats received low concentrations of hydrolysable tannins (11 g/kg DM) in their diet....

  13. 13 CFR 107.1820 - Conditions affecting issuers of Preferred Securities and/or Participating Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions affecting issuers of... Terms of Leverage § 107.1820 Conditions affecting issuers of Preferred Securities and/or Participating... investor. (6) Fraudulent transfers. You make any transfer or incur any obligation that is fraudulent under...

  14. Analysis of Valonia Oak (Quercus aegylops Acorn Tannin and Wood Adhesives Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman Abdalla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR is a suitable method for examining the composition of hydrolysable tannins and has been applied to the investigation of valonia oak (Quercus aegylops acorn tannin extract. Such methods can determine the extract’s structural aspects and other characteristics. It was determined that valonia oak acorn tannin extract is composed of mainly pentagalloylglucose structures; their rearrangement structures, vescalagin/castalagin (with linkages to flavogallonic acid and vescalin/castalin; ellagic acid and vescavaloneic/castavaloneic acid; and free gallic acid and glucose. Traces of catechin gallate were also observed in this tannin extract. The tannin from acorns of valonia oak was used to substitute up to 50% of the phenol used in the preparation of phenolic resins as adhesives for wood particleboard. These phenol-tannin-formaldehyde resins showed comparable performance to phenol-formaldehyde resins.

  15. The use of nutritional guidance within chiropractic patient management: a survey of 333 chiropractors from the ACORN practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Kyung; Amorin-Woods, Lyndon; Cascioli, Vincenzo; Adams, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Food consumption and nutritional status affect an individual's health throughout their life-course and an unhealthy diet is a major risk factor for the current global burden of chronic disease. The promotion of health and good nutrition through healthy eating requires the active involvement of all health professionals including chiropractors. This paper reports findings from the first nationally representative examination of the use of nutritional guidance within chiropractic patient management in Australia. A sample of 1000 practising chiropractors was randomly selected from the Australian Chiropractic Research Network (ACORN) practice-based research network database for a cross-sectional study and 33% participated in the online survey in November 2016. The questionnaire, based on previous designs used in similar surveys and nutrition resources developed by the National Health and Medical Research Council, was pretested prior to the survey. Pearson's Chi square and bivariate logistic regression were undertaken to explore relationships with variables of interest. The demographic details of the respondents are similar to those of the chiropractic workforce registered in Australia. Most chiropractors provided nutritional advice as part of their patient care and around a quarter provided specific dietary advice to their patients, including the use of nutrition supplements. Nutrition-related conditions most commonly encountered by the chiropractors were musculoskeletal, usually inflammatory in origin. Common nutritional assessment methods used included questioning patients to assess their nutritional and health status and physical appearance. Most of the participants provided nutritional resources to their patients in their clinics. However, the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the accompanying Australian Guide to Healthy Eating were not well utilised by the respondents. Australian chiropractors often referred patients with nutrition issues to qualified dietitians and

  16. Conditioned reinforcement can be mediated by either outcome-specific or general affective representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A Burke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned reinforcers are Pavlovian cues that support the acquisition and maintenance of new instrumental responses. Responding on the basis of conditioned rather than primary reinforcers is a pervasive part of modern life, yet we have a remarkably limited understanding of what underlying associative information is triggered by these cues to guide responding. Specifically, it is not certain whether conditioned reinforcers are effective because they evoke representations of specific outcomes or because they trigger general affective states that are independent of any specific outcome. This question has important implications for how different brain circuits might be involved in conditioned reinforcement. Here, we use specialized Pavlovian training procedures, reinforcer devaluation and transreinforcer blocking, to create cues that were biased to preferentially evoke either devaluation-insensitive, general affect representations or, devaluationsensitive, outcome-specific representations. Subsequently, these cues, along with normally conditioned control cues, were presented contingent on lever pressing.We found that intact rats learned to lever press for either the outcome or the affect cues to the same extent as for a normally conditioned cue. These results demonstrate that conditioned reinforcers can guide responding through either type of associative information. Interestingly, conditioned reinforcement was abolished in rats with basolateral amygdala lesions. Consistent with the extant literature, this result suggests a general role for basolateral amygdala in conditioned reinforcement. The implications of these data, combined with recent reports from our laboratory of a more specialized role of orbitofrontal cortex in conditioned reinforcement, will be discussed.

  17. Colour-Based Binary Discrimination of Scarified Quercus robur Acorns under Varying Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Jabłoński

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to predict the germination ability of acorns using their shape, length, diameter and density are reported in the literature. These methods, however, are not efficient enough. As such, a visual assessment of the viability of seeds based on the appearance of cross-sections of seeds following their scarification is used. This procedure is more robust but demands significant effort from experienced employees over a short period of time. In this article an automated method of acorn scarification and assessment has been announced. This type of automation requires the specific setup of a machine vision system and application of image processing algorithms for evaluation of sections of seeds in order to predict their viability. In the stage of the analysis of pathological changes, it is important to point out image features that enable efficient classification of seeds in respect of viability. The article shows the results of the binary separation of seeds into two fractions (healthy or spoiled using average components of regular red-green-blue and perception-based hue-saturation-value colour space. Analysis of accuracy of discrimination was performed on sections of 400 scarified acorns acquired using two various setups: machine vision camera under uncontrolled varying illumination and commodity high-resolution camera under controlled illumination. The accuracy of automatic classification has been compared with predictions completed by experienced professionals. It has been shown that both automatic and manual methods reach an accuracy level of 84%, assuming that the images of the sections are properly normalised. The achieved recognition ratio was higher when referenced to predictions provided by professionals. Results of discrimination by means of Bayes classifier have been also presented as a reference.

  18. Adhesive proteins of stalked and acorn barnacles display homology with low sequence similarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie-Leigh Jonker

    Full Text Available Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins 'sticky' has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes. It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa. Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7-16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes. Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18-26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa.

  19. Germination of Cherrybark and Nuttal Oak Acorns Following Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1961-01-01

    Frequency and duration of flooding is undoubtedly one of the most important environmental factors affecting species distribution in bottomland forests. In the life of a tree this influence is first exerted on the seed, and the capacity of seeds to retain viability after submergence by flood water may well be an important factor in determining the success of a species...

  20. Psychological factors affecting medical condition: a new proposal for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A; Fabbri, Stefania; Sirri, Laura; Wise, Thomas N

    2007-01-01

    The DSM category of "psychological factors affecting medical condition" had virtually no impact on clinical practice. However, several clinically relevant psychosomatic syndromes have been described in the literature: disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, and irritable mood. These syndromes, in addition to the DSM definition of hypochondriasis, can yield clinical specification in the category of "psychological factors affecting medical condition" and eliminate the need for the highly criticized DSM classification of somatoform disorders. This new classification is supported by a growing body of research evidence and is in line with psychosomatic medicine as a recognized subspecialty.

  1. Establishing the ACORN National Practitioner Database: Strategies to Recruit Practitioners to a National Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jon; Steel, Amie; Moore, Craig; Amorin-Woods, Lyndon; Sibbritt, David

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the recruitment and promotion strategies employed by the Australian Chiropractic Research Network (ACORN) project aimed at helping recruit a substantial national sample of participants and to describe the features of our practice-based research network (PBRN) design that may provide key insights to others looking to establish a similar network or draw on the ACORN project to conduct sub-studies. The ACORN project followed a multifaceted recruitment and promotion strategy drawing on distinct branding, a practitioner-focused promotion campaign, and a strategically designed questionnaire and distribution/recruitment approach to attract sufficient participation from the ranks of registered chiropractors across Australia. From the 4684 chiropractors registered at the time of recruitment, the project achieved a database response rate of 36% (n = 1680), resulting in a large, nationally representative sample across age, gender, and location. This sample constitutes the largest proportional coverage of participants from any voluntary national PBRN across any single health care profession. It does appear that a number of key promotional and recruitment features of the ACORN project may have helped establish the high response rate for the PBRN, which constitutes an important sustainable resource for future national and international efforts to grow the chiropractic evidence base and research capacity. Further rigorous enquiry is needed to help evaluate the direct contribution of specific promotional and recruitment strategies in attaining high response rates from practitioner populations who may be invited to participate in future PBRNs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. NEW TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING WITH ADI: THE ACORNS-ADI SEEDS DATA REDUCTION PIPELINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Turner, Edwin L.; McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, C. A.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M.; Henning, T.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Golota, T.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, S.; Ishii, M.; Goto, M.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayashi, M.; Iye, M.; Hodapp, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration, and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging (ACORNS-ADI), a new, parallelized software package to reduce high-contrast imaging data, and its application to data from the SEEDS survey. We implement several new algorithms, including a method to register saturated images, a trimmed mean for combining an image sequence that reduces noise by up to ∼20%, and a robust and computationally fast method to compute the sensitivity of a high-contrast observation everywhere on the field of view without introducing artificial sources. We also include a description of image processing steps to remove electronic artifacts specific to Hawaii2-RG detectors like the one used for SEEDS, and a detailed analysis of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm commonly used to reduce high-contrast imaging data. ACORNS-ADI is written in python. It is efficient and open-source, and includes several optional features which may improve performance on data from other instruments. ACORNS-ADI requires minimal modification to reduce data from instruments other than HiCIAO. It is freely available for download at www.github.com/t-brandt/acorns-adi under a Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) license.

  3. Sporulation of Bremia lactucae affected by temperature, relative humidity, and wind in controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, H.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Subbarao, K.V.; Scherm, H.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of temperature (5 to 25degreesC), relative humidity (81 to 100%), wind speed (0 to 1.0 in s(-1)), and their interactions on sporulation of Bremia lactucae on lettuce cotyledons were investigated in controlled conditions. Sporulation was affected significantly (P <0.0001) by

  4. Inflammatory conditions affect gene expression and function of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Crop (Meindert); C.C. Baan (Carla); S.S. Korevaar (Sander); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); M. Pescatori (Mario); A. Stubbs (Andrew); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); M.H. Dahlke (Marc); E. Eggenhofer (Elke); W. Weimar (Willem); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThere is emerging interest in the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases, graft-versus-host disease and allograft rejection. It is, however, unknown how inflammatory conditions affect phenotype and function of MSC. Adipose

  5. Intrinsic colony conditions affect the provisioning and oviposition process in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A; Morais, M M; Nascimento, F S; Bego, L R

    2009-01-01

    The cell provisioning and oviposition process (POP) is a unique characteristic of stingless bees (Meliponini), in which coordinated interactions between workers and queen regulate the filling of brood cells with larval resources and subsequent egg laying. Environmental conditions seem to regulate reproduction in stingless bees; however, little is known about how the amount of food affects quantitative sequences of the process. We examined intrinsic variables by comparing three colonies in distinct conditions (strong, intermediate and weak state). We predicted that some of these variables are correlated with temporal events of POP in Melipona scutellaris colonies. The results demonstrated that the strong colony had shorter periods of POP.

  6. New strategies in the assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, Laura; Fabbri, Stefania; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we examine research that may lead to a better assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions. We performed a review of the psychosomatic literature using both Medline and manual searches. We selected papers that were judged to be relevant to new strategies of assessment, with particular reference to the use of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. We assessed 8 areas concerned with the assessment of psychological factors in the setting of medical disease: hypochondriasis, disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, irritable mood, and Type A behavior. A new subclassification of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-V]; not yet published) category of psychological factors affecting physical conditions appears to be feasible and may provide the clinician with better tools for identifying psychological distress.

  7. [Affective bipolar disorder and ambivalence in relation to the drug treatment: analyzing the causal conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study was performed with an aim to understand the conditions causing the ambivalence of the person with bipolar affective disorder (BAD) regarding following the drug treatment. A qualitative approach was used, with the Grounded Theory as the methodology framework, under the light of Symbolic Interactionism. Participants were 14 individuals with BAD who were being followed at an Outpatient Clinic for Mood Disorders of a university hospital and 14 relatives they indicated. Interviews and observation were the main forms of obtaining data. Results revealed three categories that described the referred causal conditions: experiencing the crises of the disorder; needing the drug; and living with the side effects of the drugs. It was found that there is a need to change the attitude of some health professionals from blaming the patient for interrupting the treatment to one of listening, valuing their symbolic and affective universe as well as the partnership in the treatment.

  8. Disclosure of personal medical information: differences among parents and affected adults for genetic and nongenetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Summer; Kass, Nancy E; Natowicz, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the confidentiality of medical information has been an issue of great interest in the fields of bioethics, public policy, and law. Few empirical studies have addressed patient experiences and attitudes toward disclosure of private medical information in multiple contexts such as health insurance, employment, and the family. Furthermore, it is unclear whether differences exist in experiences and attitudes about privacy between those living with a serious medical condition versus those who have a child with a medical condition. The study sought to determine whether attitudes and experiences related to medical privacy and confidentiality differ between affected adults and parents of affected children. Interviews were conducted with 296 adults and parents of children with sickle cell disease (SCD), cystic fibrosis (CF), or diabetes mellitus (DM). This cross-sectional study collected data regarding their experiences, attitudes, and beliefs concerning medical privacy and confidentiality. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted on quantitative data. Qualitative analysis was conducted on data from open-ended response items. Parents disclose their child's diagnosis to others more often than affected adults disclose their own disease status. Parents are less likely than affected adults to regret their disclosure, to hope others do not find out, to have been pressured to share information, and to be asked about their disease by employers. Affected adults express greater concern about disclosure, a greater prevalence and greater fear of discrimination, and experience greater pressure from family members to disclose. Clinicians and researchers working with these populations should consider these differences in privacy and disclosure. Further study is necessary to examine the implications of these differences in attitudes and experiences concerning insurance, employment, and social interactions among persons with these conditions.

  9. Imagination in human social cognition, autism, and psychotic-affective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases....

  11. How the condition of occlusal support affects the back muscle force and masticatory muscle activity?

    OpenAIRE

    石岡, 克; 河野, 正司; Ishioka, Masaru; Kohno, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine how the condition of occlusal support affects the back muscle force and masticatory muscle activity. Two groups of subjects were enlisted: sport-trained group and normal group. While electrodes of the electromyography (EMG) were attached to the surface of the masticatory muscles, each subject's back muscle force was recorded during upper body stretching using a back muscle force-measuring device. The task was performed under four different occlusal suppor...

  12. Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy as a function of interpersonal and affective disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eVeit

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The diminished fear reactivity is one of the most valid physiological findings in psychopathy research. In a fear conditioning paradigm, with faces as conditioned stimulus (CS and electric shock as unconditioned stimulus (US, we investigated a sample of 14 high psychopathic violent offenders. Event related potentials, skin conductance responses (SCR as well as subjective ratings of the CSs were collected. This study assessed to which extent the different facets of the psychopathy construct contribute to the fear conditioning deficits observed in psychopaths. Participants with high scores on the affective facet subscale of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R showed weaker conditioned fear responses and lower N100 amplitudes compared to low scorers. In contrast, high scorers on the affective facet rated the CS+ (paired more negatively than low scorers regarding the CS- (unpaired. Regarding the P300, high scores on the interpersonal facet were associated with increased amplitudes to the CS+ compared to the CS-, while the opposed pattern was found with the antisocial facet. Both, the initial and terminal contingent negative variation indicated a divergent pattern: participants with pronounced interpersonal deficits, showed increased cortical negativity to the CS+ compared to the CS-, whereas a reversed CS+/CS- differentiation was found in offenders scoring high on the antisocial facet. The present study revealed that deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy was most pronounced in offenders with high scores on the affective facet. Event related potentials suggest that participants with distinct interpersonal deficits showed increased information processing, whereas the antisocial facet was linked to decreased attention and interest to the CS+. These data indicate that an approach to the facets of psychopathy can help to resolve ambiguous findings in psychopathy research and enables a more precise and useful description of this disorder.

  13. aCORN: An experiment to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation in neutron decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wietfeldt, F.E., E-mail: few@tulane.ed [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Byrne, J. [University of Sussex (United Kingdom); Collett, B. [Physics Department, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Dewey, M.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Jones, G.L. [Physics Department, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Komives, A. [Physics Department, DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135 (United States); Laptev, A. [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Nico, J.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Noid, G.; Stephenson, E.J. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Stern, I.; Trull, C. [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Yerozolimsky, B.G. [Physics Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-12-11

    The aCORN experiment is designed to make a precision (<1%) measurement of the electron-antineutrino angular correlation (a-coefficient) in neutron beta decay. It uses a new method proposed in 1996 by Yerozolimsky and Mostovoy. Electrons and recoil protons from neutron decay in a cold beam are detected in coincidence. The momenta of the particles are selected so that the protons form two kinematically distinct time-of-flight groups as a function of electron energy. The count rate asymmetry in these two groups is proportional to the a-coefficient. Precision spectroscopy of the protons is not required. The apparatus is currently under construction. It will be integrated and tested at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) and then moved to the NIST Center for Neutron Research for the initial physics run.

  14. Pattern recognition of acorns from different Quercus species based on oil content and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (i to characterize different species of Quercus genus and (ii to discriminate among them on the basis of the content and fatty acid composition of the oil in their fruits and/or their morphological aspects via pattern recognition techniques (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Cluster Analysis, CA, and Discriminant Analysis, DA. Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd., grown in the same stand in the centre of Portugal, were investigated. When oil content and respective fatty acid composition were used to characterize samples, well-separated groups corresponding to each of the species were observed by PCA and confirmed by CA and DA. The ‘‘width’’ and ‘‘length’’ of acorns exhibited a low discriminant power. Acorns from Q. rotundifolia showed the highest average oil content followed by Q. suber and Q. pyrenaica acorns (9.1, 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of Q. rotundifolia and Q. suber oils are similar to olive oil while the oil from Q. pyrenaica acorns is more unsaturated.El objetivo de este estudio fué (i la caracterización de diferentes especies del género Quercus y (ii la clasificación de las mismas en base al contenido y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite de sus frutos y/o en sus caracteres morfológicos, via técnicas de patrón de reconocimiento (Análisis de Componentes Principales, ACP, Análisis de Cluster, AC, y Análisis Discriminante, AD. Se han estudiado Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. y Quercus pyrenaica Willd., pertenecientes a la misma zona del centro de Portugal. Al emplear el contenido de aceite y sus respectivas composiciones de ácidos grasos para caracterizar a las muestras, el ACP reveló grupos bien separados correspondientes a cada especie, los cuales, a su vez, se confirmarón con el AC y el AD. El ‘‘ancho’’ y ‘‘longitud’’ de las bellotas

  15. Decoupling in an expanding universe boundary RG-flow affects initial conditions for inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Schalm, K; Van der Schaar, J P; Schalm, Koenraad; Shiu, Gary; Schaar, Jan Pieter van der

    2004-01-01

    We study decoupling in FRW spacetimes, emphasizing a Lagrangian description throughout. To account for the vacuum choice ambiguity in cosmological settings, we introduce an arbitrary boundary action representing the initial conditions. RG flow in these spacetimes naturally affects the boundary interactions. As a consequence the boundary conditions are sensitive to high-energy physics through irrelevant terms in the boundary action. Using scalar field theory as an example, we derive the leading dimension four irrelevant boundary operators. We discuss how the known vacuum choices, e.g. the Bunch-Davies vacuum, appear in the Lagrangian description and square with decoupling. For all choices of boundary conditions encoded by relevant boundary operators, of which the known ones are a subset, backreaction is under control. All, moreover, will generically feel the influence of high-energy physics through irrelevant (dimension four) boundary corrections. Having established a coherent effective field theory framework ...

  16. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparanga, Alvin R.; Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-01-01

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  17. Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; poral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (pOral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

  18. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  19. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  20. Hydrological Conditions Affect the Interspecific Interaction between Two Emergent Wetland Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological conditions determine the distribution of plant species in wetlands, where conditions such as water depth and hydrological fluctuations are expected to affect the interspecific interactions among emergent wetland species. To test such effects, we conducted a greenhouse experiment with three treatment categories, interspecific interaction (mixed culture or monoculture, water depth (10 or 30 cm depth, and hydrological fluctuation (static or fluctuating water level, and two common emergent wetland plant species, Scirpus planiculumis Fr. (Cyperaceae and Phragmites australis var. baiyangdiansis (Gramineae. An increase in the water depth significantly restrained the growth of both S. planiculumis and P. australis, while hydrological fluctuations did not obviously alter the growth of either species. In addition, both water depth and hydrological fluctuations significantly affected the interspecific interaction between these two wetland species. P. australis benefited from interspecific interaction under increasing water depth and hydrological fluctuations, and the RII values were clearly positive for plants grown at a water depth that fluctuated around 30 cm. The results may have some implications for understanding how S. planiculumis and P. australis, as well as wetland communities, respond to the natural variation or human modification of hydrological conditions.

  1. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  2. Developmental acclimation to low or high humidity conditions affect starvation and heat resistance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam; Aggarwal, Dau Dayal

    2014-09-01

    Several Drosophila species originating from tropical humid localities are more resistant to starvation and heat stress than populations from high latitudes but mechanistic bases of such physiological changes are largely unknown. In order to test whether humidity levels affect starvation and heat resistance, we investigated developmental acclimation effects of low to high humidity conditions on the storage and utilization of energy resources, body mass, starvation survival, heat knockdown and heat survival of D. melanogaster. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity (85% RH) stored significantly higher level of lipids and showed greater starvation survival hours but smaller in body size. In contrast, lines reared at low humidity evidenced reduced levels of body lipids and starvation resistance. Starvation resistance and lipid storage level were higher in females than males. However, the rate of utilization of lipids under starvation stress was lower for lines reared under higher humidity. Adult flies of lines reared at 65% RH and acclimated under high or low humidity condition for 200 hours also showed changes in resistance to starvation and heat but such effects were significantly lower as compared with developmental acclimation. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity showed greater heat knockdown time and heat-shock survival. These laboratory observations on developmental and adult acclimation effects of low versus high humidity conditions have helped in explaining seasonal changes in resistance to starvation and heat of the wild-caught flies of D. melanogaster. Thus, we may suggest that wet versus drier conditions significantly affect starvation and heat resistance of D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental conditions affecting the efficiency and efficacy of piscicides for use in nonnative fish eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter James

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of native fish is a pressing issue for fisheries managers. Conservation efforts often require eliminating threats posed by nonnative fish by eradicating them with piscicides. The piscicides rotenone and antimycin are used for eradication but their application is often inefficient or ineffective. My goal was to increase the efficiency and efficacy of nonnative fish eradication using piscicides. I identified environmental conditions affecting piscicide application, researched methods to overcome these problems, and provided tools that piscicide applicators can use to make piscicide application more efficient and effective. Rotenone and antimycin were exposed to varying levels of sunlight, turbulence, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) to determine the effect these environmental conditions have on piscicides. Bioassay fish were used to determine the toxicity of the piscicides. Sunlight and turbulence affected rotenone and antimycin but DOM did not. Increasing the concentration of chemical can increase the resistance to the effects of these environmental conditions; however, the effects of these conditions are considerable in natural settings. Observations of bioassay fish in stream applications of rotenone were used to develop a statistical model to predict the persistence of the piscicide. The model can be used to predict rotenone persistence in small montane streams and to estimate where rotenone concentrations need to be fortified. I measured the mixing rate of a chemical plume in different channel morphologies and at center or edge applications. Center application had a significantly shorter mixing distance than edge application, but mixing distance was not different among meandering, straight, and riffle/pool morphologies. Application of my findings will increase the efficiency and efficacy of native fish conservation using piscicides.

  4. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions: Validation of the Danish Global Mood Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual...

  5. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H; Kappeler, Peter M; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals' general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations.

  7. How do operating conditions affect As(III) removal by iron electrocoagulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaire, Caroline; Amrose, Susan; Zhang, Minghui; Hake, James; Gadgil, Ashok

    2017-04-01

    Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) has been shown to effectively remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater at low cost and has the potential to improve access to safe drinking water for millions of people. Understanding how operating conditions, such as the Fe dosage rate and the O 2 recharge rate, affect arsenic removal at different pH values is crucial to maximize the performance of Fe-EC under economic constraints. In this work, we improved upon an existing computational model to investigate the combined effects of pH, Fe dosage rate, and O 2 recharge rate on arsenic removal in Fe-EC. We showed that the impact of the Fe dosage rate strongly depends on pH and on the O 2 recharge rate, which has important practical implications. We identified the process limiting arsenic removal (As(III) oxidation versus As(V) adsorption) at different pH values, which allowed us to interpret the effect of operating conditions on Fe-EC performance. Finally, we assessed the robustness of the trends predicted by the model, which assumes a constant pH, against lab experiments reproducing more realistic conditions where pH is allowed to drift during treatment as a result of equilibration with atmospheric CO 2 . Our results provide a nuanced understanding of how operating conditions impact arsenic removal by Fe-EC and can inform decisions regarding the operation of this technology in a range of groundwaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological distress is associated with a range of high-priority health conditions affecting working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul; Hilton, Michael; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey

    2010-06-01

    Psychological distress is growing in prevalence in Australia. Comorbid psychological distress and/or depressive symptoms are often associated with poorer health, higher healthcare utilisation and decreased adherence to medical treatments. The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study cross-sectional screening dataset was used to explore the association between psychological distress and a range of health conditions in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The study uses the World Health Organization Health and Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ), to identify self-reported health status. Within the HPQ is the Kessler 6 (K6), a six-item scale of psychological distress which strongly discriminates between those with and without a mental disorder. Potential confounders of age, sex, marital status, number of children, education level and annual income were included in multivariate logistic regression models. Psychological distress was significantly associated with all investigated health conditions in both crude and adjusted estimates. The conditions with the strongest adjusted association were, in order from highest: drug and alcohol problems, fatigue, migraine, CVD, COPD, injury and obesity. Psychological distress is strongly associated with all 14 health conditions or risk factors investigated in this study. Comorbid psychological distress is a growing public health issue affecting Australian workers.

  9. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  10. Quantifying the timescales over which exogenous and endogenous conditions affect soil respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Cable, Jessica M; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Scott, Russell L; Huxman, Travis E; Jenerette, G Darrel; Ogle, Kiona

    2014-04-01

    Understanding how exogenous and endogenous factors and above-ground-below-ground linkages modulate carbon dynamics is difficult because of the influences of antecedent conditions. For example, there are variable lags between above-ground assimilation and below-ground efflux, and the duration of antecedent periods are often arbitrarily assigned. Nonetheless, developing models linking above- and below-ground processes is crucial for estimating current and future carbon dynamics. We collected data on leaf-level photosynthesis (Asat ) and soil respiration (Rsoil ) in different microhabitats (under shrubs vs under bunchgrasses) in the Sonoran Desert. We evaluated timescales over which endogenous and exogenous factors control Rsoil by analyzing data in the context of a semimechanistic temperature-response model of Rsoil that incorporated effects of antecedent exogenous (soil water) and endogenous (Asat ) conditions. For both microhabitats, antecedent soil water and Asat significantly affected Rsoil , but Rsoil under shrubs was more sensitive to Asat than that under bunchgrasses. Photosynthetic rates 1 and 3 d before the Rsoil measurement were most important in determining current-day Rsoil under bunchgrasses and shrubs, respectively, indicating a significant lag effect. Endogenous and exogenous controls are critical drivers of Rsoil , but the relative importance and the timescale over which each factor affects Rsoil depends on above-ground vegetation and ecosystem structure characteristics. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  12. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  13. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rix Brooks

    Full Text Available Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA.Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded.PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test.Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic

  14. Profiles of selected nutrients affecting skin condition in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strucińska, Małgorzata; Rowicka, Grażyna; Riahi, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammation of the skin recognised to be one of the first clinical signs of allergy. In the first years of life, epidemiological evidence has demonstrated that common causative foods of a child's diet are: cow's milk, hen's eggs, wheat and soya. Children with AD being treated with elimination diets are at risk of nutritional deficiencies that include those nutrients required for ensuring proper skin structure and function. The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of nutrients which affect skin condition in children with AD being treated with a milk-free diet. Subjects were 25 children aged 4-6 years with AD undergoing the milk exclusion diet and 25 age-matched healthy controls. The energy and nutritional value of diets were evaluated that included those components affecting skin condition; ie. vitamins A, D, E, B2 and C; minerals iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn); polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The Dieta 5.0 programme was used for dietary assessment and outcomes were then related to dietary recommendations. There were no significant differences between groups in mean energy values and mean intakes of protein, fats and carbohydrates (p>0.05). The percentage of subjects with low energy value were 44% and 36% in respectively Groups I and II. Deficiencies of fat intake were observed in 60% in Group I and 44% in Group II. There were however no risks in the dietary intakes of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins A, B2 and C nor of Fe and Zn. Deficiencies of dietary intakes were observed in respectively Groups I and II in the following; vitamin E (24% vs 64%), vitamin D (36% vs 92%), linoleic acid (36% vs 72%), α-linolenic acid (36% vs 40%) and long chain PUFAs (96% in both groups). Ensuring recommended dietary supply of those nutrients affecting skin condition is required for both groups of children. Children with AD had better balanced diets in respect of the studied nutrients that may reflect the influence of continuous healthcare

  15. Valence of physical stimuli, not housing conditions, affects behaviour and frontal cortical brain activity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, Sabine; Lutz, Janika; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2014-07-01

    Modulation of short-term emotions by long-term mood is little understood but relevant to understand the affective system and of importance in respect to animal welfare: a negative mood might taint experiences, whilst a positive mood might alleviate single negative events. To induce different mood states in sheep housing conditions were varied. Fourteen ewes were group-housed in an unpredictable, stimulus-poor and 15 ewes in a predictable, stimulus-rich environment. Sheep were tested individually for mood in a behavioural cognitive bias paradigm. Also, their reactions to three physical stimuli thought to differ in their perceived valence were observed (negative: pricking, intermediate: slight pressure, positive: kneading). General behaviour, activity, ear movements and positions, and haemodynamic changes in the cortical brain were recorded during stimulations. Generalised mixed-effects models and model probabilities based on the BIC (Bayesian information criterion) were used. Only weak evidence for mood difference was found. Sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing condition had a somewhat more negative cognitive bias, showed slightly more aversive behaviour, were slightly more active and moved their ears somewhat more. Sheep most clearly differentiated the negative from the intermediate and positive stimulus in that they exhibited more aversive behaviour, less nibbling, were more active, showed more ear movements, more forward ear postures, fewer backward ear postures, and a stronger decrease in deoxyhaemoglobin when subjected to the negative stimulus. In conclusion, sheep reacted towards stimuli according to their presumed valence but their mood was not strongly influenced by housing conditions. Therefore, behavioural reactions and cortical brain activity towards the stimuli were hardly modulated by housing conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Retorting conditions affect palatability and physical characteristics of canned cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A; Orlanes, Denmark F; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H; van der Poel, Antonius F B

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different temperature and time conditions during retorting of canned cat food on physicochemical characteristics and palatability were examined. For this purpose, lacquer cans containing an unprocessed loaf-type commercial cat food were heated in a pressurised retorting system at three specified temperature-time profiles (113°C/232 min, 120°C/103 min and 127°C/60 min) to equal a similar lethality ( F 0 value = 30). Physicochemical properties (viscosity, texture, particle size, pH) were determined, and a 10 d three-bowl palatability test was performed with ten European shorthair cats. Retorting at 113°C/232 min resulted in differences in all the physical parameters examined ( particle size). Significant pH differences were observed (6·53, 6·63 and 6·66 for T113/232, 120 and 127°C, respectively). Preference ratios were 0·38, 0·31 and 0·31 for T113/232, 120 and 127°C, respectively ( P  = 0·067). It can be concluded that different retorting temperature-time profiles with equal F 0 value significantly affect physical characteristics and tended to affect palatability of moist cat food.

  17. Fermentation conditions that affect clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi-Leng eSer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g. olive oil, corn oil could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.. Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus.

  18. No pain, no gain: the affective valence of congruency conditions changes following a successful response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouppe, N.; Braem, S.; de Houwer, J.; Silvetti, M.; Verguts, T.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Notebaert, W.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive control theory of Botvinick, Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 356-366 (2007) integrates cognitive and affective control processes by emphasizing the aversive nature of cognitive conflict. Using an affective priming paradigm, we replicate earlier results showing that

  19. Do Wind Turbines Affect Weather Conditions?: A Case Study in Indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan F. Henschen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming increasingly widespread in the United States as the world looks for cleaner sources of energy. Scientists, policymakers, and citizens have strong opinions regarding the positive and negative effects of wind energy projects, and there is a great deal of misinformation about wind energy circulating on the Web and other media sources. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of how the rotation of hundreds of turbines can influence local weather conditions within a wind farm and in the surrounding areas. This experiment measures temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and evaporation with five weather instruments at Meadow Lake Wind Farm located in White, Jasper, and Benton Counties, Indiana, from November 4 through November 18, 2010. The data show that as wind passes throughout the wind farm, the air warms during the overnight and early morning hours and cools during daytime hours. Observed lower humidity rates and higher evaporation rates downwind also demonstrate that the air dries out as it travels through the wind farm. Further research over multiple seasons is necessary to examine the effects of warmer nighttime temperatures and drier conditions progressively downwind of the installation. Nevertheless, wind turbines did not negatively affect local weather patterns in our small-scale research and may actually prevent frost, which could have important positive implications for farmers by potentially prolonging the growing season.

  20. Converging evidence that subliminal evaluative conditioning does not affect self-esteem or cardiovascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, Anke; Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F

    2018-04-01

    Self-esteem moderates the relationship between stress and (cardiovascular) health, with low self-esteem potentially exacerbating the impact of stressors. Boosting self-esteem may therefore help to buffer against stress. Subliminal evaluative conditioning (SEC), which subliminally couples self-words with positive words, has previously been successfully used to boost self-esteem, but the existing studies are in need of replication. In this article, we aimed to replicate and extend previous SEC studies. The first 2 experiments simultaneously examined whether SEC increased self-esteem (Experiment 1, n = 84) and reduced cardiovascular reactivity to a stressor in high worriers (Experiment 2, n = 77). On the basis of these results, the 3rd experiment was set up to examine whether an adjusted personalized SEC task increased self-esteem and reduced cardiac activity in high worriers (n = 81). Across the 3 experiments, no effects were found of SEC on implicit or explicit self-esteem or affect or on cardiovascular (re)activity compared to a control condition in which the self was coupled with neutral words. The results do not support the use of the subliminal intervention in its current format. As stress is highly prevalent, future studies should focus on developing other cost-effective and evidence-based interventions. © 2017 The Authors. Stress and Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Converging evidence that subliminal evaluative conditioning does not affect self‐esteem or cardiovascular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Self‐esteem moderates the relationship between stress and (cardiovascular) health, with low self‐esteem potentially exacerbating the impact of stressors. Boosting self‐esteem may therefore help to buffer against stress. Subliminal evaluative conditioning (SEC), which subliminally couples self‐words with positive words, has previously been successfully used to boost self‐esteem, but the existing studies are in need of replication. In this article, we aimed to replicate and extend previous SEC studies. The first 2 experiments simultaneously examined whether SEC increased self‐esteem (Experiment 1, n = 84) and reduced cardiovascular reactivity to a stressor in high worriers (Experiment 2, n = 77). On the basis of these results, the 3rd experiment was set up to examine whether an adjusted personalized SEC task increased self‐esteem and reduced cardiac activity in high worriers (n = 81). Across the 3 experiments, no effects were found of SEC on implicit or explicit self‐esteem or affect or on cardiovascular (re)activity compared to a control condition in which the self was coupled with neutral words. The results do not support the use of the subliminal intervention in its current format. As stress is highly prevalent, future studies should focus on developing other cost‐effective and evidence‐based interventions. PMID:28795525

  2. An ultraviolet B condition that affects growth and defense in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Filip; Yu, Na; Li, Weidong; Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Smagghe, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet B light (UV-B, 280-315 nm) is the shortest wavelength of the solar spectrum reaching the surface of the Earth. It has profound effects on plants, ranging from growth regulation to severe metabolic changes. Low level UV-B mainly causes photomorphogenic effects while higher levels can induce stress, yet these effects tend to overlap. Here we identified a condition that allows growth reduction without obvious detrimental stress in wild type Arabidopsis rosette plants. This condition was used to study the effects of a daily UV-B dose on plant characteristics of UV-B adapted plants in detail. Exploration of the transcriptome of developing leaves indicated downregulation of genes involved in stomata formation by UV-B, while at the same time genes involved in photoprotective pigment biosynthesis were upregulated. These findings correspond with a decreased stomatal density and increased UV-B absorbing pigments. Gene ontology analysis revealed upregulation of defense related genes and meta-analysis showed substantial overlap of the UV-B regulated transcriptome with transcriptomes of salicylate and jasmonate treated as well as herbivore exposed plants. Feeding experiments showed that caterpillars of Spodoptera littoralis are directly affected by UV-B, while performance of the aphid Myzus persicae is diminished by a plant mediated process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Verbal instructions targeting valence alter negative conditional stimulus evaluations (but do not affect reinstatement rates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Camilla C; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2018-02-01

    Negative conditional stimulus (CS) valence acquired during fear conditioning may enhance fear relapse and is difficult to remove as it extinguishes slowly and does not respond to the instruction that unconditional stimulus (US) presentations will cease. We examined whether instructions targeting CS valence would be more effective. In Experiment 1, an image of one person (CS+) was paired with an aversive US, while another (CS-) was presented alone. After acquisition, participants were given positive information about the CS+ poser and negative information about the CS- poser. Instructions reversed the pattern of differential CS valence present during acquisition and eliminated differential electrodermal responding. In Experiment 2, we compared positive and negative CS revaluation by providing positive/negative information about the CS+ and neutral information about CS-. After positive revaluation, differential valence was removed and differential electrodermal responding remained intact. After negative revaluation, differential valence was strengthened and differential electrodermal responding was eliminated. Unexpectedly, the instructions did not affect the reinstatement of differential electrodermal responding.

  4. The Conditions of the Environment as Factors Affecting the Social and Political Stability of Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Pedrazzini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.

  5. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamini Kashimshetty

    Full Text Available Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG, which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively, with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene

  6. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  7. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a longer shelf life. Further study is thus needed.

  8. The distressed (Type D) personality factor of social inhibition, but not negative affectivity, enhances eyeblink conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M T; Handy, J D; Blankenship, M R; Servatius, R J

    2018-06-01

    Recent work has focused on a learning diathesis model in which specific personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI) may influence associative learning and in turn increase risk for the development of anxiety disorders. We have found in a series of studies that individuals self-reporting high levels of BI exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks. In the study reported here, hypotheses were extended to include distressed (Type D) personality which has been found to be related to BI. Type D personality is measured with the DS-14 scale which includes two subscales measuring negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI). We hypothesized that SI, which is similar to BI, would result in enhanced acquisition while the effect of NA is unclear. Eighty nine participants completed personality inventories including the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI) and DS-14. All participants received 60 acquisition trials with a 500 ms, 1000 Hz, tone CS and a co-terminating 50 ms, 5 psi corneal airpuff US. Participants received either 100% CS-US paired trials or a schedule of partial reinforcement where 50% US alone trials were intermixed into CS-US training. Acquisition of CRs did not differ between the two training protocols. Whereas BI was significantly related to Type D, SI, and NA, only BI and SI individuals exhibited enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as compared to non-inhibited individuals. Personality factors now including social inhibition can be used to identify individuals who express enhanced associative learning which lends further support to a learning diathesis model of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  10. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beest, Floris M; Milner, Jos M

    2013-01-01

    Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance are likely contributory factors. Climate-related effects on animal

  11. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

    2004-07-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis.

  12. The Study of Road Conditions that Affect Tilt-based Text Input for Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Miniotas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advances in technology of mobile devices, their application areas expand continuously as well. Given the growth of the market share for mobile devices, one of the main issues that arise is the need for new and convenient techniques for data input and output suitable for various settings. Tilt-based text input is one of the alternatives that attract attention of current researchers. This study investigates the potential of using tilt-based interaction to enter text while sitting as a passenger in a moving vehicle. In addition, the investigation focused on the characteristics of the road as well as driving conditions that affect tilt-based text input. The study manipulated the following factors: keyboard size 10×4 and road unevenness (small, moderate, and large. 14 participants, aged 25 to 50, took part in the user study. The best performance and the shortest task completion time equal to 24.5 seconds was observed when the vehicle was moving at a constant speed on a straight road with small unevenness. The task completion time increased by 15% in moderate unevenness road and by almost 20 % in large unevenness road. Error rate and movement efficiency were investigated additionally in order to find out the cause of such times.

  13. Spider foraging strategy affects trophic cascades under natural and drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Jin; Gan, Wenjin; Schaefer, Douglas; Gan, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-07-23

    Spiders can cause trophic cascades affecting litter decomposition rates. However, it remains unclear how spiders with different foraging strategies influence faunal communities, or present cascading effects on decomposition. Furthermore, increased dry periods predicted in future climates will likely have important consequences for trophic interactions in detritus-based food webs. We investigated independent and interactive effects of spider predation and drought on litter decomposition in a tropical forest floor. We manipulated densities of dominant spiders with actively hunting or sit-and-wait foraging strategies in microcosms which mimicked the tropical-forest floor. We found a positive trophic cascade on litter decomposition was triggered by actively hunting spiders under ambient rainfall, but sit-and-wait spiders did not cause this. The drought treatment reversed the effect of actively hunting spiders on litter decomposition. Under drought conditions, we observed negative trophic cascade effects on litter decomposition in all three spider treatments. Thus, reduced rainfall can alter predator-induced indirect effects on lower trophic levels and ecosystem processes, and is an example of how such changes may alter trophic cascades in detritus-based webs of tropical forests.

  14. Characterization of conditionally expressed mutants affecting age-specific Drosophila melanogaster : Lethal conditions and temperature-sensitive periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, CJ; Bijlsma, R

    The specific genetic basis of inbreeding depression is poorly understood. To address this question, two conditionally expressed lethal effects that were found to cause line-specific life span reductions in two separate inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. were characterized phenotypically and

  15. Phenolic compounds and fatty acids from acorns (Quercus spp.), the main dietary constituent of free-ranged Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos; López-Bote, Clemente; de la Hoz, Lorenzo; Ordóñez, Juan A; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2003-10-08

    The aim of the present work was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and fatty acids in acorns from Quercus ilex, Quercus rotundifolia, and Quercus suber. The concentration of oleic acid was >63% of total fatty acids in all cases, followed by palmitic and linoleic acids at similar concentrations (12-20%). The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in Q. rotundifolia, Q. ilex, and Q. suber were 19, 31, and 38 mg/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively, whereas the concentrations of gamma-tocopherol were 113, 66, and 74 mg/kg of DM, respectively. Thirty-two different phenolic compounds were distinguished. All of them were gallic acid derivatives, in the form of either galloyl esters of glucose, combinations of galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of glucose, tergallic O- or C-glucosides, or ellagic acid derivatives. Several tergallic acid C-glucosides were also present in the extracts obtained from Q. suber. Acorns from Q. ilex and Q. rotundifolia showed similar polyphenol patterns mainly with gallic acid-like spectra. Chromatograms of Q. suber showed mainly polyphenols with ellagic acid-like spectra. Valoneic acid dilactone was especially abundant in Q. suber skin. The contribution of skin to the total phenolics of the acorn was relatively small in Q. rotundifolia and Q. ilex but relatively high in Q. suber. Skin extracts from Q. suber, Q. rotundifolia, and Q. ilex showed 1.3, 1.4, and 1.0 antioxidant efficiencies, respectively (compared to that of butylhydroxyanisole). Endosperm extracts showed lower capacity to prevent lipid peroxidation than skin extracts.

  16. Characterization of Acorn Fruit Oils Extracted from Selected Mediterranean Quercus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rousan, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to identifying the acorn fruit oil composition of three Mediterranean white oak group species, Quercus aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI, and Quercus calliprinus (QC. Samples were estimated for the oil contents of acorn fruits, oil chemical and physical constants, fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and sterols.The oil content, expressed as dry weight, was found to be 3.40-7.51%. The physical and chemical constants included specific gravity 0.912-0.922, refractive index 1.4529-1.4645, specific extinction at 232 nm 2.497-2.536 and at 270 nm 1.495-2.037, iodine value 75.2-87.6, and saponification value 192.6-219.4. The fatty acid compositions were determined by GC as methyl esters. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic (53.3-56.1%, linoleic 21.3-23.4%, palmitic 17.8-18.7%, linolenic 1.5-1.6% and stearic acid 1.02-1.60%. The Tocopherol content was high in the range of 1440-1783 mg kg-1, γ-tocopherol constituted 84-91% of total tocopherols. Phenolic compounds were in remarkable amounts in all the three species 84-109 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil. Total sterol contents were between 2040-2480 mg kg-1 oil, with β-sitosterol being the main component comprising of 77.20-84.61%, followed by ∆5-avenasterol (5.8-11.4%, campesterol (3.6-4.5%, and stigmasterol (2.6-3.8. The cholesterol content was relatively high (0.42-0.55%.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la composición de aceites de bellota de tres especies del grupo del roble blanco del Mediterráneo, Quercus Aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI y Quercus calliprinus (QC. Las muestras fueron evaluadas por el contenido de aceite, parámetros físico-químicos del aceite, perfil de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, compuestos fenólicos y esteroles. El contenido de aceite, expresado en peso seco encontrado fue de 3,40 a 7,51%. Las constantes físico-químicas fueron: densidad 0,912-0,922, índice de refracción 1,4529 a 1,4645, extinción espec

  17. Factors Affecting Pathogen Survival in Finished Dairy Compost with Different Particle Sizes Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Junshu; Chen, Zhao; Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in finished dairy compost with different particle sizes during storage as affected by moisture content and temperature under greenhouse conditions. The mixture of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium strains was inoculated into the finished composts with moisture contents of 20, 30, and 40%, separately. The finished compost samples were then sieved into 3 different particle sizes (>1000, 500-1000, and 500 μm) and stored under greenhouse conditions. For compost samples with moisture contents of 20 and 30%, the average Salmonella reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and 500 μm were 2.15, 2.27, and 2.47 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.60, 2.03, and 2.26 log CFU g(-1) in late fall, respectively, and 2.61, 3.33, and 3.67 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. The average E. coli O157:H7 reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and 500 μm were 1.98, 2.30, and 2.54 log CFU g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.70, 2.56, and 2.90 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. Our results revealed that both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in compost samples with larger particle size survived better than those with smaller particle sizes, and the initial rapid moisture loss in compost may contribute to the fast inactivation of pathogens in the finished compost. For the same season, the pathogens in the compost samples with the same particle size survived much better at the initial moisture content of 20% compared to 40%.

  18. Autolytic degradation of skipjack tuna during heating as affected by initial quality and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Nicola J; Amato, Penny M; Giesbrecht, Francis; Lanier, Tyre C

    2012-02-01

    Several factors were studied as affecting protein degradation and texture of skipjack tuna muscle following ambient pressure thermal processing (precooking). These included degree of mushy tuna syndrome (MTS) evidenced in the raw meat, raw meat pH, abusive thawing/holding, and precooking temperature/time. Slurries and intact pieces from frozen skipjack tuna, either tempered for 2 h or thawed and held at 25 °C for 22 h (abusive treatment) were heated at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C for up to 2 h, and also at 90 °C for 1 h, with or without prior adjustment of pH to 5 or 7 to favor cathepsin or calpain activity, respectively. Proteolysis of precooked samples was monitored by Lowry assay and SDS-PAGE; cooked texture of intact meat was measured using a Kramer shear press and by sensory profile analysis. Proteolysis maximally occurred in slurries of skipjack tuna muscle that had been abusively stored (22 h at 25 °C) and adjusted to pH 5 prior to heating at 55 °C. Intact pieces of tuna abusively thawed/held for 22 h with subsequent heating at 55 °C also evidenced the most proteolysis and were the least firm in texture. Raw fish that evidenced higher severity of MTS when raw displayed higher levels of proteolysis prior to cooking, which were further increased after cooking at 55 °C. The kinetic data presented here can be used to optimize processing conditions for skipjack tuna canning to minimize textural degradation and optimize quality. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Maternal condition and previous reproduction interact to affect offspring sex in a wild mammal

    OpenAIRE

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-01-01

    Trivers and Willard proposed that offspring sex ratio should vary with maternal condition when condition, meant as maternal capacity to care, has different fitness consequences for sons and daughters. In polygynous and dimorphic species, mothers in good condition should preferentially produce sons, whereas mothers in poor condition should produce more daughters. Despite its logical appeal, support for this hypothesis has been inconsistent. Sex-ratio variation may be influenced by additional f...

  20. Success/failure condition influences attribution of control, negative affect, and shame among patients with depression in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Si-Ning; Zainal, Hani; Tang, Catherine S; Tong, Eddie M; Ho, Cyrus S; Ho, Roger C

    2017-08-02

    There remains a paucity of research on control attribution and depression within Asian populations. This study examines: (1) Success/Failure condition as a moderator between depression and negative affect or shame, and (2) differences in control attribution between patients with depression and healthy controls in Singapore. Seventy one patients with depression and 71 healthy controls went through a digit-span memory task where they were randomized into either the Success or Failure condition. Participants in the Success condition had to memorize and recall 5-digit strings, while participants in the Failure condition did the same for 12-digit strings. They then completed self-report measures of negative affect, shame, and attribution of control. One-way ANCOVA was performed to examine task condition as a moderator of association between mental health status and post-task negative affect or shame. Test of simple effects was carried out on significant interactions. Sign test and Mann-Whitney U test were employed to investigate differences in attribution of control. Mental health status and Success/Failure condition had significant effects on reported negative affect and shame. Healthy controls reported less post-task negative affect and shame in the Success than in the Failure condition while patients with depression reported similar levels of post-task negative affect and shame in both conditions. However, these differences were not significant in the test of simple effects. In addition, healthy controls felt a stronger sense of personal control in success than in failure and were more likely to blame external factors in failure than in success. Conversely, patients with depression were more inclined to credit external factors in success than in failure and ascribed greater personal control in failure than in success. The results suggest that successful conditions may not necessitate the reduction of negative affect in Asians with depression, indicating possible

  1. Disking and mid- and understory removal following an above-average acorn crop in three mature oak forests in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald A. Rathfon; Nathanael I. Lichti; Robert K. Swihart

    2008-01-01

    We disked using small-scale equipment in the understory of three mature upland oak (Quercus) forests in southern Indiana immediately following acorn dispersal in an aboveaverage seed crop year as a means of improving oak seedling establishment. Three different mid- and understory removal treatments were also applied to create favorable light...

  2. No pain, no gain: the affective valence of congruency conditions changes following a successful response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouppe, Nathalie; Braem, Senne; De Houwer, Jan; Silvetti, Massimo; Verguts, Tom; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Notebaert, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The cognitive control theory of Botvinick, Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 356-366 (2007) integrates cognitive and affective control processes by emphasizing the aversive nature of cognitive conflict. Using an affective priming paradigm, we replicate earlier results showing that incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials, are indeed perceived as more aversive (Dreisbach & Fischer, Brain and Cognition, 78(2), 94-98 (2012)). Importantly, however, in two experiments we demonstrate that this effect is reversed following successful responses; correctly responding to incongruent trials engendered relatively more positive affect than correctly responding to congruent trials. The results are discussed in light of a recent computational model by Silvetti, Seurinck, and Verguts, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5:75 (2011) where it is assumed that outcome expectancies are more negative for incongruent trials than congruent trials. Consequently, the intrinsic reward (prediction error) following successful completion is larger for incongruent than congruent trials. These findings divulge a novel perspective on 'cognitive' adaptations to conflict.

  3. Performing a secondary executive task with affective stimuli interferes with decision making under risk conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathmann, Bettina; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schöler, Tobias; Brand, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that executive functions are crucial for advantageous decision making under risk and that therefore decision making is disrupted when working memory capacity is demanded while working on a decision task. While some studies also showed that emotions can affect decision making under risk, it is unclear how affective processing and executive functions predict decision-making performance in interaction. The current experimental study used a between-subjects design to examine whether affective pictures (positive and negative pictures compared to neutral pictures), included in a parallel executive task (working memory 2-back task), have an impact on decision making under risk as assessed by the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Moreover, the performance GDT plus 2-back task was compared to the performance in the GDT without any additional task (GDT solely). The results show that the performance in the GDT differed between groups (positive, negative, neutral, and GDT solely). The groups with affective pictures, especially those with positive pictures in the 2-back task, showed more disadvantageous decisions in the GDT than the groups with neutral pictures and the group performing the GDT without any additional task. However, executive functions moderated the effect of the affective pictures. Regardless of affective influence, subjects with good executive functions performed advantageously in the GDT. These findings support the assumption that executive functions and emotional processing interact in predicting decision making under risk.

  4. Iron exclusion in rice genotypes as affected by different vapor pressure deficit conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Kumar Shrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Root iron (Fe exclusion capacity of four lowland rice genotypes were evaluated in increasing rate of Fe2+ stresses (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/L in growing medium under the conditions of low and high vapor pressure deficit. Rice root excluded significantly higher amount of iron under dry atmospheric condition (655 mg Fe/g root dry matter than moist atmospheric condition (118 mg Fe/g root dry matter. But their iron exclusion capacity reduced when they were gradually exposed to the higher levels of Fe stress. Tolerant genotype such as TOX3107 excluded more iron when they were exposed to dry atmospheric condition.

  5. Structure and function of the liver in conditions of chrome-isoniazid-rifampicin affection of rats after applying of sorbex

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Burmas; L. S. Fira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the activity of marker enzymes of the liver and its biliary formation function in conditions of the affection of animals by hexavalent chromium compounds, isoniazid and rifampicin, after applying of sorbex. The experimental affection of rats of different age was carried in the conditions of combined injection of hexavalent chromium compounds (solution of potassium dichromate, 3 mg/kg), isoniazid (0.05 g/kg) and rifampicin (0.25 g/kg) during the 7th and 1...

  6. Maternal condition and previous reproduction interact to affect offspring sex in a wild mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-08-01

    Trivers and Willard proposed that offspring sex ratio should vary with maternal condition when condition, meant as maternal capacity to care, has different fitness consequences for sons and daughters. In polygynous and dimorphic species, mothers in good condition should preferentially produce sons, whereas mothers in poor condition should produce more daughters. Despite its logical appeal, support for this hypothesis has been inconsistent. Sex-ratio variation may be influenced by additional factors, such as environmental conditions and previous reproduction, which are often ignored in empirical studies. We analysed 39 years of data on bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that fit all the assumptions of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Production of sons increased with maternal condition only for mothers that weaned a son the previous year. This relationship likely reflects a mother's ability to bear the higher reproductive costs of sons. The interaction between maternal condition and previous weaning success on the probability of producing a son was independent of the positive effect of paternal reproductive success. Maternal and paternal effects accounted for similar proportions of the variance in offspring sex. Maternal reproductive history should be considered in addition to current condition in studies of sex allocation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Extrusion conditions affect chemical composition and in vitro digestion of select food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust, Jolene M; Gajda, Angela M; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Burkhalter, Toni M; Merchen, Neal R; Fahey, George C

    2004-05-19

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of extrusion conditions on chemical composition and in vitro hydrolytic and fermentative digestion of barley grits, cornmeal, oat bran, soybean flour, soybean hulls, and wheat bran. Extrusion conditions altered crude protein, fiber, and starch concentrations of ingredients. Organic matter disappearance (OMD) increased for extruded versus unprocessed samples of barley grits, cornmeal, and soybean flour that had been hydrolytically digested. After 8 h of fermentative digestion, OMD decreased as extrusion conditions intensified for barley grits and cornmeal but increased for oat bran, soybean hulls, and wheat bran. Total short-chain fatty acid production decreased as extrusion conditions intensified for barley grits, soybean hulls, and soybean flour. These data suggest that the effects of extrusion conditions on ingredient composition and digestion are influenced by the unique chemical characteristics of individual substrates.

  8. Quantifying the time scales over which exogenous and endogenous conditions affect soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how exogenous and endogenous factors and aboveground-belowground linkages modulate carbon dynamics is difficult because of influences of antecedent conditions. For example, there are variable lags between aboveground assimilation and belowground efflux, and the duration of antecedent p...

  9. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitch D. Weegman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch years (i.e., between cohorts. In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8% of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young only once in their lifetime and 15 (2% reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4 when environmental conditions were ‘good’ prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7 if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to

  10. Polarization Affects Airway Epithelial Conditioning of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Chhoden, Tashi; Arge, Maria

    2015-01-01

    were allowed to polarize on filter inserts, and MDDCs were allowed to adhere to the epithelial basal side. In an optimized setup, the cell application was reversed, and the culture conditions were modified to preserve cellular polarization and integrity. These two parameters were crucial for the MDDCs....... In conclusion, we determined that AEC conditioning favoring cellular integrity leads to a tolerogenic MDDC phenotype, which is likely to be important in regulating immune responses against commonly inhaled allergens....

  11. Evaluative Conditioning 2.0: Direct versus Associative Transfer of Affect to Brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.L.R. Sweldens (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA basic assumption in advertising is that brands become more well-liked after they were presented in positive contexts. This assumption is warranted because studies on ‘evaluative conditioning’ have demonstrated that when a brand is repeatedly presented together with positive affective

  12. Acetazolamide as a vasodilatory stimulus in cerebrovascular diseases and in conditions affecting the cerebral vasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settakis, G.; Molnár, C.; Kerényi, L.; Kollár, J.; Legemate, D.; Csiba, L.; Fülesdi, B.

    2003-01-01

    Pathologic processes affecting the brain vessels may damage cerebral vasodilatory capacity. Early detection of cerebral dysfunction plays an important role in the prevention of cerebrovascular diseases. In recent decades acetazolamide (AZ) has frequently been used for this purpose. In the present

  13. The lysine-peptoid hybrid LP5 maintain activity under physiological conditions and affects virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Sanne; Ingmer, Hanne; Thomsen, Line E.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, LP5, is a lysine-peptoid hybrid, with antimicrobial activity against clinically relevant bacteria. Here, we investigated how various environmental conditions affect the antimicrobial activity of LP5 against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). We found that LP5 maintained...

  14. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Hansen, Christian M.

    2013-01-01

    did not affect egg survival during the first 48h and it took up to 10days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites......, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C...

  15. Orthogonal Test Analysis on Conditions Affecting Electricity Generation Performance of an Enhanced Geothermal System at Yangbajing Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Zeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main conditions affecting electricity generation performance of an enhanced geothermal system (EGS include reservoir porosity, reservoir permeability, rock heat conductivity, water production rate and injection temperature. Presently there is lack of systematic research the relative importance of the five aforementioned conditions. The orthogonal test method is a statistical approach to analyze multi-factor and multi-level influence on system performance. In this work, based on the geological data at Yangbajing geothermal field, we analyzed the five conditions affecting the electricity generation performance of EGS, and ranked the relative importance of the five factors. The results show that the order of the relative importance of the conditions on electric power is water production rate > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity > reservoir permeability; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on reservoir impedance is reservoir permeability > injection temperature > water production rate > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on pump power is water production rate > reservoir permeability > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity, and; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on energy efficiency is water production rate > reservoir permeability > reservoir porosity > injection temperature > rock heat conductivity. The construction of an EGS reservoir should be located at a formation with higher reservoir porosity or rock heat conductivity, while the determination of reservoir permeability, water production rate and injection temperature should be based on the comprehensive target.

  16. Sociality Affects REM Sleep Episode Duration Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions in the Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Gravett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rock hyrax, Procavia capensis, is a highly social, diurnal mammal. In the current study several physiologically measurable parameters of sleep, as well as the accompanying behavior, were recorded continuously from five rock hyraxes, for 72 h under solitary (experimental animal alone in the recording chamber, and social conditions (experimental animal with 1 or 2 additional, non-implanted animals in the recording chamber. The results revealed no significant differences between solitary and social conditions for total sleep times, number of episodes, episode duration or slow wave activity (SWA for all states examined. The only significant difference observed between social and solitary conditions was the average duration of rapid eye movement (REM sleep episodes. REM sleep episode duration was on average 20 s and 40 s longer under social conditions daily and during the dark period, respectively. It is hypothesized that the increase in REM sleep episode duration under social conditions could possibly be attributed to improved thermoregulation strategies, however considering the limited sample size and design of the current study further investigations are needed to confirm this finding. Whether the conclusions and the observations made in this study can be generalized to all naturally socially sleeping mammals remains an open question.

  17. Storage conditions affect oxidative stability and nutritional composition of freeze-dried Nannochloropsis salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Langvad, Sten; Møller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    composition of microalgae biomass. In order to investigate the worsening of the nutritional quality of freeze dried biomass, a multifactorial storage experiment was conducted on a high EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) Nannochloropsis salina biomass. The storage time (0–56 days), storage temperature (5, 20,and 40...... °C and packaging conditions (under vacuum and ambient pressure)used as main factors. During the 56 days of storage, both time and temperature strongly influenced the oxidation reactions which result in deterioration of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and EPA. Lipid deterioration......, or cosmetics requires the knowledge of the optimum storage conditions to prevent the value-added compounds from deterioration. Results of this study improve our understanding of the chemical deterioration under different storage conditions and can help the producers/customers to extend the shelf life...

  18. Under which conditions does T1 difficulty affect T2 performance in the attentional blink?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias Søren

    2009-01-01

    When two visual targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, performance of T2 suffers up to 900 ms. One theory of this attentional blink (Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992) propose that T1 and T2 compete for limited processing resources (Chun & Potter, 1995), and predict that prolonging...... processing time for T1 by increasing its perceptual difficulty will induce a larger blink. Several studies have tested this prediction without reaching a consistent answer. McLaughlin, Shore, & Klein (2001) found no effect of the exposure duration of T1 on the attentional blink. Christmann & Leuthold (2004...... duration. In the hard condition, T1 exposure duration was 10 ms while T1 contrast was adjusted individually to reach 50% correct T1 identification. In the long duration condition, T1 exposure duration was increased to reach approximately 90% correct T1 identification. In the high contrast condition, T1...

  19. Storage Conditions of Skin Affect Tissue Structure and Subsequent in vitro Percutaneous Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Plasencia Gil, Maria Inés; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2011-01-01

    fluorescence microscopy) and in vitro percutaneous penetration of caffeine under four different storage conditions using skin samples from the same donors: fresh skin, skin kept at -20°C for 3 weeks (with or without the use of polyethylene glycol) and at -80°C. Our results show a correlation between increasing...... permeation of caffeine and tissue structural damage caused by the storage conditions, most so after skin storage at -80°C. The presented approach, which combines imaging techniques with studies on percutaneous penetration, enables the link between tissue damage at selected depths and penetration...

  20. Do nest light conditions affect rejection of parasitic eggs? A test of the light environment hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Morongová, Klára; Čapek, Miroslav; Jelínek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2011), s. 539-546 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * nest light conditions * egg recognition * Great reed warbler * cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  1. HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE TROPOSPHERIC FLUX OF VINCLOZOLIN AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory chamber was used to determine hydrologic conditions that lead to the tropospheric flux of a suspected anti-androgenic dicarboximide fungicide, vinclozolin (3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-vinyl-oxzoli-dine-2,4-dione) and three degradation products from sterilized...

  2. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerkens, Jasper L T; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-09-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage housing systems known as aviaries. Factors tested included type of system flooring, degree of red mite infestation, and access to free-range areas. Information on housing characteristics, management, and performance in Belgian aviaries (N=47 flocks) were obtained from a questionnaire, farm records, and farm visits. Plumage condition and pecking wounds were scored in 50 randomly selected 60-week-old hens per flock. Associations between plumage condition, wounds, performance, mortality, and possible risk factors were investigated using a linear model with a stepwise model selection procedure. Many flocks exhibited a poor plumage condition and a high prevalence of wounds, with considerable variation between flocks. Better plumage condition was found in wire mesh aviaries (Pfeather cover had lower levels of mortality (Pnest perches. Wire mesh flooring in particular seems to have several health, welfare, and performance benefits in comparison to plastic slats, possibly related to decreased feather pecking, better hygiene, and fewer red mite infestations. This suggests that adjustments to the aviary housing design may further improve laying hen welfare and performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Some conditions affecting the definition of design basis accidents relating to sodium/water reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The possible damaging effects of large sodium/water reactions on the steam generator, IHX and secondary circuit are considered. The conditions to be considered in defining the design basis accidents for these components are discussed, together with some of the assumptions that may be associated with design assessments of the scale of the accidents. (author)

  4. Retorting conditions affect palatability and physical characteristics of canned cat food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Orlanes, D.F.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different temperature and time conditions during retorting of canned cat food on physicochemical characteristics and palatability were examined. For this purpose, lacquer cans containing an unprocessed loaf-type commercial cat food were heated in a pressurised retorting system at

  5. Post-cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations...

  6. Survival of spray-dried Lactobacillus kefir is affected by different protectants and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golowczyc, Marina A; Gerez, Carla L; Silva, Joana; Abraham, Analía G; De Antoni, Graciela L; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-04-01

    Survival of two Lactobacillus kefir strains after spray drying in reconstituted skim milk with or without the addition of 12.5 g monosodium glutamate/l, 20 g sucrose/l, or 20 g fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)/l and during subsequent storage under different conditions of temperature (20 and 30°C) and relative humidity (RH) (0, 11 and 23%) was evaluated. After being dried, L. kefir 8321 and L. kefir 8348 had a decrease in viability of 0.29 and 0.70 log cfu/ml respectively, while the addition of different protectants improved the survival of both strains significantly. During storage, bacterial survival was significantly higher under lower conditions of RH (0-11%), and monosodium glutamate and FOS proved to be the best protectants.

  7. Oceanic conditions and their variations affecting behavior of radionuclides in marine environment off Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    In order to elucidate the behavior of radioactive nuclides liberated from the Rokkasho reprocessing plant into the ocean, the characteristics of oceanic region around this plant were clarified by the measurements of oceanic circulation, flow rate and its seasonal variation. Further the computer simulation model for the reconstruction and prediction of oceanic conditions off Rokkasho was prepared. The whole image on this oceanic region was therefore reconstructed using this model. (M.H.)

  8. Dorsal bundle lesions do not affect latent inhibition of conditioned suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, E; Preston, G C; Rawlins, J N; Winocur, G; Gray, J A

    1984-01-01

    Three experiments are reported which examine the effects of lesions of the dorsal ascending noradrenergic bundle (DB) on latent inhibition using a conditioned suppression procedure in rats. In none of the experiments did the DB lesion have any effect, despite changes in the extent of latent inhibition and in the control procedures used to assess it. The results are discussed in relation to the attentional theory of DB function.

  9. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Mellado; Laura Maricela Lara; Francisco Gerardo Veliz; María Ángeles de Santiago; Leonel Avendaño-Reyes; Cesar Meza-Herrera; José Eduardo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services), raised under intense heat (mea...

  10. Radiographer use of anatomical side markers and the latent conditions affecting their use in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titley, Anna G.; Cosson, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patient safety is a primary concern within the NHS. It has been reported that anatomical side marker (ASM) use in radiography does not meet the ‘best practice’ standard. Case reports suggest this may be a contributing factor to adverse events in healthcare. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the latent conditions contributing to poor ASM practice; communities of practice, time of image acquisition and competing priorities with collimation practice. Method: Proxy variables of projection and laterality were used to measure communities of practice. ASM practice on 330 examinations (170 lumbar spine, 160 finger) was retrospectively observed using a data collection tool. Aggregate scores were calculated from the two images in each examination. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests (projection) and Mann–Whitney U tests (laterality, time of acquisition and collimation practice). Results: ‘Best practice’ ASM use was met on one examination. Correct ASM were observed within the primary collimation in 32.0% images. Projection, laterality and collimation practice were associated with ASM use. Time of acquisition was not found to be associated. Discussion: Communities of practice and competing priorities impact on ASM use. Logistic regression to determine a primary latent condition was not possible. However, comparison with previous research suggests this is likely to be specific to each radiography department. Conclusion: Latent conditions are associated with poor ASM practice. These must be identified and addressed in each individual radiography department, to improve patient safety and uphold NHS Constitutional standards

  11. Does heavy metal exposure affect the condition of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzańska-Pietras, Katarzyna; Chachulska, Justyna; Polechońska, Ludmiła; Borowiec, Marta

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic pollution results in high concentrations of heavy metals in the environment. Due to their persistence and a high potential for bioaccumulation, metals are a real threat for birds breeding in industrial areas. The aim of the present study has been to explore the contents of heavy metals (arsenic As, cadmium Cd, chromium Cr, copper Cu, iron Fe, nickel Ni, lead Pb and zinc Zn) in the excreta of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings living in polluted environment and to investigate the relationship between these contents and the nestlings' condition. Excrement samples contained all the studied elements. The contents of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc in the excreta of nestlings from nests located close to a slag dump were several times higher than in the soil near the dump, which suggested accumulation in food consumed by the birds. Condition parameters (body mass and haemoglobin concentration) were not related to heavy metal concentrations in the nestlings' excreta, except of Zn. It is possible that Whitethroats are able to detoxicate heavy metals to a certain extent. Detailed, multi-element analysis of the environment, food and bird tissues or excreta should be performed to explore relations between different chemicals and bird condition.

  12. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition 'and' extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS- comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effect of experimental stress in 2 different pain conditions affecting the facial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Alain; L'heveder, Gildas; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Bodéré, Céline

    2013-05-01

    Chronic facial muscle pain is a common feature in both fibromyalgia (FM) and myofascial (MF) pain conditions. In this controlled study, a possible difference in the mode of deregulation of the physiological response to a stressing stimulus was explored by applying an acute mental stress to FM and MF patients and to controls. The effects of the stress test were observed on pain, sympathetic variables, and both tonic and reflex electromyographic activities of masseteric and temporal muscles. The statistical analyses were performed through a generalized linear model including mixed effects. Painful reaction to the stressor was stronger (P < .001) and longer (P = .011) in FM than in MF independently of a higher pain level at baseline. The stress-induced autonomic changes only seen in FM patients did not reach significance. The electromyographic responses to the stress test were strongest for controls and weakest for FM. The stress test had no effect on reflex activity (area under the curve [AUC]) or latency, although AUC was high in FM and latencies were low in both pain groups. It is suggested that FM is characterized by a lower ability to adapt to acute stress than MF. This study showed that an acute psychosocial stress triggered several changes in 2 pain conditions including an increase in pain of larger amplitude in FM than in MF pain. Similar stress-induced changes should be explored as possible mechanisms for differentiation between dysfunctional pain conditions. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors affecting stress assisted corrosion cracking of carbon steel under industrial boiler conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong

    Failure of carbon steel boiler tubes from waterside has been reported in the utility boilers and industrial boilers for a long time. In industrial boilers, most waterside tube cracks are found near heavy attachment welds on the outer surface and are typically blunt, with multiple bulbous features indicating a discontinuous growth. These types of tube failures are typically referred to as stress assisted corrosion (SAC). For recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry, these failures are particularly important as any water leak inside the furnace can potentially lead to smelt-water explosion. Metal properties, environmental variables, and stress conditions are the major factors influencing SAC crack initation and propagation in carbon steel boiler tubes. Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted under boiler water conditions to study the effect of temperature, oxygen level, and stress conditions on crack initation and propagation on SA-210 carbon steel samples machined out of boiler tubes. Heat treatments were also performed to develop various grain size and carbon content on carbon steel samples, and SSRTs were conducted on these samples to examine the effect of microstructure features on SAC cracking. Mechanisms of SAC crack initation and propagation were proposed and validated based on interrupted slow strain tests (ISSRT). Water chemistry guidelines are provided to prevent SAC and fracture mechanics model is developed to predict SAC failure on industrial boiler tubes.

  15. The Impact of Downsizing on the Socio-Economics Condition on Affected Employees. The Case of Pakistan International Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed Saif; Khalid Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Muh Saqib Khan; Zia-Ur-Rehman; Bakhtiar Khan

    2013-01-01

    This research study examines the process of downsizing and is impact on the socio-economic condition of affected employee. It was conducted in September 2008 in different areas of NWFP namely district Bannu, Tank, Lakki Marwat and D.I. Khan. A sample of 40 people was taken for this purpose. The average score of the respondent on the instruction of downsizing in the organization show s that mostly affected employees did not like the downsizing process. In particular they responded that downsiz...

  16. Quantification of analytes affected by relevant interfering signals under quality controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J.N.; Santos, Julia R.; Camoes, M. Filomena G.F.C.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of organic contaminants or residues in biological samples is frequently affected by the presence of compounds producing interfering instrumental signals. This feature is responsible for the higher complexity and cost of these analyses and/or by a significant reduction of the number of studied analytes in a multi-analyte method. This work presents a methodology to estimate the impact of the interfering compounds on the quality of the analysis of complex samples, based on separative instrumental methods of analysis, aiming at supporting the inclusion of analytes affected by interfering compounds in the list of compounds analysed in the studied samples. The proposed methodology involves the study of the magnitude of the signal produced by the interfering compounds in the analysed matrix, and is applicable to analytical systems affected by interfering compounds with varying concentration in the studied matrix. The proposed methodology is based on the comparison of the signals from a representative number of examples of the studied matrix, in order to estimate the impact of the presence of such compounds on the measurement quality. The treatment of the chromatographic signals necessary to collect these data can be easily performed considering algorithms of subtraction of chromatographic signals available in most of the analytical instrumentation software. The subtraction of the interfering compounds signal from the sample signal allows the compensation of the interfering effect irrespective of the relative magnitude of the interfering and analyte signals, supporting the applicability of the same model of the method performance for a broader concentration range. The quantification of the measurement uncertainty was performed using the differential approach, which allows the estimation of the contribution of the presence of the interfering compounds to the quality of the measurement. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of

  17. The interdecadal worsening of weather conditions affecting aerosol pollution in the Beijing area in relation to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoye; Zhong, Junting; Wang, Jizhi; Wang, Yaqiang; Liu, Yanju

    2018-04-01

    The weather conditions affecting aerosol pollution in Beijing and its vicinity (BIV) in wintertime have worsened in recent years, particularly after 2010. The relation between interdecadal changes in weather conditions and climate warming is uncertain. Here, we analyze long-term variations of an integrated pollution-linked meteorological index (which is approximately and linearly related to aerosol pollution), the extent of changes in vertical temperature differences in the boundary layer (BL) in BIV, and northerly surface winds from Lake Baikal during wintertime to evaluate the potential contribution of climate warming to changes in meteorological conditions directly related to aerosol pollution in this area; this is accomplished using NCEP reanalysis data, surface observations, and long-term vertical balloon sounding observations since 1960. The weather conditions affecting BIV aerosol pollution are found to have worsened since the 1960s as a whole. This worsening is more significant after 2010, with PM2.5 reaching unprecedented high levels in many cities in China, particularly in BIV. The decadal worsening of meteorological conditions in BIV can partly be attributed to climate warming, which is defined by more warming in the higher layers of the boundary layer (BL) than the lower layers. This worsening can also be influenced by the accumulation of aerosol pollution, to a certain extent (particularly after 2010), because the increase in aerosol pollution from the ground leads to surface cooling by aerosol-radiation interactions, which facilitates temperature inversions, increases moisture accumulations, and results in the extra deterioration of meteorological conditions. If analyzed as a linear trend, weather conditions have worsened by ˜ 4 % each year from 2010 to 2017. Given such a deterioration rate, the worsening of weather conditions may lead to a corresponding amplitude increase in PM2.5 in BIV during wintertime in the next 5 years (i.e., 2018 to 2022

  18. Zone peculiarities of natural conditions, affecting ran food stuffs and drinking water contamination with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of natural conditions on the USSR territory connected with peculiar types of soil on the behaviour of radionuclides fallen from stratosphere is considered. Characteristics of tundra, taiga partially-wooded steppe, step.oe, mountain and semi-desert zones are presented. Peculiarities of soils in different geographical zones of the USSR conditioned by various properties and compositions have a significant effect on 90 Sr and especially 137 Cs migration intensity from the soil into plants and organisms of animals through biological chains. The administration of radionuclides in the ration with food stuffs obtained on the surface of reservoirs where zonality low is also rightful, is studied. It is established that indexes of 90 Sr and 137 Cs buildup in tissues of hydrobionts are in reverse dependence on calcium and potassium content in water. Therefore, maximum levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs buildup in fish is characteristic of zones with the low content of these elements. The degree of water mineralization in ponds has a clear zonality which increases in the direction from the North to the South. The degree of pond well-drained nature is of great importance

  19. Do the visual conditions at the point of escape affect European sea bass escape behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. PAPADAKIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, an important species for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry, has been reported to escape from sea cage installations. Fish escapes are caused mainly by operational and technical failures that eventually result into a creation of a tear. Escapees may interact with wild stocks through interbreeding, transfer of pathogens and competition for food. The aim of this study was to examine at which extent the presence of a visible obstacle close to a tear on the net have an influence on sea bass propensity to escape. Fish were initially confined into small sea cages, with a tear at one side. The escape behavior was tested under experimental conditions. It is clearly demonstrated that sea bass was able to locate a tear on the net pen, immediately after its appearance. Crossings occurred in all cages, in singles or in a series of up to seven individuals. The presence of an obstacle close to the net tear altered the escape behavior of D. labrax resulting in a delay that eventually reduced the escape rate. Concluding, it is highly recommended that sea bass cages should be kept internally the culture array. Furthermore, the placement of artificial obstacles close to the sea cages could be an efficient practice that mitigates the escape risk after severe environmental conditions.

  20. Does the thinking aloud condition affect the search for pulmonary nodules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, Stephen; Brennan, Patrick; Reed, Warren; Williams, Mark; Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.

    2012-02-01

    Aim: To measure the effect of thinking aloud on perceptual accuracy and visual search behavior during chest radiograph interpretation for pulmonary nodules. Background: Thinking Aloud (TA) is an empirical research method used by researchers in cognitive psychology and behavioural analysis. In this pilot study we wanted to examine whether TA had an effect on the perceptual accuracy and search patterns of subjects looking for pulmonary nodules on adult posterioranterior chest radiographs (PA CxR). Method: Seven academics within Medical Radiation Sciences at The University of Sydney participated in two reading sessions with and without TA. Their task was to localize pulmonary nodules on 30 PA CxR using mouse clicks and rank their confidence levels of nodule presence. Eye-tracking recordings were collected during both viewing sessions. Time to first fixation, duration of first fixation, number of fixations, cumulative time of fixation and total viewing time were analysed. In addition, ROC analysis was conducted on collected outcome using DBM methodology. Results: Time to first nodule fixation was significantly longer (p=0.001) and duration of first fixation was significantly shorter (p=0.043). No significant difference was observed in ROC AUC scores between control and TA conditions. Conclusion: Our results confirm that TA has little effect on perceptual ability or performance, except for prolonging the task. However, there were significant differences in visual search behavior. Future researchers in radio-diagnosis could use the think aloud condition rather than silence so as to more closely replicate the clinical scenario.

  1. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  2. Analytical solution describing pesticide volatilization from soil affected by a change in surface condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R

    2009-01-01

    An analytical solution describing the fate and transport of pesticides applied to soils has been developed. Two pesticide application methods can be simulated: point-source applications, such as idealized shank or a hot-gas injection method, and a more realistic shank-source application method that includes a vertical pesticide distribution in the soil domain due to a soil fracture caused by a shank. The solutions allow determination of the volatilization rate and other information that could be important for understanding fumigant movement and in the development of regulatory permitting conditions. The solutions can be used to characterize differences in emissions relative to changes in the soil degradation rate, surface barrier conditions, application depth, and soil packing. In some cases, simple algebraic expressions are provided that can be used to obtain the total emissions and total soil degradation. The solutions provide a consistent methodology for determining the total emissions and can be used with other information, such as field and laboratory experimental data, to support the development of fumigant regulations. The uses of the models are illustrated by several examples.

  3. Conditions Affecting the Performance of Peripheral Vein Cannulation during Hospital Placement: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ravik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning practical nursing skills is an important part of the baccalaureate in nursing. However, many newly qualified nurses lack practical skill proficiency required to ensure safe patient care. The invasive skill peripheral vein cannulation (PVC is particularly challenging to learn and perform. This study explored conditions influencing nursing students’ learning and performance of the technical implementation of a PVC during their clinical placement period. A qualitative and descriptive case study design with two students in Norway practicing PVC during their clinical placement was conducted. One student who mastered the vein cannulation was compared with one student who did not. Data were collected in late 2012 using multiple data sources: semistructured interviews, ad hoc conversations, and video recordings. Video recordings of the two students’ cannula implementations were used to help clarify and validate the descriptions and to identify gaps between what students said and what they did. Thematic analysis of the transcribed text data enabled identifying themes that influenced skill performance. There were two overall themes: individual and contextual conditions influencing the technical implementation of a peripheral vein cannula. These findings were evaluated in terms of Benner’s work on scientific and practical knowledge, defined as “knowing that” and “knowing how.”

  4. Study of the conditions affecting the critical speed of a rotating pump shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, P.; Huet, J.L.; Axisa, F.

    1983-01-01

    Knowing the parameters conditioning the critical speed of a pump shaft is important, both for safety and design purposes, since the shafts are often to operate beyond the first critical speed. These aims led CEA, associated with NOVATOME and FRAMATOME (with the cooperation of JEUMONT-SCHNEIDER) to carry out a test program on critical speeds of a full scale nuclear pump shaft. Fluid-structure interaction plays an important part in the setting of critical speed. Due to the coupling between the rotative fluid flow and the transverse vibrations of the shaft, inertial and stiffness forces are created, which are non conservative and proportional to the added mass of the fluid. The hydrostatic bearing effect and the influence of the water carried along by the pump wheel were also investigated, but proved unimportant in the case of the shaft studied. Experimental results are compared with calculations of critical speed. (orig.)

  5. Culture conditions affecting the survival response of Chinese hamster ovary cells treated by hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highfield, D.P.; Holahan, E.V.; Dewey, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Using lethally irradiated feeder cells to control cell population densities, researchers investigated the survival of Chinese hamster ovary cells heated between 42.2 and 45.5 degrees C. Test cells were plated into T25 flasks with or without feeder cells, incubated 2 hours at 37 degrees C, and then given various heat treatments. Under all heating conditions, survival increased in those flasks containing feeder cells. Increased survival (by as much as a factor of 100 for cells heated at 42.4 degrees C for 6-10 hr) was most apparent when cells were heated to thermotolerance. By adjustment of test and feeder cell numbers, survival increased as density increased; however, maximum survival followed a transition period that occurred between the plating of 1 X 10(4) and 6 X 10(4) cells. Experimental artifacts due to improper control of cell density was demonstrated

  6. A direct numerical simulation of cool-flame affected autoignition in diesel engine-relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisman, Alexander; Hawkes, Evatt Robert.; Talei, Mohsen; Bhagatwala, Ankit; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2016-11-11

    In diesel engines, combustion is initiated by a two-staged autoignition that includes both low- and high-temperature chemistry. The location and timing of both stages of autoignition are important parameters that influence the development and stabilisation of the flame. In this study, a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to provide a fully resolved description of ignition at diesel engine-relevant conditions. The DNS is performed at a pressure of 40 atmospheres and at an ambient temperature of 900 K using dimethyl ether (DME) as the fuel, with a 30 species reduced chemical mechanism. At these conditions, similar to diesel fuel, DME exhibits two-stage ignition. The focus of this study is on the behaviour of the low-temperature chemistry (LTC) and the way in which it influences the high-temperature ignition. The results show that the LTC develops as a “spotty” first-stage autoignition in lean regions which transitions to a diffusively supported cool-flame and then propagates up the local mixture fraction gradient towards richer regions. The cool-flame speed is much faster than can be attributed to spatial gradients in first-stage ignition delay time in homogeneous reactors. The cool-flame causes a shortening of the second-stage ignition delay times compared to a homogeneous reactor and the shortening becomes more pronounced at richer mixtures. Multiple high-temperature ignition kernels are observed over a range of rich mixtures that are much richer than the homogeneous most reactive mixture and most kernels form much earlier than suggested by the homogeneous ignition delay time of the corresponding local mixture. Altogether, the results suggest that LTC can strongly influence both the timing and location in composition space of the high-temperature ignition.

  7. Physiochemical and functional properties of tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes) skin gelatin as affected by extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinfeng; Li, Qi; Jia, Hui; Xia, Lining; Jin, Wengang; Shang, Meijun; Xu, Chang; Dong, Xiuping

    2018-04-01

    The study investigated physiochemical and functional properties of gelatins from tiger puffer skin (GTPS) extracted with warm-water method at 45, 55 and 65°C for 3, 6 and 12h. GTPS45 exhibited strong γ-, β-, α1- and α2-chains, but they faded with the presence of fragments (<80KDa) in other GTPS. As the increase of temperature and time, amide I and A were shifted to higher wavenumber and their amplitudes in GTPS65-12 decreased. Lightness declined while redness and yellowness were enhanced. Gel strength was in a range of 144.5-79.8g, where it of GTPS45-3 was the highest while it of GTPS65-12 was the lowest (p<0.05), coincided with the longer relaxation time of T 22 for immobilized water. Decline in gelling and melting temperature was observed when temperature and time increased. EAI and ESI increased as time prolonged or temperature climbed (p<0.05), in agreement with the form of emulsion droplet by microscopy. Both category and level of volatile compounds increased GTPS65-12 and 55-12 compared with those in GTPS45-12. Results suggest that temperature and time greatly affect the properties of GTPS. To ensure good properties, GTPS should be extracted at a temperature of 45-55°C for less than 12h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihm, Julia S; Rasch, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Emotional memories are reprocessed during sleep, and it is widely assumed that this reprocessing occurs mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In support for this notion, vivid emotional dreams occur mainly during REM sleep, and several studies have reported emotional memory enhancement to be associated with REM sleep or REM sleep-related parameters. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation of emotional memories during REM sleep strengthens emotional memories. Here, we tested whether re-presentation of emotionally learned stimuli during REM sleep enhances emotional memory. In a split-night design, participants underwent Pavlovian conditioning after the first half of the night. Neutral sounds served as conditioned stimuli (CS) and were either paired with a negative odor (CS+) or an odorless vehicle (CS-). During sound replay in subsequent late REM or N2 sleep, half of the CS+ and half of the CS- were presented again. In contrast to our hypothesis, replay during sleep did not affect emotional memory as measured by the differentiation between CS+ and CS- in expectancy, arousal and valence ratings. However, replay unspecifically decreased subjective arousal ratings of both emotional and neutral sounds and increased positive valence ratings also for both CS+ and CS- sounds, respectively. These effects were slightly more pronounced for replay during REM sleep. Our results suggest that re-exposure to previously conditioned stimuli during late sleep does not affect emotional memory strength, but rather influences the affective tone of both emotional and neutral memories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Variable abattoir conditions affect Salmonella enterica prevalence and meat quality in swine and pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, H S; Gailey, J K; McKean, J D; Griffith, R W

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that abattoir holding pens pose significant Salmonella enterica risk to swine immediately preharvest. The goal of this study was to evaluate those factors related to holding that increased the prevalence of S. enterica in swine at slaughter. To accomplish this goal, we focused on holding time and flooring. Our objectives were to (1) compare Salmonella enterica prevalence among pigs held for short (15-45 min) versus long (up to 4 h) periods before slaughter; and (2) determine the impact of flooring (slatted vs. concrete) as it relates to the prevalence of S. enterica. The study consisted of seven repetitions at a large volume (11,000 head/day) Midwest abattoir. Each repetition consisted of one truck load of pigs (n = 170) sorted into one of three groups: (1) animals held for a short time (15-45 min) on solid floors (short-hold); (2) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on slatted floors; and (3) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on solid concrete floors. At slaughter, samples were collected from 30 pigs in each group. Cecal contents (20 mL), feces (20 g), and the ileocecal lymph node were cultured for S. enterica. Additionally, the effect of holding time on meat quality parameters (loin pH at 35 min and 6 h, color, drip loss) was evaluated for the first four replicates. The proportion of S. enterica-positive samples was highest (p Meat quality, as measured by multiple parameters, was adversely affected by lack of a rest period. The mean 24-h pH was significantly lower for the short-hold group compared to the other two groups. The mean Minolta L and the drip loss were significantly higher in the short-hold group. From this and other studies, it appears that elimination of the holding process is not feasible S. enterica control option, given current U.S. harvesting systems.

  10. Experimental investigation of factors affecting the control of redox conditions within a radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, R.M.; Atkinson, A.

    1991-04-01

    The maximum aqueous concentration of multivalent radioelements in a radwaste repository can be estimated from the expected Eh (the oxidising or reducing tendency of the solution) and pH of the aqueous phase in the repository so long as equilibrium between all oxidising and reducing species can be guaranteed. The objective of the work reported here was to ascertain whether any significant departures from redox equilibrium are likely to arise. Technetium (VII) species were exposed under anaerobic conditions to concentrations of ferrous, hydrogen sulphide and thiosulphate species likely to be present in a repository environment to establish which species are capable of reducing aqueous Tc(VII) to a less soluble Tc(IV) solid compound. Potential catalytic solid phases and phases capable of electron exchange were also exposed to Tc(VII) species under anaerobic, aerobic and hydrogen atmospheres. We have not been able to demonstrate conclusively that mutual equilibrium was attained between technetium and iron redox couples, nor that the apparent solubility of technetium was that expected from the resulting Eh and pH of the solution, although some technetium was removed from solution. Hydrogen did not reduce Tc(VII) within the timescale of the experiments and no catalytic effects by haematite or a cementitious backfill grout for reductions involving hydrogen were observable. Magnetite removed some technetium from solution, apparently by surface reaction, under inert (argon) and reducing (hydrogen) atmospheres. Sulphides, and to a lesser extent thiosulphates, will reduce the solubility of technetium to a very low level. (author)

  11. Environmental conditions affecting exopolysaccharide production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönül

    2008-06-15

    Three different chromium-resistant microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.) were tested with regard to their EPS production at different pH levels, temperatures, Cr(VI) concentrations, and incubation periods. The optimum pH level was 7 for P. aeruginosa and Micrococcus sp., while it was 8 for Ochrobactrum sp. according to the highest EPS amount at 100 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration. The highest production of EPSs by the three bacteria was obtained under different environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa produced the highest EPS (863.3 mg/L) after incubation for 96 h on media with 50 mg/L Cr(VI) at 20 degrees C, Micrococcus sp. gave the highest yield (444.6 mg/L) after incubation for 72 h on media with 100 mg/L Cr(VI) at the same temperature, and Ochrobactrum sp. had the highest production (430.5 mg/L) on media with 150 mg/L Cr(VI) at 30 degrees C at the end of 48 h of incubation.

  12. Social makes smart: rearing conditions affect learning and social behaviour in jumping spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, J; Schneider, J M

    2017-11-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to whether social or physical environmental aspects drive the evolution and development of cognitive abilities. Surprisingly few studies make use of developmental plasticity to compare the effects of these two domains during development on behaviour later in life. Here, we present rearing effects on the development of learning abilities and social behaviour in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. These spiders are ideally suited for this purpose because they possess the ability to learn and can be reared in groups but also in isolation without added stress. This is a critical but rarely met requirement for experimentally varying the social environment to test its impact on cognition. We split broods of spiders and reared them either in a physically or in a socially enriched environment. A third group kept under completely deprived conditions served as a 'no-enrichment' control. We tested the spiders' learning abilities by using a modified T-maze. Social behaviour was investigated by confronting spiders with their own mirror image. Results show that spiders reared in groups outperform their conspecifics from the control, i.e. 'no-enrichment', group in both tasks. Physical enrichment did not lead to such an increased performance. We therefore tentatively suggest that growing up in contact with conspecifics induces the development of cognitive abilities in this species.

  13. Diet and weaning age affect the growth and condition of Dover sole (Solea solea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diet type (frozen Artemia biomass and two inert diets: micro-bound [MB] and micro-extruded [ME] and two weaning ages (early weaning and late weaning, 50 and 64 days after hatching, respectively were studied in Solea solea larvae. The experiment lasted 56 and 42 days for early and late weaning, respectively. The mortality results showed the highest values for late weaning (39% in the Artemia treatment. No significant differences in mortality were observed between the inert diets. The final dry weight values were higher for late weaning than for early weaning. At both weaning ages, fish receiving the same treatments had similar tendencies for dry weight and standard length. Fish fed with MB presented significantly higher dry weight and standard length, followed by ME, while the lowest values at both weaning ages were recorded for the Artemia treatment. Similar amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acid fractions among the inert diets were reflected by the absence of significant differences in the susceptibility to oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances testing; however, significant differences were found in carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents of whole-body homogenates for both early and late weaning. At the end of the experiment no significant differences in biochemical contents were observed between the two inert diets. The results of this study suggest that weaning starting on day 50 (early weaning, using a good quality inert diet, leads to higher survival, growth and fish condition.

  14. Composition of Myrtus communis L. Essential Oils as Affected by Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae family, commonly known as myrtle, possesses a set of qualities that make it very interesting for the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. In this work, myrtle was studied over a period of three years (2006-2008, encompassing the main stages of the development cycle of the plant. The influence of climatic conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, on the chemical composition and yield of the essential oils obtained from leaves and berries was studied. The leaves and berries essential oils were obtained by Clevenger distillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The results show that the major components were limonene+1,8-cineole, myrtenyl acetate, α-pinene and linalool. Over the three year period of study, a decrease in the composition of the most volatile compounds (α-pinene and limonene+1,8-cineole was observed, the reverse being found for linalool and myrtenyl acetate. The highest value for the yield of the leaves’ essential oils was observed in the third year (0.64%, w/w, whereas that same year the lowest yield (0.07%, w/w of fruit was observed. These results were likely due to an atypically high record for rainfall in April and May of that year. The highest value of the berry essential oils (0.14%, w/w was obtained in the second year.

  15. Modeling Time-Dependent Behavior of Concrete Affected by Alkali Silica Reaction in Variable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaggar, Mohammed; Di Luzio, Giovanni; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2017-04-28

    Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) is known to be a serious problem for concrete worldwide, especially in high humidity and high temperature regions. ASR is a slow process that develops over years to decades and it is influenced by changes in environmental and loading conditions of the structure. The problem becomes even more complicated if one recognizes that other phenomena like creep and shrinkage are coupled with ASR. This results in synergistic mechanisms that can not be easily understood without a comprehensive computational model. In this paper, coupling between creep, shrinkage and ASR is modeled within the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) framework. In order to achieve this, a multi-physics formulation is used to compute the evolution of temperature, humidity, cement hydration, and ASR in both space and time, which is then used within physics-based formulations of cracking, creep and shrinkage. The overall model is calibrated and validated on the basis of experimental data available in the literature. Results show that even during free expansions (zero macroscopic stress), a significant degree of coupling exists because ASR induced expansions are relaxed by meso-scale creep driven by self-equilibriated stresses at the meso-scale. This explains and highlights the importance of considering ASR and other time dependent aging and deterioration phenomena at an appropriate length scale in coupled modeling approaches.

  16. STARDUST-U experiments on fluid-dynamic conditions affecting dust mobilization during LOVAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, L.A.; Malizia, A.; Ciparisse, J.F.; Gelfusa, M.; Papa, C. Del; Giovannangeli, I.; Gaudio, P.; Tieri, F.; Murari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006 the Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics (QEP) Research Group together with ENEA FusTech of Frascati have been working on dust re-suspension inside tokamaks and its potential capability to jeopardize the integrity of future fusion nuclear plants (i.e. ITER or DEMO) and to be a risk for the health of the operators. Actually, this team is working with the improved version of the 'STARDUST' facility, i.e. 'STARDUST-Upgrade'. STARDUST-U facility has four new air inlet ports that allow the experimental replication of Loss of Vacuum Accidents (LOVAs). The experimental campaign to detect the different pressurization rates, local air velocity, temperature, have been carried out from all the ports in different accident conditions and the principal results will be analyzed and compared with the numerical simulations obtained through a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) code. This preliminary thermo fluid-dynamic analysis of the accident is crucial for numerical model development and validation, and for the incoming experimental campaign of dust resuspension inside STARDUST-U due to well-defined accidents presented in this paper.

  17. Petunia × hybrida floral scent production is negatively affected by high-temperature growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cna'ani, Alon; Mühlemann, Joelle K; Ravid, Jasmin; Masci, Tania; Klempien, Antje; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Dudareva, Natalia; Pichersky, Eran; Vainstein, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Increasing temperatures due to changing global climate are interfering with plant-pollinator mutualism, an interaction facilitated mainly by floral colour and scent. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses revealed that increasing ambient temperature leads to a decrease in phenylpropanoid-based floral scent production in two Petunia × hybrida varieties, P720 and Blue Spark, acclimated at 22/16 or 28/22 °C (day/night). This decrease could be attributed to down-regulation of scent-related structural gene expression from both phenylpropanoid and shikimate pathways, and up-regulation of a negative regulator of scent production, emission of benzenoids V (EOBV). To test whether the negative effect of increased temperature on scent production can be reduced in flowers with enhanced metabolic flow in the phenylpropanoid pathway, we analysed floral volatile production by transgenic 'Blue Spark' plants overexpressing CaMV 35S-driven Arabidopsis thaliana production of anthocyanin pigments 1 (PAP1) under elevated versus standard temperature conditions. Flowers of 35S:PAP1 transgenic plants produced the same or even higher levels of volatiles when exposed to a long-term high-temperature regime. This phenotype was also evident when analysing relevant gene expression as inferred from sequencing the transcriptome of 35S:PAP1 transgenic flowers under the two temperature regimes. Thus, up-regulation of transcription might negate the adverse effects of temperature on scent production. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Housing conditions affecting interior moisture levels: links to mould growth and children's respiratory health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, John A. [Crosier Kilgour and Partners Ltd. (Canada)], email: john.w@ckpeng.com; Polyzois, Dimos [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Manitoba (Canada)], email: polyzoi@cc.umanitoba.ca; Polyzoi, Eleoussa [Faculty of Education, University of Winnipeg (Canada)], email: l.polyzoi@uwinnipeg.ca

    2011-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a person's respiratory health is affected by high indoor moisture content in their house. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the link between housing conditions and respiratory health, so that strategies can be implemented to improve the quality of life of children. This study was carried out through the completion of a survey by 3,423 parents in Winnipeg, Canada, the collection of 715 air samples from the residences of 715 parents, and an engineering audit of their homes. This study showed that a strong relationship exists between building moisture content and common home maintenance and that routine maintenance is efficient in significantly reducing the growth of mould which impacts children's respiratory health. This paper provided useful information on the relation between housing conditions and respiratory health problems and the rest of the study will aim at determining which building conditions impact mould growth most.

  19. Variant BDNF Val66Met polymorphism affects extinction of conditioned aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Yue; Pattwell, Siobhan; Jing, Deqiang; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Yun; Bath, Kevin G; Lee, Francis S; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2009-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays important roles in activity-dependent plasticity processes, such as long-term potentiation, learning, and memory. The recently reported human BDNF Val66Met (BDNF(Met)) polymorphism has been shown to lead to altered hippocampal volume and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory and is associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. There are few studies, however, that investigate the effect of the BDNF(Met) polymorphism on hippocampal-independent memory processes. A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task was used for studying the mechanisms of long-term, hippocampal-independent, nondeclarative memory in the mammalian brain. Using the CTA paradigm, we found a novel impairment in extinction learning, but not acquisition or retention, of aversive memories resulting from the variant BDNF(Met). BDNF(Met) mice were slower to extinguish an aversive CTA memory compared with wild-type counterparts. Moreover, the BDNF(Met) was associated with smaller volume and decreased neuronal dendritic complexity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which plays a significant role in extinction of CTA. Finally, this delay in extinction learning could be rescued pharmacologically with a cognitive enhancer, d-cycloserine (DCS). To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that the BDNF(Met) polymorphism contributes to abnormalities in memory extinction. This abnormality in extinction learning may be explained by alterations in neuronal morphology, as well as decreased neural activity in the vmPFC. Importantly, DCS was effective in rescuing this delay in extinction, suggesting that when coupled with behavior therapy, DCS may be an effective treatment option for anxiety disorders in humans with this genetic variant BDNF.

  20. Evaluation of factors that affect bioacidulation rock phosphate under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Osorno Bedoya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential nutrient for plant development, unfortunately, its availability in many soils is low. Consequently, farmers apply high quantities of soluble P fertilizers, but this is an inefficient and costly practice. The direct use of rock phosphate (RP is a highly attractive option because its low cost, but this material has low solubility and low agronomic efficiency. In order to overcome this limitation, there is a growing interest in the use of soil microorganisms capable of dissolving RP and improving its value as a P fertilizer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of some factors on the effectiveness of the fungus Mortierella sp. to dissolve RP under in vitro conditions. These factors included: (i incubation time, (ii type of RP, (iii initial concentration of soluble P, and (iv addition of vitamins and micronutrients. After the incubation period, P and pH were measured in solution. The results indicated that as a consequence of the biodissolution of RP, the highest concentration of soluble P in the medium was reached on the day 5th. The biodissolution of RP was reduced by the addition of vitamins and micronutrients and by the increase in the initial concentration of soluble P. Although microbial dissolution was more effective with North Carolina RP, RPs from Huila and Santander showed a good level of dissolution in a short period of time. Bioacidulation will improve the agronomic effectiveness of RP for its direct use or through a previous biotechnological process.

  1. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando José González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27% were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19% on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC, radial expansion (E, specific volume (SV, water absorption (WA, and solubility (S were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp. than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g. Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18. Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  2. Poor Employment Conditions Adversely Affect Mental Health Outcomes Among Surgical Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevric, Jasmina; Papa, Nathan; Perera, Marlon; Rashid, Prem; Toshniwal, Sumeet

    Poor mental health in junior clinicians is prevalent and may lead to poor productivity and significant medical errors. We aimed to provide contemporary data on the mental health of surgical trainees and identify risk factors relating to poorer mental health outcomes. A detailed questionnaire was developed comprising questions based on the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) and Physical Activity Questionnaire. Each of the questionnaires has proven validity and reliability in the clinical context. Ethics approval was obtained from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. The questionnaire was aimed at surgical registrars. We used Physical Activity Questionnaire, SF-36 scores and linear regression to evaluate the effect of putative predictors on mental health. A total of 83 responses were collected during the study period, of which 49 (59%) were from men and 34 (41%) were from women. The mean Mental Component Summary (MCS) score for both sexes was significantly lower than the population mean at ages 25-34 (p work culture and a feeling of a lack of support at work were extremely strong predictors of a lower MCS score (p Hours of overtime worked, particularly unpaid overtime, were also strong predictors of a poorer score. Australian surgical trainees reported lower MCS scores from the SF-36 questionnaire compared to the general population. Increasing working hours, unpaid overtime, poor job security, and job satisfaction were associated with poorer scores among trainees. Interventions providing improved working conditions need to be considered by professional training bodies and employers. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Light Conditions Affect the Measurement of Oceanic Bacterial Production via Leucine Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.; Massana, Ramon; Gasol, Josep M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of irradiance in the range of 400 to 700 nm or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on bacterial heterotrophic production estimated by the incorporation of 3H-leucine (referred to herein as Leu) was investigated in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea and in a coastal North Atlantic site, with Leu uptake rates ranging over 3 orders of magnitude. We performed in situ incubations under natural irradiance levels of Mediterranean samples taken from five depths around solar noon and compared them to incubations in the dark. In two of the three stations large differences were found between light and dark uptake rates for the surfacemost samples, with dark values being on average 133 and 109% higher than in situ ones. Data obtained in coastal North Atlantic waters confirmed that dark enclosure may increase Leu uptake rates more than threefold. To explain these differences, on-board experiments of Leu uptake versus irradiance were performed with Mediterranean samples from depths of 5 and 40 m. Incubations under a gradient of 12 to 1,731 μmol of photons m−2 s−1 evidenced a significant increase in incorporation rates with increasing PAR in most of the experiments, with dark-incubated samples departing from this pattern. These results were not attributed to inhibition of Leu uptake in the light but to enhanced bacterial response when transferred to dark conditions. The ratio of dark to light uptake rates increased as dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations decreased, suggesting that bacterial nutrient deficiency was overcome by some process occurring only in the dark bottles. PMID:11525969

  4. Characteristics of Lignin from Flax Shives as Affected by Extraction Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kelly; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW) extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol

  5. Acute Care of At-Risk Newborns (ACoRN: quantitative and qualitative educational evaluation of the program in a region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Nalini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Acute Care of at-Risk Newborns (ACoRN program was developed in Canada for trained health care providers for the identification and management of newborns who are at-risk and/or become unwell in the first few hours or days after birth. The ACoRN process follows an 8-step framework that enables the evaluation and management of babies irrespective of the experience or expertise of the caregiving individual or team. This study assesses the applicability of the program to Chinese pediatric practitioners. Methods Course content and educational materials were translated from English into Chinese by bilingual neonatal practitioners. Confidence and knowledge questionnaires were developed and reviewed for face and content validity by a team of ACoRN instructors. Bilingual Chinese instructors were trained at the tertiary perinatal centre in Hangzhou Zhejiang to deliver the course at 15 level II county hospitals. Participants completed pre- and post-course confidence and knowledge questionnaires and provided feedback through post-course focus groups. Results 216 physicians and nurses were trained. Confidence and knowledge relating to neonatal stabilization improved significantly following the courses. Participants rated course utility and function between 4.2 and 4.6/5 on all items. Pre/post measures of confidence were significantly correlated with post course knowledge. Focus group data supported the perceived value of the program and recommended course adjustments to include pre-course reading, and increased content related to simulation, communication skills, and management of respiratory illness and jaundice. Conclusions ACoRN, a Canadian educational program, appears to be well received by Chinese health care providers and results in improved knowledge and confidence. International program adaptation for use by health care professionals requires structured and systematic evaluation to ensure that the program meets the needs of

  6. Effect of acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on one-year old container-grown RPM™ oak seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Grossman; Michael A. Gold; Daniel C. Dey

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of seed source, acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on morphological traits of 1-year-old oak seedlings. Forested bottomlands in the Midwest have been greatly reduced in the past 150 years as a result of conversion to agriculture and recent catastrophic floods. Due to a lack of available hard mast, intense...

  7. Dietary fat affects heat production and other variables of equine performance, under hot and humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld, D S

    1996-07-01

    Does dietary fat supplementation during conditioning improve athletic performance, especially in the heat? Fat adaptation has been used to increase energy density, decrease bowel bulk and faecal output and reduce health risks associated with hydrolysable carbohydrate overload. It may also reduce spontaneous activity and reactivity (excitability), increase fatty acid oxidation, reduce CO2 production and associated acidosis, enhance metabolic regulation of glycolysis, improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance and substantially reduce heat production. A thermochemical analysis of ATP generation showed the least heat release during the direct oxidation of long chain fatty acids, which have a 3% advantage over glucose and 20 to 30% over short chain fatty acids and amino acids. Indirect oxidation via storage as triglyceride increased heat loss during ATP generation by 3% for stearic acid, 65% for glucose and 174% for acetic acid. Meal feeding and nutrient storage, therefore, accentuates the advantage of dietary fat. A calorimetric model was based on initial estimates of net energy for competitive work (10.76 MJ for the Endurance Test of an Olympic level 3-day-event), other work (14.4 MJ/day) and maintenance (36 MJ), then applied estimates of efficiencies to derive associated heat productions for the utilisation of 3 diets, Diet A: hay (100), Diet B: hay and oats (50:50) and Diet C: hay, oats and vegetable oil (45:45:10), the difference between the last 2 diets representing fat adaptation. During a 90.5 min speed and stamina test, heat production was estimated as 37, 35.4 and 34.6 MJ for the 3 diets, respectively, an advantage 0.8 MJ less heat load for the fat adapted horse, which would reduce water needed for evaporation by 0.33 kg and reduce body temperature increase by about 0.07 degree C. Total estimated daily heat production was 105, 93 and 88 MJ for the 3 diets, respectively, suggesting a 5 MJ advantage for the fat adapted horse (Diet C vs. Diet B). Estimated

  8. On the Nature of Extraversion: Variation in Conditioned Contextual Activation of Dopamine-Facilitated Affective, Cognitive, and Motor Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard allen Depue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports an association between extraversion and dopamine (DA functioning. DA facilitates incentive motivation and the conditioning and incentive encoding of contexts that predict reward. Therefore, we assessed whether extraversion is related to the efficacy of acquiring conditioned contextual facilitation of three processes that are dependent on DA: motor velocity, positive affect, and visuospatial working memory. We exposed high and low extraverts to three days of association of drug reward (methylphenidate, MP with a particular laboratory context (Paired group, a test day of conditioning, and three days of extinction in the same laboratory. A Placebo group and an Unpaired group (that had MP in a different laboratory context served as controls. Conditioned contextual facilitation was assessed by (i presenting video clips that varied in their pairing with drug and laboratory context and in inherent incentive value, and (ii measuring increases from day 1 to Test day on the three processes above. Results showed acquisition of conditioned contextual facilitation across all measures to video clips that had been paired with drug and laboratory context in the Paired high extraverts, but no conditioning in the Paired low extraverts (nor in either of the control groups. Increases in the Paired high extraverts were correlated across the three measures. Also, conditioned facilitation was evident on the first day of extinction in Paired high extraverts, despite the absence of the unconditioned effects of MP. By the last day of extinction, responding returned to day 1 levels. The findings suggest that extraversion is associated with variation in the acquisition of contexts that predict reward. Over time, this variation may lead to differences in the breadth of networks of conditioned contexts. Thus, individual differences in extraversion may be maintained by activation of differentially encoded central representations of incentive contexts that

  9. Estimativa da ingestão e digestibilidade de erva e bolota em porcos alentejanos pela técnica dos n-alcanos Estimation of intake and digestibility of pasture and acorns by alentejano pigs using n-alkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mendes

    2007-01-01

    36. The animals were fed, during all the trial, with acorns and grass. Intake and digestibility were measured in vivo, per animal, during 5 days and estimated using the n-alkane technique. The estimates of digestibility, based on the concentration of the natural n-alkanes C25 and C27, were close to the measured digestibility in vivo. C29 and C31, in combination with the artificial n-alkanes (C32 and C36, gave the closest digestibility estimates to the measured one. The pairs C29:C32 and C29:C36 gave the best estimates of digestibility. The frequency of administration of artificial alkanes (once or twice daily did not affect the estimates of intake and digestibility. Diet composition (acorn and grass was also estimated using n-alkanes. The combination of C29 and C31 n-alkanes gave the closest estimates to the in vivo measurements.

  10. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newth, J.L.; Rees, E.C.; Cromie, R.L.; McDonald, R.A.; Bearhop, S.; Pain, D.J.; Norton, G.J.; Deacon, C.; Hilton, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL"−"1) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. - Highlights: • Elevated blood lead levels of >20 μg dL"−"1 were found in 41.7% of whooper swans. • Blood lead levels of ≥44 μg dL"−"1 were negatively associated with body condition. • Clinical effects were at lower levels than previously described for Anseriformes. • Reduction of lead shot in the environment would reduce the risk of lead exposure. - Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with the body condition of free-living whooper swans in winter when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10% of birds were above this threshold).

  11. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structure and function of the liver in conditions of chrome-isoniazid-rifampicin affection of rats after applying of sorbex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Burmas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the activity of marker enzymes of the liver and its biliary formation function in conditions of the affection of animals by hexavalent chromium compounds, isoniazid and rifampicin, after applying of sorbex. The experimental affection of rats of different age was carried in the conditions of combined injection of hexavalent chromium compounds (solution of potassium dichromate, 3 mg/kg, isoniazid (0.05 g/kg and rifampicin (0.25 g/kg during the 7th and 14th days, and sorbex enterosorbent was introduced in quantity of 150 mg/kg. The activity of marker enzymes of the liver was evaluated by the activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. The state of biliary formation function of the liver was evaluated by the content of total bilirubin (TB and bile acids (BA in blood. The most significant changes in ALT activity were observed in the liver of old animals by the combined effects of the abovementioned xenobiotics – the activity of ALT was decreased by the end of the experiment by 58% compared with the animals of intact control. Using of sorbex led to decreasing in blood serum and increasing in the liver of affected animals of the different age of ALT activity throughout the experiment. AST activity in blood serum increased, and it was the highest in old animals upon chrome-isoniazid-rifampicin affection on the 14th day of the research. With the use of sorbex, there was a tendency to normalization of this index in blood serum and liver of affected animals on the 7th day from the beginning of the experiment. It was found that the largest increase in ALP took place in blood serum of immature animals by the combined effects of toxicants. In the liver of affected animals the activity of ALP decreased throughout the experiment in all age groups of animals. Maximum corrective effect on the activity of ALP was shown by the enterosorbent in the liver of mature animals on

  13. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  14. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-02-21

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting "robust" animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  15. The osmolyte type affects cartilage associated pathologic marker expression during in vitro mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis under hypertonic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadyan, Sorour; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Tasharofi, Noushin; Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Kehtari, Mousa; Hajari Zadeh, Athena; Soleimani, Masoud; Farazmand, Ali; Hanaee-Ahvaz, Hana

    2018-02-28

    Stem cells' fate during in vitro differentiation is influenced by biophysicochemical cues. Osmotic stress has proved to enhance chondrocyte marker expression, however its potent negative impacts had never been surveyed. We questioned whether specific osmotic conditions, regarding the osmolyte agent, could benefit chondrogenesis while dampening undesired concomitant hypertrophy and inflammatory responses. To examine the potential side effects of hypertonicity, we assessed cell proliferation as well as chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression of human Adipose Derived-MSC after a two week induction in chondrogenic media with either NaCl or Sorbitol, as the osmolyte agent to reach a +100 mOsm hypertonic condition. Calcium deposition and TNF-α secretion as markers associated with hypertrophy and inflammation were then assayed. While both hyperosmotic conditions upregulated chondrogenic markers, sorbitol had a nearly three times higher chondro-promotive effect and a lesser hypertrophic effect compared to NaCl. Also, a significantly lesser calcium deposition was observed in sorbitol hypertonic group. NaCl showed an anti-proinflammatory effect while sorbitol had no effect on inflammatory markers. The ossification potential and cartilage associated pathologic markers were affected differentially by the type of the osmolyte. Thus, a vigilant application of the osmotic agent is inevitable in order to avoid or reduce undesired hypertrophic and inflammatory phenotype acquisition by MSC during chondrogenic differentiation. Our findings are a step towards developing a more reliable chondrogenic regimen using external hypertonic cues for MSC chondrogenesis with potential applications in chondral lesions cell therapy.

  16. The effect of encoding condition on free recall in Parkinson's disease: incidental and intentional memory are equally affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellfolk, Ulla; Huurinainen, Salla; Joutsa, Juho; Karrasch, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Free recall memory deficits are common at early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). As most studies have used intentional memory tasks, there is little information on how non-intentional, incidental encoding conditions affect memory performance in PD. We studied possible differences between PD patients and controls on free recall using incidental and intentional visual memory tasks. Free recall was examined in relation to attentive/executive functioning and subjective memory complaints. A total of 29 non-demented, medicated PD patients (age 60, disease duration 19 months) and 29 healthy controls (age 61) participated in the study. Incidental free recall was studied using a memory-modification of the Boston naming test (Memo-BNT) and intentional free recall with the 20 Objects test. There was a significant main effect for group due to worse free recall performances in the PD group. No statistically significant interaction between group and encoding condition was observed. The free recall deficit in the PD group was related to cognitive/psychomotor slowing, but not to attentive/executive task demands, or to subjective memory complaints. The results indicate that PD patients are impaired on free recall irrespective of encoding condition.

  17. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN eMORAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30ºC during both periods, with a maximum around 20ºC. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche spp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  18. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  19. Phenomics allows identification of genomic regions affecting maize stomatal conductance with conditional effects of water deficit and evaporative demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Santiago Alvarez; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Grau, Antonin; Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Millet, Emilie J; Welcker, Claude; Tardieu, François

    2018-02-01

    Stomatal conductance is central for the trades-off between hydraulics and photosynthesis. We aimed at deciphering its genetic control and that of its responses to evaporative demand and water deficit, a nearly impossible task with gas exchanges measurements. Whole-plant stomatal conductance was estimated via inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation from data of transpiration and plant architecture collected in a phenotyping platform. We have analysed jointly 4 experiments with contrasting environmental conditions imposed to a panel of 254 maize hybrids. Estimated whole-plant stomatal conductance closely correlated with gas-exchange measurements and biomass accumulation rate. Sixteen robust quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified by genome wide association studies and co-located with QTLs of transpiration and biomass. Light, vapour pressure deficit, or soil water potential largely accounted for the differences in allelic effects between experiments, thereby providing strong hypotheses for mechanisms of stomatal control and a way to select relevant candidate genes among the 1-19 genes harboured by QTLs. The combination of allelic effects, as affected by environmental conditions, accounted for the variability of stomatal conductance across a range of hybrids and environmental conditions. This approach may therefore contribute to genetic analysis and prediction of stomatal control in diverse environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Modified Activated Carbon Prepared from Acorn Shells as a New Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbent for the Preconcentration and Determination of Trace Amounts of Nickel in Food Samples Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Bahram

    2017-03-01

    A new solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent was introduced based on acidic-modified (AM) activated carbon (AC) prepared from acorn shells of native oak trees in Kurdistan. Hydrochloric acid (15%, w/w) and nitric acid (32.5%, w/w) were used to condition and modify AC. The IR spectra of AC and AM-AC showed that AM lead to the formation of increasing numbers of acidic functional groups on AM-AC. AM-AC was used in the SPE method for the extraction and preconcentration of Ni+2 prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination at ng/mL levels in model and real food samples. Effective parameters of the SPE procedure, such as the pH of the solutions, sorbent dosage, extraction time, sample volume, type of eluent, and matrix ions, were considered and optimized. An enrichment factor of 140 was obtained. The calibration curve was linear with an R2 of 0.997 in the concentration range of 1-220 ng/mL. The RSD was 5.67% (for n = 7), the LOD was 0.352 ng/mL, and relative recoveries in vegetable samples ranged from 96.7 to 103.7%.

  1. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How Does the Gibbs Inequality Condition Affect the Stability and Detachment of Floating Spheres from the Free Surface of Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dong-xia; Nguyen, Anh V

    2016-03-01

    Floating objects on the air-water interfaces are central to a number of everyday activities, from walking on water by insects to flotation separation of valuable minerals using air bubbles. The available theories show that a fine sphere can float if the force of surface tension and buoyancies can support the sphere at the interface with an apical angle subtended by the circle of contact being larger than the contact angle. Here we show that the pinning of the contact line at the sharp edge, known as the Gibbs inequality condition, also plays a significant role in controlling the stability and detachment of floating spheres. Specifically, we truncated the spheres with different angles and used a force sensor device to measure the force of pushing the truncated spheres from the interface into water. We also developed a theoretical modeling to calculate the pushing force that in combination with experimental results shows different effects of the Gibbs inequality condition on the stability and detachment of the spheres from the water surface. For small angles of truncation, the Gibbs inequality condition does not affect the sphere detachment, and hence the classical theories on the floatability of spheres are valid. For large truncated angles, the Gibbs inequality condition determines the tenacity of the particle-meniscus contact and the stability and detachment of floating spheres. In this case, the classical theories on the floatability of spheres are no longer valid. A critical truncated angle for the transition from the classical to the Gibbs inequality regimes of detachment was also established. The outcomes of this research advance our understanding of the behavior of floating objects, in particular, the flotation separation of valuable minerals, which often contain various sharp edges of their crystal faces.

  3. Dynamics of leaf and spikelet primordia initiation in wheat as affected by Ppd-1a alleles under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochagavía, Helga; Prieto, Paula; Savin, Roxana; Griffiths, Simon; Slafer, GustavoA

    2018-04-27

    Wheat adaptation is affected by Ppd genes, but the role of these alleles in the rates of leaf and spikelet initiation has not been properly analysed. Twelve near isogenic lines (NILs) combining Ppd-1a alleles from different donors introgressed in A, B, and/or D genomes were tested under field conditions during two growing seasons together with the wild type, Paragon. Leaf initiation rate was unaffected by Ppd-1a alleles so the final leaf number (FLN) was reduced in parallel with reductions in the duration of the vegetative phase. Spikelet primordia initiation was accelerated and consequently the effect on spikelets per spike was less than proportional to the effect on the duration of spikelet initiation. The magnitude of these effects on spikelet plastochron depended on the doses of Ppd-1 homoeoalleles and the specific insensitivity alleles carried. Double ridge was consistently later than floral initiation, but the difference between them was not affected by Ppd-1a alleles. These findings have potential for selecting the best combinations from the Ppd-1 homoeoallelic series for manipulating adaptation taking into consideration particular effects on spikelet number.

  4. Prepartum feeding level and body condition score affect immunological performance in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Joshua; McCarthy, Allison; Kay, Jane; Meier, Susanne; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R; Heiser, Axel

    2016-03-01

    Precalving feeding level affects dry matter intake, postcalving energy balance, the risk of hepatic lipidosis and metabolic disease, and gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. These coincide with a higher risk of disease postpartum and, very likely, a failure to reach optimum production as well as reproductive targets. Current interpretation of the available evidence suggest that metabolic stressors affect the immune system of transition dairy cows and lead to reduced immunocompetence. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of precalving body condition score (BCS) and level of feeding on immunocompetence during the peripartum period. Twenty-three weeks before calving, 78 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n=13) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Blood was sampled precalving and at 1, 2 and 4 wk after calving. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The numbers of T helper lymphocytes (CD4+), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+), natural killer cells (CD335+), and γδ T lymphocytes (WC1+) as well as their activation status [IL-2 receptor (CD25)+ cells] were highly variable between animals, but there was no evident effect of BCS, feeding level, or time. All groups presented with an increase in expression of cytokines in unstimulated blood cells in the week after calving, although this was significant only for IFNG in the BCS 4.0 group. Analysis of in vitro-stimulated cells allowed 2 general observations: (1) cows with high energy intake precalving (125%) had increased cytokine expression precalving, and (2) all cows had increased cytokine expression in the week after calving. The present study provides evidence that prepartum feed management can affect immunocompetence during the transition period. Considering

  5. Temperature and light conditions at different latitudes affect sensory quality of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Tor J; Mølmann, Jørgen Ab; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Schreiner, Monica; Velasco, Pablo; Hykkerud, Anne L; Cartea, Elena; Lea, Per; Skaret, Josefine; Seljåsen, Randi

    2017-08-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009-2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply under natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42-70° N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture. Average results over three summer seasons in Germany, southern Norway and northern Norway showed that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour, while broccoli from the German location, with high temperatures and shorter days, had highest intensity of colour hue, whiteness, bitter taste, cabbage flavour, stale flavour and watery flavour. Results from two autumn seasons at the fourth location (42° N, Spain), with low temperatures and short days, tended toward results from the two northernmost locations, with an exception for most texture attributes. Results clearly demonstrate that temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets. Results may be used in marketing special quality regional or seasonal products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Housing conditions and sacrifice protocol affect neural activity and vocal behavior in a songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Julie Estelle; Soula, Hédi Antoine; Trouvé, Colette; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-12-01

    Individual cages represent a widely used housing condition in laboratories. This isolation represents an impoverished physical and social environment in gregarious animals. It prevents animals from socializing, even when auditory and visual contact is maintained. Zebra finches are colonial songbirds that are widely used as laboratory animals for the study of vocal communication from brain to behavior. In this study, we investigated the effect of single housing on the vocal behavior and the brain activity of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): male birds housed in individual cages were compared to freely interacting male birds housed as a social group in a communal cage. We focused on the activity of septo-hypothalamic regions of the "social behavior network" (SBN), a set of limbic regions involved in several social behaviors in vertebrates. The activity of four structures of the SBN (BSTm, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; POM, medial preoptic area; lateral septum; ventromedial hypothalamus) and one associated region (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) was assessed using immunoreactive nuclei density of the immediate early gene Zenk (egr-1). We further assessed the identity of active cell populations by labeling vasotocin (VT). Brain activity was related to behavioral activities of birds like physical and vocal interactions. We showed that individual housing modifies vocal exchanges between birds compared to communal housing. This is of particular importance in the zebra finch, a model species for the study of vocal communication. In addition, a protocol that daily removes one or two birds from the group affects differently male zebra finches depending of their housing conditions: while communally-housed males changed their vocal output, brains of individually housed males show increased Zenk labeling in non-VT cells of the BSTm and enhanced correlation of Zenk-revealed activity between the studied structures. These results show that

  7. Macrophage involvement affects matrix stiffness-related influences on cell osteogenesis under three-dimensional culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Rui-Xin; Xu, Xin-Yue; Wang, Jia; Yin, Yuan; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2018-04-15

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the physicochemical properties of biomaterials exert profound influences on stem cell fate decisions. However, matrix-based regulation selected through in vitro analyses based on a given cell population do not genuinely reflect the in vivo conditions, in which multiple cell types are involved and interact dynamically. This study constitutes the first investigation of how macrophages (Mφs) in stiffness-tunable transglutaminase cross-linked gelatin (TG-gel) affect the osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). When a single cell type was cultured, low-stiffness TG-gels promoted BMMSC proliferation, whereas high-stiffness TG-gels supported cell osteogenic differentiation. However, Mφs in high-stiffness TG-gels were more likely to polarize toward the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype. Using either conditioned medium (CM)-based incubation or Transwell-based co-culture, we found that Mφs encapsulated in the low-stiffness matrix exerted a positive effect on the osteogenesis of co-cultured BMMSCs. Conversely, Mφs in high-stiffness TG-gels negatively affected cell osteogenic differentiation. When both cell types were cultured in the same TG-gel type and placed into the Transwell system, the stiffness-related influences of Mφs on BMMSCs were significantly altered; both the low- and high-stiffness matrix induced similar levels of BMMSC osteogenesis. Although the best material parameter for synergistically affecting Mφs and BMMSCs remains unknown, our data suggest that Mφ involvement in the co-culture system alters previously identified material-related influences on BMMSCs, such as matrix stiffness-related effects, which were identified based on a culture system involving a single cell type. Such Mφ-stem cell interactions should be considered when establishing proper matrix parameter-associated cell regulation in the development of biomimetic biomaterials for regenerative applications. The substrate stiffness

  8. Environmental Growth Conditions of Trichoderma spp. Affects Indole Acetic Acid Derivatives, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Plant Growth Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Jacobo, Maria F.; Steyaert, Johanna M.; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B.; Nguyen, Dianne Vi; Rostás, Michael; Braithwaite, Mark; De Souza, Jorge T.; Jimenez-Bremont, Juan F.; Ohkura, Mana; Stewart, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. “atroviride B” LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions. PMID:28232840

  9. Identification of a transformer homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and analysis of its activity in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masataka G; Tochigi, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Honami; Aoki, Fugaku; Miyamoto, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The transformer (tra) gene is an intermediate component of the sex determination hierarchy in many insect species. The homolog of tra is also found in two branchiopod crustacean species but is not known outside arthropods. We have isolated a tra homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, which is a hemichordate belonging to the deuterostome superphylum. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the S. kowalevskii tra homolog (Sktra) has a 3786-bp open reading frame that encodes a 1261-amino acid sequence including a TRA-CAM domain and an arginine/serine (RS)-rich domain, both of which are characteristic of TRA orthologs. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that Sktra showed no differences in expression patterns between testes and ovaries, but its expression level was approximately 7.5-fold higher in the testes than in the ovaries. TRA, together with the protein product of the transformer-2 (tra-2) gene, assembles on doublesex (dsx) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) via the cis-regulatory element, enhancing female-specific splicing of dsx in Drosophila. To understand functional conservation of the SkTRA protein as a dsx-splicing activator, we investigated whether SkTRA is capable of inducing female-specific splicing of the Drosophila dsx. Ectopic expression of Sktra cDNA in insect cultured cells did not induce the female-specific splicing of dsx. On the other hand, forced expression of Sktra-2 (a tra-2 homolog of S. kowalevskii) was able to induce the female-specific dsx splicing. These results demonstrate that the function as a dsx-splicing activator is not conserved in SkTRA even though SkTRA-2 is capable of functionally replacing the Drosophila TRA-2. We have also found a tra homolog in an echinoderm genome. This study provides the first evidence that that tra is conserved not only in arthropods but also in basal species of deuterostoms.

  10. Study on some experimental conditions that affect corrosion of some structural steel materials using in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Nhuan; Nguyen Thi Kim Dung; Hoang Xuan Thi; Nguyen Thi Thuc Phuong; Ngo Xuan Hung; Nguyen Thanh Chung; Tran Xuan Vinh; Hoang Van Duc; Hoang Thi Tuyen; Nguyen Duc Thang

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion cracking of stainless steels is an important degradation phenomenon not only in nuclear reactors but also in the other industrial factories. In this work, experimental research of mechanical properties and electro-chemical processes to degradation of carbon steel and SS304 was carried out. Hardness values, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation values and impact energy which are typical for material mechanical properties were measured. When changing heat treatment conditions, the differences of mechanical properties were not really significant. In electro-chemical experiments, the OCP results of C45 steel and 304 Stainless Steel in Cl - environment took initial assessment of corrosion process. The corrosion process of C45 was accelerated over Cl - concentration. In the case of 304 Stainless Steel, Cl - ions did not significantly affect corrosion process, only slowed down the formation of the chromium oxide layer on the SS304 surface. In the last section, experiments were conducted to get a procedure on the determination of 10 B/ 11 B isotope ratio in water samples by isotope dilution – inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (author)

  11. Combined cadmium and elevated ozone affect concentrations of cadmium and antioxidant systems in wheat under fully open-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongyan; Tian, Ran; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Pei, Daping; Wang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Combined effect of elevated O 3 and Cd levels on wheat was studied using the free-air concentration enrichment system. ► Elevated O 3 levels result in an increased concentration of Cd in wheat plants grown on Cd-contaminated soils. ► Combined cadmium and elevated O 3 have a significantly synergic effect on oxidative stress in wheat shoots. - Abstract: Pollution of the environment with both ozone (O 3 ) and heavy metals has been steadily increasing. An understanding of their combined effects on plants, especially crops, is limited. Here we studied the effects of elevated O 3 on oxidative stress and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) in wheat under Cd stress using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) system. In this field experiment in Jiangdu (Jiangsu Province, China), wheat plants were grown in pots containing soil with various concentrations of cadmium (0, 2, and 10 mg kg −1 Cd was added to the soil) under ambient conditions and under elevated O 3 levels (50% higher than the ambient O 3 ). Present results showed that elevated O 3 led to higher concentrations of Cd in wheat tissues (shoots, husk and grains) with respect to contaminated soil. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated O 3 levels strongly affected the antioxidant isoenzymes POD, APX and CAT and accelerated oxidative stress in wheat leaves. Our results suggest that elevated O 3 levels cause a reduction in food quality and safety.

  12. The Personality Trait of Intolerance to Uncertainty Affects Behavior in a Novel Computer-Based Conditioned Place Preference Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milen Radell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has found that personality factors that confer vulnerability to addiction can also affect learning and economic decision making. One personality trait which has been implicated in vulnerability to addiction is intolerance to uncertainty (IU, i.e. a preference for familiar over unknown (possible better options. In animals, the motivation to obtain drugs is often assessed through conditioned place preference (CPP, which compares preference for contexts where drug reward was previously received. It is an open question whether participants with high IU also show heightened preference for previously-rewarded contexts. To address this question, we developed a novel computer-based CPP task for humans in which participants guide an avatar through a paradigm in which one room contains frequent reward and one contains less frequent reward. Following exposure to both contexts, subjects are assessed for preference to enter the previously-rich and previously-poor room. Individuals with low IU showed little bias to enter the previously-rich room first, and instead entered both rooms at about the same rate. By contrast, those with high IU showed a strong bias to enter the previously-rich room first. This suggests an increased tendency to chase reward in the intolerant group, consistent with previously observed behavior in opioid-addicted individuals. Thus, high IU may represent a pre-existing cognitive bias that provides a mechanism to promote decision-making processes that increase vulnerability to addiction.

  13. Astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation of Pacific white shrimp oil: kinetics study and stability as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The kinetics of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei as affected by storage temperature were studied. When shrimp oil was incubated at different temperatures (4, 30, 45 and 60 °C for 16 h, the rate constants (k of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil increased with increasing temperatures (p < 0.05. Thus, astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil were augmented at high temperature. When shrimp oils with different storage conditions (illumination, oxygen availability and temperature were stored for up to 40 days, astaxanthin contents in all samples decreased throughout storage (p < 0.05. All factors were able to enhance astaxanthin degradation during 40 days of storage. With increasing storage time, the progressive formation of primary and secondary oxidation products were found in all samples as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (p < 0.05. Light, air and temperatures therefore had the marked effect on astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oils during the extended storage.

  14. Denitrification nitrogen gas formation and gene expression in alpine grassland soil as affected by climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, Changhui; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Schloter, Michael; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Due to methodological problems, reliable data on soil dinitrogen (N2) emission by denitrification are extremely scarce, and the impacts of climate change on nitrogen (N) gas formation by denitrification and N gas product ratios as well as the underlying microbial drivers remain unclear. We combined the helium-gas-flow-soil-core technique for simultaneously quantification of nitrous oxide (N2O) and N2 emission with the reverse transcript qPCR technology. Our goals were to characterize denitrification dynamics and N gas product ratios in alpine grassland soil as affected by climate change conditions and to evaluate relationships between denitrification gene expression and N gas emission. We used soils from the pre-alpine grassland Terrestrial Environmental Observatory (TERENO), exposed to ambient temperature and precipitation (control treatment), or three years of simulated climate change conditions (increased temperature, reduction of summer precipitation and reduced snow cover). Soils were amended with glucose and nitrate and incubated subsequently at 1) 5°C and 20% oxygen; 2) 5°C and 0% oxygen; 3) 20°C and 0% oxygen until stabilization of N gas emissions in each incubation step. After switching incubation conditions to 0% oxygen and 20°C, N2O emission peaked immediately and declined again, followed by a delayed peak in N2 emission. The dynamics of cnorB gene expression, encoding the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to N2O, followed the N2O emission pattern, while nosZ gene expression, encoding N2O reduction to N2 followed the course of N2 emission. The mean N2O:N2 ratios were 1.31 + 0.10 and 1.56 + 0.16 for control and climate change treatment respectively, but the denitrification potential was overall lower in climate change treatment. Hence, simulated climate change promoted N2O but lessened N2 emission. This stimulation of N2O was in accordance with increased cnorB gene expression in soil of the climate change treatment. N mass balance calculations revealed

  15. Frontal brain activity and behavioral indicators of affective states are weakly affected by thermal stimuli in sheep living in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eVögeli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative, intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive. We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g. locomotor activity, aversive behaviors and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found.

  16. Biogeochemical Attributes That Affect the Fate and Transport of Military Relevant Contaminants Under Freeze-thaw Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMonte, J.; Price, C. L.; Seiter, J.; Crocker, F. H.; Douglas, T.; Chappell, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The roles and missions that the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) undertakes in the Arctic are being reshaped by significant changes in the operational environment as a result of rising global temperatures and increased development of the vast training ranges available in Alaska. The Arctic is warming faster than any other region on Earth resulting in changing seasonality and precipitation patterns that, in turn, are leading to alterations in above ground vegetation, permafrost stability and summer sea ice extent. Collectively, these poorly defined ecosystem changes play critical roles in affecting the transport and eventual fate of persistent military relevant contaminants through unique Arctic and Subarctic terrestrial environments. As a result, management of military contaminants in a changing Arctic represents a unique and potentially significant liability to the Army and the DoD. The United States footprint in the Arctic region falls within the state of Alaska and U.S. Army Alaska manages 10% of all active Army training lands worldwide, which cover nearly 2,500 square miles in total land area. Primary recalcitrant contaminants of concern at active training ranges and at legacy sites include energetics (i.e. RDX and 2,4-dinitrotoluene) and heavy metals (i.e. antimony and lead). Through a series of field sampling and laboratory experiments, the objectives of this work are to: 1) quantify soil biogeochemical attributes that effect the physical fate and transport of military relevant contaminants in Arctic and subarctic soils under freeze-thaw conditions with a focus on near surface processes, and 2) quantify microbial diversity in Arctic and subarctic soils and the environmental constraints on community activity while exploring the effects of amendments on community function as they relate to contaminant transformation.

  17. Assessment of conditions affecting surgical success of Ahmed glaucoma valve implants in glaucoma secondary to different uveitis etiologies in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, G; Yakin, M; Eksioglu, U; Satana, B; Ornek, F

    2017-10-01

    PurposeThere is little known about the long-term efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implant and about the conditions affecting surgical success in uveitic glaucoma (UG).Patients and methodsThe charts of adult patients with UG who underwent AGV implantation from 2006 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively.ResultsData of 46 eyes of 39 patients were evaluated. Mean follow-up was 51.93±23.08 months. Mean preoperative IOP was 37.05±9.62 mm Hg and mean number of preoperative topical anti-glaucomatous medications was 2.98±0.27. One eye (2%) was defined as failure because of implant extraction surgery. In the rest of the eyes, intraocular pressure (IOP) was under control with or without anti-glaucomatous medications during follow-up. The cumulative probability of complete success (IOP control without medications) was 78% at 6 months, 76% at 1 year, 71% at 2 years, 66% at 3 years, and 63% at 4 years (95% confidence interval, 61.24-87.81). The cumulative probability of eyes without complication was 64% at 6 months, 48% at 12 months, 44% at 24 months, 41% at 36 months, and 38% at 48 months (95% confidence interval, 34.64-62.85). Complete success was lower in eyes with previous ocular surgery than the eyes without (P=0.061) and it was lower in eyes with active inflammation at the time of surgery than the eyes without (P=0.011).ConclusionAGV implantation is an effective and safe alternative method in the management of UG, especially when it is performed as a primary surgical option and when no inflammation is present preoperatively.

  18. Effect of pasture on chestnut or acorn on fatty acid composition and aromatic profile of fat of Cinta Senese dry-cured ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci, Oreste

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture on oak and chestnut grove on chemical and aromatic traits of Cinta Senese cured ham. Fifteen Cinta Senese barrows (124 kg of l.w. on average were allotted to three groups: one group (MI was reared outdoors in confined area and fed commercial feedstuff. The other two groups were raised under free-range conditions on acorn (AC or chestnut (CH woods. At slaughtering (148 kg of l.w. the right thighs were seasoned for 360 days, on average, to obtained cured hams. Results demonstrated that subcutaneous fat of ham of CH and AC groups, respect to CONC group, was the richest in MUFA (51.3 and 53.9 vs 49.5% respectively, because of the higher content of oleic acid (48.4 and 50.8 vs 46.2%, respectively. AC showed a lower percentage of PUFA than CH and CONC (13.8 vs 15.4 and 16.3%, respectively. As regard volatile compounds, AC, respect to CH and MI groups, showed the highest value of aldehydes (44.1 vs 30.3 and 33.5% respectively and ethers (4.04 vs 1.15 and 1.71% respectively.El objetivo de este estudio fue la evaluación de la composición de los ácidos grasos y de los compuestos volátiles del jamón curado Toscano obtenido de cerdos Cinta Senese alimentados con bellota, castaña o pienso. Quince cerdos de raza Cinta Senese fueron criados en extensivo: 5 fueron criados en bosque de bellota (AC, 5 en bosque de castaña (CH y 5 en un cercado y alimentados con pienso (MI. El día posterior al sacrificio se curaron los jamones. La composición de los ácidos grasos fue estadísticamente diferente entre los tipos de alimentación. La grasa de AC presentó el mayor porcentaje de AGMI total en comparación con CH y MI (51.3 y 53.9 vs 49.5% respectivamente gracias al mayor porcentaje de ácido oleico (48.4 y 50.8 vs 46.2%, respectivamente, y la menor de AGPI total (13.8 vs 15.4 y 16.3%, respectivamente. En relación a los compuestos volátiles, la grasa de AC, en comparación con CH y MI

  19. Bottom trawling affects fish condition through changes in the ratio of prey availability to density of competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiddink, Jan Geert; Moranta, Joan; Balestrini, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    pressure. 2. We assessed the impact of bottom trawling on the food availability, condition and stomach contents of three flatfishes and the Norway lobster in an area in the Kattegat hat is characterized by a steep commercial bottom-trawling gradient due to the establishment of an area closed to all....... This pattern was mirrored in both the condition and stomach contents of plaice and for long-rough dab. 4. No effect of trawling on dab prey and condition was found. Conversely, the condition of the main target species – Norway lobster – increased as its biomass decreased with increased trawling intensities. 5...

  20. Predicting Acorn-Grass Weight Gain Index using non-destructive Near Infrared Spectroscopy in order to classify Iberian pig carcasses according to feeding regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Marín, D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The classification of Iberian pig carcasses into different commercial categories according to feeding regime was evaluated by means of a non-destructive analysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS. A quantitative approach was used to predict the Acorn-Grass Weight Gain Index (AGWGI, and a set of criteria was established for commercial classification purposes. A total of 719 animals belonging to various batches, reflecting a wide range of feeding regimes, production systems and years, were analyzed with a view to developing and evaluating quantitative NIRS models. Results for the external validation of these models indicate that NIRS made clear differentiation of batches as a function of three feeding regimes possible with high accuracy (Acorn, Recebo and Feed, on the basis of the mean representative spectra of each batch. Moreover, individual analysis of the animals showed a broad consensus between field inspection information and the classification based on the AGWGI NIRS prediction, especially for extreme categories (Acorn and Feed.La clasificación en distintas categorías comerciales según régimen alimenticio de canales de cerdo Ibérico fue evaluada mediante el análisis no destructivo de muestras de tejido adiposo subcutáneo por Espectroscopía del Infrarrojo Cercano (NIRS. Partiendo de una aproximación cuantitativa para predecir el Índice de Reposición en Montanera (IRM se establecieron una serie de criterios para proceder a su clasificación comercial. Se analizaron un total de 719 animales pertenecientes a diversas partidas, que recogen una amplia variabilidad de muestras de distintos regímenes alimenticios, campañas y sistemas productivos, para el desarrollo y evaluación de los modelos NIRS cuantitativos. Los resultados de validación externa de los modelos indicaron que es posible discriminar con una gran exactitud entre partidas de distintos categorías (Bellota, Recebo y Cebo, en base

  1. Contextual Change After Fear Acquisition Affects Conditioned Responding and the Time Course of Extinction Learning-Implications for Renewal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjouwerman, Rachel; Niehaus, Johanna; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2015-01-01

    Context plays a central role in retrieving (fear) memories. Accordingly, context manipulations are inherent to most return of fear (ROF) paradigms (in particular renewal), involving contextual changes after fear extinction. Context changes are, however, also often embedded during earlier stages of ROF experiments such as context changes between fear acquisition and extinction (e.g., in ABC and ABA renewal). Previous studies using these paradigms have however focused exclusively on the context switch after extinction (i.e., renewal). Thus, the possibility of a general effect of context switch on conditioned responding that may not be conditional to preceding extinction learning remains unstudied. Hence, the current study investigated the impact of a context switch between fear acquisition and extinction on immediate conditioned responding and on the time-course of extinction learning by using a multimodal approach. A group that underwent contextual change after fear conditioning (AB; n = 36) was compared with a group without a contextual change from acquisition to extinction (AA; n = 149), while measuring physiological (skin conductance and fear potentiated startle) measures and subjective fear ratings. Contextual change between fear acquisition and extinction had a pronounced effect on both immediate conditioned responding and on the time course of extinction learning in skin conductance responses and subjective fear ratings. This may have important implications for the mechanisms underlying and the interpretation of the renewal effect (i.e., contextual switch after extinction). Consequently, future studies should incorporate designs and statistical tests that disentangle general effects of contextual change from genuine ROF effects.

  2. Type of activity and order of experimental conditions affect noise annoyance by identifiable and unidentifiable transportation noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kim; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W; Meeter, Martijn

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that identifiability of sound sources influence noise annoyance levels. The aim of the present experiment was to additionally study the effects of actively performing a task versus a less active pastime on noise annoyance. This was done by asking participants to perform a task (task condition) or read a magazine of their choice (no-task condition), while listening to identifiable and unidentifiable samples of transportation noise at varying sound exposure levels (55-85 ASEL). Annoyance was higher for identifiable samples (recordings) than for unidentifiable transformed samples (with equal spectral energy and envelope). Although there was no main effect of activity type on noise annoyance, for the transformed samples, an interaction was found between activity type and sound exposure levels: annoyance started lower in the no-task condition, but rose more steeply with ascending exposure levels than was the case during task performance (large effect). When assessing order effects, it was found that annoyance was higher when the task condition came first, especially for lower sound exposure levels (large effects). It is therefore concluded that the type of activity and the condition order do influence noise annoyance but in interaction with exposure levels, the type of noise and habituation.

  3. Under which conditions does T1 difficulty affect T2 performance in the attentional blink?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

    When two visual targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, performance of T2 suffers up to 900 ms. One theory of this attentional blink (Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992) propose that T1 and T2 compete for limited processing resources (Chun & Potter, 1995), and predict that prolonging...... processing time for T1 by increasing its perceptual difficulty will induce a larger blink. Several studies have tested this prediction without reaching a consistent answer. McLaughlin, Shore, & Klein (2001) found no effect of the exposure duration of T1 on the attentional blink. Christmann & Leuthold (2004...... duration. In the hard condition, T1 exposure duration was 10 ms while T1 contrast was adjusted individually to reach 50% correct T1 identification. In the long duration condition, T1 exposure duration was increased to reach approximately 90% correct T1 identification. In the high contrast condition, T1...

  4. Schizophrenia affects speech-induced functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus under cocktail-party listening conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juanhua; Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yingjun; Li, Ruikeng; Li, Xuanzi; She, Shenglin; Wu, Haibo; Peng, Hongjun; Ning, Yuping; Li, Liang

    2017-09-17

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is involved in speech recognition against informational masking under cocktail-party-listening conditions. Compared to healthy listeners, people with schizophrenia perform worse in speech recognition under informational speech-on-speech masking conditions. It is not clear whether the schizophrenia-related vulnerability to informational masking is associated with certain changes in FC of the STG with some critical brain regions. Using sparse-sampling fMRI design, this study investigated the differences between people with schizophrenia and healthy controls in FC of the STG for target-speech listening against informational speech-on-speech masking, when a listening condition with either perceived spatial separation (PSS, with a spatial release of informational masking) or perceived spatial co-location (PSC, without the spatial release) between target speech and masking speech was introduced. The results showed that in healthy participants, but not participants with schizophrenia, the contrast of either the PSS or PSC condition against the masker-only condition induced an enhancement of functional connectivity (FC) of the STG with the left superior parietal lobule and the right precuneus. Compared to healthy participants, participants with schizophrenia showed declined FC of the STG with the bilateral precuneus, right SPL, and right supplementary motor area. Thus, FC of the STG with the parietal areas is normally involved in speech listening against informational masking under either the PSS or PSC conditions, and declined FC of the STG in people with schizophrenia with the parietal areas may be associated with the increased vulnerability to informational masking. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure fails to affect THC-induced place and taste conditioning in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Alison G P; Flax, Shaun M; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Riley, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of drug use has been linked to problematic drug taking later in life and may represent an important variable that changes the balance of the rewarding and/or aversive effects of abused drugs which may contribute to abuse vulnerability. The current study examined the effects of adolescent THC exposure on THC-induced place preference (rewarding effects) and taste avoidance (aversive effects) conditioning in adulthood. Forty-six male Sprague-Dawley adolescent rats received eight injections of an intermediate dose of THC (3.2mg/kg) or vehicle. After these injections, animals were allowed to mature and then trained in a combined CTA/CPP procedure in adulthood (PND ~90). Animals were given four trials of conditioning with intervening water-recovery days, a final CPP test and then a one-bottle taste avoidance test. THC induced dose-dependent taste avoidance but did not produce place conditioning. None of these effects was impacted by adolescent THC exposure. Adolescent exposure to THC had no effect on THC taste and place conditioning in adulthood. The failure to see an effect of adolescent exposure was addressed in the context of other research that has assessed exposure of drugs of abuse during adolescence on drug reactivity in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lesions of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus differentially affect sign- and goal-tracking conditioned responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Joshua L.; Fraser, Kurt M.; Akil, Huda; Flagel, Shelly B.

    2015-01-01

    Recently evidence has emerged suggesting a role for the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) in the processing of reward-associated cues. However, the specific role of the PVT in these processes has yet to be elucidated. Here we use an animal model that captures individual variation in response to discrete reward-associated cues to further assess the role of the PVT in stimulus-reward learning. When rats are exposed to a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, wherein a discrete cue predicts food reward, two distinct conditioned responses emerge. Some rats, termed sign-trackers, approach and manipulate the cue; whereas others, termed goal-trackers, approach the location of reward delivery upon cue presentation. For both sign- and goal-trackers the cue is a predictor; but only for sign-trackers is it also an incentive stimulus. We investigated the role of the PVT in the acquisition and expression of these conditioned responses using an excitotoxic lesion. Results indicate that PVT lesions prior to acquisition amplify the differences between phenotypes—increasing sign-tracking and attenuating goal-tracking behavior. Lesions of the PVT after rats had acquired their respective conditioned responses also attenuated the expression of the goal-tracking response, and increased the sign-tracking response, but did so selectively in goal-trackers. These results suggest that the PVT acts to suppress the attribution of incentive salience to reward cues, as disruption of the functional activity within this structure enhances the tendency to sign-track. PMID:26228683

  7. Cow body condition affects the hormonal release of ovarian cells and their responses to gonadotropic and metabolic hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirotkin, A. V.; Makarevich, A. V.; Laurinčík, Jozef; Alawasel, S.; Harrath, A. H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 3 (2018), s. 142-147 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : ovary * body condition * progesterone Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2016

  8. Viscoelastic response of HTPB based solid fuel to horizontal and vertical storage slumping conditions and it's affect on service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Q.; Nizam, F.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent use of solid fuels as thrust generating energy source in modern day space vehicle systems has created a need to assess their serviceability for long term storage under various conditions. Solid fuel grain, the most important part of any solid fuel system, responds visco elastically to any loading condition. For the assessment of the service life of any solid fuel system, the solid fuel grain has to be structurally evaluated in applied storage conditions. Structural integrity of the grain is exceptionally significant to guarantee the successful operation of the solid fuel system. In this work, numerical simulations have been performed to assess the mechanical stresses and strains induced in an HTPB based solid fuel grain during service life employing ABAQUS standard FEA software using 4-node bilinear quadrilateral elements. For finite element analysis (FEA), typical 2-D and p/nth axisymmetric section of 5-point (n) star grain geometry is considered. Mechanical loads include the horizontal or vertical 1-g (solid fuel weight) storage condition. The simulation results are compared with the analytical results for the same grain geometry. Analytically measured slump deflections in grain segment at various storage times have been found in good relation with the FEA based simulation results. This proves the validity of the procedure adopted and is helpful in assessment of the service life of solid fuel systems. (author)

  9. Low-Income Parents: How Do Working Conditions Affect Their Opportunity To Help School-Age Children at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S. Jody; Earle, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Examined the working conditions faced by parents who has at least one child in need of help for educational or behavioral problems using data for 1,878 families from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child Survey. Data show that low-income parents often lack the paid leave and flexibility they need to help children with…

  10. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  11. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch (Gastropoda: Pulmonata shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm. The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  12. Contextual change after fear acquisition affects conditioned responding and the time course of extinction learning – Implications for renewal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eSjouwerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context plays a central role in retrieving (fear memories. Accordingly, context manipulations are inherent to most return of fear (ROF paradigms (in particular renewal, involving contextual changes after fear extinction. Context changes are, however, also often embedded during earlier stages of ROF experiments such as context changes between fear acquisition and extinction (e.g. in ABC and ABA renewal. Previous studies using these paradigms have however focused exclusively on the context switch after extinction (i.e. renewal. Thus, the possibility of a general effect of a context switch on conditioned responding that may not be conditional to preceding extinction learning remains unstudied.Hence, the current study investigated the impact of a context switch between fear acquisition and extinction on immediate conditioned responding and on the time-course of extinction learning by using a multimodal approach. A group that underwent contextual change after fear conditioning (AB; n = 36 was compared with a group without a contextual change from acquisition to extinction (AA; n = 149, while measuring autonomic (skin conductance and fear potentiated startle measures and subjective fear ratings. Contextual change between fear acquisition and extinction had a pronounced effect on both immediate conditioned responding and on the time course of extinction learning in skin conductance responses and subjective fear ratings. This may have important implications for the mechanisms underlying and the interpretation of the renewal effect (i.e. contextual switch after extinction. Consequently, future studies should incorporate designs and statistical tests that disentangle general effects of contextual change from genuine ROF effects.

  13. Early life stress in rats sex-dependently affects remote endocrine rather than behavioral consequences of adult exposure to contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sílvia; Daviu, Núria; Gagliano, Humberto; Belda, Xavier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2018-05-30

    Exposure to electric foot-shocks can induce in rodents contextual fear conditioning, generalization of fear to other contexts and sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to further stressors. All these aspects are relevant for the study of post-traumatic stress disorder. In the present work we evaluated in rats the sex differences and the role of early life stress (ELS) in fear memories, generalization and sensitization. During the first postnatal days subjects were exposed to restriction of nesting material along with exposure to a "substitute" mother. In the adulthood they were exposed to (i) a contextual fear conditioning to evaluate long-term memory and extinction and (ii) to a novel environment to study cognitive fear generalization and HPA axis heterotypic sensitization. ELS did not alter acquisition, expression or extinction of context fear conditioned behavior (freezing) in either sex, but reduced activity in novel environments only in males. Fear conditioning associated hypoactivity in novel environments (cognitive generalization) was greater in males than females but was not specifically affected by ELS. Although overall females showed greater basal and stress-induced levels of ACTH and corticosterone, an interaction between ELS, shock exposure and sex was found regarding HPA hormones. In males, ELS did not affect ACTH response in any situation, whereas in females, ELS reduced both shock-induced sensitization of ACTH and its conditioned response to the shock context. Also, shock-induced sensitization of corticosterone was only observed in males and ELS specifically reduced corticosterone response to stressors in males but not females. In conclusion, ELS seems to have only a minor impact on shock-induced behavioral conditioning, while affecting the unconditioned and conditioned responses of HPA hormones in a sex-dependent manner. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Transport of Chemical Vapors from Subsurface Sources to Atmosphere as Affected by Shallow Subsurface and Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. K.; Smits, K. M.; Hosken, K.; Schulte, P.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the movement and modeling of chemical vapor through unsaturated soil in the shallow subsurface when subjected to natural atmospheric thermal and mass flux boundary conditions at the land surface is of importance to applications such as landmine detection and vapor intrusion into subsurface structures. New, advanced technologies exist to sense chemical signatures at the land/atmosphere interface, but interpretation of these sensor signals to make assessment of source conditions remains a challenge. Chemical signatures are subject to numerous interactions while migrating through the unsaturated soil environment, attenuating signal strength and masking contaminant source conditions. The dominant process governing movement of gases through porous media is often assumed to be Fickian diffusion through the air phase with minimal or no quantification of other processes contributing to vapor migration, such as thermal diffusion, convective gas flow due to the displacement of air, expansion/contraction of air due to temperature changes, temporal and spatial variations of soil moisture and fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. Soil water evaporation and interfacial mass transfer add to the complexity of the system. The goal of this work is to perform controlled experiments under transient conditions of soil moisture, temperature and wind at the land/atmosphere interface and use the resulting dataset to test existing theories on subsurface gas flow and iterate between numerical modeling efforts and experimental data. Ultimately, we aim to update conceptual models of shallow subsurface vapor transport to include conditionally significant transport processes and inform placement of mobile sensors and/or networks. We have developed a two-dimensional tank apparatus equipped with a network of sensors and a flow-through head space for simulation of the atmospheric interface. A detailed matrix of realistic atmospheric boundary conditions was applied in a series of

  15. A 10-days heatwave around flowering superimposed on climate change conditions significantly affects production of 22 barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Lyngkjær, Michael F.; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Extreme climate events as heatwaves, floods and storms cause acute changes in season variability influencing primary production and are very likely to increase in magnitude and/or frequency (IPCC, AR5, WGI). In the present study 22 primarily Nordic barley accessions were grown in four basic clima...... climate change conditions on numerous accessions in order to select appropriate genotypes for breeding future cultivars that can secure the primary production....

  16. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza; Golam, Faruq; Rahman, M. Motior; Sofian-Azirun, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3) on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing) of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fr...

  17. Environmental Growing Conditions in Five Production Systems Induce Stress Response and Affect Chemical Composition of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niether, Wiebke; Smit, Inga; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard; Pawelzik, Elke

    2017-11-29

    Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide a less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured the element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans derived from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons. Concentrations of N, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were higher in beans produced in agroforestry systems with high stem density and leaf area index. In the dry season, the N, Fe, and Cu concentration of the beans increased. The total phenolic content increased with proceeding of the dry season while other abiotic stress indicators like spermine decreased, implying an effect of the water availability on the chemical composition of the beans. Agroforestry systems did not buffer the variability of stress indicators over the seasons compared to monocultures. The effect of environmental growing conditions on bean chemical composition was not strong but can contribute to variations in cocoa bean quality.

  18. Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Phong K; O'Brien, Jake; Jiang, Guangming; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-05-15

    Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uptake of plutonium-238 by plants grown under field condition as affected by one year of weathering and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.; Hinds, W.T.

    1976-06-01

    Less 238 Pu was concentrated in the seeds than in the vegetative parts in all plant species. Leaves contained more 238 Pu than the stem or pods, and the monocots had lower concentrations of 238 Pu in their tissues than the dicots. Irrigation of plants affected the uptake of 238 Pu, especially on the year-to-year changes in the amount of the element accumulated in the plant parts. Several more years of data must be analyzed to determine if this phenomenon is real. Soil profiles must be studied to determine what configuration changes may occur in the 238 Pu in the soil. Other investigators show that soil microbes change the chemical form of plutonium in the soil and the organic complexes that are formed are more available for plant uptake

  20. Reproductive phenology of Creole horses in Ecuador in the absence of photoperiod variation: The effects of forage availability and flooding affecting body condition of mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Yoong, Washington A; Mateos, Concha; Caño Vergara, Belén; Gómez, Chian L; Macías, Verónica

    2017-12-01

    Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares' conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares' conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year. Mares' conditions increased after a period of vegetation growth and thus appeared negatively associated with the increment of grass greenness (normalized difference vegetation index data). Seasonal flooding of some pasturelands during March and April appeared to seriously impair mares' conditions and probably influenced the timing of foaling toward the dry season. Our results evidenced that horse breeding in these equatorial areas tended to be seasonal and point to some key factors that influence phenology by affecting body condition of mares, which may have implications for horse biology and management. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. The Course of Parturition Affects Piglet Condition at Birth and Survival and Growth through the Nursery Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk, Pieter; Fleuren, Marleen; van Hees, Hubèrt; van Kempen, Theo

    2018-04-24

    The aim of this study was to relate the course of parturition to the condition of piglets at birth, based on umbilical cord blood acid-base values, and relate the condition at birth to neonatal survival and performance up to 10 weeks of life. Data were collected from 37 spontaneous unassisted parturitions, and neonatal performance was based on observations of 516 piglets. Stillbirth rate increased from 2% in the first piglets, to 17% in piglets born 13th in the litter or later. This was aggravated in sows with longer than average stage II of parturition. Umbilical cord blood values also reflected the effect of birth order, with pH decreasing and lactate increasing in the course of parturition. Interestingly, sows that had a long expulsion stage of parturition also took longer to give birth to the first four piglets (r = 0.74), suggesting that sows with complicated parturition were already experiencing problems at the start of expulsion of piglets. Piglets with signs of asphyxia, based on umbilical blood lactate higher than 4.46 mmol/L, were slower to start suckling, had a higher risk of neonatal mortality, and had a slower growth rate over the first 10 weeks of life.

  2. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America.

  3. Factors affecting vertical distribution of Fukushima accident-derived radiocesium in soil under different land-use conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Nagao, Seiya; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, triggered by a big earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011, caused a substantial release of radiocesium ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and a subsequent contamination of soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying factors and processes affecting radiocesium retention in these soils is essential to predict how the deposited radiocesium will migrate through the soil profile and to other biological components. We investigated vertical distributions of radiocesium and physicochemical properties in soils (to 20 cm depth) at 15 locations under different land-use types (croplands, grasslands, and forests) within a 2 km × 2 km mesh area in Fukushima city. The total 137 Cs inventory deposited onto and into soil was similar (58.4 ± 9.6 kBq m −2 ) between the three different land-use types. However, aboveground litter layer at the forest sites and herbaceous vegetation at the non-forested sites contributed differently to the total 137 Cs inventory. At the forest sites, 50–91% of the total inventory was observed in the litter layer. The aboveground vegetation contribution was in contrast smaller ( 137 Cs in mineral soil layers; 137 Cs penetrated deeper in the forest soil profiles than in the non-forested soil profiles. We quantified 137 Cs retention at surface soil layers, and showed that higher 137 Cs retention can be explained in part by larger amounts of silt- and clay-sized particles in the layers. More importantly, the 137 Cs retention highly and negatively correlated with soil organic carbon content divided by clay content across all land-use types. The results suggest that organic matter inhibits strong adsorption of 137 Cs on clay minerals in surface soil layers, and as a result affects the vertical distribution and thus the mobility of 137 Cs in soil, particularly in the forest ecosystems. - Highlights: ► Vertical distribution of radiocesium was investigated for 15 soils. ► Forest

  4. Postulated vasoactive neuropeptide immunopathology affecting the blood–brain/blood–spinal barrier in certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions: A role for phosphodiesterase inhibitors in treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Staines1,2, Ekua W Brenu2, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik21Queensland Health, Gold Coast Population Health Unit, Southport, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Population Health and Neuroimmunology Unit, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms occur in a number of neurological fatigue-related conditions including multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson’s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. These conditions have been attributed variably to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. While autoimmune pathology, at least in part, has long been suspected in these conditions proof has been elusive. Autoimmune pathomechanisms affecting the blood–brain barrier (BBB or blood–spinal barrier (BSB may predispose the BBB/BSB to ‘leakiness’ and be a precursor to additional autoimmune events resulting in neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. The aim of the paper is to postulate immunopathology of the cerebrospinal perivascular compartment involving certain vasoactive neuropeptides, specifically pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, in the etiology of certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions such as MS, ALS, PD, and CFS. Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators. PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS and have key roles in CNS blood vessels including maintaining functional integrity of the BBB and BSB. Autoimmunity affecting these VNs would likely have a detrimental effect on BBB and BSB functioning arguably predisposing to further pathological processes. Virchow–Robin spaces (VRS are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS which

  5. Does attitude acquisition in evaluative conditioning without explicit CS-US memory reflect implicit misattribution of affect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierop, Adrien; Hütter, Mandy; Stahl, Christoph; Corneille, Olivier

    2018-02-05

    Research that dissociates different types of processes within a given task using a processing tree approach suggests that attitudes may be acquired through evaluative conditioning in the absence of explicit encoding of CS-US pairings in memory. This research distinguishes explicit memory for the CS-US pairings from CS-liking acquired without encoding of CS-US pairs in explicit memory. It has been suggested that the latter effect may be due to an implicit misattribution process that is assumed to operate when US evocativeness is low. In the present research, the latter assumption was supported neither by two high-powered experiments nor by complementary meta-analytic evidence, whereas evocativeness exerted an influence on explicit memory. This pattern of findings is inconsistent with the view that CS-liking acquired without encoding of CS-US pairs in explicit memory reflects an implicit misattribution process at learning. Hence, the underlying learning process is awaiting further empirical scrutiny.

  6. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  7. Dynamics of floret initiation/death determining spike fertility in wheat as affected by Ppd genes under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Paula; Ochagavía, Helga; Savin, Roxana; Griffiths, Simon; Slafer, Gustavo A

    2018-04-27

    As wheat yield is linearly related to grain number, understanding the physiological determinants of the number of fertile florets based on floret development dynamics due to the role of the particular genes is relevant. The effects of photoperiod genes on dynamics of floret development are largely ignored. Field experiments were carried out to (i) characterize the dynamics of floret primordia initiation and degeneration and (ii) to determine which are the most critical traits of such dynamics in establishing genotypic differences in the number of fertile florets at anthesis in near isogenic lines (NILs) carrying photoperiod-insensitive alleles. Results varied in magnitude between the two growing seasons, but in general introgression of Ppd-1a alleles reduced the number of fertile florets. The actual effect was affected not only by the genome and the doses but also by the source of the alleles. Differences in the number of fertile florets were mainly explained by differences in the floret generation/degeneration dynamics, and in most cases associated with floret survival. Manipulating photoperiod insensitivity, unquestionably useful for changing flowering time, may reduce spike fertility but much less than proportionally to the change in duration of development, as the insensitivity alleles did increase the rate of floret development.

  8. GaInN quantum well design and measurement conditions affecting the emission energy S-shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzel, Carsten; Hatami, Soheil; Hoffmann, Veit; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wernicke, Tim; Kneissl, Michael [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Polarization fields and charge carrier localization are the dominant factors defining the radiative recombination processes in the quantum wells of most AlGaInN-based optoelectronic devices. Both factors determine emission energy, emission line width, recombination times, and internal quantum efficiency. For a deeper understanding of the charge carrier recombination processes, we have performed temperature and excitation power dependent photoluminescence experiments on epitaxially grown GaInN structures to study the S-shape of the temperature dependent emission energy. The S-shape behaviour in GaInN quantum wells (QWs) is dominated by the temperature dependence of the charge carrier localization. However, in polar QWs it is strongly affected by the charge carrier density which screens the piezoelectric field. External applied fields change the observable S-shape characteristic significantly. Semi- and nonpolar GaInN QWs feature an S-shape behaviour which points to much stronger charge carrier localization compared to polar QWs. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Conditions and processes affecting sand resources at archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Sankey, Joel B.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.

    2016-05-17

    This study examined links among fluvial, aeolian, and hillslope geomorphic processes that affect archeological sites and surrounding landscapes in the Colorado River corridor downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. We assessed the potential for Colorado River sediment to enhance the preservation of river-corridor archeological resources through aeolian sand deposition or mitigation of gully erosion. By identifying locally prevailing wind directions, locations of modern sandbars, and likely aeolian-transport barriers, we determined that relatively few archeological sites are now ideally situated to receive aeolian sand supply from sandbars deposited by recent controlled floods. Whereas three-fourths of the 358 river-corridor archeological sites we examined include Colorado River sediment as an integral component of their geomorphic context, only 32 sites currently appear to have a high degree of connectivity (coupled interactions) between modern fluvial sandbars and sand-dominated landscapes downwind. This represents a substantial decrease from past decades, as determined by aerial-photograph analysis. Thus, we infer that recent controlled floods have had a limited, and declining, influence on archeological-site preservation.

  10. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss in rats delays long-term extinction of contextual conditioned fear, and reduces social interaction without affecting short-term social interaction memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Espejo, Emilio

    2003-03-01

    Prefrontal dopamine loss delays extinction of cued fear conditioning responses, but its role in contextual fear conditioning has not been explored. Medial prefrontal lesions also enhance social interaction in rats, but the role of prefrontal dopamine loss on social interaction memory is not known. Besides, a role for subcortical accumbal dopamine on mnesic changes after prefrontal dopamine manipulation has been proposed but not explored. The objective was to study the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens in two mnesic tasks: contextual fear conditioning and social interaction memory. For contextual fear conditioning, short- and long-term freezing responses after an electric shock were studied, as well as extinction retention. Regarding social interaction memory, the recognition of a juvenile, a very sensitive short-term memory test, was used. Dopamine loss was carried out by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, and postmortem catecholamine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss (>76%) led to a reactive enhancement of accumbal dopamine content (ploss. In lesioned rats, long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning was significantly delayed and extinction retention was impaired without changes in acquisition and short-term contextual fear conditioning and, on the other hand, acquisition and short-term social interaction memory were not affected, although time spent on social interaction was significantly reduced. Added dopamine loss in the nucleus accumbens (>76%) did not alter these behavioral changes. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the dopaminergic network in the mPFC (but not in the nucleus accumbens) coordinates the normal long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning responses without affecting their acquisition, and it is involved in time spent on social interaction, but not acquisition and short

  11. Winter frost resistance of Pinus cembra measured in situ at the alpine timberline as affected by temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Othmar; Neuner, Gilbert

    2011-11-01

    Winter frost resistance (WFR), midwinter frost hardening and frost dehardening potential of Pinus cembra L. were determined in situ by means of a novel low-temperature freezing system at the alpine timberline ecotone (1950 m a.s.l., Mt Patscherkofel, Innsbruck, Austria). In situ liquid nitrogen (LN₂)-quenching experiments should check whether maximum WFR of P. cembra belonging to the frost hardiest conifer group, being classified in US Department of Agriculture climatic zone 1, suffices to survive dipping into LN₂ (-196 °C). Viability was assessed in a field re-growth test. Maximum in situ WFR (LT₅₀) of leaves was frost hardening treatment (12 days at -20 °C followed by 3 days at -50 °C) to induce maximum WFR. Temperature treatments applied in the field significantly affected the actual WFR. In January a frost hardening treatment (21 days at -20 °C) led to a significant increase of WFR (buds: -62 °C to frost dehardening (buds: -32.6 °C to -10.2 °C; leaves: -32.7 to -16.4 °C) followed by significantly earlier bud swelling and burst in late winter. Strikingly, both temperature treatments, either increased air temperature (+10.1 °C) or increased soil temperature (+6.5 °C), were similarly effective. This high readiness to frost harden and deharden in winter in the field must be considered to be of great significance for future winter survival of P. cembra. Determination of WFR in field re-growth tests appears to be a valuable tool for critically judging estimates of WFR obtained on detached twigs in an ecological context.

  12. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  13. Long-term soil alteration in historical charcoal hearths affects Tuber melanosporum mycorrhizal development and environmental conditions for fruiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Forcadell, Ricardo; Sánchez, Sergio; Reyna, Santiago

    2017-08-01

    Abandoned charcoal hearths constitute a very particular habitat for spontaneous fruiting of Tuber melanosporum, leading some harvesters to hypothesise that the fungus could benefit from the alterations that these soils underwent. However, ecological mechanisms involved in this relation are not fully elucidated yet. As a first step to understand it, the influence of long-term soil alteration on the symbiotic stage of T. melanosporum and on selected soil properties considered key to fruiting was assessed by conducting a greenhouse bioassay and a field observational study. In the bioassay, percent root colonisation and relative abundance of T. melanosporum were significantly lower in hearth than in control soils. Hearth soils showed significantly lower resistance to penetration, larger temperature fluctuation, reduced plant cover and reduced herbaceous root abundance. The results do not support the hypothesis that soil from historical charcoal hearths currently enhances development of T. melanosporum mycorrhizas. However, whether this is due to increased infectivity of native ectomycorrhizal communities or to worse conditions for development of T. melanosporum mycorrhizas remains unresolved. Native ectomycorrhizal communities in hearths showed altered composition, although not a clear change in infectivity or richness. Direction of change in hearth soil properties is compared to alteration occurring in soils spontaneously producing T. melanosporum. The interest of these changes to improve T. melanosporum fruiting in plantations is discussed.

  14. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  15. Effects of cell culture conditions on antibody N-linked glycosylation--what affects high mannose 5 glycoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacis, Efren; Yu, Marcella; Autsen, Jennifer; Bayer, Robert; Li, Feng

    2011-10-01

    The glycosylation profile of therapeutic antibodies is routinely analyzed throughout development to monitor the impact of process parameters and to ensure consistency, efficacy, and safety for clinical and commercial batches of therapeutic products. In this study, unusually high levels of the mannose-5 (Man5) glycoform were observed during the early development of a therapeutic antibody produced from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, model cell line A. Follow up studies indicated that the antibody Man5 level was increased throughout the course of cell culture production as a result of increasing cell culture medium osmolality levels and extending culture duration. With model cell line A, Man5 glycosylation increased more than twofold from 12% to 28% in the fed-batch process through a combination of high basal and feed media osmolality and increased run duration. The osmolality and culture duration effects were also observed for four other CHO antibody producing cell lines by adding NaCl in both basal and feed media and extending the culture duration of the cell culture process. Moreover, reduction of Man5 level from model cell line A was achieved by supplementing MnCl2 at appropriate concentrations. To further understand the role of glycosyltransferases in Man5 level, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I GnT-I mRNA levels at different osmolality conditions were measured. It has been hypothesized that specific enzyme activity in the glycosylation pathway could have been altered in this fed-batch process. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Factors affecting the possibility to detect buccal bone condition around dental implants using cone beam computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedke, Gabriela S; Spin-Neto, Rubens; da Silveira, Heloisa E D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors with impact on the conspicuity (possibility to detect) of the buccal bone condition around dental implants in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Titanium (Ti) or zirconia (Zr) implants and abutments were inserted into 40 bone blocks...... in a way to obtain variable buccal bone thicknesses. Three combinations regarding the implant-abutment metal (TiTi, TiZr, or ZrZr) and the number of implants (one, two, or three) were assessed. Two CBCT units (Scanora 3D - Sc and Cranex 3D - Cr) and two voxel resolutions (0.2 and 0.13 mm) were used...... variable. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated separately for each CBCT unit. RESULTS: Implant-abutment combination (ZrZr) (OR Sc = 19.18, OR Cr = 11.89) and number of implants (3) (OR Sc = 12.10, OR Cr = 4.25) had major impact on buccal bone conspicuity. The thinner the buccal bone, the higher the risk...

  17. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Hao

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.. In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  18. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3 on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fruit quality, 50 mg/l GA3 treatment increased the juice content, K+, TSS, total sugar and sugar acid ratio of wax apple fruits. In addition, higher vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, carotene content, PAL and antioxidant activities were recorded in the treated fruits. There was a positive correlation between the peel colour and TSS content and between the PAL activity and anthocyanin formation in the GA3-treated fruit. It was concluded that rubbing with 50 mg/L GA3 at inflorescence developing point of phloem once a week from the tiny inflorescence bud until the flower opening resulted in better yield and quality of wax apple fruits and could be an effective technique to safe the environment from excessive spray.

  19. Grain quality and N uptake of spring cereals as affected by nitrogen fertilization in northern conditions: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Valkama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed quantitatively 40 Finnish field experiments related to the effect of nitrogen (N fertilizer on the main parameters of grain quality and N uptake of spring cereals. The experiments were conducted on a wide range of mineral soils under varying growth conditions from the 1950s to the 1990s. Overall there was no statistically significant effect on 1000 grain weight and a slightly negative effect on grain test weight. Nitrogen fertilizer increased N uptake much more steeply in slightly acidic soils (SA, pH 5.8–6.9, located mostly in South Finland, than in moderately acidic soils (MA, pH 5.0–5.7, located in Central Finland. With increasing N rates, protein content increased to a larger extent in spring barley and oats than in spring wheat. In the light of the current trend to reduce N fertilizerapplication, the obtained regressions between N rates and the parameters of grain quality may be used to maintain yield quality at a desirable level, while optimizing N management.

  20. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora, consisting of Brochothrix spp., isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculated (co-cultured) onto cooked ham slices. The growth characteristics, lag phase duration (LPD, h), growth rate (GR, log(10) cfu/h), and maximum population density (MPD, log(10) cfu/g), of L. monocytogenes and the native microflora in vacuum-packed ham slices stored at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 °C for up to 5 weeks were determined. At 4-12 °C, the LPDs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes were not significantly different from those of monocultured L. monocytogenes in ham, indicating the LPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-12 °C were not influenced by the presence of the native microflora. At 4-8 °C, the GRs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes (0.0114-0.0130 log(10) cfu/h) were statistically but marginally lower than those of monocultured L. monocytogenes (0.0132-0.0145 log(10) cfu/h), indicating the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were reduced by the presence of the native microflora. The GRs of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 8-7% with the presence of the native microflora at 4-8 °C, whereas there was less influence of the native microflora on the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 10 and 12 °C. The MPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were also reduced by the presence of the native microflora. Data from this study provide additional information regarding the growth suppression of L. monocytogenes by the native microflora for assessing the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Silicon induced Fe deficiency affects Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn distribution in rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth in calcareous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Rodríguez-Menéndez, Sara; Fernández, Beatriz; Pereiro, Rosario; de la Fuente, Vicenta; Hernandez-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    A protective effect by silicon in the amelioration of iron chlorosis has recently been proved for Strategy 1 species, at acidic pH. However in calcareous conditions, the Si effect on Fe acquisition and distribution is still unknown. In this work, the effect of Si on Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn distribution was studied in rice (Strategy 2 species) under Fe sufficiency and deficiency. Plants (+Si or-Si) were grown initially with Fe, and then Fe was removed from the nutrient solution. The plants were then analysed using a combined approach including LA-ICP-MS images for each element of interest, the analysis of the Fe and Si concentration at different cell layers of root and leaf cross sections by SEM-EDX, and determining the apoplastic Fe, total micronutrient concentration and oxidative stress indexes. A different Si effect was observed depending on plant Fe status. Under Fe sufficiency, Si supply increased Fe root plaque formation, decreasing Fe concentration inside the root and increasing the oxidative stress in the plants. Therefore, Fe acquisition strategies were activated, and Fe translocation rate to the aerial parts was increased, even under an optimal Fe supply. Under Fe deficiency, +Si plants absorbed Fe from the plaque more rapidly than -Si plants, due to the previous activation of Fe deficiency strategies during the growing period (+Fe + Si). Higher Fe plaque formation due to Si supply during the growing period reduced Fe uptake and could activate Fe deficiency strategies in rice, making it more efficient against Fe chlorosis alterations. Silicon influenced Mn and Cu distribution in root. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-dimensional culture conditions differentially affect astrocyte modulation of brain endothelial barrier function in response to transforming growth factor β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brian T; Grego, Sonia; Sellgren, Katelyn L

    2015-05-22

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) function is regulated by dynamic interactions among cell types within the neurovascular unit, including astrocytes and endothelial cells. Co-culture models of the BBB typically involve astrocytes seeded on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces, which recent studies indicate cause astrocytes to express a phenotype similar to that of reactive astrocytes in situ. We hypothesized that the culture conditions of astrocytes would differentially affect their ability to modulate BBB function in vitro. Brain endothelial cells were grown alone or in co-culture with astrocytes. Astrocytes were grown either as conventional (2D) monolayers, or in a collagen-based gel which allows them to grow in a three-dimensional (3D) construct. Astrocytes were viable in 3D conditions, and displayed a marked reduction in their expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), suggesting reduced activation. Stimulation of astrocytes with transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 decreased transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and reduced expression of claudin-5 in co-cultures, whereas treatment of endothelial cells in the absence of astrocytes was without effect. The effect of TGFβ1 on TEER was significantly more pronounced in endothelial cells cultured with 3D astrocytes compared to 2D astrocytes. These results demonstrate that astrocyte culture conditions differentially affect their ability to modulate brain endothelial barrier function, and suggest a direct relationship between reactive gliosis and BBB permeability. Moreover, these studies demonstrate the potential importance of physiologically relevant culture conditions to in vitro modeling of disease processes that affect the neurovascular unit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  4. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  5. Physical Condition Does Not Affect Gravity-Induced Loss of Consciousness during Human Centrifuge Training in Well-Experienced Young Aviators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhee Park

    Full Text Available Consensus on whether physical condition affects the risk of gravity-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC has not been reached, and most previous studies about the issue did not include well-experienced aviators. We compared the physical conditions of well-experienced young aviators according to the occurrence of G-LOC during human centrifuge training.Among 361 young male aviators on active flight duty with experience in high performance aircrafts for at least 2 years, 350 had full data available and were reviewed in this study. We divided the aviators into the G-LOC group and the non-G-LOC group according to their human centrifuge training results. We then compared their basic characteristics, body composition, physical fitness level, and pulmonary function.Twenty nine aviators (8.3% who experienced G-LOC during human centrifuge training in their first trials were classified into the G-LOC group. There was no difference in physical condition of aviators between the two groups.Young aviators with experience in G-LOC showed no difference in physical condition such as muscle mass, strength, and general endurance from the aviators with no such experience. Although more studies are needed, physical condition does not seem to be a significant determinant of G-LOC among the experienced aviators.

  6. Physical Condition Does Not Affect Gravity-Induced Loss of Consciousness during Human Centrifuge Training in Well-Experienced Young Aviators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Yun, Chul; Kang, Seungcheol

    2016-01-01

    Consensus on whether physical condition affects the risk of gravity-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) has not been reached, and most previous studies about the issue did not include well-experienced aviators. We compared the physical conditions of well-experienced young aviators according to the occurrence of G-LOC during human centrifuge training. Among 361 young male aviators on active flight duty with experience in high performance aircrafts for at least 2 years, 350 had full data available and were reviewed in this study. We divided the aviators into the G-LOC group and the non-G-LOC group according to their human centrifuge training results. We then compared their basic characteristics, body composition, physical fitness level, and pulmonary function. Twenty nine aviators (8.3%) who experienced G-LOC during human centrifuge training in their first trials were classified into the G-LOC group. There was no difference in physical condition of aviators between the two groups. Young aviators with experience in G-LOC showed no difference in physical condition such as muscle mass, strength, and general endurance from the aviators with no such experience. Although more studies are needed, physical condition does not seem to be a significant determinant of G-LOC among the experienced aviators.

  7. Job conditions, psychological climate, and affective commitment as predictors of intention to quit among two groups of bank employees in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogun,, Anthony G.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which job conditions (job demands and job control, psychological climate, and affective commitment predict turnover intention among Tellers and Interpersonal Relation Officers in some Nigerian Banks and whether affective commitment mediate the relationship between psychological climate and turnover intention. Five hundred and nineteen(tellers = 321, IRO = 198bank employees (266 males and 253 females whose ages ranged from 19 to 65 years with a mean of 34.02 years and SD of 9.54, from 11 commercial banks in Lagos, Nigeria participated in the study. Validated scales were used for data collections. The study hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression, Baron and Kenny’s (1986 mediation analysis, and t-independent sample analyses. The results revealed significant joint and independent influence of job demands, job control, psychological climate, and affective commitment on turnover intention of bank employees. Furthermore, affective commitment directly and fully mediated the relationship between psychological climate and intention to quit. The results also revealed that interpersonal relation officers (IRO showed higher tendency to quit their jobs than tellers. The researchers therefore suggested the need for bank management to modify or re-design the aspect of the job taxing their employees and invest and create positive climate that would improve their employees’ well-being.

  8. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions does not increase photosynthetic carbon gain but affects the dissipation of excess energy in seedlings of the evergreen conifer Jack pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P A; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-03-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22 degrees C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7 degrees C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7 degrees C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22 degrees C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of beta-carotene in the warm autumn

  9. An open-label multicenter study to assess the safety of dextromethorphan/quinidine in patients with pseudobulbar affect associated with a range of underlying neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Gary L; Wymer, James P; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Appel, Stanley H; Formella, Andrea E; Pope, Laura E

    2014-11-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is associated with neurological disorders or injury affecting the brain, and characterized by frequent, uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing that are exaggerated or unrelated to the patient's emotional state. Clinical trials establishing dextromethorphan and quinidine (DM/Q) as PBA treatment were conducted in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or multiple sclerosis (MS). This trial evaluated DM/Q safety in patients with PBA secondary to any neurological condition affecting the brain. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of DM/Q during long-term administration to patients with PBA associated with multiple neurological conditions. Fifty-two-week open-label study of DM/Q 30/30 mg twice daily. Safety measures included adverse events (AEs), laboratory tests, electrocardiograms (ECGs), vital signs, and physical examinations. #NCT00056524. A total of 553 PBA patients with >30 different neurological conditions enrolled; 296 (53.5%) completed. The most frequently reported treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) were nausea (11.8%), dizziness (10.5%), headache (9.9%), somnolence (7.2%), fatigue (7.1%), diarrhea (6.5%), and dry mouth (5.1%). TRAEs were mostly mild/moderate, generally transient, and consistent with previous controlled trials. Serious AEs (SAEs) were reported in 126 patients (22.8%), including 47 deaths, mostly due to ALS progression and respiratory failure. No SAEs were deemed related to DM/Q treatment by investigators. ECG results suggested no clinically meaningful effect of DM/Q on myocardial repolarization. Differences in AEs across neurological disease groups appeared consistent with the known morbidity of the primary neurological conditions. Study interpretation is limited by the small size of some disease groups, the lack of a specific efficacy measure and the use of a DM/Q dose higher than the eventually approved dose. DM/Q was generally well tolerated over this 52 week trial in patients with PBA

  10. In vitro culture of bovine embryos in murine ES cell conditioned media negatively affects expression of pluripotency-related markers OCT4, SOX2 and SSEA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C S; de Souza, M M; Saraiva, N Z; Tetzner, T A D; Lima, M R; Lopes, F L; Garcia, J M

    2012-06-01

    Despite extensive efforts, establishment of bovine embryonic stem (ES) cell lines has not been successful. We hypothesized that culture conditions for in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos, the most used source of inner cell mass (ICM) to obtain ES cells, might affect their undifferentiated state. Therefore, the aim of this work was to improve pluripotency of IVP blastocysts to produce suitable ICM for further culturing. We tested KSR and foetal calf serum (FCS) supplements in SOF medium and ES cell conditioned medium (CM) on IVC (groups: KSR, KSR CM, FCS and FCS CM). Cleavage and blastocyst rates were similar between all groups. Also, embryonic quality, assessed by apoptosis rates (TUNEL assay), total cell number and ICM percentage did not differ between experimental groups. However, expression of pluripotency-related markers was affected. We detected down-regulation of OCT3/4, SOX2 and SSEA1 in ICM of FCS CM blastocysts (p < 0.05). SOX2 gene expression revealed lower levels (p < 0.05) on KSR CM blastocysts and a remarkable variation in SOX2 mRNA levels on FCS-supplemented blastocysts. In conclusion, pluripotency-related markers tend to decrease after supplementation with ES cell CM, suggesting different mechanisms regulating mouse and bovine pluripotency. KSR supplementation did not differ from FCS, but FCS replacement by KSR may produce blastocysts with stable SOX2 gene expression levels. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Exposure to hot and cold environmental conditions does not affect the decision making ability of soccer referees following an intermittent sprint protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eTaylor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soccer referees enforce the laws of the game and the decisions they make can directly affect match results. Fixtures within European competitions take place in climatic conditions that are often challenging (e.g. Moscow ~ -5oC, Madrid ~30oC. Effects of these temperatures on player performance are well documented; however, little is known how this environmental stress may impair cognitive performance of soccer referees and if so, whether exercise exasperates this. The present study aims to investigate the effect of cold (COLD; 5oC, 40% relative humidity (RH, hot (HOT; 30oC, 40% RH and temperate (CONT; 18oC, 40% RH conditions on decision making during soccer specific exercise. On separate occasions within each condition, thirteen physically active males; either semi-professional referees or semi-professional soccer players completed three 90 min intermittent treadmill protocols that simulated match play, interspersed with 4 computer delivered cognitive tests to measure vigilance and dual task capacity. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation were recorded throughout the protocol. There was no significant difference between conditions for decision making (p > 0.05 despite significant differences in measured physiological variables (skin temperature = HOT 34.5 ± 5.1°C; CONT 31.2 ± 0.1°C and COLD 26.7 ± 0.5°C; p < 0.05. It is hypothesised that the lack of difference observed in decision making ability between conditions was due to the exercise protocol used, as it may not have elicited an appropriate and valid soccer specific internal load to alter cognitive functioning.

  12. Exposure to hot and cold environmental conditions does not affect the decision making ability of soccer referees following an intermittent sprint protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee; Fitch, Natalie; Castle, Paul; Watkins, Samuel; Aldous, Jeffrey; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Midgely, Adrian; Brewer, John; Mauger, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Soccer referees enforce the laws of the game and the decisions they make can directly affect match results. Fixtures within European competitions take place in climatic conditions that are often challenging (e.g., Moscow ~ -5°C, Madrid ~30°C). Effects of these temperatures on player performance are well-documented; however, little is known how this environmental stress may impair cognitive performance of soccer referees and if so, whether exercise exasperates this. The present study aims to investigate the effect of cold [COLD; -5°C, 40% relative humidity (RH)], hot (HOT; 30°C, 40% RH) and temperate (CONT; 18°C, 40% RH) conditions on decision making during soccer specific exercise. On separate occasions within each condition, 13 physically active males; either semi-professional referees or semi-professional soccer players completed three 90 min intermittent treadmill protocols that simulated match play, interspersed with 4 computer delivered cognitive tests to measure vigilance and dual task capacity. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS) were recorded throughout the protocol. There was no significant difference between conditions for decision making in either the dual task (interaction effects: FALSE p = 0.46; MISSED p = 0.72; TRACKING p = 0.22) or vigilance assessments (interaction effects: FALSE p = 0.31; HIT p = 0.15; MISSED p = 0.17) despite significant differences in measured physiological variables (skin temperature: HOT vs. CONT 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.9, p decision making ability between conditions was due to the exercise protocol used, as it may not have elicited an appropriate and valid soccer specific internal load to alter cognitive functioning.

  13. A prospective study of calf factors affecting age, body size, and body condition score at first calving of holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, A J; Heinrichs, B S; Harel, O; Rogers, G W; Place, N T

    2005-08-01

    Data were collected prospectively on parameters related to first calving on 18 farms located in Northeastern Pennsylvania. This project was designed to study possible residual effects of calf management practices and events occurring during the first 16 wk of life on age, BW, skeletal growth, and body condition score at first calving. Multiple imputation method for handling missing data was incorporated in these analyses. This method has the advantage over ad hoc single imputations because the appropriate error structure is maintained. Much similarity was found between the multiple imputation method and a traditional mixed model analysis, except that some estimates from the multiple imputation method seemed more logical in their effects on the parameter measured. Factors related to increased age at first calving were increased difficulty of delivery, antibiotic treatment of sick calves, increased amount of milk or milk replacer fed before weaning, reduced quality of forage fed to weaned calves, maximum humidity, mean daily temperature, and maximum ammonia levels in calf housing areas. Body weight at calving tended to increase with parity of the dam, increased amount of grain fed to calves, increased ammonia levels, and increased mean temperature of the calf housing area. Body condition score at calving tended to be positively influenced by delivery score at first calving, dam parity, and milk or milk replacer dry matter intake. Withers height at calving was positively affected by treatment of animals with antibiotics and increased mean temperature in the calf area. This study demonstrated that nutrition, housing, and management factors that affect health and growth of calves have long-term effects on the animal at least through first calving.

  14. Estimating environmental conditions affecting protozoal pathogen removal in surface water wetland systems using a multi-scale, model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E; Hogan, Jennifer; Smith, Woutrina A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Shapiro, Karen; Los Huertos, Marc; Conrad, Patricia A; Dominik, Clare; Watson, Fred G R

    2014-09-15

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii are waterborne protozoal pathogens distributed worldwide and empirical evidence suggests that wetlands reduce the concentrations of these pathogens under certain environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate how protozoal removal in surface water is affected by the water temperature, turbidity, salinity, and vegetation cover of wetlands in the Monterey Bay region of California. To examine how protozoal removal was affected by these environmental factors, we conducted observational experiments at three primary spatial scales: settling columns, recirculating wetland mesocosm tanks, and an experimental research wetland (Molera Wetland). Simultaneously, we developed a protozoal transport model for surface water to simulate the settling columns, the mesocosm tanks, and the Molera Wetland. With a high degree of uncertainty expected in the model predictions and field observations, we developed the model within a Bayesian statistical framework. We found protozoal removal increased when water flowed through vegetation, and with higher levels of turbidity, salinity, and temperature. Protozoal removal in surface water was maximized (~0.1 hour(-1)) when flowing through emergent vegetation at 2% cover, and with a vegetation contact time of ~30 minutes compared to the effects of temperature, salinity, and turbidity. Our studies revealed that an increase in vegetated wetland area, with water moving through vegetation, would likely improve regional water quality through the reduction of fecal protozoal pathogen loads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Postharvest stilbenes and flavonoids enrichment of table grape cv Redglobe (Vitis vinifera L.) as affected by interactive UV-C exposure and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Pasquale; Pichierri, Arianna; Basile, Teodora; Antonacci, Donato

    2013-11-15

    Flavonoids and stilbenes are secondary metabolites produced in plants that can play an important health-promoting role. The biosynthesis of these compounds generally increases as a response to biotic or abiotic stress; therefore, in order to achieve as high phenolic accumulation as possible, the interactive effects of storage conditions (temperature and time) and UV-C radiation on polyphenols content in postharvest Redglobe table grape variety were investigated. During a storage time longer than 48h, both cold storage (4°C) and UV-C exposure of almost 3min (2.4kJm(-2)) positively enhanced the content of cis- and trans-piceid (34 and 90μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) together with quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (15 and 140μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) up to three fold respect to control grape samples. Conversely, catechin was not significantly affected by irradiation and storage treatments. With regard anthocyanins, the highest concentrations of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-Oglucoside were observed in Redglobe, stored at both room temperature and 4°C, after 5min (4.1kJm(-2)) of UV-C treatment and 24h of storage. Gathered findings showed that combined postharvest treatments can lead to possible "functional" grapes, within normal conditions of market commercialization, responding to the rising consumers demand to have foods that support and promote health. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Foliar antitranspirant and soil superabsorbent hydrogel affects photosynthetic gas exchange and water use efficiency of maize grown under low rainfall conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Guo, Shi-Wen; Li, Pin-Fang; Song, Ri-Quan; Yu, Jian

    2018-06-08

    Two lysimeter experiments with maize plants were conducted to inquiry the effect of combined superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and fulvic acid (FA) application on photosynthetic gas exchange and water use efficiency (WUE) under deficit irrigation conditions. Soil SAP (45 kg ha -1 ) was applied while sowing, and FA solution (2 g L -1 ) was sprayed onto crop canopy three times at later plant growth periods. Combining SAP and FA application significantly improved plant photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents, and instantaneous WUE, while maintaining the optimal leaf stomatal transpiration. The effect of combined two chemicals use on photosynthesis and leaf instantaneous WUE was superior compared with the effects of their individual applications. As compared with plots not treated with chemicals, soil SAP significantly improved the yield by 12% and grain WUE by 10% when averaged across the two experiments, whereas foliar FA application did not affect yield and grain WUE. In contrast, the combined use of two chemicals significantly increased the yield by 20% and grain WUE by 26%, largely attributed to the increase in grain number. Soil SAP and foliar FA use, under low rainfall conditions, had little influence on crop water consumption but improved plant WUE by enhancing photosynthesis and increasing kernel number. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, biogas slurry and chemical nitrogen for sustainable production of maize under salt-affected conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Jamil, M.; Akhtar, F.U.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most critical constraints hampering agricultural production throughout the world, including Pakistan. Some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the ability to reduce the deleterious effect of salinity on plants due to the presence of ACC-deaminase enzyme along with some other mechanisms. The integrated use of organic, chemical and biofertilizers can reduce dependence on expensive chemical inputs. To sustain high crop yields without deterioration of soil fertility, it is important to work out optimal combination of chemical and biofertilizers, and manures in the cropping system. A pot trial was conducted to study the effect of integrated use of PGPR, chemical nitrogen, and biogas slurry for sustainable production of maize under salt-stressed conditions and for good soil health. Results showed that sole application of PGPR, chemical nitrogen and biogas slurry enhanced maize growth but their combined application was more effective. Maximum improvement in maize growth, yield, ionic concentration in leaves and nutrient concentration in grains was observed in the treatment where PGPR and biogas slurry was used in the presence of 100% recommended nitrogen as chemical fertilizer. It also improved the soil pH, ECe, and available N, P and K contents. It is concluded that integrated use of PGPR, biogas slurry and chemical nitrogen not only enhanced maize growth, yield and quality but also improved soil health. So, it may be evaluated under field conditions to get sustained yield of maize from salt-affected soils. (author)

  18. A pilot study using scripted ventilation conditions to identify key factors affecting indoor pollutant concentration and air exchange rate in a residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ted; Myers, Jeffrey; Kelly, Thomas; Wisbith, Anthony; Ollison, Will

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted using an occupied, single-family test house in Columbus, OH, to determine whether a script-based protocol could be used to obtain data useful in identifying the key factors affecting air-exchange rate (AER) and the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of selected traffic-related air pollutants. The test script called for hourly changes to elements of the test house considered likely to influence air flow and AER, including the position (open or closed) of each window and door and the operation (on/off) of the furnace, air conditioner, and ceiling fans. The script was implemented over a 3-day period (January 30-February 1, 2002) during which technicians collected hourly-average data for AER, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations for six pollutants (benzene, formaldehyde (HCHO), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x))), and selected meteorological variables. Consistent with expectations, AER tended to increase with the number of open exterior windows and doors. The 39 AER values measured during the study when all exterior doors and windows were closed varied from 0.36 to 2.29 h(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.77 h(-1) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.435. The 27 AER values measured when at least one exterior door or window was opened varied from 0.50 to 15.8 h(-1) with a GM of 1.98 h(-1) and a GSD of 1.902. AER was also affected by temperature and wind speed, most noticeably when exterior windows and doors were closed. Results of a series of stepwise linear regression analyses suggest that (1) outdoor pollutant concentration and (2) indoor pollutant concentration during the preceding hour were the "variables of choice" for predicting indoor pollutant concentration in the test house under the conditions of this study. Depending on the pollutant and ventilation conditions, one or more of the following variables produced a small, but

  19. Understanding Natural Gas Methane Leakage from Buried Pipelines as Affected by Soil and Atmospheric Conditions - Field Scale Experimental and Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, K. M.; Mitton, M.; Moradi, A.; Chamindu, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reducing the amount of leaked natural gas (NG) from pipelines from production to use has become a high priority in efforts to cut anthropogenic emissions of methane. In addition to environmental impacts, NG leakage can cause significant economic losses and safety failures such as fires and explosions. However, tracking and evaluating NG pipeline leaks requires a better understanding of the leak from the source to the detector as well as more robust quantification methods. Although recent measurement-based approaches continue to make progress towards this end, efforts are hampered due to the complexity of leakage scenarios. Sub- surface transport of leaked NG from pipelines occurs through complex transport pathways due to soil heterogeneities and changes in soil moisture. Furthermore, it is affected by variable atmospheric conditions such as winds, frontal passages and rain. To better understand fugitive emissions from NG pipelines, we developed a field scale testbed that simulates low pressure gas leaks from pipe buried in soil. The system is equipped with subsurface and surface sensors to continuously monitor changes in soil and atmospheric conditions (e.g. moisture, pressure, temperature) and methane concentrations. Using this testbed, we are currently conducting a series of gas leakage experiments to study of the impact of subsurface (e.g. soil moisture, heterogeneity) and atmospheric conditions (near-surface wind and temperature) on the detected gas signals and establish the relative importance of the many pathways for methane migration between the source and the sensor location. Accompanying numerical modeling of the system using the multiphase transport simulator TOUGH2-EOS7CA demonstrates the influence of leak location and direction on gas migration. These findings will better inform leak detectors of the leak severity before excavation, aiding with safety precautions and work order categorization for improved efficiency.

  20. Empowering wind power. On social and institutional conditions affecting the performance of entrepreneurs in the wind power supply market in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agterbosch, S.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on wind energy for electricity generation, analysing the evolution of the wind power supply market in the Netherlands. We analysed different kind of wind power entrepreneurs (energy distributors, small private investors, wind cooperatives and new independent wind power producers), their capacity to implement wind energy and the social and institutional conditions that affected their investments over the period 1989-2004. Central in the analyses are the institutional regulatory dimension and the social context as explanatory variables for the emergence and performance of these wind power entrepreneurs. Special attention is given to the liberalisation of the electricity market. The primary social actors for the implementation of wind energy projects in a liberalised market are entrepreneurs willing to invest. Understanding conditions that trigger entrepreneurs to invest in these projects, and understanding conditions that determine the chance of success for entrepreneurs to implement and exploit their projects, is vital for setting up effective policies to stimulate wind electricity generation. The analytical perspective that we used to study investment behaviour of wind power entrepreneurs and their capacity to implement wind energy can be referred to as the 'new institutional perspective'. Based on this new institutional perspective the concept of implementation capacity has been developed. Implementation capacity indicates the feasibility for wind power entrepreneurs to adopt wind turbines, and enables to explain, comparatively, changing possibilities in time for different types of entrepreneurs. The development of the wind power supply market is divided into three successive market periods: Monopoly powers (1989-1995), Interbellum (1996-1997) and Free market (1998-2002). We conducted case studies on the implementation capacity of the four entrepreneurial groups in each of the three market periods. The case studies led to conclusions

  1. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y.; Tahir, Muhammad N.; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N.; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that Se

  2. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y; Tahir, Muhammad N; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize ( Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L -1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that

  3. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L. under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Nawaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium (Se supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L. under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity and water stress (60% field capacity conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing and was repeated after one week, whereas water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41% and enhanced relative water contents (30%, total chlorophyll (53%, carotenoid contents (60%, accumulation of total free amino acids (40% and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%, catalase (30%, peroxidase (27% and ascorbate peroxidase (27% with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15% and increased crude protein (47%, fibre (10%, nitrogen free extract (10% and Se content (36% but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose

  4. Pharmacological interference with metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 but not subtype 5 differentially affects within- and between-session extinction of Pavlovian conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Iulia; Dietz, Monika; Peterlik, Daniel; Huber, Sabine E; Fendt, Markus; Neumann, Inga D; Flor, Peter J; Slattery, David A

    2012-03-01

    Fear extinction is defined as the attenuation of a conditioned-fear memory by re-exposing animals to the conditioned stimulus without the aversive stimulus. This process is known to be effectively enhanced via administration of D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA-receptor agonist. However, other glutamatergic mechanisms, such as interference with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtypes 5 and 7 in the extinction of aversive memories are insufficiently understood. Using the allosteric mGluR5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), the mGluR7 allosteric agonist N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), and DCS for comparison, we aimed to study how pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 and activation of mGluR7 influenced within- and between-session conditioned-fear extinction training and extinction retention in rats. We show that when injected before extinction training, mGluR7 activation with AMN082 enhanced freezing and thereby attenuated within-session fear extinction, whereas both DCS and the mGluR5 receptor antagonist MPEP had no effect on this process. However, these differential drug effects were not long lasting, as no difference in extinction retention were observed 24 h later. Therefore, we assessed whether the compounds affect 24 h consolidation of extinction training following incomplete extinction training (between-session extinction). Similar to DCS, AMN082- but not MPEP-treated rats showed facilitated extinction retention, as exhibited by decreased freezing. Finally, using fluoxetine, we provide evidence that the effect of AMN082 on between-session extinction retention is most likely not via increasing 5-HT transmission. These findings demonstrate that mGluR7 activation differentially modulates conditioned-fear extinction, in dependence on the protocol employed, and suggests drugs with AMN082-like mechanisms as potential add-on drugs following exposure-based psychotherapy for fear-related human

  5. Geochemistry of trace metals in shelf sediments affected by seasonal and permanent low oxygen conditions off central Chile, SE Pacific (˜36°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Praxedes; Dezileau, Laurent; Cardenas, Lissette; Sellanes, Javier; Lange, Carina B.; Inostroza, Jorge; Muratli, Jesse; Salamanca, Marco A.

    2012-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, U, Co, Ni, Cu, Ba, Fe, Mn), total organic carbon (TOC) and C and N stable isotope signatures (δ 13C and δ 15N) were determined in short sediments cores from the inner and outer shelf off Concepción, Chile (˜36°S). The objectives were to establish the effect of environmental conditions on trace metal distributions at two shelf sites, one affected by seasonal oxygenation and the other by permanent low oxygen conditions due to the presence of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). We evaluate trace metals as proxies of past changes in primary productivity and the bottom water oxygen regime. Concentrations of pore water sulfides and NH4+ were also measured as indicators of the main diagenetic pathways at each site. Our results for the inner shelf (seasonal suboxia) suggest that the oxidative state of the sediments responds to seasonal pulses of organic matter and that seasonal oxygenation develops during high and low primary productivity in the water column. Here, positive fluxes (to the water column) estimated from pore water concentrations of several elements were observed (Ba, Co, Ni, Fe and Mn). The less reduced environment at this site produces authigenic enrichment of Cu associated with the formation of oxides in the oxic surface sediment layer, and the reduction of U within deeper sediment sections occur consistently with negative estimated pore water fluxes. In the outer shelf sediments (permanent suboxia, OMZ site), negative fluxes (to the sediment) were estimated for all elements, but these sediments showed authigenic enrichments only for Cd, Cu and U. The short oxygenation period during the winter season did not affect the accumulation of these metals on the shelf. The distribution of Cu, Cd and U have been preserved within the sediments and the authigenic accumulation rates estimated showed a decrease from the deep sections of the core to the surface sediments. This could be explained by a gradual decrease in the strength of the OMZ in the

  6. Larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of Anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Maisa da-Silva; Gil, Luiz Herman S; e-Silva, Alexandre de-Almeida

    2012-08-02

    The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies regarding aspects of adult population ecology are more common than studies on larval ecology. However, in order develop effective control strategies and laboratory breeding conditions for this species, more data on the factors affecting vector biology is needed. The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of larval food quantity on the vectorial capacity of An. darling under laboratory conditions. Anopheles darlingi was maintained at 28°C, 80% humidity and exposed to a daily photoperiod of 12 h. Larvae were divided into three experimental groups that were fed either a low, medium, or high food supply (based on the food amounts consumed by other species of culicids). Each experiment was replicated for six times. A cohort of adults were also exposed to each type of diet and assessed for several biological characteristics (e.g. longevity, bite frequency and survivorship), which were used to estimate the vectorial capacity of each experimental group. The group supplied with higher food amounts observed a reduction in development time while larval survival increased. In addition to enhanced longevity, increasing larval food quantity was positively correlated with increasing frequency of bites, longer blood meal duration and wing length, resulting in greater vectorial capacity. However, females had greater longevity than males despite having smaller wings. Overall, several larval and adult biological traits were significantly affected by larval food availability. Greater larval food supply

  7. Treating symptoms or assisting human development: Can different environmental conditions affect personal development for patients with severe mental illness? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauveng, Arnhild; Tveiten, Sidsel; Ekeland, Tor-Johan; Torleif, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that a basic anomaly in self-experience may be a core factor in patients with severe mental illnesses. Given the importance of sense of self, the traditional treatment of symptoms might not be the most effective for these groups of patients. This qualitative study examines how differences in social environmental conditions, organized as education or treatment, might affect personal development in patients with severe mental illness. A qualitative hermeneutical design was used. Data were collected through qualitative interviews. Informants included 14 patients in psychiatric treatment and 15 students at schools for adults with mental illness. Most informants were interviewed on two occasions, 6-8 months apart, totaling 47 interviews. All participants had been diagnosed with severe mental illness with pronounced impact on daily functioning (most often psychoses or personality disorders) for a minimum of 2 years. Findings and interpretations showed that the students experienced a supportive environment focused mostly on education. They described personal and enduring development in areas such as capacity for relationships, regulation of symptoms, subjective well-being, and integration in society. The patients experienced an environment focused more on treatment of their illness and less on personal development and interests. They described little development, much loneliness, a poor quality of life, an objectifying attitude of themselves and others, and hopelessness. Even if more research is needed, findings indicate that for this group of patients, problems may be closely related to identity development. Therefore, instead of solemnly focusing on specific symptoms, it might be more effective to support patients' personal and social development by offering intensive and lasting social environmental conditions. This includes stable and mutual relationships, intrinsically motivated activities, and an environment that supports personal choices

  8. On conditions of negativity of friction resistance for nonstationary modes of blood flow and possible mechanism of affecting of environmental factors on energy effectiveness of cardiovascular system function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that initiated by action of molecular viscosity impulse flow, directed usually from the moving fluid to limiting it solid surface, can, under certain conditions, turn to zero and get negative values in the case of non-stationary flow caused by alternating in time longitudinal (along the pipe axis pressure gradient. It is noted that this non-equilibrium mechanism of negative friction resistance in the similar case of pulsating blood flow in the blood vessels, in addition to the stable to turbulent disturbances swirled blood flow structure providing, can also constitute hydro-mechanical basis of the observed but not explained yet paradoxically high energy effectiveness of the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system (CVS. We consider respective mechanism of affecting on the stability of the normal work of CVS by environmental variable factors using shifting of hydro-dynamic mode with negative resistance realization range boundaries and variation of linear hydrodynamic instability leading to the structurally stable swirled blood flow organization.

  9. Do lateral boundary condition update frequency and the resolution of the boundary data affect the regional model COSMO-CLM? A sensitivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankatz, K.; Kerkweg, A.

    2014-12-01

    The work presented is part of the joint project "DecReg" ("Regional decadal predictability") which is in turn part of the project "MiKlip" ("Decadal predictions"), an effort funded by the german Federal Ministry of Education and Research to improve decadal predictions on a global and regional scale. In regional climate modeling it is common to update the lateral boundary conditions (LBC) of the regional model every six hours. This is mainly due to the fact, that reference data sets like ERA are only available every six hours. Additionally, for offline coupling procedures it would be too costly to store LBC data in higher temporal resolution for climate simulations. However, theoretically, the coupling frequency could be as high as the time step of the driving model. Meanwhile, it is unclear if a more frequent update of the LBC has a significant effect on the climate in the domain of the regional model (RCM). This study uses the RCM COSMO-CLM/MESSy (Kerkweg and Jöckel, 2012) to couple COSMO-CLM offline to the GCM ECHAM5. One study examines a 30 year time slice experiment for three update frequencies of the LBC, namely six hours, one hour and six minutes. The evaluation of means, standard deviations and statistics of the climate in regional domain shows only small deviations, some stastically significant though, of 2m temperature, sea level pressure and precipitaion.The second scope of the study assesses parameters linked to cyclone activity, which is affected by the LBC update frequency. Differences in track density and strength are found when comparing the simulations.The second study examines the quality of decadal hind-casts of the decade 2001-2010 when the horizontal resolution of the driving model, namely T42, T63, T85, T106, from which the LBC are calculated, is altered. Two sets of simulations are evaluated. For the first set of simulations, the GCM simulations are performed at different resolutions using the same boundary conditions for GHGs and SSTs, thus

  10. Water and nitrogen conditions affect the relationships of Delta13C and Delta18O to gas exchange and growth in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Molero, Gemma; Nogués, Salvador; Araus, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the effects of water and nitrogen (N) on plant Delta(13)C have been reported previously, these factors have scarcely been studied for Delta(18)O. Here the combined effect of different water and N regimes on Delta(13)C, Delta(18)O, gas exchange, water-use efficiency (WUE), and growth of four genotypes of durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] cultured in pots was studied. Water and N supply significantly increased plant growth. However, a reduction in water supply did not lead to a significant decrease in gas exchange parameters, and consequently Delta(13)C was only slightly modified by water input. Conversely, N fertilizer significantly decreased Delta(13)C. On the other hand, water supply decreased Delta(18)O values, whereas N did not affect this parameter. Delta(18)O variation was mainly determined by the amount of transpired water throughout plant growth (T(cum)), whereas Delta(13)C variation was explained in part by a combination of leaf N and stomatal conductance (g(s)). Even though the four genotypes showed significant differences in cumulative transpiration rates and biomass, this was not translated into significant differences in Delta(18)O(s). However, genotypic differences in Delta(13)C were observed. Moreover, approximately 80% of the variation in biomass across growing conditions and genotypes was explained by a combination of both isotopes, with Delta(18)O alone accounting for approximately 50%. This illustrates the usefulness of combining Delta(18)O and Delta(13)C in order to assess differences in plant growth and total transpiration, and also to provide a time-integrated record of the photosynthetic and evaporative performance of the plant during the course of crop growth.

  11. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  12. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  13. Reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference and its inhibition by previous social interaction preferentially affect D1-medium spiny neurons in the accumbens corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prast, Janine M; Schardl, Aurelia; Schwarzer, Christoph; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if counterconditioning with dyadic (i.e., one-to-one) social interaction, a strong inhibitor of the subsequent reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), differentially modulates the activity of the diverse brain regions oriented along a mediolateral corridor reaching from the interhemispheric sulcus to the anterior commissure, i.e., the nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band, the medial septal nucleus, the major island of Calleja, the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus, and the medial accumbens shell and core. We also investigated the involvement of the lateral accumbens core and the dorsal caudate putamen. The anterior cingulate 1 (Cg1) region served as a negative control. Contrary to our expectations, we found that all regions of the accumbens corridor showed increased expression of the early growth response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268) in rats 2 h after reacquisition of CPP for cocaine after a history of cocaine CPP acquisition and extinction. Previous counterconditioning with dyadic social interaction inhibited both the reacquisition of cocaine CPP and the activation of the whole accumbens corridor. EGR1 activation was predominantly found in dynorphin-labeled cells, i.e., presumably D1 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs), with D2-MSNs (immunolabeled with an anti-DRD2 antibody) being less affected. Cholinergic interneurons or GABAergic interneurons positive for parvalbumin, neuropeptide Y or calretinin were not involved in these CPP-related EGR1 changes. Glial cells did not show any EGR1 expression either. The present findings could be of relevance for the therapy of impaired social interaction in substance use disorders, depression, psychosis, and autism spectrum disorders.

  14. The Effect of Conservation Tillage and Cover Crop Residue on Beneficial Arthropods and Weed Seed Predation in Acorn Squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N F; Brainard, D C; Szendrei, Z

    2016-12-01

    Conservation tillage combined with cover crops or mulching may enhance natural enemy activity in agroecosystems by reducing soil disturbance and increasing habitat structural complexity. In particular, weed seed predation can increase with vegetation cover and reduced tillage, indicating that mulches may improve the quality of the habitat for weed seed foraging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of tillage and mulching for conservation biological control in cucurbit fields. The effects of mulch and reduced tillage on arthropods and rates of weed seed loss from arenas were examined in field trials on sandy soils in 2014 and 2015. Experimental factors included tillage and cover crop, each with two levels: strip-tillage or full-tillage, and cover crop mulch (rye residue) or no cover crop mulch (unmulched). Arthropod abundance on the crop foliage was not affected by tillage or cover crops. Contrary to expectations, epigeal natural enemies of insects and rates of weed seed removal either did not respond to treatments or were greater in full-tilled plots and plots without mulch. Our study demonstrates the potential importance of weed seed predators in reducing weed seedbanks in vegetable agroecosystems, and suggests that early-season tillage may not be detrimental to epigeal predator assemblages. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. How do climate and human impact affect Sphagnum peatlands under oceanic-continental climatic conditions? 2000 years of fire and hydrological history of a bog in Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Tinner, Willy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Kołaczek, Piotr; Słowiński, Michał; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change affects many natural processes and the same applies to human impact For instance climate change and anthropogenic activities may cause increased fire activity or change peatland dynamics. Currently it is still unknown how Sphagnum peatlands in the oceanic-continental transition zone of Poland may respond to combined effects of heat waves, drought and fire. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the last 2000 years palaeohydrology and fire history at Linje bog in Northern Poland. The main task was to determine the drivers of fire episodes, particularly to identify climatic and anthropogenic forcing. A two-meter peat core was extracted and subsampled with a high resolution. Micro- and macroscopic charcoal analyses were applied to determine past fire activity and the results compared with palaeohydrological reconstructions based on testate amoeba analysis. Palynological human indicators were used to reconstruct human activity. A depth-age model including 20 14C dates was constructed to calculate peat accumulation rates and charcoal influx. We hypothesised that: 1) fire frequency in Northern Poland was determined by climatic conditions (combination of low precipitation and heat waves), as reflected in peatland water table, and that 2) past fire episodes in the last millennium were intensified by human activity. Furthermore climate may have influenced human activity over harvest success and the carrying capacity. Our study shows that fire was important for the studied ecosystem, however, its frequency has increased in the last millennium in concomitance with land use activities. Landscape humanization and vegetation opening were followed by a peatland drying during the Little Ice Age (from ca. AD 1380). Similarly to other palaeoecological studies from Poland, Linje peatland possessed an unstable hydrology during the Little Ice Age. Increased fire episodes appeared shortly before the Little Ice Age and most severe fires were present in the time when

  16. Different culture conditions affect the growth of human tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) within a mixed tendon cells (TCs) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, M; Perucca Orfei, C; Colombini, A; Stanco, D; Randelli, P; Sansone, V; de Girolamo, L

    2017-12-01

    Tendon resident cells (TCs) are a mixed population made of terminally differentiated tenocytes and tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs). Since the enrichment of progenitors proportion could enhance the effectiveness of treatments based on these cell populations, the interest on the effect of culture conditions on the TSPCs is growing. In this study the clonal selection and the culture in presence or absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were used to assess their influences on the stemness properties and phenotype specific features of tendon cells. Cells cultured with the different methods were analyzed in terms of clonogenic and differentiation abilities, stem and tendon specific genes expression and immunophenotype at passage 2 and passage 4. The clonal selection allowed to isolate cells with a higher multi-differentiation potential, but at the same time a lower proliferation rate in comparison to the whole population. Moreover, the clones express a higher amounts of stemness marker OCT4 and tendon specific transcription factor Scleraxis (SCX) mRNA, but a lower level of decorin (DCN). On the other hand, the number of cells obtained by clonal selection was extremely low and most of the clones were unable to reach a high number of passages in cultures. The presence of bFGF influences TCs morphology, enhance their proliferation rate and reduce their clonogenic ability. Interestingly, the expression of CD54, a known mesenchymal stem cell marker, is reduced in presence of bFGF at early passages. Nevertheless, bFGF does not affect the chondrogenic and osteogenic potential of TCs and the expression of tendon specific markers, while it was able to downregulate the OCT4 expression. This study showed that clonal selection enhance progenitors content in TCs populations, but the extremely low number of cells produced with this method could represent an insurmountable obstacle to its application in clinical approaches. We observed that the addition of bFGF to the

  17. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  18. Culture conditions of Roseobacter strain 27-4 affect its attachment and biofilm formation as quantified by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Bagge-Ravn, D.

    2006-01-01

    The fish probiotic bacterium Roseobacter strain 27-4 grows only as rosettes and produces its antibacterial compound under static growth conditions. It forms three-dimensional biofilms when precultured under static conditions. We quantified attachment of Roseobacter strain 27-4 using a direct real...

  19. A new early-warning system for stripe rust affecting wheat and triticale: Host-pathogen interactions under different environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring

    resistant it was susceptible under field conditions in March 2012. All Pst isolates from Tulus, obtained from multiple locations, were identified as the ‘Kranich’-race, and were avirulent on Tulus under experimental conditions. In May and June 2012 Tulus recovered on a country-wide scale and was resistant...

  20. The ECE Pre-Service Teachers' Perception on Factors Affecting the Integration of Educational Computer Games in Two Conditions: Selecting versus Redesigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancar Tokmak, Hatice; Ozgelen, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    This case study aimed to examine early childhood education (ECE) pre-service teachers' perception on the factors affecting integration of educational computer games to their instruction in two areas: selecting and redesigning. Twenty-six ECE pre-service teachers participated in the study. The data was collected through open-ended questionnaires,…

  1. Miscellaneous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Hoffman, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on numerous conditions (systemic diseases, metabolic diseases, etc.) that may also affect the foot and ankle. In many cases, imaging of the foot and ankle is not performed for primary diagnostic purposes. However, radiographic changes do occur with these conditions. Therefore, it is important to be aware of radiographic abnormalities that these diseases may cause in the foot and ankle

  2. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions does not increase photosynthetic carbon gain but affects the dissipation of excess energy in seedlings of the evergreen Conifer Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, F.; Huner, N.; Ensminger, I.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack ...

  3. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    In species where chloroplast inheritance is exclusively or predominantly maternal, pollen-mediated flow of transgenes is reduced if transgenes are inserted in chloroplast DNA instead of nuclear DNA. However, transmission of chloroplast-encoded transgeneswill still occur if transgenic individuals ...... affected the thousand-kernel weight significantly. It was concluded that further introgression of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape to B. rapa is mostlikely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed....

  4. Comparative effectiveness of different carriers to improve the efficacy of bacterial consortium for enhancing wheat production under salt affected field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, S.; Zahir, Z. A.; Asghar, H. N.; Chaudhry, U. K.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most crucial problems for sustainable agriculture which is severely affecting crop growth and decreasing the food production. On another hand, burgeoning population in the world demands to produce more food. So, there is a need of hours to increase agricultural production particularly cereals from salt affected soils by adopting cost effective and environment friendly approaches. Use of bio-inoculants with salt tolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could be a promising option to enhance the production of cereals in salt affected soils. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate different carriers compost, peat, biogas slurry and press mud along with PGPR to enhance wheat production under salinity stress. Consortium containing equal proportion of three PGPR strains (Bacillus cereus strain Y5, Bacillus sp. Y14 and Bacillus subtilis strain Y16) was used with different carriers for seed coating. Finely ground and sterilized carriers were mixed in broth and coated on the surface of wheat seeds with different carriers. Coated seeds were sown in saline field with salinity range of 10-13 dS m/sup -1/. Results revealed that multi-strain bacterial inoculation improved the gas exchange, ionic, biochemical, growth and yield attributes of wheat crop under salinity stress. However, use of different carriers further improved the efficacy of multi-strain inoculation and significantly increased growth, yield and physiological parameters of wheat. The results of compost, peat and biogas slurry as carrier for bio-inoculants were statistically similar. (author)

  5. Storage conditions of blood samples and primer selection affect the yield of cDNA polymerase chain reaction products of hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, H. T.; Bresters, D.; Winkel, I. N.; Reesink, H. W.; Weiner, A. J.; Houghton, M.; van der Poel, C. L.; Lelie, P. N.

    1992-01-01

    We have noticed that suboptimal specimen processing and storage conditions may cause false-negative results in the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in plasma or serum. To establish the influence of specimen handling in a serological laboratory on the rate of detection of HCV RNA by the cDNA

  6. Will seasonal and climatic conditions influence living habits and socio-economic activities in such a way that nuclear accident are affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeverstam, U.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses to which extent climatic and seasonal effects can influence living habits and socio-economic activities in such a way that consequences of a nuclear accident might be affected. A number of examples from Sweden are given, related to dwellings (building standards and location), diet, seasonal effects in agriculture and tourism. The reindeer are discussed separately. Although climate and season do change man's habits in a way relevant to accident consequences, the conclusion of this paper is that in most cases this mechanism is severely mixed with other, sometimes more important ones

  7. The O-mannosylation and production of recombinant APA (45/47 KDa protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Streptomyces lividans is affected by culture conditions in shake flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamboa-Suasnavart Ramsés A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an immunodominant adhesin restricted to mycobacterium genus and has been proposed as an alternative candidate to generate a new vaccine against tuberculosis or for diagnosis kits. In this work, the recombinant O-glycoprotein APA was produced by the non-pathogenic filamentous bacteria Streptomyces lividans, evaluating three different culture conditions. This strain is known for its ability to produce heterologous proteins in a shorter time compared to M. tuberculosis. Results Three different shake flask geometries were used to provide different shear and oxygenation conditions; and the impact of those conditions on the morphology of S. lividans and the production of rAPA was characterized and evaluated. Small unbranched free filaments and mycelial clumps were found in baffled and coiled shake flasks, but one order of magnitude larger pellets were found in conventional shake flasks. The production of rAPA is around 3 times higher in small mycelia than in larger pellets, most probably due to difficulties in mass transfer inside pellets. Moreover, there are four putative sites of O-mannosylation in native APA, one of which is located at the carboxy-terminal region. The carbohydrate composition of this site was determined for rAPA by mass spectrometry analysis, and was found to contain different glycoforms depending on culture conditions. Up to two mannoses residues were found in cultures carried out in conventional shake flasks, and up to five mannoses residues were determined in coiled and baffled shake flasks. Conclusions The shear and/or oxygenation parameters determine the bacterial morphology, the productivity, and the O-mannosylation of rAPA in S. lividans. As demonstrated here, culture conditions have to be carefully controlled in order to obtain recombinant O-glycosylated proteins with similar "quality" in bacteria

  8. The O-mannosylation and production of recombinant APA (45/47 KDa) protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Streptomyces lividans is affected by culture conditions in shake flasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Cordova-Dávalos, Laura E; Martínez-Sotelo, José A; Servín-González, Luis; Espitia, Clara; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

    2011-12-20

    The Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an immunodominant adhesin restricted to mycobacterium genus and has been proposed as an alternative candidate to generate a new vaccine against tuberculosis or for diagnosis kits. In this work, the recombinant O-glycoprotein APA was produced by the non-pathogenic filamentous bacteria Streptomyces lividans, evaluating three different culture conditions. This strain is known for its ability to produce heterologous proteins in a shorter time compared to M. tuberculosis. Three different shake flask geometries were used to provide different shear and oxygenation conditions; and the impact of those conditions on the morphology of S. lividans and the production of rAPA was characterized and evaluated. Small unbranched free filaments and mycelial clumps were found in baffled and coiled shake flasks, but one order of magnitude larger pellets were found in conventional shake flasks. The production of rAPA is around 3 times higher in small mycelia than in larger pellets, most probably due to difficulties in mass transfer inside pellets. Moreover, there are four putative sites of O-mannosylation in native APA, one of which is located at the carboxy-terminal region. The carbohydrate composition of this site was determined for rAPA by mass spectrometry analysis, and was found to contain different glycoforms depending on culture conditions. Up to two mannoses residues were found in cultures carried out in conventional shake flasks, and up to five mannoses residues were determined in coiled and baffled shake flasks. The shear and/or oxygenation parameters determine the bacterial morphology, the productivity, and the O-mannosylation of rAPA in S. lividans. As demonstrated here, culture conditions have to be carefully controlled in order to obtain recombinant O-glycosylated proteins with similar "quality" in bacteria, particularly, if the protein activity depends on the

  9. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Programmed cell death of tobacco BY-2 cells induced by still culture conditions is affected by the age of the culture under agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Asahi; Kaneta, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yasushi; Sato, Seiichi

    2010-01-25

    Evans Blue staining indicated that actively growing tobacco BY-2 cells in the exponential phase died more rapidly than quiescent cells in the stationary phase when the cells cultured under agitation were placed under still conditions. Fifty percent cell death was induced at about 18, 26, 80 and 140 h for early, mid, late exponential- and stationary-phase cells, respectively. Actively growing cells became TUNEL (transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling)-positive more rapidly than quiescent cells, suggesting that the cell death evaluated by Evans Blue is accompanied by DNA cleavages. Electrophoresis of genomic DNA showed a typical 'DNA laddering' pattern formed by multiples of about 200 bp internucleosomal units. Chromatin condensation was first detected at least within 24 h by light microscopy, and then cell shrinkage followed. These findings suggest that the death of BY-2 cells induced by still conditions is PCD (programmed cell death).

  11. Contextual fear conditioning in virtual reality is affected by 5HTTLPR and NPSR1 polymorphisms: effects on fear-potentiated startle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn eGlotzbach-Schoon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin (5-HT and neuropeptide S (NPS systems are discussed as important genetic modulators of fear and sustained anxiety contributing to the etiology of anxiety disorders. Sustained anxiety is a crucial characteristic of most anxiety disorders which likely develops through context conditioning. This study investigated if and how genetic alterations of the 5-HT and the NPS systems as well as their interaction modulate contextual fear conditioning; specifically, function polymorphic variants in the genes coding for the 5-HT transporter (5HTT and the NPS receptor (NPSR1 were studied. A large group of healthy volunteers was therefore stratified for 5HTTLPR (S+ vs. LL carriers and NPSR1 rs324981 (T+ vs. AA carriers polymorphisms resulting in four genotype groups (S+/T+, S+/AA, LL/T+, LL/AA of 20 participants each. All participants underwent contextual fear conditioning and extinction using a virtual reality paradigm. During acquisition, one virtual office room (anxiety context, CXT+ was paired with an unpredictable electric stimulus (unconditioned stimulus, US, whereas another virtual office room was not paired with any US (safety context, CXT-. During extinction no US was administered. Anxiety responses were quantified by fear-potentiated startle and ratings. Most importantly, we found a gene × gene interaction on fear-potentiated startle. Only carriers of both risk alleles (S+/T+ exhibited higher startle responses in CXT+ compared to CXT-. In contrast, anxiety ratings were only influenced by the NPSR1 polymorphism with AA carriers showing higher anxiety ratings in CXT+ as compared to CXT-. Our results speak in favor of a two level account of fear conditioning with diverging effects on implicit vs. explicit fear responses. Contextual fear reflected in potentiated startle responses may be an endophenotype for anxiety disorders.

  12. Brain stem slice conditioned medium contains endogenous BDNF and GDNF that affect neural crest boundary cap cells in co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Kale, Ajay; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Siratirakun, Piyaporn; Aquino, Jorge B; Thonabulsombat, Charoensri; Ernfors, Patrik; Olivius, Petri

    2014-05-30

    Conditioned medium (CM), made by collecting medium after a few days in cell culture and then re-using it to further stimulate other cells, is a known experimental concept since the 1950s. Our group has explored this technique to stimulate the performance of cells in culture in general, and to evaluate stem- and progenitor cell aptitude for auditory nerve repair enhancement in particular. As compared to other mediums, all primary endpoints in our published experimental settings have weighed in favor of conditioned culture medium, where we have shown that conditioned culture medium has a stimulatory effect on cell survival. In order to explore the reasons for this improved survival we set out to analyze the conditioned culture medium. We utilized ELISA kits to investigate whether brain stem (BS) slice CM contains any significant amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We further looked for a donor cell with progenitor characteristics that would be receptive to BDNF and GDNF. We chose the well-documented boundary cap (BC) progenitor cells to be tested in our in vitro co-culture setting together with cochlear nucleus (CN) of the BS. The results show that BS CM contains BDNF and GDNF and that survival of BC cells, as well as BC cell differentiation into neurons, were enhanced when BS CM were used. Altogether, we conclude that BC cells transplanted into a BDNF and GDNF rich environment could be suitable for treatment of a traumatized or degenerated auditory nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Affecting the Readiness of Medical Doctors and Patients with Chronic Conditions toward the Usage of Smartphones in the Saudi Arabian Healthcare Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam M Al-Mahadeen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the rapid increase in the number of individuals who use smartphones. However, smartphones appear to be increasingly used by healthcare workers, particularly physicians and nurses. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the readiness of medical doctors and patients with chronic conditions in using and adopting smartphones for communication. This study employs the Technology Acceptance Model to examine the behavior of people in using smartphones from the perspe...

  14. Elevated CO2 levels affects the concentrations of copper and cadmium in crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals under fully open-air field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Pei, Daping; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong

    2011-08-15

    Elevated CO(2) levels and the increase in heavy metals in soils through pollution are serious problems worldwide. Whether elevated CO(2) levels will affect plants grown in heavy-metal-polluted soil and thereby influence food quality and safety is not clear. Using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the concentrations of copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) in rice and wheat grown in soil with different concentrations of the metals in the soil. In the two-year study, elevated CO(2) levels led to lower Cu concentrations and higher Cd concentrations in shoots and grain of both rice and wheat grown in the respective contaminated soil. Elevated CO(2) levels slightly but significantly lowered the pH of the soil and led to changes in Cu and Cd fractionation in the soil. Our study indicates that elevated CO(2) alters the distribution of contaminant elements in soil and plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety.

  15. Studies on the injuries of crops by harmful gases under covering. I. Injuries of vegetables by gaseous nitrogen dioxide and the conditions affecting crop susceptibility. [Eggplant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T; Tachibana, S; Inden, T

    1974-09-01

    The effects of environmental conditions such as soil-moisture humidity, and light on injuries to crops such as kidney bean, cucumber, tomato, and egg plant as well as the relationships between injury occurrence and plant nutrition, age of seedlings, and leaf position were investigated when the crops were exposed to gaseous nitrogen dioxide under a covering. The injury was severer when the soil moisture was richer and the humidity was higher. Injury was greater under dark conditions as opposed to light conditions before, during, and after NO/sub 2/ exposure. The first leaves of kidney bean plants were more susceptible to the gas when they were younger. Leaves with active metabolism (in the middle position) were the most susceptible to NO/sub 2/. Vegetables grown in fields or cultures poor in nitrogen were apparently susceptible to the gas, and those grown in ammonia-nitrogen rich cultures were more severely injured than those grown on nitrate-nitrogen rich cultures. Those grown in iron-deficient cultures were more susceptible to NO/sub 2/ than controls.

  16. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  17. Parenting characteristics of female caregivers of children affected by chronic endocrine conditions: a comparison between disorders of sex development and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Katherine D; Fedele, David A; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Phillips, Timothy M; Mazur, Tom; Mullins, Larry L; Chernausek, Steven D; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2011-12-01

    Rearing a child with a chronic illness is stressful and can potentially affect parenting style, which may result in poorer outcomes for children. The purpose of this study was to compare parenting characteristics of female caregivers rearing children with a disorder of sex development (DSD) to female caregivers rearing children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Caregivers of both groups were matched according to age and compared on measures of stress and parenting practices. Both groups demonstrated significant levels of stress and negative parenting practices. Children with T1DM and male children with non-life-threatening DSD were perceived as more vulnerable by their caregivers. Better understanding of parenting experiences of female caregivers rearing children with DSD, particularly male children, will facilitate the development of individualized interventions to ameliorate negative parenting practices and stress, with the long-term goal of improved health outcomes for their children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological factors affecting intrinsic water use efficiency of potato clones within a dihaploid mapping population under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Markussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    ) within a dihaploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) mapping population under well-watered (WW) and drought-stress (DS) conditions. The factorial dependency of WUEi on several plant bio-physiological traits was analyzed, and clonal difference of WUEi was compared. Significant differences in WUEi were found......Optimizing crops water use is essential for ensuring food production under future climate scenarios. Therefore, new cultivars that are capable of maintaining production under limited water resource are needed. This study screened for clonal differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi...

  19. Conditioning pain stimulation does not affect itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine pricks but aggravates neurogenic inflammation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Imai, Yosuke; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine is subjected to modulation by a standardized conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm in 24 healthy volunteers. CPM was induced by computer-controlled cuff pressure algometry and histamine was introduced to the volar...... forearm by skin prick test punctures. Moreover, neurogenic inflammation and wheal reactions induced by histamine and autonomic nervous system responses (heart rate variability and skin conductance) were monitored. CPM did not modulate the intensity of histamine-induced itch suggesting that pruriceptive...... signaling is not inhibited by pain-recruited endogenous modulation, however, CPM was found to aggravate histamine-induced neurogenic inflammation, likely facilitated by efferent sympathetic fibers....

  20. Yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant as affected by nitrogen rates applied with drip-irrigation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Akin, A.I.; Kislal, H.; Ozturk, A.; Deviren, A.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of different N rates applied through drip irrigation on the growth and N uptake by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant under greenhouse conditions. It was found that, for tomato, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer through fertigation (53.9%) as compared to the soil application (34.0%) at 100 mg N/L. In general, any further increase of N fertilizer did not have an improving effect on the tomato yield. With pepper, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer in the irrigation water (49.2%) as compared to the soil application (33.9%) at the same N level (140 mg N/L), being the optimum N rate under our greenhouse conditions. At a fertilization level of 100 mg N/L with fertigation, the % NUE was significantly increased as compared to the soil application. With respectively cucumber, melon and eggplant; the % NUE with fertigation was 63.4, 21.4 and 50.8%, while with soil application it was 34,0 11.0 and 18.8%. (author)

  1. High dietary biotin levels affect the footpad and hock health of broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities and litter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z W; Fan, Q H; Wang, X X; Guo, Y M; Wang, H J; Dong, X

    2017-06-01

    Responses to stocking density (SD), dietary biotin concentration and litter condition were evaluated on 2016 Ross 308 male broilers in the fattening period (day 22-day 42). The birds were placed in 48 pens with either dry or wet litter to simulate the final stocking density of 30 kg (12 broilers/m 2 ; normal stocking density, NSD) and 40 kg (16 broilers/m 2 ; high stocking density, HSD) of body weight (BW)/m 2 floor space. A corn-soybean meal-based diet was supplemented with biotin to provide a normal (NB; 155 μg/kg) or high (HB, 1521 μg/kg) level of dietary biotin. There were six repetitions per treatment. The inappropriate moisture content of litter associated with HSD was avoided (p  0.05) for growth and processing yield. In HSD, the biotin effect (gains, FCR) was significantly higher (p chickens, and a significant interaction (p density, biotin supplementation and litter condition existed from 35 to 42 days of age. Taken together, increasing dietary biotin improves the performance and well-being of broiler chickens stocked at high densities in litter-independent and litter-dependent manners respectively. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Factors Affecting the Readiness of Medical Doctors and Patients with Chronic Conditions toward the Usage of Smartphones in the Saudi Arabian Healthcare Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam M Al-Mahadeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported the rapid increase in the number of individuals who use smartphones. However, smartphones appear to be increasingly used by healthcare workers, particularly physicians and nurses. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the readiness of medical doctors and patients with chronic conditions in using and adopting smartphones for communication. This study employs the Technology Acceptance Model to examine the behavior of people in using smartphones from the perspectives of trust and rural areas. To realize our objective, we conducted a questionnaire survey that involved medical doctors and patients with chronic conditions. Our particular focus was Al Qunfudhah City in Saudi Arabia. More than 200 questionnaires were distributed to people belonging to different healthcare sectors in the rural areas of Al Qunfudhah City. Our aim was to include every possible scenario and to obtain excellent perspectives. The results that we eventually analyzed indicated that trust factor and rural areas significantly influence the readiness of people belonging to the healthcare sector toward using smartphones. The results of our study concur with the findings of other studies. Our results indicate that smartphones and other high-technology gadgets are now necessary and accepted devices in the different healthcare fields. However, further studies should explore the challenges and effects of smartphone use in the healthcare sector.

  3. Body condition score and plane of nutrition prepartum affect adipose tissue transcriptome regulators of metabolism and inflammation in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Kanwal, M; Bulgari, O; Meier, S; Priest, N V; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; McDougall, S; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M; Heiser, A; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrating a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving have challenged the management practice of increasing dietary energy density during the last ~3 wk prepartum. Despite our knowledge at the whole-animal level, the tissue-level mechanisms that are altered in response to feeding management prepartum remain unclear. Our hypothesis was that prepartum body condition score (BCS), in combination with feeding management, plays a central role in the peripartum changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight mid-lactation grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 2 prepartum BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale; BCS4, BCS5) obtained via differential feeding management during late-lactation, and 2 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75 and 125% of estimated requirements). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was harvested via biopsy at -1, 1, and 4 wk relative to parturition. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression of targets related to fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, lipolysis), adipokine synthesis, and inflammation. Both prepartum BCS and feeding management had a significant effect on mRNA and miRNA expression throughout the peripartum period. Overfed BCS5 cows had the greatest prepartum expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and an overall greater expression of leptin (LEP); BCS5 was also associated with greater overall adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), whereas overfeeding upregulated expression of proadipogenic miRNA. Higher postpartum expression of chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and the cytokines interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was detected in overfed BCS5 cows. Feed-restricted BCS4 cows had the highest overall interleukin 1 (IL1B) expression. Prepartum feed restriction

  4. Lesions of cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus neurons fail to affect cocaine or heroin self-administration or conditioned place preference in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Steidl

    Full Text Available Cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA is known to contribute to reward. Although it is known that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg provides an important source of excitatory input to the dopamine system, the specific role of PPTg cholinergic input to the VTA in cocaine reward has not been previously determined. We used a diphtheria toxin conjugated to urotensin-II (Dtx::UII, the endogenous ligand for urotensin-II receptors expressed by PPTg cholinergic but not glutamatergic or GABAergic cells, to lesion cholinergic PPTg neurons. Dtx::UII toxin infusion resulted in the loss of 95.78 (±0.65% of PPTg cholinergic cells but did not significantly alter either cocaine or heroin self-administration or the development of cocaine or heroin conditioned place preferences. Thus, cholinergic cells originating in PPTg do not appear to be critical for the rewarding effects of cocaine or of heroin.

  5. Lack of connexin43-mediated Bergmann glial gap junctional coupling does not affect cerebellar long-term depression, motor coordination, or eyeblink conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Tanaka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bergmann glial cells are specialized astrocytes in the cerebellum. In the mature cerebellar molecular layer, Bergmann glial processes are closely associated with Purkinje cells, enclosing Purkinje cell dendritic synapses with a glial sheath. There is intensive gap junctional coupling between Bergmann glial processes, but their significance in cerebellar functions is not known. Connexin43 (Cx43, a major component of astrocytic gap junction channels, is abundantly expressed in Bergmann glial cells. To examine the role of Cx43-mediated gap junctions between Bergmann glial cells in cerebellar functions, we generated Cx43 conditional knockout mice with the S100b-Cre transgenic line (Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre, which exhibited a significant loss of Cx43 in the Bergmann glial cells and astrocytes in the cerebellum with a postnatal onset. The Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice had normal cerebellar architecture. Although gap junctional coupling between the Bergmann glial cells measured by spreading of microinjected Lucifer yellow was virtually abolished in Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice, electrophysiologic analysis revealed that cerebellar long-term depression could be induced and maintained normally in thier cerebellar slices. In addition, at the behavioral level, Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice had normal motor coordination in the rotarod task and normal conditioned eyelid response. Our findings suggest that Cx43-mediated gap junctional coupling between Bergmann glial cells is not necessary for the neuron-glia interactions required for cerebellum-dependent motor coordination and motor learning.

  6. Thermal and Hydraulic Conditions Supporting the Recruitment of Asian Carp in Seiche Affected Rivers of Lake Erie Basin - A Case Study of the Lower Sandusky River in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, D. T.; Santacruz, S.; Jones, L.; Garcia, T.; Kočovský, P. M.; Embke, H.

    2017-12-01

    Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) is an invasive fish species that spawns in rivers during high-flow events. In their native range, it is believed eggs must hatch within the riverine environment in order to eventually result in production of adult fish. The lower Sandusky River is approximately 26 km long extending from its confluence with Sandusky Bay upstream to the Ballville Dam, which is impassible for Grass Carp. Grass Carp are known to have spawned in the Sandusky River, a tributary to Lake Erie, in 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017. This study characterizes the thermal and hydraulic conditions under which these eggs could hatch in the lower Sandusky River, a relatively short river reach for egg hatching. Grass Carp eggs collected in 2015 were previously analyzed for hatching locations using a one-dimensional steady-state HEC-RAS hydraulic model. In this study we refine estimates of hatching locations by incorporating the influence of fluctuating water levels downstream due to seiches in Lake Erie and overland and tributary inflows using an unsteady 1D/2D HEC-RAS hydraulic model. Additionally, conditions conducive to successful hatching, which occurs when eggs reach the hatching stage within the river, were analyzed from nine high-flow events between 2011 and 2015. Simulated hydraulic and water temperature data were used as inputs to the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model, which was used to analyze the transport and dispersal of Grass carp eggs until hatching. We will describe the differences in steady- and unsteady-state hydraulic modeling in predicting hatching locations of Grass Carp eggs for the 2015 spawning events. Results will also include hydraulic and temperature variables that contribute to the successful/unsuccessful in-river hatching for the nine flow events simulated.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity and Morphological Changes of Streptomyces Ascendable and Streptomyces Eighty-three's as Affected by Environmental Conditions and Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, L.A.A.; Abou El-Nour, S.A.M.; Mansour, F.A.; Serag, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen actinomycetes out of thirty isolates were recovered from different Egyptian soils and exhibited antimicrobial activities. Streptomyces ascendable and Streptomyces eighty-three's used in the present work showed the most active antimicrobial potentialities against bacteria, moulds and yeasts. The optimum temperature and acidity for their growth and production of microbial activity were 50 degree and ph 7.0, while the maximum biomass yield and the highest antimicrobial activity were attained 10 days of incubation. Among carbon sources starch at 30 gm/L highly supported the growth and antimicrobial activity by the two species, while sodium nitrate (3 gm/L) and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (0.75 gm/L) were the most favorable for both isolates. The presence of microelements such as manganese chloride, zinc sulphate, ferrous sulphate and copper sulphate in the growth medium at a concentration of 1 mg/L for each had a good stimulatory effect on the growth and antimicrobial activity for both Streptomyces species. As different irradiation doses were used (up to 5.0 kGy), the high levels clearly affected the morphological characteristics of both tested isolates either in the first or second generation

  8. Evapotranspiration of osteospermum 'Denebola' and New Guinea impatiens 'Timor' grown on ebb-and-flow benches as affected by climate conditions and soil water potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Treder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Daily evapotranspiration (EVPT of two bedding plants osteospermum 'Denebola' and impatiens 'Timor' grown on ebb-and-flow benches was measured by weighing method, together with assessment of indoor climate parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity and leaf area index (LAI at different growth phases. The evaporation inside the greenhouse as affected by climatic factors i.e.: solar radiation, temperature, humidity and air velocity was also measured using Piche's evaporometer. Plants were irrigated according to soil water potential (irrigation at -0,5; -3; -10 and -20 kPa. Irrigation at high water potential decreased plant growth and leaf area of both plants. LAI of osteospermum decreased as water deficit increased. In the case of impatiens, the highest LAI at full flowering obtained plants irrigated at -3 kPa. The actual, daily EVPT of plants irrigated at -0,5 kPa increased with plant growth in the case ofosteospermum while that of impatiens remained at similar level. At flowering water stress decreased strongly EVPT of osteospermum and in lesser extent EVPT of impatiens. Osteospermum irrigated at -0,5 kPa had 2,5 higher EVPT than impatiens. For both plants good, positive correlation between EVPT and daily mean temperature, temperature between 7-17 h and evaporation according to Piche's evaporometer readings were obtained. As expected EVPT was negatively correlated with relative humidity, irrespective the growth phase and soil water potential. The correlation between EVPT and solar radiation, was changed during plant growth due to differences in temperature under shading screen, used during sunny days.

  9. The composition and depth of green roof substrates affect the growth of Silene vulgaris and Lagurus ovatus species and the C and N sequestration under two irrigation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondoño, S; Martínez-Sánchez, J J; Moreno, J L

    2016-01-15

    Extensive green roofs are used to increase the surface area covered by vegetation in big cities, thereby reducing the urban heat-island effect, promoting CO2 sequestration, and increasing biodiversity and urban-wildlife habitats. In Mediterranean semi-arid regions, the deficiency of water necessitates the use in these roofs of overall native plants which are more adapted to drought than other species. However, such endemic plants have been used scarcely in green roofs. For this purpose, we tested two different substrates with two depths (5 and 10 cm), in order to study their suitability with regard to adequate plant development under Mediterranean conditions. A compost-soil-bricks (CSB) (1:1:3; v:v:v) mixture and another made up of compost and bricks (CB) (1:4; v:v) were arranged in two depths (5 and 10 cm), in cultivation tables. Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke and Lagurus ovatus L. seeds were sown in each substrate. These experimental units were subjected, on the one hand, to irrigation at 40% of the registered evapotranspiration values (ET0) and, on the other, to drought conditions, during a nine-month trial. Physichochemical and microbiological substrate characteristics were studied, along with the physiological and nutritional status of the plants. We obtained significantly greater plant coverage in CSB at 10 cm, especially for L. ovatus (80-90%), as well as a better physiological status, especially in S. vulgaris (SPAD values of 50-60), under irrigation, whereas neither species could grow in the absence of water. The carbon and nitrogen fixation by the substrate and the aboveground biomass were also higher in CSB at 10 cm, especially under L. ovatus - in which 1.32 kg C m(-2) and 209 g N m(-2) were fixed throughout the experiment. Besides, the enzymatic and biochemical parameters assayed showed that microbial activity and nutrient cycling, which fulfill a key role for plant development, were higher in CSB. Therefore, irrigation of 40% can

  10. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  11. Data quality and practical challenges of thyroid volume assessment by ultrasound under field conditions - observer errors may affect prevalence estimates of goitre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torheim Liv E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultrasonographic estimation of thyroid size has been advocated as being more precise than palpation to diagnose goitre. However, ultrasound also requires technical proficiency. This study was conducted among Saharawi refugees, where goitre is highly prevalent. The objectives were to assess the overall data quality of ultrasound measurements of thyroid volume (Tvol, including the intra- and inter-observer agreement, under field conditions, and to describe some of the practical challenges encountered. Methods In 2007 a cross-sectional study of 419 children (6-14 years old and 405 women (15-45 years old was performed on a population of Saharawi refugees with prevalent goitre, who reside in the Algerian desert. Tvol was measured by two trained fieldworkers using portable ultrasound equipment (examiner 1 measured 406 individuals, and examiner 2, 418 individuals. Intra- and inter-observer agreement was estimated in 12 children selected from the study population but not part of the main study. In the main study, an observer error was found in one examiner whose ultrasound images were corrected by linear regression after printing and remeasuring a sample of 272 images. Results The intra-observer agreement in Tvol was higher in examiner 1, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99 compared to 0.86 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.96 in examiner 2. The ICC for inter-observer agreement in Tvol was 0.38 (95% CI: -0.20, 0.77. Linear regression coefficients indicated a significant scaling bias in the original measurements of the AP and ML diameter and a systematic underestimation of Tvol (a product of AP, ML, CC and a constant. The agreement between re-measured and original Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI was 0.76 (0.71, 0.81. The agreement between re-measured and corrected Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI was 0.97 (0.96, 0.97. Conclusions An important challenge when using ultrasound to assess thyroid volume under field

  12. Soil Conditions Rather Than Long-Term Exposure to Elevated CO2 Affect Soil Microbial Communities Associated with N-Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Brenzinger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuously rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO2 (eCO2 concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N2O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO2 (aCO2. We hypothesized that the observed differences in soil functioning were based on differences in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in general and especially of those which are responsible for N-transformations in soil. We also expected eCO2 effects on soil parameters, such as on nitrate as previously reported. To explore the impact of long-term eCO2 on soil microbial communities, we applied a molecular approach (qPCR, T-RFLP, and 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial groups were analyzed in soil of three sets of two FACE plots (three replicate samples from each plot, which were fumigated with eCO2 and aCO2, respectively. N-fixers, denitrifiers, archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducers producing ammonia were targeted by analysis of functional marker genes, and the overall archaeal community by 16S rRNA genes. Remarkably, soil parameters as well as the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the top soil under eCO2 differed only slightly from soil under aCO2. Wherever differences in microbial community abundance and composition were detected, they were not linked to CO2 level but rather determined by differences in soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture content due to the localization of the GiFACE sets in the experimental field. We concluded that +20% eCO2 had little to no effect on the overall microbial community involved in N-cycling in the

  13. Soil Conditions Rather Than Long-Term Exposure to Elevated CO2 Affect Soil Microbial Communities Associated with N-Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenzinger, Kristof; Kujala, Katharina; Horn, Marcus A; Moser, Gerald; Guillet, Cécile; Kammann, Claudia; Müller, Christoph; Braker, Gesche

    2017-01-01

    Continuously rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO 2 ( e CO 2 ) concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations) at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE) sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N 2 O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO 2 ( a CO 2 ). We hypothesized that the observed differences in soil functioning were based on differences in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in general and especially of those which are responsible for N-transformations in soil. We also expected e CO 2 effects on soil parameters, such as on nitrate as previously reported. To explore the impact of long-term e CO 2 on soil microbial communities, we applied a molecular approach (qPCR, T-RFLP, and 454 pyrosequencing). Microbial groups were analyzed in soil of three sets of two FACE plots (three replicate samples from each plot), which were fumigated with e CO 2 and a CO 2 , respectively. N-fixers, denitrifiers, archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducers producing ammonia were targeted by analysis of functional marker genes, and the overall archaeal community by 16S rRNA genes. Remarkably, soil parameters as well as the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the top soil under e CO 2 differed only slightly from soil under a CO 2 . Wherever differences in microbial community abundance and composition were detected, they were not linked to CO 2 level but rather determined by differences in soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture content) due to the localization of the GiFACE sets in the experimental field. We concluded that +20% e CO 2 had little to no effect on the overall microbial community involved in N

  14. Is environmental radon gas associated with the incidence of neurodegenerative conditions? A retrospective study of multiple sclerosis in radon affected areas in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J.; Denman, Antony R.; Campbell, Jackie; Crockett, Robin G.M.; Phillips, Paul S.; Rogers, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis has been postulated to be triggered by elevated radon gas levels. • MS incidence analysed from 20 million person-years monitoring in radon affected areas. • Linear regression slope of ERR against radon level is 0.22 per 100 Bq·m −3 (R 2  = 0.25). • Linear fit 95% CI encompasses the Null Hypothesis and is therefore not significant. • Potential confounding processes are shown to have minimal impact on the results.

  15. How are the employed and unemployed affected by the economic crisis in Spain? Educational inequalities, life conditions and mental health in a context of high unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; San Sebastián, Miguel; Gustafsson, Per E

    2016-03-15

    Despite an increasing number of studies on the factors mediating the impact of the economic recession on mental health, research beyond the individual employment status is scarce. Our objectives were to investigate in which ways the mental health of employed and unemployed populations is differently affected by the current economic recession along the educational scale and to examine whether financial strain and social support explain these effects of the crisis. A repeated cross-sectional study, using two waves of the Andalusian Health Survey in 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011-2012 (crisis). A population aged between 19 and 64 years was selected. The dependent variable was the Mental Component Summary of the SF-12 questionnaire. We performed Poisson regression models stratified by working status, with period, educational level, financial strain and social support as independent variables. We examined interactions between period and educational level. Age, sex, main earner, cohabitation and partner's working status were considered as covariates. The study included 3210 individuals (1185 women) in 2007 and 3633 individuals (1486 women) in 2011-2012. In working individuals the prevalence of poor mental health increased for secondary and complete primary studies groups during crisis compared to the pre-crisis period, while it decreased significantly in the university study group (PR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-0.99). However, in unemployed individuals prevalence ratios for poor mental health increased significantly only in the secondary studies group (PR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.06-2.83). Financial strain and social support yielded consistent associations with mental health in all subgroups. Only financial strain could partly explain the crisis effect on mental health among the unemployed. Our study supports the finding that current economic recession is associated with poorer mental health differentially according to labour market status and educational level. Those with secondary

  16. DOCUMENTATION OF NATIONAL WEATHER CONDITIONS AFFECTING LONG-TERM DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. L. Poe, Jr.; P.F. Wise

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal to construct, operate 2nd monitor, and eventually close a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As part of this effort, DOE has prepared a viability assessment and an assessment of potential consequences that may exist if the repository is not constructed. The assessment of potential consequences if the repository is not constructed assumes that all SNF and HLW would be left at the generator sites. These include 72 commercial generator sites (three commercial facility pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine Mile Point, and Dresden and Morris--would share common storage due to their close proximity to each other) and five DOE sites across the country. DOE analyzed the environmental consequences of the effects of the continued storage of these materials at these sites in a report titled Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR; Reference 1 ) . The CSAR analysis includes a discussion of the degradation of these materials when exposed to the environment. This document describes the environmental parameters that influence the degradation analyzed in the CSAR. These include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation chemistry (pH and chemical composition), annual precipitation rates, annual number of rain-days, and annual freeze/thaw cycles. The document also tabulates weather conditions for each storage site, evaluates the degradation of concrete storage modules and vaults in different regions of the country, and provides a thermal analysis of commercial SNF in storage

  17. Effect of Mycorrhiza Symbiosis on Yield, Yield Components and Water Use Efficiency of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Affected by Different Irrigation Regimes in Mashhad Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-02-01

    4000 m3 ha-1, inoculation with two species of mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices and control allocated to the main and sub plots, respectively. Results and Discussion Results showed that the effect of irrigation regimes were significant (p≤0.05 on yield components except 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, harvest index (HI and WUE based on biological yield and seed yield. By increasing the irrigation level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 biological and seed yield enhanced up to 52% and 118%, respectively. Increasing the irrigation level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 also improved WUE based on seed yield up to 22%. Inoculation with mycorrhiza species had significant effect on yield components, biological yield, seed yield, HI and WUE based on biological yield and seed yield P ≤ 0.05. Inoculation with G. mosseae improved seed yield compared to G. intraradices and control with 7 and 12%, respectively. These improvement of WUE based on seed yield were 7% and 24%, respectively. In general, mycorrhiza inoculation enhanced WUE through root system development and nutrient availability as this effect for G. mosseae was higher than G. intraradices. Conclusions Yield and yield components of sesame were generally more responsive to irrigation level under mycorhiza inoculation. Sesame yield and its components were significantly affected by irrigation treatments. Increase the irrigation level enhanced biological and seed yield- and also improved WUE. The water was used more efficiently in the deficit irrigation treatments where WUE increased with lower amounts of water. Inoculation with G. mosseae improved seed yield compared to G. intraradices and control. Mycorrhiza inoculation enhanced WUE due to root system development and nutrient availability. These results highlight the importance of determining the interaction effects between water level and mycorrhiza inoculation on yield of sesame to formulate proper management practices for sustainable production.

  18. Part A: Countermeasures to be taken after 1990 to ensure safe living conditions for the population affected by the Chernobyl accident in the USSR. A first evaluation of costs and doses averted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Schneider, T.

    1992-01-01

    This part presents a first estimate of the cost and averted collective exposure of the potential relocation of the population from the affected territories of the BSSR, the RSFSR and the UKrSSR, to improve their living conditions following the Chernobyl accident. It is an input to the evaluation of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the USSR. The general objective was to assess 'the concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in these areas to safeguard the health of the population'. Specifically, this work aimed at evaluating protective measures from 1990 onwards

  19. Increased Air Temperature during Simulated Autumn Conditions Does Not Increase Photosynthetic Carbon Gain But Affects the Dissipation of Excess Energy in Seedlings of the Evergreen Conifer Jack Pine1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P.A.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22°C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7°C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7°C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22°C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of β-carotene in the warm autumn treatment as well as by changes in

  20. Psychological impacts from expectation of worsening conditions and obstacles to life planning are affected by glycemic control, self-reported symptoms, and drug therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hara, Yoriko; Ishihara, Yoko

    2016-05-01

    It is important to reduce psychological stresses for glycemic control in diabetes. We investigated the factors affecting psychological impact, which was involved in the disease conditions in 378 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients' self-assessed symptoms and four subscales of psychological impacts on diabetes - impact from diabetes (S1), anxiety from having a chronic disease (S2), expectation of worsening conditions (S3) and obstacles to life planning (S4) - were analyzed. Significant odds ratios (ORs) were found for sex and age in S1, age and glycemic control in S2, glycemic control in S3, disease duration and glycemic control in S4, and number of symptoms in S1-S4. Scores of S1 and S2 in women were lower than those in men, and decreased age-dependently. Significant ORs for the number of symptoms in S3 and S4 were greater than in S1 and S2. ORs increased markedly for patients under oral hypoglycemic agent therapy in S4 and insulin therapy in S1-S4 when compared with ORs for lifestyle therapy alone. The psychological impact of type 2 diabetes involved a priori factors dependent on sex and aging in the subscales of current anxieties and impact, and a posteriori factors, such as disease duration, glycemic control and treatment methods, in the subscales of expectation of worsening conditions and obstacles to life planning.

  1. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  2. [Fire behavior of Mongolian oak leaves fuel bed under no-wind and zero-slope conditions. II. Analysis of the factors affecting flame length and residence time and related prediction models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Chu, Teng-Fei; Jin, Sen

    2012-11-01

    Taking fuel moisture content, fuel loading, and fuel bed depth as controlling factors, the fuel beds of Mongolian oak leaves in Maoershan region of Northeast China in field were simulated, and a total of one hundred experimental burnings under no-wind and zero-slope conditions were conducted in laboratory, with the effects of the fuel moisture content, fuel loading, and fuel bed depth on the flame length and its residence time analyzed and the multivariate linear prediction models constructed. The results indicated that fuel moisture content had a significant negative liner correlation with flame length, but less correlation with flame residence time. Both the fuel loading and the fuel bed depth were significantly positively correlated with flame length and its residence time. The interactions of fuel bed depth with fuel moisture content and fuel loading had significant effects on the flame length, while the interactions of fuel moisture content with fuel loading and fuel bed depth affected the flame residence time significantly. The prediction model of flame length had better prediction effect, which could explain 83.3% of variance, with a mean absolute error of 7.8 cm and a mean relative error of 16.2%, while the prediction model of flame residence time was not good enough, which could only explain 54% of variance, with a mean absolute error of 9.2 s and a mean relative error of 18.6%.

  3. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  4. Fatores determinantes do desempenho reprodutivo de vacas Nelore na região dos Cerrados do Brasil Central Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Nellore cows on the Cerrado conditions of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vieira

    2005-12-01

    (from 11/1 to 1/31 of the following year. Calving order quadratically affected pregnancy rate (PR in this trial; PR of CO1 cows was 69% while that of cows from CO5 to CO8 was 90% followed by a gradual decline until 80% PR in C012 cows. Body condition score at weaning also affected PR. For instance, CO1 cows with BCS of 2.0 and 3.5 had 52.7 and 82.5% of PR, respectively. Cows from CO4 to CO8 and BCS of 3.5 showed 96% of PR. CO1 cows that calved late in the season had 37.7% of PR but independent of CO, cows that calved earlier in the calving season had PR greater than 80%. CO1 cows calved 350.12 days after the start of the mating season while multiparous cows calved earlier (328.32 days. CO1 had the longest calving interval (CI averaging 392.10 days whereas that from CO5 to CO9 cows averaged 365 days. Calving interval was affected by year, CO, number of days spent to calve in the calving season, and body weight change in the mating season. In addition, cows body weight (BWW and BC at weaning (BCW were both affected by CO and year. Body weight of calves at weaning increased from CO1 to CO4/CO5 averaging 159 kg for calves from CO1 cows and 169 kg when all CO levels were included. High production and reproductive performance are obtained from CO3 to CO8 and BCS above 3.0 and 3.5 for multiparous and primiparous Nellore cows, respectively.

  5. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N

  6. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Can the Weather Affect My ... Asthma? Print Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather conditions can bring on asthma symptoms. ...

  7. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  8. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  9. Differences in the ovine HSP90AA1 gene expression rates caused by two linked polymorphisms at its promoter affect rams sperm DNA fragmentation under environmental heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salces-Ortiz, Judit; Ramón, Manuel; González, Carmen; Pérez-Guzmán, M Dolores; Garde, J Julián; García-Álvarez, Olga; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Calvo, Jorge H; Serrano, M Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) is one of the best-studied exogenous cellular stresses. Almost all tissues, cell types, metabolic pathways and biochemical reactions are affected in greater or lesser extent by HS. However, there are some especially thermo sensible cellular types such as the mammalian male germ cells. The present study examined the role of three INDELs in conjunction with the -660G/C polymorphism located at the HSP90AA1 promoter region over the gene expression rate under HS. Specially, the -668insC INDEL, which is very close to the -660G/C transversion, is a good candidate to be implied in the transcriptional regulation of the gene by itself or in a cooperative way with this SNP. Animals carrying the genotype II-668 showed higher transcription rates than those with ID-668 (FC = 3.07) and DD-668 (FC = 3.40) genotypes for samples collected under HS. A linkage between gene expression and sperm DNA fragmentation was also found. When HS conditions were present along or in some stages of the spermatogenesis, alternative genotypes of the -668insC and -660G/C mutations are involved in the effect of HS over sperm DNA fragmentation. Thus, unfavorable genotypes in terms of gene expression induction (ID-668GC-660 and DD-668GG-660) do not produce enough mRNA (stored as messenger ribonucleoprotein particles) and Hsp90α protein to cope with future thermal stress which might occur in posterior stages when transcriptional activity is reduced and cell types and molecular processes are more sensible to heat (spermatocytes in pachytene and spermatids protamination). This would result in the impairment of DNA packaging and the consequent commitment of the events occurring shortly after fertilization and during embryonic development. In the short-term, the assessment of the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation sensitivity and ram's fertility will be of interest to a better understanding of the mechanisms of response to HS and its consequences on animal production and

  10. ACORNS, Covariance and Correlation Matrix Diagonalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szondi, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program allows the user to verify the different types of covariance/correlation matrices used in the activation neutron spectrometry. 2 - Method of solution: The program performs the diagonalization of the input covariance/relative covariance/correlation matrices. The Eigen values are then analyzed to determine the rank of the matrices. If the Eigen vectors of the pertinent correlation matrix have also been calculated, the program can perform a complete factor analysis (generation of the factor matrix and its rotation in Kaiser's 'varimax' sense to select the origin of the correlations). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Matrix size is limited to 60 on PDP and to 100 on IBM PC/AT

  11. Great oak trees from small acorns grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, Sally.

    1997-01-01

    The history of Avalon Oil is briefly outlined. The company has become the first foreign company to sign a joint venture oil deal with Russia's Gazprom. Topics covered include new drilling skills, building relations face-to-face with Gazprom assigning responsibility to the venture partners, tax breaks and political risk. (UK)

  12. Do wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L.) use food selection as a means to reduce heavy metal intake?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beernaert, Joke; Scheirs, Jan; Brande, Greet Van Den

    2008-01-01

    Food preference of wood mice from two with heavy metals polluted sites and two unpolluted sites was tested under laboratory and field conditions with two-way choice experiments. In the laboratory, wood mice preferred to eat acorns from unpolluted sites over acorns from polluted sites. Previous...... experience with polluted food had no influence on food choice. Preference was negatively related to acorn metal content. Furthermore, the nutrient content of the acorn endosperm was consistently lower in polluted sites. We therefore conclude that wood mice used absolute metal concentration in the acorn...... selectively. Wood mice prefer unpolluted food items over polluted food items in laboratory trials but not in field situations....

  13. Factors affecting initial disability allowance rates for the Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs: the role of the demographic and diagnostic composition of applicants and local labor market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Kalman

    2012-01-01

    Various factors outside the control of decision makers may affect the rate at which disability applications are allowed or denied during the initial step of eligibility determination in the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. In this article, using individual-level data on applications, I estimate the role of three important factors--the demographic characteristics of applicants, the diagnostic mix of applicants, and the local unemployment rate--in affecting the probability of an initial allowance and state allowance rates. I use a random sample of initial determinations from 1993 through 2008 and a fixed-effects multiple regression framework. The empirical results show that the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of applicants and the local unemployment rate substantially affect the initial allowance rate. An increase in the local unemployment rate tends to be associated with a decrease in the initial allowance rate. This negative relationship holds for adult DI and SSI applicants and for SSI childhood applicants.

  14. Chromosomal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Chromosomal conditions Chromosomal conditions ... Disorders See also: Genetic counseling , Your family health history Last reviewed: February, 2013 ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & ...

  15. Effect of long term thermal ageing on the mechanical properties of ASTM A533B and A508 steels in the quenched and tempered and simulated heat affected zone conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, S.G.; Gage, G.; Jordan, G.

    1985-04-01

    Manganese-molybdenum-nickel steels are used commonly in the fabrication of critical components in the PWR primary circuit operating at temperatures up to 345 C for periods up to several hundred thousand hours. Demonstration of structural integrity throughout service life requires quantification of the effects of thermal ageing on mechanical properties. Thermal ageing in the temperature range 300 to 550 C for durations up to 2000 h was studied in quenched and tempered A533B plate and simulated heat-affected-zone (HAZ) microstructures in A533B and A508 materials. A combination of tensile, hardness and Charpy impact tests were used to assess changes in rheological and toughness related properties. Quantitative fractography and Auger spectroscopy were used to characterize associated changes in fracture mode and grain boundary composition.

  16. Effect of cultural conditions on the seed-to-seed growth of Arabidopsis and Cardamine - A study of growth rates and reproductive development as affected by test tube seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshizaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of test tube seals on the growth, flowering, and seed pod formation of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., mouse ear cress, and Cardamine oligosperma Nutt, bitter cress, are studied in order to assess the conditions used in weightlessness experiments. Among other results, it is found that the growth (height) and flowering (date of bud appearance) were suppressed in mouse ear cress in tubes sealed with Saran. Seed pod formation which occurred by day 45 in open-to-air controls, was still lacking in the sealed plants even up to day 124. The growth and flowering of bitter cress were also suppressed by the Saran seal, although up to day 55 the Saran-sealed plants were taller. It is suggested that atmospheric composition was the cause of the suppression of growth, flowering, and seed pod development in these plants, since the mouse ear cress renewed their growth and then set seed pods after the Saran seal was ruptured.

  17. Insects affecting establishment of northern red oak seedlings in central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Galford; L.R. Auchmoody; H.C. Smith; R.S. Walters

    1991-01-01

    Studies to evaluate the impact of insects on the establishment of advance oak regeneration in Pennsylvania were initiated in 1989. The populations and species of insects feeding on germinating acorns and new seedlings, their activity periods, and the damage caused by these insects were studied in relation to overstory-density (40, 60, and 100 percent relative density)...

  18. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  19. Affective Consequences of Teachers' Psychological Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Don

    1990-01-01

    Relationships between teachers' (N=740) psychological condition (burned-out, worn-out, or healthy) and their affective reactions to student success or failure were examined. Findings indicated that affects of anger, guilt, pride, and disappointment varied with and could be predicted from knowledge of teachers' psychological conditions. (IAH)

  20. Cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions affecting nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivar, ano de cultivo e condições de armazenagem influenciam a qualidade nutricional do feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Roberto Dorneles Prolla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen common bean cultivars were compared concerning the physicochemical characteristics of their raw seeds in the course of two consecutive harvests, as well as the effect of storage conditions on starch and dietary fiber content of cooked beans. Using cluster analysis it was possible to identify groups of cultivars with different nutritional features. Bean cultivars were categorized into four different groups according either to their macronutrient content (crude protein-PROT, total dietary fiber-TDF, insoluble dietary fiber-IDF, soluble dietary fiber-SDF, digestible starch-DS, and resistant starch-RS or to their micronutrient levels (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, and P. Guateian 6662 and Rio Tibagi appeared to be the most suitable cultivars to prevent nutritional deficiencies, because they had high PROT, DS, Fe, and Zn content. The high total dietary fiber and RS content of Iraí, Minuano, and TPS Bonito cultivars, and specially the high soluble fiber content of Guateian 6662 and Rio Tibagi cultivars suggests that they could have a beneficial role in controlling blood lipid and glucose levels. Cooked beans had a decrease in DS and an increase in RS content after storage (4 °C or -20 °C, but these changes were more prominent in beans that had low RS content before cooking than in those of high RS content. TDF, IDF, and SDF did not change after storage.Compararam-se as características físico-químicas de dezesseis cultivares de feijão-comum cru ao longo de duas safras consecutivas, assim como se avaliou o efeito das condições de armazenagem nos teores de amido e fibra alimentar em grãos cozidos. A análise de agrupamento possibilitou a identificação de grupos de cultivares com características nutricionais distintas. Estas cultivares foram categorizadas em quatro grupos de acordo com o conteúdo de macronutrientes (proteína bruta-PROT, fibra alimentar total-TDF, fibra alimentar insolúvel-IDF, fibra alimentar solúvel-SDF, amido dispon

  1. Endocarp thickness affects seed removal speed by small rodents in a warm-temperate broad-leafed deciduous forest, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2008-11-01

    Seed traits are important factors affecting seed predation by rodents and thereby the success of recruitment. Seeds of many tree species have hard hulls. These are thought to confer mechanical protection, but the effect of endocarp thickness on seed predation by rodents has not been well investigated. Wild apricot ( Prunus armeniaca), wild peach ( Amygdalus davidiana), cultivated walnut ( Juglans regia), wild walnut ( Juglans mandshurica Maxim) and Liaodong oak ( Quercus liaotungensis) are very common tree species in northwestern Beijing city, China. Their seeds vary greatly in size, endocarp thickness, caloric value and tannin content. This paper aims to study the effects of seed traits on seed removal speed of these five tree species by small rodents in a temperate deciduous forest, with emphasis on the effect of endocarp thickness. The results indicated that speed of removal of seeds released at stations in the field decreased significantly with increasing endocarp thickness. We found no significant correlations between seed removal speed and other seed traits such as seed size, caloric value and tannin content. In seed selection experiments in small cages, Père David's rock squirrel ( Sciurotamias davidianus), a large-bodied, strong-jawed rodent, selected all of the five seed species, and the selection order among the five seed species was determined by endocarp thickness and the ratio of endocarp mass/seed mass. In contrast, the Korean field mouse ( Apodemus peninsulae) and Chinese white-bellied rat ( Niviventer confucianus), with relatively small bodies and weak jaws, preferred to select small seeds like acorns of Q. liaotungensis and seeds of P. armeniaca, indicating that rodent body size is also an important factor affecting food selection based on seed size. These results suggest endocarp thickness significantly reduces seed removal speed by rodents and then negatively affects dispersal fitness of seeds before seed removal of tree species in the study

  2. Tocopherol content, weight loss and instrumental color analysis of Iberian dry-cured ham as affected by rearing and feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daza, Argimiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rearing (outdoor vs indoor and feeding systems (acorn and grass vs mixed diets on ham quality from Duroc x Iberian pigs were studied. Seven groups of 5 females each were used. One group was reared under freerange conditions and fed with acorns and grass (outdoor pigs. Six group were fed mixed diets in confinement (indoor pigs under a factorial design 3 x 2 with three types of dietary fat: monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and medium (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated and two levels of α-tocopheryl-acetate. The α-and γ-tocopherol contents were higher (P Se ha estudiado el efecto del régimen de producción (en libertad vs estabulados y el sistema de alimentación (bellota y pasto vs piensos formulados en la calidad del jamón de cerdos Ibéricos cruzados con Duroc. Siete grupos de 5 hembras cada uno fueron usadas. Un grupo fue criado en condiciones de libertad y alimentado con bellotas y pasto (Cerdos en libertad. Seis grupos fueron alimentados con dietas formuladas en confinamiento (Cerdos estabulados usando un diseño factorial de 3 x 2 con tres tipos de grasa en la dieta: monoinsaturada, poliinsaturada y media (monoinsaturada y polinsaturada y dos niveles de acetato de α-tocoferol. Los contenidos de α- y γ-tocoferol fueron más altos (p < 0.05 en jamones de cerdos criados en libertad que en jamones de cerdos estabulados. Los jamones de cerdos estabulados pesaron menos que los jamones de cerdos en libertad y los valores de color rojo fueron mayores en jamones de cerdos en libertad que en cerdos estabulados. Después de 4 días de almacenamiento, la muestra de jamón de cerdos en libertad mostraron una menor tendencia (p < 0.10 a perder peso que aquellos de cerdos alimentados con un nivel basal de vitamina E. Estos resultados indican que cerdos Ibérico criados en libertad y alimentados con bellota y pasto incrementan su contenido en tocoferoles y mejoran el color y las pérdidas de peso de los jamones curados.

  3. Pterins and affective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  4. Aquatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at 35ºC. This is in contrast to anammox, another anaerobic ammonium oxidation pathway, for which optimal NH4+ oxidation is at temperatures ~ 30ºC. Hence, a Feammox-based process is an attractive candidate for wastewater treatment that could result in further energy savings, by requiring no aeration or heating of the wastewater in temperate climates.

  6. Did the US macroeconomic conditions affect Asian stock markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Narayan; Paresh Kumar Narayan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of US macroeconomic conditions—namely, exchange rate and short-term interest rate—on the stocks of seven Asian countries (China,India, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and South Korea). Using daily data for the period 2000 to 2010, we divide the sample into pre-crisis period (pre-August 2007) and crisis period (post-August 2007) we find that in the short-run interest rate has a statistically insignificant effect on returns for all ...

  7. Encoding conditions affect recognition of vocally expressed emotions across cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eJürgens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the expression of emotions in humans is considered to be largely universal, cultural effects contribute to both emotion expression and recognition. To disentangle the interplay between these factors, play-acted and authentic (non-instructed vocal expressions of emotions were used, on the assumption that cultural effects may contribute differentially to the recognition of staged and spontaneous emotions. Speech tokens depicting four emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear were obtained from German radio archives and reenacted by professional actors, and presented to 120 participants from Germany, Romania, and Indonesia. Participants in all three countries were poor at distinguishing between play-acted and spontaneous emotional utterances (58.73% correct on average with only marginal cultural differences. Nevertheless, authenticity influenced emotion recognition: across cultures, anger was recognized more accurately when play-acted (z = 15.06, p < .001 and sadness when authentic (z = 6.63, p < .001, replicating previous findings from German populations. German subjects revealed a slight advantage in recognizing emotions, indicating a moderate in-group advantage. There was no difference between Romanian and Indonesian subjects in the overall emotion recognition. Differential cultural effects became particularly apparent in terms of differential biases in emotion attribution. While all participants labeled play-acted expressions as anger more frequently than expected, German participants exhibited a further bias towards choosing anger for spontaneous stimuli. In contrast to the German sample, Romanian and Indonesian participants were biased towards choosing sadness. These results support the view that emotion recognition rests on a complex interaction of human universals and cultural specificities. Whether and in which way the observed biases are linked to cultural differences in self-construal remains an issue for further investigation.

  8. Encoding conditions affect recognition of vocally expressed emotions across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Rebecca; Drolet, Matthis; Pirow, Ralph; Scheiner, Elisabeth; Fischer, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Although the expression of emotions in humans is considered to be largely universal, cultural effects contribute to both emotion expression and recognition. To disentangle the interplay between these factors, play-acted and authentic (non-instructed) vocal expressions of emotions were used, on the assumption that cultural effects may contribute differentially to the recognition of staged and spontaneous emotions. Speech tokens depicting four emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear) were obtained from German radio archives and re-enacted by professional actors, and presented to 120 participants from Germany, Romania, and Indonesia. Participants in all three countries were poor at distinguishing between play-acted and spontaneous emotional utterances (58.73% correct on average with only marginal cultural differences). Nevertheless, authenticity influenced emotion recognition: across cultures, anger was recognized more accurately when play-acted (z = 15.06, p emotions, indicating a moderate in-group advantage. There was no difference between Romanian and Indonesian subjects in the overall emotion recognition. Differential cultural effects became particularly apparent in terms of differential biases in emotion attribution. While all participants labeled play-acted expressions as anger more frequently than expected, German participants exhibited a further bias toward choosing anger for spontaneous stimuli. In contrast to the German sample, Romanian and Indonesian participants were biased toward choosing sadness. These results support the view that emotion recognition rests on a complex interaction of human universals and cultural specificities. Whether and in which way the observed biases are linked to cultural differences in self-construal remains an issue for further investigation.

  9. How Marine Conditions Affect Severity of MIC of Steels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, B; Lee, J; Ray, R

    2007-01-01

    .... A specific type of carbon sheet piling corrosion. accelerated low water corrosion, k has been attributed to a microbiologically generated sulfur cycle in the presence of heave macrofouling in tidal zones...

  10. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity ...

  11. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in emergency care and to have treatment to control their cholesterol levels. Mental health Women are more likely to show signs ... mental_health/prevention/genderwomen/en/ National Institute ... Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Arthritis-related statistics . Retrieved May ...

  12. Research on how environmental conditions can affect the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    mean spatial SST and spatial standard deviation of the particular composite in .... be kept for interpretation, two different rules are often used (Chatfield and ... The latter rule is the one used in this analysis. ..... Gold (Eds). Washington, D. C. ...

  13. Macroeconomic Conditions and Capital Raising

    OpenAIRE

    Isil Erel; Brandon Julio; Woojin Kim; Michael S. Weisbach

    2011-01-01

    Do macroeconomic conditions affect firms' abilities to raise capital? If so, how do they affect the manner in which the capital is raised? We address these questions using a large sample of publicly-traded debt issues, seasoned equity offers, bank loans and private placements of equity and debt. Our results suggest that a borrower's credit quality significantly affects its ability to raise capital during macroeconomic downturns. For noninvestment-grade borrowers, capital raising tends to be p...

  14. Nonprice terms and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In this and the following chapter the authors review some of the more common provisions contained in wheeling contracts. Here they discuss nonprice terms and conditions. In the next chapter they look at the manner in which they address the pricing issue. At the outset one should note that there is a relationship between price and nonprice terms and condition. A couple of the provisions discussed here affect the risks incurred by the wheeling utility and the price it may charge for that service. These provisions include the length of the contract, the degree to which service can be interrupted and the ability to terminate the contract early, among others. These provisions are often characterized as nonprice terms and conditions. In reality, however, these factors have a direct bearing on the overall cost of wheeling services provided

  15. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  16. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  17. Affectivity in the Liminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new...... at the threshold. The paper contains three sections: a) liminality and affectivity in van Gennep’s life; b) liminality and affectivity as a theme in his work; c) liminality and affectivity as developed in the early reception of his work....

  18. Engaging in Affective Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    schools, the paper develops an affective-power approach drawing on Foucault’s notion of power and Whetherell’s conceptualisation of affect. The approach captures the affective dimension of governing and resistance in interactional practice that engages teachers and pupils. This enables a research focus......The paper presents how the merging of the theoretical concepts ‘Affect’ and ‘Power’ faces methodological and ethical challenges when entangled in teachers’ and pupils’ practice. Based on a study of pedagogical methods aiming to shape certain affective relations and avoid conflicts in Danish primary....... Witnessing tense conflict situations taking place I as a researcher get affected as well, and in turn affect the practice myself. Because, both the teacher, pupil, and I are well aware of my research focus on power and affect, being observed in conflictual situations contributes to pervasive shame...

  19. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496

  20. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  1. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  2. Baseline conditions at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The main purpose of this report is to establish a reference point - defined as the data collected up until the end of year 2002 - for the coming phases of the Finnish spent nuclear fuel disposal programme. The focus is: to define the current surface and underground conditions at the site, both as regards the properties for which a change is expected and for the properties which are of particular interest for long-term safety or environmental impact; to establish, as far as possible, the natural fluctuation of properties that are potentially affected by construction of the underground laboratory, the ONKALO, and to provide references to data on parameters or use in model development and testing and to use models to assist in understanding and interpreting the data. The emphasis of the baseline description is on bedrock characteristics that are relevant to the long-term safety of a spent fuel repository and, hence, to include the hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, rock mechanical, tectonic and seismic conditions of the site. The construction of the ONKALO will also affect some conditions on the surface, and, therefore, a description of the main characteristics of the nature and the man-made constructions at Olkiluoto is also given. This report is primarily a road map to the available information on the prevailing conditions at the Olkiluoto site and a framework for understanding of data collected. Hence, it refers to numerous available background reports and other archived information produced over the past 20 years or more, and forms a recapitulation and revaluation of the characterisation data of the Olkiluoto site. (orig.)

  3. Affected in the nightclub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan

    2013-01-01

    simultaneously with the affects of love, joy, sympathy and so on. Alcohol, illicit drugs, bouncers, music and other human or non-human actants are part of the place. It is within this heterogeneous assemblage that affects become embodied. The data consists of 273 cases from a large Copenhagen nightclub where...

  4. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  5. Seed conditioning of red oak: a recalcitrant North American seed Condicionamento de sementes de carvalho vermelho: semente recalcitrante da América do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Struve

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A ten day aerated water soak was developed as a seed conditioning treatment for red oak (Quercus rubra L.. Conditioned seeds had higher germination completeness, uniformity and speed compared to control seeds. Seeds could be conditioned under a wide range of temperatures and durations. Conditioned seeds were maintained at 7(0C for 30 days without loss of seed quality. During conditioning, pericarps split in response to seed hydration. Split pericarps could be used as a pre-sowing indicator for high quality seeds. Seed conditioning was ineffective on dormant seeds. Increased crop uniformity and higher stand establishment can be realized by subjecting red oak acorns to an aerated water soak treatment followed by selecting seeds with split pericarps. These results are especially important in container production systems where limited numbers of value seeds are available.Sementes de carvalho vermelho (Quercus rubra L. foram condicionadas diretamente em água, sob aeração, durante 10 dias. As sementes condicionadas fisiologicamente apresentaram maior percentagem, velocidade e uniformidade de germinação, quando comparadas com a testemunha. O condicionamento das sementes pode ser efetuado sob ampla variação de temperaturas e períodos de exposição. Sementes condicionadas podem ser mantidas a 7ºC/30 dias, sem perda de qualidade. Durante o condicionamento ocorre ruptura do pericarpo, em resposta à hidratação da semente; essa ocorrência pode ser utilizada para estimar a qualidade da semente. O condicionamento não apresentou efeitos em sementes dormentes. O condicionamento das sementes de carvalho vermelho em água, com aeração, seguido pela seleção de sementes com ruptura do pericarpo, proporciona o rápido estabelecimento e uniformidade das plântulas.

  6. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Consumer attitudes play an important role in the acceptance of new technologies. The success of food innovations depends on understanding how consumers form and change attitudes toward food technologies. Earlier post hoc explanations suggest that evaluative conditioning can change consumer...... attitudes toward food technologies. The present study tests how evaluative conditioning can affect consumer acceptance of new food technologies. Furthermore, authors investigate whether evaluative conditioning is resistant to extinction after a two-month period and whether the evaluative conditioning effect...... prevails in a product-related context. Within an evaluative conditioning paradigm including between-subjects control groups in addition to standard within-subjects control conditions, participants were presented with three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic technology) paired...

  7. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  8. Affect as Information in Persuasion: A Model of Affect Identification and Discounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the implications of a model of affect as information in persuasion. According to this model, extraneous affect may have an influence when message recipients exert moderate amounts of thought, because they identify their affective reactions as potential criteria but fail to discount them as irrelevant. However, message recipients may not use affect as information when they deem affect irrelevant or when they do not identify their affective reactions at all. Consistent with this curvilinear prediction, recipients of a message that either favored or opposed comprehensive exams used affect as a basis for attitudes in situations that elicited moderate thought. Affect, however, had no influence on attitudes in conditions that elicited either large or small amounts of thought. PMID:12635909

  9. Dementia in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...

  10. Recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Andersen, P K

    1999-01-01

    The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward...... recurrence. The study base was the Danish psychiatric case register of all hospital admissions for primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. A total of 20,350 first-admission patients were discharged with a diagnosis of major affective disorder. For women with unipolar disorder and for all...... kinds of patients with bipolar disorder, the rate of recurrence was affected by the number of prior episodes even when the effect was adjusted for individual frailty toward recurrence. No effect of episodes but a large effect of the frailty parameter was found for unipolar men. The authors concluded...

  11. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cravings and weight gain Thoughts of death or suicide SAD is more common in women, young people, ... of serotonin, a brain chemical that affects your mood. Their bodies also make too ... with light therapy. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  12. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  13. How culture affects management?

    OpenAIRE

    Billi, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    The study is about how culture affects management. Culture can have many different meanings. Management has also many different ways to be approached. While doing research about cultures, the study will try to analyze how the culture affects the management. The study starts with a full explanation of the meaning of culture. Some previous analysis and studies are added to illustrate my study on the subject. The effect culture has on management is studied at different levels. The study does not...

  14. Oak Dispersal Syndromes: Do Red and White Oaks Exhibit Different Dispersal Srategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Steele; Peter Smallwood; William B. Terzaghi; John E. Carlson; Thomas conteras; Amy McEuen

    2004-01-01

    We provide an overview of the ecological and evolutionary interactions between oaks and several of their dispersal agents, and review a series of studies that demonstrate how various acorn characteristics affect feeding and caching decisions of these animals, which in turn may influence oak dispersal and establishment. We demonstrate that acorns of red oak species show...

  15. Teat condition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  16. Teat Condition in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  17. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eTschacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.3 years. Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted five minutes. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  18. Affective State Influences Perception by Affecting Decision Parameters Underlying Bias and Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Spencer K.; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person’s affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a “locally focused” style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a “globally focused” style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investiga...

  19. Accumulation and evolution of tocopherols in dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs as affected by their feeding and rearing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey, A I; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A

    2010-01-01

    The influence of feeding and rearing systems on the accumulation and evolution of α- and γ-tocopherols in relation to storage time in dry-cured ham slices and pieces was investigated. The accumulation of γ-tocopherol in Musculus Biceps femoris or fat of cured hams was lower in groups fed acorns i...

  20. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  1. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    the paper raises the questions where to locate aesthetics when planners and architects wishes to design for aesthetical experiences and sensations rather than formal objects. The paper will proceed through a brief outline of the recent notion of assemblage and affect in urban studies, planning theory...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...

  2. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  3. Affect and Public Support for Military Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukhong Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of affect on public opinion on foreign policy. It extends the existing studies which show a significant role that affect, as measured by feelings toward a country, plays in shaping public opinion on military action. According to the existing theory, the mass public, which does not have high levels of political information and knowledge, can rely on affect to make reasonable decisions and opinions. This is possible because affect works as an information shortcut or heuristic that can help those individuals who lack cognitive capacity to engage in a systematic search for information and a decision-making process. The research finding confirms this theory. More importantly, this study extends the existing studies by elaborating the conditions under which affect works in accounting for individuals’ support for military intervention. The effect of affect is conditioned by the level of political knowledge, which shows that knowledgeable individuals are more adept at using affect as a heuristic tool.

  4. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  5. 7 CFR 760.7 - Other requirements for affected farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other requirements for affected farmers. 760.7 Section... Payments to Dairy Farmers for Milk § 760.7 Other requirements for affected farmers. An indemnity payment for milk may be made under this subpart to an affected farmer only under the following conditions: (a...

  6. The Affective Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carnera, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper confronts biopolitics with modern labour addressing questions of ‘governmentality’, ‘self-management’ and ‘social innovation’. It argues that the new modes of production within immaterial labour involve a new complex relation between on the one hand the ‘Art of Governance...... of biopolitics that surpasses that of governmentality. The affective self-relation is used as a research tool to analyse the creation of social and economic values in our new modes of productions, for instance, within free labour of the cultural industry. The movie The Five Obstructions is used to show how...... organizing good affective encounters based on limitations enhance and facilitate the performative dimension of self-management. Finally, the paper addresses the problem of critique confronting self-relation with Spinoza's ethics as an ethical difference of powe...

  7. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  8. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  9. Condition Indicators for Gearbox Condition Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Večeř

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring systems for manual transmissions based on vibration diagnostics are widely applied in industry. The systems deal with various condition indicators, most of which are focused on a specific type of gearbox fault. Frequently used condition indicators (CIs are described in this paper. The ability of a selected condition indicator to describe the degree of gearing wear was tested using vibration signals acquired during durability testing of manual transmission with helical gears. 

  10. Morgellons Disease: Managing a Mysterious Skin Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition that affects your thinking, moods or behavior. Pearson ML, et al. Clinical epidemiologic, histopathologic and molecular ... Dermatology. 2014;15:71. Yan BY, et al. Management of Morgellons disease with low-dose trifluoperazine. JAMA ...

  11. Developing a national radiation oncology registry: From acorns to oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Jatinder R; Efstathiou, Jason A; Bekelman, Justin E; Mutic, Sasa; Bogardus, Carl R; McNutt, Todd R; Gabriel, Peter E; Lawton, Colleen A; Zietman, Anthony L; Rose, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    The National Radiation Oncology Registry (NROR) is a collaborative initiative of the Radiation Oncology Institute and the American Society of Radiation Oncology, with input and guidance from other major stakeholders in oncology. The overarching mission of the NROR is to improve the care of cancer patients by capturing reliable information on treatment delivery and health outcomes. The NROR will collect patient-specific radiotherapy data electronically to allow for rapid comparison of the many competing treatment modalities and account for effectiveness, outcome, utilization, quality, safety, and cost. It will provide benchmark data and quality improvement tools for individual practitioners. The NROR steering committee has determined that prostate cancer provides an appropriate model to test the concept and the data capturing software in a limited number of sites. The NROR pilot project will begin with this disease-gathering treatment and outcomes data from a limited number of treatment sites across the range of practice; once feasibility is proven, it will scale up to more sites and diseases. When the NROR is fully implemented, all radiotherapy facilities, along with their radiation oncologists, will be solicited to participate in it. With the broader participation of the radiation oncology community, NROR has the potential to serve as a resource for determining national patterns of care, gaps in treatment quality, comparative effectiveness, and hypothesis generation to identify new linkages between therapeutic processes and outcomes. The NROR will benefit radiation oncologists and other care providers, payors, vendors, policy-makers, and, most importantly, cancer patients by capturing reliable information on population-based radiation treatment delivery. Copyright © 2012 (c) 2010 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Successful Parent: Growing Mighty Oaks from Little Acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Appreciative intelligence is the factor that makes some people more successful than others, more resilient to life's lumps and bumps, more creative and persistent when dealing with challenges, and more often able to smile at the end of a tough day. It is the same type of intelligence found in exceptional business leaders, entrepreneurs and…

  13. Facial Affect Reciprocity in Dyadic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    regulators of social interaction. In the developmental literature, this concept has been investigated under the rubric of social referencing...The communication of affects in monkeys: Cooperative reward conditioning. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 108, 121– 134. Miller, R. E., Banks, J

  14. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, J.E.; King, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

  15. How luck and performance affect stealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravert, Christina Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the way of earning payoff affects the probability of stealing. The participants who earned their payoff according to performance were three times more likely to take the (undeserved) maximum payoff than participants with randomly allocated payoff. Conditional on steali...

  16. Insight in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S N; Sachs, G S; Baldassano, C F; Truman, C J

    1997-01-01

    Lack of insight complicates the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychotic and affective disorders. No studies of insight in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have been reported. Thirty patients with SAD diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R but no other axis I conditions were treated short-term with light-therapy. Insight was measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) as modified by the authors to assess the self-report of insight into depressive symptoms. Increasing scores (1 to 5) indicated increasing unawareness of illness (i.e., less insight). SAD patients displayed a moderate amount of insight when depressed (mean SUMD score, 2.5). When recovered, they showed no significant change in insight into past depressive symptoms (mean SUMD score, 2.8). Greater insight into current depressive symptoms correlated with more depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score ([HRSD] r = .35, P depressive symptoms that does not change after recovery, a result in agreement with studies of insight in psychosis and mania. Further, in SAD, increased severity of illness may be associated with increased insight into depressive symptoms, consistent with the hypothesis of depressive realism.

  17. Do wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L.) use food selection as a means to reduce heavy metal intake?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beernaert, Joke; Scheirs, Jan; Brande, Greet van den; Leirs, Herwig; Blust, Ronny; Meulenaer, Bruno de; Camp, John van; Verhagen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Food preference of wood mice from two with heavy metals polluted sites and two unpolluted sites was tested under laboratory and field conditions with two-way choice experiments. In the laboratory, wood mice preferred to eat acorns from unpolluted sites over acorns from polluted sites. Previous experience with polluted food had no influence on food choice. Preference was negatively related to acorn metal content. Furthermore, the nutrient content of the acorn endosperm was consistently lower in polluted sites. We therefore conclude that wood mice used absolute metal concentration in the acorn, nutrient content, or both as a food selection cue. The results of the laboratory experiment could not be confirmed under field conditions. We hypothesized that search time constraints due to the presence of predators, competitors and/or other stress factors in the field have prevented the mice to forage selectively. - Wood mice prefer unpolluted food items over polluted food items in laboratory trials but not in field situations

  18. Working Conditions, Lifestyles and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottini, Elena; Ghinetti, Paolo

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether employee health is affected by the environment in which the individual works - in terms of both physical and psychosocial working conditions - and by his or her lifestyle. Health measures are computed from Danish data, and refer to both self assessed...... general health and two more objective health measures: mental health specific to work-related problems, and physical health. We find that both bad working conditions and bad lifestyles reduce health, especially in its self-assessed component. The impact of lifetsyle indicators have a more modest health...... impact on both physical and mental health....

  19. Social and Affective Robotics Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Evers, Vanessa; Deisenroth, Marc; Merino, Luis; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Social and Affective Robotics is a growing multidisciplinary field encompassing computer science, engineering, psychology, education, and many other disciplines. It explores how social and affective factors influence interactions between humans and robots, and how affect and social signals can be

  20. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  1. Risk, Affect and Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time theorising has underestimated the importance of affect and emotion in decision making and the management of risk and uncertainty. In relatively one-sided interpretations emotions were often interpreted as threats for rational decision making, and could be triggered by uncertainties, which would go along with social change. Recent interdisciplinary research has shown the importance to acknowledge the more complex link between reasoning and emotions. The article outlines different perspectives on emotion in risk research of economics, psychology and sociology and argues for further research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601293

  2. Affective disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burgić-Radmanović

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders in childhood have been more intensively studied in the last three decades. They can be recognized among the children of all ages, but are more frequent among the older children. The main characteristics of mood disorders are similar among children, adolescents and adults, although development factors affect their clinical features. Development factors affect the manifestation of all symptoms. Two main criteria for these disorders in childhood are mood disorders, such as reduced or elevated mood and irritability. These symptoms may result in social or academic damage. Depression among children is a wide-spread, family and recurrent condition, which continues episodically in adulthood. Depression is frequently associated with other psychiatric disorders, increasing the risk of suicidal behaviour, misuse of psychoactive substances and behavioural disorders. Depression in childhood brings about worse psychosocial, academic and family functioning. Family, social and environmental factors have a significant role in affective disorders of children and young people.

  3. Multisensory Perception of Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Gelder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration must stand out among the fields of research that have witnessed a most impressive explosion of interest this last decade. One of these new areas of multisensory research concerns emotion. Since our first exploration of this phenomenon (de Gelder et al., 1999 a number of studies have appeared and they have used a wide variety of behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroscientifc methods. The goal of this presentation is threefold. First, we review the research on audiovisual perception of emotional signals from the face and the voice followed by a report or more recent studies on integrating emotional information provided by the voice and whole body expressions. We will also include some recent work on multisensory music perception. In the next section we discuss some methodological and theoretical issues. Finally, we will discuss findings about abnormal affective audiovisual integration in schizophrenia and in autism.

  4. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...... of individual experiences of school and everyday school life as it unfolds in and beyond the formal teaching situations. The chapter follows in the wake of a growing attention to the aspects of everyday life and lived life at school in the history of education. It also develops tools for and demonstrates how...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  5. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  6. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I study the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. I show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion of exp...

  7. SMEs cooperate to meet social procurement conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oden, Petra

    2015-01-01

    A growing amount of (semi) public organizations in the Netherlands write tenders with mandatory social conditions. It is important for SMEs to focus on social procurement in their business strategy. SMEs should be proactive and try to affect the conditions (semi) public organizations write in their

  8. Affect intensity and processing fluency of deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of emotional intensity (Brehm, 1999) suggests that the intensity of affective states depends on the magnitude of their current deterrents. Our study investigated the role that fluency--the subjective experience of ease of information processing--plays in the emotional intensity modulations as reactions to deterrents. Following an induction phase of good mood, we manipulated both the magnitude of deterrents (using sets of photographs with pre-tested potential to instigate an emotion incompatible with the pre-existent affective state--pity) and their processing fluency (normal vs. enhanced through subliminal priming). Current affective state and perception of deterrents were then measured. In the normal processing conditions, the results revealed the cubic effect predicted by the emotional intensity theory, with the initial affective state being replaced by the one appropriate to the deterrent only in participants exposed to the high magnitude deterrence. In the enhanced fluency conditions the emotional intensity pattern was drastically altered; also, the replacement of the initial affective state occurred at a lower level of deterrence magnitude (moderate instead of high), suggesting the strengthening of deterrence emotional impact by enhanced fluency.

  9. Skin Condition Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  10. Does observability affect prosociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Alex; Lawrence, Claire; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2018-03-28

    The observation of behaviour is a key theoretical parameter underlying a number of models of prosociality. However, the empirical findings showing the effect of observability on prosociality are mixed. In this meta-analysis, we explore the boundary conditions that may account for this variability, by exploring key theoretical and methodological moderators of this link. We identified 117 papers yielding 134 study level effects (total n = 788 164) and found a small but statistically significant, positive association between observability and prosociality ( r = 0.141, 95% confidence interval = 0.106, 0.175). Moderator analysis showed that observability produced stronger effects on prosociality: (i) in the presence of passive observers (i.e. people whose role was to only observe participants) versus perceptions of being watched, (ii) when participants' decisions were consequential (versus non-consequential), (iii) when the studies were performed in the laboratory (as opposed to in the field/online), (iv) when the studies used repeated measures (instead of single games), and (v) when the studies involved social dilemmas (instead of bargaining games). These effects show the conditions under which observability effects on prosociality will be maximally observed. We describe the theoretical and practical significance of these results. © 2018 The Authors.

  11. Changing exercise through targeting affective or cognitive attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; Rhodes, Ryan E; Morris, Ben; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca

    2011-02-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of affective and cognitive messages compared to a no-message control on self-reported exercise. Students (Study 1, N = 383 and Study 2, N = 197) were randomly allocated to one of the three conditions (control - no message, affective message or cognitive message). Participants completed questionnaire measures tapping components of the theory of planned behaviour in relation to exercise and reported their level of exercise (3 weeks later). In Study 2, measures of need for affect (NFA) and need for cognition (NFC) were also completed. Results showed that affective messages consistently produced greater increases in self-reported level of exercise than the other conditions. In both studies, this effect was partly mediated by affective attitude change. Study 2 indicated these effects to be significantly stronger among those high in NFA or low in NFC. These findings indicate the value of affective messages that target affective attitudes in changing exercise behaviour.

  12. Affective subjectivation in the precarious neoliberal academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duenas, Paola Ximena Valero; Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Brunila, Kristiina

    2018-01-01

    as an organisation and the relationship between managers and academics; the governing through affect in the constant ambivalence between anxiety and self-development; and the power effects of these two together in creating neoliberal academic subjects. Both the strategy of working with fictional stories...... and the analytical stance allows opening up the public secrets of the ways in which neoliberal precarious conditions govern the lives and bodies of academics nowadays. Disclosing those secrets is a form of resistance against the violence of current affective subjectivation....

  13. Produtividade e qualidade do melão cantaloupe, cultivado em ambiente protegido, variando o número e a posição dos frutos na planta Fruit yield and quality of cantaloupe melon, under greenhouse conditions, as affected by number of fruits and position in the plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cleiton Fernandes de Queiroga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos do meloeiro são considerados fortes drenos que alteram a distribuição de fotoassimilados entre os órgãos da planta. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho determinar a produção e a qualidade de frutos de meloeiro em ambiente protegido em função do número e da posição de fixação dos frutos na planta. O experimento foi desenvolvido em fatorial 2 x 2 em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, provenientes da combinação de número de frutos por planta (1 e 2 e posição de fixação dos frutos na planta (entre 5.º e 8.° nós e entre 15.° e 18.° nós. O melão cultivar 'Torreon', do grupo Cantalupensis, foi plantado em vasos de 11,5 dm³ contendo como substrato apenas fibra de coco adubada com macro e micronutrientes. Comparado a plantas com dois frutos, nas plantas com apenas um fruto ocorreram os maiores valores de: massa dos frutos (MF, reticulação da casca (RC, comprimento, índice de formato, espessura da polpa, índice de maturação (IM, sólidos solúveis (SS, açúcares solúveis totais, açúcares não redutores. Em plantas com apenas um fruto, ocorreu redução na produtividade comercial (PC de 21,4% em frutos fixados especificamente entre o 5.° e 8.° nós e 24,9% em frutos do 15.° e 18.° nós comparada a plantas com dois frutos. Em frutos fixados na posição do 15.° e 18.° nós ocorreram maiores MF, IM, PC e ciclo da cultura, bem como, menores RC e acidez total titulável. Foram obtidas correlações significativas para área foliar por fruto (AF x MF de 0,81, AF x SS de 0,79, MF x SS de 0,68, MF x RC de 0,72 e RC x SS de 0,51.Muskmelon fruits are strong sink affecting assimilate distribution among the plant organs. This experiment aimed at to determine yield and quality of 'Torreon' cultivar in greenhouse conditions as affected by fruit number and position in the plant. A 2 x 2 factorial was set in randomized block design, with five replications. Treatments combined fruit number per plant (1 and 2 and

  14. Affective Biases in Humans and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E S J; Roiser, J P

    Depression is one of the most common but poorly understood psychiatric conditions. Although drug treatments and psychological therapies are effective in some patients, many do not achieve full remission and some patients receive no apparent benefit. Developing new improved treatments requires a better understanding of the aetiology of symptoms and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets in pre-clinical studies. Recent developments in our understanding of the basic cognitive processes that may contribute to the development of depression and its treatment offer new opportunities for both clinical and pre-clinical research. This chapter discusses the clinical evidence supporting a cognitive neuropsychological model of depression and antidepressant efficacy, and how this information may be usefully translated to pre-clinical investigation. Studies using neuropsychological tests in depressed patients and at risk populations have revealed basic negative emotional biases and disrupted reward and punishment processing, which may also impact on non-affective cognition. These affective biases are sensitive to antidepressant treatments with early onset effects observed, suggesting an important role in recovery. This clinical work into affective biases has also facilitated back-translation to animals and the development of assays to study affective biases in rodents. These animal studies suggest that, similar to humans, rodents in putative negative affective states exhibit negative affective biases on decision-making and memory tasks. Antidepressant treatments also induce positive biases in these rodent tasks, supporting the translational validity of this approach. Although still in the early stages of development and validation, affective biases in depression have the potential to offer new insights into the clinical condition, as well as facilitating the development of more translational approaches for pre-clinical studies.

  15. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  16. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  17. Security affects us all!

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    In the hope of minimising the number of thefts of the Organization’s property, which can lead to months of work going to waste on certain projects, you are reminded of the importance that CERN attaches to the rules concerning the protection of equipment for which we are responsible. If you see any unusual behaviour or if you are the victim of a theft, don’t hesitate to report it by submitting a ticket through the CERN Portal or calling the CSA. Security affects us all!   CERN is attractive in more ways than one, and it remains as attractive as ever to thieves. With the nice weather and with the holiday season in full swing, the number of thefts recorded at CERN is on the rise. Items stolen include money, computers, electronic equipment, cable drums and copper antennae.   There are a few basic precautions that you should take to protect both your own and the Organization’s property: lock your door, don’t leave valuable items in your office, st...

  18. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  19. Affective match: Leader emotions, follower positive affect, and follower performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, F.; van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    Leader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the affective match between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders' emotional displays moderates the effectiveness of

  20. Betting on conditionals

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer , Guy; Over , David P; Baratgin , Jean

    2010-01-01

    A study is reported testing two hypotheses about a close parallel relation between indicative conditionals, if A then B, and conditional bets, I bet you that if A then B. The first is that both the indicative conditional and the conditional bet are related to the conditional probability, P(B|A). The second is that de Finetti's three-valued truth table has psychological reality for both types of conditional – true, false, or void for indicative conditionals and win, lose or void for conditiona...

  1. Introduction: Affective Ecologies and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera M Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Engaging the affective and materialist turn in the social sciences, this special section elaborates on how analytical attention on affect and affective relations is central to understanding human-nature relations and to conservation interventions. The contributors to this section use conceptual resources from affect theory, new materialism, and indigenous ontologies to illustrate the practical significance of paying attention to affect in understanding nature-society relations. This introduction reviews these conceptual resources to make a case for affective political ecology.

  2. Encountering Science Education's Capacity to Affect and Be Affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-01-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…

  3. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare.......The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...

  4. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. While couples can't control all of the causes of infertility, ...

  5. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  6. Soil Resources Area Affects Herbivore Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Dacus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991–1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass, kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI, which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P ≤ 0.001. Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P ≤ 0.002. Mass and conception date (CD were affected (P ≤ 0.001 by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P ≤ 0.001 and CD (P < 0.04. Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer.

  7. Flavanol plasma bioavailability is affected by metabolic syndrome in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margalef, M.; Pons, Z.; Iglesias-Carres, L.; Bravo, F.I.; Muguerza, B.; Arola-Arnal, A.

    2017-01-01

    Flavanols, which exert several health benefits, are metabolized after ingestion. Factors such as the host physiological condition could affect the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols, influencing their bioactivities. This study aimed to qualitatively evaluate whether a pathological state

  8. Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Dasgupta P., Halder S. and Nandy B. 2016 Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in Drosophila .... allowed to the competitor male to interact with the female. Following ... conditions including maternal environment.

  9. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  10. Affective state influences perception by affecting decision parameters underlying bias and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-08-01

    Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person's affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a "locally focused" style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a "globally focused" style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investigated the influence of perceivers' experienced affect (valence and arousal) on the utility of social threat perception by combining signal detection theory and behavioral economics. We compared 3 perceptual decision environments that systematically differed with respect to factors that underlie uncertainty and risk: the base rate of threat, the costs of incorrect identification threat, and the perceptual similarity of threats and nonthreats. We found that no single affective state yielded the best performance on the threat perception task across the 3 environments. Unpleasant valence promoted calibration of response bias to base rate and costs, high arousal promoted calibration of perceptual sensitivity to perceptual similarity, and low arousal was associated with an optimal adjustment of bias to sensitivity. However, the strength of these associations was conditional upon the difficulty of attaining optimal bias and high sensitivity, such that the effect of the perceiver's affective state on perception differed with the cause and/or level of uncertainty and risk.

  11. [The influence of affect on satisfaction with conversations and interpersonal impressions from the perspective of dyadic affective combinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken, Fujiwara; Daibo, Ikuo

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the influence of affect on interpersonal relationships in a dyadic communication context. The combination of speakers' affective states was considered, as compared to previous studies which considered only the individual's affective state. The independent variables, in a between-subjects design, were affective condition (positive vs. negative) and affective combination (similar vs. dissimilar). Participants (N = 86) took a test on creative thinking and were given false feedback. Then they had a 6-minute conversation and answered questions about their satisfaction with the conversation and their impressions of their partner. Results showed that the two-factor interactions were significant for satisfaction with the conversation and interpersonal impressions (social desirability) of the partner. The scores for these variables in the positive affect condition were higher than in the negative affect condition only when the affective combination was dissimilar. These results show that individual's affect could not predict conversational outcomes. The results were discussed in terms of incorrect inferences about the partner's affective state and imbalanced conversation activity.

  12. Unfolding Analysis of Work Conditions Affecting Employees’ Health According to their Positions in the Area of Solid Waste || Análisis unfolding de las condiciones de trabajo que afectan la salud de los empleados según sus puestos en el área de residuos sólidos

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino Llinares, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    Due to the peculiarities of the tasks performed, the area of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) has a long tradition in implementing risk prevention plans. But are these plans equally received by workers involved in the production chain? This research explores the concerns and worries of MSW sector employees in the Southern Spanish region of Andalusia; it deals with aspects of their work that may affect their health and that can be directly related to the plans and programs designed for the preventi...

  13. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  14. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  15. Exploring Online Game Players' Flow Experiences and Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Cheng, Chao-Yang; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to explore online game players' flow experiences and positive affect. Our findings indicated that online game are capable of evoking flow experiences and positive affect, and games of violent or nonviolent type may not arouse players' aggression. The players could be placed into four flow conditions: flow,…

  16. Overview of factors affecting the leachability of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of various factors that affect the leachability of nuclear waste forms is presented. The factors affect primarily the leaching system (temperature, for example), the leachant (pH, for example), or the solid being leached (surface condition, for example). A qualitative understanding exists of the major factors affecting leaching, but further studies are needed to establish leaching mechanisms and develop predictive models. 67 refs

  17. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an initial examination of the evaluative conditioning (EC) of consumers’ attitudes toward food technologies in China, including how EC can affect consumer acceptance of new technology when participants possess different levels of social trust. In a study using the EC paradigm...... and a combination of between-subjects control groups and within-subjects control conditions, participants considered three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic), paired with affectively positive, neutral, and negative images. Subsequent evaluative measurements revealed that EC can explain attitude...... formation toward food technologies in China when consumers see affective images, but the strength of the effects varies at different levels of social trust. Participants with a high level of trust in the institutions that promote and regulate the technologies can be conditioned both positively...

  18. Modelling classroom conditions with different boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    A model that combines image source modelling and acoustical radiosity with complex boundary condition, thus including phase shifts on reflection has been developed. The model is called PARISM (Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Model). It has been developed in order to be able to model...

  19. Watershed condition [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Jonathan W. Long; Malchus B. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Managers of the Prescott National Forest are obliged to evaluate the conditions of watersheds under their jurisdiction in order to guide informed decisions concerning grazing allotments, forest and woodland management, restoration treatments, and other management initiatives. Watershed condition has been delineated by contrasts between “good” and “poor” conditions (...

  20. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  1. Conditional uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Gilad; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Kłobus, Waldemar; Łodyga, Justyna; Narasimhachar, Varun

    2018-04-01

    We develop a general operational framework that formalizes the concept of conditional uncertainty in a measure-independent fashion. Our formalism is built upon a mathematical relation which we call conditional majorization. We define conditional majorization and, for the case of classical memory, we provide its thorough characterization in terms of monotones, i.e., functions that preserve the partial order under conditional majorization. We demonstrate the application of this framework by deriving two types of memory-assisted uncertainty relations, (1) a monotone-based conditional uncertainty relation and (2) a universal measure-independent conditional uncertainty relation, both of which set a lower bound on the minimal uncertainty that Bob has about Alice's pair of incompatible measurements, conditioned on arbitrary measurement that Bob makes on his own system. We next compare the obtained relations with their existing entropic counterparts and find that they are at least independent.

  2. Does affective touch influence the virtual reality full body illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jutta R; Keizer, Anouk; Engel, Manja M; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2017-06-01

    The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of touch modulate the strength of experienced ownership over a rubber hand. Specifically, participants experienced more ownership after the rubber hand illusion was induced through affective touch vs non-affective touch. It is, however, unclear whether this effect would also occur for an entire fake body. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether affective touch modulates the strength of ownership in a virtual reality full body illusion. To elicit this illusion, we used slow (3 cm/s; affective touch) and fast (30 cm/s; non-affective touch) stroking velocities on the participants' abdomen. Both stroking velocities were performed either synchronous or asynchronous (control condition), while participants viewed a virtual body from a first-person-perspective. In our first study, we found that participants experienced more subjective ownership over a virtual body in the affective touch condition, compared to the non-affective touch condition. In our second study, we found higher levels of subjective ownership for synchronous stimulation, compared to asynchronous, for both touch conditions, but failed to replicate the findings from study 1 that show a difference between affective and non-affective touch. We, therefore, cannot conclude unequivocally that affective touch enhances the full-body illusion. Future research is required to study the effects of affective touch on body ownership.

  3. Affective disorders in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....

  4. The Relationship of Teacher Affective Behavior to Pupil Affective Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameen, Marilyn C.; Brown, Jeannette A.

    The study investigated the relationship of teacher affective behavior changes to pupil affective behavior changes in the presence of elementary school guidance services for both populations. Specifically, the study asked: Is teacher change in Intimacy and Esprit related to pupil change in Self Perception and Peer Acceptance? Activities were…

  5. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents’ Future Affective Experience during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M.; Levine, Linda J.; Schneider, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents’ feelings during exercise. Method During the first semester of the school year, we assessed sixth grade students’ (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test, and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the second semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Results Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise, and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. Conclusion These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences. PMID:28494196

  6. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents' Future Affective Experience During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M; Levine, Linda J; Schneider, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents' feelings during exercise. During the 1st semester of the school year, we assessed 6th-grade students' (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the 2nd semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences.

  7. Storage temperature affects fruit quality attributes of Ber ( Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit utilization is affected by quality attributes and shelf life. The quality of Jujube or Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits after harvest depends on storage conditions used. In this study, different storage temperatures and durations were evaluated to determine the appropriate storage conditions of fresh fruits of Z.

  8. Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

    2013-04-01

    A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders.

  9. Getting a grip on your feelings: Effects of action orientation and external demands on intuitive affect regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Jostmann, N.B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors propose that volitional action is supported by intuitive affect regulation, defined as flexible, efficient, and nonrepressive control of own affective states. Intuitive affect regulation should be most apparent among action-oriented individuals under demanding conditions. Consistent with

  10. Qualification of conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.

    1989-01-01

    A conditioning process is qualified by the PTB if the execution of pre-treatment and conditioning occurs so that a safe and orderly final storage of the products and waste containers produced can be assumed. All the relevant operating conditions for the plant are laid down by the producer/conditioner of the waste in a handbook. The elements of product inspection by process qualification are shown in tabular form. (DG) [de

  11. Simultaneous conditioning of valence and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Bertram; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2014-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to the change in the valence of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to its pairing with a positive or negative unconditioned stimulus (US). To the extent that core affect can be characterised by the two dimensions of valence and arousal, EC has important implications for the origin of affective responses. However, the distinction between valence and arousal is rarely considered in research on EC or conditioned responses more generally. Measuring the subjective feelings elicited by a CS, the results from two experiments showed that (1) repeated pairings of a CS with a positive or negative US of either high or low arousal led to corresponding changes in both CS valence and CS arousal, (2) changes in CS arousal, but not changes in CS valence, were significantly related to recollective memory for CS-US pairings, (3) subsequent presentations of the CS without the US reduced the conditioned valence of the CS, with conditioned arousal being less susceptible to extinction and (4) EC effects were stronger for high arousal than low arousal USs. The results indicate that the conditioning of affective responses can occur simultaneously along two independent dimensions, supporting evidence in related areas that calls for a consideration of both valence and arousal. Implications for research on EC and the acquisition of emotional dispositions are discussed.

  12. Thermotactile perception thresholds measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Setsuo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of posture, push force and rate of temperature change on thermotactile thresholds and to clarify suitable measuring conditions for Japanese people. Thermotactile (warm and cold) thresholds on the right middle finger were measured with an HVLab thermal aesthesiometer. Subjects were eight healthy male Japanese students. The effects of posture in measurement were examined in the posture of a straight hand and forearm placed on a support, the same posture without a support, and the fingers and hand flexed at the wrist with the elbow placed on a desk. The finger push force applied to the applicator of the thermal aesthesiometer was controlled at a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 N. The applicator temperature was changed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 degrees C/s. After each measurement, subjects were asked about comfort under the measuring conditions. Three series of experiments were conducted on different days to evaluate repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that warm thresholds were affected by the push force and the rate of temperature change and that cold thresholds were influenced by posture and push force. The comfort assessment indicated that the measurement posture of a straight hand and forearm laid on a support was the most comfortable for the subjects. Relatively high repeatability was obtained under measurement conditions of a 1 degrees C/s temperature change rate and a 0.5 N push force. Measurement posture, push force and rate of temperature change can affect the thermal threshold. Judging from the repeatability, a push force of 0.5 N and a temperature change of 1.0 degrees C/s in the posture with the straight hand and forearm laid on a support are recommended for warm and cold threshold measurements.

  13. Macroeconomic Variables Affecting Bist30 Index Value in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özge KORKMAZ; Eşref Savas BASCI; Süleyman Serdar KARACA

    2016-01-01

    In finance literature, main financial stock indices are important to determine country’s financial development and it’s behavior against the effect of macro-economic conditions. These conditions can listed as interest rate, inflation rate, money supply, exchange rate, industrial production index, and etc.  In changing world economy, macro economic conditions can affect to the financial stability and capital markets. Some economies have a financial vulnerability, and it is important to measure...

  14. Family psychoeducation for affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to examine the evidence of family psychoeducation (FPE) for affective disorders. Evidence indicates that FPE can be an effective supplement to the standard treatment of patients with affective disorders. FPE can effectively reduce the patients' risk of relapse and redu...

  15. How decision reversibility affects motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, L.; van Harreveld, F.; Förster, J.; Higgins, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making,

  16. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul....... The paper will investigate how technology, humanity, affects, and synaesthesia are presented and combined with examples from everyday aesthetics, e.g. early computer tv-commercial, net-commercial for mobile phones. Technology and affects point, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not he...

  17. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  18. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  19. Inbreeding, energy use and condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, T; Kotiaho, J S

    2009-04-01

    In energetic terms, fitness may be seen to be dependent on successful allocation of energy between life-history traits. In addition, fitness will be constrained by the energy allocation ability, which has also been defined as condition. We suggest here that the allocation ability, estimated as the difference between total energy budget and maintenance metabolism, may be used as a measure of condition. We studied this possibility by measuring the resting metabolic rate and metabolism during forced exercise in Gryllodes sigillatus crickets. To verify that these metabolic traits are closely related to fitness, we experimentally manipulated the degree of inbreeding of individuals belonging to the same pedigree, hence enabling analysis of both inbreeding depression and heritability of traits. We found that inbreeding increased maintenance metabolism, whereas total energy budget was rather insensitive to inbreeding. Despite this, inbreeding led to decreased allocation ability. Overall, metabolic traits exhibited strong inbreeding depression and rather low heritabilities, a pattern that is typical of traits under strong selection. However, traditionally used condition indices were not affected by inbreeding and did not covary with metabolic traits. Moreover, in contrast to the common, but largely untested, tenet, it seems that high resting metabolic rate is indicative of low rather than high quality.

  20. Irreversibility and conditional probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.I.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mathematical entropy - unlike physical entropy - is simply a measure of uniformity for probability distributions in general. So understood, conditional entropies have the same logical structure as conditional probabilities. If, as is sometimes supposed, conditional probabilities are time-reversible, then so are conditional entropies and, paradoxically, both then share this symmetry with physical equations of motion. The paradox is, of course that probabilities yield a direction to time both in statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, while the equations of motion do not. The supposed time-reversibility of both conditionals seems also to involve a form of retrocausality that is related to, but possibly not the same as, that described by Costa de Beaurgard. The retrocausality is paradoxically at odds with the generally presumed irreversibility of the quantum mechanical measurement process. Further paradox emerges if the supposed time-reversibility of the conditionals is linked with the idea that the thermodynamic entropy is the same thing as 'missing information' since this confounds the thermodynamic and mathematical entropies. However, it is shown that irreversibility is a formal consequence of conditional entropies and, hence, of conditional probabilities also. 8 refs. (Author)