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Sample records for conditions affecting acorn

  1. Quantitative and qualitative parameters in Acorn squash cultivar in the conditions of the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Šlosár

    2018-02-01

    Brix. On the contrary, the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH was found in the patisson cultivar 'Orfeus' (10.80 %. On the basis of obtained results, it is possible to state that Acorn cultivars are very interesting squash type with promising yield potential for possible growing in conditions of Slovak Republic. In addition, Acorn squashes were expressed by higher content of several nutritional parameters compared to the typical squash type - patisson. Thus, these squashes could be an interesting vegetable for human nutrition.

  2. Factors affecting acorn production and germination and early growth of seedlings and seedling sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. Olson; Stephen G. Boyce

    1971-01-01

    Acorn production is extremely variable and unpredictable. Flowering is copious, but many climatic factors influence acorn development from initiation of flowers to acorn maturity. Acorns are consumed by birds, animals, insects, and microorganisms. The establishment of seedlings is more closely related to favorable site factors than to size of crops. A majority of oaks...

  3. Does the shelterwood method to regenerate oak forests affect acorn production and predation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.I. Bellocq; C. Jones; D.C. Dey; J.J. Turgeon

    2005-01-01

    The shelterwood system is one of the primary methods currently used to encourage regeneration of oak forests; yet, little is known about its influence on acorn production and predation. We compared acorn production, and predation by insects and mammals in stands of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) that were regenerated by the shelterwood method (50% canopy...

  4. Pin oak acorn production and regeneration as affected by stand density, structure and flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon S. Minckler; Robert E. McDermott

    1960-01-01

    Pin oak (Quercus palustris Muench.) is an important tree species common on wet, heavy soils in the Central States region. Until recently, however, the silvics of this species has been neglected (Minckler, 1957). In an effort to provide some of the missing information, a study was begun several years ago to find our more about pin oak acorn production...

  5. Context dependence of acorn handling by the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, D.; Morán-López, T.; Torre, I.; Navarro-Castilla, Á.; Barja, I.; Díaz, M.

    2017-10-01

    Perceived predation risk and competition for acorns are expected to affect scatter-hoarding decisions by Algerian mice (Mus spretus). We manipulated both factors by means of predator fecal scents and ungulate exclosures. We hypothesized that high-risk perception and ungulate presence would promote acorn dispersal. In the former case, it would stimulate acorn mobilization to safe microhabitats rather than in situ consumption. In the latter, increased competition for acorns would promote their storage for later consumption. We also expected that mice would adapt their foraging behavior to previous experience modulating the strength of these effects. In the presence of ungulates, mice focused their foraging activities on food acquisition at the expenses of vigilant behaviors. However, a more efficient foraging did not entail enhanced dispersal services. Lack of anti-predatory cover in tree surroundings may have deterred mice from transporting seeds outside canopies. Increased risk interacted with previous experience. In control trees (no predator odor), mice confidence increased throughout the night resulting in decreased vigilance and enhanced acorn mobilization rates. In contrast, in risky conditions (trees with predator odor) mice maintained a base-line vigilant behavior. Contrary to our expectations, increased risk did not result in higher acorn mobilization, but the opposite. Again, the scarcity of safe microhabitats for mobilization may have been the underlying cause of this behavior. Our results show that successful acorn dispersal depends, at least partly, on plant-animal relationships that are beyond the oak-rodent mutualism. Thus, any conservation policy aimed at restoring natural regeneration of oaks should take into account the interaction network in which oak-rodent encounters are embedded. In addition, they suggest that mice incorporate direct and indirect cues of risks (habitat structure) through recent experience. A better understanding of this process

  6. Incorporating cache management behavior into seed dispersal: the effect of pericarp removal on acorn germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng Yi

    Full Text Available Selecting seeds for long-term storage is a key factor for food hoarding animals. Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus remove the pericarp and scatter hoard sound acorns of Quercus mongolica over those that are insect-infested to maximize returns from caches. We have no knowledge of whether these chipmunks remove the pericarp from acorns of other species of oaks and if this behavior benefits seedling establishment. In this study, we tested whether Siberian chipmunks engage in this behavior with acorns of three other Chinese oak species, Q. variabilis, Q. aliena and Q. serrata var. brevipetiolata, and how the dispersal and germination of these acorns are affected. Our results show that when chipmunks were provided with sound and infested acorns of Quercus variabilis, Q. aliena and Q. serrata var. brevipetiolata, the two types were equally harvested and dispersed. This preference suggests that Siberian chipmunks are incapable of distinguishing between sound and insect-infested acorns. However, Siberian chipmunks removed the pericarp from acorns of these three oak species prior to dispersing and caching them. Consequently, significantly more sound acorns were scatter hoarded and more infested acorns were immediately consumed. Additionally, indoor germination experiments showed that pericarp removal by chipmunks promoted acorn germination while artificial removal showed no significant effect. Our results show that pericarp removal allows Siberian chipmunks to effectively discriminate against insect-infested acorns and may represent an adaptive behavior for cache management. Because of the germination patterns of pericarp-removed acorns, we argue that the foraging behavior of Siberian chipmunks could have potential impacts on the dispersal and germination of acorns from various oak species.

  7. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Desiccating White Oak and Cherrybark Oak Acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina F. Connor; Sharon Sowa

    2004-01-01

    The recalcitrant behavior of white oak (Quercus alba L.) and cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda Raf.) acorns was examined in terms of effects of moisture content on seed longevity, viability, and biochemistry. Acorns of both species were fully hydrated and then subjected to drying under ambient conditions of temperature and relative...

  8. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1993-01-01

    Survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with...

  9. Acorns and acorn woodpeckers: ups and downs in a long-term relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Johannes M.H. Knops; William J. Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Acorn woodpeckers are one of the most conspicuous and abundant birds in California oak forests due to their unique dependence on acorns, a food resource eaten directly and stored in specialized structures on their territories for later use when acorns are no longer present on trees. Parallel long-term studies of the demography and behavior of this species and of...

  10. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  11. Acorn storage: Can you really fool Mother Nature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina Connor

    2009-01-01

    Moisture levels in acorns before storage are critical. Two years after being dried before storage, water oak (Quercus nigra) acorns had 17% to 25% germination, while cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda) acorns were dead. Acorns stored fully hydrated faired far better after 2 years in storage, with germination ranging from 48% to 53% in water...

  12. Dung beetles eat acorns to increase their ovarian development and thermal tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects.

  13. Acorn storage alternatives tested on Oregon white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Constance A. Harrington; Joseph M. Kraft

    2010-01-01

    We assessed various combinations of storage factors: bag type, temperature, duration, and antifungal pre-storage treatments for white oak acorn storage, using Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Douglas ex Hook. [Fagaceae]) acorns from 7 seed sources. Acorn viability remained high (84%), even after 2 y of refrigerated storage, but the majority of...

  14. Manipulating affective state influences conditioned appetitive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2017-10-06

    Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g. preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide behaviour under negative mood. Two studies tested the effects of the induction of a negative affective state on appetitive Pavlovian learning, in which neutral stimuli were associated with chocolate (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) rewards. In both experiments, participants showed enhanced approach tendencies towards predictors of reward after a negative relative to a positive performance feedback manipulation. This increase was related to a reduction in positive affect in Experiment 1 only. No effects of the manipulation on conditioned reward expectancies, craving, or consumption were observed. Overall, our findings support the idea of counter-regulation, rather than emotional congruency effects. Negative affective states might therefore serve as a vulnerability factor for addiction, through increasing conditioned approach tendencies.

  15. Future Plans for the ACORNE Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Lee F

    2007-01-01

    A summary of the future plans for ACORNE collaboration are presented. Of particular note is the intended development of an acoustic calibrator to be deployed in the deep sea above the Rona hydrophone array. Crucial to this goal is work recently completed on the understanding of hydrophone response and the generation of bipolar acoustic signals; this work is presented in detail

  16. Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Walter D; Walters, Eric L

    2015-10-07

    Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). In general, fecundity variance decreased with increasing sociality, at least when controlling for annual variation in ecological conditions. Nonetheless, decreased fecundity variance was insufficient to compensate for reduced per capita reproductive success of larger, more social groups, which typically suffered lower estimated mean fitness. We did, however, find evidence that sociality in the form of larger group size resulted in increased fitness in years following a small acorn crop due to reduced fecundity variance. Bet-hedging, although not the factor driving sociality in general, may play a role in driving acorn woodpecker group living when acorns are scarce and ecological conditions are poor. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Raw hulled shredded acorns from Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens) in the diet of pigs: effects on digestibility and faeces characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappai, M G; Wolf, P; Rust, P; Pinna, W; Kamphues, J

    2013-05-01

    Faeces quality and composition are both of interest to veterinary practitioners dealing with pigs' health and disturbances in the alimentary tract, especially in free-range situations. In the Mediterranean basin, acorns are used as a starch source for fattening pigs, yet little information is available on how that affects faecal quality and digestibility. Therefore, a combined diet containing ripe hulled shredded acorns vs. a pelleted complete diet for finishers was evaluated for the digestibility and faecal consistency. The trial involved eight crossbred pigs, and a matched-pair approach was used to divide animals into two groups, which were fed with two different diets: acorns group (A): n = 4, 70% ripe hulled shredded acorns + 30% pelleted complete diet combined, as fed; control group (C): n = 4, 100% pelleted complete feed. The pigs were housed individually and fed the experimental diets for 8 days; daily feed intake and faeces amounts were recorded and faeces quality assessed. The digestibility of organic matter (OM) and starch of the two diets, as well as of pure acorns, were calculated and compared. Daily feed consumption was significantly higher in group A, but the mean dry matter intake (DMI) per pig was similar in both groups. Dark, firm and consistent faeces were reported for each pig from group A in comparison with group B, whose faeces were paler and softer. Digestibility of OM and starch were lower in group A than in group B (67.8 ± 3.4 vs. 83.9 ± 1.1 and 82.5 ± 3.4 vs. 92.3 ± 2.1 respectively): total tract digestibility of native starch from pure acorns was calculated at 77%. The peculiar consistency of faeces was related to macroscopic acorn hulls, constantly detected in the faeces of all animals sampled in group A. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Tannin extraction pretreatment and very high gravity fermentation of acorn starch for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Bin; Liu, Ruiliang; Zhang, Xueling; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-10-01

    The bioethanol production from a novel non-grain feedstock, acorn starch, was studied in this work. The inhibition of tannin in strain growth was investigated, and the effect of tannin was negligible when the tannin concentration was lower than 1g/L in medium. Therefore, the extraction of tannin was performed using 40% (v/v) ethanol-water solution as the solvent for three times under the conditions of solid/liquid ratio 1:20, 60°C, 3h, by which more than 80% of tannin in acorn was extracted and the content of tannin in acorn decreased from 7.4% (w/w) to 1.5% (w/w). Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation technology was subsequently carried out to achieve a high ethanol concentration at 86.4g/L. A comprehensive process for bioethanol production from acorn starch was designed and a preliminary economic assessment was then performed revealing that this process appeared technically and economically justified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acorn production and utilization in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Overstreet; Seongmin Choi; Chan-Ryul Park; Dowon Lee; Thomas Gradziel

    2015-01-01

    Oak acorns have historically provided food for humans and animals in cultures across Asia, North Africa, Europe, and North America. The advent of the twentieth-century saw acorns become marginalized as a food crop in the United States and most of the world, but they have remained a constant part of the cuisine of the Korean Peninsula. Consequently, Korea is often cited...

  20. A mono harvest of California black oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Ron W. Goode

    2017-01-01

    In about 1925 or 1926, Margaret Baty, a tribal member of Big Sandy Rancheria, displayed a collection of acorns from California black oak (Quercus kelloggii, wi-yap' in Mono) and an acorn cooking basket. This photograph, taken by George Holt and courtesy of the Flegal Collection of the Jesse Peter Museum at Santa Rosa Junior College,...

  1. Experimental winter warming modifies thermal performance and primes acorn ants for warm weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacLean, Heidi J.; Penick, Clint A.; Dunn, Robert Roberdeau

    2017-01-01

    outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species. Here we use the acorn ant, Temnothorax curvispinosus, to explore how thermal...... performance (temperature-driven plasticity) in running speed is influenced by experimental winter warming of 3–5 °C above ambient in a field setting. We used running speed as a measure of performance as it is a common locomotor trait that influences acquisition of nest sites and food in acorn ants...... temperatures for ants that experienced warmer winters compared with those that experienced cooler winters. Our results provide evidence that overwintering temperatures can substantially influence organismal performance, and suggest that we cannot ignore overwintering effects when forecasting organismal...

  2. Effect of drying temperatures on starch-related functional and thermal properties of acorn flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, P R; Beirão-da-Costa, M L

    2011-03-01

    The application of starchy flours from different origins in food systems depends greatly on information about the chemical and functional properties of such food materials. Acorns are important forestry resources in the central and southern regions of Portugal. To preserve these fruits and to optimize their use, techniques like drying are needed. The effects of different drying temperatures on starch-related functional properties of acorn flours obtained from dried fruits of Quercus rotundifolia (QR) and Quercus suber (QS) were evaluated. Flours were characterized for amylose and resistant starch (RS) contents, swelling ability, and gelatinization properties. Drying temperature mainly affected amylose content and viscoamylographic properties. Amylograms of flours from fruits dried at 60 °C displayed higher consistency (2102 B.U. and 1560 B.U., respectively, for QR and QS). The transition temperatures and enthalpy were less affected by drying temperature, suggesting few modifications in starch structure during drying. QR flours presented different functional properties to those obtained from QS acorn flours. The effect of drying temperatures were more evident in QR.

  3. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-04-01

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment.

  4. Physical conditions affecting pyrethroid toxicity in arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to obtain mechanistic information about how the toxicity of pesticides in the field is affected by physical factors, pesticide bioavailability and arthropod behaviour. The pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin and linyphiid spiders were selected as pesticide-effect

  5. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  6. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  7. Broiler-Housing Conditions Affect the Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last decades animal production has considerably increased worldwide to sustain an ever-growing human population. Among animal reared for consumption purposes, chickens are undoubtedly one of the most successful, mainly due to their rapid growth rate. The development of broiler farming has been accompanied in recent years by a substantial attention to animal welfare. This study is aimed at assessing the effects of different housing conditions on both feed conversion ratio and mortality of male broiler flocks through a large-scale study (more than 100 million birds involving 977 farms belonging to one major producer. For this, we evaluated nine features of the housing system using a linear model with random effect. The features were: roofing, floor, drinkers, feeders, water source, color curtain color, management, light and ventilation. A total of 3516 poultry flocks were assessed. Positive ventilation, metal and clay roof, dirt floor and owner management were shown to reduced mortality. Concrete floor, negative ventilation, blue curtains, fluorescent lightening, owner management, tap water and well water significantly improved FCR. We discuss our findings in relation with economic constraints and provide advices to encourage farmers using simple devices that will improve both production and chicken survival.

  8. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  9. Fate of the 2001 acorn crop at Clear Creek State Forest, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick. Brose

    2011-01-01

    One of the key steps in the oak regeneration process is the successful germination of acorns into new seedlings. Several factors can greatly reduce or entirely destroy a red oak acorn crop between seed fall in the autumn and germination the following spring. In 2001, a bumper acorn crop occurred on Clear Creek State Forest in Jefferson County, PA. This event coincided...

  10. Variable Acorn Crops: Responses of White-Tailed Deer and Other Mast Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. McShea; Georg Schwede

    1993-01-01

    We examined movements and behavior of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to the acorn mast-fall from 1986 through 1989 in a mature deciduous forest in Front Royal, Virginia. Ten white-tailed deer with radiotransmitters increased their home range to incorporate acorn-producing areas during mast-fall. Consumption of acorns by...

  11. Production of activated carbon from acorns and olive seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafi, W.K. [Amman College for Engineering Technology, Marka (Jordan)

    2001-07-01

    This study has been designed to produce activated carbon from acorns and olive seeds. The starting materials are low in cost and they are the cause of solid waste pollution problems in Jordan. A chemical procedure is used to produce the required activated carbon. The results indicate that activated carbon produced from acorns compares favourably with that from olive seeds which rank second, along side commercial type activated carbon which comes last with respect to adsorption capacity. However, the optimum activated temperature is 800 {sup o}C and the optimum regeneration temperature is also 800 {sup o}C. (Author)

  12. Spatiotemporal variation in acorn production and damage in a Spanish holm oak (Quercus ilex dehesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perez Izquierdo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. There is a lack of knowledge about spatio-temporal patterns of acorn production in dehesas, especially regarding the influence of different agents causing acorn damage. We examined the spatial and temporal variability on acorn production and damage in four stands within a dehesa farm in 1997, 1998 and 1999.Area of study. The study was carried out in a 1800 ha dehesa farm of Cáceres province, western Spain.Material and Methods. Acorns were sampled by means of seed traps placed in the canopy of six holm oak trees per stand. Acorn collected in it were counted and assessed for damage by Curculio weevils, Cydia moths and the bacterial pathogen Brenneria quercina.Main results. Mean acorn production for the whole study period was 44.60 acorns m-2, which did not vary significantly either among stands or among years. The variability among individual trees was very high (0-300 acorns m-2. The rate of infestation by Curculio was 7.64 ± 10.72 %, by Cydia was 1.76 ± 3.33 %, whereas 10.29 ± 16.12 % of acorns were infested by Brenneria. We found no significant spatial differences, but the rates of acorn loss by insects varied among years. These rates were independent of annual acorn production and there was no correlation among damages by different pests, except between Curculio and Cydia in two crop years.Research highlights. It can be concluded that acorn crops are synchronized at the within-farm level and that the temporal variation in acorn damages can be independent of crop size.Keywords: Acorn production; Brenneria; Curculio; Cydia; dehesa; Quercus ilex; spatio-temporal variation.

  13. Short communicationi: Shelled acorn seed ( Quercus cerris ) as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of shelled acorn seed (Quercus cerris) on the growth performance and carcass yield of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Four hundred four-day old quail chicks were used in this study. Experimental diets contained 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20% shelled ...

  14. Spatiotemporal variation in acorn production and damage in a Spanish holm oak (Quercus ilex) dehesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Izquierdo, L.; Pulido, F.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. There is a lack of knowledge about spatio-temporal patterns of acorn production in dehesas, especially regarding the influence of different agents causing acorn damage. We examined the spatial and temporal variability on acorn production and damage in four stands within a dehesa farm in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Area of study. The study was carried out in a 1800 ha dehesa farm of Caceres province, western Spain. Material and Methods. Acorns were sampled by means of seed traps placed in the canopy of six holm oak trees per stand. Acorn collected in it were counted and assessed for damage by Curculio weevils, Cydia moths and the bacterial pathogen Brenneria quercina. Main results. Mean acorn production for the whole study period was 44.60 acorns m-2, which did not vary significantly either among stands or among years. The variability among individual trees was very high (0-300 acorns m{sup -}2). The rate of infestation by Curculio was 7.64 {+-} 10.72 %, by Cydia was 1.76 {+-}3.33 %, whereas 10.29 {+-} 16.12 % of acorns were infested by Brenneria. We found no significant spatial differences, but the rates of acorn loss by insects varied among years. These rates were independent of annual acorn production and there was no correlation among damages by different pests, except between Curculio and Cydia in two crop years. Research highlights. It can be concluded that acorn crops are synchronized at the within-farm level and that the temporal variation in acorn damages can be independent of crop size. (Author) 49 refs.

  15. Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Verbal Conditioning of Affective Self-Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Hamid

    1971-01-01

    Subjects were assigned to four experimental groups: neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts, and a control group. Results indicated that introversion, and not neuroticism, facilitated conditioning processes. Neuroticism, however, did not interact on the conditioning of affective self disclosures. Introverted…

  16. A laboratory assessment of various treatment conditions affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory assessment of various treatment conditions affecting the ammoniation of wheat straw ... levels of 250 and 375 g/kg wheat straw and treatment periods of 0;. 1; 2; 4; 6 and 8 weeks. Dependent variables .... Individual samples were sealed airtightly in 2 000 ml plastic containers. Subsequently the urea included in ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png Glandiceps_hack...si_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NS ...

  18. Effect of acorn moisture content at sowing on germination and seedling growth of white oak and northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Catharine D. Cook; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Taryn L. Kormanik

    2006-01-01

    White oak (Quercus alba L.) and northern red oak (Q. rubra L.) acorns were collected locally or from seed orchards in October 2002. Mean acorn moisture content (MC) was 48 percent for white oak and 39 percent for northern red oak. These acorns were air dried to different MCs before being sown into nursery beds in early December...

  19. MDCT of acute conditions affecting the mesenteric vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.T.; Shah, A.; Furlan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute conditions affecting the mesenteric vessels can cause abdominal pain and result in significant morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed and treated quickly. As bowel viability depends on patency of the mesenteric vessels, prompt diagnosis is essential. Helical multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) provides a rapid, widely available, non-invasive method to promptly evaluate the mesenteric arteries, veins, and abdominopelvic viscera. Given the value of MDCT in diagnosing vascular disease, it is important the radiologist understand technical and imaging findings of mesenteric vascular injury. Therefore, successful diagnosis hinges on familiarity with MDCT angiography and the extended capabilities of volume rendering and multiplanar reformation. In this review, we illustrate and describe key MDCT findings of congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, infectious, and thromboembolic conditions affecting the mesenteric vasculature in adult patients

  20. The imaging of conditions affecting the cavernous sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y., E-mail: yenzhitang@doctors.net.u [Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street London NW32QG (United Kingdom); Booth, T.; Steward, M.; Solbach, T.; Wilhelm, T. [Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street London NW32QG (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    The cavernous sinus can be affected by a wide range of conditions including tumours, infection, inflammation, and trauma. Disease in the cavernous sinus can produce characteristic signs and symptoms, which relate to the numerous crucial structures traversing and surrounding the cavernous sinus. Imaging, with the use of different techniques, plays a crucial role in diagnosis and management. The anatomy and imaging of the different disease entities in the cavernous sinus will be reviewed.

  1. Oak mast production and animal impacts on acorn survival in the central hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth F. Kellner; Jeffery K. Riegel; Nathanael I. Lichti; Robert K. Swihart

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment we measured mast production in white (Quercus alba) and black (Q. velutina) oak, and quantified the impacts of seed predators on acorn survival over a 3-year period. Specifically, we measured the proportion of acorns of each species infested with weevils (Curculio spp...

  2. White oak epicotyl emergence and 1-0 seedling growth from surgically altered germinating acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2010-01-01

    Open-pollinated white oak (Quercus alba L.) acorns were collected and stored at 4 °C in November 2004. Three days before sowing in early December, we treated germinating acorns in five ways: no surgery (C); one half of the radical cut off (HR); whole radicle cut off (WR); one cotyledonary petiole severed (OP); and both cotyledonary petioles severed,...

  3. Planting depth effects and water potential effects on oak seedling emergence and acorn germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Smiles; Jeffrey O. Dawson

    1995-01-01

    The effects of four planting depths (0, 3, 7, 11 cm) and acorn size on the percentage seedling emergence of red, pin, and black oak were determined. In a complimentary study, the effects of five water potential treatments (0, -.2, -.4, -.6, -1.0 MPa) on the percentage germination of red, pin, and black oak acorns were measured.

  4. A Comparison of Trap Versus Ground Collection of Acorns to Assess Insect Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Alex. Mangini

    1997-01-01

    Oak (Quercus spp.) species are a significant portion of the forest in the Eastern United States. Oaks provide valuable timber products and habitat for many wildlife species. Acorns are essential for oak regeneration and are a major food source for more than 186 species of birds and mammals. Great variation in annual acorn production causes dramatic fluctuations in seed...

  5. Influence of weather on pollination and acorn production in two species of Missouri oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Cecich

    1997-01-01

    The process by which oak pistillate flowers become acorns is reasonably understood from an anatomical perspective; however, the way that various factors influence this process is still unclear. This study examined acorn production in a small population of white oak and black oak trees in central Missouri, from 1990 to 1995, in relation to weather variables (maximum and...

  6. True metabolizable energy for wood ducks from acorns compared to other waterfowl foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, R.M.; Davis, J.B.; Essig, H.W.; Gerard, P.D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Acorns of bottomland red oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important food of North American wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Barras et al. (1996) demonstrated that female wood ducks selected willow oak ( Q. phetlos) acorns over other species. We measured true metabolizable energy (TME) derived by captive, wild-strain, adult female wood ducks from acorns of willow oak, water oak (Q. nigra), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), and pin oak (Q. patustris) to determine whether female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns was related to TME. Estimates of TME within acorn species were relatively precise, yet we did not detect variation in TME among acorn species (P= 0.31 ); hence, we estimated TME across species (2.76 + 0.033 [SE] kcal/g dry mass; n = 34). We concluded that TME apparently did not explain female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns and hypothesized that morphological characteristics of willow oak acorns may be proximate cues related to selection by wood ducks. We also summarized known TME estimates for acorns fed to wood ducks and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and natural and agricultural foods fed to mallards, northern pintails (A. acura), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). We found that acorns and moist-soil plant seeds and tubers provided, on average, about 76% of the TME in agricultural seeds. Thus, bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats have potential to provide significant amounts of dietary energy, as well as greater diversity of foods and nutrients than croplands. Researchers should continue to determine TME of common foods (plant and animal) of waterfowl, and use TME in estimating waterfowl habitat carrying capacity (e.g., Reinecke et al. 1989). Additionally, large-scale, reliable estimates of plant and animal food availability in bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats are needed to evaluate carrying capacity of landscapes important to waterfowl, such as the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV).

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png Ptycho...dera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+fla...va&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  8. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  9. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia. Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp, seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis, and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone. Obtained results revealed certain divergence between genotypes. The thickness of pericarp varied from 418 to 559 mm (genotypes 20 and 22, respectively. On average, the participation of exocarp in the total thickness of pericarp was 36.3%, of mesocarp 61.0%, while of endocarp 2.6%. The thickness of seed coat for individual genotypes ranged from 71 mm (genotype 28 to 157 mm (genotype 38. In addition, anatomic parameters of embryo axis varied among studied genotypes. The lowest cortical zone thickness and stellar zone diameter were measured in genotype 40, while the highest values in genotype 33.

  10. Genotypic variability of morphological characteristics of English oak (Quercus robur L acorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the acorn morphology (length, diameter and mass analyzed in seventeen English oak genotypes (Quercus robur Lfrom the English Oak Clonal Seed Orchard Banov Brod (Srem,Vojvodina. The highest values of acorn mass and length were measured in genotype 5. The largest diameters were measured in genotypes 6 and 21. Genotype 35 had the lowest acorn mass, length and diameter. The results from this study should serve as guidelines for the selection of trees yielding fruits possessing the desirable morphological characteristics.

  11. Physicochemical conditions in affecting the distribution of spring phytoplankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuqiu; Liu, Haijiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Xue, Bing; Munir, Sonia; Sun, Jun

    2017-11-01

    To better understand the physicochemical conditions in affecting regional distribution of phytoplankton community, one research cruise was carried out in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea during 3rd and 23th May, 2010. The phytoplankton community, including Bacillariophyta (105 taxa), Pyrrophyta (54 taxa), Chrysophyta (1 taxon) and Chlorophyta (2 taxa), had been identified and clearly described from six ecological provinces. And, the six ecological provinces were partitioned based on the top twenty dominant species related with notable physicochemical parameters. In general, the regional distributions of phytoplankton ecological provinces were predominantly influenced by the physicochemical properties induced by the variable water masses and circulations. The predominant diatoms in most of water samples showed well adaptability in turbulent and eutrophic conditions. However, several species of dinoflagellates e.g., Protoperidinium conicum, Protoperidinium triestinum, Protoperidinium sp. and Gymnodinium lohmanni preferred warmer, saltier and nutrient-poor environment. Moreover, the dinoflagellates with high frequency in the Yellow Sea might be transported from the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The horizontal distribution of phytoplankton was depicted by diatoms and controlled by phosphate concentration, while the vertical distribution was mainly supported by light and nutrients availability in the subsurface and bottom layers, respectively.

  12. Influence of Scarification on the Germination Capacity of Acorns Harvested from Uneven-Aged Stands of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kaliniewicz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scarification involves the partial removal of the seed coat on the side of the hilum, opposite the radicle, to speed up germination in acorns. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of scarification on the germination capacity of pedunculate oak acorns, selected and prepared for sowing. The diameter, length and mass of acorns were measured before and after scarification in four batches of acorns harvested from uneven-aged trees (76, 91, 131 and 161 years. The measured parameters were used to determine the correlations between acorn dimensions and mass, and to calculate the dimensional scarification index and the mass scarification index in acorns. Individual complete and scarified acorns from every batch were germinated on sand and peat substrate for 28 days. The analyzed acorns were characterized by average size and mass. Scarification decreased acorn mass by around 22% and acorn length by around 31% on average. Scarification and the elimination of infected acorns increased germination capacity from around 64% to around 81% on average. Acorns can be divided into size groups before scarification to obtain seed material with varied germination capacity. Larger acorns with higher germination capacity can be used for sowing in container nurseries, whereas smaller acorns with lower germination capacity can be sown in open-field nurseries.

  13. aCORN Beta Spectrometer and Electrostatic Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Md; aCORN Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    aCORN uses a high efficiency backscatter suppressed beta spectrometer to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation in neutron beta decay. We measure the correlation by counting protons and beta electrons in coincidence with precisely determined electron energy. There are 19 photomultiplier tubes arranged in a hexagonal array coupled to a single phosphor doped polystyrene scintillator. The magnetic field is shaped so that electrons that backscatter without depositing their full energy strike a tulip-shaped array of scintillator paddles and these events are vetoed. The detailed construction, performance and calibration of this beta spectrometer will be presented. I will also present the simulation, construction, and features of our novel electrostatic mirror. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation and the NIST Center for Neutron Research.

  14. Biocrust spectral response as affected by changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Guirado, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Reyes, Andres; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Drylands are characterized by scarce vegetation coverage and low rates of biological activity, both constrained by water scarcity. Under these conditions, biocrusts form key players of ecosystem functioning. They comprise complex poikilohydric communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea and fungi, which cover the uppermost soil layer. Biocrusts can cope with prolonged phases of drought, being rapidly re-activated when water becomes available again. Upon reactivation, biocrusts almost immediately turn green, fixing atmospheric carbon and nitrogen and increasing ecosystem productivity. However, due to their inconspicuous growth they have only rarely been analysed and spatially and temporally continuous information on their response to water pulses is missing. These data are particularly important under changing climatic conditions predicting an increase in aridity and variations in precipitation patterns within most of the dryland regions. In the present study, we used multi-temporal series of NDVI obtained from LANDSAT images to analyze biocrust and vegetation response to water pulses within the South African Succulent Karoo and we predicted their future response under different climate change scenarios. The results showed that biocrust and vegetation greenness are controlled by aridity, solar radiation and soil water content, showing similar annual patterns, with minimum values during dry periods that increased within the rainy season and decreased again after the onset of drought. However, biocrusts responded faster to water availability and turned green almost immediately after small rains, producing a small NDVI peak only few days after rainfall, whereas more time was needed for vegetation to grow new green tissue. However, once the photosynthetic tissue of vegetation was restored, it caused the highest increase of NDVI values after the rain. Predicted changes in precipitation patterns and aridity

  15. Investigation of Acorn fruit Ash Efficiency in Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions: Adsorption Isotherm and Kinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Zarei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals are known as significant pollutants because of toxicity and nonbiodegradable characteristics. Cadmium is one of the heavy metals that have carcinogen potential. So, this study carried out in order to investigate the acorn fruit ash efficiency in cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. Methods: This study was done in the batch laboratory conditions. In this study, the effect of different parameters including pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial cadmium concentration were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used for analysis of the equilibrium isotherm. Adsorption kinetics of cadmium by different models were also investigated. The measurement of residual cadmium in the samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 228.8 nm. The SPSS-16 software was used for analysis of data. Results: According to the results, the maximum adsorption capacity of cadmium was 9.29 mg/g at pH=7 and 8 g/L adsorbent dose. The removal efficiency was increased with increasing contact time and decreased with increasing of cadmium initial concentration. Investigation of achieving data showed that the adsorption process followed better by Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetic. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it could be concluded that the acorn fruit ash had high ability in cadmium adsorption and could be used as a cheap adsorbent in the removal of cadmium.

  16. Perioperative conditions affect long-term hypertrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, W.M.; Ferreira, J.A.; de Jong, E.H.; Molema, G.; Niessen, F.B.

    2010-01-01

    Corticosteroids are widely used as treatment for excessive scarring by intralesional injection with variable success rates. It is conceivable that systemically administered corticosteroids affect a wider range of inflammatory processes that influence wound healing and may be more successful in

  17. Perioperative Conditions Affect Long-term Hypertrophic Scar Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Willem M.; Ferreira, Jose A.; de Jong, Etty H.; Molema, Grietje; Niessen, Frank B.

    Corticosteroids are widely used as treatment for excessive scarring by intralesional injection with variable success rates. It is conceivable that systemically administered corticosteroids affect a wider range of inflammatory processes that influence wound healing and may be more successful in

  18. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... States abuse alcohol, putting their health, safety, and general well-being at risk. While men are more ...

  19. Factors affecting working conditions in public hospitals: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodwa M. Manyisa

    2017-01-01

    Findings: Workload, HIV/AIDS epidemic, shift work, long working hours, poor infrastructure, inadequate resources and shortage of staff were found to be the main factors attributed to poor working conditions.

  20. A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist

    OpenAIRE

    R Waxman; K Khorasani; A Lenny; S Bhalerao

    2009-01-01

    It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A) work days vs. off days, B) a 27 hour...

  1. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, Justin; Masum, Hassan; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation.Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn's innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009.Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies.Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. A key to Acorn's achievements was identifying entrepreneurs with technologies with health and

  2. Acorn selection by the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus: a semi-controlled experiment in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Nóbrega, Filomena; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Teixeira, Generosa; Rebelo, Rui

    2013-09-01

    Fruits are highly important food resources for mammals in Mediterranean Europe, and due to the dominance of oaks (Quercus sp.), acorns are among those used by a vast array of species, including rodents. The metabolic yield of acorn intake may determine a selection pattern: preference for fat, carbohydrate, and consequently energy-rich fruits; or avoidance of fruits containing high concentrations of secondary chemical compounds (e.g., tannic acid). We studied the acorn feeding selection pattern of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting a mixed oak woodland, southwest Portugal, using an experiment conducted in an open-air enclosure. We tested which variables associated with the wood mouse (e.g., sex) and acorns (e.g., size and nutrient content) from three oak species (holm Q. rotundifolia, Portuguese Q. faginea and cork Q. suber oak) could be constraining acorn consumption. Our results indicate that wood mice are selecting acorns of the most common oak species (Q. suber), probably due to their previous familiarization with the fruit due to its dominance in the ecosystem but probably also because its chemical characteristics (sugar contents). Rodent gender and acorn morphology (width) are also influential, with females more prone to consume acorns with smaller width, probably due to handling limitation. This selective behaviour may have consequences for dispersion and natural regeneration of the different oak species.

  3. The Insect Guild of White Oak Acorns: Its Effect on Mast Quality in the Ozark and Ouachita National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Mangini; Roger W. Perry

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Hardwood regeneration, especially of oaks, is an essential component of ecosystem management in the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. In addition, oak mast is an important wildlife food. Several species of insects inhabit and consume acorns. Data on the insect guild inhabiting white oak (Quercus alba L.) acorns...

  4. Effects of flood duration and season on germination of black, cherrybark, northern red, and water oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanfei Guo; Michael G. Shelton; Brian R. Lockhart

    1998-01-01

    Effects of flood duration (0, 10, 20, and 30 days) and season (winter and spring) on acorn germination were tested for two upland oaks [black and northern red oak (Quercus velutina Lam. and Q. rubra L.)] and two bottomland oaks [cherrybark and water oak (Q. pagoda Raf. and Q. nigra L.)]. Acorns...

  5. Economic Conditions affect Support for Prime Minister Parties in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has not been able to identify a relationship between objective economic indicators and support for governing parties in the Scandinavian countries. This is potentially problematic, as it suggests that political leaders are not held electorally accountable for the economic...... between unemployment, economic growth and support for prime minister parties is re-examined in two datasets. The first is a dataset of Scandinavian elections, and the second is a yearly Danish vote function, which was constructed using election polls. Across both datasets, it is found that if one simply...... correlates support for the prime minister's party with economic conditions, there is no relationship; however, if one specifies a statistical model, which takes the Scandinavian context into account, it is possible to identify a statistically significant effect of economic conditions on electoral support...

  6. Removal of acorns of the alien oak Quercus rubra on the ground by scatter-hoarding animals in Belgian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merceron, NR.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Quercus rubra L. is considered an invasive species in several European countries. However, little is known about its dispersal in the introduced range. Objectives. We investigated the significance of animal dispersal of Q. rubra acorns on the ground by vertebrates in its introduced range, and identified the animal species involved. Method. During two consecutive autumns, the removal of acorns from Q. rubra and from a native oak was assessed weekly in forest sites in Belgium. We used automated detection camera traps to identify the animals that removed acorns. Results. Quercus rubra acorns were removed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L., red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L., rats (Rattus sp., and wild boars (Sus scrofa L.. The two former are scatter-hoarding rodents and can be considered potential dispersers. Conclusions. Dispersal of Q. rubra acorns in Western Europe by scatter-hoarding animals may help the species increasingly colonize forest ecosystems.

  7. Food conditions affect yolk testosterone deposition but not incubation attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Goerlich, Vivian C; Groothuis, Ton G G; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2012-03-01

    In many bird species with hatching asynchrony, yolk androgens increase across the laying sequence. This has been hypothesized to represent a compensatory mechanism for disadvantages of later-hatching chicks - via positive effects of yolk androgens on early competitiveness and growth. However, the costs and benefits of this compensatory strategy probably depend on environmental factors determining the survival chances of the chicks such as the food conditions, which should, therefore, influence maternal yolk androgen deposition. We studied the consequences of manipulated food conditions on the expected level of hatching asynchrony in canaries (Serinus canaria) assigning females to either a low (=LQ) or high quality (=HQ) diet. We measured the incubation behaviour (as incubation attendance) and the yolk androgen deposition in order to investigate whether and how females modulate hatching asynchrony in relation to the food conditions. Females on a HQ diet laid larger and heavier clutches, showed a stronger increase in yolk testosterone content towards the last-laid eggs, but did not alter their incubation attendance. Thus, females on a HQ diet seem to favour the survival of later hatching chicks, as indicated by their yolk testosterone deposition pattern. However, females on a HQ diet laid larger clutches and might need to compensate more in order to achieve a similar degree of hatching asynchrony than females on a LQ diet, given the lack of plasticity in incubation attendance. This suggests that canary females respond to food manipulations mainly via changes in clutch size rather than by altering the degree of hatching asynchrony. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiu; Wang, Chunjie; Jiang, Haibo; He, Hongjian; Chen, Feiyan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM) resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items) during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  9. A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Waxman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A work days vs. off days, B a 27 hour work week vs. 22 hour work week, and C in 5 different modalities including 1 Meeting with department head 2 Individual psychotherapy with patients 3 Group therapy with patients 4 Supervision of residents 5 Personal psychoanalysis. The results showed more than a 3-fold increase of arrhythmogenic activity during the 27-hour work week vs. 22 and a 5-fold increase in arrhythmogenic activity on work days compared to days off. Department Head meetings were found to be most arrhythmogenic and personal psychoanalysis was least. The data suggest that the psychiatrist’s lack of emotional expression in his clinical work has been demonstrated to markedly worsen his arrhythmia. The results also point to the potential ameliorating effects of the therapist’s own psychotherapy.

  10. Germination conditions affect physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-01-01

    Germinated brown rice has been reported to be nutritious due to increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The physicochemical properties of brown rice (BR) and glutinous brown rice (GNBR) after germination as affected by different steeping times (24, 36, 48, and 72 h depending on the rice variety) and pHs of steeping water (3, 5, 7, and as-is) were determined and compared to those of the nongerminated one (control). As the steeping time increased or pH of steeping water decreased, germinated brown rice flours (GBRF) from both BR and GNBR had greater reducing sugar, free GABA and alpha-amylase activity; while the total starch and viscosity were lower than their respective controls. GBRFs from both BR and GNBR prepared after 24-h steeping time at pH 3 contained a high content of free GABA at 32.70 and 30.69 mg/100 g flour, respectively. The peak viscosity of GBRF obtained from both BR and GNBR (7.42 to 228.22 and 4.42 to 58.67 RVU, respectively) was significantly lower than that of their controls (255.46 and 190.17 RVU, respectively). The principal component analysis indicated that the important variables for discriminating among GBRFs, explained by the first 2 components at 89.82% of total explained variance, were the pasting profiles, alpha-amylase activity, and free GABA.

  11. Fear memory formation can affect a different memory: fear conditioning affects the extinction, but not retrieval, of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory

    OpenAIRE

    Joels, Gil; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The formation of fear memory to a specific stimulus leads to subsequent fearful response to that stimulus. However, it is not apparent whether the formation of fear memory can affect other memories. We study whether specific fearful experience leading to fear memory affects different memories formation and extinction. We revealed that cued fear conditioning, but not unpaired or naïve training, inhibited the extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory that was formed after fear condi...

  12. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  13. Culture Conditions Affect Expression of DUX4 in FSHD Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachchida Nand Pandey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is believed to be caused by aberrant expression of double homeobox 4 (DUX4 due to epigenetic changes of the D4Z4 region at chromosome 4q35. Detecting DUX4 is challenging due to its stochastic expression pattern and low transcription level. In this study, we examined different cDNA synthesis strategies and the sensitivity for DUX4 detection. In addition, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone and knockout serum replacement (KOSR on DUX4 expression in culture. Our data showed that DUX4 was consistently detected in cDNA samples synthesized using Superscript III. The sensitivity of DUX4 detection was higher in the samples synthesized using oligo(dT primers compared to random hexamers. Adding dexamethasone to the culture media significantly suppressed DUX4 expression in immortalized (1.3 fold, p < 0.01 and primary (4.7 fold, p < 0.01 FSHD myoblasts, respectively. Culture medium with KOSR increased DUX4 expression and the response is concentration dependent. The findings suggest that detection strategies and culture conditions should be carefully considered when studying DUX4 in cultured cells.

  14. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  15. Influence of weather at time of pollenation on acorn production of Quercus alba and Quercus velutina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Cecich; Neal H. Sullivan

    1999-01-01

    Pistillate flower development and acorn production were observed in small populations of white oak (Quercus alba L.) and black oak (Quercus velurina Lam.) in central Missouri from 1990 to 1997. There were significant year-year differences in the size of flower crops for both species and significant tree-tree differences in black...

  16. Reasoning about Natural Selection: Diagnosing Contextual Competency Using the ACORNS Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Opfer, John E.; Ha, Minsu

    2012-01-01

    Studies of students' thinking about natural selection have revealed that the scenarios in which students reason evoke different types, magnitudes, and arrangements of knowledge elements and misconceptions. Diagnostic tests are needed that probe students' thinking across a representative array of evolutionary contexts. The ACORNS is a diagnostic…

  17. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire. It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was

  18. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was identifying entrepreneurs

  19. Acorn: A grid computing system for constraint based modeling and visualization of the genome scale metabolic reaction networks via a web interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushell Michael E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constraint-based approaches facilitate the prediction of cellular metabolic capabilities, based, in turn on predictions of the repertoire of enzymes encoded in the genome. Recently, genome annotations have been used to reconstruct genome scale metabolic reaction networks for numerous species, including Homo sapiens, which allow simulations that provide valuable insights into topics, including predictions of gene essentiality of pathogens, interpretation of genetic polymorphism in metabolic disease syndromes and suggestions for novel approaches to microbial metabolic engineering. These constraint-based simulations are being integrated with the functional genomics portals, an activity that requires efficient implementation of the constraint-based simulations in the web-based environment. Results Here, we present Acorn, an open source (GNU GPL grid computing system for constraint-based simulations of genome scale metabolic reaction networks within an interactive web environment. The grid-based architecture allows efficient execution of computationally intensive, iterative protocols such as Flux Variability Analysis, which can be readily scaled up as the numbers of models (and users increase. The web interface uses AJAX, which facilitates efficient model browsing and other search functions, and intuitive implementation of appropriate simulation conditions. Research groups can install Acorn locally and create user accounts. Users can also import models in the familiar SBML format and link reaction formulas to major functional genomics portals of choice. Selected models and simulation results can be shared between different users and made publically available. Users can construct pathway map layouts and import them into the server using a desktop editor integrated within the system. Pathway maps are then used to visualise numerical results within the web environment. To illustrate these features we have deployed Acorn and created a

  20. Effect of acorn meal-water combinations on technological properties and fine structure of gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skendi, Adriana; Mouselemidou, Panagiota; Papageorgiou, Maria; Papastergiadis, Efthimios

    2018-07-01

    Gluten-free breads were developed from rice flour and corn starch at a constant ratio 1:1 with acorn meal addition (5, 15, 25%), at three levels of water (65, 70, 75%). Acorn supplemented gluten free breads better met sensory preference than rice breads in terms of colour (brown hue was enhanced) and were also nutritionally improved in terms of total phenolics. The specific volume of breads significantly decreased with increasing acorn addition while crumb hardness was also increased. SEM images confirmed that the decrease in the ΔH values at low water level (65%) was due to less swelling of starch as observed from large starch granule remnants present after baking. XRD measurements revealed coexistence of "B" and "V" type starch structures. Increasing of acorn concentration enhanced the intensity of FTIR bands at 994, 1016 and 1077 cm -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Conceptualising the Impact of Arousal and Affective State on Training Outcomes of Operant Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. McGreevy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

  2. Affective learning in adults with intellectual disability: an experiment using evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, I; Treillet, V; Davies, S R

    2016-03-01

    Evaluative conditioning is a form of affective learning in which initially neutral stimuli acquire an affective value through association with negative or positive stimuli. Recent research shows an important role for cognitive resources in this type of learning. This form of affective learning has rarely been studied in intellectual disability (ID). We examined evaluative conditioning in 16 adults with mild to moderate ID compared to age- and gender-matched control participants. Neutral shapes and symbols were repeatedly paired with positive, neutral or negative unconditioned stimuli (faces or International Affective Picture System images). There was also an extinction phase. There was significant acquisition of conditioning in both groups. Stimuli paired with positive images were evaluated more positively, and stimuli paired with negative images were evaluated more negatively. Post-extinction ratings however show that these novel affective associations were not maintained by individuals with ID as much as by individuals in the control group. We conclude that ID modulates some aspects of affective learning but not necessarily initial preference acquisition. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Insect-oak interactions with coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and Engelmann oak (Q. engelmannii) at the acorn and seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell E. Dunning; Timothy D. Paine; Richard A. Redak

    2002-01-01

    We determined the impact of insects on both acorns and seedlings of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Nee) and Engelmann oak (Quercus engelmannii E. Greene). Our goals were to (1) identify insects feeding on acorns and levels of insect damage, and (2) measure performance and preference of a generalist leaf-feeding insect herbivore...

  4. The effect of acorn insects on the establishment and vigor of northern red oak seedlings in north-central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Gribko

    1995-01-01

    During a 2-year investigation into the effect of small mammals on northern red oak (Quercus rubra) acorn survival and germination, widespread germination failure and lack of seedling vigor was apparent in control quadrats on one of two watersheds under study. Insects were present in and on the failed acorns but it was unknown whether they were...

  5. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of nutritional guidance within chiropractic patient management: a survey of 333 chiropractors from the ACORN practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Kyung; Amorin-Woods, Lyndon; Cascioli, Vincenzo; Adams, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Food consumption and nutritional status affect an individual's health throughout their life-course and an unhealthy diet is a major risk factor for the current global burden of chronic disease. The promotion of health and good nutrition through healthy eating requires the active involvement of all health professionals including chiropractors. This paper reports findings from the first nationally representative examination of the use of nutritional guidance within chiropractic patient management in Australia. A sample of 1000 practising chiropractors was randomly selected from the Australian Chiropractic Research Network (ACORN) practice-based research network database for a cross-sectional study and 33% participated in the online survey in November 2016. The questionnaire, based on previous designs used in similar surveys and nutrition resources developed by the National Health and Medical Research Council, was pretested prior to the survey. Pearson's Chi square and bivariate logistic regression were undertaken to explore relationships with variables of interest. The demographic details of the respondents are similar to those of the chiropractic workforce registered in Australia. Most chiropractors provided nutritional advice as part of their patient care and around a quarter provided specific dietary advice to their patients, including the use of nutrition supplements. Nutrition-related conditions most commonly encountered by the chiropractors were musculoskeletal, usually inflammatory in origin. Common nutritional assessment methods used included questioning patients to assess their nutritional and health status and physical appearance. Most of the participants provided nutritional resources to their patients in their clinics. However, the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the accompanying Australian Guide to Healthy Eating were not well utilised by the respondents. Australian chiropractors often referred patients with nutrition issues to qualified dietitians and

  7. Chronic Medical Conditions and Negative Affect; Racial Variation in Reciprocal Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black-White health paradox can be defined as a lower frequency of depression despite a higher prevalence of economic and social adversities as well as chronic medical conditions (CMC among American Blacks compared to American Whites. Based on this paradox, the CMC - depressive symptoms link is expected to be weaker among Blacks and Whites. We conducted a 10 year longitudinal study to compare Blacks and Whites for bidirectional associations between number of CMC and negative affect.Methods: We used data from the MIDUS (Midlife in the United States, a nationally representative longitudinal study of American adults. A total number of 7,108 individuals with age range 25 to 75 (N = 7,108 were followed for 10 years from 1995 to 2004. Age, gender, and socioeconomic status (education and income measured at baseline were controls. Negative affect and chronic medical conditions were measured at baseline and end of follow up. Race was the moderator. Linear regression analysis was used to test the moderating effect of race on the reciprocal associations between CMC and negative affect, net of covariates.Results: In the pooled sample, while baseline CMC was predictive of an increase in negative affect over time, baseline negative affect was also predictive of an increase in CMC. We found interactions between race and baseline CMC on change in depressive symptoms, as well as race with negative affect on CMC change. Conclusion: Blacks and Whites differ in reciprocal links between CMC and negative affect over time. This finding replicates recent studies on differential links between psychosocial outcomes and physical health based on race. Findings may help us better understand how Black - White health paradox develops across mid and later life.

  8. Adhesive proteins of stalked and acorn barnacles display homology with low sequence similarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie-Leigh Jonker

    Full Text Available Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins 'sticky' has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes. It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa. Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7-16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes. Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18-26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa.

  9. ACORNS: a tool for the visualisation and modelling of atypical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D G; George, R

    2011-10-01

    Across many academic disciplines visualisation and notation systems are used for modelling data and developing theory, but in child development visual models are not widely used; yet researchers and students of developmental difficulties may benefit from a visualisation and notation system which can clearly map developmental outcomes and trajectories, and convey hypothesised dynamic causal pathways. Such a system may help understanding of existing accounts and be a tool for developing new theories. We first present criteria that need to be met in order to provide fully nuanced visualisations of development, and discuss strengths and weaknesses of the visualisation system proposed by Morton. Secondly, we present a tool we have designed to give more precise accounts of development while also being accessible, intuitive and visually appealing. We have called this an Accessible Cause-Outcome Representation and Notation System (ACORNS). This system provides a framework for clear mapping and modelling of developmental sequences, illustrating more precisely how functions change over time, how factors interact with the environment, and the absolute and relative nature of causal outcomes. We provide a new template, a set of rules for the appropriate use of boxes and arrows, and a set of visually accessible indicators that can be used to show more precisely relative rates, degrees and variance of functioning over different capacities at different time points. We have designed ACORNS to give a precise and clear visualisation of how development unfolds; allowing the representation of less 'static' and more transactional models of developmental difficulties. We hope ACORNS will help students, clinicians and theoreticians across disciplines to better represent nuances of debates, and be a seed for the development of new theory. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Adhesive Proteins of Stalked and Acorn Barnacles Display Homology with Low Sequence Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins ‘sticky’ has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7–16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18–26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa). PMID:25295513

  11. Application of Vegetation Indices to Estimate Acorn Production at Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Juan A.; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Recuero, Laura; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Palacios, Alicia; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian pig valued natural resources of the pasture when fattened in mountain. The variability of acorn production is not contained in any line of Spanish agricultural insurance. However, the production of arable pasture is covered by line insurance number 133 for loss of pasture compensation. This scenario is only contemplated for breeding cows and brave bulls, sheep, goats and horses, although pigs are not included. This insurance is established by monitoring ten-day composites Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) measured by satellite over treeless pastures, using MODIS TERRA satellite. The aim of this work is to check if we can use a satellite vegetation index to estimate the production of acorns. In order to do so, two Spanish grassland locations have been analyzed: regions of Olivenza (Jerez-Oliva) and Merida (Badajoz). The acorns production was evaluated through 2002-2005 gauging conducted by the Grupo Habitat de la Orden (Badajoz). Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same time period to estimate the ten-day composites NDVI at these locations. Finally, meteorological data was obtained from SIAR and MAGRAMA network stations, calculating the ten-day averaged temperature and ten day accumulated precipitation. Considering two accumulated factors, NDVI and temperature, three phenological stages were well defined being the second one which pointed differences among campaigns. Then, accumulated precipitation versus accumulated NDVI was plot for this second phenological stage obtaining maximum differences at 300 mm of cumulative rainfall. Analyzing acorn production with accumulated NDVI in that moment a production function was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. These results will be discussed in detail. References J.A. Escribano, C.G.H. Diaz-Ambrona, L. Recuero, M. Huesca, V. Cicuendez, A. Palacios-Orueta y A.M. Tarquis. Aplicacion de Indices de Vegetacion para evaluar la falta de produccion de pastos y

  12. Environmental and physiological conditions affecting Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Ariav, R; Zilberg, D

    2005-09-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Tetrahymena sp. constitute a serious problem in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Tetrahymena was isolated from skin lesions of naturally infected guppies in a commercial aquaculture farm, cultured in vitro and used in subsequent experimental infections. In addition to guppies, angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, platyfish, Xiphophorus maculates, and neontetra, Paracheirodon innesi, were susceptible, whereas tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus xO. aureus) was resistant. The ciliate had a high affinity for dead fish. Skin abrasion did not affect the infection, but fish with gas bubble disease exhibited a significantly higher infection than non-affected fish. Infection was significantly higher when fish were exposed to high levels of ammonia, high organic load and low water temperatures. Under shipment conditions, infection was significantly elevated. Full recovery was achieved at a low fish density. Results suggest that poor environmental and physiological conditions enhance infection with Tetrahymena sp.

  13. Chronic Medical Conditions and Negative Affect; Racial Variation in Reciprocal Associations Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2016-01-01

    The Black-White health paradox can be defined as lower frequency of depression despite higher prevalence of economic and social adversities as well as chronic medical conditions (CMC) among American Blacks compared to American Whites. Based on this paradox, the CMC - depressive symptoms link is expected to be weaker among Blacks than Whites. We conducted a 10-year longitudinal study to compare Blacks and Whites for bidirectional associations between number of CMC and negative affect over time. We used data from the MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a nationally representative longitudinal study of American adults. A total number of 7,108 individuals with an age range of 25-75 years (N = 7,108) were followed for 10 years from 1995 to 2004. Age, gender, and socioeconomic status (education and income) were measured at baseline. Negative affect and CMC were measured at baseline (1995) and end of follow up (2004). Race was the moderator. Linear regression was used to test the moderating effect of race on the reciprocal associations between CMC and negative affect, net of covariates. In the pooled sample, while baseline CMC was predictive of an increase in negative affect over time, baseline negative affect was also predictive of an increase in CMC. We found interactions between race and baseline CMC on change in depressive symptoms, as well as race with negative affect on CMC change, suggesting that the associations between CMC and negative affect are stronger for Whites in comparison to Blacks. Blacks and Whites differ in reciprocal links between CMC and negative affect over time. This finding replicates recent studies on differential links between psychosocial factors and physical health based on race. Findings may help us better understand how Black-White health paradox develops across mid and later life.

  14. The effect of affect in advertising: can product preference be conditioned by background music?

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    The present experiment provides a recent replication of Gorn’ (1982) affective conditioning study, investigating the role of music-induced mood in advertising and its subsequent effect on product choice. As an extension to Gorn’s original procedure, the experiment has addressed certain procedural concerns and expanded the scope of the study to investigate the effect of ‘mere exposure’. This was achieved by incorporating an additional background colour variable into the procedur...

  15. Imagination in human social cognition, autism, and psychotic-affective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. How the condition of occlusal support affects the back muscle force and masticatory muscle activity?

    OpenAIRE

    石岡, 克; 河野, 正司; Ishioka, Masaru; Kohno, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine how the condition of occlusal support affects the back muscle force and masticatory muscle activity. Two groups of subjects were enlisted: sport-trained group and normal group. While electrodes of the electromyography (EMG) were attached to the surface of the masticatory muscles, each subject's back muscle force was recorded during upper body stretching using a back muscle force-measuring device. The task was performed under four different occlusal suppor...

  17. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases....

  18. Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy as a function of interpersonal and affective disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eVeit

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The diminished fear reactivity is one of the most valid physiological findings in psychopathy research. In a fear conditioning paradigm, with faces as conditioned stimulus (CS and electric shock as unconditioned stimulus (US, we investigated a sample of 14 high psychopathic violent offenders. Event related potentials, skin conductance responses (SCR as well as subjective ratings of the CSs were collected. This study assessed to which extent the different facets of the psychopathy construct contribute to the fear conditioning deficits observed in psychopaths. Participants with high scores on the affective facet subscale of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R showed weaker conditioned fear responses and lower N100 amplitudes compared to low scorers. In contrast, high scorers on the affective facet rated the CS+ (paired more negatively than low scorers regarding the CS- (unpaired. Regarding the P300, high scores on the interpersonal facet were associated with increased amplitudes to the CS+ compared to the CS-, while the opposed pattern was found with the antisocial facet. Both, the initial and terminal contingent negative variation indicated a divergent pattern: participants with pronounced interpersonal deficits, showed increased cortical negativity to the CS+ compared to the CS-, whereas a reversed CS+/CS- differentiation was found in offenders scoring high on the antisocial facet. The present study revealed that deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy was most pronounced in offenders with high scores on the affective facet. Event related potentials suggest that participants with distinct interpersonal deficits showed increased information processing, whereas the antisocial facet was linked to decreased attention and interest to the CS+. These data indicate that an approach to the facets of psychopathy can help to resolve ambiguous findings in psychopathy research and enables a more precise and useful description of this disorder.

  19. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparanga, Alvin R.; Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-01-01

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  20. Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; poral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (pOral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

  1. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual......-related quality of life (HRQL).......The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health...

  2. Antioxidant Extracts from Acorns (Quercus ilex L.) Effectively Protect Ready-to-Eat (RTE) Chicken Patties Irrespective of Packaging Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Valquíria C S; Morcuende, David; Hérnandez-López, Silvia H; Madruga, Marta S; Silva, Fábio A P; Estévez, Mario

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a phenolic-rich acorn extract (200 ppm gallic acid equivalents) and the concentration of oxygen in the packaging system (low-oxygen modified atmosphere; 5% vs. normal-oxygen; 21%) on lipid and protein oxidation and consumers acceptance of the ready-to-eat chicken patties. Samples were subjected to cooking (electric oven, 170 °C/16 min), cold storage (14 d at 4 °C), and reheating (microwave, 600 mW/1 min). Samples treated with acorn extract kept thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances numbers and lipid-derived volatiles at basal levels throughout the whole processing irrespective of the oxygen concentration in the packaging atmosphere. Consistently, treated patties had lower protein carbonyls than control ones. The acorn extract also controlled color and texture deterioration during chilled storage and reheating and improved the color and odor acceptance of the products. Formulating with acorn extract is a feasible strategy to inhibit the oxidation-driven changes and preserve the quality of reheated samples as if there were freshly cooked. Compared to the effect of the antioxidant extract, the concentration of oxygen in the packaging system was negligible in terms of quality preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. New Techniques for High-contrast Imaging with ADI: The ACORNS-ADI SEEDS Data Reduction Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, T.D.; McElwain, M.W.; Turner, E.L.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Golota, T.; Goto, M.; Grady, C.A.; Guyon, O.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K.W.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G.R.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.; Kwon, J.; Matsuo, T.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Moro-Martín, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.-S.; Serabyn, E.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takami, M.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Thalmann, C.; Tomono, D.; Watanabe, M.; Wisniewski, J.P.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration, and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging (ACORNS-ADI), a new, parallelized software package to reduce high-contrast imaging data, and its application to data from the SEEDS survey. We implement several new algorithms,

  4. Effects of Flood Duration and Depth on Germination of Cherrybark, Post, Southern, White and Willow Oak Acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanfei Guo; Michael G. Shelton; Eric Heitzman

    2002-01-01

    Effects of flood duration (0, 10, 20, and 30 days) and depth (10 and 100 centimeters below a water surface) on acorn germination were tested for two bottomland oaks (cherrybark oak [Quercus pagoda Raf.] and willow oak [Q. phellos L.]) and three upland oaks (post oak [Q. stellata Wang.], southern red oak [

  5. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  6. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  7. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases.......Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel test...... interpretation and a positive dependence in test specificity reduces the specificity of serial interpretation. We calculate conditional covariances as a measure of dependence between binary tests and show their relationship to kappa (a chance-corrected measure of test agreement). We use published data...

  8. Inference of Human Affective States from Psychophysiological Measurements Extracted under Ecologically Valid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eBetella

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to standard laboratory protocols, the measurement of psychophysiological signals in real world experiments poses technical and methodological challenges due to external factors that cannot be directly controlled. To address this problem, we propose a hybrid approach based on an immersive and human accessible space called the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM, that incorporates the advantages of a laboratory within a life-like setting. The XIM integrates unobtrusive wearable sensors for the acquisition of psychophysiological signals suitable for ambulatory emotion research. In this paper, we present results from two different studies conducted to validate the XIM as a general-purpose sensing infrastructure for the study of human affective states under ecologically valid conditions. In the first investigation, we recorded and classified signals from subjects exposed to pictorial stimuli corresponding to a range of arousal levels, while they were free to walk and gesticulate. In the second study, we designed an experiment that follows the classical conditioning paradigm, a well-known procedure in the behavioral sciences, with the additional feature that participants were free to move in the physical space, as opposed to similar studies measuring physiological signals in constrained laboratory settings. Our results indicate that, by using our sensing infrastructure, it is indeed possible to infer human event-elicited affective states through measurements of psychophysiological signals under ecological conditions.

  9. Hydrological Conditions Affect the Interspecific Interaction between Two Emergent Wetland Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological conditions determine the distribution of plant species in wetlands, where conditions such as water depth and hydrological fluctuations are expected to affect the interspecific interactions among emergent wetland species. To test such effects, we conducted a greenhouse experiment with three treatment categories, interspecific interaction (mixed culture or monoculture, water depth (10 or 30 cm depth, and hydrological fluctuation (static or fluctuating water level, and two common emergent wetland plant species, Scirpus planiculumis Fr. (Cyperaceae and Phragmites australis var. baiyangdiansis (Gramineae. An increase in the water depth significantly restrained the growth of both S. planiculumis and P. australis, while hydrological fluctuations did not obviously alter the growth of either species. In addition, both water depth and hydrological fluctuations significantly affected the interspecific interaction between these two wetland species. P. australis benefited from interspecific interaction under increasing water depth and hydrological fluctuations, and the RII values were clearly positive for plants grown at a water depth that fluctuated around 30 cm. The results may have some implications for understanding how S. planiculumis and P. australis, as well as wetland communities, respond to the natural variation or human modification of hydrological conditions.

  10. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  11. Developmental acclimation to low or high humidity conditions affect starvation and heat resistance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam; Aggarwal, Dau Dayal

    2014-09-01

    Several Drosophila species originating from tropical humid localities are more resistant to starvation and heat stress than populations from high latitudes but mechanistic bases of such physiological changes are largely unknown. In order to test whether humidity levels affect starvation and heat resistance, we investigated developmental acclimation effects of low to high humidity conditions on the storage and utilization of energy resources, body mass, starvation survival, heat knockdown and heat survival of D. melanogaster. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity (85% RH) stored significantly higher level of lipids and showed greater starvation survival hours but smaller in body size. In contrast, lines reared at low humidity evidenced reduced levels of body lipids and starvation resistance. Starvation resistance and lipid storage level were higher in females than males. However, the rate of utilization of lipids under starvation stress was lower for lines reared under higher humidity. Adult flies of lines reared at 65% RH and acclimated under high or low humidity condition for 200 hours also showed changes in resistance to starvation and heat but such effects were significantly lower as compared with developmental acclimation. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity showed greater heat knockdown time and heat-shock survival. These laboratory observations on developmental and adult acclimation effects of low versus high humidity conditions have helped in explaining seasonal changes in resistance to starvation and heat of the wild-caught flies of D. melanogaster. Thus, we may suggest that wet versus drier conditions significantly affect starvation and heat resistance of D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H; Kappeler, Peter M; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals' general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations.

  13. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Metabolism of xenobiotics by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Phenol degradation under conditions affecting photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazos, Theocharis T; Kokarakis, Emmanouel J; Ghanotakis, Demetrios F

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, the biodegradation of phenol by axenic cultures of the unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was investigated. Biodegradation proved to be a dynamic bioenergetic process, affected by changes in the culture conditions. Microalgae biodegraded defined amounts of phenol, as a result of the induced stress caused at high concentrations, despite the fact that this process proved to be energy demanding and thus affected growth of the culture. High levels of biodegradation were observed both in the absence of an alternative carbon source and in the presence of acetate as a carbon source. Biodegradation of phenol by Chlamydomonas proved to be an aerobic, photoregulated process. This is the first time that Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used for bioremediation purposes. This study has demonstrated that the most important factor in the biodegradation of phenol is the selection of the appropriate culture conditions (presence or absence of alternative carbon source, light intensity, and oxygen availability) that provide the best bioenergetic balance among growth, induced stress, and biodegradation of phenol.

  15. Nest-climatic factors affect the abundance of biting flies and their effects on nestling condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Lobato, Elisa; Aguilar, Juan Rivero-de; del Cerro, Sara; Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael; Moreno, Juan

    2010-11-01

    The first step in the establishment of a host-biting fly relationship is host location. While a number of studies highlight the role of host emitted products as important cues affecting host location by biting flies, the role of host temperature is far from clear. We investigated the role of different nest microclimatic variables affecting the interaction between pied flycatchers and two biting flies: black flies and biting midges. Biting midge abundances increased with temperature inside the nest, supporting the potential importance of nest temperature as a cue used by insects to localize their hosts. The possibility that biting fly infestations were associated to ecological conditions in the vicinity of the nests is also discussed. Furthermore, we found a negative association between nestling weight (including tarsus length as a covariate in the analyses) and the interaction between the abundance of biting midges and the presence/absence of black flies in nests. The potential negative effect of these ectoparasites on nestling weight (condition index) and potential differences in the bird phenotypic/genetic quality associated with nest site choice and parasite infestations are considered.

  16. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  17. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rix Brooks

    Full Text Available Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA.Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded.PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test.Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic

  18. Pattern recognition of acorns from different Quercus species based on oil content and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (i to characterize different species of Quercus genus and (ii to discriminate among them on the basis of the content and fatty acid composition of the oil in their fruits and/or their morphological aspects via pattern recognition techniques (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Cluster Analysis, CA, and Discriminant Analysis, DA. Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd., grown in the same stand in the centre of Portugal, were investigated. When oil content and respective fatty acid composition were used to characterize samples, well-separated groups corresponding to each of the species were observed by PCA and confirmed by CA and DA. The ‘‘width’’ and ‘‘length’’ of acorns exhibited a low discriminant power. Acorns from Q. rotundifolia showed the highest average oil content followed by Q. suber and Q. pyrenaica acorns (9.1, 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of Q. rotundifolia and Q. suber oils are similar to olive oil while the oil from Q. pyrenaica acorns is more unsaturated.El objetivo de este estudio fué (i la caracterización de diferentes especies del género Quercus y (ii la clasificación de las mismas en base al contenido y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite de sus frutos y/o en sus caracteres morfológicos, via técnicas de patrón de reconocimiento (Análisis de Componentes Principales, ACP, Análisis de Cluster, AC, y Análisis Discriminante, AD. Se han estudiado Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. y Quercus pyrenaica Willd., pertenecientes a la misma zona del centro de Portugal. Al emplear el contenido de aceite y sus respectivas composiciones de ácidos grasos para caracterizar a las muestras, el ACP reveló grupos bien separados correspondientes a cada especie, los cuales, a su vez, se confirmarón con el AC y el AD. El ‘‘ancho’’ y ‘‘longitud’’ de las bellotas

  19. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H.; Strand, Micheline K.; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such “migratory management” causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  20. On the atmospheric conditions affecting the variation of tritium concentration in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.-E.; Kim, Y.-K.; Park, J.-K.

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions affecting the variation of tritium concentration in rainfall were investigated by meteorological analysis during 1980 in Pusan, Korea. Tritium concentrations were high in winter, autumn and spring, in comparison with summer. It was found that there is generally a negative correlation between tritium concentration in rainfall and the mixing ratio, and atmospheric thicknesses. In winter, spring and autumn, high tritium concentrations occurred as the southward continental polar air masses from the north merged into the low pressure air mass in southern China; and relatively low concentrations of tritium appeared when the southward polar air masses combined with the northward low pressure air mass from the East China Sea. In the rainy season, extremely low concentrations of tritium were found when a stationary front was located to the south of Korea, allowing a warm and humid southwest airflow to travel toward the Korean peninsula, and here the potential instability and the existence of active convective clouds were major factors affecting the variation of tritium concentration. (Author)

  1. Sensory and affective pain descriptors respond differentially to pharmacological interventions in neuropathic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilron, Ian; Tu, Dongsheng; Holden, Ronald R

    2013-02-01

    Pain management is limited by inability to match a patient's condition-and pain mechanisms-to optimal treatment(s). Much is known about pain treatment from animal investigations, but antinociceptive mechanisms cannot be readily explored in clinical studies. Evidence suggests that self-report verbal pain descriptors characterize important pain dimensions and may reflect diverse underlying mechanisms. This exploratory analysis of data from a trial of a gabapentin-morphine combination evaluated effects of treatment on short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire sensory and affective descriptor profiles and prediction of treatment response by these descriptors. Severity of "throbbing," "shooting," and "aching" improved preferentially with morphine over gabapentin, whereas "tiring-exhausting" and "sickening" improved preferentially with gabapentin over morphine. Improvement in descriptor severity with gabapentin-morphine combination was superior to active placebo for 12 of 15 short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire descriptors, whereas morphine and gabapentin were superior to active placebo for only 7 and 6 descriptors, respectively. Baseline moderate-severe "throbbing" and "hot-burning" predicted poor outcomes with gabapentin, whereas moderate-severe "aching" and "punishing-cruel" predicted favorable outcomes with gabapentin. Baseline "throbbing" severity also predicted poor outcomes with morphine. Baseline allodynia predicted superior reduction of "stabbing" with morphine but not with gabapentin alone. These results point to the hypothesis that sensory and affective pain descriptor profiles exhibit a treatment-specific response. Larger, more definitive, investigations to evaluate treatment-specific effects on multiple sensory and affective pain descriptors, and prediction of treatment response by these descriptors, will advance efforts toward developing and implementing more effective individualized pain therapies.

  2. Oral pigmentations in physiologic conditions, post inflammatory affections and systemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Martina; Patrizi, Annalisa; Ravaioli, Giulia M; Dika, Emi

    2017-04-19

    Melanocytes are found throughout the oral mucosa but usually go unnoticed because of their relatively low level of pigment production. When focally or generally active in pigment production or proliferation they may be responsible for several affections in the oral mucosae ranging from physiologic pigmentation, systemic diseases to malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis of oral pigmentations (OP) is usually challenging for the physician, but a careful examination of the oral cavity may reveal the first manifestation of underlying systemic diseases. Therefore, a full medical history (including drug assumption and smoking) together with a general dermatological examination are mandatory and represent the first approach to OPs. When the diagnosis cannot be reached clinically with enough certainty, a biopsy for histological examination is needed, also in order to exclude possible life threatening conditions such as melanoma. Dermoscopy is another reliable diagnostic tool to make a differential diagnosis between melanocytic lesions and other conditions and then to manage the follow-up of patients. Few papers on the subject have been published in the dermatological literature and the oral cavity is often poorly investigated during routine dermatological examinations. We therefore decided to perform a review of benign OPs, classifying them into diffuse (physiological/racial pigmentations, smoker's melanosis, drug induced hyperpigmentations, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentations, black hairy tongue, OPs associated to systemic diseases) and localized (amalgam tattoo, melanocytic nevi, melanoacanthoma, melanosis) lesions.

  3. Conditions affecting the timing and magnitude of Hendra virus shedding across pteropodid bat populations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, D J; Giles, J; McCallum, H; Field, H; Jordan, D; Peel, A J; Plowright, R K

    2017-11-01

    Understanding infection dynamics in animal hosts is fundamental to managing spillover and emergence of zoonotic infections. Hendra virus is endemic in Australian pteropodid bat populations and can be lethal to horses and humans. However, we know little about the factors driving Hendra virus prevalence in resevoir bat populations, making spillover difficult to predict. We use Hendra virus prevalence data collected from 13 000 pooled bat urine samples across space and time to determine if pulses of prevalence are periodic and synchronized across sites. We also test whether site-specific precipitation and temperature affect the amplitude of the largest annual prevalence pulses. We found little evidence for a periodic signal in Hendra virus prevalence. Although the largest amplitude pulses tended to occur over winter, pulses could also occur in other seasons. We found that Hendra virus prevalence was weakly synchronized across sites over short distances, suggesting that prevalence is driven by local-scale effects. Finally, we found that drier conditions in previous seasons and the abundance of Pteropus alecto were positively correlated with the peak annual values of Hendra virus prevalence. Our results suggest that in addition to seasonal effects, bat density and local climatic conditions interact to drive Hendra virus infection dynamics.

  4. The Conditions of the Environment as Factors Affecting the Social and Political Stability of Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Pedrazzini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.

  5. An ultraviolet B condition that affects growth and defense in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Filip; Yu, Na; Li, Weidong; Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Smagghe, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet B light (UV-B, 280-315 nm) is the shortest wavelength of the solar spectrum reaching the surface of the Earth. It has profound effects on plants, ranging from growth regulation to severe metabolic changes. Low level UV-B mainly causes photomorphogenic effects while higher levels can induce stress, yet these effects tend to overlap. Here we identified a condition that allows growth reduction without obvious detrimental stress in wild type Arabidopsis rosette plants. This condition was used to study the effects of a daily UV-B dose on plant characteristics of UV-B adapted plants in detail. Exploration of the transcriptome of developing leaves indicated downregulation of genes involved in stomata formation by UV-B, while at the same time genes involved in photoprotective pigment biosynthesis were upregulated. These findings correspond with a decreased stomatal density and increased UV-B absorbing pigments. Gene ontology analysis revealed upregulation of defense related genes and meta-analysis showed substantial overlap of the UV-B regulated transcriptome with transcriptomes of salicylate and jasmonate treated as well as herbivore exposed plants. Feeding experiments showed that caterpillars of Spodoptera littoralis are directly affected by UV-B, while performance of the aphid Myzus persicae is diminished by a plant mediated process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Converging evidence that subliminal evaluative conditioning does not affect self‐esteem or cardiovascular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Self‐esteem moderates the relationship between stress and (cardiovascular) health, with low self‐esteem potentially exacerbating the impact of stressors. Boosting self‐esteem may therefore help to buffer against stress. Subliminal evaluative conditioning (SEC), which subliminally couples self‐words with positive words, has previously been successfully used to boost self‐esteem, but the existing studies are in need of replication. In this article, we aimed to replicate and extend previous SEC studies. The first 2 experiments simultaneously examined whether SEC increased self‐esteem (Experiment 1, n = 84) and reduced cardiovascular reactivity to a stressor in high worriers (Experiment 2, n = 77). On the basis of these results, the 3rd experiment was set up to examine whether an adjusted personalized SEC task increased self‐esteem and reduced cardiac activity in high worriers (n = 81). Across the 3 experiments, no effects were found of SEC on implicit or explicit self‐esteem or affect or on cardiovascular (re)activity compared to a control condition in which the self was coupled with neutral words. The results do not support the use of the subliminal intervention in its current format. As stress is highly prevalent, future studies should focus on developing other cost‐effective and evidence‐based interventions. PMID:28795525

  7. Converging evidence that subliminal evaluative conditioning does not affect self-esteem or cardiovascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, Anke; Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F

    2018-04-01

    Self-esteem moderates the relationship between stress and (cardiovascular) health, with low self-esteem potentially exacerbating the impact of stressors. Boosting self-esteem may therefore help to buffer against stress. Subliminal evaluative conditioning (SEC), which subliminally couples self-words with positive words, has previously been successfully used to boost self-esteem, but the existing studies are in need of replication. In this article, we aimed to replicate and extend previous SEC studies. The first 2 experiments simultaneously examined whether SEC increased self-esteem (Experiment 1, n = 84) and reduced cardiovascular reactivity to a stressor in high worriers (Experiment 2, n = 77). On the basis of these results, the 3rd experiment was set up to examine whether an adjusted personalized SEC task increased self-esteem and reduced cardiac activity in high worriers (n = 81). Across the 3 experiments, no effects were found of SEC on implicit or explicit self-esteem or affect or on cardiovascular (re)activity compared to a control condition in which the self was coupled with neutral words. The results do not support the use of the subliminal intervention in its current format. As stress is highly prevalent, future studies should focus on developing other cost-effective and evidence-based interventions. © 2017 The Authors. Stress and Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Do Wind Turbines Affect Weather Conditions?: A Case Study in Indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan F. Henschen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming increasingly widespread in the United States as the world looks for cleaner sources of energy. Scientists, policymakers, and citizens have strong opinions regarding the positive and negative effects of wind energy projects, and there is a great deal of misinformation about wind energy circulating on the Web and other media sources. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of how the rotation of hundreds of turbines can influence local weather conditions within a wind farm and in the surrounding areas. This experiment measures temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and evaporation with five weather instruments at Meadow Lake Wind Farm located in White, Jasper, and Benton Counties, Indiana, from November 4 through November 18, 2010. The data show that as wind passes throughout the wind farm, the air warms during the overnight and early morning hours and cools during daytime hours. Observed lower humidity rates and higher evaporation rates downwind also demonstrate that the air dries out as it travels through the wind farm. Further research over multiple seasons is necessary to examine the effects of warmer nighttime temperatures and drier conditions progressively downwind of the installation. Nevertheless, wind turbines did not negatively affect local weather patterns in our small-scale research and may actually prevent frost, which could have important positive implications for farmers by potentially prolonging the growing season.

  9. What are the socio-economic conditions of local areas affected by wildfires in Portugal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra; Luís Zêzere, José; Pereira, José Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The socio-economic context of wildfire distribution is paramount to understand the conditions that influence the vulnerability and resilience levels of different communities exposed to wildfire risk. This research had the main purpose to assess the social and economic dimensions of fire occurrence in Portugal, the country most affected by wildfires in Europe. Differences in fire incidence levels, obtained from number of fire events and burned areas recorded between 2007 and 2014, were examined in relation to socio-economic data from the latest Census at local level, describing conditions regarding exposure levels, sociodemographic patterns, infrastructures, agricultural activities and labour conditions for the civil parishes of mainland Portugal. To identify differences between parishes, two groups were retrieved for fire events and burned areas separately, based on quantiles and keeping only the highest and lowest 20% of wildfire incidence data. The relationships between the wildfire incidence groups and the socio-economic variables were assessed with a stepwise approach based on classification trees. First, irrelevant variables for identifying differences between the groups were removed by an interactive process based on misclassification rates. The second step used random Forest analysis with the selected variables to compute the strength of association and rank variables by importance. The third step applied cluster analysis to determine if the clusters created only with the selected independent variables were equivalent to the initial groups. Results showed that the social and economic conditions of civil parishes vary with wildfire incidence levels. Population density, proportion of foreigners, overcrowded housing conditions, proportion of houses occupied seasonally, and agricultural variables, such as pastures and livestock density, appeared as relevant to distinguish the two fire incidence groups, although with differences in their level of importance and

  10. CLIMATE CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE WITHIN-PLANT SPREAD OF BROAD MITES ON AZALEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechant, E; Pauwels, E; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    The broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) is considered a major pest in potted azalea, Flanders' flagship ornamental crop of Rhododendron simsii hybrids. In addition to severe economic damage, the broad mite is dreaded for its increasing resistance to acaricides. Due to restrictions in the use of broad spectrum acaricides, Belgian azalea growers are left with only three compounds, belonging to two mode of action groups and restricted in their number of applications, for broad mite control: abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin. Although P. latus can be controlled with predatory mites, the high cost of this system makes it (not yet) feasible for integration into standard azalea pest management systems. Hence, a maximum efficacy of treatments with available compounds is essential. Because abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin are contact acaricides with limited trans laminar flow, only broad mites located on shoot tips of azalea plants will be controlled after spraying. Consequently, the efficacy of chemical treatments is influenced by the location and spread of P. latus on the plant. Unfortunately, little is known on broad mites' within-plant spread or how it is affected by climatic conditions like temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, experiments were set up to verify whether climate conditions have an effect on the location and migration of broad mites on azalea. Broad mite infected azalea plants were placed in standard growth chambers under different temperature (T:2.5-25°C) and relative humidity (RH:55-80%) treatments. Within-plant spread was determined by counting mites on the shoot tips and inner leaves of azalea plants. Results indicate that temperature and relative humidity have no significant effect on the within-plant spread of P. latus. To formulate recommendations for optimal spray conditions to maximize the efficacy of broad mite control with acaricides, further experiments on the effect of light intensity and rain are scheduled.

  11. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamini Kashimshetty

    Full Text Available Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG, which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively, with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene

  12. Parameters Affecting the Crystalinity of Poly (vinyl alcohol Prepared at Different Reaction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Zeynali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various samples of poly(vinyl alcohol have been prepared under different conditions. Temperature and time in the presence of catalyst were assumed as important parameters affecting the properties of poly(vinyl alcohol. The degree of hydrolysis and molecular weight, as dependent parameters, were determined. First the temperature was kept at 45°C and hydrolysis reactions were conducted at different times. To investigate the effect of temperature on hydrolysis process the time was kept constant at 40 min and the reaction was carried out at various temperatures. By considering the various uses of poly(vinyl alcohol and the properties of its various grades such as solubility, surface tension, resistance in tension, viscosity, the crystallinity properties of various prepared samples were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Increasing the time and temperature of the reaction led to higher degree of hydrolysis and lower molecular weight. Molecular weight, thermal treatment, degree of hydrolysis and the type of configuration of the molecules were the most important parameters affecting the crystallinity. Increasing the degree of hydrolysis increased the crystallinity and reduction in molecular weight and in this respect the effect of degree of hydrolysis on crystallinity was more evident than the molecular weight. In order to have similar molecular configuration for raw material the same polyvinyl acetate was used in all the tests. FTIR results showed that syndiotactic structure was dominant and favored the crystallinity. By considering the variation in three parameters during reaction the individual and associated effects of degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight and configuration was investigated on the crystallinity and melting point.

  13. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  14. Comparison of Population Genetic Structure of Two Seashore-Dwelling Animal Species, Periwinkle Littorina brevicula and Acorn Barnacle Fistulobalanus albicostatus from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Yuhyun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic structure of marine animals that inhabit the seashore is affected by numerous factors. Of these, gene flow and natural selection during recruitment have strong influences on the genetic structure of seashore-dwelling species that have larval periods. Relative contributions of these two factors to the genetic structure of marine species would be determined mainly by the duration of larval stage. The relationship between larval period and genetic structure of population has been rarely studied in Korea. In this study, genetic variations of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI were analyzed in two dominant species on rocky shore habitats in the Korean peninsula: periwinkle Littorina brevicula and acorn barnacle Fistulobalanus albicostatus. Both species are not strongly structured and may have experienced recent population expansion. Unlike periwinkle, however, barnacle populations have considerable genetic variation, and show a bimodal pattern of mismatch distribution. These results suggest that barnacle populations are more affected by local adaptation rather than gene flow via larval migration. The bimodal patterns of barnacle populations observed in mismatch distribution plots imply that they may have experienced secondary contact. Further studies on seashore-dwelling species are expected to be useful in understanding the evolution of the coastal ecosystem around Korean waters.

  15. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  16. Ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Kotler, Burt P; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-06-01

    Ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration [EtOH] increases as fruit ripens. At low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration in food and the body condition of the forager. We predicted that ethanol stimulates food consumption when its concentration is similar to that found in ripe fruit, whereas [EtOH] below or above that of ripe fruit has either no effect, or else deters foragers, respectively. Moreover, we expected that the amount of food ingested on a particular day of feeding influences the toxic effects of ethanol on a forager, and consequently shapes its feeding decisions on the following day. We therefore predicted that for a food-restricted forager, ethanol-rich food is of lower value than ethanol-free food. We used Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a model to test our hypotheses, and found that ethanol did not increase the value of food for the bats. High [EtOH] reduced the value of food for well-fed bats. However, for food-restricted bats, there was no difference between the value of ethanol-rich and ethanol-free food. Thus, microorganisms, via their production of ethanol, may affect the patterns of feeding of seed-dispersing frugivores. However, these patterns could be modified by the body condition of the animals because they might trade-off the costs of intoxication against the value of nutrients acquired.

  17. Cultural methods and environmental conditions affecting gray mold and its management in lisianthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpialter, Lena; David, Dalia Rav; Dori, Irit; Yermiahu, Uri; Pivonia, Shimon; Levite, Rahel; Elad, Yigal

    2009-05-01

    Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, severely affects the base of the stems of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) plants as well as the cut stems left after flowers are harvested. This study examined infection of lisianthus plants by B. cinerea under laboratory and commercial greenhouse production conditions typical for Israel and evaluated cultural methods for manipulating disease development in commercial greenhouses. Although the lower nodes of lisianthus stems are typically infected, in this study, the inherent susceptibility of these nodes was less than that of nodes midway up the stem. Greater light intensity (4,860 lux) was associated with significantly more severe stem wounds than lower light intensities of 140 to 1,020 lux. Lower light intensity (140 lux) was associated with significantly more severe leaf infection. The development of gray mold along leaves toward the stem was slower at 26 degrees C than at 18 to 20 degrees C and was fastest at relative humidity (RH) levels close to saturation (>99%). B. cinerea infection developed in all stem wounds exposed to 65 to 99% RH and at temperatures of 12 to 29 degrees C. Infection severity in stem wounds (measured as lesion length) on whole plants was significantly less at 26 degrees C than at 18 or 22 degrees C, and was significantly higher at 99% RH compared with 70 to 85 and 85 to 95% RH. Severity of gray mold was the greatest at 15 to 22 degrees C and 85 to 99% RH. Under commercial greenhouse conditions, supplemental calcium (Ca(NO3)2) applied in fertigation or as a spray led to moderate yet significant reduction in disease severity. In addition, polyethylene soil cover and the use of buried drip irrigation instead of surface drip irrigation suppressed gray mold significantly on cut stems following harvest. Covering the soil with polyethylene also suppressed gray mold significantly as compared with the common practice of growing lisianthus in bare soil.

  18. Effects of microwave treatment of live oak acorns on germination and on Curculio sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, R.L.; Morgan, D.L.; Longnecker, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    Microwave irradiation of live oak acorns was evaluated in the laboratory as an alternative to hydrothermal treatments for controlling larvae of weevils, Curculio sp., in commercial production of live oaks. Seed and larvae contained therein exposed to microwaves for 0-180s suffered similarly increasing levels of mortality; quenching the seed briefly in cool water reduced injury both to the pest and its host. The approach, as tested, does not appear promising as a means of weevil control. (author)

  19. Characterization of conditionally expressed mutants affecting age-specific Drosophila melanogaster : Lethal conditions and temperature-sensitive periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, CJ; Bijlsma, R

    The specific genetic basis of inbreeding depression is poorly understood. To address this question, two conditionally expressed lethal effects that were found to cause line-specific life span reductions in two separate inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. were characterized phenotypically and

  20. Study of the atmospheric conditions affecting infrared astronomical measurements at White Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, G. B.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements are described of atmospheric conditions affecting astronomical observations at White Mountain, California. Measurements were made at more than 1400 times spaced over more than 170 days at the Summit Laboratory and a small number of days at the Barcroft Laboratory. The recorded quantities were ten micron sky noise and precipitable water vapor, plus wet and dry bulb temperatures, wind speed and direction, brightness of the sky near the sun, fisheye lens photographs of the sky, description of cloud cover and other observable parameters, color photographs of air pollution astronomical seeing, and occasional determinations of the visible light brightness of the night sky. Measurements of some of these parameters have been made for over twenty years at the Barcroft and Crooked Creek Laboratories, and statistical analyses were made of them. These results and interpretations are given. The bulk of the collected data are statistically analyzed, and disposition of the detailed data is described. Most of the data are available in machine readable form. A detailed discussion of the techniques proposed for operation at White Mountain is given, showing how to cope with the mountain and climatic problems.

  1. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

    2004-07-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis.

  2. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a longer shelf life. Further

  3. Responses to positive affect predict mood symptoms in children under conditions of stress: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Raes, Filip; Vasey, Michael W; Feldman, Gregory C

    2012-04-01

    Rumination to negative affect has been linked to the onset and maintenance of mood disorders in adults as well as children. Responses to positive affect have received far less attention thus far. A few recent studies in adults suggest that responses to positive affect are involved in the development of both depressive and hypomanic symptoms, but thus far no study has investigated their role in childhood mood problems. The purpose of the present study was to validate a child version of the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire and examine the extent to which responses to positive affect prospectively predict mood symptoms over a 3-month interval. The Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire for Children was found to assess two types of responses to positive affect: Positive Rumination and Dampening. Both subscales showed sufficient internal consistency and moderate stability over a 3-month interval. Low levels of positive rumination and high levels of dampening were concurrently associated with depressive symptoms, over and above responses to negative affect. Importantly, low levels of positive rumination also predicted increases in depressive symptoms over a 3-month interval over and above baseline symptoms in children reporting high levels of stress. Both positive rumination and dampening were positively related to concurrent hypomanic symptoms and high levels of positive rumination predicted increases in hypomanic symptoms over a 3-month interval over and above baseline symptoms in children reporting high levels of stress. The results underscore the added value of assessing responses to positive affect in addition to responses to negative affect.

  4. Focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction of acorn oil for determination of the fatty acid profile by GC-MS. Comparison with conventional and standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Serradilla, J A; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L; de Castro, M D Luque

    2007-05-01

    A study of the feasibility of focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction of acorn oil and comparison of results from analysis of trans fatty acids in the oil thus obtained with those for oils obtained by use of other methods commonly used for oil extraction are reported here. The proposed method was optimized by means of a 21-experiment screening design to determine, by means of a reduced number of experiments, which factors affect both extraction efficiency and the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids in the oil. The proposed method enables total extraction of the fatty acids in 30 min, which is much less than the time required by the Folch (4.5 h), Soxhlet (16 h), and ISO (8 h) reference methods and the stirring-extraction method (56 h). The efficiency of extraction achieved by use of the proposed method is statistically equivalent to that achieved by use of the other methods; the composition of the extracts obtained by use of the proposed method and the Folch and stirring reference methods are also statistically similar. No trans fatty acids were present in the extracts obtained by use of the Folch, stirring, and proposed methods but they were detected in the extracts obtained by use of both the Soxhlet and ISO methods.

  5. Success/failure condition influences attribution of control, negative affect, and shame among patients with depression in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Si-Ning; Zainal, Hani; Tang, Catherine S; Tong, Eddie M; Ho, Cyrus S; Ho, Roger C

    2017-08-02

    There remains a paucity of research on control attribution and depression within Asian populations. This study examines: (1) Success/Failure condition as a moderator between depression and negative affect or shame, and (2) differences in control attribution between patients with depression and healthy controls in Singapore. Seventy one patients with depression and 71 healthy controls went through a digit-span memory task where they were randomized into either the Success or Failure condition. Participants in the Success condition had to memorize and recall 5-digit strings, while participants in the Failure condition did the same for 12-digit strings. They then completed self-report measures of negative affect, shame, and attribution of control. One-way ANCOVA was performed to examine task condition as a moderator of association between mental health status and post-task negative affect or shame. Test of simple effects was carried out on significant interactions. Sign test and Mann-Whitney U test were employed to investigate differences in attribution of control. Mental health status and Success/Failure condition had significant effects on reported negative affect and shame. Healthy controls reported less post-task negative affect and shame in the Success than in the Failure condition while patients with depression reported similar levels of post-task negative affect and shame in both conditions. However, these differences were not significant in the test of simple effects. In addition, healthy controls felt a stronger sense of personal control in success than in failure and were more likely to blame external factors in failure than in success. Conversely, patients with depression were more inclined to credit external factors in success than in failure and ascribed greater personal control in failure than in success. The results suggest that successful conditions may not necessitate the reduction of negative affect in Asians with depression, indicating possible

  6. Iron exclusion in rice genotypes as affected by different vapor pressure deficit conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Kumar Shrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Root iron (Fe exclusion capacity of four lowland rice genotypes were evaluated in increasing rate of Fe2+ stresses (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/L in growing medium under the conditions of low and high vapor pressure deficit. Rice root excluded significantly higher amount of iron under dry atmospheric condition (655 mg Fe/g root dry matter than moist atmospheric condition (118 mg Fe/g root dry matter. But their iron exclusion capacity reduced when they were gradually exposed to the higher levels of Fe stress. Tolerant genotype such as TOX3107 excluded more iron when they were exposed to dry atmospheric condition.

  7. The Addition of Saccharin to Taste Cues Affects Taste Preference Conditioning in Thirsty Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestell, Catherine A.; LoLordo, Vincent M.

    2004-01-01

    Previous failures to condition preferences for the unacceptable taste cues sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and citric acid (CA) using a reverse-order, differential conditioning procedure (Forestell & LoLordo, 2000) may have been the result of low consumption of the taste cues in training or of their relatively low acceptability to rats that are thirsty…

  8. Under which conditions does T1 difficulty affect T2 performance in the attentional blink?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias Søren

    2009-01-01

    When two visual targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, performance of T2 suffers up to 900 ms. One theory of this attentional blink (Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992) propose that T1 and T2 compete for limited processing resources (Chun & Potter, 1995), and predict that prolonging...... exposure duration was the same as in the hard condition while T1 contrast was adjusted individually to reach the same performance on the T1 identification task as obtained in the long duration condition. Six observers completed 260 trials in each of the three conditions. We found a strong effect of T1–T2...... latency on performance in the T2 identification task in all conditions, replicating the finding of an attentional blink. However, we found no difference in the attentional blink between conditions. We conclude that increasing the perceptual difficulty of T1 either by decreasing T1 contrast or T1 exposure...

  9. Numerical simulations of irregular wave ensembles affected by variable wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slunyaev, Alexey; Sergeeva, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The numerical simulations of irregular wave trains over deep water aim at the solution of the global problem how the wind action affects the sea state in respect of the rogue wave probability associated with the non-gaussianity of the wave statistics. It has been shown that changes of the sea condition of various kinds (winds, currents, etc., see [1-5]) result in the strongly non-stationary 'fast' evolution, when the likelihood of extremely high waves increases greatly. Hence, transitional processes when the momentary Benjamin - Feir index (BFI) restores from a large value to the value of order one are considered in the present work. The departure of the BFI from the stationary value (~1) is due to the strong wind effect, similar to the study conducted in [1, 2]. In the present work the modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a forcing term is employed to simulate the wave dynamics. The modulational instability of a plane wave within this framework was analyzed in [6]. We estimate the rate of the wind impact which is required to destabilize the given sea state, causing larger probability of rogue waves, and compare it with some available observations of the in-situ measurements. The reported work may be considered as a simplification of the problem of shoaling nonlinear waves, when all depth-dependent coefficients of the evolution equation are put constants, and only the shoaling term causes wave statistics evolution. Irregular surface waves in basins with different water depths were simulated numerically and in a laboratory facility in [7-10]. When waves travel from deep to shallower water, two situations were shown to exist: when the waves experience a high probability of extreme waves, or when the statistical properties do not change noticeably. No conclusive recipe was formulated how to differentiate these two scenarios. Our work helps to tackle that problem. [1]. S.Y. Annenkov, V.I. Shrira, Evolution of kurtosis for wind waves. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L

  10. Weather conditions affect levels of extra-pair paternity in the reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, KM; Komdeur, J

    Extra-pair paternity (EPP) is common in many socially monogamous birds, but large variations in frequency of EPP are found both between and within species. Local ecological factors can affect the costs and benefits of extra-pair mating behaviour, and may therefore influence the chance that

  11. Food availability affects adult survival trajectories depending on early developmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briga, Michael; Koetsier, Egbert; Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Jimeno Revilla, Blanca; Verhulst, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Food availability modulates survival in interaction with (for example) competition, disease and predators, but to what extent food availability in natural populations affects survival independent of these factors is not well known. We tested the effect of food availability on lifespan and actuarial

  12. Acetazolamide as a vasodilatory stimulus in cerebrovascular diseases and in conditions affecting the cerebral vasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settakis, G.; Molnár, C.; Kerényi, L.; Kollár, J.; Legemate, D.; Csiba, L.; Fülesdi, B.

    2003-01-01

    Pathologic processes affecting the brain vessels may damage cerebral vasodilatory capacity. Early detection of cerebral dysfunction plays an important role in the prevention of cerebrovascular diseases. In recent decades acetazolamide (AZ) has frequently been used for this purpose. In the present

  13. Evaluative Conditioning 2.0: Direct versus Associative Transfer of Affect to Brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.L.R. Sweldens (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA basic assumption in advertising is that brands become more well-liked after they were presented in positive contexts. This assumption is warranted because studies on ‘evaluative conditioning’ have demonstrated that when a brand is repeatedly presented together with positive affective

  14. The lysine-peptoid hybrid LP5 maintain activity under physiological conditions and affects virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Sanne; Ingmer, Hanne; Thomsen, Line E.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, LP5, is a lysine-peptoid hybrid, with antimicrobial activity against clinically relevant bacteria. Here, we investigated how various environmental conditions affect the antimicrobial activity of LP5 against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). We found that LP5 maintained...

  15. Phenolic compounds and fatty acids from acorns (Quercus spp.), the main dietary constituent of free-ranged Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos; López-Bote, Clemente; de la Hoz, Lorenzo; Ordóñez, Juan A; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2003-10-08

    The aim of the present work was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and fatty acids in acorns from Quercus ilex, Quercus rotundifolia, and Quercus suber. The concentration of oleic acid was >63% of total fatty acids in all cases, followed by palmitic and linoleic acids at similar concentrations (12-20%). The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in Q. rotundifolia, Q. ilex, and Q. suber were 19, 31, and 38 mg/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively, whereas the concentrations of gamma-tocopherol were 113, 66, and 74 mg/kg of DM, respectively. Thirty-two different phenolic compounds were distinguished. All of them were gallic acid derivatives, in the form of either galloyl esters of glucose, combinations of galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of glucose, tergallic O- or C-glucosides, or ellagic acid derivatives. Several tergallic acid C-glucosides were also present in the extracts obtained from Q. suber. Acorns from Q. ilex and Q. rotundifolia showed similar polyphenol patterns mainly with gallic acid-like spectra. Chromatograms of Q. suber showed mainly polyphenols with ellagic acid-like spectra. Valoneic acid dilactone was especially abundant in Q. suber skin. The contribution of skin to the total phenolics of the acorn was relatively small in Q. rotundifolia and Q. ilex but relatively high in Q. suber. Skin extracts from Q. suber, Q. rotundifolia, and Q. ilex showed 1.3, 1.4, and 1.0 antioxidant efficiencies, respectively (compared to that of butylhydroxyanisole). Endosperm extracts showed lower capacity to prevent lipid peroxidation than skin extracts.

  16. Orthogonal Test Analysis on Conditions Affecting Electricity Generation Performance of an Enhanced Geothermal System at Yangbajing Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Zeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main conditions affecting electricity generation performance of an enhanced geothermal system (EGS include reservoir porosity, reservoir permeability, rock heat conductivity, water production rate and injection temperature. Presently there is lack of systematic research the relative importance of the five aforementioned conditions. The orthogonal test method is a statistical approach to analyze multi-factor and multi-level influence on system performance. In this work, based on the geological data at Yangbajing geothermal field, we analyzed the five conditions affecting the electricity generation performance of EGS, and ranked the relative importance of the five factors. The results show that the order of the relative importance of the conditions on electric power is water production rate > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity > reservoir permeability; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on reservoir impedance is reservoir permeability > injection temperature > water production rate > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on pump power is water production rate > reservoir permeability > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity, and; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on energy efficiency is water production rate > reservoir permeability > reservoir porosity > injection temperature > rock heat conductivity. The construction of an EGS reservoir should be located at a formation with higher reservoir porosity or rock heat conductivity, while the determination of reservoir permeability, water production rate and injection temperature should be based on the comprehensive target.

  17. Sociality Affects REM Sleep Episode Duration Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions in the Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Gravett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rock hyrax, Procavia capensis, is a highly social, diurnal mammal. In the current study several physiologically measurable parameters of sleep, as well as the accompanying behavior, were recorded continuously from five rock hyraxes, for 72 h under solitary (experimental animal alone in the recording chamber, and social conditions (experimental animal with 1 or 2 additional, non-implanted animals in the recording chamber. The results revealed no significant differences between solitary and social conditions for total sleep times, number of episodes, episode duration or slow wave activity (SWA for all states examined. The only significant difference observed between social and solitary conditions was the average duration of rapid eye movement (REM sleep episodes. REM sleep episode duration was on average 20 s and 40 s longer under social conditions daily and during the dark period, respectively. It is hypothesized that the increase in REM sleep episode duration under social conditions could possibly be attributed to improved thermoregulation strategies, however considering the limited sample size and design of the current study further investigations are needed to confirm this finding. Whether the conclusions and the observations made in this study can be generalized to all naturally socially sleeping mammals remains an open question.

  18. De novo fear conditioning across diagnostic groups in the affective disorders: evidence for learning impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael W; Moshier, Samantha J; Kinner, Dina G; Simon, Naomi M; Pollack, Mark H; Orr, Scott P

    2014-09-01

    De novo fear conditioning paradigms have served as a model for how clinical anxiety may be acquired and maintained. To further examine variable findings in the acquisition and extinction of fear responses between clinical and nonclinical samples, we assessed de novo fear conditioning outcomes in outpatients with either anxiety disorders or depression and healthy subjects recruited from the community. Overall, we found evidence for attenuated fear conditioning, as measured by skin conductance, among the patient sample, with significantly lower fear acquisition among patients with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. These acquisition deficits were evident in both the simple (considering the CS+only) and differential (evaluating the CS+in relation to the CS-) paradigms. Examination of extinction outcomes were hampered by the low numbers of patients who achieved adequate conditioning, but the available data indicated slower extinction among the patient, primarily panic disorder, sample. Results are interpreted in the context of the cognitive deficits that are common to the anxiety and mood disorders, with attention to a range of potential factors, including mood comorbidity, higher-and lower-order cognitive processes and deficits, and medication use, that may modulate outcomes in fear conditioning studies, and, potentially, in exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Storage Conditions of Skin Affect Tissue Structure and Subsequent in vitro Percutaneous Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Plasencia Gil, Maria Inés; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2011-01-01

    fluorescence microscopy) and in vitro percutaneous penetration of caffeine under four different storage conditions using skin samples from the same donors: fresh skin, skin kept at -20°C for 3 weeks (with or without the use of polyethylene glycol) and at -80°C. Our results show a correlation between increasing...... permeation of caffeine and tissue structural damage caused by the storage conditions, most so after skin storage at -80°C. The presented approach, which combines imaging techniques with studies on percutaneous penetration, enables the link between tissue damage at selected depths and penetration...

  20. Characterization of Acorn Fruit Oils Extracted from Selected Mediterranean Quercus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rousan, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to identifying the acorn fruit oil composition of three Mediterranean white oak group species, Quercus aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI, and Quercus calliprinus (QC. Samples were estimated for the oil contents of acorn fruits, oil chemical and physical constants, fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and sterols.The oil content, expressed as dry weight, was found to be 3.40-7.51%. The physical and chemical constants included specific gravity 0.912-0.922, refractive index 1.4529-1.4645, specific extinction at 232 nm 2.497-2.536 and at 270 nm 1.495-2.037, iodine value 75.2-87.6, and saponification value 192.6-219.4. The fatty acid compositions were determined by GC as methyl esters. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic (53.3-56.1%, linoleic 21.3-23.4%, palmitic 17.8-18.7%, linolenic 1.5-1.6% and stearic acid 1.02-1.60%. The Tocopherol content was high in the range of 1440-1783 mg kg-1, γ-tocopherol constituted 84-91% of total tocopherols. Phenolic compounds were in remarkable amounts in all the three species 84-109 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil. Total sterol contents were between 2040-2480 mg kg-1 oil, with β-sitosterol being the main component comprising of 77.20-84.61%, followed by ∆5-avenasterol (5.8-11.4%, campesterol (3.6-4.5%, and stigmasterol (2.6-3.8. The cholesterol content was relatively high (0.42-0.55%.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la composición de aceites de bellota de tres especies del grupo del roble blanco del Mediterráneo, Quercus Aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI y Quercus calliprinus (QC. Las muestras fueron evaluadas por el contenido de aceite, parámetros físico-químicos del aceite, perfil de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, compuestos fenólicos y esteroles. El contenido de aceite, expresado en peso seco encontrado fue de 3,40 a 7,51%. Las constantes físico-químicas fueron: densidad 0,912-0,922, índice de refracción 1,4529 a 1,4645, extinción espec

  1. How Sensory Experiences Affect Adolescents with an Autistic Spectrum Condition within the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Fiona E.; Stagg, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing difficulties are consistently reported amongst individuals with an autistic spectrum condition (ASC); these have a significant impact on daily functioning. Evidence in this area comes from observer reports and first-hand accounts; both have limitations. The current study used the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP; Brown and…

  2. Do nest light conditions affect rejection of parasitic eggs? A test of the light environment hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Morongová, Klára; Čapek, Miroslav; Jelínek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2011), s. 539-546 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * nest light conditions * egg recognition * Great reed warbler * cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  3. Retorting conditions affect palatability and physical characteristics of canned cat food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Orlanes, D.F.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different temperature and time conditions during retorting of canned cat food on physicochemical characteristics and palatability were examined. For this purpose, lacquer cans containing an unprocessed loaf-type commercial cat food were heated in a pressurised retorting system at

  4. Abiotic conditions affect floral antagonists and mutualists of Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper Gorden, Nicole L; Adler, Lynn S

    2013-04-01

    While the effect of abiotic factors on leaf herbivory is well known, the relative importance of abiotic conditions influencing both mutualists and antagonists is less well understood. Species interactions could enhance or reduce the direct effects of abiotic factors, depending on how mutualists and antagonists respond to abiotic conditions. We manipulated soil nutrients and shade in a factorial design and measured soil moisture in the annual Impatiens capensis. We then measured interactions with mutualists (two pollinating species) and antagonists (herbivores, florivores, nectar thieves, and flower bud gallers), as well as plant growth, floral rewards, and plant reproduction. Fertilizer increased plant growth, floral attractiveness, mutualist and antagonist interactions, and plant reproduction. Shade had no effects, and soil moisture was negatively associated with plant growth and reproduction. All effects were additive. Mutualist and antagonist floral interactions both increased on fertilized plants, but antagonists increased at a greater rate, leading to a larger ratio of antagonist to mutualist interactions on fertilized plants. Despite having more antagonists, fertilized plants still had significantly higher reproduction, suggesting higher tolerance to antagonists. Abiotic effects can have consistent effects on antagonists and mutualists, and on both floral and leaf antagonists. However, tolerance to antagonisms increased in favorable conditions. Thus, the direct positive effects of favorable abiotic conditions on plants outweighed negative indirect effects via increased antagonisms, which may lead to selection to grow in high-nutrient microsites in spite of increased herbivory.

  5. Survival of spray-dried Lactobacillus kefir is affected by different protectants and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golowczyc, Marina A; Gerez, Carla L; Silva, Joana; Abraham, Analía G; De Antoni, Graciela L; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-04-01

    Survival of two Lactobacillus kefir strains after spray drying in reconstituted skim milk with or without the addition of 12.5 g monosodium glutamate/l, 20 g sucrose/l, or 20 g fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)/l and during subsequent storage under different conditions of temperature (20 and 30°C) and relative humidity (RH) (0, 11 and 23%) was evaluated. After being dried, L. kefir 8321 and L. kefir 8348 had a decrease in viability of 0.29 and 0.70 log cfu/ml respectively, while the addition of different protectants improved the survival of both strains significantly. During storage, bacterial survival was significantly higher under lower conditions of RH (0-11%), and monosodium glutamate and FOS proved to be the best protectants.

  6. Immune challenge affects female condition and egg size in the grey partridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Marco; Pellegrino, Irene; Malacarne, Giorgio

    2010-11-01

    As maintenance of the immune system is energetically costly and resource-limited, trade-offs among immune function, body condition, and reproductive allocation are expected. In this study, we experimentally test the possible trade-off between immune response, self maintenance, and reproductive output in breeding grey partridges Perdix perdix. Before laying, half the females were immune challenged with a novel antigen vaccine (Newcastle disease virus, NDV). The challenged females showed a higher erythrosedimentation rate, a serum parameter related to worsened health conditions, but their cell-mediated immune reaction (PHA test) did not differ from that of controls. The NDV-treated females laid smaller eggs (mass, length, and breadth), while the concentrations of antibacterial substances (lysozyme and avidin, two enzymes that confer innate antibacterial immunity) were unrelated to the hen's immune challenge. Our study suggests that an immune challenge can have physiological consequences in terms of self-maintenance and reproductive allocation to the egg.

  7. Do Business Cycle Conditions at the Time of Labor Market Entry Affect Future Employment Prospects?

    OpenAIRE

    Oddbjørn Raaum; Knut Røed

    2006-01-01

    Labor market conditions at the time and place of potential entry into the labor market are shown to have a substantial and persistent effect on adult employment prospects. Individuals who face particularly depressed local labor markets when they graduate from secondary education, are-other things equal-subject to relatively high rates of nonemployment during their whole prime-age work career. Building on a unique combination of micro and macro data from Norway, we show that these effects are ...

  8. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition 'and' extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS- comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Psychosis in autism: comparison of the features of both conditions in a dually affected cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Felicity V; Wagner, Adam P; Jones, Peter B; Tantam, Digby; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Holland, Anthony J

    2017-04-01

    Background There is limited information on the presentation and characteristics of psychotic illness experienced by people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Aims To describe autistic and psychotic phenomenology in a group of individuals with comorbid ASD and psychosis (ASD-P) and compare this group with populations affected by either, alone. Method We studied 116 individuals with ASD-P. We compared features of their ASD with people with ASD and no comorbid psychosis (ASD-NP), and clinical characteristics of psychosis in ASD-P with people with psychosis only. Results Individuals with ASD-P had more diagnoses of atypical psychosis and fewer of schizophrenia compared with individuals with psychosis only. People with ASD-P had fewer stereotyped interests/behaviours compared with those with ASD-NP. Conclusions Our data show there may be a specific subtype of ASD linked to comorbid psychosis. The results support findings that psychosis in people with ASD is often atypical, particularly regarding affective disturbance. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  10. Psychosis in autism: comparison of the features of both conditions in a dually affected cohort†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Felicity V.; Wagner, Adam P.; Jones, Peter B.; Tantam, Digby; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Holland, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is limited information on the presentation and characteristics of psychotic illness experienced by people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Aims To describe autistic and psychotic phenomenology in a group of individuals with comorbid ASD and psychosis (ASD–P) and compare this group with populations affected by either, alone. Method We studied 116 individuals with ASD–P. We compared features of their ASD with people with ASD and no comorbid psychosis (ASD–NP), and clinical characteristics of psychosis in ASD–P with people with psychosis only. Results Individuals with ASD–P had more diagnoses of atypical psychosis and fewer of schizophrenia compared with individuals with psychosis only. People with ASD–P had fewer stereotyped interests/behaviours compared with those with ASD–NP. Conclusions Our data show there may be a specific subtype of ASD linked to comorbid psychosis. The results support findings that psychosis in people with ASD is often atypical, particularly regarding affective disturbance. PMID:27979819

  11. Quantification of analytes affected by relevant interfering signals under quality controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J.N.; Santos, Julia R.; Camoes, M. Filomena G.F.C.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of organic contaminants or residues in biological samples is frequently affected by the presence of compounds producing interfering instrumental signals. This feature is responsible for the higher complexity and cost of these analyses and/or by a significant reduction of the number of studied analytes in a multi-analyte method. This work presents a methodology to estimate the impact of the interfering compounds on the quality of the analysis of complex samples, based on separative instrumental methods of analysis, aiming at supporting the inclusion of analytes affected by interfering compounds in the list of compounds analysed in the studied samples. The proposed methodology involves the study of the magnitude of the signal produced by the interfering compounds in the analysed matrix, and is applicable to analytical systems affected by interfering compounds with varying concentration in the studied matrix. The proposed methodology is based on the comparison of the signals from a representative number of examples of the studied matrix, in order to estimate the impact of the presence of such compounds on the measurement quality. The treatment of the chromatographic signals necessary to collect these data can be easily performed considering algorithms of subtraction of chromatographic signals available in most of the analytical instrumentation software. The subtraction of the interfering compounds signal from the sample signal allows the compensation of the interfering effect irrespective of the relative magnitude of the interfering and analyte signals, supporting the applicability of the same model of the method performance for a broader concentration range. The quantification of the measurement uncertainty was performed using the differential approach, which allows the estimation of the contribution of the presence of the interfering compounds to the quality of the measurement. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of

  12. Histaminergic ligands injected into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis differentially affect fear conditioning consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Fernando; Baldi, Elisabetta; Bucherelli, Corrado; Blandina, Patrizio; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2013-04-01

    The role of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in fear conditioning encoding is well established. In the present report, we investigate the involvement of the NBM histaminergic system in consolidating fear memories. The NBM was injected bilaterally with ligands of histaminergic receptors immediately after contextual fear conditioning. Histaminergic compounds, either alone or in combination, were stereotaxically administered to different groups of adult male Wistar rats and memory was assessed as conditioned freezing duration 72 h after administration. This protocol prevents interference with NBM function during either acquisition or retrieval phases, hence restricting the effect of pharmacological manipulations to fear memory consolidation. The results presented here demonstrate that post-training H3 receptors (H3R) blockade with the antagonist/inverse agonist thioperamide or activation with immepip in the NBM potentiates or decreases, respectively, freezing response at retrieval. Thioperamide induced memory enhancement seems to depend on H2R, but not H1R activation, as the H2R antagonist zolantidine blocked the effect of thioperamide, whereas the H1R antagonist pyrilamine was ineffective. Furthermore, the H2R agonist ampthamine improved fear memory expression independently of the H3R agonist effect. Our results indicate that activation of post-synaptic H2R within the NBM by endogenous histamine is responsible for the potentiated expression of fear responses. The results are discussed in terms of activation of H3 auto- and heteroreceptors within the NBM and the differential effect of H3R ligands on fear memory consolidation in distinct brain regions.

  13. Photosynthesis and photoprotection in coffee leaves is affected by nitrogen and light availabilities in winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompelli, Marcelo F; Martins, Samuel C V; Antunes, Werner C; Chaves, Agnaldo R M; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2010-09-01

    Coffee is native to shady environments but often grows better and produces higher yields without shade, though at the expense of high fertilization inputs, particularly nitrogen (N). Potted plants were grown under full sunlight and shade (50%) conditions and were fertilized with nutrient solutions containing either 0 or 23 mM N. Measurements were made in southeastern Brazil during winter conditions, when relatively low night temperatures and high diurnal insolation are common. Overall, the net carbon assimilation rate was quite low, which was associated with diffusive, rather than biochemical, constraints. N deficiency led to decreases in the concentrations of chlorophylls (Chl) and total carotenoids as well as in the Chl/N ratio. These conditions also led to qualitative changes in the carotenoid composition, e.g., increased antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) pools on a Chl basis, particularly at high light, which was linked to increased thermal dissipation of absorbed light. The variable-to-maximum fluorescence ratio at predawn decreased with increasing A+Z pools and decreased linearly with decreasing N. We showed that this ratio was inadequate for assessing photoinhibition under N limitation. Expressed per unit mass, the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were not altered with the treatments. In contrast, ascorbate peroxidase activity was lower in low N plants, particularly under shade, whereas catalase activity was lower in shaded plants than in sun-grown plants, regardless of the N level. Glutamine synthetase activity was greater in sun-grown plants than in shaded individuals at a given N level and decreased with decreasing N application. Our results suggest that the photoprotective and antioxidant capacity per amount of photons absorbed was up-regulated by a low N supply; nevertheless, this capacity, regardless of the light conditions, was not enough to prevent oxidative damage, as judged from the increases in the H(2)O(2) and

  14. Does the thinking aloud condition affect the search for pulmonary nodules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, Stephen; Brennan, Patrick; Reed, Warren; Williams, Mark; Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.

    2012-02-01

    Aim: To measure the effect of thinking aloud on perceptual accuracy and visual search behavior during chest radiograph interpretation for pulmonary nodules. Background: Thinking Aloud (TA) is an empirical research method used by researchers in cognitive psychology and behavioural analysis. In this pilot study we wanted to examine whether TA had an effect on the perceptual accuracy and search patterns of subjects looking for pulmonary nodules on adult posterioranterior chest radiographs (PA CxR). Method: Seven academics within Medical Radiation Sciences at The University of Sydney participated in two reading sessions with and without TA. Their task was to localize pulmonary nodules on 30 PA CxR using mouse clicks and rank their confidence levels of nodule presence. Eye-tracking recordings were collected during both viewing sessions. Time to first fixation, duration of first fixation, number of fixations, cumulative time of fixation and total viewing time were analysed. In addition, ROC analysis was conducted on collected outcome using DBM methodology. Results: Time to first nodule fixation was significantly longer (p=0.001) and duration of first fixation was significantly shorter (p=0.043). No significant difference was observed in ROC AUC scores between control and TA conditions. Conclusion: Our results confirm that TA has little effect on perceptual ability or performance, except for prolonging the task. However, there were significant differences in visual search behavior. Future researchers in radio-diagnosis could use the think aloud condition rather than silence so as to more closely replicate the clinical scenario.

  15. Ecological conditions affect evolutionary trajectory in a predator-prey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Romain; Tully, Thomas; Evans, Margaret E K

    2009-03-01

    The arms race of adaptation and counter adaptation in predator-prey interactions is a fascinating evolutionary dynamic with many consequences, including local adaptation and the promotion or maintenance of diversity. Although such antagonistic coevolution is suspected to be widespread in nature, experimental documentation of the process remains scant, and we have little understanding of the impact of ecological conditions. Here, we present evidence of predator-prey coevolution in a long-term experiment involving the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and the prey Pseudomonas fluorescens, which has three morphs (SM, FS, and WS). Depending on experimentally applied disturbance regimes, the predator-prey system followed two distinct evolutionary trajectories, where the prey evolved to be either super-resistant to predation (SM morph) without counter-adaptation by the predator, or moderately resistant (FS morph), specialized to and coevolving with the predator. Although predation-resistant FS morphs suffer a cost of resistance, the evolution of extreme resistance to predation by the SM morph was apparently unconstrained by other traits (carrying capacity, growth rate). Thus we demonstrate empirically that ecological conditions can shape the evolutionary trajectory of a predator-prey system.

  16. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  17. Conditions Affecting the Performance of Peripheral Vein Cannulation during Hospital Placement: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ravik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning practical nursing skills is an important part of the baccalaureate in nursing. However, many newly qualified nurses lack practical skill proficiency required to ensure safe patient care. The invasive skill peripheral vein cannulation (PVC is particularly challenging to learn and perform. This study explored conditions influencing nursing students’ learning and performance of the technical implementation of a PVC during their clinical placement period. A qualitative and descriptive case study design with two students in Norway practicing PVC during their clinical placement was conducted. One student who mastered the vein cannulation was compared with one student who did not. Data were collected in late 2012 using multiple data sources: semistructured interviews, ad hoc conversations, and video recordings. Video recordings of the two students’ cannula implementations were used to help clarify and validate the descriptions and to identify gaps between what students said and what they did. Thematic analysis of the transcribed text data enabled identifying themes that influenced skill performance. There were two overall themes: individual and contextual conditions influencing the technical implementation of a peripheral vein cannula. These findings were evaluated in terms of Benner’s work on scientific and practical knowledge, defined as “knowing that” and “knowing how.”

  18. Different Setting Conditions Affect Surface Characteristics and Microhardness of Calcium Silicate-Based Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of different setting conditions on surface microhardness and setting properties of calcium silicate-based sealers. Methods. Three sealers, EndoSequence Bioceramic (BC; Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA, USA, Endoseal MTA (ES; Maruchi, Wonju, Korea, and Well-Root ST (WR; Vericom, Chuncheon, Korea, were compared. Specimens were exposed to either butyric acid (pH 5.4 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS [pH 7.4] for 48 h and stored at 100% humidity for 12 days. The control specimens were stored at 100% humidity for 14 days. Surface microhardness was measured, topographic changes were observed, and phase analysis was performed using X-ray diffraction. Microhardness according to storage conditions was compared using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s multiple comparison tests (P<.05. Results. The BC and ES sealers exhibited decreased microhardness when stored in acid or PBS compared with control (P<.05. In the WR group, acid exposure lowered microhardness of the specimens compared with control (P<.05. Scanning electron microscopy revealed different topographies in specimens from all tested sealers exposed to acid or PBS. Conclusion. The surface microhardness of calcium silicate-based sealers was reduced by exposure to either acid or PBS. Acid solutions, however, had a more detrimental effect than PBS.

  19. Evaluation of the degree of healthiness of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. acorns in the Włoszczowa– Jędrzejów Nature Park and its neighbouring area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk-Badowska Jolanta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to demonstrate the degree of healthiness of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur acorns found in the Włoszczowa-Jędrzejów Nature Park (abbreviation: W-JOChK and in the neighbouring area. It was dealt with by making the analysis of health of the acorns (total 3,600. The research material included the samples of fallen down acorns, collected under the pedunculate oaks in Kurzelów (W-JOChK, as well as Żelisławice. The study was conducted from late September 2014 to early October 2015.

  20. Culture conditions affecting the survival response of Chinese hamster ovary cells treated by hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highfield, D.P.; Holahan, E.V.; Dewey, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Using lethally irradiated feeder cells to control cell population densities, researchers investigated the survival of Chinese hamster ovary cells heated between 42.2 and 45.5 degrees C. Test cells were plated into T25 flasks with or without feeder cells, incubated 2 hours at 37 degrees C, and then given various heat treatments. Under all heating conditions, survival increased in those flasks containing feeder cells. Increased survival (by as much as a factor of 100 for cells heated at 42.4 degrees C for 6-10 hr) was most apparent when cells were heated to thermotolerance. By adjustment of test and feeder cell numbers, survival increased as density increased; however, maximum survival followed a transition period that occurred between the plating of 1 X 10(4) and 6 X 10(4) cells. Experimental artifacts due to improper control of cell density was demonstrated

  1. A direct numerical simulation of cool-flame affected autoignition in diesel engine-relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisman, Alexander; Hawkes, Evatt Robert.; Talei, Mohsen; Bhagatwala, Ankit; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2016-11-11

    In diesel engines, combustion is initiated by a two-staged autoignition that includes both low- and high-temperature chemistry. The location and timing of both stages of autoignition are important parameters that influence the development and stabilisation of the flame. In this study, a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to provide a fully resolved description of ignition at diesel engine-relevant conditions. The DNS is performed at a pressure of 40 atmospheres and at an ambient temperature of 900 K using dimethyl ether (DME) as the fuel, with a 30 species reduced chemical mechanism. At these conditions, similar to diesel fuel, DME exhibits two-stage ignition. The focus of this study is on the behaviour of the low-temperature chemistry (LTC) and the way in which it influences the high-temperature ignition. The results show that the LTC develops as a “spotty” first-stage autoignition in lean regions which transitions to a diffusively supported cool-flame and then propagates up the local mixture fraction gradient towards richer regions. The cool-flame speed is much faster than can be attributed to spatial gradients in first-stage ignition delay time in homogeneous reactors. The cool-flame causes a shortening of the second-stage ignition delay times compared to a homogeneous reactor and the shortening becomes more pronounced at richer mixtures. Multiple high-temperature ignition kernels are observed over a range of rich mixtures that are much richer than the homogeneous most reactive mixture and most kernels form much earlier than suggested by the homogeneous ignition delay time of the corresponding local mixture. Altogether, the results suggest that LTC can strongly influence both the timing and location in composition space of the high-temperature ignition.

  2. Using conditional inference forests to identify the factors affecting crash severity on arterial corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Abhishek; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Pande, Anurag

    2009-01-01

    The study aims at identifying traffic/highway design/driver-vehicle information significantly related with fatal/severe crashes on urban arterials for different crash types. Since the data used in this study are observational (i.e., collected outside the purview of a designed experiment), an information discovery approach is adopted for this study. Random Forests, which are ensembles of individual trees grown by CART (Classification and Regression Tree) algorithm, are applied in numerous applications for this purpose. Specifically, conditional inference forests have been implemented. In each tree of the conditional inference forest, splits are based on how good the association is. Chi-square test statistics are used to measure the association. Apart from identifying the variables that improve classification accuracy, the methodology also clearly identifies the variables that are neutral to accuracy, and also those that decrease it. The methodology is quite insightful in identifying the variables of interest in the database (e.g., alcohol/ drug use and higher posted speed limits contribute to severe crashes). Failure to use safety equipment by all passengers and presence of driver/passenger in the vulnerable age group (more than 55 years or less than 3 years) increased the severity of injuries given a crash had occurred. A new variable, 'element' has been used in this study, which assigns crashes to segments, intersections, or access points based on the information from site location, traffic control, and presence of signals. The authors were able to identify roadway locations where severe crashes tend to occur. For example, segments and access points were found to be riskier for single vehicle crashes. Higher skid resistance and k-factor also contributed toward increased severity of injuries in crashes.

  3. Physiochemical and functional properties of tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes) skin gelatin as affected by extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinfeng; Li, Qi; Jia, Hui; Xia, Lining; Jin, Wengang; Shang, Meijun; Xu, Chang; Dong, Xiuping

    2018-04-01

    The study investigated physiochemical and functional properties of gelatins from tiger puffer skin (GTPS) extracted with warm-water method at 45, 55 and 65°C for 3, 6 and 12h. GTPS45 exhibited strong γ-, β-, α1- and α2-chains, but they faded with the presence of fragments (<80KDa) in other GTPS. As the increase of temperature and time, amide I and A were shifted to higher wavenumber and their amplitudes in GTPS65-12 decreased. Lightness declined while redness and yellowness were enhanced. Gel strength was in a range of 144.5-79.8g, where it of GTPS45-3 was the highest while it of GTPS65-12 was the lowest (p<0.05), coincided with the longer relaxation time of T 22 for immobilized water. Decline in gelling and melting temperature was observed when temperature and time increased. EAI and ESI increased as time prolonged or temperature climbed (p<0.05), in agreement with the form of emulsion droplet by microscopy. Both category and level of volatile compounds increased GTPS65-12 and 55-12 compared with those in GTPS45-12. Results suggest that temperature and time greatly affect the properties of GTPS. To ensure good properties, GTPS should be extracted at a temperature of 45-55°C for less than 12h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihm, Julia S; Rasch, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Emotional memories are reprocessed during sleep, and it is widely assumed that this reprocessing occurs mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In support for this notion, vivid emotional dreams occur mainly during REM sleep, and several studies have reported emotional memory enhancement to be associated with REM sleep or REM sleep-related parameters. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation of emotional memories during REM sleep strengthens emotional memories. Here, we tested whether re-presentation of emotionally learned stimuli during REM sleep enhances emotional memory. In a split-night design, participants underwent Pavlovian conditioning after the first half of the night. Neutral sounds served as conditioned stimuli (CS) and were either paired with a negative odor (CS+) or an odorless vehicle (CS-). During sound replay in subsequent late REM or N2 sleep, half of the CS+ and half of the CS- were presented again. In contrast to our hypothesis, replay during sleep did not affect emotional memory as measured by the differentiation between CS+ and CS- in expectancy, arousal and valence ratings. However, replay unspecifically decreased subjective arousal ratings of both emotional and neutral sounds and increased positive valence ratings also for both CS+ and CS- sounds, respectively. These effects were slightly more pronounced for replay during REM sleep. Our results suggest that re-exposure to previously conditioned stimuli during late sleep does not affect emotional memory strength, but rather influences the affective tone of both emotional and neutral memories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental conditions affect the magnitude of inbreeding depression in survival of Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lukas F; Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Petren, Kenneth

    2002-06-01

    Understanding the fitness consequences of inbreeding (inbreeding depression) is of importance to evolutionary and conservation biology. There is ample evidence for inbreeding depression in captivity, and data from wild populations are accumulating. However, we still lack a good quantitative understanding of inbreeding depression and what influences its magnitude in natural populations. Specifically, the relationship between the magnitude of inbreeding depression and environmental severity is unclear. We quantified inbreeding depression in survival and reproduction in populations of cactus finches (Geospiza scandens) and medium ground finches (Geospiza fortis) living on Isla Daphne Major in the Galápagos Archipelago. Our analyses showed that inbreeding strongly reduced the recruitment probability (probability of breeding given that an adult is alive) in both species. Additionally, in G. scandens, first-year survival of an offspring with f = 0.25 was reduced by 21% and adults with f = 0.25 experienced a 45% reduction in their annual probability of survival. The magnitude of inbreeding depression in both adult and juvenile survival of this species was strongly modified by two environmental conditions, food availability and number of competitors. In juveniles, inbreeding depression was only present in years with low food availability, and in adults inbreeding depression was five times more severe in years with low food availability and large population sizes. The combination of relatively severe inbreeding depression in survival and the reduced recruitment probability led to the fact that very few inbred G. scandens ever succeeded in breeding. Other than recruitment probability, no other trait showed evidence of inbreeding depression in G. fortis, probably for two reasons: a relatively high rate of extrapair paternity (20%), which may lead to an underestimate of the apparent inbreeding depression, and low sample sizes of highly inbred G. fortis, which leads to low

  6. Variable abattoir conditions affect Salmonella enterica prevalence and meat quality in swine and pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, H S; Gailey, J K; McKean, J D; Griffith, R W

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that abattoir holding pens pose significant Salmonella enterica risk to swine immediately preharvest. The goal of this study was to evaluate those factors related to holding that increased the prevalence of S. enterica in swine at slaughter. To accomplish this goal, we focused on holding time and flooring. Our objectives were to (1) compare Salmonella enterica prevalence among pigs held for short (15-45 min) versus long (up to 4 h) periods before slaughter; and (2) determine the impact of flooring (slatted vs. concrete) as it relates to the prevalence of S. enterica. The study consisted of seven repetitions at a large volume (11,000 head/day) Midwest abattoir. Each repetition consisted of one truck load of pigs (n = 170) sorted into one of three groups: (1) animals held for a short time (15-45 min) on solid floors (short-hold); (2) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on slatted floors; and (3) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on solid concrete floors. At slaughter, samples were collected from 30 pigs in each group. Cecal contents (20 mL), feces (20 g), and the ileocecal lymph node were cultured for S. enterica. Additionally, the effect of holding time on meat quality parameters (loin pH at 35 min and 6 h, color, drip loss) was evaluated for the first four replicates. The proportion of S. enterica-positive samples was highest (p Meat quality, as measured by multiple parameters, was adversely affected by lack of a rest period. The mean 24-h pH was significantly lower for the short-hold group compared to the other two groups. The mean Minolta L and the drip loss were significantly higher in the short-hold group. From this and other studies, it appears that elimination of the holding process is not feasible S. enterica control option, given current U.S. harvesting systems.

  7. Does Spatial Access to Primary Care Affect Emergency Department Utilization for Nonemergent Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jamie; McLafferty, Sara; Galanter, William

    2018-02-01

    To examine the contributions of individual- and neighborhood-level spatial access to care to the utilization of emergency departments (EDs) for preventable conditions through implementation of novel local spatial access measures. Emergency department admissions data are from four HealthLNK member hospitals in Chicago from 2007 to 2011. Primary care physician office and clinic locations were obtained from the American Medical Association and the City of Chicago. Multilevel logit regression was used to model the relationship between individual- and neighborhood-level attributes and preventable ED use. Emergency department admissions data were classified based on the primary diagnosis for each encounter. Spatial access to care indices were generated in ArcGIS, and values were extracted at each ZIP code centroid to match patients' ZIP codes. Beyond sociodemographic factors such as gender and race, patients living in medically underserved areas (MUAs) and areas with lower spatial access to primary care clinics had higher odds of preventable ED use. Preventable ED use can be associated with sociodemographic characteristics, as well as spatial access to primary care services. This study reveals potential for using local measures of spatial accessibility for preventable ED analyses. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Modeling Time-Dependent Behavior of Concrete Affected by Alkali Silica Reaction in Variable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaggar, Mohammed; Di Luzio, Giovanni; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2017-04-28

    Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) is known to be a serious problem for concrete worldwide, especially in high humidity and high temperature regions. ASR is a slow process that develops over years to decades and it is influenced by changes in environmental and loading conditions of the structure. The problem becomes even more complicated if one recognizes that other phenomena like creep and shrinkage are coupled with ASR. This results in synergistic mechanisms that can not be easily understood without a comprehensive computational model. In this paper, coupling between creep, shrinkage and ASR is modeled within the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) framework. In order to achieve this, a multi-physics formulation is used to compute the evolution of temperature, humidity, cement hydration, and ASR in both space and time, which is then used within physics-based formulations of cracking, creep and shrinkage. The overall model is calibrated and validated on the basis of experimental data available in the literature. Results show that even during free expansions (zero macroscopic stress), a significant degree of coupling exists because ASR induced expansions are relaxed by meso-scale creep driven by self-equilibriated stresses at the meso-scale. This explains and highlights the importance of considering ASR and other time dependent aging and deterioration phenomena at an appropriate length scale in coupled modeling approaches.

  9. Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Affects Ectomycorrhizal Species Abundance and Increases Sporocarp Production under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Godbold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities during the last century have increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Forest net primary productivity increases in response to elevated CO2, altering the quantity and quality of carbon supplied to the rhizosphere. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form obligate symbiotic associations with the fine roots of trees that mediate improved scavenging for nutrients in exchange for a carbohydrate supply. Understanding how the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi is altered by climate change is important to further our understanding of ecosystem function. Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica were grown in an elevated CO2 atmosphere delivered using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE under field conditions in the U.K., and Picea abies was grown under elevated CO2 in glass domes in the Czech Republic. We used morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the fungal ribosomal operon to study ectomycorrhizal community structure. Under FACE, un-colonised roots tips increased in abundance for Fagus sylvatica, and during 2006, sporocarp biomass of Peziza badia significantly increased. In domes, ectomycorrhizal community composition shifted from short-distance and smooth medium-distance to contact exploration types. Supply and competition for carbon belowground can influence ectomycorrhizal community structure with the potential to alter ecosystem function.

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING PHENOLOGY OF DIFFERENT Citrus VARIETIES UNDER THE TEMPERATE CLIMATE CONDITIONS OF SANTA FE, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Guadalupe Micheloud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to characterize the phenology of different sweet orange, tangerines and tangerine hybrid varieties growing under the temperate climate conditions of Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Phenological stages were observed weekly during five consecutive years using a BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemical industry scale adapted for Citrus trees. All varieties showed a winter rest period from June to August. ‘New Hall’ and ‘Navelina’ varieties were the first to reach sprouting stage, whereas ‘Okitsu’ was the last. Inception of flowering occurred from August 13th to September 6th; and full bloom from September 12th to October 2nd. Fruit harvest started with the ‘Okitsu’ cultivar in March, and continued over a 7-month period. Interannual variation for inception of sprouting was high (44 days, and sprouting was correlated with both thermal accumulation (above 13ºC and the amount of solar radiation measured during July (p<0.0001; r2=0.79. Navel oranges and the ‘Murcott’ hybrid bloomed 5–15 days earlier than other varieties, increasing probability of damage by late frosts.

  11. Composition of Myrtus communis L. Essential Oils as Affected by Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae family, commonly known as myrtle, possesses a set of qualities that make it very interesting for the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. In this work, myrtle was studied over a period of three years (2006-2008, encompassing the main stages of the development cycle of the plant. The influence of climatic conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, on the chemical composition and yield of the essential oils obtained from leaves and berries was studied. The leaves and berries essential oils were obtained by Clevenger distillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The results show that the major components were limonene+1,8-cineole, myrtenyl acetate, α-pinene and linalool. Over the three year period of study, a decrease in the composition of the most volatile compounds (α-pinene and limonene+1,8-cineole was observed, the reverse being found for linalool and myrtenyl acetate. The highest value for the yield of the leaves’ essential oils was observed in the third year (0.64%, w/w, whereas that same year the lowest yield (0.07%, w/w of fruit was observed. These results were likely due to an atypically high record for rainfall in April and May of that year. The highest value of the berry essential oils (0.14%, w/w was obtained in the second year.

  12. Growth indices of winter wheat as affected by irrigation regimes under Iran conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazy, Hamid Dehghanzadeh; Poor, Mohammad Reza Khajeh; Abad, Hossain Heidari Sharif; Soleimani, Ali

    2007-12-15

    An experiment was conducted during 2004-2006 at the Agricultural Research Station, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation regimes on growth indices of three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. A split plot layout with a randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Irrigation treatments (irrigation after 70 (I1), 90 (I2) and 110 (I3) mm cumulative evaporation from class A evaporation pan) were considered as the main plot and three wheat genotypes (Mahdavy, Ghods and Roshan-Backcross) as subplots. The I1 and I2 did not differ significantly for all growth indices, total dry matter and grain yield. Delay in irrigation from the I2 to I3 significantly reduced growth indices, total dry matter and grain yield. Trend of changes in Leaf Area Index (LAI), Total Dry Matter (TDM), Net Assimilation Rate (NAR) and Crop Growth Rate (CGR) were similar in the I1 and the I2. In all samplings, delay in irrigation from the I2 to I3 reduced all growth indices. The trend of changes in crop growth rate was more similar to leaf area index, than to net assimilation rate. Genotypes were not significantly different in respect to growth indices. The results indicate that irrigation after 90 mm cumulative evaporation from class A evaporation pan might be suitable for winter wheat production under conditions similar to this experiment where irrigation water during spring is not abundant.

  13. Inoculation density is affecting growth conditions of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh cut lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamon, Oisin; Scollard, Johann; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2017-11-27

    Listeria monocytogenes is a particular risk for the ready-to-eat food sector because of its ability to grow in various environmental conditions. In the literature, growth and survival of L. monocytogenes on food is tested using inoculation densities ranging from less than 10 2 to over 10 5  CFU g -1 . Inoculation densities on food have been rarely tested as a factor for growth. In this study, inoculation densities from 10 2 to 10 5 of L. monocytogenes were tested on iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in modified atmospheres and air in model packages at 4 and 8 °C to identify any potential inoculation density effects. On days 0, 2, 5 and 7, L. monocytogenes was extracted from the lettuce surface and enumerated via selective media. The resulting growth curves identified a significant inoculation density effect at 4 and 8 °C with significantly higher amounts of growth (1-2 logs) when lettuce was inoculated at 10 2  CFU g -1 as opposed to 10 4 and 10 5  CFU g -1 . In contrast, the use of different atmospheres had limited influence on growth of L. monocytogenes. In conclusion, greater emphasis on inoculation density of L. monocytogenes should be taken in inoculation experiments when confirmation of growth or the efficacies of growth inhibiting treatments are tested on ready-to-eat food such as lettuce.

  14. Diet and weaning age affect the growth and condition of Dover sole (Solea solea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diet type (frozen Artemia biomass and two inert diets: micro-bound [MB] and micro-extruded [ME] and two weaning ages (early weaning and late weaning, 50 and 64 days after hatching, respectively were studied in Solea solea larvae. The experiment lasted 56 and 42 days for early and late weaning, respectively. The mortality results showed the highest values for late weaning (39% in the Artemia treatment. No significant differences in mortality were observed between the inert diets. The final dry weight values were higher for late weaning than for early weaning. At both weaning ages, fish receiving the same treatments had similar tendencies for dry weight and standard length. Fish fed with MB presented significantly higher dry weight and standard length, followed by ME, while the lowest values at both weaning ages were recorded for the Artemia treatment. Similar amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acid fractions among the inert diets were reflected by the absence of significant differences in the susceptibility to oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances testing; however, significant differences were found in carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents of whole-body homogenates for both early and late weaning. At the end of the experiment no significant differences in biochemical contents were observed between the two inert diets. The results of this study suggest that weaning starting on day 50 (early weaning, using a good quality inert diet, leads to higher survival, growth and fish condition.

  15. Experimental investigation of factors affecting the control of redox conditions within a radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, R.M.; Atkinson, A.

    1991-04-01

    The maximum aqueous concentration of multivalent radioelements in a radwaste repository can be estimated from the expected Eh (the oxidising or reducing tendency of the solution) and pH of the aqueous phase in the repository so long as equilibrium between all oxidising and reducing species can be guaranteed. The objective of the work reported here was to ascertain whether any significant departures from redox equilibrium are likely to arise. Technetium (VII) species were exposed under anaerobic conditions to concentrations of ferrous, hydrogen sulphide and thiosulphate species likely to be present in a repository environment to establish which species are capable of reducing aqueous Tc(VII) to a less soluble Tc(IV) solid compound. Potential catalytic solid phases and phases capable of electron exchange were also exposed to Tc(VII) species under anaerobic, aerobic and hydrogen atmospheres. We have not been able to demonstrate conclusively that mutual equilibrium was attained between technetium and iron redox couples, nor that the apparent solubility of technetium was that expected from the resulting Eh and pH of the solution, although some technetium was removed from solution. Hydrogen did not reduce Tc(VII) within the timescale of the experiments and no catalytic effects by haematite or a cementitious backfill grout for reductions involving hydrogen were observable. Magnetite removed some technetium from solution, apparently by surface reaction, under inert (argon) and reducing (hydrogen) atmospheres. Sulphides, and to a lesser extent thiosulphates, will reduce the solubility of technetium to a very low level. (author)

  16. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando José González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27% were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19% on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC, radial expansion (E, specific volume (SV, water absorption (WA, and solubility (S were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp. than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g. Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18. Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  17. Body condition of gilts at the end of gestation affects their mammary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Duarte, C R A; Vignola, M; Palin, M-F

    2016-05-01

    The impact of body condition at 110 d of gestation on mammary gland development, mammary gene expression, and hormonal and metabolite status of gilts was studied. Thirty-nine gilts were equally divided into 3 groups based on their backfat thickness at the end of gestation: 1) low backfat (LBF; 12-15 mm), 2) medium backfat (MBF; 17-19 mm), or 3) high backfat (HBF; 21-26 mm). Gilts had similar BW (138.1 ± 8.2 kg) and backfat thicknesses (16.4 ± 1.0 mm) at mating and the 3 groups were achieved via ingestion of varying amounts of feed throughout gestation. Jugular blood samples were obtained from all gilts at mating and at 109 d of gestation to assess hormonal and metabolic statuses, and animals were slaughtered on d 110 to collect mammary glands for compositional analyses and for measure of gene expression. The LBF gilts had less extraparenchymal tissue ( gilts. Mammary parenchyma from LBF gilts also tended to contain less DM ( gilts. None of the 15 genes studied in mammary parenchymal tissue differed in terms of expression level, and the rate of mammary cell proliferation was similar among treatments ( > 0.10). There was a tendency for circulating leptin concentrations on d 109 of gestation to be lower in LBF gilts than in MBF gilts ( gilts did not differ from those of the other treatments ( > 0.10). Current results demonstrate that being too thin at the end of gestation (12-15 mm backfat) has a negative impact on mammary development in gilts, whereas having backfats varying from 17 to 26 mm seems to have no detrimental effects on mammogenesis. Backfat thickness in late pregnancy must therefore be considered to achieve optimal sow lactation performance.

  18. Growth of Fagus sylvatica saplings in an old-growth forest as affected by soil and light conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponge, J.F.; Ferdy, J.B. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Brunoy (France). Lab. d`Ecologie Generale

    1997-12-01

    Studies were conducted on 41 five yr-old common beech (Fagus sylvatica) saplings collected in an old-growth beech wood (Fontainbleau forest, biological reserve of La Tillaie, France), under varying humus and light conditions, following gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillar injuries. Aerial and subterranean parts of each sapling were described by means of 34 parameters and environmental conditions at the microsite, where each sapling was excavated, were characterized by 23 parameters. The development of beech saplings is strongly affected by microsite conditions. An increase in sapling size was associated with darkness of the A-horizon, typical of zones with poor mineralization of organic matter. Light conditions were more important in influencing the development of the root system than that of the aerial parts. Rooting depth was shallower and rate of mycorrhiza development by the black ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was lower in microsites receiving incident light during the morning than in those never receiving incident light during this period. Results are discussed in the frame of survival of young beech individuals in varying environmental conditions, when submitted to competition by other vegetation and adverse climate conditions 41 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  19. Characteristics of Lignin from Flax Shives as Affected by Extraction Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kelly; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW) extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol

  20. Characteristics of Lignin from Flax Shives as Affected by Extraction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ross

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4

  1. Environmental Conditions Affect Exhalation of H3N2 Seasonal and Variant Influenza Viruses and Respiratory Droplet Transmission in Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortney M Gustin

    Full Text Available The seasonality of influenza virus infections in temperate climates and the role of environmental conditions like temperature and humidity in the transmission of influenza virus through the air are not well understood. Using ferrets housed at four different environmental conditions, we evaluated the respiratory droplet transmission of two influenza viruses (a seasonal H3N2 virus and an H3N2 variant virus, the etiologic virus of a swine to human summertime infection and concurrently characterized the aerosol shedding profiles of infected animals. Comparisons were made among the different temperature and humidity conditions and between the two viruses to determine if the H3N2 variant virus exhibited enhanced capabilities that may have contributed to the infections occurring in the summer. We report here that although increased levels of H3N2 variant virus were found in ferret nasal wash and exhaled aerosol samples compared to the seasonal H3N2 virus, enhanced respiratory droplet transmission was not observed under any of the environmental settings. However, overall environmental conditions were shown to modulate the frequency of influenza virus transmission through the air. Transmission occurred most frequently at 23°C/30%RH, while the levels of infectious virus in aerosols exhaled by infected ferrets agree with these results. Improving our understanding of how environmental conditions affect influenza virus infectivity and transmission may reveal ways to better protect the public against influenza virus infections.

  2. Structure and function of the liver in conditions of chrome-isoniazid-rifampicin affection of rats after applying of sorbex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Burmas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the activity of marker enzymes of the liver and its biliary formation function in conditions of the affection of animals by hexavalent chromium compounds, isoniazid and rifampicin, after applying of sorbex. The experimental affection of rats of different age was carried in the conditions of combined injection of hexavalent chromium compounds (solution of potassium dichromate, 3 mg/kg, isoniazid (0.05 g/kg and rifampicin (0.25 g/kg during the 7th and 14th days, and sorbex enterosorbent was introduced in quantity of 150 mg/kg. The activity of marker enzymes of the liver was evaluated by the activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. The state of biliary formation function of the liver was evaluated by the content of total bilirubin (TB and bile acids (BA in blood. The most significant changes in ALT activity were observed in the liver of old animals by the combined effects of the abovementioned xenobiotics – the activity of ALT was decreased by the end of the experiment by 58% compared with the animals of intact control. Using of sorbex led to decreasing in blood serum and increasing in the liver of affected animals of the different age of ALT activity throughout the experiment. AST activity in blood serum increased, and it was the highest in old animals upon chrome-isoniazid-rifampicin affection on the 14th day of the research. With the use of sorbex, there was a tendency to normalization of this index in blood serum and liver of affected animals on the 7th day from the beginning of the experiment. It was found that the largest increase in ALP took place in blood serum of immature animals by the combined effects of toxicants. In the liver of affected animals the activity of ALP decreased throughout the experiment in all age groups of animals. Maximum corrective effect on the activity of ALP was shown by the enterosorbent in the liver of mature animals on

  3. Loneliness and Negative Affective Conditions in Adults: Is There Any Room for Hope in Predicting Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyan, Mine; Chang, Edward C; Jilani, Zunaira; Yu, Tina; Lin, Jiachen; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of hope in understanding the link between loneliness and negative affective conditions (viz., anxiety and depressive symptoms) in a sample of 318 adults. As expected, loneliness was found to be a significant predictor of both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Noteworthy, hope was found to significantly augment the prediction of depressive symptoms, even after accounting for loneliness. Furthermore, we found evidence for a significant Loneliness × Hope interaction effect in predicting anxiety. A plot of the interaction confirmed that the association between loneliness and anxiety was weaker among high, compared to low, hope adults. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.

  4. Storage conditions and packaging greatly affects the stability of fortified wheat flour: Influence on vitamin A, iron, zinc, and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemery, Youna M; Laillou, Arnaud; Fontan, Laura; Jallier, Vincent; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Berger, Jacques; Avallone, Sylvie

    2018-02-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies result in irreversible physical and cognitive consequences. Fortification of flour is widely applied to address micronutrient deficiencies, but vitamin losses can occur during the storage of fortified products. This work aimed at assessing the combined influence of different factors on vitamin A retention and the oxidative status of wheat flours: storage duration (up to 6months), temperature during storage, relative humidity within storage facilities, type of packaging (oxygen-permeable or not), and premix composition (with or without ferrous sulphate). Vitamin A degradation was high and occurred rapidly: more than 45% was lost within 3months in the mildest conditions, whereas over 85% was lost within 3months in the most severe conditions. Vitamin A retention was related to the extent of oxidation reactions that occurred in flours during storage, and the factors that mostly affected vitamin A retention were the storage duration, the type of packaging and the temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does spatial variation in environmental conditions affect recruitment? A study using a 3-D model of Peruvian anchovy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Rose, Kenneth A.; Chai, Fei; Chavez, Francisco P.; Ayón, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    We used a 3-dimensional individual-based model (3-D IBM) of Peruvian anchovy to examine how spatial variation in environmental conditions affects larval and juvenile growth and survival, and recruitment. Temperature, velocity, and phytoplankton and zooplankton concentrations generated from a coupled hydrodynamic Nutrients-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) model, mapped to a three dimensional rectangular grid, were used to simulate anchovy populations. The IBM simulated individuals as they progressed from eggs to recruitment at 10 cm. Eggs and yolk-sac larvae were followed hourly through the processes of development, mortality, and movement (advection), and larvae and juveniles were followed daily through the processes of growth, mortality, and movement (advection plus behavior). A bioenergetics model was used to grow larvae and juveniles. The NPZD model provided prey fields which influence both food consumption rate as well as behavior mediated movement with individuals going to grids cells having optimal growth conditions. We compared predicted recruitment for monthly cohorts for 1990 through 2004 between the full 3-D IBM and a point (0-D) model that used spatially-averaged environmental conditions. The 3-D and 0-D versions generated similar interannual patterns in monthly recruitment for 1991-2004, with the 3-D results yielding consistently higher survivorship. Both versions successfully captured the very poor recruitment during the 1997-1998 El Niño event. Higher recruitment in the 3-D simulations was due to higher survival during the larval stage resulting from individuals searching for more favorable temperatures that lead to faster growth rates. The strong effect of temperature was because both model versions provided saturating food conditions for larval and juvenile anchovies. We conclude with a discussion of how explicit treatment of spatial variation affected simulated recruitment, other examples of fisheries modeling analyses that have used a

  6. Condition and The Affecting Factors of Tanjung Jumlai Patch Reef in North Penajam Paser Regency East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchlis Efendi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patch reef of Tanjung Jumlai which located in North Penajam Paser Regency, East Kalimantan Province has being suffered from stress and degradation, less studied and managed. Thus, this research was conducted to obtain data concerning on the reef condition and the affecting factors. The research was carried out from December 10 – 14, 2013. There were eight observation stations that surveyed using life form line intercept transect method to obtain data related with coral reef condition based on percent cover of live coral (LC and coral mortality index (MI. The result showed that the lowest LC was 5% at ST 7 (poor/bad coral condition and the highest LC was 78% (excellent condition, and the average LC was 42.5% (fair/moderate condition. The average coral mortality index was 0.34 with the lowest MI was 0.06 at ST 6 and the highest MI was 0.78 at ST 7. This study also found that anthropogenic factors (mainly from Balikpapan Bay were more influential toward the reef condition of Tanjung Jumlai patch reef rather than non-anthropogenic factors. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ansi-language:IN; mso-fareast-language:IN;}

  7. Body composition estimation using skinfolds in children with and without health conditions affecting growth and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Danielle; Weber, David; Leonard, Mary B.; Magge, Sheela N.; Kelly, Andrea; Stallings, Virginia A.; Pipan, Mary; Stettler, Nicolas; Zemel, Babette S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Body composition prediction equations using skinfolds are useful alternatives to advanced techniques, but their utility across diverse pediatric populations is unknown. Aim To evaluate published and new prediction equations across diverse samples of children with health conditions affecting growth and body composition. Subjects and Methods Anthropometric and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measures were obtained in children with Down syndrome (n=59), Crohn disease (n=128), steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (n=67), and a healthy reference group (n=835). Published body composition equations were evaluated. New equations were developed for ages 3 to 21y using the healthy reference sample and validated in other groups and national survey data. Results Fat mass [FM], fat-free mass [FFM] and percent body fat [%BF]) from published equations were highly correlated with DXA-derived measures (r=0.71 to 0.98), but with poor agreement (mean difference: 2.4kg, −1.9kg, and 6.3% for FM, FFM and %BF). New equations produced similar correlations (r=0.85 to 1.0) with improved agreement for the reference group (0.2kg, 0.4kg, and 0.0% for FM, FFM and %BF, respectively), and in sub-groups. Conclusions New body composition prediction equations show excellent agreement with DXA, and improve body composition estimation in healthy children and those with selected conditions affecting growth. PMID:27121656

  8. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening.

  9. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN eMORAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30ºC during both periods, with a maximum around 20ºC. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche spp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  10. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  11. The osmolyte type affects cartilage associated pathologic marker expression during in vitro mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis under hypertonic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadyan, Sorour; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Tasharofi, Noushin; Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Kehtari, Mousa; Hajari Zadeh, Athena; Soleimani, Masoud; Farazmand, Ali; Hanaee-Ahvaz, Hana

    2018-02-28

    Stem cells' fate during in vitro differentiation is influenced by biophysicochemical cues. Osmotic stress has proved to enhance chondrocyte marker expression, however its potent negative impacts had never been surveyed. We questioned whether specific osmotic conditions, regarding the osmolyte agent, could benefit chondrogenesis while dampening undesired concomitant hypertrophy and inflammatory responses. To examine the potential side effects of hypertonicity, we assessed cell proliferation as well as chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression of human Adipose Derived-MSC after a two week induction in chondrogenic media with either NaCl or Sorbitol, as the osmolyte agent to reach a +100 mOsm hypertonic condition. Calcium deposition and TNF-α secretion as markers associated with hypertrophy and inflammation were then assayed. While both hyperosmotic conditions upregulated chondrogenic markers, sorbitol had a nearly three times higher chondro-promotive effect and a lesser hypertrophic effect compared to NaCl. Also, a significantly lesser calcium deposition was observed in sorbitol hypertonic group. NaCl showed an anti-proinflammatory effect while sorbitol had no effect on inflammatory markers. The ossification potential and cartilage associated pathologic markers were affected differentially by the type of the osmolyte. Thus, a vigilant application of the osmotic agent is inevitable in order to avoid or reduce undesired hypertrophic and inflammatory phenotype acquisition by MSC during chondrogenic differentiation. Our findings are a step towards developing a more reliable chondrogenic regimen using external hypertonic cues for MSC chondrogenesis with potential applications in chondral lesions cell therapy.

  12. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Nordquist

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum, or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  13. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-02-21

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting "robust" animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  14. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  15. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on one-year old container-grown RPM™ oak seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Grossman; Michael A. Gold; Daniel C. Dey

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of seed source, acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on morphological traits of 1-year-old oak seedlings. Forested bottomlands in the Midwest have been greatly reduced in the past 150 years as a result of conversion to agriculture and recent catastrophic floods. Due to a lack of available hard mast, intense...

  17. Temperature and light conditions at different latitudes affect sensory quality of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Tor J; Mølmann, Jørgen Ab; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Schreiner, Monica; Velasco, Pablo; Hykkerud, Anne L; Cartea, Elena; Lea, Per; Skaret, Josefine; Seljåsen, Randi

    2017-08-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009-2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply under natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42-70° N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture. Average results over three summer seasons in Germany, southern Norway and northern Norway showed that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour, while broccoli from the German location, with high temperatures and shorter days, had highest intensity of colour hue, whiteness, bitter taste, cabbage flavour, stale flavour and watery flavour. Results from two autumn seasons at the fourth location (42° N, Spain), with low temperatures and short days, tended toward results from the two northernmost locations, with an exception for most texture attributes. Results clearly demonstrate that temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets. Results may be used in marketing special quality regional or seasonal products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. An acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera) fruit and seed transcriptome as a resource for the study of fruit traits in Cucurbita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo) is an iconic fall vegetable in the United States, known for its unique fruit shape and also prized for its culinary properties. Little is known about the metabolism that underlies the development of fruit quality attributes such as color, sweetness, texture and nutritional qualities in acorn squash, or any other winter squash grown worldwide. To provide insight into winter squash fruit and seed development and add to the genomic resources in the Cucurbita genus, RNA sequencing was used to generate an acorn squash fruit and seed transcriptome from the cultivar Sweet REBA at critical points throughout fruit development. 141 838 600 high-quality paired-end Illumina reads were assembled into 55 949 unigenes. 85% of unigenes with predicted open reading frames had homology with previously identified genes and over 62% could be functionally annotated. Comparison with the watermelon and cucumber genomes provided confirmation that the unigenes are full-length and comprehensive, covering an average of 90% of the coding sequence of their homologs and 72% of the cucumber and watermelon exomes. Key candidate genes associated with carotenoid and carbohydrate metabolism were identified toward a resource for winter squash fruit quality trait dissection. This transcriptome represents a major advance in C. pepo genomics, providing significant new sequence information and revealing the repertoire of genes expressed throughout winter squash fruit and seed development. Future studies on the genetic basis of fruit quality and future breeding efforts will be enhanced by tools and insights developed from this resource.

  19. Differences in body condition of gilts that are maintained from mating to the end of gestation affect mammary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Comi, M; Duarte, C R A; Vignola, M; Charagu, P; Palin, M-F

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if different body conditions in late gestation that are due to varying body conditions at mating affect mammary development and mammary gene expression of gilts. Gilts that were fed ad libitum in the growing period were selected based on their backfat depths to form 3 groups at mating, namely, low backfat (LBF; 12-15 mm; = 14), medium backfat (MBF; 17-19 mm; = 15), and high backfat (HBF; 22-26 mm; = 16). During gestation, LBF, MBF, and HBF gilts were fed approximately 1.25, 1.43, and 1.63 times maintenance requirements to maintain their differences in body condition. Feed intake was increased by 1 kg in the last 10 d of gestation. Backfat depths of gilts were ultrasonically measured at mating and on d 30, 50, 70, 100, and 109 of gestation. Blood samples were obtained at mating and on d 109 of gestation to measure concentrations of IGF-1, glucose, insulin, estradiol, urea, free fatty acids, leptin, and adiponectin. Gilts were slaughtered on d 110 of gestation to collect mammary glands for compositional analyses. Mammary extraparenchymal tissue weight was lesser in LBF and MBF gilts than in HBF gilts (1,259.3, 1,402.7, and 1,951.5 ± 70.4 g, respectively; 0.10), but its composition was altered. Concentrations of DNA and RNA decreased as backfat depth increased ( gilts than in HBF gilts. On d 109 of gestation, concentrations of insulin ( gilts than in HBF gilts, whereas those of urea were greater ( 0.10) with the exception of , which had a greater expression level in LBF gilts than in MFB or HBF gilts ( gilts than in LBF gilts ( gilts that were present at mating were maintained throughout gestation, it had an impact on mammary development. Extraparenchymal tissue mass was affected and, more importantly, composition of parenchymal tissue was altered, indicating a beneficial effect of gilts being in the thinner treatment groups at mating.

  20. Estimativa da ingestão e digestibilidade de erva e bolota em porcos alentejanos pela técnica dos n-alcanos Estimation of intake and digestibility of pasture and acorns by alentejano pigs using n-alkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mendes

    2007-01-01

    36. The animals were fed, during all the trial, with acorns and grass. Intake and digestibility were measured in vivo, per animal, during 5 days and estimated using the n-alkane technique. The estimates of digestibility, based on the concentration of the natural n-alkanes C25 and C27, were close to the measured digestibility in vivo. C29 and C31, in combination with the artificial n-alkanes (C32 and C36, gave the closest digestibility estimates to the measured one. The pairs C29:C32 and C29:C36 gave the best estimates of digestibility. The frequency of administration of artificial alkanes (once or twice daily did not affect the estimates of intake and digestibility. Diet composition (acorn and grass was also estimated using n-alkanes. The combination of C29 and C31 n-alkanes gave the closest estimates to the in vivo measurements.

  1. Astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation of Pacific white shrimp oil: kinetics study and stability as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The kinetics of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei as affected by storage temperature were studied. When shrimp oil was incubated at different temperatures (4, 30, 45 and 60 °C for 16 h, the rate constants (k of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil increased with increasing temperatures (p < 0.05. Thus, astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil were augmented at high temperature. When shrimp oils with different storage conditions (illumination, oxygen availability and temperature were stored for up to 40 days, astaxanthin contents in all samples decreased throughout storage (p < 0.05. All factors were able to enhance astaxanthin degradation during 40 days of storage. With increasing storage time, the progressive formation of primary and secondary oxidation products were found in all samples as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (p < 0.05. Light, air and temperatures therefore had the marked effect on astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oils during the extended storage.

  2. Combined cadmium and elevated ozone affect concentrations of cadmium and antioxidant systems in wheat under fully open-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongyan; Tian, Ran; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Pei, Daping; Wang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Combined effect of elevated O 3 and Cd levels on wheat was studied using the free-air concentration enrichment system. ► Elevated O 3 levels result in an increased concentration of Cd in wheat plants grown on Cd-contaminated soils. ► Combined cadmium and elevated O 3 have a significantly synergic effect on oxidative stress in wheat shoots. - Abstract: Pollution of the environment with both ozone (O 3 ) and heavy metals has been steadily increasing. An understanding of their combined effects on plants, especially crops, is limited. Here we studied the effects of elevated O 3 on oxidative stress and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) in wheat under Cd stress using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) system. In this field experiment in Jiangdu (Jiangsu Province, China), wheat plants were grown in pots containing soil with various concentrations of cadmium (0, 2, and 10 mg kg −1 Cd was added to the soil) under ambient conditions and under elevated O 3 levels (50% higher than the ambient O 3 ). Present results showed that elevated O 3 led to higher concentrations of Cd in wheat tissues (shoots, husk and grains) with respect to contaminated soil. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated O 3 levels strongly affected the antioxidant isoenzymes POD, APX and CAT and accelerated oxidative stress in wheat leaves. Our results suggest that elevated O 3 levels cause a reduction in food quality and safety.

  3. Prepartum body condition score and plane of nutrition affect the hepatic transcriptome during the transition period in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Meier, S; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Heiser, A; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2016-11-02

    A transcriptomic approach was used to evaluate potential interactions between prepartum body condition score (BCS) and feeding management in the weeks before calving on hepatic metabolism during the periparturient period. Thirty-two mid-lactation grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: two prepartum BCS categories [4.0 (thin, BCS4) and 5.0 (optimal, BCS5); based on a 10-point scale], and two levels of energy intake during the 3 weeks preceding calving (75 and 125 % of estimated requirements). Liver samples were obtained at -7, 7, and 28 d relative to parturition and subsequent RNA was hybridized to the Agilent 44 K Bovine (V2) Microarray chip. The Dynamic Impact Approach was used for pathway analysis, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used for gene network analysis. The greater number of differentially expressed genes in BCS4 cows in response to prepartum feed allowance (1071 vs 310, over the entire transition period) indicates that these animals were more responsive to prepartum nutrition management than optimally-conditioned cows. However, independent of prepartum BCS, pathway analysis revealed that prepartal feeding level had a marked effect on carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and glycan metabolism. Altered carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism suggest a greater and more prolonged negative energy balance postpartum in BCS5 cows overfed prepartum. This is supported by opposite effects of prepartum feeding in BCS4 compared with BCS5 cows in pathways encompassing amino acid, vitamin, and co-factor metabolism. The prepartum feed restriction ameliorates the metabolic adaptation to the onset of lactation in BCS5 cows, while detrimentally affecting BCS4 cows, which seem to better adapt when overfed. Alterations in the glycosaminoglycans synthesis pathway support this idea, indicating better hepatic health status in feed-restricted BCS5 and overfed BCS4 cows

  4. The direct and indirect effects of the negative affectivity trait on self reported physical function among patients with upper extremity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Mohamadi, Amin; Mellema, Jos J; Tourjee, Stephen M; Ring, David; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-30

    Negative affectivity is a personality trait that predisposes people to psychological distress and low life satisfaction. Negative affectivity may also affect pain intensity and physical function in patients with musculoskeletal conditions. We explored the association of negative affectivity to pain intensity and self-reported physical function, and tested whether pain intensity mediates the effect of negative affectivity on physical function. In a cross-sectional study, 102 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions presenting to an orthopedic surgeon completed self-report measures of negative affectivity, pain intensity, and physical function in addition to demographic and injury information. We used the Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to quantify the indirect effect of negative affectivity on physical function through pain intensity. Negative affectivity correlated with greater pain intensity and lower self-reported physical function significantly. Also, pain intensity mediated the association of negative affectivity with physical function. The indirect effect accounted for one-third of the total effect. To conclude, negative affectivity is associated with decreased engagement in daily life activities both directly, but also indirectly through increased pain intensity. Treatments targeting negative affectivity may be more economical and efficient for alleviation of pain and limitations associated with musculoskeletal illness than those addressing coping strategies or psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Frontal brain activity and behavioral indicators of affective states are weakly affected by thermal stimuli in sheep living in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eVögeli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative, intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive. We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g. locomotor activity, aversive behaviors and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found.

  6. Influence of oral health condition on swallowing and oral intake level for patients affected by chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mituuti CT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cláudia T Mituuti,1 Vinicius C Bianco,2 Cláudia G Bentim,3 Eduardo C de Andrade,1 José H Rubo,2 Giédre Berretin-Felix1 1Speech Language and Hearing Department, 2Department of Prosthodontics, Bauru School of Dentistry/University of São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil; 3SORRI-BAURU, Bauru, Brazil Background: According to the literature, the occurrence of dysphagia is high in cases of stroke, and its severity can be enhanced by loss of teeth and the use of poorly fitting prostheses.Objective: To verify that the status of oral health influences the level of oral intake and the degree of swallowing dysfunction in elderly patients with stroke in chronic phase.Methods: Thirty elderly individuals affected by stroke in chronic phase participated. All subjects underwent assessment of their oral condition, with classification from the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS and nasoendoscopic swallowing assessment to classify the degree of dysphagia. The statistical analysis examined a heterogeneous group (HG, n=30 and two groups designated by the affected body part, right (RHG, n=8 and left (LHG, n=11, excluding totally dentate or edentulous individuals without rehabilitation with more than one episode of stroke.Results: There was a negative correlation between the need for replacement prostheses and the FOIS scale for the HG (P=0.02 and RHG (P=0.01. Differences in FOIS between types of prostheses of the upper dental arch in the LHG (P=0.01 and lower dental arch in the RHG (P=0.04. A negative correlation was found between the number of teeth present and the degree of dysfunction in swallowing liquid in the LHG (P=0.05. There were differences in the performance in swallowing solids between individuals without prosthesis and those with partial prosthesis in the inferior dental arch (P=0.04 for the HG.Conclusion: The need for replacement prostheses, type of prostheses, and the number of teeth of elderly patients poststroke in chronic phase showed an association with

  7. Biogeochemical Attributes That Affect the Fate and Transport of Military Relevant Contaminants Under Freeze-thaw Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMonte, J.; Price, C. L.; Seiter, J.; Crocker, F. H.; Douglas, T.; Chappell, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The roles and missions that the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) undertakes in the Arctic are being reshaped by significant changes in the operational environment as a result of rising global temperatures and increased development of the vast training ranges available in Alaska. The Arctic is warming faster than any other region on Earth resulting in changing seasonality and precipitation patterns that, in turn, are leading to alterations in above ground vegetation, permafrost stability and summer sea ice extent. Collectively, these poorly defined ecosystem changes play critical roles in affecting the transport and eventual fate of persistent military relevant contaminants through unique Arctic and Subarctic terrestrial environments. As a result, management of military contaminants in a changing Arctic represents a unique and potentially significant liability to the Army and the DoD. The United States footprint in the Arctic region falls within the state of Alaska and U.S. Army Alaska manages 10% of all active Army training lands worldwide, which cover nearly 2,500 square miles in total land area. Primary recalcitrant contaminants of concern at active training ranges and at legacy sites include energetics (i.e. RDX and 2,4-dinitrotoluene) and heavy metals (i.e. antimony and lead). Through a series of field sampling and laboratory experiments, the objectives of this work are to: 1) quantify soil biogeochemical attributes that effect the physical fate and transport of military relevant contaminants in Arctic and subarctic soils under freeze-thaw conditions with a focus on near surface processes, and 2) quantify microbial diversity in Arctic and subarctic soils and the environmental constraints on community activity while exploring the effects of amendments on community function as they relate to contaminant transformation.

  8. Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, H; Grala, T M; Vailati Riboni, M; Cardoso, F C; Verkerk, G; McGowan, J; Macdonald, K; Webster, J; Schutz, K; Meier, S; Matthews, L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2015-02-01

    Calving body condition score (BCS) is an important determinant of early-lactation dry matter intake, milk yield, and disease incidence. The current study investigated the metabolic and molecular changes induced by the change in BCS. A group of cows of mixed age and breed were managed from the second half of the previous lactation to achieve mean group BCS (10-point scale) that were high (HBCS, 5.5; n=20), medium (MBCS, 4.5; n=18), or low (LBCS, 3.5; n=19). Blood was sampled at wk -4, -3, -2, 1, 3, 5, and 6 relative to parturition to measure biomarkers of energy balance, inflammation, and liver function. Liver was biopsied on wk 1, 3, and 5 relative to parturition, and 10 cows per BCS group were used for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR. Cows in HBCS and MBCS produced more milk and had greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum than LBCS. Peak concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate and greater hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations were recorded in HBCS at wk 3. Consistent with blood biomarkers, HBCS and MBCS had greater expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (CPT1A, ACOX1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and hepatokines (FGF21, ANGPTL4), whereas HBCS had the lowest expression of APOB (lipoprotein transport). Greater expression during early lactation of BBOX1 in MBCS and LBCS suggested greater de novo carnitine synthesis. The greater BCS was associated with lower expression of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling axis genes (GHR1A, IGF1, and IGFALS) and greater expression of gluconeogenic genes. These likely contributed to the higher milk production and greater gluconeogenesis. Despite greater serum haptoglobin around calving, cows in HBCS and MBCS had greater blood albumin. Cows in MBCS, however, had a higher albumin:globulin ratio, probably indicating a less pronounced inflammatory status and better liver function. The marked decrease in expression of NFKB1

  9. Under which conditions does T1 difficulty affect T2 performance in the attentional blink?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

    When two visual targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, performance of T2 suffers up to 900 ms. One theory of this attentional blink (Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992) propose that T1 and T2 compete for limited processing resources (Chun & Potter, 1995), and predict that prolonging...... exposure duration was the same as in the hard condition while T1 contrast was adjusted individually to reach the same performance on the T1 identification task as obtained in the long duration condition. Six observers completed 260 trials in each of the three conditions. We found a strong effect of T1-T2...... latency on performance in the T2 identification task in all conditions, replicating the finding of an attentional blink. However, we found no difference in the attentional blink between conditions. We conclude that increasing the perceptual difficulty of T1 either by decreasing T1 contrast or T1 exposure...

  10. Trade-off between migration and reproduction : does a high workload affect body condition and reproductive state?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, Carola A.; Visser, G. Henk; Biebach, Brigitte; Delhey, Kaspar; Oltrogge, Martina; Wittenzellner, Andrea; Biebach, Herbert; Kempenaers, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Migratory birds have to invest much energy into flight to reach their summer and winter quarters. Many studies have shown how migration affects body physiology, including the accumulation of energy stores and the reduction of nonessential organs. In spring, the costs of migration may trade-off with

  11. PII Overexpression in Lotus japonicus Affects Nodule Activity in Permissive Low-Nitrogen Conditions and Increases Nodule Numbers in High Nitrogen Treated Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Valkov, Vladimir Totev; Parlati, Aurora; Omrane, Selim; Barbulova, Ani; Sainz, Maria Martha; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Rogato, Alessandra; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    We report here the first characterization of a GLNB1 gene coding for the PII protein in leguminous plants. The main purpose of this work was the investigation of the possible roles played by this multifunctional protein in nodulation pathways. The Lotus japonicus LjGLB1 gene shows a significant transcriptional regulation during the light-dark cycle and different nitrogen availability, conditions that strongly affect nodule formation, development, and functioning. We also report analysis of the spatial profile of expression of LjGLB1 in root and nodule tissues and of the protein's subcellular localization. Transgenic L. japonicus lines overexpressing the PII protein were obtained and tested for the analysis of the symbiotic responses in different conditions. The uncoupling of PII from its native regulation affects nitrogenase activity and nodule polyamine content. Furthermore, our results suggest the involvement of PII in the signaling of the nitrogen nutritional status affecting the legumes' predisposition for nodule formation.

  12. Factors affecting the possibility to detect buccal bone condition around dental implants using cone beam computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedke, Gabriela S; Spin-Neto, Rubens; da Silveira, Heloisa E D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors with impact on the conspicuity (possibility to detect) of the buccal bone condition around dental implants in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Titanium (Ti) or zirconia (Zr) implants and abutments were inserted into 40 bone blocks...... in a way to obtain variable buccal bone thicknesses. Three combinations regarding the implant-abutment metal (TiTi, TiZr, or ZrZr) and the number of implants (one, two, or three) were assessed. Two CBCT units (Scanora 3D - Sc and Cranex 3D - Cr) and two voxel resolutions (0.2 and 0.13 mm) were used....... Reconstructed sagittal images (2.0 and 5.0 mm thickness) were evaluated by three examiners, using a dichotomous scale when assessing the condition of the buccal bone around the implants. A multivariate logistic regression was performed using examiners' detection of the buccal bone condition as the dependent...

  13. Do Work Condition Interventions Affect Quality and Errors in Primary Care? Results from the Healthy Work Place Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzer, Mark; Poplau, Sara; Brown, Roger; Grossman, Ellie; Varkey, Anita; Yale, Steven; Williams, Eric S; Hicks, Lanis; Wallock, Jill; Kohnhorst, Diane; Barbouche, Michael

    2017-01-01

    While primary care work conditions are associated with adverse clinician outcomes, little is known about the effect of work condition interventions on quality or safety. A cluster randomized controlled trial of 34 clinics in the upper Midwest and New York City. Primary care clinicians and their diabetic and hypertensive patients. Quality improvement projects to improve communication between providers, workflow design, and chronic disease management. Intervention clinics received brief summaries of their clinician and patient outcome data at baseline. We measured work conditions and clinician and patient outcomes both at baseline and 6-12 months post-intervention. Multilevel regression analyses assessed the impact of work condition changes on outcomes. Subgroup analyses assessed impact by intervention category. There were no significant differences in error reduction (19 % vs. 11 %, OR of improvement 1.84, 95 % CI 0.70, 4.82, p = 0.21) or quality of care improvement (19 % improved vs. 44 %, OR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.58, 1.21, p = 0.42) between intervention and control clinics. The conceptual model linking work conditions, provider outcomes, and error reduction showed significant relationships between work conditions and provider outcomes (p ≤ 0.001) and a trend toward a reduced error rate in providers with lower burnout (OR 1.44, 95 % CI 0.94, 2.23, p = 0.09). Few quality metrics, short time span, fewer clinicians recruited than anticipated. Work-life interventions improving clinician satisfaction and well-being do not necessarily reduce errors or improve quality. Longer, more focused interventions may be needed to produce meaningful improvements in patient care. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT02542995.

  14. Schizophrenia affects speech-induced functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus under cocktail-party listening conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juanhua; Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yingjun; Li, Ruikeng; Li, Xuanzi; She, Shenglin; Wu, Haibo; Peng, Hongjun; Ning, Yuping; Li, Liang

    2017-09-17

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is involved in speech recognition against informational masking under cocktail-party-listening conditions. Compared to healthy listeners, people with schizophrenia perform worse in speech recognition under informational speech-on-speech masking conditions. It is not clear whether the schizophrenia-related vulnerability to informational masking is associated with certain changes in FC of the STG with some critical brain regions. Using sparse-sampling fMRI design, this study investigated the differences between people with schizophrenia and healthy controls in FC of the STG for target-speech listening against informational speech-on-speech masking, when a listening condition with either perceived spatial separation (PSS, with a spatial release of informational masking) or perceived spatial co-location (PSC, without the spatial release) between target speech and masking speech was introduced. The results showed that in healthy participants, but not participants with schizophrenia, the contrast of either the PSS or PSC condition against the masker-only condition induced an enhancement of functional connectivity (FC) of the STG with the left superior parietal lobule and the right precuneus. Compared to healthy participants, participants with schizophrenia showed declined FC of the STG with the bilateral precuneus, right SPL, and right supplementary motor area. Thus, FC of the STG with the parietal areas is normally involved in speech listening against informational masking under either the PSS or PSC conditions, and declined FC of the STG in people with schizophrenia with the parietal areas may be associated with the increased vulnerability to informational masking. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical properties of chitosan-basil essential oil edible films as affected by oil content and homogenization conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, Jeannine; Vargas, Maria; Atarés, Lorena; Chiralt, Amparo

    2011-01-01

    [EN] This work studies the influence of basil essential oil, its content and the homogenization treatment on the physical properties of chitosan-based edible films. Two homogenization treatments were applied, without (H1) and with (H2) microfluidization (MF). Composite films were softer, less rigid and more stretchable than pure CH films. MF intensified these changes. H2 films showed microcracks due to the weak interactions between chitosan and oil, which affected their mechanical behaviour. ...

  16. Adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure fails to affect THC-induced place and taste conditioning in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Alison G P; Flax, Shaun M; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Riley, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of drug use has been linked to problematic drug taking later in life and may represent an important variable that changes the balance of the rewarding and/or aversive effects of abused drugs which may contribute to abuse vulnerability. The current study examined the effects of adolescent THC exposure on THC-induced place preference (rewarding effects) and taste avoidance (aversive effects) conditioning in adulthood. Forty-six male Sprague-Dawley adolescent rats received eight injections of an intermediate dose of THC (3.2mg/kg) or vehicle. After these injections, animals were allowed to mature and then trained in a combined CTA/CPP procedure in adulthood (PND ~90). Animals were given four trials of conditioning with intervening water-recovery days, a final CPP test and then a one-bottle taste avoidance test. THC induced dose-dependent taste avoidance but did not produce place conditioning. None of these effects was impacted by adolescent THC exposure. Adolescent exposure to THC had no effect on THC taste and place conditioning in adulthood. The failure to see an effect of adolescent exposure was addressed in the context of other research that has assessed exposure of drugs of abuse during adolescence on drug reactivity in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Hansen, Christian M.

    2013-01-01

    ) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still...

  18. Conditions Affecting the Accuracy of Classical Equating Methods for Small Samples under the NEAT Design: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnassee, Devdass

    2011-01-01

    Small sample equating remains a largely unexplored area of research. This study attempts to fill in some of the research gaps via a large-scale, IRT-based simulation study that evaluates the performance of seven small-sample equating methods under various test characteristic and sampling conditions. The equating methods considered are typically…

  19. Contextual change after fear acquisition affects conditioned responding and the time course of extinction learning – Implications for renewal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eSjouwerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context plays a central role in retrieving (fear memories. Accordingly, context manipulations are inherent to most return of fear (ROF paradigms (in particular renewal, involving contextual changes after fear extinction. Context changes are, however, also often embedded during earlier stages of ROF experiments such as context changes between fear acquisition and extinction (e.g. in ABC and ABA renewal. Previous studies using these paradigms have however focused exclusively on the context switch after extinction (i.e. renewal. Thus, the possibility of a general effect of a context switch on conditioned responding that may not be conditional to preceding extinction learning remains unstudied.Hence, the current study investigated the impact of a context switch between fear acquisition and extinction on immediate conditioned responding and on the time-course of extinction learning by using a multimodal approach. A group that underwent contextual change after fear conditioning (AB; n = 36 was compared with a group without a contextual change from acquisition to extinction (AA; n = 149, while measuring autonomic (skin conductance and fear potentiated startle measures and subjective fear ratings. Contextual change between fear acquisition and extinction had a pronounced effect on both immediate conditioned responding and on the time course of extinction learning in skin conductance responses and subjective fear ratings. This may have important implications for the mechanisms underlying and the interpretation of the renewal effect (i.e. contextual switch after extinction. Consequently, future studies should incorporate designs and statistical tests that disentangle general effects of contextual change from genuine ROF effects.

  20. Metal uptake of recombinant cambialistic superoxide dismutase from Propionibacterium shermanii is affected by growth conditions of host Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbianelli, R; Battistoni, A; Polizio, F; Carrì, M T; De Martino, A; Meier, B; Desideri, A; Rotilio, G

    1995-11-22

    We constructed the complete nucleotide sequence coding for the cambialistic superoxide dismutase from Propionibacterium shermanii by ligation of a synthetic linker to a polymerase chain reaction amplification product obtained using degenerate primers. We set up an expression system yielding large amounts of recombinant superoxide dismutase in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli and purified the enzyme from cells grown in a complex medium. The physicochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme were identical to those of the natural protein. Under anaerobic conditions the enzyme produced in an iron-supplemented medium incorporated iron as metal cofactor, while the enzyme purified from cells grown under aerobic conditions contained a variable amount of iron and manganese depending on metal availability. Functional equivalence of the two metals in this superoxide dismutase variant was indicated by independence of enzyme activity from Fe/Mn ratio.

  1. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    OpenAIRE

    Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J. C. M.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S.

    2017-01-01

    Simple summary Intensive farming systems are confronted with a number of animal welfare issues such as injuries from horns in cattle and feather pecking in poultry. To solve these problems, mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are applied routinely. These and other procedures such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions impair animal welfare. Scientific underpinning of the efficacy of these interventio...

  2. Environmental Growing Conditions in Five Production Systems Induce Stress Response and Affect Chemical Composition of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niether, Wiebke; Smit, Inga; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard; Pawelzik, Elke

    2017-11-29

    Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide a less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured the element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans derived from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons. Concentrations of N, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were higher in beans produced in agroforestry systems with high stem density and leaf area index. In the dry season, the N, Fe, and Cu concentration of the beans increased. The total phenolic content increased with proceeding of the dry season while other abiotic stress indicators like spermine decreased, implying an effect of the water availability on the chemical composition of the beans. Agroforestry systems did not buffer the variability of stress indicators over the seasons compared to monocultures. The effect of environmental growing conditions on bean chemical composition was not strong but can contribute to variations in cocoa bean quality.

  3. Larval development, sensory mechanisms and physiological adaptions in acorn barnacles with special reference to Balanus amphitrite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Khandeparker, L.; Desai, D.V.; Baragi, L.V.; Gaonkar, C.

    obligate internal cross-fertilization is the norm. However, incidences of self-fertilization have also been reported (Barnes and Crisp, 1956; Furman and Yule, 1990; El-Komi and Kajihara, 1991; Desai et al., 2006). Experiments with B. amphitrite indicated... that egg production was high with brood intervals of 5- 8 days per brood compared to boreo-arctic species which usually produce a single brood per year (Crisp and Davies, 1955; El-Komi and Kajihara, 1991). Temperature and nutritional conditions also...

  4. Uptake of plutonium-238 by plants grown under field condition as affected by one year of weathering and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.; Hinds, W.T.

    1976-06-01

    Less 238 Pu was concentrated in the seeds than in the vegetative parts in all plant species. Leaves contained more 238 Pu than the stem or pods, and the monocots had lower concentrations of 238 Pu in their tissues than the dicots. Irrigation of plants affected the uptake of 238 Pu, especially on the year-to-year changes in the amount of the element accumulated in the plant parts. Several more years of data must be analyzed to determine if this phenomenon is real. Soil profiles must be studied to determine what configuration changes may occur in the 238 Pu in the soil. Other investigators show that soil microbes change the chemical form of plutonium in the soil and the organic complexes that are formed are more available for plant uptake

  5. Reproductive phenology of Creole horses in Ecuador in the absence of photoperiod variation: The effects of forage availability and flooding affecting body condition of mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Yoong, Washington A; Mateos, Concha; Caño Vergara, Belén; Gómez, Chian L; Macías, Verónica

    2017-12-01

    Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares' conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares' conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year. Mares' conditions increased after a period of vegetation growth and thus appeared negatively associated with the increment of grass greenness (normalized difference vegetation index data). Seasonal flooding of some pasturelands during March and April appeared to seriously impair mares' conditions and probably influenced the timing of foaling toward the dry season. Our results evidenced that horse breeding in these equatorial areas tended to be seasonal and point to some key factors that influence phenology by affecting body condition of mares, which may have implications for horse biology and management. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. The Course of Parturition Affects Piglet Condition at Birth and Survival and Growth through the Nursery Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk, Pieter; Fleuren, Marleen; van Hees, Hubèrt; van Kempen, Theo

    2018-04-24

    The aim of this study was to relate the course of parturition to the condition of piglets at birth, based on umbilical cord blood acid-base values, and relate the condition at birth to neonatal survival and performance up to 10 weeks of life. Data were collected from 37 spontaneous unassisted parturitions, and neonatal performance was based on observations of 516 piglets. Stillbirth rate increased from 2% in the first piglets, to 17% in piglets born 13th in the litter or later. This was aggravated in sows with longer than average stage II of parturition. Umbilical cord blood values also reflected the effect of birth order, with pH decreasing and lactate increasing in the course of parturition. Interestingly, sows that had a long expulsion stage of parturition also took longer to give birth to the first four piglets (r = 0.74), suggesting that sows with complicated parturition were already experiencing problems at the start of expulsion of piglets. Piglets with signs of asphyxia, based on umbilical blood lactate higher than 4.46 mmol/L, were slower to start suckling, had a higher risk of neonatal mortality, and had a slower growth rate over the first 10 weeks of life.

  7. Variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) affected by weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosztola, Beáta; Sárosi, Szilvia; Németh, Eva

    2010-03-01

    In our study we examined the variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) during three years (2005-2007). Twenty-eight populations of wild origin and 4 registered cultivars ('Soroksári 40', 'Lutea', 'Goral' and 'Bona') were evaluated in open field experiments. It could be established that the experimental populations represented different genetic potential for essential oil accumulation and composition. The best populations of wild growing origin from the Somogy-region and four cultivars produced the highest essential oil contents (above 0.6 g/100g) in each year. Additionally, the quality of the characteristic main compound of the oil determining the "chemotype", according to Schilcher, was found to be stable during the three years period. However, the actual chemosyndroms are significantly influenced by the weather conditions. In the three years' experiment, the moderately warm and relatively wet year of 2006 produced the highest contents of essential oil and also that of its alpha-bisabolol component. Although bisabolol oxide A also showed a high variability through the years, its direct connection with weather conditions could not be proved. A moderate variability was established for the proportions of chamazulene, and the lowest one for bisabolol-oxide B. Considerable genotype-weather interaction was supposed, especially for the essential oil content and for the ratio of bisabolol-oxide A.

  8. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America.

  9. Factors affecting vertical distribution of Fukushima accident-derived radiocesium in soil under different land-use conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Nagao, Seiya; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, triggered by a big earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011, caused a substantial release of radiocesium ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and a subsequent contamination of soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying factors and processes affecting radiocesium retention in these soils is essential to predict how the deposited radiocesium will migrate through the soil profile and to other biological components. We investigated vertical distributions of radiocesium and physicochemical properties in soils (to 20 cm depth) at 15 locations under different land-use types (croplands, grasslands, and forests) within a 2 km × 2 km mesh area in Fukushima city. The total 137 Cs inventory deposited onto and into soil was similar (58.4 ± 9.6 kBq m −2 ) between the three different land-use types. However, aboveground litter layer at the forest sites and herbaceous vegetation at the non-forested sites contributed differently to the total 137 Cs inventory. At the forest sites, 50–91% of the total inventory was observed in the litter layer. The aboveground vegetation contribution was in contrast smaller ( 137 Cs in mineral soil layers; 137 Cs penetrated deeper in the forest soil profiles than in the non-forested soil profiles. We quantified 137 Cs retention at surface soil layers, and showed that higher 137 Cs retention can be explained in part by larger amounts of silt- and clay-sized particles in the layers. More importantly, the 137 Cs retention highly and negatively correlated with soil organic carbon content divided by clay content across all land-use types. The results suggest that organic matter inhibits strong adsorption of 137 Cs on clay minerals in surface soil layers, and as a result affects the vertical distribution and thus the mobility of 137 Cs in soil, particularly in the forest ecosystems. - Highlights: ► Vertical distribution of radiocesium was investigated for 15 soils. ► Forest

  10. Lipase production from a novel thermophilic Bacillus sp.: application of Plackett-Burman design for evaluating culture conditions affecting enzyme formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Soliman, Nadia A; Gaballa, Ahmed A; Sabry, Soraya A; El-Diwany, Ahmed I

    2002-01-01

    A novel thermophilic Bacillus sp. capable of producing lipase was locally isolated. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16SrDNA sequence revealed its close relationship to Bacillus thermoleovorans. Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to evaluate cultural conditions affecting lipase production process. Fifteen variables and four dummy variables were examined in the experimental design. Tween 80, temperature, olive oil, aeration, beef extract and inoculum age were found to be the highest positive significant variables affecting lipase activity, whereas pH and calcium chloride were the highest negative significant variables. Moreover, Tween 80, temperature and olive oil positively affected lipase specific activity. On the other hand, gum arabic, inoculum size and calcium chloride had the highest negative effect on lipase specific activity. This study would improve the further optimization steps on the bioprocess development track.

  11. Postulated vasoactive neuropeptide immunopathology affecting the blood–brain/blood–spinal barrier in certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions: A role for phosphodiesterase inhibitors in treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Staines1,2, Ekua W Brenu2, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik21Queensland Health, Gold Coast Population Health Unit, Southport, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Population Health and Neuroimmunology Unit, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms occur in a number of neurological fatigue-related conditions including multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson’s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. These conditions have been attributed variably to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. While autoimmune pathology, at least in part, has long been suspected in these conditions proof has been elusive. Autoimmune pathomechanisms affecting the blood–brain barrier (BBB or blood–spinal barrier (BSB may predispose the BBB/BSB to ‘leakiness’ and be a precursor to additional autoimmune events resulting in neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. The aim of the paper is to postulate immunopathology of the cerebrospinal perivascular compartment involving certain vasoactive neuropeptides, specifically pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, in the etiology of certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions such as MS, ALS, PD, and CFS. Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators. PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS and have key roles in CNS blood vessels including maintaining functional integrity of the BBB and BSB. Autoimmunity affecting these VNs would likely have a detrimental effect on BBB and BSB functioning arguably predisposing to further pathological processes. Virchow–Robin spaces (VRS are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS which

  12. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  13. Conditions and processes affecting sand resources at archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Sankey, Joel B.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.

    2016-05-17

    This study examined links among fluvial, aeolian, and hillslope geomorphic processes that affect archeological sites and surrounding landscapes in the Colorado River corridor downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. We assessed the potential for Colorado River sediment to enhance the preservation of river-corridor archeological resources through aeolian sand deposition or mitigation of gully erosion. By identifying locally prevailing wind directions, locations of modern sandbars, and likely aeolian-transport barriers, we determined that relatively few archeological sites are now ideally situated to receive aeolian sand supply from sandbars deposited by recent controlled floods. Whereas three-fourths of the 358 river-corridor archeological sites we examined include Colorado River sediment as an integral component of their geomorphic context, only 32 sites currently appear to have a high degree of connectivity (coupled interactions) between modern fluvial sandbars and sand-dominated landscapes downwind. This represents a substantial decrease from past decades, as determined by aerial-photograph analysis. Thus, we infer that recent controlled floods have had a limited, and declining, influence on archeological-site preservation.

  14. Predicting Acorn-Grass Weight Gain Index using non-destructive Near Infrared Spectroscopy in order to classify Iberian pig carcasses according to feeding regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Marín, D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The classification of Iberian pig carcasses into different commercial categories according to feeding regime was evaluated by means of a non-destructive analysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS. A quantitative approach was used to predict the Acorn-Grass Weight Gain Index (AGWGI, and a set of criteria was established for commercial classification purposes. A total of 719 animals belonging to various batches, reflecting a wide range of feeding regimes, production systems and years, were analyzed with a view to developing and evaluating quantitative NIRS models. Results for the external validation of these models indicate that NIRS made clear differentiation of batches as a function of three feeding regimes possible with high accuracy (Acorn, Recebo and Feed, on the basis of the mean representative spectra of each batch. Moreover, individual analysis of the animals showed a broad consensus between field inspection information and the classification based on the AGWGI NIRS prediction, especially for extreme categories (Acorn and Feed.La clasificación en distintas categorías comerciales según régimen alimenticio de canales de cerdo Ibérico fue evaluada mediante el análisis no destructivo de muestras de tejido adiposo subcutáneo por Espectroscopía del Infrarrojo Cercano (NIRS. Partiendo de una aproximación cuantitativa para predecir el Índice de Reposición en Montanera (IRM se establecieron una serie de criterios para proceder a su clasificación comercial. Se analizaron un total de 719 animales pertenecientes a diversas partidas, que recogen una amplia variabilidad de muestras de distintos regímenes alimenticios, campañas y sistemas productivos, para el desarrollo y evaluación de los modelos NIRS cuantitativos. Los resultados de validación externa de los modelos indicaron que es posible discriminar con una gran exactitud entre partidas de distintos categorías (Bellota, Recebo y Cebo, en base

  15. Antecedent conditions, hydrological connectivity and anthropogenic inputs: Factors affecting nitrate and phosphorus transfers to agricultural headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Faye N; Cooper, Richard J; Sünnenberg, Gisela; Hiscock, Kevin M; Lovett, Andrew A

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines relationships between rainfall-runoff, catchment connectivity, antecedent moisture conditions and fertiliser application with nitrate-N and total phosphorus (TP) fluxes in an arable headwater catchment over three hydrological years (2012-2014). Annual precipitation totals did not vary substantially between years, yet the timing of rainfall strongly influenced runoff generation and subsequent nitrate-N and TP fluxes. The greatest nitrate-N (>250 kg N day(-1)) and TP (>10 kg TP day(-1)) fluxes only occurred when shallow groundwater was within 0.6m of the ground surface and runoff coefficients were greater than 0.1. These thresholds were reached less frequently in 2012 due to drought recovery resulting in lower annual nitrate-N (7.4 kg N ha(-1)) and TP (0.12 kg P ha(-1)) fluxes in comparison with 2013 (15.1 kg N ha(-1); 0.21 kg P ha(-1)). The wet winter of 2013 with elevated shallow groundwater levels led to more frequent activation of sub-surface pathways and tile drain flow. Throughout the period, dry antecedent conditions had a temporary effect in elevating TP loads. Evidence of TP source exhaustion after consecutive storm events can be attributed to the repeated depletion of temporarily connected critical source areas to the river network via impermeable road surfaces. Fertiliser application varied considerably across three years due to differences in crop rotation between farms, with annual N and P fertiliser inputs varying by up to 21% and 41%, respectively. Proportional reductions in annual riverine nitrate-N and TP loadings were not observed at the sub-catchment outlet as loadings were largely influenced by annual runoff. Nitrate loadings were slightly higher during fertiliser application, but there was little relationship between P fertiliser application and riverine TP load. These data indicate that this intensive arable catchment may be in a state of biogeochemical stationarity, whereby legacy stores of nutrients buffer against changes

  16. Positive affect as coercive strategy: conditionality, activation and the role of psychology in UK government workfare programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, Lynne; Stearn, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Eligibility for social security benefits in many advanced economies is dependent on unemployed and underemployed people carrying out an expanding range of job search, training and work preparation activities, as well as mandatory unpaid labour (workfare). Increasingly, these activities include interventions intended to modify attitudes, beliefs and personality, notably through the imposition of positive affect. Labour on the self in order to achieve characteristics said to increase employability is now widely promoted. This work and the discourse on it are central to the experience of many claimants and contribute to the view that unemployment is evidence of both personal failure and psychological deficit. The use of psychology in the delivery of workfare functions to erase the experience and effects of social and economic inequalities, to construct a psychological ideal that links unemployment to psychological deficit, and so to authorise the extension of state-and state-contracted-surveillance to psychological characteristics. This paper describes the coercive and punitive nature of many psycho-policy interventions and considers the implications of psycho-policy for the disadvantaged and excluded populations who are its primary targets. We draw on personal testimonies of people experiencing workfare, policy analysis and social media records of campaigns opposed to workfare in order to explore the extent of psycho-compulsion in workfare. This is an area that has received little attention in the academic literature but that raises issues of ethics and professional accountability and challenges the field of medical humanities to reflect more critically on its relationship to psychology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Conditions to Prolonged Release of Microencapsulated Carvacrol on Alginate Films as Affected by Emulsifier Type and PH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matiacevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate from algal biomass is used as edible film and the incorporation of antimicrobial agents improves its performance to increase the shelf-life of fresh foods. However, environmental conditions and intrinsic properties of films influence their release. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the concentration and type of encapsulating agent and pH of emulsions on the physical and antimicrobial properties of alginate-carvacrol films. Films containing alginate, carvacrol as antimicrobial agent, and Tween 20 or trehalose (0.25 and 0.75% w/w as encapsulating agents were obtained from suspensions at pH 4 and pH 8. Physical characterization of emulsions and films and antimicrobial properties (E. coli and B. cinerea was evaluated. Results showed that droplets size depended on trehalose concentration, but emulsion stability depended on pH and type of encapsulating agent, being more stable samples with trehalose at pH 4. Although films with Tween 20 presented the highest opacity, they showed the best antimicrobial properties at initial time; however, during storage time, they lost their activity before samples with trehalose and relative humidity (RH was the principal factor to influence their release. Therefore, sample formulated with 0.25% trehalose at pH 4 and stored at 75% RH had the best potential as edible film for fresh fruits.

  18. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  19. Long-term soil alteration in historical charcoal hearths affects Tuber melanosporum mycorrhizal development and environmental conditions for fruiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Forcadell, Ricardo; Sánchez, Sergio; Reyna, Santiago

    2017-08-01

    Abandoned charcoal hearths constitute a very particular habitat for spontaneous fruiting of Tuber melanosporum, leading some harvesters to hypothesise that the fungus could benefit from the alterations that these soils underwent. However, ecological mechanisms involved in this relation are not fully elucidated yet. As a first step to understand it, the influence of long-term soil alteration on the symbiotic stage of T. melanosporum and on selected soil properties considered key to fruiting was assessed by conducting a greenhouse bioassay and a field observational study. In the bioassay, percent root colonisation and relative abundance of T. melanosporum were significantly lower in hearth than in control soils. Hearth soils showed significantly lower resistance to penetration, larger temperature fluctuation, reduced plant cover and reduced herbaceous root abundance. The results do not support the hypothesis that soil from historical charcoal hearths currently enhances development of T. melanosporum mycorrhizas. However, whether this is due to increased infectivity of native ectomycorrhizal communities or to worse conditions for development of T. melanosporum mycorrhizas remains unresolved. Native ectomycorrhizal communities in hearths showed altered composition, although not a clear change in infectivity or richness. Direction of change in hearth soil properties is compared to alteration occurring in soils spontaneously producing T. melanosporum. The interest of these changes to improve T. melanosporum fruiting in plantations is discussed.

  20. Can environmental conditions affect smallholders' climate change perception? Evidence from an aridity gradient in the Gobi desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueff, Henri

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing interest in smallholders' climate change perception (CCP). Understanding what people perceive in relation to the climate they endure supports national climate change adaptation policy especially relevant to uncertain and resource-scarce environments. Most research so far focused on the accuracy of CCP compared to observed climatic data. However, the potential effect of factors influencing peoples' perceptions remains largely unstudied. This research tests two hypotheses in a desert environment; first, that CCP varies along an aridity gradient, and, second, that respondents are more consistent (answers less far apart) in their CCP when facing more climate shocks, which supports the first hypothesis. A semi-structured survey was conducted among nomadic (Mongolia) (n=180) and semi-nomadic (Inner Mongolia-China) (n=180) herders, to analyse perception along an aridity gradient (proxied by Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) covering an array of climate change issues in the Gobi. Results suggests that environmental conditions have a significant effect on CCP but only in terms of experienced climate shocks. The CCP for other climatic variables (rain, season length) is more diffused and can poorly be predicted by the surrounding environment smallholders live in. Institutional contrasts between China and Mongolia explain marginally differences of perception. Further research is needed to validate these results among smallholders on other environmental gradient types, for examples along altitudinal biome stratification in mountain environments.

  1. Effects of cell culture conditions on antibody N-linked glycosylation--what affects high mannose 5 glycoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacis, Efren; Yu, Marcella; Autsen, Jennifer; Bayer, Robert; Li, Feng

    2011-10-01

    The glycosylation profile of therapeutic antibodies is routinely analyzed throughout development to monitor the impact of process parameters and to ensure consistency, efficacy, and safety for clinical and commercial batches of therapeutic products. In this study, unusually high levels of the mannose-5 (Man5) glycoform were observed during the early development of a therapeutic antibody produced from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, model cell line A. Follow up studies indicated that the antibody Man5 level was increased throughout the course of cell culture production as a result of increasing cell culture medium osmolality levels and extending culture duration. With model cell line A, Man5 glycosylation increased more than twofold from 12% to 28% in the fed-batch process through a combination of high basal and feed media osmolality and increased run duration. The osmolality and culture duration effects were also observed for four other CHO antibody producing cell lines by adding NaCl in both basal and feed media and extending the culture duration of the cell culture process. Moreover, reduction of Man5 level from model cell line A was achieved by supplementing MnCl2 at appropriate concentrations. To further understand the role of glycosyltransferases in Man5 level, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I GnT-I mRNA levels at different osmolality conditions were measured. It has been hypothesized that specific enzyme activity in the glycosylation pathway could have been altered in this fed-batch process. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Factors associated with balance confidence in older adults with health conditions affecting the balance and vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Gregory F; Whitney, Susan L; Redfern, Mark S; Furman, Joseph M

    2011-11-01

    To determine the functional, clinical, and comorbid health condition factors that contribute to balance confidence in persons with balance or vestibular disorders, or both. Cross-sectional descriptive. Tertiary care center for balance disorders. Older adults (N=95) with signs and symptoms of vestibular dysfunction. Not applicable. Activity-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) was administered on examination for complaints of balance, postural instability, or both. Balance confidence as measured by the ABC was associated with functional balance performance on the Timed Up & Go test and the Dynamic Gait Index. Duration of symptoms and general health-related quality of life (as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) were significant covariates of balance confidence. Self-reported treatment for anxiety, depression, or both, significantly reduced balance confidence. Balance confidence is a complex construct in older adults with signs and symptoms of balance or vestibular dysfunction, or both. Decreased balance confidence in performing functional activities is associated with actual balance performance, duration of vestibular symptoms, general health-related quality of life, and the presence of comorbid psychological and visual impairments. Understanding these relationships can potentially improve management of older adults who present with balance or vestibular disease, or both. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Hao

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.. In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  4. Grain quality and N uptake of spring cereals as affected by nitrogen fertilization in northern conditions: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Valkama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed quantitatively 40 Finnish field experiments related to the effect of nitrogen (N fertilizer on the main parameters of grain quality and N uptake of spring cereals. The experiments were conducted on a wide range of mineral soils under varying growth conditions from the 1950s to the 1990s. Overall there was no statistically significant effect on 1000 grain weight and a slightly negative effect on grain test weight. Nitrogen fertilizer increased N uptake much more steeply in slightly acidic soils (SA, pH 5.8–6.9, located mostly in South Finland, than in moderately acidic soils (MA, pH 5.0–5.7, located in Central Finland. With increasing N rates, protein content increased to a larger extent in spring barley and oats than in spring wheat. In the light of the current trend to reduce N fertilizerapplication, the obtained regressions between N rates and the parameters of grain quality may be used to maintain yield quality at a desirable level, while optimizing N management.

  5. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  6. Winter frost resistance of Pinus cembra measured in situ at the alpine timberline as affected by temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Othmar; Neuner, Gilbert

    2011-11-01

    Winter frost resistance (WFR), midwinter frost hardening and frost dehardening potential of Pinus cembra L. were determined in situ by means of a novel low-temperature freezing system at the alpine timberline ecotone (1950 m a.s.l., Mt Patscherkofel, Innsbruck, Austria). In situ liquid nitrogen (LN₂)-quenching experiments should check whether maximum WFR of P. cembra belonging to the frost hardiest conifer group, being classified in US Department of Agriculture climatic zone 1, suffices to survive dipping into LN₂ (-196 °C). Viability was assessed in a field re-growth test. Maximum in situ WFR (LT₅₀) of leaves was cembra was higher than that obtained on detached twigs, as reported earlier. In situ LN₂-quenching experiments were lethal in all cases even when twigs of P. cembra were exposed to an in situ frost hardening treatment (12 days at -20 °C followed by 3 days at -50 °C) to induce maximum WFR. Temperature treatments applied in the field significantly affected the actual WFR. In January a frost hardening treatment (21 days at -20 °C) led to a significant increase of WFR (buds: -62 °C to cembra was not at its specific maximum WFR. In contrast, simulated warm spells in late winter led to premature frost dehardening (buds: -32.6 °C to -10.2 °C; leaves: -32.7 to -16.4 °C) followed by significantly earlier bud swelling and burst in late winter. Strikingly, both temperature treatments, either increased air temperature (+10.1 °C) or increased soil temperature (+6.5 °C), were similarly effective. This high readiness to frost harden and deharden in winter in the field must be considered to be of great significance for future winter survival of P. cembra. Determination of WFR in field re-growth tests appears to be a valuable tool for critically judging estimates of WFR obtained on detached twigs in an ecological context.

  7. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora, consisting of Brochothrix spp., isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculated (co-cultured) onto cooked ham slices. The growth characteristics, lag phase duration (LPD, h), growth rate (GR, log(10) cfu/h), and maximum population density (MPD, log(10) cfu/g), of L. monocytogenes and the native microflora in vacuum-packed ham slices stored at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 °C for up to 5 weeks were determined. At 4-12 °C, the LPDs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes were not significantly different from those of monocultured L. monocytogenes in ham, indicating the LPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-12 °C were not influenced by the presence of the native microflora. At 4-8 °C, the GRs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes (0.0114-0.0130 log(10) cfu/h) were statistically but marginally lower than those of monocultured L. monocytogenes (0.0132-0.0145 log(10) cfu/h), indicating the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were reduced by the presence of the native microflora. The GRs of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 8-7% with the presence of the native microflora at 4-8 °C, whereas there was less influence of the native microflora on the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 10 and 12 °C. The MPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were also reduced by the presence of the native microflora. Data from this study provide additional information regarding the growth suppression of L. monocytogenes by the native microflora for assessing the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 100 kGy gamma-affected microbial communities within the ancient Arctic permafrost under simulated Martian conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheptsov, Vladimir S; Vorobyova, Elena A; Manucharova, Natalia A; Gorlenko, Mikhail V; Pavlov, Anatoli K; Vdovina, Maria A; Lomasov, Vladimir N; Bulat, Sergey A

    2017-11-01

    This research aimed to investigate the viability and biodiversity of microbial communities within ancient Arctic permafrost after exposure to a gamma-radiation dose of 100 kGy at low temperature (- 50 °C), low pressure (1 Torr) and dehydration conditions. The main objective was to assess the possibility for long-term survival of Earth-bound microorganisms in the subsurface of Martian regolith or inside small space bodies at constant absorption and accumulation of the gamma radiation dose. Investigated microbial communities had shown high resistance to a simulated Martian environment. After irradiation the total count of prokaryotic cells and number of metabolically active bacterial cells remained at the control level, while the number of bacterial CFUs decreased by 2 orders of magnitude, and the number of metabolically active cells of archaea decreased threefold. Besides, the abundance of culturable bacteria after irradiation was kept at a high level: not less than 3.7 × 10 5  cells/g. Potential metabolic activity of irradiated microbial communities in general were higher than in the control sample. A fairly high biodiversity of bacteria was detected in the exposed sample of permafrost, although the microbial community structure underwent significant changes after irradiation. In particular, actinobacteria populations of the genus Arthrobacter, which was not revealed in the control samples, became predominant in bacterial communities following the exposure. The results of the study testify that long-term preservation of microbial life inside Martian permafrost is possible. The data obtained can also be evaluated from the perspective of the potential for discovering viable Earth-bound microorganisms on other objects in the Solar system and inside of small bodies in outer space.

  9. Investigation of the conditions affecting the joining of Hungarian hospitals to an accreditation programme: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrádi, Viktor; Margitai, Barnabás; Dózsa, Csaba; Bárdos-Csenteri, Orsolya Karola; Sándor, János; Gáll, Tibor; Gődény, Sándor

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative studies have shown the various benefits for having accreditation in hospitals. However, neither of these explored the general conditions before applying for an accreditation. To close this gap, this study aimed to investigate the possible association between joining an accreditation programme with various hospital characteristics. A cross-sectional study was implemented using the databases of the 2013 Hungarian hospital survey and of the Hungarian State Treasury. Public general hospitals in Hungary. The analysis involved 44 public general hospitals, 14 of which joined the preparatory project for a newly developed accreditation programme. The outcomes included the percentage of compliance in quality management, patient information and identification, internal professional regulation, safe surgery, pressure sore prevention, infection control, the opinions of the heads of quality management regarding the usefulness of quality management and clinical audits, and finally, the total debt of the hospital per bed and per discharged patient. According to our findings, the general hospitals joining the preparatory project of the accreditation programme performed better in four of the six investigated activities, the head of quality management had a better opinion on the usefulness of quality management, and both the debt per bed number and the debt per discharged patient were lower than those who did not join. However, no statistically significant differences between the two groups were found in any of the examined outcomes. The findings suggest that hospitals applying for an accreditation programme do not differ significantly in characteristics from those which did not apply. This means that if in the future the accredited hospitals become better than other hospitals, then the improvement could be solely contributed to the accreditation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No

  10. Silicon induced Fe deficiency affects Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn distribution in rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth in calcareous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Rodríguez-Menéndez, Sara; Fernández, Beatriz; Pereiro, Rosario; de la Fuente, Vicenta; Hernandez-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2018-02-01

    A protective effect by silicon in the amelioration of iron chlorosis has recently been proved for Strategy 1 species, at acidic pH. However in calcareous conditions, the Si effect on Fe acquisition and distribution is still unknown. In this work, the effect of Si on Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn distribution was studied in rice (Strategy 2 species) under Fe sufficiency and deficiency. Plants (+Si or-Si) were grown initially with Fe, and then Fe was removed from the nutrient solution. The plants were then analysed using a combined approach including LA-ICP-MS images for each element of interest, the analysis of the Fe and Si concentration at different cell layers of root and leaf cross sections by SEM-EDX, and determining the apoplastic Fe, total micronutrient concentration and oxidative stress indexes. A different Si effect was observed depending on plant Fe status. Under Fe sufficiency, Si supply increased Fe root plaque formation, decreasing Fe concentration inside the root and increasing the oxidative stress in the plants. Therefore, Fe acquisition strategies were activated, and Fe translocation rate to the aerial parts was increased, even under an optimal Fe supply. Under Fe deficiency, +Si plants absorbed Fe from the plaque more rapidly than -Si plants, due to the previous activation of Fe deficiency strategies during the growing period (+Fe + Si). Higher Fe plaque formation due to Si supply during the growing period reduced Fe uptake and could activate Fe deficiency strategies in rice, making it more efficient against Fe chlorosis alterations. Silicon influenced Mn and Cu distribution in root. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  12. [Heterozygosity for Mutations Affecting Coat Pigmentation in the American Mink (Neovison vison) Enhances Structural Stability of Adrenal Cortex under Stress Conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapezov, O V; Luzenko, N D; Trapezova, L I

    2016-04-01

    The results of the study of the effects of heterozygosity for mutations affecting coat pigmentation on the response to the environmental stress caused by extreme feeding conditions are provided. The animals with the following genotypes were taken into the study: homozygotes standard (+/+), hedlund white (h/h), and aleutian (a/a) and heterozygotes hedlund white (h/+) and aleutian (a/+). The animals homozygous for the aleutian mutation (a/a) showed a statistically lower growth rate than the animals of other genotypes both in the ontrol and in the experiment (p < 0.05). Under the control conditions, the animals homozygous forboth the wild type standard allele (+/+) and the mutant hedlund white (h/h) and aleutian (a/a) alleles showed the evident tendency for the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex broadening compared to the experimental conditions. At the same time, in the animals heterozygous for the hedlund white (h/+) and the aleutian (a/+) mutations, a clear tendency for increasing size of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis under the experimental conditions was observed. In the heterozygous animals, although we observed single destructive changes in the adrenal cortex under stress conditions, they were much less profound than in the homozygous ones. This may be related to the broader range of morphological adaptation in the heterozygotes, which gives them the possibility of more significant enlargement of the secreting zone to provide for its adequate functioning.

  13. Job conditions, psychological climate, and affective commitment as predictors of intention to quit among two groups of bank employees in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogun,, Anthony G.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which job conditions (job demands and job control, psychological climate, and affective commitment predict turnover intention among Tellers and Interpersonal Relation Officers in some Nigerian Banks and whether affective commitment mediate the relationship between psychological climate and turnover intention. Five hundred and nineteen(tellers = 321, IRO = 198bank employees (266 males and 253 females whose ages ranged from 19 to 65 years with a mean of 34.02 years and SD of 9.54, from 11 commercial banks in Lagos, Nigeria participated in the study. Validated scales were used for data collections. The study hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression, Baron and Kenny’s (1986 mediation analysis, and t-independent sample analyses. The results revealed significant joint and independent influence of job demands, job control, psychological climate, and affective commitment on turnover intention of bank employees. Furthermore, affective commitment directly and fully mediated the relationship between psychological climate and intention to quit. The results also revealed that interpersonal relation officers (IRO showed higher tendency to quit their jobs than tellers. The researchers therefore suggested the need for bank management to modify or re-design the aspect of the job taxing their employees and invest and create positive climate that would improve their employees’ well-being.

  14. An open-label multicenter study to assess the safety of dextromethorphan/quinidine in patients with pseudobulbar affect associated with a range of underlying neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Gary L; Wymer, James P; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Appel, Stanley H; Formella, Andrea E; Pope, Laura E

    2014-11-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is associated with neurological disorders or injury affecting the brain, and characterized by frequent, uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing that are exaggerated or unrelated to the patient's emotional state. Clinical trials establishing dextromethorphan and quinidine (DM/Q) as PBA treatment were conducted in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or multiple sclerosis (MS). This trial evaluated DM/Q safety in patients with PBA secondary to any neurological condition affecting the brain. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of DM/Q during long-term administration to patients with PBA associated with multiple neurological conditions. Fifty-two-week open-label study of DM/Q 30/30 mg twice daily. Safety measures included adverse events (AEs), laboratory tests, electrocardiograms (ECGs), vital signs, and physical examinations. #NCT00056524. A total of 553 PBA patients with >30 different neurological conditions enrolled; 296 (53.5%) completed. The most frequently reported treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) were nausea (11.8%), dizziness (10.5%), headache (9.9%), somnolence (7.2%), fatigue (7.1%), diarrhea (6.5%), and dry mouth (5.1%). TRAEs were mostly mild/moderate, generally transient, and consistent with previous controlled trials. Serious AEs (SAEs) were reported in 126 patients (22.8%), including 47 deaths, mostly due to ALS progression and respiratory failure. No SAEs were deemed related to DM/Q treatment by investigators. ECG results suggested no clinically meaningful effect of DM/Q on myocardial repolarization. Differences in AEs across neurological disease groups appeared consistent with the known morbidity of the primary neurological conditions. Study interpretation is limited by the small size of some disease groups, the lack of a specific efficacy measure and the use of a DM/Q dose higher than the eventually approved dose. DM/Q was generally well tolerated over this 52 week trial in patients with PBA

  15. Exposure to hot and cold environmental conditions does not affect the decision making ability of soccer referees following an intermittent sprint protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eTaylor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soccer referees enforce the laws of the game and the decisions they make can directly affect match results. Fixtures within European competitions take place in climatic conditions that are often challenging (e.g. Moscow ~ -5oC, Madrid ~30oC. Effects of these temperatures on player performance are well documented; however, little is known how this environmental stress may impair cognitive performance of soccer referees and if so, whether exercise exasperates this. The present study aims to investigate the effect of cold (COLD; 5oC, 40% relative humidity (RH, hot (HOT; 30oC, 40% RH and temperate (CONT; 18oC, 40% RH conditions on decision making during soccer specific exercise. On separate occasions within each condition, thirteen physically active males; either semi-professional referees or semi-professional soccer players completed three 90 min intermittent treadmill protocols that simulated match play, interspersed with 4 computer delivered cognitive tests to measure vigilance and dual task capacity. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation were recorded throughout the protocol. There was no significant difference between conditions for decision making (p > 0.05 despite significant differences in measured physiological variables (skin temperature = HOT 34.5 ± 5.1°C; CONT 31.2 ± 0.1°C and COLD 26.7 ± 0.5°C; p < 0.05. It is hypothesised that the lack of difference observed in decision making ability between conditions was due to the exercise protocol used, as it may not have elicited an appropriate and valid soccer specific internal load to alter cognitive functioning.

  16. The association between perseverative negative cognitive processes and negative affect in people with long term conditions: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Leanne; Watkins, Edward; Dickens, Chris

    2014-01-06

    Depression is common in people with long term conditions (LTCs) and is associated with worse medical outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms underpinning this relationship could help predict who is at increased risk of adverse medical outcomes, and lead to the development of novel interventions. Perseverative negative cognitive processes, such as worry and rumination, involve repetitive and frequent thoughts about oneself and one's concerns. These processes have been associated with negative affect, and also adverse medical outcomes. The results of prospective studies, which would allow causal inferences to be drawn, are more equivocal however. Furthermore, the majority of studies have been conducted in physically healthy individuals, and we do not know to what extent these findings will generalise to people with LTCs. Electronic databases will be searched using a search strategy including controlled vocabulary and text words related to perseverative negative cognitive processes (such as worry and rumination) and negative affect (including depression and anxiety). Records will be hand-searched for terms related to LTCs. Citation and bibliography searching will be conducted, and authors of included studies will be contacted to identify unpublished studies. Studies will be included if they contain a standardised measure of the prospective association between perseverative negative cognitive processes and negative affect, or vice versa, in people with LTCs. Narrative and meta-analytic methods will be used to synthesize the data collected. This review will identify and synthesise studies of the prospective association between perseverative negative cognitive processes and negative affect among people with LTCs. The findings will help to identify whether worry and rumination could cause depression and anxiety in people with LTCs, and might indicate whether perseverative negative cognitive processes are appropriate targets for treatment.

  17. A prospective study of calf factors affecting age, body size, and body condition score at first calving of holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, A J; Heinrichs, B S; Harel, O; Rogers, G W; Place, N T

    2005-08-01

    Data were collected prospectively on parameters related to first calving on 18 farms located in Northeastern Pennsylvania. This project was designed to study possible residual effects of calf management practices and events occurring during the first 16 wk of life on age, BW, skeletal growth, and body condition score at first calving. Multiple imputation method for handling missing data was incorporated in these analyses. This method has the advantage over ad hoc single imputations because the appropriate error structure is maintained. Much similarity was found between the multiple imputation method and a traditional mixed model analysis, except that some estimates from the multiple imputation method seemed more logical in their effects on the parameter measured. Factors related to increased age at first calving were increased difficulty of delivery, antibiotic treatment of sick calves, increased amount of milk or milk replacer fed before weaning, reduced quality of forage fed to weaned calves, maximum humidity, mean daily temperature, and maximum ammonia levels in calf housing areas. Body weight at calving tended to increase with parity of the dam, increased amount of grain fed to calves, increased ammonia levels, and increased mean temperature of the calf housing area. Body condition score at calving tended to be positively influenced by delivery score at first calving, dam parity, and milk or milk replacer dry matter intake. Withers height at calving was positively affected by treatment of animals with antibiotics and increased mean temperature in the calf area. This study demonstrated that nutrition, housing, and management factors that affect health and growth of calves have long-term effects on the animal at least through first calving.

  18. Integrated use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, biogas slurry and chemical nitrogen for sustainable production of maize under salt-affected conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Jamil, M.; Akhtar, F.U.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most critical constraints hampering agricultural production throughout the world, including Pakistan. Some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the ability to reduce the deleterious effect of salinity on plants due to the presence of ACC-deaminase enzyme along with some other mechanisms. The integrated use of organic, chemical and biofertilizers can reduce dependence on expensive chemical inputs. To sustain high crop yields without deterioration of soil fertility, it is important to work out optimal combination of chemical and biofertilizers, and manures in the cropping system. A pot trial was conducted to study the effect of integrated use of PGPR, chemical nitrogen, and biogas slurry for sustainable production of maize under salt-stressed conditions and for good soil health. Results showed that sole application of PGPR, chemical nitrogen and biogas slurry enhanced maize growth but their combined application was more effective. Maximum improvement in maize growth, yield, ionic concentration in leaves and nutrient concentration in grains was observed in the treatment where PGPR and biogas slurry was used in the presence of 100% recommended nitrogen as chemical fertilizer. It also improved the soil pH, ECe, and available N, P and K contents. It is concluded that integrated use of PGPR, biogas slurry and chemical nitrogen not only enhanced maize growth, yield and quality but also improved soil health. So, it may be evaluated under field conditions to get sustained yield of maize from salt-affected soils. (author)

  19. Postharvest stilbenes and flavonoids enrichment of table grape cv Redglobe (Vitis vinifera L.) as affected by interactive UV-C exposure and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Pasquale; Pichierri, Arianna; Basile, Teodora; Antonacci, Donato

    2013-11-15

    Flavonoids and stilbenes are secondary metabolites produced in plants that can play an important health-promoting role. The biosynthesis of these compounds generally increases as a response to biotic or abiotic stress; therefore, in order to achieve as high phenolic accumulation as possible, the interactive effects of storage conditions (temperature and time) and UV-C radiation on polyphenols content in postharvest Redglobe table grape variety were investigated. During a storage time longer than 48h, both cold storage (4°C) and UV-C exposure of almost 3min (2.4kJm(-2)) positively enhanced the content of cis- and trans-piceid (34 and 90μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) together with quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (15 and 140μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) up to three fold respect to control grape samples. Conversely, catechin was not significantly affected by irradiation and storage treatments. With regard anthocyanins, the highest concentrations of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-Oglucoside were observed in Redglobe, stored at both room temperature and 4°C, after 5min (4.1kJm(-2)) of UV-C treatment and 24h of storage. Gathered findings showed that combined postharvest treatments can lead to possible "functional" grapes, within normal conditions of market commercialization, responding to the rising consumers demand to have foods that support and promote health. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Antileukemic activity of sulforaphane in primary blasts from patients affected by myelo- and lympho-proliferative disorders and in hypoxic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Fimognari

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane is a dietary isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables showing antileukemic activity. With the purpose of extending the potential clinical impact of sulforaphane in the oncological field, we investigated the antileukemic effect of sulforaphane on blasts from patients affected by different types of leukemia and, taking into account the intrinsically hypoxic nature of bone marrow, on a leukemia cell line (REH maintained in hypoxic conditions. In particular, we tested sulforaphane on patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and blastic NK cell leukemia. Sulforaphane caused a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in blasts from patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic or myeloid leukemia. Moreover, it was able to cause apoptosis and to inhibit proliferation in hypoxic conditions on REH cells. As to its cytotoxic mechanism, we found that sulforaphane creates an oxidative cellular environment that induces DNA damage and Bax and p53 gene activation, which in turn helps trigger apoptosis. On the whole, our results raise hopes that sulforaphane might set the stage for a novel therapeutic principle complementing our growing armature against malignancies and advocate the exploration of sulforaphane in a broader population of leukemic patients.

  1. Antileukemic activity of sulforaphane in primary blasts from patients affected by myelo- and lympho-proliferative disorders and in hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimognari, Carmela; Turrini, Eleonora; Sestili, Piero; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Carulli, Giovanni; Fontanelli, Giulia; Rousseau, Martina; Cantelli-Forti, Giorgio; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a dietary isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables showing antileukemic activity. With the purpose of extending the potential clinical impact of sulforaphane in the oncological field, we investigated the antileukemic effect of sulforaphane on blasts from patients affected by different types of leukemia and, taking into account the intrinsically hypoxic nature of bone marrow, on a leukemia cell line (REH) maintained in hypoxic conditions. In particular, we tested sulforaphane on patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and blastic NK cell leukemia. Sulforaphane caused a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in blasts from patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic or myeloid leukemia. Moreover, it was able to cause apoptosis and to inhibit proliferation in hypoxic conditions on REH cells. As to its cytotoxic mechanism, we found that sulforaphane creates an oxidative cellular environment that induces DNA damage and Bax and p53 gene activation, which in turn helps trigger apoptosis. On the whole, our results raise hopes that sulforaphane might set the stage for a novel therapeutic principle complementing our growing armature against malignancies and advocate the exploration of sulforaphane in a broader population of leukemic patients.

  2. Effect of welding conditions on transformation and properties of heat-affected zones in LWR [light-water reactor] vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, C.D.; Mohammed, S.

    1990-11-01

    The continuous cooling transformation behavior (CCT) and isothermal transformation (IT) behavior were determined for SA-508 and SA-533 materials for conditions pertaining to standard heat treatment and for the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The resulting diagrams help to select welding conditions that produce the most favorable microconstituent for the development of optimum postweld heat treatment (PWHT) toughness levels. In the case of SA-508 and SA-533, martensite responds more favorably to PWHT than does bainite. Bainite is to be avoided for the optimum toughness characteristics of the HAZ. The reheat cracking tendency for both steels was evaluated by metallographic studies of simulated HAZ structures subjected to PWHT cycles and simultaneous restraint. Both SA-533, Grade B, Class 1, and SA-508, Class 2, cracked intergranularly. The stress rupture parameter (the product of the stress for a rupture life of 10 min and the corresponding reduction of area) calculated for both steels showed that SA-508, Class 2, was more susceptible to reheat cracking than SA-533, Grade B, Class 1. Cold cracking tests (Battelle Test and University of Tennessee modified hydrogen susceptibility test) indicated that a higher preheat temperature is required for SA-508, Class 2, to avoid cracking than is required for SA-533, Grade B, Class 1. Further, the Hydrogen Susceptibility Test showed that SA-508, Class 2, is more susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement than is SA-533, Grade B, Class 1

  3. Empowering wind power. On social and institutional conditions affecting the performance of entrepreneurs in the wind power supply market in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agterbosch, S.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on wind energy for electricity generation, analysing the evolution of the wind power supply market in the Netherlands. We analysed different kind of wind power entrepreneurs (energy distributors, small private investors, wind cooperatives and new independent wind power producers), their capacity to implement wind energy and the social and institutional conditions that affected their investments over the period 1989-2004. Central in the analyses are the institutional regulatory dimension and the social context as explanatory variables for the emergence and performance of these wind power entrepreneurs. Special attention is given to the liberalisation of the electricity market. The primary social actors for the implementation of wind energy projects in a liberalised market are entrepreneurs willing to invest. Understanding conditions that trigger entrepreneurs to invest in these projects, and understanding conditions that determine the chance of success for entrepreneurs to implement and exploit their projects, is vital for setting up effective policies to stimulate wind electricity generation. The analytical perspective that we used to study investment behaviour of wind power entrepreneurs and their capacity to implement wind energy can be referred to as the 'new institutional perspective'. Based on this new institutional perspective the concept of implementation capacity has been developed. Implementation capacity indicates the feasibility for wind power entrepreneurs to adopt wind turbines, and enables to explain, comparatively, changing possibilities in time for different types of entrepreneurs. The development of the wind power supply market is divided into three successive market periods: Monopoly powers (1989-1995), Interbellum (1996-1997) and Free market (1998-2002). We conducted case studies on the implementation capacity of the four entrepreneurial groups in each of the three market periods. The case studies led to conclusions

  4. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y.; Tahir, Muhammad N.; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N.; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that Se

  5. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y; Tahir, Muhammad N; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize ( Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L -1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that

  6. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L. under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Nawaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium (Se supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L. under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity and water stress (60% field capacity conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing and was repeated after one week, whereas water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41% and enhanced relative water contents (30%, total chlorophyll (53%, carotenoid contents (60%, accumulation of total free amino acids (40% and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%, catalase (30%, peroxidase (27% and ascorbate peroxidase (27% with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15% and increased crude protein (47%, fibre (10%, nitrogen free extract (10% and Se content (36% but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose

  7. Metabolically active extracellular vesicles released from hepatocytes under drug-induced liver-damaging conditions modify serum metabolome and might affect different pathophysiological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, Felix; Palomo, Laura; Mleczko, Justyna; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Alonso, Cristina; Martínez, Ibon; Pérez-Cormenzana, Miriam; Castro, Azucena; Falcon-Perez, Juan M

    2017-02-15

    Hepatocytes are involved in the endogenous and drug metabolism; many of the enzymes involved in those processes are incorporated into extracellular vesicles and secreted into the bloodstream. Liver-damaging conditions modify the molecular cargo of those vesicles significantly. However, no information about the effect of these hepatic vesicles on the extracellular environment is available. Drug-induced liver damage increases the number of circulating extracellular vesicles and affects the release and content of hepatocyte-derived vesicles. In this work, we evaluated the metabolic effect of these vesicles on the composition of the serum. We performed a targeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) metabolomics analysis of serum samples. The samples had been first incubated with hepatic extracellular vesicles from hepatocytes challenged with acetaminophen or diclofenac. The incubation affected the serum levels of 67 metabolites, such as amino acids and different species of lipids. The metabolites included various species of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines. These compounds are the components of biological membranes; our observations suggest that the vesicles might take part in remodelling and maintenance of the membranes. Alterations in the levels of some other serum metabolites might have deleterious consequences, for example, the tetracosanoic acid with its cardiovascular effects. However, some of the metabolites whose levels were increased, including alpha-linoleic and tauroursodeoxycholic acids, have been reported to have a protective effect. Our targeted metabolomics analysis indicated that the hepatic extracellular vesicles act as nano-metabolic machines supplying the extracellular environment with the means to integrate diverse tissue responses. In conclusion, we show that the hepatic extracellular vesicles are metabolically active and might play a role in the physiopathological response to hepatic insults

  8. Behavior in the elevated plus maze is differentially affected by testing conditions in rats under and over three weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Albani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The late postnatal period in rats is marked by numerous changes in perceptual and cognitive abilities. As such, age-related variation in cognitive test performance might result in part from disparate sensitivities to environmental factors. To better understand how testing conditions might interact with age, we assessed anxiety behavior on an elevated plus maze in juvenile rats around three weeks of age under diverse testing conditions. Plasma corticosterone and neuronal activation patterns in the forebrain were examined after maze exposure. We found that anxiety was differentially expressed during different stages of late postnatal development. Bright illumination and morning testing encouraged greatest open arm exploration on the elevated plus maze in younger animals, while older rats explored open areas more under dim illumination in the morning compared to bright illumination in the afternoon/evening. Older rats exhibited higher plasma corticosterone levels at baseline compared to younger rats; however, this trend was reversed for post-testing corticosterone. Additionally, post-testing corticosterone levels were inversely related to time of testing. Compared to testing in the morning, elevated plus maze exposure in the afternoon/evening elicited greater neuronal Arc expression in the amygdala. Arc expression in the amygdala after morning testing was greater at P22-24 than P17-19. In layer 2/3 of primary visual cortex, Arc expression was elevated in younger animals and age interacted with time of testing to produce opposing effects at P17-19 and P22-24. These data suggest that age-related differences in anxiety-associated behavior during the late postnatal period are due in part to changes in light sensitivity and emergence of a circadian cycle for corticosterone. The findings illustrate that late postnatal behavioral development in rodents is a complex orchestration of changes in neural systems involved in perception, cognition, affect and

  9. On conditions of negativity of friction resistance for nonstationary modes of blood flow and possible mechanism of affecting of environmental factors on energy effectiveness of cardiovascular system function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that initiated by action of molecular viscosity impulse flow, directed usually from the moving fluid to limiting it solid surface, can, under certain conditions, turn to zero and get negative values in the case of non-stationary flow caused by alternating in time longitudinal (along the pipe axis pressure gradient. It is noted that this non-equilibrium mechanism of negative friction resistance in the similar case of pulsating blood flow in the blood vessels, in addition to the stable to turbulent disturbances swirled blood flow structure providing, can also constitute hydro-mechanical basis of the observed but not explained yet paradoxically high energy effectiveness of the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system (CVS. We consider respective mechanism of affecting on the stability of the normal work of CVS by environmental variable factors using shifting of hydro-dynamic mode with negative resistance realization range boundaries and variation of linear hydrodynamic instability leading to the structurally stable swirled blood flow organization.

  10. Genome-wide association mapping and biochemical markers reveal that seed ageing and longevity are intricately affected by genetic background and developmental and environmental conditions in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kranner, Ilse; Neumann, Kerstin; Rolletschek, Hardy; Seal, Charlotte E; Colville, Louise; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Börner, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Globally, over 7.4 million accessions of crop seeds are stored in gene banks, and conservation of genotypic variation is pivotal for breeding. We combined genetic and biochemical approaches to obtain a broad overview of factors that influence seed storability and ageing in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Seeds from a germplasm collection of 175 genotypes from four continents grown in field plots with different nutrient supply were subjected to two artificial ageing regimes. Genome-wide association mapping revealed 107 marker trait associations, and hence, genotypic effects on seed ageing. Abiotic and biotic stresses were found to affect seed longevity. To address aspects of abiotic, including oxidative, stress, two major antioxidant groups were analysed. No correlation was found between seed deterioration and the lipid-soluble tocochromanols, nor with oil, starch and protein contents. Conversely, the water-soluble glutathione and related thiols were converted to disulphides, indicating a strong shift towards more oxidizing intracellular conditions, in seeds subjected to long-term dry storage at two temperatures or to two artificial ageing treatments. The data suggest that intracellular pH and (bio)chemical processes leading to seed deterioration were influenced by the type of ageing or storage. Moreover, seed response to ageing or storage treatment appears to be significantly influenced by both maternal environment and genetic background. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Do lateral boundary condition update frequency and the resolution of the boundary data affect the regional model COSMO-CLM? A sensitivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankatz, K.; Kerkweg, A.

    2014-12-01

    The work presented is part of the joint project "DecReg" ("Regional decadal predictability") which is in turn part of the project "MiKlip" ("Decadal predictions"), an effort funded by the german Federal Ministry of Education and Research to improve decadal predictions on a global and regional scale. In regional climate modeling it is common to update the lateral boundary conditions (LBC) of the regional model every six hours. This is mainly due to the fact, that reference data sets like ERA are only available every six hours. Additionally, for offline coupling procedures it would be too costly to store LBC data in higher temporal resolution for climate simulations. However, theoretically, the coupling frequency could be as high as the time step of the driving model. Meanwhile, it is unclear if a more frequent update of the LBC has a significant effect on the climate in the domain of the regional model (RCM). This study uses the RCM COSMO-CLM/MESSy (Kerkweg and Jöckel, 2012) to couple COSMO-CLM offline to the GCM ECHAM5. One study examines a 30 year time slice experiment for three update frequencies of the LBC, namely six hours, one hour and six minutes. The evaluation of means, standard deviations and statistics of the climate in regional domain shows only small deviations, some stastically significant though, of 2m temperature, sea level pressure and precipitaion.The second scope of the study assesses parameters linked to cyclone activity, which is affected by the LBC update frequency. Differences in track density and strength are found when comparing the simulations.The second study examines the quality of decadal hind-casts of the decade 2001-2010 when the horizontal resolution of the driving model, namely T42, T63, T85, T106, from which the LBC are calculated, is altered. Two sets of simulations are evaluated. For the first set of simulations, the GCM simulations are performed at different resolutions using the same boundary conditions for GHGs and SSTs, thus

  12. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  13. Reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference and its inhibition by previous social interaction preferentially affect D1-medium spiny neurons in the accumbens corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Maria Prast

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated if counterconditioning with dyadic (i.e., one-to-one social interaction, a strong inhibitor of the subsequent reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP, differentially modulates the activity of the diverse brain regions oriented along a mediolateral corridor reaching from the interhemispheric sulcus to the anterior commissure, i.e., the nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band, the medial septal nucleus, the major island of Calleja, the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus, and the medial accumbens shell and core. We also investigated the involvement of the lateral accumbens core and the dorsal caudate putamen. The anterior cingulate 1 (Cg1 region served as a negative control. Contrary to our expectations, we found that all regions of the accumbens corridor showed increased expression of the early growth response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268 in rats 2 h after reacquisition of CPP for cocaine after a history of cocaine CPP acquisition and extinction. Previous counterconditioning with dyadic social interaction inhibited both the reacquisition of cocaine CPP and the activation of the whole accumbens corridor. EGR1 activation was predominantly found in dynorphin-labeled cells, i.e., presumably D1 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs, with D2-MSNs (immunolabeled with an anti-DRD2 antibody being less affected. Cholinergic interneurons or GABAergic interneurons positive for parvalbumin, neuropeptide Y or calretinin were not involved in these CPP-related EGR1 changes. Glial cells did not show any EGR1 expression either. The present findings could be of relevance for the therapy of impaired social interaction in substance use disorders, depression, psychosis, and autism spectrum disorders.

  14. Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2013-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek is a perennial stream draining a suburban area in Aurora, Colorado, where selenium concentrations have consistently exceeded the State of Colorado aquatic-life standard for selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter since the early 2000s. In cooperation with the City of Aurora, Colorado, Utilities Department, a synoptic water-quality study was performed along an 18-kilometer reach of Toll Gate Creek extending from downstream from Quincy Reservoir to the confluence with Sand Creek to develop a detailed understanding of streamflow and concentrations and loads of selenium in Toll Gate Creek. Streamflow and surface-water quality were characterized for summer low-flow conditions (July–August 2007) using four spatially overlapping synoptic-sampling subreaches. Mass-balance methods were applied to the synoptic-sampling and tracer-injection results to estimate streamflow and develop spatial profiles of concentration and load for selenium and other chemical constituents in Toll Gate Creek surface water. Concurrent groundwater sampling determined concentrations of selenium and other chemical constituents in groundwater in areas surrounding the Toll Gate Creek study reaches. Multivariate principal-component analysis was used to group samples and to suggest common sources for dissolved selenium and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen stable-isotope ratios, groundwater-age interpretations, and chemical analysis of water-soluble paste extractions from core samples are presented, and interpretation of the hydrologic and geochemical data support conclusions regarding geologic sources of selenium and the processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed.

  15. How do climate and human impact affect Sphagnum peatlands under oceanic-continental climatic conditions? 2000 years of fire and hydrological history of a bog in Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Tinner, Willy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Kołaczek, Piotr; Słowiński, Michał; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change affects many natural processes and the same applies to human impact For instance climate change and anthropogenic activities may cause increased fire activity or change peatland dynamics. Currently it is still unknown how Sphagnum peatlands in the oceanic-continental transition zone of Poland may respond to combined effects of heat waves, drought and fire. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the last 2000 years palaeohydrology and fire history at Linje bog in Northern Poland. The main task was to determine the drivers of fire episodes, particularly to identify climatic and anthropogenic forcing. A two-meter peat core was extracted and subsampled with a high resolution. Micro- and macroscopic charcoal analyses were applied to determine past fire activity and the results compared with palaeohydrological reconstructions based on testate amoeba analysis. Palynological human indicators were used to reconstruct human activity. A depth-age model including 20 14C dates was constructed to calculate peat accumulation rates and charcoal influx. We hypothesised that: 1) fire frequency in Northern Poland was determined by climatic conditions (combination of low precipitation and heat waves), as reflected in peatland water table, and that 2) past fire episodes in the last millennium were intensified by human activity. Furthermore climate may have influenced human activity over harvest success and the carrying capacity. Our study shows that fire was important for the studied ecosystem, however, its frequency has increased in the last millennium in concomitance with land use activities. Landscape humanization and vegetation opening were followed by a peatland drying during the Little Ice Age (from ca. AD 1380). Similarly to other palaeoecological studies from Poland, Linje peatland possessed an unstable hydrology during the Little Ice Age. Increased fire episodes appeared shortly before the Little Ice Age and most severe fires were present in the time when

  16. Culture conditions of Roseobacter strain 27-4 affect its attachment and biofilm formation as quantified by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Bagge-Ravn, D.

    2006-01-01

    The fish probiotic bacterium Roseobacter strain 27-4 grows only as rosettes and produces its antibacterial compound under static growth conditions. It forms three-dimensional biofilms when precultured under static conditions. We quantified attachment of Roseobacter strain 27-4 using a direct real......-time PCR method and demonstrated that the bacteria attached more efficiently to surfaces during static growth than under aerated conditions.......The fish probiotic bacterium Roseobacter strain 27-4 grows only as rosettes and produces its antibacterial compound under static growth conditions. It forms three-dimensional biofilms when precultured under static conditions. We quantified attachment of Roseobacter strain 27-4 using a direct real...

  17. Does having a chronic physical condition affect the likelihood of treatment seeking for a mental health problem and does this vary by ethnicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K M; Kokaua, J; Baxter, J

    2011-01-01

    The comorbidity of mental disorders with chronic physical conditions is known to have important clinical consequences, but it is not known whether mental-physical comorbidity influences mental health treatment seeking. This study investigates whether the presence of a chronic physical condition influences the likelihood of seeking treatment for a mental health problem, and whether that varies among ethnic subgroups in New Zealand. Analyses were based on a subsample (n = 7,435) of The New Zealand Mental Health Survey, a nationally representative household survey of adults (response rate 73.3%). Ethnic subgroups (Maori and Pacific peoples) were oversampled. DSM-IV mental disorders were measured face-to-face with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Ascertainment of chronic physical conditions was via self-report. In the general population, having a chronic medical condition increased the likelihood of seeking mental health treatment from a general practitioner (OR: 1.58), as did having a chronic pain condition (OR: 2.03). Comorbid chronic medical conditions increased the likelihood of seeking mental health treatment most strongly among Pacific peoples (ORs: 2.86-4.23), despite their being less likely (relative to other ethnic groups) to seek mental health treatment in the absence of physical condition comorbidity. In this first investigation of this topic, this study finds that chronic physical condition comorbidity increases the likelihood of seeking treatment for mental health problems. This provides reassurance to clinicians and health service planners that the difficult clinical problem of mental-physical comorbidity is not further compounded by the comorbidity itself constituting a barrier to mental health treatment seeking.

  18. The ECE Pre-Service Teachers' Perception on Factors Affecting the Integration of Educational Computer Games in Two Conditions: Selecting versus Redesigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancar Tokmak, Hatice; Ozgelen, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    This case study aimed to examine early childhood education (ECE) pre-service teachers' perception on the factors affecting integration of educational computer games to their instruction in two areas: selecting and redesigning. Twenty-six ECE pre-service teachers participated in the study. The data was collected through open-ended questionnaires,…

  19. Miscellaneous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Hoffman, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on numerous conditions (systemic diseases, metabolic diseases, etc.) that may also affect the foot and ankle. In many cases, imaging of the foot and ankle is not performed for primary diagnostic purposes. However, radiographic changes do occur with these conditions. Therefore, it is important to be aware of radiographic abnormalities that these diseases may cause in the foot and ankle

  20. Factors affecting subjective appearance evaluations among patients with congenital craniofacial conditions: An application of Cash's cognitive-behavioural model of body image development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie

    2018-03-01

    Satisfaction with appearance is of central importance for psychological well-being and health. For individuals with an unusual appearance, such as congenital craniofacial anomalies (CFA), appearance evaluations could be especially important. However, few, if any papers have presented a comprehensive synthesis of the factors found to affect subjective satisfaction with appearance among children, adolescents, and adults born with a CFA. Further, only a handful of craniofacial studies have applied psychological theories or models to their findings, resulting in an overall lack of guidance for researchers in the field. This paper summarises the literature pertaining to satisfaction with appearance among those affected by CFAs, and examines the extent to which Cash's cognitive-behavioural model of body image development (2012) fits with this literature. Given the overlap between factors of interest in the field of CFAs, and in the area of body image more broadly, a closer collaboration between the two research fields is suggested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    In species where chloroplast inheritance is exclusively or predominantly maternal, pollen-mediated flow of transgenes is reduced if transgenes are inserted in chloroplast DNA instead of nuclear DNA. However, transmission of chloroplast-encoded transgeneswill still occur if transgenic individuals...... affected the thousand-kernel weight significantly. It was concluded that further introgression of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape to B. rapa is mostlikely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed....

  2. Comparative effectiveness of different carriers to improve the efficacy of bacterial consortium for enhancing wheat production under salt affected field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, S.; Zahir, Z. A.; Asghar, H. N.; Chaudhry, U. K.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most crucial problems for sustainable agriculture which is severely affecting crop growth and decreasing the food production. On another hand, burgeoning population in the world demands to produce more food. So, there is a need of hours to increase agricultural production particularly cereals from salt affected soils by adopting cost effective and environment friendly approaches. Use of bio-inoculants with salt tolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could be a promising option to enhance the production of cereals in salt affected soils. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate different carriers compost, peat, biogas slurry and press mud along with PGPR to enhance wheat production under salinity stress. Consortium containing equal proportion of three PGPR strains (Bacillus cereus strain Y5, Bacillus sp. Y14 and Bacillus subtilis strain Y16) was used with different carriers for seed coating. Finely ground and sterilized carriers were mixed in broth and coated on the surface of wheat seeds with different carriers. Coated seeds were sown in saline field with salinity range of 10-13 dS m/sup -1/. Results revealed that multi-strain bacterial inoculation improved the gas exchange, ionic, biochemical, growth and yield attributes of wheat crop under salinity stress. However, use of different carriers further improved the efficacy of multi-strain inoculation and significantly increased growth, yield and physiological parameters of wheat. The results of compost, peat and biogas slurry as carrier for bio-inoculants were statistically similar. (author)

  3. Storage conditions of blood samples and primer selection affect the yield of cDNA polymerase chain reaction products of hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, H. T.; Bresters, D.; Winkel, I. N.; Reesink, H. W.; Weiner, A. J.; Houghton, M.; van der Poel, C. L.; Lelie, P. N.

    1992-01-01

    We have noticed that suboptimal specimen processing and storage conditions may cause false-negative results in the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in plasma or serum. To establish the influence of specimen handling in a serological laboratory on the rate of detection of HCV RNA by the cDNA

  4. The O-mannosylation and production of recombinant APA (45/47 KDa protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Streptomyces lividans is affected by culture conditions in shake flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamboa-Suasnavart Ramsés A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an immunodominant adhesin restricted to mycobacterium genus and has been proposed as an alternative candidate to generate a new vaccine against tuberculosis or for diagnosis kits. In this work, the recombinant O-glycoprotein APA was produced by the non-pathogenic filamentous bacteria Streptomyces lividans, evaluating three different culture conditions. This strain is known for its ability to produce heterologous proteins in a shorter time compared to M. tuberculosis. Results Three different shake flask geometries were used to provide different shear and oxygenation conditions; and the impact of those conditions on the morphology of S. lividans and the production of rAPA was characterized and evaluated. Small unbranched free filaments and mycelial clumps were found in baffled and coiled shake flasks, but one order of magnitude larger pellets were found in conventional shake flasks. The production of rAPA is around 3 times higher in small mycelia than in larger pellets, most probably due to difficulties in mass transfer inside pellets. Moreover, there are four putative sites of O-mannosylation in native APA, one of which is located at the carboxy-terminal region. The carbohydrate composition of this site was determined for rAPA by mass spectrometry analysis, and was found to contain different glycoforms depending on culture conditions. Up to two mannoses residues were found in cultures carried out in conventional shake flasks, and up to five mannoses residues were determined in coiled and baffled shake flasks. Conclusions The shear and/or oxygenation parameters determine the bacterial morphology, the productivity, and the O-mannosylation of rAPA in S. lividans. As demonstrated here, culture conditions have to be carefully controlled in order to obtain recombinant O-glycosylated proteins with similar "quality" in bacteria

  5. The O-mannosylation and production of recombinant APA (45/47 KDa) protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Streptomyces lividans is affected by culture conditions in shake flasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Cordova-Dávalos, Laura E; Martínez-Sotelo, José A; Servín-González, Luis; Espitia, Clara; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

    2011-12-20

    The Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an immunodominant adhesin restricted to mycobacterium genus and has been proposed as an alternative candidate to generate a new vaccine against tuberculosis or for diagnosis kits. In this work, the recombinant O-glycoprotein APA was produced by the non-pathogenic filamentous bacteria Streptomyces lividans, evaluating three different culture conditions. This strain is known for its ability to produce heterologous proteins in a shorter time compared to M. tuberculosis. Three different shake flask geometries were used to provide different shear and oxygenation conditions; and the impact of those conditions on the morphology of S. lividans and the production of rAPA was characterized and evaluated. Small unbranched free filaments and mycelial clumps were found in baffled and coiled shake flasks, but one order of magnitude larger pellets were found in conventional shake flasks. The production of rAPA is around 3 times higher in small mycelia than in larger pellets, most probably due to difficulties in mass transfer inside pellets. Moreover, there are four putative sites of O-mannosylation in native APA, one of which is located at the carboxy-terminal region. The carbohydrate composition of this site was determined for rAPA by mass spectrometry analysis, and was found to contain different glycoforms depending on culture conditions. Up to two mannoses residues were found in cultures carried out in conventional shake flasks, and up to five mannoses residues were determined in coiled and baffled shake flasks. The shear and/or oxygenation parameters determine the bacterial morphology, the productivity, and the O-mannosylation of rAPA in S. lividans. As demonstrated here, culture conditions have to be carefully controlled in order to obtain recombinant O-glycosylated proteins with similar "quality" in bacteria, particularly, if the protein activity depends on the

  6. Will seasonal and climatic conditions influence living habits and socio-economic activities in such a way that nuclear accident are affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeverstam, U.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses to which extent climatic and seasonal effects can influence living habits and socio-economic activities in such a way that consequences of a nuclear accident might be affected. A number of examples from Sweden are given, related to dwellings (building standards and location), diet, seasonal effects in agriculture and tourism. The reindeer are discussed separately. Although climate and season do change man's habits in a way relevant to accident consequences, the conclusion of this paper is that in most cases this mechanism is severely mixed with other, sometimes more important ones

  7. A new early-warning system for stripe rust affecting wheat and triticale: Host-pathogen interactions under different environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring

    . The sudden change was explained by the appearance of an exotic and aggressive Pst race that attacked most of the triticale varieties grown at that time, resulting in yield losses of 50-100% for organic farmers. At present, Tulus is the most widely grown triticale variety in Denmark. Although originally......Stripe (yellow) rust has been the most damaging disease in Danish organic wheat and triticale production since 2009. There were estimated losses of approximately 50 million DKK (9 million USD) in 2009. Until that time, triticale was considered the most robust cereal crop for organic farming...... resistant it was susceptible under field conditions in March 2012. All Pst isolates from Tulus, obtained from multiple locations, were identified as the ‘Kranich’-race, and were avirulent on Tulus under experimental conditions. In May and June 2012 Tulus recovered on a country-wide scale and was resistant...

  8. Brain stem slice conditioned medium contains endogenous BDNF and GDNF that affect neural crest boundary cap cells in co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Kale, Ajay; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Siratirakun, Piyaporn; Aquino, Jorge B; Thonabulsombat, Charoensri; Ernfors, Patrik; Olivius, Petri

    2014-05-30

    Conditioned medium (CM), made by collecting medium after a few days in cell culture and then re-using it to further stimulate other cells, is a known experimental concept since the 1950s. Our group has explored this technique to stimulate the performance of cells in culture in general, and to evaluate stem- and progenitor cell aptitude for auditory nerve repair enhancement in particular. As compared to other mediums, all primary endpoints in our published experimental settings have weighed in favor of conditioned culture medium, where we have shown that conditioned culture medium has a stimulatory effect on cell survival. In order to explore the reasons for this improved survival we set out to analyze the conditioned culture medium. We utilized ELISA kits to investigate whether brain stem (BS) slice CM contains any significant amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We further looked for a donor cell with progenitor characteristics that would be receptive to BDNF and GDNF. We chose the well-documented boundary cap (BC) progenitor cells to be tested in our in vitro co-culture setting together with cochlear nucleus (CN) of the BS. The results show that BS CM contains BDNF and GDNF and that survival of BC cells, as well as BC cell differentiation into neurons, were enhanced when BS CM were used. Altogether, we conclude that BC cells transplanted into a BDNF and GDNF rich environment could be suitable for treatment of a traumatized or degenerated auditory nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Accumulation of PAL transcript and PAL activity as affected by heat-conditioning and low-temperature storage and its relation to chilling sensitivity in mandarin fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ballesta, M T; Zacarias, L; Granell, A; Lafuente, M T

    2000-07-01

    The effects of different periods of heating at 37 degrees C on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and how this relates to chilling tolerance was investigated in fruits of the chilling-sensitive Fortune mandarin. All effective heat-conditioning treatments caused an early and transient increase in PAL mRNA and PAL activity. Conditioning fruits at 37 degrees C for 1 or 2 days prevented the manifestation of chilling symptoms but not the accumulation of PAL mRNA and PAL activity observed in untreated fruits. In fruits conditioned for 3 days, cold-induced damage and PAL activity were also suppressed but not the accumulation of PAL transcript upon subsequent storage at 2 degrees C. Storage of 3-day-heated fruits at a nonchilling temperature (12 degrees C) induced an early and transient increase in both PAL mRNA and PAL activity. High levels of PAL transcript and PAL activity were detected in freshly harvested fruits of a chilling-resistant mandarin (Hernandina) that decreased upon cold storage at 2 degrees C in heat-treated and nontreated fruits. These results indicate that sensitivity of mandarins to chilling correlates with low constitutive levels of PAL mRNA and PAL activity and with the inducibility of both upon exposure to low temperatures.

  10. Climate change conditions (elevated CO2 and temperature) and UV-B radiation affect grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo) leaf carbon assimilation, altering fruit ripening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Gomès, E; Pascual, I

    2015-07-01

    The increase in grape berry ripening rates associated to climate change is a growing concern for wine makers as it rises the alcohol content of the wine. The present work studied the combined effects of elevated CO2, temperature and UV-B radiation on leaf physiology and berry ripening rates. Three doses of UV-B: 0, 5.98, 9.66 kJm(-2)d(-1), and two CO2-temperature regimes: ambient CO2-24/14 °C (day/night) (current situation) and 700 ppm CO2-28/18 °C (climate change) were imposed to grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings from fruit set to maturity under greenhouse-controlled conditions. Photosynthetic performance was always higher under climate change conditions. High levels of UV-B radiation down regulated carbon fixation rates. A transient recovery took place at veraison, through the accumulation of flavonols and the increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Interacting effects between UV-B and CO2-temperature regimes were observed for the lipid peroxidation, which suggests that UV-B may contribute to palliate the signs of oxidative damage induced under elevated CO2-temperature. Photosynthetic and ripening rates were correlated. Thereby, the hastening effect of climate change conditions on ripening, associated to higher rates of carbon fixation, was attenuated by UV-B radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation of IL-8 and IL-9 Producing CD4+ T Cells Is Affected by Th17 Polarizing Conditions and AHR Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Gasch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The T helper cell subsets Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg play an important role in immune cell homeostasis, in host defense, and in immunological disorders. Recently, much attention has been paid to Th17 cells which seem to play an important role in the early phase of the adoptive immune response and autoimmune disease. When generating Th17 cells under in vitro conditions the amount of IL-17A producing cells hardly exceeds 20% while the nature of the remaining T cells is poorly characterized. As engagement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR has also been postulated to modulate the differentiation of T helper cells into Th17 cells with regard to the IL-17A expression we ask how far do Th17 polarizing conditions in combination with ligand induced AHR activation have an effect on the production of other T helper cell cytokines. We found that a high proportion of T helper cells cultured under Th17 polarizing conditions are IL-8 and IL-9 single producing cells and that AHR activation results in an upregulation of IL-8 and a downregulation of IL-9 production. Thus, we have identified IL-8 and IL-9 producing T helper cells which are subject to regulation by the engagement of the AHR.

  12. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  13. An assessment of the quality of the I-DSD and the I-CAH registries - international registries for rare conditions affecting sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourime, M; Bryce, J; Jiang, J; Nixon, R; Rodie, M; Ahmed, S F

    2017-03-20

    With the proliferation of rare disease registries, there is a need for registries to undergo an assessment of their quality against agreed standards to ensure their long-term sustainability and acceptability.This study was performed to evaluate the I-DSD and I-CAH Registries and identify their strengths and weaknesses. The design and operational aspects of the registries were evaluated against published quality indicators. Additional criteria included the level of activity, international acceptability of the registries and their use for research. The design of the I-DSD and I-CAH Registries provides them with the ability to perform multiple studies and meet the standards for data elements, data sources and eligibility criteria. The registries follow the standards for data security, governance, ethical and legal issues, sustainability and communication of activities. The data have a high degree of validity, consistency and accuracy and the completeness is maximal for specific conditions such as androgen insensitivity syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In terms of research output, the external validity is strong but the wide variety of cases needs further review. The internal validity of data was condition specific and highest for conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The shift of the registry from a European registry to an international registry and the creation of a discrete but linked CAH registry increased the number of users and stakeholders as well as the international acceptability of both registries. The I-DSD and I-CAH registries comply with the standards set by expert organisations. Recent modifications in their operation have allowed the registries to increase their user acceptability.

  14. Can videoconferencing affect older people's engagement and perception of their social support in long-term conditions management: a social network analysis from the Telehealth Literacy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banbury, Annie; Chamberlain, Daniel; Nancarrow, Susan; Dart, Jared; Gray, Len; Parkinson, Lynne

    2017-05-01

    Social support is a key component in managing long-term conditions. As people age in their homes, there is a greater risk of social isolation, which can be ameliorated by informal support networks. This study examined the relationship between changes in social support networks for older people living in a regional area following weekly videoconference groups delivered to the home. Between February and June 2014, we delivered 44 weekly group meetings via videoconference to participants in a regional town in Australia. The meetings provided participants with education and an opportunity to discuss health issues and connect with others in similar circumstances. An uncontrolled, pre-post-test methodology was employed. A social network tool was completed by 45 (87%) participants either pre- or post-intervention, of which 24 (46%) participants completed the tool pre- and post-intervention. In addition, 14 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus groups were conducted. Following the intervention, participants identified increased membership of their social networks, although they did not identify individuals from the weekly videoconference groups. The most important social support networks remained the same pre- and post-intervention namely, health professionals, close family and partners. However, post-intervention participants identified friends and wider family as more important to managing their chronic condition compared to pre-intervention. Participants derived social support, in particular, companionship, emotional and informational support as well as feeling more engaged with life, from the weekly videoconference meetings. Videoconference education groups delivered into the home can provide social support and enhance self-management for older people with chronic conditions. They provide the opportunity to develop a virtual social support network containing new and diverse social connections. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Parenting characteristics of female caregivers of children affected by chronic endocrine conditions: a comparison between disorders of sex development and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Katherine D; Fedele, David A; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Phillips, Timothy M; Mazur, Tom; Mullins, Larry L; Chernausek, Steven D; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2011-12-01

    Rearing a child with a chronic illness is stressful and can potentially affect parenting style, which may result in poorer outcomes for children. The purpose of this study was to compare parenting characteristics of female caregivers rearing children with a disorder of sex development (DSD) to female caregivers rearing children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Caregivers of both groups were matched according to age and compared on measures of stress and parenting practices. Both groups demonstrated significant levels of stress and negative parenting practices. Children with T1DM and male children with non-life-threatening DSD were perceived as more vulnerable by their caregivers. Better understanding of parenting experiences of female caregivers rearing children with DSD, particularly male children, will facilitate the development of individualized interventions to ameliorate negative parenting practices and stress, with the long-term goal of improved health outcomes for their children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conditioning pain stimulation does not affect itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine pricks but aggravates neurogenic inflammation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H H; Imai, Y; Petersen, K K; Koenig, J; Elberling, J; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated whether itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine is subjected to modulation by a standardized conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm in 24 healthy volunteers. CPM was induced by computer-controlled cuff pressure algometry and histamine was introduced to the volar forearm by skin prick test punctures. Moreover, neurogenic inflammation and wheal reactions induced by histamine and autonomic nervous system responses (heart rate variability and skin conductance) were monitored. CPM did not modulate the intensity of histamine-induced itch suggesting that pruriceptive signaling is not inhibited by pain-recruited endogenous modulation, however, CPM was found to aggravate histamine-induced neurogenic inflammation, likely facilitated by efferent sympathetic fibers.

  17. Conditioning pain stimulation does not affect itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine pricks but aggravates neurogenic inflammation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Imai, Yosuke; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine is subjected to modulation by a standardized conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm in 24 healthy volunteers. CPM was induced by computer-controlled cuff pressure algometry and histamine was introduced to the volar...... forearm by skin prick test punctures. Moreover, neurogenic inflammation and wheal reactions induced by histamine and autonomic nervous system responses (heart rate variability and skin conductance) were monitored. CPM did not modulate the intensity of histamine-induced itch suggesting that pruriceptive...... signaling is not inhibited by pain-recruited endogenous modulation, however, CPM was found to aggravate histamine-induced neurogenic inflammation, likely facilitated by efferent sympathetic fibers....

  18. High dietary biotin levels affect the footpad and hock health of broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities and litter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z W; Fan, Q H; Wang, X X; Guo, Y M; Wang, H J; Dong, X

    2017-06-01

    Responses to stocking density (SD), dietary biotin concentration and litter condition were evaluated on 2016 Ross 308 male broilers in the fattening period (day 22-day 42). The birds were placed in 48 pens with either dry or wet litter to simulate the final stocking density of 30 kg (12 broilers/m 2 ; normal stocking density, NSD) and 40 kg (16 broilers/m 2 ; high stocking density, HSD) of body weight (BW)/m 2 floor space. A corn-soybean meal-based diet was supplemented with biotin to provide a normal (NB; 155 μg/kg) or high (HB, 1521 μg/kg) level of dietary biotin. There were six repetitions per treatment. The inappropriate moisture content of litter associated with HSD was avoided (p  0.05) for growth and processing yield. In HSD, the biotin effect (gains, FCR) was significantly higher (p biotin was observed (p biotin supplementation and litter condition existed from 35 to 42 days of age. Taken together, increasing dietary biotin improves the performance and well-being of broiler chickens stocked at high densities in litter-independent and litter-dependent manners respectively. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant as affected by nitrogen rates applied with drip-irrigation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Akin, A.I.; Kislal, H.; Ozturk, A.; Deviren, A.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of different N rates applied through drip irrigation on the growth and N uptake by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant under greenhouse conditions. It was found that, for tomato, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer through fertigation (53.9%) as compared to the soil application (34.0%) at 100 mg N/L. In general, any further increase of N fertilizer did not have an improving effect on the tomato yield. With pepper, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer in the irrigation water (49.2%) as compared to the soil application (33.9%) at the same N level (140 mg N/L), being the optimum N rate under our greenhouse conditions. At a fertilization level of 100 mg N/L with fertigation, the % NUE was significantly increased as compared to the soil application. With respectively cucumber, melon and eggplant; the % NUE with fertigation was 63.4, 21.4 and 50.8%, while with soil application it was 34,0 11.0 and 18.8%. (author)

  20. Factors Affecting the Readiness of Medical Doctors and Patients with Chronic Conditions toward the Usage of Smartphones in the Saudi Arabian Healthcare Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam M Al-Mahadeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported the rapid increase in the number of individuals who use smartphones. However, smartphones appear to be increasingly used by healthcare workers, particularly physicians and nurses. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the readiness of medical doctors and patients with chronic conditions in using and adopting smartphones for communication. This study employs the Technology Acceptance Model to examine the behavior of people in using smartphones from the perspectives of trust and rural areas. To realize our objective, we conducted a questionnaire survey that involved medical doctors and patients with chronic conditions. Our particular focus was Al Qunfudhah City in Saudi Arabia. More than 200 questionnaires were distributed to people belonging to different healthcare sectors in the rural areas of Al Qunfudhah City. Our aim was to include every possible scenario and to obtain excellent perspectives. The results that we eventually analyzed indicated that trust factor and rural areas significantly influence the readiness of people belonging to the healthcare sector toward using smartphones. The results of our study concur with the findings of other studies. Our results indicate that smartphones and other high-technology gadgets are now necessary and accepted devices in the different healthcare fields. However, further studies should explore the challenges and effects of smartphone use in the healthcare sector.

  1. Sperm head vacuoles are not affected by in-vitro conditions, as analysed by a system of sperm-microcapture channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyer, Anton; Vanderzwalmen, Pierre; Bach, Magnus; Stecher, Astrid; Spitzer, Dietmar; Zech, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    Since the introduction of the motile sperm organelle morphology examination, there has been increasing recognition of the fact that the presence of large nuclear vacuoles might have deleterious effects on embryo development. Nevertheless, one fundamental question still being debated is whether specific in-vitro conditions during the handling of semen have an impact on vacuole formation. This study's objective was to analyse whether incubation temperature (20, 37°C) or oxidative stress stimulates the formation of nuclear vacuoles. Furthermore, it examined whether vacuoles disappear in the presence of an acrosome reaction inducer. Therefore, a system of sperm-microcapture channels was developed to permit the observation of the same living spermatozoa over a period of 24h. Neither incubation at 37°C nor induction of oxidative stress led to de-novo formation of nuclear vacuoles. Induction of the acrosome reaction using calcium ionophore A23587 did not lead to any modifications in the proportion of spermatozoa with vacuoles or to the disappearance of pre-existing vacuoles. According to these observations, it is concluded that nuclear vacuoles on the sperm head are already produced at earlier stages of sperm maturation and are not induced or modulated by routine laboratory environments. The examination of spermatozoa at very high magnification has led to the increasingly widespread recognition that the presence of large vacuoles in the human sperm head has deleterious effects on embryo development. One fundamental question, however, still remains: do specific conditions in the laboratory during the preparation and the handling of semen have an impact on vacuole formation? Our initial objective was to analyse whether different incubation temperatures (20, 37°C) and the induction of oxidative stress lead to the formation of sperm head vacuoles. Furthermore, we examined whether vacuoles disappear in the presence of an acrosome reaction inducer. In order to do this we

  2. Conditional Deletion of the L-Type Calcium Channel Cav1.2 in Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Affects Postnatal Myelination in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, Veronica T; Santiago González, Diara A; Namgyal Lama, Tenzing; Spreuer, Vilma; Handley, Vance; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Paez, Pablo M

    2016-10-19

    To determine whether L-type voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels (L-VOCCs) are required for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development, we generated an inducible conditional knock-out mouse in which the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 was postnatally deleted in NG2-positive OPCs. A significant hypomyelination was found in the brains of the Cav1.2 conditional knock-out (Cav1.2 KO ) mice specifically when the Cav1.2 deletion was induced in OPCs during the first 2 postnatal weeks. A decrease in myelin proteins expression was visible in several brain structures, including the corpus callosum, cortex, and striatum, and the corpus callosum of Cav1.2 KO animals showed an important decrease in the percentage of myelinated axons and a substantial increase in the mean g-ratio of myelinated axons. The reduced myelination was accompanied by an important decline in the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes and in the rate of OPC proliferation. Furthermore, using a triple transgenic mouse in which all of the Cav1.2 KO OPCs were tracked by a Cre reporter, we found that Cav1.2 KO OPCs produce less mature oligodendrocytes than control cells. Finally, live-cell imaging in early postnatal brain slices revealed that the migration and proliferation of subventricular zone OPCs is decreased in the Cav1.2 KO mice. These results indicate that the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 modulates oligodendrocyte development and suggest that Ca 2+ influx mediated by L-VOCCs in OPCs is necessary for normal myelination. Overall, it is clear that cells in the oligodendrocyte lineage exhibit remarkable plasticity with regard to the expression of Ca 2+ channels and that perturbation of Ca 2+ homeostasis likely plays an important role in the pathogenesis underlying demyelinating diseases. To determine whether voltage-gated Ca 2+ entry is involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination, we used a conditional knock-out mouse for voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Our results indicate

  3. Body condition score and plane of nutrition prepartum affect adipose tissue transcriptome regulators of metabolism and inflammation in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Kanwal, M; Bulgari, O; Meier, S; Priest, N V; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; McDougall, S; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M; Heiser, A; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrating a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving have challenged the management practice of increasing dietary energy density during the last ~3 wk prepartum. Despite our knowledge at the whole-animal level, the tissue-level mechanisms that are altered in response to feeding management prepartum remain unclear. Our hypothesis was that prepartum body condition score (BCS), in combination with feeding management, plays a central role in the peripartum changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight mid-lactation grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 2 prepartum BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale; BCS4, BCS5) obtained via differential feeding management during late-lactation, and 2 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75 and 125% of estimated requirements). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was harvested via biopsy at -1, 1, and 4 wk relative to parturition. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression of targets related to fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, lipolysis), adipokine synthesis, and inflammation. Both prepartum BCS and feeding management had a significant effect on mRNA and miRNA expression throughout the peripartum period. Overfed BCS5 cows had the greatest prepartum expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and an overall greater expression of leptin (LEP); BCS5 was also associated with greater overall adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), whereas overfeeding upregulated expression of proadipogenic miRNA. Higher postpartum expression of chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and the cytokines interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was detected in overfed BCS5 cows. Feed-restricted BCS4 cows had the highest overall interleukin 1 (IL1B) expression. Prepartum feed restriction

  4. Physiological factors affecting intrinsic water use efficiency of potato clones within a dihaploid mapping population under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Markussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing crops water use is essential for ensuring food production under future climate scenarios. Therefore, new cultivars that are capable of maintaining production under limited water resource are needed. This study screened for clonal differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi......) within a dihaploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) mapping population under well-watered (WW) and drought-stress (DS) conditions. The factorial dependency of WUEi on several plant bio-physiological traits was analyzed, and clonal difference of WUEi was compared. Significant differences in WUEi were found...... with high WUEi could be potentially used as material in future breeding programs. Furthermore CCI seemed to be a reliable tool in estimating the clonal An and thereby WUEi....

  5. Lesions of cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus neurons fail to affect cocaine or heroin self-administration or conditioned place preference in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Steidl

    Full Text Available Cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA is known to contribute to reward. Although it is known that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg provides an important source of excitatory input to the dopamine system, the specific role of PPTg cholinergic input to the VTA in cocaine reward has not been previously determined. We used a diphtheria toxin conjugated to urotensin-II (Dtx::UII, the endogenous ligand for urotensin-II receptors expressed by PPTg cholinergic but not glutamatergic or GABAergic cells, to lesion cholinergic PPTg neurons. Dtx::UII toxin infusion resulted in the loss of 95.78 (±0.65% of PPTg cholinergic cells but did not significantly alter either cocaine or heroin self-administration or the development of cocaine or heroin conditioned place preferences. Thus, cholinergic cells originating in PPTg do not appear to be critical for the rewarding effects of cocaine or of heroin.

  6. Lack of connexin43-mediated Bergmann glial gap junctional coupling does not affect cerebellar long-term depression, motor coordination, or eyeblink conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Tanaka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bergmann glial cells are specialized astrocytes in the cerebellum. In the mature cerebellar molecular layer, Bergmann glial processes are closely associated with Purkinje cells, enclosing Purkinje cell dendritic synapses with a glial sheath. There is intensive gap junctional coupling between Bergmann glial processes, but their significance in cerebellar functions is not known. Connexin43 (Cx43, a major component of astrocytic gap junction channels, is abundantly expressed in Bergmann glial cells. To examine the role of Cx43-mediated gap junctions between Bergmann glial cells in cerebellar functions, we generated Cx43 conditional knockout mice with the S100b-Cre transgenic line (Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre, which exhibited a significant loss of Cx43 in the Bergmann glial cells and astrocytes in the cerebellum with a postnatal onset. The Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice had normal cerebellar architecture. Although gap junctional coupling between the Bergmann glial cells measured by spreading of microinjected Lucifer yellow was virtually abolished in Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice, electrophysiologic analysis revealed that cerebellar long-term depression could be induced and maintained normally in thier cerebellar slices. In addition, at the behavioral level, Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice had normal motor coordination in the rotarod task and normal conditioned eyelid response. Our findings suggest that Cx43-mediated gap junctional coupling between Bergmann glial cells is not necessary for the neuron-glia interactions required for cerebellum-dependent motor coordination and motor learning.

  7. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  8. The composition and depth of green roof substrates affect the growth of Silene vulgaris and Lagurus ovatus species and the C and N sequestration under two irrigation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondoño, S; Martínez-Sánchez, J J; Moreno, J L

    2016-01-15

    Extensive green roofs are used to increase the surface area covered by vegetation in big cities, thereby reducing the urban heat-island effect, promoting CO2 sequestration, and increasing biodiversity and urban-wildlife habitats. In Mediterranean semi-arid regions, the deficiency of water necessitates the use in these roofs of overall native plants which are more adapted to drought than other species. However, such endemic plants have been used scarcely in green roofs. For this purpose, we tested two different substrates with two depths (5 and 10 cm), in order to study their suitability with regard to adequate plant development under Mediterranean conditions. A compost-soil-bricks (CSB) (1:1:3; v:v:v) mixture and another made up of compost and bricks (CB) (1:4; v:v) were arranged in two depths (5 and 10 cm), in cultivation tables. Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke and Lagurus ovatus L. seeds were sown in each substrate. These experimental units were subjected, on the one hand, to irrigation at 40% of the registered evapotranspiration values (ET0) and, on the other, to drought conditions, during a nine-month trial. Physichochemical and microbiological substrate characteristics were studied, along with the physiological and nutritional status of the plants. We obtained significantly greater plant coverage in CSB at 10 cm, especially for L. ovatus (80-90%), as well as a better physiological status, especially in S. vulgaris (SPAD values of 50-60), under irrigation, whereas neither species could grow in the absence of water. The carbon and nitrogen fixation by the substrate and the aboveground biomass were also higher in CSB at 10 cm, especially under L. ovatus - in which 1.32 kg C m(-2) and 209 g N m(-2) were fixed throughout the experiment. Besides, the enzymatic and biochemical parameters assayed showed that microbial activity and nutrient cycling, which fulfill a key role for plant development, were higher in CSB. Therefore, irrigation of 40% can

  9. Data quality and practical challenges of thyroid volume assessment by ultrasound under field conditions - observer errors may affect prevalence estimates of goitre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torheim Liv E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultrasonographic estimation of thyroid size has been advocated as being more precise than palpation to diagnose goitre. However, ultrasound also requires technical proficiency. This study was conducted among Saharawi refugees, where goitre is highly prevalent. The objectives were to assess the overall data quality of ultrasound measurements of thyroid volume (Tvol, including the intra- and inter-observer agreement, under field conditions, and to describe some of the practical challenges encountered. Methods In 2007 a cross-sectional study of 419 children (6-14 years old and 405 women (15-45 years old was performed on a population of Saharawi refugees with prevalent goitre, who reside in the Algerian desert. Tvol was measured by two trained fieldworkers using portable ultrasound equipment (examiner 1 measured 406 individuals, and examiner 2, 418 individuals. Intra- and inter-observer agreement was estimated in 12 children selected from the study population but not part of the main study. In the main study, an observer error was found in one examiner whose ultrasound images were corrected by linear regression after printing and remeasuring a sample of 272 images. Results The intra-observer agreement in Tvol was higher in examiner 1, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99 compared to 0.86 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.96 in examiner 2. The ICC for inter-observer agreement in Tvol was 0.38 (95% CI: -0.20, 0.77. Linear regression coefficients indicated a significant scaling bias in the original measurements of the AP and ML diameter and a systematic underestimation of Tvol (a product of AP, ML, CC and a constant. The agreement between re-measured and original Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI was 0.76 (0.71, 0.81. The agreement between re-measured and corrected Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI was 0.97 (0.96, 0.97. Conclusions An important challenge when using ultrasound to assess thyroid volume under field

  10. Evapotranspiration of osteospermum 'Denebola' and New Guinea impatiens 'Timor' grown on ebb-and-flow benches as affected by climate conditions and soil water potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Treder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Daily evapotranspiration (EVPT of two bedding plants osteospermum 'Denebola' and impatiens 'Timor' grown on ebb-and-flow benches was measured by weighing method, together with assessment of indoor climate parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity and leaf area index (LAI at different growth phases. The evaporation inside the greenhouse as affected by climatic factors i.e.: solar radiation, temperature, humidity and air velocity was also measured using Piche's evaporometer. Plants were irrigated according to soil water potential (irrigation at -0,5; -3; -10 and -20 kPa. Irrigation at high water potential decreased plant growth and leaf area of both plants. LAI of osteospermum decreased as water deficit increased. In the case of impatiens, the highest LAI at full flowering obtained plants irrigated at -3 kPa. The actual, daily EVPT of plants irrigated at -0,5 kPa increased with plant growth in the case ofosteospermum while that of impatiens remained at similar level. At flowering water stress decreased strongly EVPT of osteospermum and in lesser extent EVPT of impatiens. Osteospermum irrigated at -0,5 kPa had 2,5 higher EVPT than impatiens. For both plants good, positive correlation between EVPT and daily mean temperature, temperature between 7-17 h and evaporation according to Piche's evaporometer readings were obtained. As expected EVPT was negatively correlated with relative humidity, irrespective the growth phase and soil water potential. The correlation between EVPT and solar radiation, was changed during plant growth due to differences in temperature under shading screen, used during sunny days.

  11. Assay of anti-cancer drugs in tissue culture: conditions affecting their ability to incorporate 3H-leucine after drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshney, R I; Paul, J; Kane, I M

    1975-01-01

    An attempt has been made to construct an assay potentially suitable for use with primary cultures of human tumours to measure the survival of exponentially growing monolayer cultures after exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs. Cell survival was assessed using their protein synthetic capacity after removal of drugs. HeLa cells were employed to avoid the ingerent variability and heterogeneity of primary cultures from human tumours, and an assay has been constructed using microtitration trays to provide large numbers of replicate cultures without the requirement of a large number cells. An increase in the duration of the exposure to drug increased sensitivity in nearly all cases examined. Similarly, an increase in the period of culture following drug removal produced increased sensitivity to alkylating agents but allowed recovery from exposure to certain cycle-dependent drugs. Some of the drugs used were shown to be unstable under culture conditions and vinblastine was actively metabolized, although this instability was not necessarily reflected in the time course of the drug's effect. Mustine sensitivity was shown to be reduced by an increase in cell density at a level where density limitation of 3H-thymidine incorporation becomes apparent. These variations and possible methods of minimizing their effects are discussed.

  12. Speed Responses to Speed Humps as Affected by Time of Day and Light Conditions on a Residential Road with Light-Emitting Diode (LED Road Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika K. Jägerbrand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The speed-reducing effect of speed humps during darkness is important to ensure a consistent speed reduction and a decreased probability of accidents during darkness. This study examined the effects of speed humps, compared with a control location, on a residential road in Sweden with light-emitting diode (LED street lighting and a 30 km/h posted speed limit. Hypotheses tested were that: (I vehicle speed is higher during daylight than in darkness; (II speed at speed humps is lower than at control locations during both daylight and darkness; (III speed at humps is higher during daylight; (IV vehicle speed at humps is lower when luminance or visibility of the humps is greater; and, (V the road environment of speed humps is perceived as being similar by drivers. The results showed that vehicle speed at the control location was negligibly higher (+0.3 km/h during daylight than in darkness. Speed humps reduced driving speed by 20% when compared with the posted speed limit and the effect was not significantly different between daylight and darkness. Speed reduction for the three speed humps varied between 9% and 29% as compared with the posted speed limit. In this study, the LED road lighting that was placed directly above or in front of the hump achieved the highest luminance. This study could not reveal any significant differences in vehicle speed attributable to light conditions per se.

  13. Is environmental radon gas associated with the incidence of neurodegenerative conditions? A retrospective study of multiple sclerosis in radon affected areas in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J.; Denman, Antony R.; Campbell, Jackie; Crockett, Robin G.M.; Phillips, Paul S.; Rogers, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis has been postulated to be triggered by elevated radon gas levels. • MS incidence analysed from 20 million person-years monitoring in radon affected areas. • Linear regression slope of ERR against radon level is 0.22 per 100 Bq·m −3 (R 2  = 0.25). • Linear fit 95% CI encompasses the Null Hypothesis and is therefore not significant. • Potential confounding processes are shown to have minimal impact on the results.

  14. Soil Conditions Rather Than Long-Term Exposure to Elevated CO2 Affect Soil Microbial Communities Associated with N-Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Brenzinger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuously rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO2 (eCO2 concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N2O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO2 (aCO2. We hypothesized that the observed differences in soil functioning were based on differences in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in general and especially of those which are responsible for N-transformations in soil. We also expected eCO2 effects on soil parameters, such as on nitrate as previously reported. To explore the impact of long-term eCO2 on soil microbial communities, we applied a molecular approach (qPCR, T-RFLP, and 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial groups were analyzed in soil of three sets of two FACE plots (three replicate samples from each plot, which were fumigated with eCO2 and aCO2, respectively. N-fixers, denitrifiers, archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducers producing ammonia were targeted by analysis of functional marker genes, and the overall archaeal community by 16S rRNA genes. Remarkably, soil parameters as well as the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the top soil under eCO2 differed only slightly from soil under aCO2. Wherever differences in microbial community abundance and composition were detected, they were not linked to CO2 level but rather determined by differences in soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture content due to the localization of the GiFACE sets in the experimental field. We concluded that +20% eCO2 had little to no effect on the overall microbial community involved in N-cycling in the

  15. How are the employed and unemployed affected by the economic crisis in Spain? Educational inequalities, life conditions and mental health in a context of high unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; San Sebastián, Miguel; Gustafsson, Per E

    2016-03-15

    Despite an increasing number of studies on the factors mediating the impact of the economic recession on mental health, research beyond the individual employment status is scarce. Our objectives were to investigate in which ways the mental health of employed and unemployed populations is differently affected by the current economic recession along the educational scale and to examine whether financial strain and social support explain these effects of the crisis. A repeated cross-sectional study, using two waves of the Andalusian Health Survey in 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011-2012 (crisis). A population aged between 19 and 64 years was selected. The dependent variable was the Mental Component Summary of the SF-12 questionnaire. We performed Poisson regression models stratified by working status, with period, educational level, financial strain and social support as independent variables. We examined interactions between period and educational level. Age, sex, main earner, cohabitation and partner's working status were considered as covariates. The study included 3210 individuals (1185 women) in 2007 and 3633 individuals (1486 women) in 2011-2012. In working individuals the prevalence of poor mental health increased for secondary and complete primary studies groups during crisis compared to the pre-crisis period, while it decreased significantly in the university study group (PR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-0.99). However, in unemployed individuals prevalence ratios for poor mental health increased significantly only in the secondary studies group (PR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.06-2.83). Financial strain and social support yielded consistent associations with mental health in all subgroups. Only financial strain could partly explain the crisis effect on mental health among the unemployed. Our study supports the finding that current economic recession is associated with poorer mental health differentially according to labour market status and educational level. Those with secondary

  16. Acquisition and expression of Conditioned Taste Aversion differentially affects Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase and Glutamate receptor phosphorylation in rat Prefrontal Cortex and Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eMarotta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned taste aversion (CTA can be applied to study associative learning and its relevant underpinning molecular mechanisms in discrete brain regions. The present study examined, by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, the effects of acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA on activated Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase (p-ERK in the prefrontal cortex (PFCx and nucleus accumbens (Acb of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The study also examined, by immunoblotting, whether acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA resulted in modified levels of phosphorylation of glutamate receptor subunits (NR1 and GluR1 and Thr34- and Thr75-Dopamine-and-cAMP-Regulated PhosphoProtein (DARPP-32. CTA acquisition was associated with an increase of p-ERK-positive neurons and phosphorylated NR1 receptor subunit (p-NR1 in the PFCx, whereas p-GluR1, p-Thr34- and p-Thr75-DARPP-32 levels were not changed in this brain region. CTA expression increased the number of p-ERK-positive neurons in the shell (AcbSh and core (AcbC but left unmodified p-NR1, p-GluR1, p-Thr34- and p-Thr75-DARPP-32 levels. Furthermore, post-embedding immunogold quantitative analysis in AcbSh revealed that CTA expression significantly increased nuclear p-ERK immunostaining as well as p-ERK-labeled axo-spinous contacts. Overall, these results indicate that ERK and NR1, but not GluR1 and DARPP-32, are differentially phosphorylated as a consequence of acquisition and expression of aversive associative learning. Moreover, these results confirm that CTA represents an useful approach to study the molecular basis of associative learning in rats and suggest the involvement of ERK cascade in learning-associated synaptic plasticity.

  17. DOCUMENTATION OF NATIONAL WEATHER CONDITIONS AFFECTING LONG-TERM DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. L. Poe, Jr.; P.F. Wise

    1998-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal to construct, operate 2nd monitor, and eventually close a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As part of this effort, DOE has prepared a viability assessment and an assessment of potential consequences that may exist if the repository is not constructed. The assessment of potential consequences if the repository is not constructed assumes that all SNF and HLW would be left at the generator sites. These include 72 commercial generator sites (three commercial facility pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine Mile Point, and Dresden and Morris--would share common storage due to their close proximity to each other) and five DOE sites across the country. DOE analyzed the environmental consequences of the effects of the continued storage of these materials at these sites in a report titled Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR; Reference 1 ) . The CSAR analysis includes a discussion of the degradation of these materials when exposed to the environment. This document describes the environmental parameters that influence the degradation analyzed in the CSAR. These include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation chemistry (pH and chemical composition), annual precipitation rates, annual number of rain-days, and annual freeze/thaw cycles. The document also tabulates weather conditions for each storage site, evaluates the degradation of concrete storage modules and vaults in different regions of the country, and provides a thermal analysis of commercial SNF in storage.

  18. Availability of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Coagonists Affects Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference and Locomotor Sensitization: Implications for Comorbid Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Matthew D; Berg, Alexandra R; Bechtholt, Anita J; Coyle, Joseph T

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with high prevalence of substance abuse. Recent research suggests that dysregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function may play a role in the pathophysiology of both schizophrenia and drug addiction, and thus, may account for this high comorbidity. Our laboratory has developed two transgenic mouse lines that exhibit contrasting NMDAR activity based on the availability of the glycine modulatory site (GMS) agonists d-serine and glycine. Glycine transporter 1 knockdowns (GlyT1(+/-)) exhibit NMDAR hyperfunction, whereas serine racemase knockouts (SR(-/-)) exhibit NMDAR hypofunction. We characterized the behavior of these lines in a cocaine-induced (20 mg/kg) conditioned place preference (CPP) and locomotor sensitization paradigm. Compared with wild-type mice, GlyT1(+/-) mice displayed hastened extinction of CPP and robust cocaine-induced reinstatement. SR(-/-) mice appeared to immediately "forget" the learned preference, because they did not exhibit cocaine-induced reinstatement and also displayed attenuated locomotor sensitization. Treatment of GlyT1(+/-) mice with gavestinel (10 mg/kg on day 1; 5 mg/kg on days 2-17), a GMS antagonist, attenuated cocaine-induced CPP and caused them to immediately "forget" the learned preference. Treatment of SR(-/-) mice with d-serine (300 mg/kg on day 1; 150 mg/kg on days 2-17) to normalize brain levels caused them to avoid the cocaine-paired side of the chamber during extinction. These results highlight NMDAR dysfunction as a possible neural mechanism underlying comorbid schizophrenia and substance abuse. Also, these findings suggest drugs that directly or indirectly activate the NMDAR GMS could be an effective treatment of cocaine abuse. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Effect of Mycorrhiza Symbiosis on Yield, Yield Components and Water Use Efficiency of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Affected by Different Irrigation Regimes in Mashhad Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-02-01

    4000 m3 ha-1, inoculation with two species of mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices and control allocated to the main and sub plots, respectively. Results and Discussion Results showed that the effect of irrigation regimes were significant (p≤0.05 on yield components except 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, harvest index (HI and WUE based on biological yield and seed yield. By increasing the irrigation level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 biological and seed yield enhanced up to 52% and 118%, respectively. Increasing the irrigation level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 also improved WUE based on seed yield up to 22%. Inoculation with mycorrhiza species had significant effect on yield components, biological yield, seed yield, HI and WUE based on biological yield and seed yield P ≤ 0.05. Inoculation with G. mosseae improved seed yield compared to G. intraradices and control with 7 and 12%, respectively. These improvement of WUE based on seed yield were 7% and 24%, respectively. In general, mycorrhiza inoculation enhanced WUE through root system development and nutrient availability as this effect for G. mosseae was higher than G. intraradices. Conclusions Yield and yield components of sesame were generally more responsive to irrigation level under mycorhiza inoculation. Sesame yield and its components were significantly affected by irrigation treatments. Increase the irrigation level enhanced biological and seed yield- and also improved WUE. The water was used more efficiently in the deficit irrigation treatments where WUE increased with lower amounts of water. Inoculation with G. mosseae improved seed yield compared to G. intraradices and control. Mycorrhiza inoculation enhanced WUE due to root system development and nutrient availability. These results highlight the importance of determining the interaction effects between water level and mycorrhiza inoculation on yield of sesame to formulate proper management practices for sustainable production.

  20. Variation in fat mobilization during early lactation differently affects feed intake, body condition, and lipid and glucose metabolism in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Hametner, C; Tuchscherer, A; Losand, B; Kanitz, E; Otten, W; Singh, S P; Bruckmaier, R M; Becker, F; Kanitz, W; Hammon, H M

    2013-01-01

    Fat mobilization to meet energy requirements during early lactation is inevitable because of insufficient feed intake, but differs greatly among high-yielding dairy cows. Therefore, we studied milk production, feed intake, and body condition as well as metabolic and endocrine changes in high-yielding dairy cows to identify variable strategies in metabolic and endocrine adaptation to overcome postpartum metabolic load attributable to milk production. Cows used in this study varied in fat mobilization around calving, as classified by mean total liver fat concentrations (LFC) postpartum. German Holstein cows (n=27) were studied from dry off until d 63 postpartum in their third lactation. All cows were fed the same total mixed rations ad libitum during the dry period and lactation. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones were measured in blood samples taken at d 56, 28, 15, and 5 before expected calving and at d 1 and once weekly up to d 63 postpartum. Liver biopsies were taken on d 56 and 15 before calving, and on d 1, 14, 28, and 49 postpartum to measure LFC and glycogen concentrations. Cows were grouped accordingly to mean total LFC on d 1, 14, and 28 in high, medium, and low fat-mobilizing cows. Mean LFC (±SEM) differed among groups and were 351±14, 250±10, and 159±9 mg/g of dry matter for high, medium, and low fat-mobilizing cows, respectively, whereas hepatic glycogen concentrations postpartum were the highest in low fat-mobilizing cows. Cows in the low group showed the highest dry matter intake and the least negative energy balance postpartum, but energy-corrected milk yield was similar among groups. The decrease in body weight postpartum was greatest in high fat-mobilizing cows, but the decrease in backfat thickness was greatest in medium fat-mobilizing cows. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were highest around calving in high fat-mobilizing cows. Plasma triglycerides were highest in the medium group and

  1. Part A: Countermeasures to be taken after 1990 to ensure safe living conditions for the population affected by the Chernobyl accident in the USSR. A first evaluation of costs and doses averted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Schneider, T.

    1992-01-01

    This part presents a first estimate of the cost and averted collective exposure of the potential relocation of the population from the affected territories of the BSSR, the RSFSR and the UKrSSR, to improve their living conditions following the Chernobyl accident. It is an input to the evaluation of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the USSR. The general objective was to assess 'the concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in these areas to safeguard the health of the population'. Specifically, this work aimed at evaluating protective measures from 1990 onwards

  2. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  3. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  4. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  5. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  6. Differences in the ovine HSP90AA1 gene expression rates caused by two linked polymorphisms at its promoter affect rams sperm DNA fragmentation under environmental heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salces-Ortiz, Judit; Ramón, Manuel; González, Carmen; Pérez-Guzmán, M Dolores; Garde, J Julián; García-Álvarez, Olga; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Calvo, Jorge H; Serrano, M Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) is one of the best-studied exogenous cellular stresses. Almost all tissues, cell types, metabolic pathways and biochemical reactions are affected in greater or lesser extent by HS. However, there are some especially thermo sensible cellular types such as the mammalian male germ cells. The present study examined the role of three INDELs in conjunction with the -660G/C polymorphism located at the HSP90AA1 promoter region over the gene expression rate under HS. Specially, the -668insC INDEL, which is very close to the -660G/C transversion, is a good candidate to be implied in the transcriptional regulation of the gene by itself or in a cooperative way with this SNP. Animals carrying the genotype II-668 showed higher transcription rates than those with ID-668 (FC = 3.07) and DD-668 (FC = 3.40) genotypes for samples collected under HS. A linkage between gene expression and sperm DNA fragmentation was also found. When HS conditions were present along or in some stages of the spermatogenesis, alternative genotypes of the -668insC and -660G/C mutations are involved in the effect of HS over sperm DNA fragmentation. Thus, unfavorable genotypes in terms of gene expression induction (ID-668GC-660 and DD-668GG-660) do not produce enough mRNA (stored as messenger ribonucleoprotein particles) and Hsp90α protein to cope with future thermal stress which might occur in posterior stages when transcriptional activity is reduced and cell types and molecular processes are more sensible to heat (spermatocytes in pachytene and spermatids protamination). This would result in the impairment of DNA packaging and the consequent commitment of the events occurring shortly after fertilization and during embryonic development. In the short-term, the assessment of the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation sensitivity and ram's fertility will be of interest to a better understanding of the mechanisms of response to HS and its consequences on animal production and

  7. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N

  8. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  9. Affect and criminal responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakić Dragiša S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author deals with an issue of relationship between the affect and criminal responsibility. In order to provide a multi-angle approach to analysis of this issue the author resorted to multidisciplinary - criminal law and psychiatric-psychological approach. Although the topic covered by this article is significant and complex, it appears to be of virtually no interest in the literature. For that reason the author's endeavor to research this topic should not go unmentioned. In the first part of the article the author tried to provide answers to some preliminary questions without which it would be impossible to understand the relationship between the affect and criminal responsibility. Those are the following questions: what are affects, what is their nature and intensity, how long they last and how they influence psychological functions of a person acting in affect? Central part of the article is dedicated to examining the importance of the affect as a phenomenon in criminal law dogma and in judicial rulings, as well as its effect on criminal responsibility. The author finds that acting in affect may be considered as a mitigating circumstance in the sentencing, but can also be a basis for mitigation of the sentence or even suspension of the sentence, as part of some general criminal law norms. Also, for certain offenses it may be considered as a favorable condition that renders that offence to be less grave. Finally, the affect may be considered as a psychological basis diminished, or even lack of, mental capacity. The last above mentioned issue receives special attention of the author, and claims that only the affect that is 'of extreme proportions' may lead to mental incapacity. Such affect is the one that 'demolishes restrains and removes reasonable and target-oriented actions'. In further analysis the author proposes criteria and methodology for assessment of person's sanity in criminal law and criminal procedure. Further

  10. Factors affecting initial disability allowance rates for the Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs: the role of the demographic and diagnostic composition of applicants and local labor market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Kalman

    2012-01-01

    Various factors outside the control of decision makers may affect the rate at which disability applications are allowed or denied during the initial step of eligibility determination in the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. In this article, using individual-level data on applications, I estimate the role of three important factors--the demographic characteristics of applicants, the diagnostic mix of applicants, and the local unemployment rate--in affecting the probability of an initial allowance and state allowance rates. I use a random sample of initial determinations from 1993 through 2008 and a fixed-effects multiple regression framework. The empirical results show that the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of applicants and the local unemployment rate substantially affect the initial allowance rate. An increase in the local unemployment rate tends to be associated with a decrease in the initial allowance rate. This negative relationship holds for adult DI and SSI applicants and for SSI childhood applicants.

  11. Lipedema: an inherited condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Anne H; Gordon, Kristiana D; Sharpe, Pip; Brice, Glen; Ostergaard, Pia; Jeffery, Steve; Mortimer, Peter S

    2010-04-01

    Lipedema is a condition characterized by swelling and enlargement of the lower limbs due to abnormal deposition of subcutaneous fat. Lipedema is an under-recognized condition, often misdiagnosed as lymphedema or dismissed as simple obesity. We present a series of pedigrees and propose that lipedema is a genetic condition with either X-linked dominant inheritance or more likely, autosomal dominant inheritance with sex limitation. Lipedema appears to be a condition almost exclusively affecting females, presumably estrogen-requiring as it usually manifests at puberty. Lipedema is an entity distinct from obesity, but may be wrongly diagnosed as primary obesity, due to clinical overlap. The phenotype suggests a condition distinct from obesity and associated with pain, tenderness, and easy bruising in affected areas. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Controlled release pharmaceutical composition useful for the treatment of diseases and conditions affecting metabolism and/or structural integrity of cartilage and/or bone in male comprises strontium salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    ); such as osteoporosis (also including secondary osteoporosis induced by e.g. endocrine diseases, metabolic causes, nutritional conditions, drug substances and/or disorders of the collagen metabolism), osteoarthritis, osteopectoris, osteopenia, Paget's disease, hypercalcemia of malignancy, periodontal disease......, hyperparathyroidism, periarticular erosions in rheumatoid arthritis, osteodystrophy, myositis ossificans, Bechterew's disease, osteolytic lesions produced by bone metastasis, bone pain due to bone metastasis, bone loss due to sex steroid hormone deficiency, bone abnormalities due to steroid hormone treatment, bone...

  13. Study of total dry matter and protein extraction from canola meal as affected by the pH, salt addition and use of zeta-potential/turbidimetry analysis to optimize the extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzhova, Alina; Mondor, Martin; Benali, Marzouk; Aider, Mohammed

    2016-06-15

    Total dry matter and proteins were differentially and preferentially extracted from canola meal (CM) under different conditions. The effect of the extraction medium pH, CM concentration and salt concentrations were found to have different influences on the extractability of total dry matter and proteins from CM. The pH of the extracting medium had the most significant effect. The maximal total dry matter (42.8±1.18%) extractability was obtained with 5% CM at pH 12 without salt addition, whereas the maximal for total protein (58.12±1.47%) was obtained with 15% CM under the same conditions. The minimal extractability for the dry matter (26.63±0.67%) was obtained with 5% CM at pH 10 without salt added and the minimal protein extractability was observed in a 10% CM at pH 10, in 0.01 NaCl. Turbidity and ζ-potential measurements indicated that pH 5 was the optimum condition for the highest protein extraction yield. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that salt addition contributes to higher solubility of canola proteins specifically cruciferin fraction, although it reduces napin extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ACORNS, Covariance and Correlation Matrix Diagonalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szondi, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program allows the user to verify the different types of covariance/correlation matrices used in the activation neutron spectrometry. 2 - Method of solution: The program performs the diagonalization of the input covariance/relative covariance/correlation matrices. The Eigen values are then analyzed to determine the rank of the matrices. If the Eigen vectors of the pertinent correlation matrix have also been calculated, the program can perform a complete factor analysis (generation of the factor matrix and its rotation in Kaiser's 'varimax' sense to select the origin of the correlations). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Matrix size is limited to 60 on PDP and to 100 on IBM PC/AT

  15. Great oak trees from small acorns grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, Sally.

    1997-01-01

    The history of Avalon Oil is briefly outlined. The company has become the first foreign company to sign a joint venture oil deal with Russia's Gazprom. Topics covered include new drilling skills, building relations face-to-face with Gazprom assigning responsibility to the venture partners, tax breaks and political risk. (UK)

  16. Methylprednisolone inhibits the proliferation and affects the differentiation of rat spinal cord-derived neural progenitor cells cultured in low oxygen conditions by inhibiting HIF-1α and Hes1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhao; Wang, Peng; Li, Shiyuan; Yang, Jiewen; Liang, Xinjun; Tang, Yong; Li, Yuxi; Yang, Rui; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong

    2014-09-01

    Although there is much controversy over the use of methylprednisolone (MP), it is one of the main drugs used in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). The induction of the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is considered a promising mode of treatment for SCI. However, the effects of MP on spinal cord-derived endogenous NPCs in a low oxygen enviroment remain to be delineated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of MP on NPCs cultured under low oxygen conditions in vitro and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. Fetal rat spinal cord-derived NPCs were harvested and divided into 4 groups: 2 groups of cells cultured under normal oxygen conditions and treated with or without MP, and 2 groups incubated in 3% O2 (low oxygen) treated in a similar manner. We found that MP induced suppressive effects on NPC proliferation even under low oxygen conditions (3% O2). The proportion of nestin-positive NPCs decreased from 51.8±2.46% to 36.17±3.55% following the addition of MP and decreased more significantly to 27.20±2.68% in the cells cultured in 3% O2. In addition, a smaller number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells and a greater number of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive cells was observed following the addition of MP under both normal (normoxic) and low oxygen (hypoxic) conditions. In response to MP treatment, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the Notch signaling pathway downstream protein, Hes1, but not the upstream Notch-1 intracelluar domain (NICD), were inhibited. After blocking NICD with a γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) MP still inhibited the expression of Hes1. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the MP-induced inhibition of proliferation and its effects on differentiation and suggest that HIF-1α and Hes1 play an important role in this effect.

  17. Effect of cultural conditions on the seed-to-seed growth of Arabidopsis and Cardamine - A study of growth rates and reproductive development as affected by test tube seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshizaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of test tube seals on the growth, flowering, and seed pod formation of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., mouse ear cress, and Cardamine oligosperma Nutt, bitter cress, are studied in order to assess the conditions used in weightlessness experiments. Among other results, it is found that the growth (height) and flowering (date of bud appearance) were suppressed in mouse ear cress in tubes sealed with Saran. Seed pod formation which occurred by day 45 in open-to-air controls, was still lacking in the sealed plants even up to day 124. The growth and flowering of bitter cress were also suppressed by the Saran seal, although up to day 55 the Saran-sealed plants were taller. It is suggested that atmospheric composition was the cause of the suppression of growth, flowering, and seed pod development in these plants, since the mouse ear cress renewed their growth and then set seed pods after the Saran seal was ruptured.

  18. The Influence of Affect on Social-Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Tanis; Sullivan-Burstein, Karen; Mathur, Sarup

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the impact of four affect-induction conditions (self-induced positive affect, music-induced positive affect, music-induced negative affect, and neutral affect) on the social-information-processing skills of 96 seventh-grade students with and without learning disabilities. Students in the self-induced positive condition generated…

  19. Cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions affecting nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivar, ano de cultivo e condições de armazenagem influenciam a qualidade nutricional do feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Roberto Dorneles Prolla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen common bean cultivars were compared concerning the physicochemical characteristics of their raw seeds in the course of two consecutive harvests, as well as the effect of storage conditions on starch and dietary fiber content of cooked beans. Using cluster analysis it was possible to identify groups of cultivars with different nutritional features. Bean cultivars were categorized into four different groups according either to their macronutrient content (crude protein-PROT, total dietary fiber-TDF, insoluble dietary fiber-IDF, soluble dietary fiber-SDF, digestible starch-DS, and resistant starch-RS or to their micronutrient levels (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, and P. Guateian 6662 and Rio Tibagi appeared to be the most suitable cultivars to prevent nutritional deficiencies, because they had high PROT, DS, Fe, and Zn content. The high total dietary fiber and RS content of Iraí, Minuano, and TPS Bonito cultivars, and specially the high soluble fiber content of Guateian 6662 and Rio Tibagi cultivars suggests that they could have a beneficial role in controlling blood lipid and glucose levels. Cooked beans had a decrease in DS and an increase in RS content after storage (4 °C or -20 °C, but these changes were more prominent in beans that had low RS content before cooking than in those of high RS content. TDF, IDF, and SDF did not change after storage.Compararam-se as características físico-químicas de dezesseis cultivares de feijão-comum cru ao longo de duas safras consecutivas, assim como se avaliou o efeito das condições de armazenagem nos teores de amido e fibra alimentar em grãos cozidos. A análise de agrupamento possibilitou a identificação de grupos de cultivares com características nutricionais distintas. Estas cultivares foram categorizadas em quatro grupos de acordo com o conteúdo de macronutrientes (proteína bruta-PROT, fibra alimentar total-TDF, fibra alimentar insolúvel-IDF, fibra alimentar solúvel-SDF, amido dispon

  20. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  1. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Print Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather conditions can bring on asthma symptoms. ...

  2. Conditional Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Dong; Uwe Dulleck; Benno Torgler

    2008-01-01

    We argue that the decision to bribe bureaucrats depends on the frequency of corruption within a society. We provide a behavioral model to explain this conduct: engaging in corruption results in a disutility of guilt. This implies that people observe a lower probability to be involved in corruption if on average the guilt level of others within a country is higher. We also explore whether - and to what extent - group dynamics or socialization and past experiences affect corruption. In other wo...

  3. Aquatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  4. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    Table 1 Seasonal variation in body and kidney weight of adult mountain reedbuck culled at Sterkfontein. Values are ..... This leads to a decrease in nutritional quality of grazing for mountain reedbuck and a loss of condition. .... This would decrease the chances of starvation of those animals left, and allow them to build up ...

  5. Insects affecting establishment of northern red oak seedlings in central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Galford; L.R. Auchmoody; H.C. Smith; R.S. Walters

    1991-01-01

    Studies to evaluate the impact of insects on the establishment of advance oak regeneration in Pennsylvania were initiated in 1989. The populations and species of insects feeding on germinating acorns and new seedlings, their activity periods, and the damage caused by these insects were studied in relation to overstory-density (40, 60, and 100 percent relative density)...

  6. CONDITIONED PUNISHMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAKE, D F; AZRIN, N H

    1965-09-01

    Responses of pigeons were maintained by a VI schedule of food reinforcement. Conditioned punishment was programmed by having these responses concurrently produce an originally neutral stimulus. The effectiveness of this response-contingent stimulus was maintained by infrequent and prearranged stimulus-shock pairings delivered independently of responses. This conditioned punishment procedure reduced the overall response rate as long as the procedure was in effect. The extent and durability of the reduction was a function of the intensity of the shock that was paired with the stimulus. Analysis of the reduction in the overall response rate revealed: (1) a reduction of responses occurring in the absence of the response-contingent stimulus, which was designated as a "punishing" effect, and (2) a reduction of responses during the response-contingent stimulus, which was designated as a "suppressive" effect.

  7. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/women-and-depression-discovering-hope/complete-index.shtml Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Arthritis-related statistics . Retrieved August 22, 2012, from http://www.cdc. ...

  8. A laboratory assessment of various treatment conditions affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    former author reported a NH3-N content of 0,48% in barley straw ammoniated by a 10% urea solution at a moisture level of 400 g/kg for a period of 90 days. In the present investigation the NH3-N content of ground and long wheat straw, treated for a comparable treatment period (12 weeks) at a comparable moisture level ...

  9. Research on how environmental conditions can affect the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Calculating a correlation matrix from unstandardized input would also produce the same matrix R. CALCULATION OF EIGENVECTORS (EIGEN-. MATRIX) AND EIGENVALUES. Each principal component is “described” by an eigenvalue and an eigenvector. The eigenvalues represent the variance in the input matrix X ...

  10. Food conditions affect yolk testosterone deposition but not incubation attendance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Goerlich, Vivian C.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Eens, Marcel; Muller, Wendt

    2012-01-01

    In many bird species with hatching asynchrony, yolk androgens increase across the laying sequence. This has been hypothesized to represent a compensatory mechanism for disadvantages of later-hatching chicks - via positive effects of yolk androgens on early competitiveness and growth. However, the

  11. Conditions affecting boundary response to messages out of awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S

    1976-05-01

    Multiple studies evaluated the role of the following parameters in mediating the effects of auditory subliminal inputs upon the body boundary: being made aware that exposure to subliminal stimuli is occurring, nature of the priming preliminary to the input, length of exposure, competing sensory input, use of specialized content messages, tolerance for unrealistic experience, and masculinity-feminity. A test-retest design was typically employed that involved measuring the baseline Barrier score with the Holtzman bolts and then ascertaining the Barrier change when responding to a second series of Holtzman blots at the same time that subliminal input was occurring. Complex results emerged that defined in considerably new detail what facilitates and blocks the boundary-disrupting effects of subliminal messages in men and to a lesser degree in women.

  12. Encoding conditions affect recognition of vocally expressed emotions across cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eJürgens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the expression of emotions in humans is considered to be largely universal, cultural effects contribute to both emotion expression and recognition. To disentangle the interplay between these factors, play-acted and authentic (non-instructed vocal expressions of emotions were used, on the assumption that cultural effects may contribute differentially to the recognition of staged and spontaneous emotions. Speech tokens depicting four emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear were obtained from German radio archives and reenacted by professional actors, and presented to 120 participants from Germany, Romania, and Indonesia. Participants in all three countries were poor at distinguishing between play-acted and spontaneous emotional utterances (58.73% correct on average with only marginal cultural differences. Nevertheless, authenticity influenced emotion recognition: across cultures, anger was recognized more accurately when play-acted (z = 15.06, p < .001 and sadness when authentic (z = 6.63, p < .001, replicating previous findings from German populations. German subjects revealed a slight advantage in recognizing emotions, indicating a moderate in-group advantage. There was no difference between Romanian and Indonesian subjects in the overall emotion recognition. Differential cultural effects became particularly apparent in terms of differential biases in emotion attribution. While all participants labeled play-acted expressions as anger more frequently than expected, German participants exhibited a further bias towards choosing anger for spontaneous stimuli. In contrast to the German sample, Romanian and Indonesian participants were biased towards choosing sadness. These results support the view that emotion recognition rests on a complex interaction of human universals and cultural specificities. Whether and in which way the observed biases are linked to cultural differences in self-construal remains an issue for further investigation.

  13. School level conditions affecting the effectiveness of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.

    In this article, the current status of school level factors, as they appear in research reviews and in school effectiveness models is criticised both from a theoretical and from an empirical perspective. School level factors are often related to student achievement without taking into account the

  14. The Conditions Of Possibility

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Ian Alan

    2016-01-01

    This research-creation dissertation documents and theorizes the January 25th Revolution of 2011, the July 3rd Coup of 2013, and the period of military rule that has followed in Cairo, Egypt. Equal parts critical ethnography, aphoristic reflection, political philosophy, and experimental documentary, the transdisciplinary project is an assemblage of images and texts that examines the political, ontological, and affective conditions of possibility in the city. Based on fieldwork undertaken betwe...

  15. Endocarp thickness affects seed removal speed by small rodents in a warm-temperate broad-leafed deciduous forest, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2008-11-01

    Seed traits are important factors affecting seed predation by rodents and thereby the success of recruitment. Seeds of many tree species have hard hulls. These are thought to confer mechanical protection, but the effect of endocarp thickness on seed predation by rodents has not been well investigated. Wild apricot ( Prunus armeniaca), wild peach ( Amygdalus davidiana), cultivated walnut ( Juglans regia), wild walnut ( Juglans mandshurica Maxim) and Liaodong oak ( Quercus liaotungensis) are very common tree species in northwestern Beijing city, China. Their seeds vary greatly in size, endocarp thickness, caloric value and tannin content. This paper aims to study the effects of seed traits on seed removal speed of these five tree species by small rodents in a temperate deciduous forest, with emphasis on the effect of endocarp thickness. The results indicated that speed of removal of seeds released at stations in the field decreased significantly with increasing endocarp thickness. We found no significant correlations between seed removal speed and other seed traits such as seed size, caloric value and tannin content. In seed selection experiments in small cages, Père David's rock squirrel ( Sciurotamias davidianus), a large-bodied, strong-jawed rodent, selected all of the five seed species, and the selection order among the five seed species was determined by endocarp thickness and the ratio of endocarp mass/seed mass. In contrast, the Korean field mouse ( Apodemus peninsulae) and Chinese white-bellied rat ( Niviventer confucianus), with relatively small bodies and weak jaws, preferred to select small seeds like acorns of Q. liaotungensis and seeds of P. armeniaca, indicating that rodent body size is also an important factor affecting food selection based on seed size. These results suggest endocarp thickness significantly reduces seed removal speed by rodents and then negatively affects dispersal fitness of seeds before seed removal of tree species in the study

  16. Nonprice terms and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In this and the following chapter the authors review some of the more common provisions contained in wheeling contracts. Here they discuss nonprice terms and conditions. In the next chapter they look at the manner in which they address the pricing issue. At the outset one should note that there is a relationship between price and nonprice terms and condition. A couple of the provisions discussed here affect the risks incurred by the wheeling utility and the price it may charge for that service. These provisions include the length of the contract, the degree to which service can be interrupted and the ability to terminate the contract early, among others. These provisions are often characterized as nonprice terms and conditions. In reality, however, these factors have a direct bearing on the overall cost of wheeling services provided

  17. Tocopherol content, weight loss and instrumental color analysis of Iberian dry-cured ham as affected by rearing and feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daza, Argimiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rearing (outdoor vs indoor and feeding systems (acorn and grass vs mixed diets on ham quality from Duroc x Iberian pigs were studied. Seven groups of 5 females each were used. One group was reared under freerange conditions and fed with acorns and grass (outdoor pigs. Six group were fed mixed diets in confinement (indoor pigs under a factorial design 3 x 2 with three types of dietary fat: monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and medium (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated and two levels of α-tocopheryl-acetate. The α-and γ-tocopherol contents were higher (P Se ha estudiado el efecto del régimen de producción (en libertad vs estabulados y el sistema de alimentación (bellota y pasto vs piensos formulados en la calidad del jamón de cerdos Ibéricos cruzados con Duroc. Siete grupos de 5 hembras cada uno fueron usadas. Un grupo fue criado en condiciones de libertad y alimentado con bellotas y pasto (Cerdos en libertad. Seis grupos fueron alimentados con dietas formuladas en confinamiento (Cerdos estabulados usando un diseño factorial de 3 x 2 con tres tipos de grasa en la dieta: monoinsaturada, poliinsaturada y media (monoinsaturada y polinsaturada y dos niveles de acetato de α-tocoferol. Los contenidos de α- y γ-tocoferol fueron más altos (p < 0.05 en jamones de cerdos criados en libertad que en jamones de cerdos estabulados. Los jamones de cerdos estabulados pesaron menos que los jamones de cerdos en libertad y los valores de color rojo fueron mayores en jamones de cerdos en libertad que en cerdos estabulados. Después de 4 días de almacenamiento, la muestra de jamón de cerdos en libertad mostraron una menor tendencia (p < 0.10 a perder peso que aquellos de cerdos alimentados con un nivel basal de vitamina E. Estos resultados indican que cerdos Ibérico criados en libertad y alimentados con bellota y pasto incrementan su contenido en tocoferoles y mejoran el color y las pérdidas de peso de los jamones curados.

  18. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  19. Youth and the Workplace: Perspectives for the Coming Decade, 1979. Hearings before the Committee on Labor and Human Relations, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session, on To Examine the Transition from School to Work and Explore the Nature of Youth Employment and Unemployment to Gauge the Conditions, Trends, and Problems Likely to Affect Federal Labor and Human Resources Policy in the 1980's. October 23 and 24, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    Proceedings are presented of hearings before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources (1) to examine the transition from school to work and explore the nature of youth employment and unemployment and (2) to gauge the conditions, trends and problems likely to affect federal labor and human resources policy in the 1980s. Among those testifying…

  20. Engaging in Affective Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    schools, the paper develops an affective-power approach drawing on Foucault’s notion of power and Whetherell’s conceptualisation of affect. The approach captures the affective dimension of governing and resistance in interactional practice that engages teachers and pupils. This enables a research focus...

  1. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  2. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496

  4. Bodily action penetrates affective perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, Carlo; Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer's internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer's internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  5. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  6. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  7. Placebo sleep affects cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-05-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether perceived sleep quality affects cognitive functioning, 164 participants reported their previous night's sleep quality. They were then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 sleep quality conditions or 2 control conditions. Those in the "above average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had spent 28.7% of their total sleep time in REM, whereas those in the "below average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had only spent 16.2% of their time in REM sleep. Assigned sleep quality but not self-reported sleep quality significantly predicted participants' scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Task. Assigned sleep quality did not predict participants' scores on the Digit Span task, as expected, nor did it predict scores on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, which was unexpected. The control conditions showed that the findings were not due to demand characteristics from the experimental protocol. These findings supported the hypothesis that mindset can influence cognitive states in both positive and negative directions, suggesting a means of controlling one's health and cognition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Consumer attitudes play an important role in the acceptance of new technologies. The success of food innovations depends on understanding how consumers form and change attitudes toward food technologies. Earlier post hoc explanations suggest that evaluative conditioning can change consumer...... attitudes toward food technologies. The present study tests how evaluative conditioning can affect consumer acceptance of new food technologies. Furthermore, authors investigate whether evaluative conditioning is resistant to extinction after a two-month period and whether the evaluative conditioning effect...... prevails in a product-related context. Within an evaluative conditioning paradigm including between-subjects control groups in addition to standard within-subjects control conditions, participants were presented with three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic technology) paired...

  9. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Affects and assemblages are Deleuzian Guattarian notions related to aesthetics and spatial territories. In recent urban geography and urban studies these notions are increasingly gaining more impact (Amin & Thrift 2002, Pile 2008, Farías & Bender 2010, Andersen & Harrison 2010, Thrift 2008). What...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...... affects and assemblages produce subjective feelings and emotions (Pile 2009) Recently, urban experience designs and events aim at evoking affects through affects and assemblages. A Danish example is the Carlsberg city in Copenhagen another is The High line in Chelsea, New York (Samson 2011). Thus...

  10. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  11. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  12. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  13. Affectivity in the Liminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new and alternat......In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new...... and alternative interpretations of what liminality is, or could be, taking it to territories distant from its place of origin, quite the contrary: we are moving the concept back to its rightful place in intellectual history and back to the core of its significance, back to the centre of human emotions trembling...... at the threshold. The paper contains three sections: a) liminality and affectivity in van Gennep’s life; b) liminality and affectivity as a theme in his work; c) liminality and affectivity as developed in the early reception of his work....

  14. Working Conditions, Lifestyles and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottini, Elena; Ghinetti, Paolo

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether employee health is affected by the environment in which the individual works - in terms of both physical and psychosocial working conditions - and by his or her lifestyle. Health measures are computed from Danish data, and refer to both self assessed...

  15. Teat Condition in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  16. Teat condition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  17. Affect as Information in Persuasion: A Model of Affect Identification and Discounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the implications of a model of affect as information in persuasion. According to this model, extraneous affect may have an influence when message recipients exert moderate amounts of thought, because they identify their affective reactions as potential criteria but fail to discount them as irrelevant. However, message recipients may not use affect as information when they deem affect irrelevant or when they do not identify their affective reactions at all. Consistent with this curvilinear prediction, recipients of a message that either favored or opposed comprehensive exams used affect as a basis for attitudes in situations that elicited moderate thought. Affect, however, had no influence on attitudes in conditions that elicited either large or small amounts of thought. PMID:12635909

  18. Dementia in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...

  19. What affects women's participation?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    What affects women's participation? Variables. Men. Women. Presence. Caste, Age. Education. Political Experience. Attendance in Training. Region, Caste. Religion, Age. Number of Children. Political Experience. Attendance in training. Influence. Region, Education. Type of Family. Party Membership. Political Experience.

  20. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  1. Forward Affect Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonshtein, Udi; Torem, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a modification of the affect bridge technique. The Forward Affect Bridge enables practitioners to create and maintain hope when it is missing. Hope is relevant for diminishing avoidance and being involved with necessary activities. The main idea is to build up a positive atmosphere in the here and now (relying on rapport), to amplify it, and to project it forward. By using clinical vignettes, the authors illustrate these techniques.

  2. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eTschacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.3 years. Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted five minutes. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  3. Seed conditioning of red oak: a recalcitrant North American seed Condicionamento de sementes de carvalho vermelho: semente recalcitrante da América do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Struve

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A ten day aerated water soak was developed as a seed conditioning treatment for red oak (Quercus rubra L.. Conditioned seeds had higher germination completeness, uniformity and speed compared to control seeds. Seeds could be conditioned under a wide range of temperatures and durations. Conditioned seeds were maintained at 7(0C for 30 days without loss of seed quality. During conditioning, pericarps split in response to seed hydration. Split pericarps could be used as a pre-sowing indicator for high quality seeds. Seed conditioning was ineffective on dormant seeds. Increased crop uniformity and higher stand establishment can be realized by subjecting red oak acorns to an aerated water soak treatment followed by selecting seeds with split pericarps. These results are especially important in container production systems where limited numbers of value seeds are available.Sementes de carvalho vermelho (Quercus rubra L. foram condicionadas diretamente em água, sob aeração, durante 10 dias. As sementes condicionadas fisiologicamente apresentaram maior percentagem, velocidade e uniformidade de germinação, quando comparadas com a testemunha. O condicionamento das sementes pode ser efetuado sob ampla variação de temperaturas e períodos de exposição. Sementes condicionadas podem ser mantidas a 7ºC/30 dias, sem perda de qualidade. Durante o condicionamento ocorre ruptura do pericarpo, em resposta à hidratação da semente; essa ocorrência pode ser utilizada para estimar a qualidade da semente. O condicionamento não apresentou efeitos em sementes dormentes. O condicionamento das sementes de carvalho vermelho em água, com aeração, seguido pela seleção de sementes com ruptura do pericarpo, proporciona o rápido estabelecimento e uniformidade das plântulas.

  4. Affective responses to dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Affective Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Lara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade studies on affect and emotions have become relevant in the social sciences. This is not just a fad guideline, but instead a simultaneous reader of public life changes and subjective experience, from which it is also being transformed the knowledge production. Such a trend has been known as ‘The Affective Turn’ within the Anglophone Academy. Here we will translate it as ‘El Giro Afectivo’. This turn, so far, has not dabbled in the social science literature that is written in Spanish. This paper draws on a singular panorama of discussions about contemporary social studies of affect and emotion, and it’s vertebrate by some of its expressions in the contemporary academy.

  6. Affected in the nightclub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan

    2013-01-01

    The nightclub as a space is presented as a free and hedonistic place for pleasure. This space is also part of a wider socio-spatial-economic framework in which various forms of regulation apply to clubbers and the cultivation of affects. This paper researches marginal and contested forms of exper......The nightclub as a space is presented as a free and hedonistic place for pleasure. This space is also part of a wider socio-spatial-economic framework in which various forms of regulation apply to clubbers and the cultivation of affects. This paper researches marginal and contested forms...... of experiences within a club as a way of understanding the complexities of pleasure. The study does so by addressing experiences through the concept of affects, which is situated within a framework of a non-representational theory of space. Anxiety, pride, anger, shame and embarrassment are embodied...

  7. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    , 2005) of protesting women and various human and non-human, mediatised (Hepp, 2013; Hjarvard, 2008; Lundby 2009) and localized actors. The article suggests that Femen’s protests undergo a dual process of mediatisation that aims to both generate a spreadable imaginary and enable communication between...... bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  8. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  9. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  10. Recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Andersen, P K

    1999-01-01

    The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward...

  11. Affective public choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.; Casas Pardo, J.; Schwartz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that due to the neglect of the affective side of human decision making we find it hard to explain political economic phenomena such as tax revolts, voting, political rituals, terrorism, and entitlements. Taking into account the action tendencies of emotions like resentment, hatred,

  12. Affective Tourism Ethnography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina; Tucker, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to advance the concept of affective tourism ethnography. We take ethnography to refer to a research strategy rather than simply a methodological tool. This is because ethnography entails methods (individual interviews, focus groups, participant observation amongst others) and

  13. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  14. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  15. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SAD. This decrease in sunlight may disrupt your body's internal clock and lead to feelings of depression. Serotonin levels. A drop in serotonin, a brain chemical (neurotransmitter) that affects mood, ... disrupt the balance of the body's level of melatonin, which plays a role in ...

  16. Personalized affective music player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Joris H.; van den Broek, Egon; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and test an affective music player (AMP) that selects music for mood enhancement. Through a concise overview of content, construct, and ecological validity, we elaborate five considerations that form the foundation of the AMP. Based on these considerations, computational models are

  17. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  18. MICROBIAL BIOFILMS AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE CONDITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial biofilms are complex communities of bacteria, protozoa, microalgae, and micrometazoa which exist in a polymer matrix on submerged surfaces. Their development is integrative of environmental conditions and is affected by local biodiversity, the availability of organic ma...

  19. Implicit processing of visual emotions is affected by sound-induced affective states and individual affective traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Quarto

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task while the sound environment was defined either by a a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure, b a noise sequence or c silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals.

  20. Affect in electoral politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, J; Salovey, P

    1998-01-01

    Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.

  1. BVOC emission pattern from Quercus robur under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorska, O.; Dewulf, J.; Joó; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Muller, J. J.; van Langenhove, H.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past decades biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) have been widely studied not only for better understanding their functions, biosynthesis and regulation, but also because they have great impact on regional and global air quality [1]. Since all BVOCs react with hydroxyl radicals (OH●) and may also react with nitrate radicals (NO3●) and ozone (O3), they contribute to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. In this study we focus on Quercus robur which is a widely spread tree species in Europe and known as a strong isoprene emitter. We aimed to investigate seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from Quercus robur under field conditions and to explore the intra-species variations within Quercus robur trees as both are of great importance for accurate modeling and regional inventories. Measurements were performed during a period from May till October 2009 at the campus of Ghent University (Belgium) using a dynamic branch enclosure system. Experiments were conducted on four potted Quercus robur trees with a varying 1-1.5 m height. Samples were collected on Tenax TA-Carbotrap adsorbent tubes and analyzed by TD-GC-MS. Isoprene was the predominant compound released by Quercus robur (QR1) with a pronounced seasonal emission. The normalized emission rates for isoprene calculated according to Guenther’s algorithm (standard conditions of temperature 30°C and PAR 1000 µmol m-2 s-1) varied from 29.89 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in Spring (May) to 28.62 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in Fall (October) reaching peak of 105.51 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in August. Apart from isoprene, through the whole measurement period trans-β-ocimene and β-caryophyllene were the only BVOC emitted in detectable range (sum of the emissions varied between 0.15 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in July and 0.24 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in October). No clear seasonal pattern was observed for those compounds. In May when acorns where developing on enclosed branch, emissions of limonene and β-farnesene were also observed. The

  2. Affective public choice

    OpenAIRE

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.; Casas Pardo, J.; Schwartz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that due to the neglect of the affective side of human decision making we find it hard to explain political economic phenomena such as tax revolts, voting, political rituals, terrorism, and entitlements. Taking into account the action tendencies of emotions like resentment, hatred, shame, fear, and hope, makes these kinds of behavior better understandable and predictable. To phrase the argument of this paper in a more polemical way: Who cannot stand the heat should stay out ...

  3. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  4. How luck and performance affect stealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravert, Christina Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the way of earning payoff affects the probability of stealing. The participants who earned their payoff according to performance were three times more likely to take the (undeserved) maximum payoff than participants with randomly allocated payoff. Conditional on steali...

  5. Oak Dispersal Syndromes: Do Red and White Oaks Exhibit Different Dispersal Srategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Steele; Peter Smallwood; William B. Terzaghi; John E. Carlson; Thomas conteras; Amy McEuen

    2004-01-01

    We provide an overview of the ecological and evolutionary interactions between oaks and several of their dispersal agents, and review a series of studies that demonstrate how various acorn characteristics affect feeding and caching decisions of these animals, which in turn may influence oak dispersal and establishment. We demonstrate that acorns of red oak species show...

  6. Accumulation and evolution of tocopherols in dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs as affected by their feeding and rearing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey, A I; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A

    2010-01-01

    The influence of feeding and rearing systems on the accumulation and evolution of α- and γ-tocopherols in relation to storage time in dry-cured ham slices and pieces was investigated. The accumulation of γ-tocopherol in Musculus Biceps femoris or fat of cured hams was lower in groups fed acorns i...

  7. Social and Affective Robotics Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Evers, Vanessa; Deisenroth, Marc; Merino, Luis; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Social and Affective Robotics is a growing multidisciplinary field encompassing computer science, engineering, psychology, education, and many other disciplines. It explores how social and affective factors influence interactions between humans and robots, and how affect and social signals can be

  8. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  9. Risk, Affect and Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time theorising has underestimated the importance of affect and emotion in decision making and the management of risk and uncertainty. In relatively one-sided interpretations emotions were often interpreted as threats for rational decision making, and could be triggered by uncertainties, which would go along with social change. Recent interdisciplinary research has shown the importance to acknowledge the more complex link between reasoning and emotions. The article outlines different perspectives on emotion in risk research of economics, psychology and sociology and argues for further research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601293

  10. The Affective Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carnera, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ’ (Governmentality) related to different forms of control, and on the other hand new modes of existences connected to co-operation, social innovation and experimental projects. The paper then argues for a more positive conception of biopolitics using self-management as a strategy since it is through self...... organizing good affective encounters based on limitations enhance and facilitate the performative dimension of self-management. Finally, the paper addresses the problem of critique confronting self-relation with Spinoza's ethics as an ethical difference of powe...

  11. Conditional Belief Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    using conditional belief operators, examining three additional axioms of increasing strength. First, introspection, which requires the agent to be...unconditionally certain of her beliefs . Second, echo, according to which the unconditional beliefs implied by the condition must be held given the...condition. Third, determination, which says that the conditional beliefs are the unconditional beliefs that are conditionally certain. Echo implies that

  12. Affective disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burgić-Radmanović

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders in childhood have been more intensively studied in the last three decades. They can be recognized among the children of all ages, but are more frequent among the older children. The main characteristics of mood disorders are similar among children, adolescents and adults, although development factors affect their clinical features. Development factors affect the manifestation of all symptoms. Two main criteria for these disorders in childhood are mood disorders, such as reduced or elevated mood and irritability. These symptoms may result in social or academic damage. Depression among children is a wide-spread, family and recurrent condition, which continues episodically in adulthood. Depression is frequently associated with other psychiatric disorders, increasing the risk of suicidal behaviour, misuse of psychoactive substances and behavioural disorders. Depression in childhood brings about worse psychosocial, academic and family functioning. Family, social and environmental factors have a significant role in affective disorders of children and young people.

  13. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard

    This paper studies the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. We show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion of expected...

  14. Paralysis: Secondary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5pm ET. 1-800-539-7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Health > Secondary conditions Secondary conditions Secondary conditions refer ...

  15. Do wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L.) use food selection as a means to reduce heavy metal intake?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beernaert, Joke; Scheirs, Jan; Brande, Greet Van Den

    2008-01-01

    Food preference of wood mice from two with heavy metals polluted sites and two unpolluted sites was tested under laboratory and field conditions with two-way choice experiments. In the laboratory, wood mice preferred to eat acorns from unpolluted sites over acorns from polluted sites. Previous ex...

  16. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    This chapter offers a study of life at school as remembered by groups of people who finished secondary school in the 1950s, 1970s and 1990s. The article draws up three generational portraits based on in-depth interviews that demonstrate how school life is remembered in complex and textural ways. ...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective........ The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...

  17. Multisensory Perception of Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Gelder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration must stand out among the fields of research that have witnessed a most impressive explosion of interest this last decade. One of these new areas of multisensory research concerns emotion. Since our first exploration of this phenomenon (de Gelder et al., 1999 a number of studies have appeared and they have used a wide variety of behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroscientifc methods. The goal of this presentation is threefold. First, we review the research on audiovisual perception of emotional signals from the face and the voice followed by a report or more recent studies on integrating emotional information provided by the voice and whole body expressions. We will also include some recent work on multisensory music perception. In the next section we discuss some methodological and theoretical issues. Finally, we will discuss findings about abnormal affective audiovisual integration in schizophrenia and in autism.

  18. Trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte Kærgaard

    2016-01-01

    treatment outcome for this patient group. Methods: This thesis includes four papers based on two studies – a literature review and a randomised trial called PTF3: The aim of the literature review was to provide an overview of the existing literature on the pharmacological treatment of refugees with PTSD and....... The aim of PTF3 was to examine differences in the effects of venlafaxine and sertraline on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression and functional impairments in trauma-affected refugees as well as research predictors for treatment outcome. The patients included were 207 adult refugees diagnosed...... with PTSD and/or depression who had their first appointment at Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP) between April 1st 2012 and September 16th 2013. Patients were randomised into one of the two treatment groups: a sertraline group (n=109) or a venlafaxine group (n=98). Patients in both groups...

  19. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...

  20. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  1. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, R.; van der Pligt, J.; de Vries, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in

  2. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  3. Produtividade e qualidade do melão cantaloupe, cultivado em ambiente protegido, variando o número e a posição dos frutos na planta Fruit yield and quality of cantaloupe melon, under greenhouse conditions, as affected by number of fruits and position in the plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cleiton Fernandes de Queiroga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos do meloeiro são considerados fortes drenos que alteram a distribuição de fotoassimilados entre os órgãos da planta. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho determinar a produção e a qualidade de frutos de meloeiro em ambiente protegido em função do número e da posição de fixação dos frutos na planta. O experimento foi desenvolvido em fatorial 2 x 2 em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, provenientes da combinação de número de frutos por planta (1 e 2 e posição de fixação dos frutos na planta (entre 5.º e 8.° nós e entre 15.° e 18.° nós. O melão cultivar 'Torreon', do grupo Cantalupensis, foi plantado em vasos de 11,5 dm³ contendo como substrato apenas fibra de coco adubada com macro e micronutrientes. Comparado a plantas com dois frutos, nas plantas com apenas um fruto ocorreram os maiores valores de: massa dos frutos (MF, reticulação da casca (RC, comprimento, índice de formato, espessura da polpa, índice de maturação (IM, sólidos solúveis (SS, açúcares solúveis totais, açúcares não redutores. Em plantas com apenas um fruto, ocorreu redução na produtividade comercial (PC de 21,4% em frutos fixados especificamente entre o 5.° e 8.° nós e 24,9% em frutos do 15.° e 18.° nós comparada a plantas com dois frutos. Em frutos fixados na posição do 15.° e 18.° nós ocorreram maiores MF, IM, PC e ciclo da cultura, bem como, menores RC e acidez total titulável. Foram obtidas correlações significativas para área foliar por fruto (AF x MF de 0,81, AF x SS de 0,79, MF x SS de 0,68, MF x RC de 0,72 e RC x SS de 0,51.Muskmelon fruits are strong sink affecting assimilate distribution among the plant organs. This experiment aimed at to determine yield and quality of 'Torreon' cultivar in greenhouse conditions as affected by fruit number and position in the plant. A 2 x 2 factorial was set in randomized block design, with five replications. Treatments combined fruit number per plant (1 and 2 and

  4. Affective subjectivation in the precarious neoliberal academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duenas, Paola Ximena Valero; Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Brunila, Kristiina

    2018-01-01

    as an organisation and the relationship between managers and academics; the governing through affect in the constant ambivalence between anxiety and self-development; and the power effects of these two together in creating neoliberal academic subjects. Both the strategy of working with fictional stories...... and the analytical stance allows opening up the public secrets of the ways in which neoliberal precarious conditions govern the lives and bodies of academics nowadays. Disclosing those secrets is a form of resistance against the violence of current affective subjectivation....

  5. Situating Human Sexual Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Heather

    2017-11-01

    Conditioning is often thought of as a basic, automatic learning process that has limited applicability to higher-level human behavior. In addition, conditioning is seen as separable from, and even secondary to, "innate" processes. These ideas involve some misconceptions. The aim of this article is to provide a clearer, more refined sense of human sexual conditioning. After providing some background information and reviewing what is known from laboratory conditioning studies, human sexual conditioning is compared to sexual conditioning in nonhumans, to "innate" sexual responding, and to other types of human learning processes. Recommendations for moving forward in human sexual conditioning research are included.

  6. What Health Issues or Conditions Are Specific to Women Only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women, women with disabilities and their unique challenges, osteoporosis and bone health, and menopause « Condition Information How do conditions affect women differently? » Related A-Z Topics Menstruation and Menstrual Problems Infertility ...

  7. Security affects us all!

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    In the hope of minimising the number of thefts of the Organization’s property, which can lead to months of work going to waste on certain projects, you are reminded of the importance that CERN attaches to the rules concerning the protection of equipment for which we are responsible. If you see any unusual behaviour or if you are the victim of a theft, don’t hesitate to report it by submitting a ticket through the CERN Portal or calling the CSA. Security affects us all!   CERN is attractive in more ways than one, and it remains as attractive as ever to thieves. With the nice weather and with the holiday season in full swing, the number of thefts recorded at CERN is on the rise. Items stolen include money, computers, electronic equipment, cable drums and copper antennae.   There are a few basic precautions that you should take to protect both your own and the Organization’s property: lock your door, don’t leave valuable items in your office, st...

  8. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  9. The Successful Parent: Growing Mighty Oaks from Little Acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Appreciative intelligence is the factor that makes some people more successful than others, more resilient to life's lumps and bumps, more creative and persistent when dealing with challenges, and more often able to smile at the end of a tough day. It is the same type of intelligence found in exceptional business leaders, entrepreneurs and…

  10. Affective match: Leader emotions, follower positive affect, and follower performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, F.; van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    Leader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the affective match between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders' emotional displays moderates the effectiveness of

  11. Introduction: Affective Ecologies and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera M Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Engaging the affective and materialist turn in the social sciences, this special section elaborates on how analytical attention on affect and affective relations is central to understanding human-nature relations and to conservation interventions. The contributors to this section use conceptual resources from affect theory, new materialism, and indigenous ontologies to illustrate the practical significance of paying attention to affect in understanding nature-society relations. This introduction reviews these conceptual resources to make a case for affective political ecology.

  12. Encountering Science Education's Capacity to Affect and Be Affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-01-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…

  13. Do wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L.) use food selection as a means to reduce heavy metal intake?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beernaert, Joke; Scheirs, Jan; Brande, Greet van den; Leirs, Herwig; Blust, Ronny; Meulenaer, Bruno de; Camp, John van; Verhagen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Food preference of wood mice from two with heavy metals polluted sites and two unpolluted sites was tested under laboratory and field conditions with two-way choice experiments. In the laboratory, wood mice preferred to eat acorns from unpolluted sites over acorns from polluted sites. Previous experience with polluted food had no influence on food choice. Preference was negatively related to acorn metal content. Furthermore, the nutrient content of the acorn endosperm was consistently lower in polluted sites. We therefore conclude that wood mice used absolute metal concentration in the acorn, nutrient content, or both as a food selection cue. The results of the laboratory experiment could not be confirmed under field conditions. We hypothesized that search time constraints due to the presence of predators, competitors and/or other stress factors in the field have prevented the mice to forage selectively. - Wood mice prefer unpolluted food items over polluted food items in laboratory trials but not in field situations

  14. Factors that affect keratotomy depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, U; Bordin, P; Rimondi, A P; Sichirollo, R

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigated nine factors which can affect the depth of incisions performed during refractive keratotomy: (1) vertical vs oblique-cutting edge of the knife blade, (2) direction of cutting, (3) cutting velocity, (4) American vs Russian technique, (5) intraocular pressure (IOP), (6) initial vs final incisions, (7) sharpness of knife blade, (8) single vs double footplate, and (9) square vs double-edged blade. These variables were examined independently, performing at least 40 incisions for each experimental parameter studied. The depth of the resulting incisions was measured histologically using the micrometer eyepiece. The average and the standard deviation were calculated. The paired Student's t-test was used to establish significant differences between the two conditions investigated for each parameter. Factors that were demonstrated to increase significantly the depth of the incisions included: the vertical-cutting edge, the triple-edged diamond knife, the sharpness of the knife, and the single foot knife. High velocity in performing the incisions and, to a lesser extent, low IOP were the main factors that induced irregularity in depth.

  15. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published January 30, ... impact on the ability to conceive. Women and Fertility To prepare for pregnancy and enhance fertility, maintain ...

  16. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  17. Road condition reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the findings of the road condition reporting project where the feasibility of live reporting of the road : conditions with an Android camera and computer vision algorithms was tested. An app was developed that can collect videos...

  18. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions What's in this article? Flatfeet Toe Walking ...

  19. Soil Resources Area Affects Herbivore Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Dacus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991–1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass, kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI, which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P ≤ 0.001. Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P ≤ 0.002. Mass and conception date (CD were affected (P ≤ 0.001 by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P ≤ 0.001 and CD (P < 0.04. Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer.

  20. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  1. Flavanol plasma bioavailability is affected by metabolic syndrome in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margalef, M.; Pons, Z.; Iglesias-Carres, L.; Bravo, F.I.; Muguerza, B.; Arola-Arnal, A.

    2017-01-01

    Flavanols, which exert several health benefits, are metabolized after ingestion. Factors such as the host physiological condition could affect the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols, influencing their bioactivities. This study aimed to qualitatively evaluate whether a pathological state

  2. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  3. Monetary Conditions Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Èihák; Tomáš Holub

    2000-01-01

    Monetary Conditions IndicatorsMartin CIHAK ? International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C.Tomas HOLUB ? Czech National Bank; Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, PragueThe article provides an overview of foreign-language (non-Czech) literature on monetary conditions indices. The authors also discuss the issues involved in the construction of a monetary conditions index for the Czech Republic. They argue that if a monetary conditions index is to have any use for practical monetary p...

  4. Modelling classroom conditions with different boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    both specular and diffuse reflections with complex-valued acoustical descriptions of the surfaces. In this paper the PARISM model is used to simulate a rectangular room with most of the absorption located in the ceiling. This room configuration is typical for classroom conditions. The simulations...... measures which are important for evaluation of the acoustics in classrooms....

  5. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  6. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an initial examination of the evaluative conditioning (EC) of consumers’ attitudes toward food technologies in China, including how EC can affect consumer acceptance of new technology when participants possess different levels of social trust. In a study using the EC paradigm...... and a combination of between-subjects control groups and within-subjects control conditions, participants considered three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic), paired with affectively positive, neutral, and negative images. Subsequent evaluative measurements revealed that EC can explain attitude...... formation toward food technologies in China when consumers see affective images, but the strength of the effects varies at different levels of social trust. Participants with a high level of trust in the institutions that promote and regulate the technologies can be conditioned both positively...

  7. Exploring Online Game Players' Flow Experiences and Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Cheng, Chao-Yang; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to explore online game players' flow experiences and positive affect. Our findings indicated that online game are capable of evoking flow experiences and positive affect, and games of violent or nonviolent type may not arouse players' aggression. The players could be placed into four flow conditions: flow,…

  8. Relationship between cycloid psychosis and typical affective psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, J

    1990-01-01

    This article describes the clinical features and outcome of a series of 73 inpatients who fulfilled Perris' criteria for cycloid psychosis. It is argued that although the cases differ from either schizophrenia or affective psychosis in some ways, the condition of cycloid psychosis is best regarded as an atypical variety of affective psychosis.

  9. 7 CFR 760.7 - Other requirements for affected farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fallout. (2) None of the milk was produced by dairy cattle which he knew, or had reason to know at the... Payments to Dairy Farmers for Milk § 760.7 Other requirements for affected farmers. An indemnity payment for milk may be made under this subpart to an affected farmer only under the following conditions: (a...

  10. Affect as a Psychological Primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

  11. Socio-Affective Paternity: the Legal Value of Affection

    OpenAIRE

    Daou, Heloisa Sami

    2016-01-01

    Article aims to discuss, from the evolution of the concepts of family and membership, the legal value of affection. Therefore, we will draw a parallel between biological paternity, restricted to a conception of genetic and socio-affective paternity, which depicts the subjectivity of the links established by the noble feelings of love, affection, care, among others, to show that the right comes assigning greater value the personal relationships when in conflict with the strictly biological rel...

  12. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an initial examination of the evaluative conditioning (EC) of consumers’ attitudes toward food technologies in China, including how EC can affect consumer acceptance of new technology when participants possess different levels of social trust. In a study using the EC paradigm...... formation toward food technologies in China when consumers see affective images, but the strength of the effects varies at different levels of social trust. Participants with a high level of trust in the institutions that promote and regulate the technologies can be conditioned both positively...... and negatively, independent of food technology. Participants with a low level of trust can be conditioned too, but only when the technology is paired with negative unconditioned stimuli. If social trust is low, positive conditioning of food technologies is not demonstrated in this study....

  13. Conditionals in Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trafford James

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several issues with the standard approach to the relationship between conditionals and assertions, particularly when the antecedent of a conditional is (or may be false. One prominent alternative is to say that conditionals do not express propositions, but rather make conditional assertions that may generate categorical assertions of the consequent in certain circumstances. However, this view has consequences that jar with standard interpretations of the relationship between proofs and assertion. Here, I analyse this relationship, and say that, on at least one understanding of proof, conditional assertions may reflect the dynamics of proving, which (sometimes generate categorical assertions. In particular, when we think about the relationship between assertion and proof as rooted in a dialogical approach to both, the distinction between conditional and categorical assertions is quite natural.

  14. Does affective touch influence the virtual reality full body illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jutta R; Keizer, Anouk; Engel, Manja M; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2017-06-01

    The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of touch modulate the strength of experienced ownership over a rubber hand. Specifically, participants experienced more ownership after the rubber hand illusion was induced through affective touch vs non-affective touch. It is, however, unclear whether this effect would also occur for an entire fake body. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether affective touch modulates the strength of ownership in a virtual reality full body illusion. To elicit this illusion, we used slow (3 cm/s; affective touch) and fast (30 cm/s; non-affective touch) stroking velocities on the participants' abdomen. Both stroking velocities were performed either synchronous or asynchronous (control condition), while participants viewed a virtual body from a first-person-perspective. In our first study, we found that participants experienced more subjective ownership over a virtual body in the affective touch condition, compared to the non-affective touch condition. In our second study, we found higher levels of subjective ownership for synchronous stimulation, compared to asynchronous, for both touch conditions, but failed to replicate the findings from study 1 that show a difference between affective and non-affective touch. We, therefore, cannot conclude unequivocally that affective touch enhances the full-body illusion. Future research is required to study the effects of affective touch on body ownership.

  15. Storage temperature affects fruit quality attributes of Ber ( Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit utilization is affected by quality attributes and shelf life. The quality of Jujube or Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits after harvest depends on storage conditions used. In this study, different storage temperatures and durations were evaluated to determine the appropriate storage conditions of fresh fruits of Z.

  16. Affective disorders in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....

  17. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents' Future Affective Experience During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M; Levine, Linda J; Schneider, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents' feelings during exercise. During the 1st semester of the school year, we assessed 6th-grade students' (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the 2nd semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences.

  18. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents’ Future Affective Experience during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M.; Levine, Linda J.; Schneider, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents’ feelings during exercise. Method During the first semester of the school year, we assessed sixth grade students’ (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test, and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the second semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Results Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise, and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. Conclusion These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences. PMID:28494196

  19. Promoting Positive Affect through Smartphone Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Mark, Gloria; Ali, Sanna

    With the increasing quality of smartphone cameras, taking photos has become ubiquitous. This paper investigates how smartphone photography can be leveraged to help individuals increase their positive affect. Applying findings from positive psychology, we designed and conducted a 4-week study with 41 participants. Participants were instructed to take one photo every day in one of the following three conditions: a selfie photo with a smiling expression, a photo of something that would make oneself happy and a photo of something that would make another person happy. After 3 weeks, participants' positive affect in all conditions increased. Those who took photos to make others happy became much less aroused. Qualitative results showed that those in the selfie group observed changes in their smile over time; the group taking photos to improve their own affect became more reflective and those taking photos for others found that connecting with family members and friends helped to relieve stress. The findings can offer insights for designers to create systems that enhance emotional well-being.

  20. Learning Conditional Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, I.E.J.

    Some of the information we receive comes to us in an explicitly conditional form. It is an open question how to model the accommodation of such information in a Bayesian framework. This paper presents data suggesting that there may be no strictly Bayesian account of updating on conditionals.

  1. Lossless Conditional Schema Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the reco......The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples...... and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that conditionally evolving schemas, in contrast to current commercial database systems, are lossless when the schema evolves...

  2. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 500) Health warnings of emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be affected. Action Day Maps by Monitor Location Archived Maps by Region Canada Air Quality Air Quality on Google Earth Links A-Z About AirNow AirNow International Air ...

  3. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  4. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...

  5. Interfacial modulation of urban affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , Massey 2006), they also exclude in depth social and human interaction. Through analysis of three examples of urban affective interfaces (The High Line in New York, Superkilen in Copenhagen and Stålsat By, Frederiksværk, the paper examines how affective urban interfaces modulate and mediate urban...

  6. Affect and Graphing Calculator Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Allison W.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. DeBellis and Goldin's (2006) framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which…

  7. Seasonal Affective Disorder: For Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... Search English Español Seasonal Affective Disorder KidsHealth / For Teens / Seasonal Affective Disorder What's in this article? What ...

  8. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I study the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. I show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion...... of expected business conditions in standard predictive regressions improve forecast performance relative to models using information derived from the current term structure or macroeconomic variables. The results are confirmed in a real-time out-of-sample exercise, where the predictive accuracy of the models...

  9. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  10. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.

  11. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  12. Phenotypes of individuals affected by airborne chemicals in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, A.; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise the chemical exposures and symptoms affecting individuals with subsequent adjustments of social life or occupational conditions, and further characterise these severely affected individuals. METHODS: All individuals (n = 1,134) who reported symptoms from airborne chemic...

  13. Distinct associations of insula and cingulate volume with the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina Sophia; Bruce, Lori; Martens, Sander; Aleman, Andreas; Hooker, Christine I.

    Alexithymia ("no words for feelings") is a major risk factor for psychosomatic and psychiatric conditions characterized by affect dysregulation. The alexithymia personality construct comprises an affective dimension, the level of subjective emotional experience (emotionalizing and fantasizing), and

  14. Evaporation under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Satoshi; Shibata, Yuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear fusion reactor design, an event of water coolant ingress into its vacuum vessel is now being considered as one of the most probable accidents. In this report, the evaporation under vacuum condition is evaluated by using the evaporation model we have developed. The results show that shock-wave by the evaporation occurs whose behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions of vacuum. And in the case of lower initial pressure and temperature, the surface temp finally becomes higher than other conditions. (author)

  15. Chronic Conditions Chartbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries is a chartbook prepared by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and created to provide an overview of...

  16. Information about Musculoskeletal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travel Policy The AAOS Resident Assembly Ortho-pinion Columns Career Development Career Center Clinician Scholar Career Development ... Biomedical Engineering Orthopaedic Device Forum Information about Musculoskeletal Conditions PDF Version A summary of recent data about ...

  17. Chronic Condition Data Warehouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) provides researchers with Medicare and Medicaid beneficiary, claims, and assessment data linked by beneficiary across...

  18. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  19. Multidimensional HAM-conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    Heat, Air and Moisture (HAM) conditions, experimental data are needed. Tests were performed in the large climate simulator at SBi involving full-scale wall elements. The elements were exposed for steady-state conditions, and temperature cycles simulating April and September climate in Denmark....... The effect on the moisture and temperature conditions of the addition of a vapour barrier and an outer cladding on timber frame walls was studied. The report contains comprehensive appendices documenting the full-scale tests. The tests were performed as a part of the project 'Model for Multidimensional Heat......, Air and Moisture Conditions in Building Envelope Components' carried out as a co-project between DTU Byg and SBi....

  20. Operant Conditioning and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noronha, Mario

    A case study of a learning disabled 8-year-old with behavior disturbancs is presented to highlight the use of operant conditioning in cutting down educational costs and easing the teacher's class management problems. (CL)