WorldWideScience

Sample records for conditional ndvi composites

  1. Crop Condition Assessment with Adjusted NDVI Using the Uncropped Arable Land Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crop condition assessment in the early growing stage is essential for crop monitoring and crop yield prediction. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI-based method is employed to evaluate crop condition by inter-annual comparisons of both spatial variability (using NDVI images and seasonal dynamics (based on crop condition profiles. Since this type of method will generate false information if there are changes in crop rotation, cropping area or crop phenology, information on cropped/uncropped arable land is integrated to improve the accuracy of crop condition monitoring. The study proposes a new method to retrieve adjusted NDVI for cropped arable land during the growing season of winter crops by integrating 16-day composite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS reflectance data at 250-m resolution with a cropped and uncropped arable land map derived from the multi-temporal China Environmental Satellite (Huan Jing Satellite charge-coupled device (HJ-1 CCD images at 30-m resolution. Using the land map’s data on cropped and uncropped arable land, a pixel-based uncropped arable land ratio (UALR at 250-m resolution was generated. Next, the UALR-adjusted NDVI was produced by assuming that the MODIS reflectance value for each pixel is a linear mixed signal composed of the proportional reflectance of cropped and uncropped arable land. When UALR-adjusted NDVI data are used for crop condition assessment, results are expected to be more accurate, because: (i pixels with only uncropped arable land are not included in the assessment; and (ii the adjusted NDVI corrects for interannual variation in cropping area. On the provincial level, crop growing profiles based on the two kinds of NDVI data illustrate the difference between the regular and the adjusted NDVI, with the difference depending on the total area of uncropped arable land in the region. The results suggested that the proposed method can be used to improve the assessment of

  2. RGB-NDVI colour composites for visualizing forest change dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, S. A.; Winne, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The study presents a simple and logical technique to display and quantify forest change using three dates of satellite imagery. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was computed for each date of imagery to define high and low vegetation biomass. Color composites were generated by combining each date of NDVI with either the red, green, or blue (RGB) image planes in an image display monitor. Harvest and regeneration areas were quantified by applying a modified parallelepiped classification creating an RGB-NDVI image with 27 classes that were grouped into nine major forest change categories. Aerial photographs and stand history maps are compared with the forest changes indicated by the RGB-NDVI image. The utility of the RGB-NDVI technique for supporting forest inventories and updating forest resource information systems are presented and discussed.

  3. Assessment of MODIS-EVI, MODIS-NDVI and VEGETATION-NDVI composite data using agricultural measurements: an example at corn fields in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Fedosejevs, Gunar; Tiscareño-López, Mario; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2006-08-01

    Although several types of satellite data provide temporal information of the land use at no cost, digital satellite data applications for agricultural studies are limited compared to applications for forest management. This study assessed the suitability of vegetation indices derived from the TERRA-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor and SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) sensor for identifying corn growth in western Mexico. Overall, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites from the VGT sensor based on bi-directional compositing method produced vegetation information most closely resembling actual crop conditions. The NDVI composites from the MODIS sensor exhibited saturated signals starting 30 days after planting, but corresponded to green leaf senescence in April. The temporal NDVI composites from the VGT sensor based on the maximum value method had a maximum plateau for 80 days, which masked the important crop transformation from vegetative stage to reproductive stage. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) composites from the MODIS sensor reached a maximum plateau 40 days earlier than the occurrence of maximum leaf area index (LAI) and maximum intercepted fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR) derived from in-situ measurements. The results of this study showed that the 250-m resolution MODIS data did not provide more accurate vegetation information for corn growth description than the 500-m and 1000-m resolution MODIS data.

  4. Identification of "ever-cropped" land (1984-2010) using Landsat annual maximum NDVI image composites: Southwestern Kansas case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susan K; Sylvester, Kenneth M

    2012-06-01

    A time series of 230 intra- and inter-annual Landsat Thematic Mapper images was used to identify land that was ever cropped during the years 1984 through 2010 for a five county region in southwestern Kansas. Annual maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (NDVI(ann-max)) were used to evaluate the inter-annual dynamics of cropped and non-cropped land. Three feature images were derived from the 27-year NDVI(ann-max) image time series and used in the classification: 1) maximum NDVI value that occurred over the entire 27 year time span (NDVI(max)), 2) standard deviation of the annual maximum NDVI values for all years (NDVI(sd)), and 3) standard deviation of the annual maximum NDVI values for years 1984-1986 (NDVI(sd84-86)) to improve Conservation Reserve Program land discrimination.Results of the classification were compared to three reference data sets: County-level USDA Census records (1982-2007) and two digital land cover maps (Kansas 2005 and USGS Trends Program maps (1986-2000)). Area of ever-cropped land for the five counties was on average 11.8 % higher than the area estimated from Census records. Overall agreement between the ever-cropped land map and the 2005 Kansas map was 91.9% and 97.2% for the Trends maps. Converting the intra-annual Landsat data set to a single annual maximum NDVI image composite considerably reduced the data set size, eliminated clouds and cloud-shadow affects, yet maintained information important for discriminating cropped land. Our results suggest that Landsat annual maximum NDVI image composites will be useful for characterizing land use and land cover change for many applications.

  5. Phenologically-tuned MODIS NDVI-based production anomaly estimates for Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris; Budde, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    For thirty years, simple crop water balance models have been used by the early warning community to monitor agricultural drought. These models estimate and accumulate actual crop evapotranspiration, evaluating environmental conditions based on crop water requirements. Unlike seasonal rainfall totals, these models take into account the phenology of the crop, emphasizing conditions during the peak grain filling phase of crop growth. In this paper we describe an analogous metric of crop performance based on time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) imagery. A special temporal filter is used to screen for cloud contamination. Regional NDVI time series are then composited for cultivated areas, and adjusted temporally according to the timing of the rainy season. This adjustment standardizes the NDVI response vis-??-vis the expected phenological response of maize. A national time series index is then created by taking the cropped-area weighted average of the regional series. This national time series provides an effective summary of vegetation response in agricultural areas, and allows for the identification of NDVI green-up during grain filling. Onset-adjusted NDVI values following the grain filling period are well correlated with U.S. Department of Agriculture production figures, possess desirable linear characteristics, and perform better than more common indices such as maximum seasonal NDVI or seasonally averaged NDVI. Thus, just as appropriately calibrated crop water balance models can provide more information than seasonal rainfall totals, the appropriate agro-phenological filtering of NDVI can improve the utility and accuracy of space-based agricultural monitoring.

  6. Minimizing Gaps of Daily Ndvi Map with Geostationary Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite based remote sensing has been used to monitor plant phenology. Numerous studies have generally utilized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to quantify phenological patterns and changes in regional to the global scales. Obtaining the NDVI values during summer in East Asian Monsoon regions is important because most plants grow vigorously in this season. However, satellite derived NDVI data are error prone to clouds during most of the period. Various methods have attempted to reduce the effect of cloud in temporal and spatial NDVI monitoring; the fundamental solution is to have a large data pool that includes multiple images in short period and supplements NDVI values in same period. Multiple images of geostationary satellite in a day can be a method to expand the pool. In this study, we suggest an approach that minimizes data gaps in NDVI of the day through geostationary satellite derived NDVI composition. We acquired data from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) which is a satellite that was launched to monitor ocean around the Korean peninsula, China, Japan and Russia. The satellite observes eight times per day (09:00 - 16:00, every hour) at 500 x 500 m resolution from 2011 to 2015. GOCI red- and near infrared radiance was converted into surface reflectance by using 6S Radiative Transfer Model (6S). We calculated NDVI tiles for each of observed eight tiles per day and made one day NDVI through maximum-value composite method. We evaluated the composite GOCI derived NDVI by comparing with daily MODIS-derived NDVI (composited from MOD09GA and MYD09GA), 16-day Landsat 8-derived NDVI, and in-situ light emitting diode (LED) NDVI measurements at a homogeneous deciduous forest and rice paddy sites. We found that GOCI-derived NDVI maps revealed little data gaps compared to MODIS and Landsat, and GOCI derived NDVI time series were smoother than MODIS derived NDVI time series in summer. GOCI-derived NDVI agreed well with in-situ observations of NDVI

  7. Assessing Seasonal and Inter-Annual Variations of Lake Surface Areas in Mongolia during 2000-2011 Using Minimum Composite MODIS NDVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sinkyu; Hong, Suk Young

    2016-01-01

    A minimum composite method was applied to produce a 15-day interval normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily 250 m reflectance in the red and near-infrared bands. This dataset was applied to determine lake surface areas in Mongolia. A total of 73 lakes greater than 6.25 km2in area were selected, and 28 of these lakes were used to evaluate detection errors. The minimum composite NDVI showed a better detection performance on lake water pixels than did the official MODIS 16-day 250 m NDVI based on a maximum composite method. The overall lake area detection performance based on the 15-day minimum composite NDVI showed -2.5% error relative to the Landsat-derived lake area for the 28 evaluated lakes. The errors increased with increases in the perimeter-to-area ratio but decreased with lake size over 10 km(2). The lake area decreased by -9.3% at an annual rate of -53.7 km(2) yr(-1) during 2000 to 2011 for the 73 lakes. However, considerable spatial variations, such as slight-to-moderate lake area reductions in semi-arid regions and rapid lake area reductions in arid regions, were also detected. This study demonstrated applicability of MODIS 250 m reflectance data for biweekly monitoring of lake area change and diagnosed considerable lake area reduction and its spatial variability in arid and semi-arid regions of Mongolia. Future studies are required for explaining reasons of lake area changes and their spatial variability.

  8. Atmospheric effects on the NDVI - Strategies for its removal. [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Markham, B.; Gitelson, A.

    1992-01-01

    The compositing technique used to derive global vegetation index (NDVI) from the NOAA AVHRR radiances reduces the residual effect of water vapor and aerosol on the NDVI. The reduction in the atmospheric effect is shown using a comprehensive measured data set for desert conditions, and a simulation for grass with continental aerosol. A statistical analaysis of the probability of occurrence of aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor measured in different climatic regimes is used for this simulation. It is concluded that for a long compositing period (e.g., 27 days), the residual aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor are usually too small to be corrected. For a 9-day compositing, the residual average aerosol effect may be about twice the correction uncertainty. For Landsat TM or Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (EOS-MODIS) data, the newly defined atmospherically resistant vegetation index (ARVI) is more promising than possible direct atmospheric correction schemes, except for heavy desert dust conditions.

  9. [Relationships between horqin meadow NDVI and meteorological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cui-ping; Guan, De-xin; Wang, An-zhi; Jin, Chang-jie; Wu, Jia-bing; Wang, Ji-jun; Ni, Pan; Yuan, Feng-hui

    2009-01-01

    Based on the 2000-2006 MODIS 8-day composite NDVI and day-by-day meteorological data, the seasonal and inter-annual variations of Horqin meadow NDVI as well as the relationships between the NDVI and relevant meteorological factors were studied. The results showed that as for the seasonal variation, Horqin meadow NDVI was more related to water vapor pressure than to precipitation. Cumulated temperature and cumulated precipitation together affected the inter-annual turning-green period significantly, and the precipitation in growth season (June and July), compared with that in whole year, had more obvious effects on the annual maximal NDVI. The analysis of time lag effect indicated that water vapor pressure had a persistent (about 12 days) prominent effect on the NDVI. The time lag effect of mean air temperature was 11-15 days, and the cumulated dual effect of the temperature and precipitation was 36-52 days.

  10. Near Real-time Operational Use of eMODIS Expedited NDVI for Monitoring Applications and Famine Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has requirements for near real-time monitoring of vegetation conditions for food security applications. Accurate and timely assessments of crop conditions are an important element of food security decision making. FEWS NET scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center are utilizing a new Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset for operational monitoring of crop and pasture conditions in parts of the world where food availability is highly dependent on subsistence agriculture and animal husbandry. The expedited MODIS, or eMODIS, production system processes NDVI data using MODIS surface reflectance provided by the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE). Benefits of this production system include customized compositing schedules, near real-time data availability, and minimized re-sampling. FEWS NET has implemented a 10-day compositing scheme every five days to accommodate the need for timely information on vegetation conditions. The data are currently being processed at 250-meter spatial resolution for Central America, Hispaniola, and Africa. Data are further enhanced by the application of a temporal smoothing filter which helps remove contamination due to clouds and other atmospheric effects. The results of this near real-time monitoring capability have been the timely provision of NDVI and NDVI anomaly maps for each of the FEWS NET monitoring regions and the availability of a consistently processed dataset to aid crop assessment missions and to facilitate customized analyses of crop production, drought, and agro-pastoral conditions.

  11. PRESENTED 11/01/05 LAND-COVER CHARACTERIZATION AND CHANGE DETECTION USING MULTI-TEMPORAL MODIS NDVI DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-Cover (LC) composition and conversions are important factors that affect ecosystem condition and function. The purpose of this research and development effort is to investigate the feasibility of using MODIS derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to deli...

  12. Trends in NDVI and tundra community composition in the Arctic of NE Alaska between 1984 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Pattison; Janet C. Jorgenson; Martha K. Raynolds; Jeffery M. Welker

    2015-01-01

    As Arctic ecosystems experience increases in surface air temperatures, plot-level analyses of tundra vegetation composition suggest that there are important changes occurring in tundra communities that are typified by increases in shrubs and declines in non-vascular species. At the same time analyses of NDVI indicate that the Arctic tundra is greening. Few studies have...

  13. Analysis of postfire vegetation dynamics of Mediterranean shrub species based on terrestrial and NDVI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Clemente, Rocío; Cerrillo, R M Navarro; Hernández-Bermejo, J E; Royo, S Escuin; Kasimis, N A

    2009-05-01

    The present study offers an analysis of regeneration patterns and diversity dynamics after a wildfire, which occurred in 1993 and affected about 7000 ha in southern Spain. The aim of the work was to analyze the rule in the succession of shrub species after fire, relating it to the changes registered in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Fractional vegetation cover was recorded from permanent plots in 2000 and 2005. NDVI data related to each time were obtained from Landsat images. Both data sets, from fieldwork and remote sensing, were analyzed through statistical and quantitative analyses and then correlated. Results have permitted the description of the change in plant cover and species composition on a global and plot scale. It can be affirmed that, from the seventh to the twelfth year after the fire, the floristic composition within the burned area remained unchanged at a global level. However, on a smaller scale (plot level), the major shrub species, Ulex parviflorus, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus clusii, underwent significant changes. The regeneration dynamics established by these species conditioned plant species composition and, consequently, diversity indexes such as Shannon (H) and Simpson (D). The changes recorded in the NDVI values corresponding to the surveyed plots were highly correlated with those found in the regrowth of the main species. Areas dominated by U. parviflorus in a senile phase were related to a decrease in NDVI values and an increase in the number of species. This result describes the successional dynamics; the dryness of the main colonizer shrub species is allowing the regrowth and re-establishment of other species. Within the study area, NDVI shows sensitivity to postfire plant cover changes and indirectly expresses the diversity dynamics.

  14. Analysis of Postfire Vegetation Dynamics of Mediterranean Shrub Species Based on Terrestrial and NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Clemente, Rocío; Navarro Cerrillo, R. M.; Hernández-Bermejo, J. E.; Escuin Royo, S.; Kasimis, N. A.

    2009-05-01

    The present study offers an analysis of regeneration patterns and diversity dynamics after a wildfire, which occurred in 1993 and affected about 7000 ha in southern Spain. The aim of the work was to analyze the rule in the succession of shrub species after fire, relating it to the changes registered in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Fractional vegetation cover was recorded from permanent plots in 2000 and 2005. NDVI data related to each time were obtained from Landsat images. Both data sets, from fieldwork and remote sensing, were analyzed through statistical and quantitative analyses and then correlated. Results have permitted the description of the change in plant cover and species composition on a global and plot scale. It can be affirmed that, from the seventh to the twelfth year after the fire, the floristic composition within the burned area remained unchanged at a global level. However, on a smaller scale (plot level), the major shrub species, Ulex parviflorus, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus clusii, underwent significant changes. The regeneration dynamics established by these species conditioned plant species composition and, consequently, diversity indexes such as Shannon (H) and Simpson (D). The changes recorded in the NDVI values corresponding to the surveyed plots were highly correlated with those found in the regrowth of the main species. Areas dominated by U. parviflorus in a senile phase were related to a decrease in NDVI values and an increase in the number of species. This result describes the successional dynamics; the dryness of the main colonizer shrub species is allowing the regrowth and re-establishment of other species. Within the study area, NDVI shows sensitivity to postfire plant cover changes and indirectly expresses the diversity dynamics.

  15. NDVI saturation adjustment: a new approach for improving cropland performance estimates in the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Daniel M.; Phuyal, Khem P.; Ji, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new approach that adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pixel values that were near saturation to better characterize the cropland performance (CP) in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB), USA. The relationship between NDVI and the ratio vegetation index (RVI) at high NDVI values was investigated, and an empirical equation for estimating saturation-adjusted NDVI (NDVIsat_adjust) based on RVI was developed. A 10-year (2000–2009) NDVIsat_adjust data set was developed using 250-m 7-day composite historical eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. The growing season averaged NDVI (GSN), which is a proxy for ecosystem performance, was estimated and long-term NDVI non-saturation- and saturation-adjusted cropland performance (CPnon_sat_adjust, CPsat_adjust) maps were produced over the GPRB. The final CP maps were validated using National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) crop yield data. The relationship between CPsat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.78, 113 samples) is stronger than the relationship between CPnon_sat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.67, 113 samples), indicating that the new CPsat_adjust map reduces the NDVI saturation effects and is in good agreement with the corn yield ground observations. Results demonstrate that the NDVI saturation adjustment approach improves the quality of the original GSN map and better depicts the actual vegetation conditions of the GPRB cropland systems.

  16. Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI composite image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasischke, E.S.; French, N.H.F.; Harrell, P.; Christensen, N.L. Jr.; Ustin, S.L.; Barry, D.

    1993-01-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite image data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI image from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries of wildfires within the interior region of Alaska were obtained from the Alaska Fire Service, and compared to the AVHRR-derived fire-boundary map. It was found that AVHRR detected 89.5% of all fires with sizes greater than 2,000ha with no false alarms and that, for most cases, the general shape of the fire boundary detected by AVHRR matched those mapped by field observers. However, the total area contained within the fire boundaries mapped by AVHRR were only 61% of those mapped by the field observers. However, the AVHRR data used in this study did not span the entire time period during which fires occurred, and it is believed the areal estimates could be improved significantly if an expanded AVHRR data set were used

  17. Social vulnerability to heat in Greater Atlanta, USA: spatial pattern of heat, NDVI, socioeconomics and household composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sunhui

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the article is evaluating spatial patterns of social vulnerability to heat in Greater Atlanta in 2015. The social vulnerability to heat is an index of socioeconomic status, household composition, land surface temperature and normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI). Land surface temperature and NDVI were derived from the red, NIR and thermal infrared (TIR) of a Landsat OLI/TIRS images collected on September 14, 2015. The research focus is on the variation of heat vulnerability in Greater Atlanta. The study found that heat vulnerability is highly clustered spatially, resulting in "hot spots" and "cool spots". The results show significant health disparities. The hotspots of social vulnerability to heat occurred in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status as measured by low education, low income and more poverty, greater proportion of elderly people and young children. The findings of this study are important for identifying clusters of heat vulnerability and the relationships with social factors. These significant results provide a basis for heat intervention services.

  18. Bayesian Method for Building Frequent Landsat-Like NDVI Datasets by Integrating MODIS and Landsat NDVI

    OpenAIRE

    Limin Liao; Jinling Song; Jindi Wang; Zhiqiang Xiao; Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Studies related to vegetation dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes often require Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets with both high spatial resolution and frequent coverage, which cannot be satisfied by a single sensor due to technical limitations. In this study, we propose a new method called NDVI-Bayesian Spatiotemporal Fusion Model (NDVI-BSFM) for accurately and effectively building frequent high spatial resolution Landsat-like NDVI datasets by integrating Moderate Resol...

  19. Midwest agriculture and ENSO: A comparison of AVHRR NDVI3g data and crop yields in the United States Corn Belt from 1982 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Erin; Anyamba, Assaf

    2018-06-01

    A time series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data were compared to National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) corn yield data in the United States Corn Belt from 1982 to 2014. The main objectives of the comparison were to assess 1) the consistency of regional Corn Belt responses to El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnection signals, and 2) the reliability of using NDVI as an indicator of crop yield. Regional NDVI values were used to model a seasonal curve and to define the growing season - May to October. Seasonal conditions in each county were represented by NDVI and land surface temperature (LST) composites, and corn yield was represented by average annual bushels produced per acre. Correlation analysis between the NDVI, LST, corn yield, and equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies revealed patterns in land surface dynamics and corn yield, as well as typical impacts of ENSO episodes. It was observed from the study that growing seasons coincident with La Niña events were consistently warmer, but El Niño events did not consistently impact NDVI, temperature, or corn yield data. Moreover, the El Niño and La Niña composite images suggest that impacts vary spatially across the Corn Belt. While corn is the dominant crop in the region, some inconsistencies between corn yield and NDVI may be attributed to soy crops and other background interference. The overall correlation between the total growing season NDVI anomaly and detrended corn yield was 0.61(p = 0.00013), though the strength of the relationship varies across the Corn Belt.

  20. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  1. Influence of using date-specific values when extracting phenological metrics from 8-day composite NDVI data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ): this is the integral under the NDVI curve. Due to the contribution of bare soil to NDVI, a value of 0.1 instead of 0 was used as the minimum NDVI value (zero production). C. Algorithm parameters The parameters specified for the different algorithms were..., “Atmospheric correction of modis data in the visible to middle infrared- First results,” Remote Sensing of Enviroment, vol. 83, pp. 97–111, 2002. [3] P. Jonsson and L. Eklundh, “Seasonality extraction by function fitting to time-series of satellite sensor...

  2. A tool for NDVI time series extraction from wide-swath remotely sensed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhishan; Shi, Runhe; Zhou, Cong

    2015-09-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is one of the most widely used indicators for monitoring the vegetation coverage in land surface. The time series features of NDVI are capable of reflecting dynamic changes of various ecosystems. Calculating NDVI via Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and other wide-swath remotely sensed images provides an important way to monitor the spatial and temporal characteristics of large-scale NDVI. However, difficulties are still existed for ecologists to extract such information correctly and efficiently because of the problems in several professional processes on the original remote sensing images including radiometric calibration, geometric correction, multiple data composition and curve smoothing. In this study, we developed an efficient and convenient online toolbox for non-remote sensing professionals who want to extract NDVI time series with a friendly graphic user interface. It is based on Java Web and Web GIS technically. Moreover, Struts, Spring and Hibernate frameworks (SSH) are integrated in the system for the purpose of easy maintenance and expansion. Latitude, longitude and time period are the key inputs that users need to provide, and the NDVI time series are calculated automatically.

  3. Short-term drought assessment in Pakistan and adjoining areas by remote sensing MODIS-NDVI data: A potential consequence of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Kiran, N.; Arsalan, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Currently normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is extensively used for appraise vegetation composition, structure, stratification and distribution. Spatial and temporal rainfall distribution and its effect on NDVI can be helpful for drought examining. This study has been done to improved comprehend this association. The response of vegetation growth to current climate change in Pakistan and adjoining south Asian countries (22-42 degree N, 60-80 degree E) were investigated by analyzing the time series of the NDVI maps. We also obtained and analyzed time series of different variable i.e. rainfall, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and soil temperature model data, through NASA Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) system, during Jan- Dec, 2014 for every three month interval. The NOAA Climate Prediction Center from International Research institute (IRI) for climate and society platform was also used for rainfall anomaly data. We found that NDVI values varies and depend on land cover types and its spatial location and dependant on rainfall. We found a strong positive relationship among NDVI, rainfall and soil moisture. Seasonal variations of rainfall are having also affects on evapotranspiration, soil temperature, and soil moisture conditions. (author)

  4. Modelling critical NDVI curves in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, R; Boelt, B

    2010-01-01

      The use of optical sensors to measure canopy reflectance and calculate crop index as e.g. normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is widely used in agricultural crops, but has so far not been implemented in herbage seed production. The present study has the purpose to develop a critical...... NDVI curve where the critical NDVI, defined as the minimum NDVI obtained to achieve a high seed yield, will be modelled during the growing season. NDVI measurements were made at different growing degree days (GDD) in a three year field experiment where different N application rates were applied....... There was a clear maximum in the correlation coefficient between seed yield and NDVI in the period from approximately 700 to 900 GDD. At this time there was an exponential relationship between NDVI and seed yield where highest seed yield were at NDVI ~0.9. Theoretically the farmers should aim for an NDVI of 0...

  5. Temporal variations of NDVI and correlations between NDVI and hydro-climatological variables at Lake Baiyangdian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Xuan; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Zhifeng

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, correlations between vegetation dynamics (represented by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) and hydro-climatological factors were systematically studied in Lake Baiyangdian during the period from April 1998 to July 2008. Six hydro-climatological variables including lake volume, water level, air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, and sunshine duration were used, as well as extracted NDVI series data representing vegetation dynamics. Mann-Kendall tests were used to detect trends in NDVI and hydro-climatological variation, and a Bayesian information criterion method was used to detect their abrupt changes. A redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to determine the major hydro-climatological factors contributing to NDVI variation at monthly, seasonal, and yearly scales. The results were as follows: (1) the trend analysis revealed that only sunshine duration significantly increased over the study period, with an inter-annual increase of 3.6 h/year (p NDVI trends were negligible; (2) the abrupt change detection showed that a major hydro-climatological change occurred in 2004, when abrupt changes occurred in lake volume, water level, and sunlight duration; and (3) the RDA showed that evaporation and temperature were highly correlated with monthly changes in NDVI. At larger time scales, however, water level and lake volume gradually became more important than evaporation and precipitation in terms of their influence on NDVI. These results suggest that water availability is the most important factor in vegetation restoration. In this paper, we recommend a practical strategy for lake ecosystem restoration that takes into account changes in NDVI.

  6. Impact of Sensor Degradation on the MODIS NDVI Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Morton, Douglas Christopher; Masek, Jeffrey; Wu, Aisheng; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Levy, Robert; Vermote, Eric; Wolfe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Time series of satellite data provide unparalleled information on the response of vegetation to climate variability. Detecting subtle changes in vegetation over time requires consistent satellite-based measurements. Here, the impact of sensor degradation on trend detection was evaluated using Collection 5 data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Terra and Aqua platforms. For Terra MODIS, the impact of blue band (Band 3, 470 nm) degradation on simulated surface reflectance was most pronounced at near-nadir view angles, leading to a 0.001-0.004 yr-1 decline in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) under a range of simulated aerosol conditions and surface types. Observed trends in MODIS NDVI over North America were consistentwith simulated results,with nearly a threefold difference in negative NDVI trends derived from Terra (17.4%) and Aqua (6.7%) MODIS sensors during 2002-2010. Planned adjustments to Terra MODIS calibration for Collection 6 data reprocessing will largely eliminate this negative bias in detection of NDVI trends.

  7. Towards Detection of Cutting in Hay Meadows by Using of NDVI and EVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Halabuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main requirement for preserving European hay meadows in good condition is through prerequisite cut management. However, monitoring these practices on a larger scale is very difficult. Our study analyses the use of MODIS vegetation indices products, namely EVI and NDVI, to discriminate cut and uncut meadows in Slovakia. We tested the added value of simple transformations of raw data series (seasonal statistics, first difference series, compared EVI and NDVI, and analyzed optimal periods, the number of scenes and the effect of smoothing on classification performance. The first difference series transformation saw substantial improvement in classification results. The best case NDVI series classification yielded overall accuracy of 85% with balanced rates of producer’s and user’s accuracies for both classes. EVI yielded slightly lower values, though not significantly different, although user accuracy of cut meadows achieved only 67%. Optimal periods for discriminating cut and uncut meadows lay between 16 May and 4 August, meaning only seven consecutive images are enough to accurately detect cutting in hay meadows. More importantly, the 16-day compositing period seemed to be enough for detection of cutting, which would be the time span that might be hopefully achieved by upcoming on-board HR sensors (e.g., Sentinel-2.

  8. Study of Maowusu Sandy Land Vegetation Coverage Change Based on Modis Ndvi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Q.; Liu, H.; Lin, Y.; Han, R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper selected 2006-2016 MODIS NDVI data with a spatial resolution of 500m and time resolution of 16d, got the 11 years' time series NDVI data of Maowusu sandy land through mosaicking, projection transformation, cutting process in batch. Analysed the spatial and temporal distribution and variation characteristics of vegetation cover in year, season and month time scales by maximum value composite, and unary linear regression analysis. Then, we combined the meteorological data of 33 sites around the sandy area, analysed the response characteristics of vegetation cover change to temperature and precipitation through Pearson correlation coefficient. Studies have shown that: (1) The NDVI value has a stable increase trend, which rate is 0.0075 / a. (2) The vegetation growth have significantly difference in four seasons, the NDVI value of summer > autumn > spring > winter. (3) The NDVI value change trend is conformed to the gauss normal distribution in a year, and it comes to be largest in August, its green season is in April, and yellow season is in the middle of November, the growth period is about 220 d. (4) The vegetation has a decreasing trend from the southeast to the northwest, most part is slightly improved, and Etuokeqianqi improved significantly. (5) The correlation indexes of annual NDVI with temperature and precipitation are -0.2178 and 0.6309, the vegetation growth is mainly affected by precipitation. In this study, a complete vegetation cover analysis and evaluation model for sandy land is established. It has important guiding significance for the sand ecological environment protection.

  9. Explaining NDVI trends in northern Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus; Fog, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    by a distinct spatial pattern and strongly dominated by negative trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The aim of the paper is to explain this distinct pattern. When studied over the period 2000–2012, using NDVI data from the MODIS sensor the spatial pattern of NDVI trends indicates that non......-climatic factors are involved. By relating NDVI trends to landscape elements and land use change we demonstrate that NDVI trends in the north-western parts of the study area are mostly related to landscape elements, while this is not the case in the south-eastern parts, where rapidly changing land use, including....... expansion of irrigation, plays a major role. It is inferred that a process of increased redistribution of fine soil material, water and vegetation from plateaus and slopes to valleys, possibly related to higher grazing pressure, may provide an explanation of the observed pattern of NDVI trends. Further work...

  10. An Improved Method for Producing High Spatial-Resolution NDVI Time Series Datasets with Multi-Temporal MODIS NDVI Data and Landsat TM/ETM+ Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to technical limitations, it is impossible to have high resolution in both spatial and temporal dimensions for current NDVI datasets. Therefore, several methods are developed to produce high resolution (spatial and temporal NDVI time-series datasets, which face some limitations including high computation loads and unreasonable assumptions. In this study, an unmixing-based method, NDVI Linear Mixing Growth Model (NDVI-LMGM, is proposed to achieve the goal of accurately and efficiently blending MODIS NDVI time-series data and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. This method firstly unmixes the NDVI temporal changes in MODIS time-series to different land cover types and then uses unmixed NDVI temporal changes to predict Landsat-like NDVI dataset. The test over a forest site shows high accuracy (average difference: −0.0070; average absolute difference: 0.0228; and average absolute relative difference: 4.02% and computation efficiency of NDVI-LMGM (31 seconds using a personal computer. Experiments over more complex landscape and long-term time-series demonstrated that NDVI-LMGM performs well in each stage of vegetation growing season and is robust in regions with contrasting spatial and spatial variations. Comparisons between NDVI-LMGM and current methods (i.e., Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM, Enhanced STARFM (ESTARFM and Weighted Linear Model (WLM show that NDVI-LMGM is more accurate and efficient than current methods. The proposed method will benefit land surface process research, which requires a dense NDVI time-series dataset with high spatial resolution.

  11. FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF MODIS NDVI TIME SERIES FOR DETERMINING HOTSPOT OF LAND DEGRADATION IN MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nasanbat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines MODIS NDVI satellite imagery time series can be used to determine hotspot of land degradation area in whole Mongolia. The trend statistical analysis of Mann-Kendall was applied to a 16-year MODIS NDVI satellite imagery record, based on 16-day composited temporal data (from May to September for growing seasons and from 2000 to 2016. We performed to frequency analysis that resulting NDVI residual trend pattern would enable successful determined of negative and positive changes in photo synthetically health vegetation. Our result showed that negative and positive values and generated a map of significant trends. Also, we examined long-term of meteorological parameters for the same period. The result showed positive and negative NDVI trends concurred with land cover types change representing an improve or a degrade in vegetation, respectively. Also, integrated the climate parameters which were precipitation and air temperature changes in the same time period seem to have had an affecting on huge NDVI trend area. The time series trend analysis approach applied successfully determined hotspot of an improvement and a degraded area due to land degradation and desertification.

  12. Frequency Analysis of Modis Ndvi Time Series for Determining Hotspot of Land Degradation in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasanbat, E.; Sharav, S.; Sanjaa, T.; Lkhamjav, O.; Magsar, E.; Tuvdendorj, B.

    2018-04-01

    This study examines MODIS NDVI satellite imagery time series can be used to determine hotspot of land degradation area in whole Mongolia. The trend statistical analysis of Mann-Kendall was applied to a 16-year MODIS NDVI satellite imagery record, based on 16-day composited temporal data (from May to September) for growing seasons and from 2000 to 2016. We performed to frequency analysis that resulting NDVI residual trend pattern would enable successful determined of negative and positive changes in photo synthetically health vegetation. Our result showed that negative and positive values and generated a map of significant trends. Also, we examined long-term of meteorological parameters for the same period. The result showed positive and negative NDVI trends concurred with land cover types change representing an improve or a degrade in vegetation, respectively. Also, integrated the climate parameters which were precipitation and air temperature changes in the same time period seem to have had an affecting on huge NDVI trend area. The time series trend analysis approach applied successfully determined hotspot of an improvement and a degraded area due to land degradation and desertification.

  13. MODIS NDVI Change Detection Techniques and Products Used in the Near Real Time ForWarn System for Detecting, Monitoring, and Analyzing Regional Forest Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS NDVI change detection methods and products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) for near real time (NRT) recognition and tracking of regionally evident forest disturbances throughout the conterminous US (CONUS). The latter has provided NRT forest change products to the forest health protection community since 2010, using temporally processed MODIS Aqua and Terra NDVI time series data to currently compute and post 6 different forest change products for CONUS every 8 days. Multiple change products are required to improve detectability and to more fully assess the nature of apparent disturbances. Each type of forest change product reports per pixel percent change in NDVI for a given 24 day interval, comparing current versus a given historical baseline NDVI. EMODIS 7 day expedited MODIS MOD13 data are used to obtain current and historical NDVIs, respectively. Historical NDVI data is processed with Time Series Product Tool (TSPT); and 2) the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool (PPET) software. While each change products employ maximum value compositing (MVC) of NDVI, the design of specific products primarily differs in terms of the historical baseline. The three main change products use either 1, 3, or all previous years of MVC NDVI as a baseline. Another product uses an Adaptive Length Compositing (ALC) version of MVC to derive an alternative current NDVI that is the freshest quality NDVI as opposed to merely the MVC NDVI across a 24 day time frame. The ALC approach can improve detection speed by 8 to 16 days. ForWarn also includes 2 change products that improve detectability of forest disturbances in lieu of climatic fluctuations, especially in the spring and fall. One compares current MVC NDVI to the zonal maximum under the curve NDVI per pheno-region cluster class, considering all previous years in the MODIS record. The other compares current maximum NDVI to the mean of maximum NDVI for all previous MODIS years.

  14. MODIS NDVI Response Following Fires in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, G.; Kovacs, K.; Kharuk, V. I.

    2003-01-01

    The Siberian boreal forest is considered a carbon sink but may become an important source of carbon dioxide if climatic warming predictions are correct. The forest is continually changing through various disturbance mechanisms such as insects, logging, mineral exploitation, and especially fires. Patterns of disturbance and forest recovery processes are important factors regulating carbon flux in this area. NASA's Terra MODIS provides useful information for assessing location of fires and post fire changes in forests. MODIS fire (MOD14), and NDVI (MOD13) products were used to examine fire occurrence and post fire variability in vegetation cover as indicated by NDVI. Results were interpreted for various post fire outcomes, such as decreased NDVI after fire, no change in NDVI after fire and positive NDVI change after fire. The fire frequency data were also evaluated in terms of proximity to population centers, and transportation networks.

  15. TREE AGE AS ADJUSTMENT FACTOR TO NDVI

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Fernando Berra; Denise Cybis Fontana; Tatiana Mora Kuplich

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to increase satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) sensitivity to biophysical parameters changes with aid of a forest age-based adjustment factor. This factor is defined as a ratio between stand age and age of rotation, which value multiplied by Landsat-5/TM-derived NDVI generated the so-called adjusted index NDVI_a. Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) was also calculated. The relationship between these vegetation indices (VI) with Eucalypt...

  16. Contribution of National near Real Time MODIS Forest Maximum Percentage NDVI Change Products to the U.S. ForWarn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation reviews the development, integration, and testing of Near Real Time (NRT) MODIS forest % maximum NDVI change products resident to the USDA Forest Service (USFS) ForWarn System. ForWarn is an Early Warning System (EWS) tool for detection and tracking of regionally evident forest change, which includes the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV) (a publically available on-line geospatial data viewer for visualizing and assessing the context of this apparent forest change). NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is working collaboratively with the USFS, ORNL, and USGS to contribute MODIS forest change products to ForWarn. These change products compare current NDVI derived from expedited eMODIS data, to historical NDVI products derived from MODIS MOD13 data. A new suite of forest change products are computed every 8 days and posted to the ForWarn system; this includes three different forest change products computed using three different historical baselines: 1) previous year; 2) previous three years; and 3) all previous years in the MODIS record going back to 2000. The change product inputs are maximum value NDVI that are composited across a 24 day interval and refreshed every 8 days so that resulting images for the conterminous U.S. are predominantly cloud-free yet still retain temporally relevant fresh information on changes in forest canopy greenness. These forest change products are computed at the native nominal resolution of the input reflectance bands at 231.66 meters, which equates to approx 5.4 hectares or 13.3 acres per pixel. The Time Series Product Tool, a MATLAB-based software package developed at NASA SSC, is used to temporally process, fuse, reduce noise, interpolate data voids, and re-aggregate the historical NDVI into 24 day composites, and then custom MATLAB scripts are used to temporally process the eMODIS NDVIs so that they are in synch with the historical NDVI products. Prior to posting, an in-house snow mask classification product

  17. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lakesh K; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W

    2015-11-02

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in "saturation" of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms.

  18. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lakesh K.; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in “saturation” of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms. PMID:26540057

  19. Evaluating the utility and seasonality of NDVI values for assessing post-disturbance recovery in a subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Forest disturbances around the world have the potential to alter forest type and cover, with impacts on diversity, carbon storage, and landscape composition. These disturbances, especially fire, are common and often large, making ground investigation of forest recovery difficult. Remote sensing offers a means to monitor forest recovery in real time, over the entire landscape. Typically, recovery monitoring via remote sensing consists of measuring vegetation indices (e.g., NDVI) or index-derived metrics, with the assumption that recovery in NDVI (for example) is a meaningful measure of ecosystem recovery. This study tests that assumption using MODIS 16-day imagery from 2000 to 2010 in the area of the Colorado's Routt National Forest Hinman burn (2002) and seedling density counts taken in the same area. Results indicate that NDVI is rarely correlated with forest recovery, and is dominated by annual and perennial forb cover, although topography complicates analysis. Utility of NDVI as a means to delineate areas of recovery or non-recovery are in doubt, as bootstrapped analysis indicates distinguishing power only slightly better than random. NDVI in revegetation analyses should carefully consider the ecology and seasonal patterns of the system in question.

  20. NDVI Variation and Its Responses to Climate Change on the Northern Loess Plateau of China from 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ning

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed temporal and spatial changes of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI on the northern Loess Plateau and their correlation with climatic factors from 1998 to 2012. The possible impacts of human activities on the NDVI changes were also explored. The results showed that (1 the annual maximum NDVI showed an upward trend. The significantly increased NDVI and decreasing severe desertification areas demonstrate that the vegetation condition improved in this area. (2 Over the past decades, climate tended to be warmer and drier. However, the mean temperature significantly decreased and precipitation slightly increased from 1998 to 2012, especially in spring and summer, which was one of the major reasons for the increase in the annual maximum NDVI. Compared to temperature, vegetation was more sensitive to precipitation changes in this area. The NDVI and annual precipitation changes were highly synchronous over the first half of the year, while a 1-month time lag existed between the two variables during the second half of the year. (3 Positive human activities, including the “Grain for Green” program and successful environmental treatments at coal mining bases, were some of the other factors that improved the vegetation condition.

  1. An Improved Method for Producing High Spatial-Resolution NDVI Time Series Datasets with Multi-Temporal MODIS NDVI Data and Landsat TM/ETM+ Images

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Yuhan; Zhu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jin; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Due to technical limitations, it is impossible to have high resolution in both spatial and temporal dimensions for current NDVI datasets. Therefore, several methods are developed to produce high resolution (spatial and temporal) NDVI time-series datasets, which face some limitations including high computation loads and unreasonable assumptions. In this study, an unmixing-based method, NDVI Linear Mixing Growth Model (NDVI-LMGM), is proposed to achieve the goal of accurately and efficiently bl...

  2. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite data product (MOD12Q) was used to develop annual cropland and crop-specific map products (corn, soybeans, and wheat) for the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Th...

  3. Global Trends in Seasonality of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1982–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Anyamba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year series of global monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery derived from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS NDVI3g archive was analyzed for the presence of trends in changing seasonality. Using the Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA procedure, over half (56.30% of land surfaces were found to exhibit significant trends. Almost half (46.10% of the significant trends belonged to three classes of seasonal trends (or changes. Class 1 consisted of areas that experienced a uniform increase in NDVI throughout the year, and was primarily associated with forested areas, particularly broadleaf forests. Class 2 consisted of areas experiencing an increase in the amplitude of the annual seasonal signal whereby increases in NDVI in the green season were balanced by decreases in the brown season. These areas were found primarily in grassland and shrubland regions. Class 3 was found primarily in the Taiga and Tundra biomes and exhibited increases in the annual summer peak in NDVI. While no single attribution of cause could be determined for each of these classes, it was evident that they are primarily found in natural areas (as opposed to anthropogenic land cover conversions and that they are consistent with climate-related ameliorations of growing conditions during the study period.

  4. Normalization of NDVI from Different Sensor System using MODIS Products as Reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenxia, Gan; Liangpei, Zhang; Wei, Gong; Huanfeng, Shen

    2014-01-01

    Medium Resolution NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from different sensor systems such as Landsat, SPOT, ASTER, CBERS and HJ-1A/1B satellites provide detailed spatial information for studies of ecosystems, vegetation biophysics, and land cover. Limitation of sensor designs, cloud contamination, and sensor failure highlighted the need to normalize and integrate NDVI from multiple sensor system in order to create a consistent, long-term NDVI data set. In this paper, we used a reference-based method for NDVI normalization. And present an application of this approach which covert Landsat ETM+ NDVI calculated by digital number (NDVI DN ) to NDVI calculated by surface reflectance (NDVI SR ) using MODIS products as reference, and different cluster was treated differently. Result shows that this approach can produce NDVI with highly agreement to NDVI calculated by surface reflectance from physical approaches based on 6S (Second Simulation of the satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum). Although some variability exists, the cluster specified reference based approach shows considerable potential for NDVI normalization. Therefore, NDVI products in MODIS era from different sources can be combined for time-series analysis, biophysical parameter retrievals, and other downstream analysis

  5. Detecting leaf pulvinar movements on NDVI time series of desert trees: a new approach for water stress detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto O Chávez

    Full Text Available Heliotropic leaf movement or leaf 'solar tracking' occurs for a wide variety of plants, including many desert species and some crops. This has an important effect on the canopy spectral reflectance as measured from satellites. For this reason, monitoring systems based on spectral vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, should account for heliotropic movements when evaluating the health condition of such species. In the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Northern Chile, we studied seasonal and diurnal variations of MODIS and Landsat NDVI time series of plantation stands of the endemic species Prosopis tamarugo Phil., subject to different levels of groundwater depletion. As solar irradiation increased during the day and also during the summer, the paraheliotropic leaves of Tamarugo moved to an erectophile position (parallel to the sun rays making the NDVI signal to drop. This way, Tamarugo stands with no water stress showed a positive NDVI difference between morning and midday (ΔNDVI mo-mi and between winter and summer (ΔNDVI W-S. In this paper, we showed that the ΔNDVI mo-mi of Tamarugo stands can be detected using MODIS Terra and Aqua images, and the ΔNDVI W-S using Landsat or MODIS Terra images. Because pulvinar movement is triggered by changes in cell turgor, the effects of water stress caused by groundwater depletion can be assessed and monitored using ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S. For an 11-year time series without rainfall events, Landsat ΔNDVI W-S of Tamarugo stands showed a positive linear relationship with cumulative groundwater depletion. We conclude that both ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S have potential to detect early water stress of paraheliotropic vegetation.

  6. Detecting leaf pulvinar movements on NDVI time series of desert trees: a new approach for water stress detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Roberto O; Clevers, Jan G P W; Verbesselt, Jan; Naulin, Paulette I; Herold, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Heliotropic leaf movement or leaf 'solar tracking' occurs for a wide variety of plants, including many desert species and some crops. This has an important effect on the canopy spectral reflectance as measured from satellites. For this reason, monitoring systems based on spectral vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), should account for heliotropic movements when evaluating the health condition of such species. In the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Northern Chile, we studied seasonal and diurnal variations of MODIS and Landsat NDVI time series of plantation stands of the endemic species Prosopis tamarugo Phil., subject to different levels of groundwater depletion. As solar irradiation increased during the day and also during the summer, the paraheliotropic leaves of Tamarugo moved to an erectophile position (parallel to the sun rays) making the NDVI signal to drop. This way, Tamarugo stands with no water stress showed a positive NDVI difference between morning and midday (ΔNDVI mo-mi) and between winter and summer (ΔNDVI W-S). In this paper, we showed that the ΔNDVI mo-mi of Tamarugo stands can be detected using MODIS Terra and Aqua images, and the ΔNDVI W-S using Landsat or MODIS Terra images. Because pulvinar movement is triggered by changes in cell turgor, the effects of water stress caused by groundwater depletion can be assessed and monitored using ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S. For an 11-year time series without rainfall events, Landsat ΔNDVI W-S of Tamarugo stands showed a positive linear relationship with cumulative groundwater depletion. We conclude that both ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S have potential to detect early water stress of paraheliotropic vegetation.

  7. Assessing the Accuracy of MODIS-NDVI Derived Land-Cover Across the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research describes the accuracy assessment process for a land-cover dataset developed for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). This land-cover dataset was developed from the 2007 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250 m time-series data. Tr...

  8. Comportamento do NDVI obtido por sensor ótico ativo em cereais Behavior of NDVI obtained from an active optical sensor in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Pinheiro Povh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, com um sensor ótico ativo, o comportamento do índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI - "normalized difference vegetation index", nas culturas de trigo, triticale, cevada e milho. Cinco experimentos foram conduzidos no Paraná e São Paulo, com variação de classes de solo, doses e fontes de N, e variedades de trigo. As seguintes variáveis foram avaliadas: NDVI, teor de N foliar, matéria seca e produtividade das culturas. Análises de regressões foram realizadas entre as doses de N aplicadas e NDVI, teor de N foliar, matéria seca e produtividade. Análises de correlação entre as variáveis foram realizadas. O trigo, triticale e cevada apresentaram resposta às aplicações de doses crescentes de N, pelo aumento nas leituras do NDVI, no teor de N foliar e na produtividade. Medido pelo sensor ótico ativo utilizado, o NDVI apresenta alto potencial para manejo do N nas culturas do trigo, triticale e cevada, e baixo potencial para a cultura do milho. Há interferência das variedades de trigo nas leituras do sensor ótico ativo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, with an active optical sensor, in wheat, triticale, barley and corn crops. Experiments were conducted in Paraná and São Paulo, comparing different soil classes, N rates and sources, and wheat varieties. The following variables were determined: NDVI, N foliar content, dry mass and crop yield. Regression analyses were performed between NDVI and applied N rates, N foliar content, dry mass and yield. Correlation analyses among the variables were performed. Wheat, triticale and barley crops showed response to increasing N rates by the increase in the NDVI readings, to N foliar content and to yield. Measured by the used active optical sensor the NDVI shows high potential for N management wheat, triticale and barley crops, and low potential for corn crops. There

  9. NDVI and meteorological data as indicators of the Pampa biome natural grasslands growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cybis Fontana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to characterize the dynamics of NDVI and meteorological conditions, relating both to the annual dynamics of biomass accumulation in natural pastures of the Pampa biome as a way of subsidizing growth modeling. Forage accumulation rate data from a long-term experiment, NDVI data from the MODIS images, and meteorological data measured at the surface were used. We verify that the agrometeorological element associated to the accumulation of forage in the natural grasslands is different according to the season, which is typical of the subtropical climate. Winter is the critical season for livestock production due to the lower forage accumulation rate and lower values of NDVI, conditioned by the decrease of solar radiation and air temperature. In the summer, the limiting factor to forage accumulation is the hydric condition. It was also verified that the variability in the growth of grasslands can be associated with the ENSO phenomenon, being the El Niño favorable and the La Niña unfavorable, especially in the spring-summer period. Considering the verified associations, spectral indices combined with agrometeorological elements are recommended to the adjustment of models of forage accumulation in the Pampa biome natural grasslands.

  10. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  11. Using MODIS NDVI products for vegetation state monitoring on the oil production territory in Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the results of using remote sensing data for vegetation state monitoring on the oil field territories in Western Siberia. We used MODIS data product providing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values. Average NDVI values of each studied area were calculated for the period from 2010 to 2015 with one year interval for June, July and August. Analysis was carried out via an open tool of geographic information system QGIS used for spatial analysis and calculation of statistical parameters within chosen polygons. Results are presented in graphs showing the variation of NDVI for each study area and explaining the changes in trend lines for each field. It is shown that the majority of graphs are similar in shape which is caused by similar weather conditions. To confirm these results, we have conducted data analysis including temperature conditions and information about the accidents for each area. Abnormal changes in NDVI values revealed an emergency situation on the Priobskoe oil field caused by the flood in 2015. To sum up, the research results show that vegetation of studied areas is in a sufficiently stable state.

  12. Anopheles atroparvus density modeling using MODIS NDVI in a former malarious area in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Pedro M; Sousa, Carla A; Seixas, Júlia; Lopes, Pedro; Novo, Maria T; Almeida, A Paulo G

    2011-12-01

    Malaria is dependent on environmental factors and considered as potentially re-emerging in temperate regions. Remote sensing data have been used successfully for monitoring environmental conditions that influence the patterns of such arthropod vector-borne diseases. Anopheles atroparvus density data were collected from 2002 to 2005, on a bimonthly basis, at three sites in a former malarial area in Southern Portugal. The development of the Remote Vector Model (RVM) was based upon two main variables: temperature and the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra satellite. Temperature influences the mosquito life cycle and affects its intra-annual prevalence, and MODIS NDVI was used as a proxy for suitable habitat conditions. Mosquito data were used for calibration and validation of the model. For areas with high mosquito density, the model validation demonstrated a Pearson correlation of 0.68 (pNDVI. RVM is a satellite data-based assimilation algorithm that uses temperature fields to predict the intra- and inter-annual densities of this mosquito species using MODIS NDVI. RVM is a relevant tool for vector density estimation, contributing to the risk assessment of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases and can be part of the early warning system and contingency plans providing support to the decision making process of relevant authorities. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Does EO NDVI seasonal metrics capture variations in species composition and biomass due to grazing in semi-arid grassland savannas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. L.; Miehe, S.; Ceccato, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Most regional scale studies of vegetation in the Sahel have been based on Earth observation (EO) imagery due to the limited number of sites providing continuous and long term in situ meteorological and vegetation measurements. From a long time series of coarse resolution normalized difference...... vegetation index (NDVI) data a greening of the Sahel since the 1980s has been identified. However, it is poorly understood how commonly applied remote sensing techniques reflect the influence of extensive grazing (and changes in grazing pressure) on natural rangeland vegetation. This paper analyses the time...... exclosures as compared to grazed areas, substantially exceeding the amount of biomass expected to be ingested by livestock for this area. The seasonal integrated NDVI (NDVI small integral; capturing only the signal inherent to the growing season recurrent vegetation), derived using absolute thresholds...

  14. Mapping Cropland and Major Crop Types Across the Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research evaluated the potential for using the MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250-m time-series data to develop a cropland mapping capability throughout the 480 000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Cropland mapping was conducted usi...

  15. Estimation of different data compositions for early-season crop type classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pengyu; Wu, Mingquan; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Li; Zhan, Yulin

    2018-01-01

    Timely and accurate crop type distribution maps are an important inputs for crop yield estimation and production forecasting as multi-temporal images can observe phenological differences among crops. Therefore, time series remote sensing data are essential for crop type mapping, and image composition has commonly been used to improve the quality of the image time series. However, the optimal composition period is unclear as long composition periods (such as compositions lasting half a year) are less informative and short composition periods lead to information redundancy and missing pixels. In this study, we initially acquired daily 30 m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series by fusing MODIS, Landsat, Gaofen and Huanjing (HJ) NDVI, and then composited the NDVI time series using four strategies (daily, 8-day, 16-day, and 32-day). We used Random Forest to identify crop types and evaluated the classification performances of the NDVI time series generated from four composition strategies in two studies regions from Xinjiang, China. Results indicated that crop classification performance improved as crop separabilities and classification accuracies increased, and classification uncertainties dropped in the green-up stage of the crops. When using daily NDVI time series, overall accuracies saturated at 113-day and 116-day in Bole and Luntai, and the saturated overall accuracies (OAs) were 86.13% and 91.89%, respectively. Cotton could be identified 40∼60 days and 35∼45 days earlier than the harvest in Bole and Luntai when using daily, 8-day and 16-day composition NDVI time series since both producer's accuracies (PAs) and user's accuracies (UAs) were higher than 85%. Among the four compositions, the daily NDVI time series generated the highest classification accuracies. Although the 8-day, 16-day and 32-day compositions had similar saturated overall accuracies (around 85% in Bole and 83% in Luntai), the 8-day and 16-day compositions achieved these

  16. The Impact of Soil Reflectance on the Quantification of the Green Vegetation Fraction from NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, L. M.; Small, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    The green vegetation fraction (Fg) is an important climate and hydrologic model parameter. A common method to calculate Fg is to create a simple linear mixing rnodeP between two NDVI endmembers: bare soil NDVI (NDVI(sub o)) and full vegetation NDVI (NDVI(sub infinity)). Usually it is assumed that NDVI(sub o), is close to zero (NDVI(sub o) approx.-0.05) and is generally chosen from the lowest observed NDVI values. However, the mean soil NDVI computed from 2906 samples is much larger (NDVI=0.2) and is highly variable (standard deviation=O. 1). We show that the underestimation of NDVI(sub o) yields overestimations of Fg. The largest errors occur in grassland and shrubland areas. Using parameters for NDVI(sub o) and NDVI(sub infinity) derived from global scenes yields overestimations of Fg ((Delta) Fg*) that are larger than 0.2 for the majority of U.S. land cover types when pixel NDVI values are 0.2NDVI(sub pixel)NDVI values. When using conterminous U.S. scenes to derive NDV(sub o) and NDVI(sub infinity), the overestimation is less (0.10-0.17 for 0.2NDVI(sub pixel)NDVI cycle. We propose using global databases of NDVI(sub o) along with information on historical NDVI(sub pixel) values to compute a statistically most-likely estimate of Fg (Fg*). Using in situ measurements made at the Sevilleta LTER, we show that this approach yields better estimates of Fg than using global invariant NDVI(sub o) values estimated from whole scenes (Figure 2). At the two studied sites, the Fg estimate was adjusted by 52% at the grassland and 86% at the shrubland. More significant advances will require information on spatial distribution of soil reflectance.

  17. Deriving crop calendar using NDVI time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J. H.; Oza, M. P.

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural intensification is defined in terms as cropping intensity, which is the numbers of crops (single, double and triple) per year in a unit cropland area. Information about crop calendar (i.e. number of crops in a parcel of land and their planting & harvesting dates and date of peak vegetative stage) is essential for proper management of agriculture. Remote sensing sensors provide a regular, consistent and reliable measurement of vegetation response at various growth stages of crop. Therefore it is ideally suited for monitoring purpose. The spectral response of vegetation, as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and its profiles, can provide a new dimension for describing vegetation growth cycle. The analysis based on values of NDVI at regular time interval provides useful information about various crop growth stages and performance of crop in a season. However, the NDVI data series has considerable amount of local fluctuation in time domain and needs to be smoothed so that dominant seasonal behavior is enhanced. Based on temporal analysis of smoothed NDVI series, it is possible to extract number of crop cycles per year and their crop calendar. In the present study, a methodology is developed to extract key elements of crop growth cycle (i.e. number of crops per year and their planting - peak - harvesting dates). This is illustrated by analysing MODIS-NDVI data series of one agricultural year (from June 2012 to May 2013) over Gujarat. Such an analysis is very useful for analysing dynamics of kharif and rabi crops.

  18. Cotton NDVI response to applied N at different soil EC levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many fields in the southeastern Coastal Plain are highly variable in soil physical properties and are irregular in shape. These two conditions may make it difficult to determine the ‘best’ area in the field to place nitrogen (N) -rich strips for normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) -based s...

  19. Perfis temporais NDVI MODIS, na cana-soca, de maturação tardia NDVI MODIS temporal profiles, in sugarcane, late maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. P. Ramme

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve o desenvolvimento de um banco de dados relacional e de uma ferramenta para a visualização de perfis temporais do NDVI MODIS, a partir dos dados do produto MOD09Q1, referente ao fator de refletância bidirecional de superfície relativa ao comprimento de onda do vermelho e do infravermelho-próximo, composição temporal em mosaicos de 8 dias, e a banda de controle de qualidade, dos talhões de cana-de-açúcar no Estado de São Paulo, para analisar a maturação da cana-soca Tardia. Das fazendas de cana-de-açúcar são obtidos os dados de históricos sobre produtividade, solo, variedade, localização de cada pixel para cada microrregião monitorada. Todos os dados são integrados em um banco de dados desenvolvido em PostgreSQL. O aplicativo foi implementado usando a linguagem Java e permitiu uma forma rápida e automática para analisar padrões fenológicos na cana-de-açúcar. Concluiu-se que o perfil temporal do NDVI MODIS obtido a partir do produto MOD09Q1 é capaz de subsidiar o monitoramento das mudanças fenológicas na cultura da cana-de-açúcar.This paper describes the development of a relational database and a tool for viewing MODIS NDVI temporal profile, using data from MOD09Q1 product, specifically the surface bidirectional reflectance factor relative to the RED and NIR wavelength, mosaic of 8-day temporal composition, and the quality band, in sugarcane fields in the state of São Paulo, for analysis of the late stubble-cane maturation. From sugarcane farms were obtained the historical data about yield, soil, variety, location of the each pixel for each subregion monitored. All data were integrated in a database developed in PostgreSQL. The tool was implemented using Java language and allowed a fast and automatic way of analyzing sugarcane phenological patterns. It concluded that the MODIS NDVI temporal profile using data from MOD09Q1 product is able to subsidize the monitoring of phenological changes in the

  20. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  1. Evaluating temporal consistency of long-term global NDVI datasets for trend analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Fensholt, Rasmus; Verbesselt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    -sensor NDVI time series by analyzing the co-occurrence between breaks in the NDVI time series and sensor shifts from GIMMS3g (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies 3rd generation), VIP3 (Vegetation Index and Phenology version 3), LTDR4 (Long Term Data Record version 4) and SPOT-VGT (Système Pour l......, potentially introducing uncertainties in NDVI trend analysis. Platform/sensor change from VGT-1 to VGT-2 is found to cause a significant positive break in the SPOT-VGT NDVI time series. Potential artifacts exist in humid, dry-subhumid, semi-arid and hyper-arid regions of GIMMS3g NDVI, whereas no signs...

  2. [Correlation analysis on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of different vegetations and climatic factors in Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-He; Liu, Shi-Rong

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1982-2006 NDVI remote sensing data and meteorological data of Southwest China, and by using GIS technology, this paper interpolated and extracted the mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and drought index in the region, and analyzed the correlations of the annual variation of NDVI in different vegetation types (marsh, shrub, bush, grassland, meadow, coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, alpine vegetation, and cultural vegetation) with corresponding climatic factors. In 1982-2006, the NDVI, mean annual temperature, and annual precipitation had an overall increasing trend, and the drought index decreased. Particularly, the upward trend of mean annual temperature was statistically significant. Among the nine vegetation types, the NDVI of bush and mash decreased, and the downward trend was significant for bush. The NDVI of the other seven vegetation types increased, and the upward trend was significant for coniferous forest, meadow, and alpine vegetation, and extremely significant for shrub. The mean annual temperature in the areas with all the nine vegetation types increased significantly, while the annual precipitation had no significant change. The drought index in the areas with marsh, bush, and cultural vegetation presented an increasing trend, that in the areas with meadow and alpine vegetation decreased significantly, and this index in the areas with other four vegetation types had an unobvious decreasing trend. The NDVI of shrub and coniferous forest had a significantly positive correlation with mean annual temperature, and that of shrub and meadow had significantly negative correlation with drought index. Under the conditions of the other two climatic factors unchanged, the NDVI of coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, and alpine vegetation showed the strongest correlation with mean annual temperature, that of grass showed the strongest correlation with annual precipitation, and the NDVI of mash, shrub, grass, meadow, and cultural

  3. The precision of the NDVI derived from AVHRR observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, M.; Smith, R.; Cridland, S.

    1996-01-01

    Vegetation studies using NOAA-AVHRR data have tended to focus on the use of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). This unitless index is computed using near-infrared and red reflectances, and thus has both an accuracy and precision. This article reports on a formal statistical framework for assessing the precision of the NDVI derived from NOAA-AVHRR observations. The framework is based on the “best possible” precision concept, which assumes that signal quantization is the only source of observational error. While the radiance resolution of a spectral observation is essentially fixed by the instrument characteristics, the reflectance resolution is the radiance resolution divided by the cosine of the solar zenith angle. Using typical solar zenith angles for AVHRR image acquisitions over Australia, ± 0.01 NDVI units is typically with “best possible” precision attainable in the NDVI, although this degrades significantly over dark targets, and at large solar zenith angles. Transforming the computed NDVI into a single byte for disk storage results in little or no loss of precision. The framework developed in this article can be adapted to estimate the “best possible” precision of other vegetation indices derived using data from other remote sensing satellites. (author)

  4. Can temporal and spatial NDVI predict regional bird-species richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Nieto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of the species and its controls over biogeographic scales is still a major challenge in ecology. National Park Networks provide an opportunity to assess the relationship between ecosystem functioning and biodiversity in areas with low human impacts. We tested the productivity–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the available energy, and the ​variability–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the diversity of habitats. The available energy and habitat heterogeneity estimated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was shown as a good predictor of bird-species richness for a diverse set of biomes in previously published studies. However, there is not a universal relationship between NDVI and bird-species richness. Here we tested if the NDVI can predict bird species richness in areas with low human impact in Argentina. Using a dataset from the National Park Network of Argentina we found that the best predictor of bird species richness was the minimum value of NDVI per year which explained 75% of total variability. The inclusion of the spatial heterogeneity of NDVI improved the explanation power to 80%. Minimum NDVI was highly correlated with precipitation and winter temperature. Our analysis provides a tool for assessing bird-species richness at scales on which land-use planning practitioners make their decisions for Southern South America.

  5. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  6. A Non-Stationary 1981–2012 AVHRR NDVI3g Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Pinzon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The NDVI3g time series is an improved 8-km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data set produced from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR instruments that extends from 1981 to the present. The AVHRR instruments have flown or are flying on fourteen polar-orbiting meteorological satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA and are currently flying on two European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT polar-orbiting meteorological satellites, MetOp-A and MetOp-B. This long AVHRR record is comprised of data from two different sensors: the AVHRR/2 instrument that spans July 1981 to November 2000 and the AVHRR/3 instrument that continues these measurements from November 2000 to the present. The main difficulty in processing AVHRR NDVI data is to properly deal with limitations of the AVHRR instruments. Complicating among-instrument AVHRR inter-calibration of channels one and two is the dual gain introduced in late 2000 on the AVHRR/3 instruments for both these channels. We have processed NDVI data derived from the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS from 1997 to 2010 to overcome among-instrument AVHRR calibration difficulties. We use Bayesian methods with high quality well-calibrated SeaWiFS NDVI data for deriving AVHRR NDVI calibration parameters. Evaluation of the uncertainties of our resulting NDVI values gives an error of ± 0.005 NDVI units for our 1981 to present data set that is independent of time within our AVHRR NDVI continuum and has resulted in a non-stationary climate data set.

  7. A Non-Stationary 1981-2012 AVHRR NDVI(sub 3g) Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.; Tucker, Compton J.

    2014-01-01

    The NDVI(sub 3g) time series is an improved 8-km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data set produced from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments that extends from 1981 to the present. The AVHRR instruments have flown or are flying on fourteen polar-orbiting meteorological satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and are currently flying on two European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) polar-orbiting meteorological satellites, MetOp-A and MetOp-B. This long AVHRR record is comprised of data from two different sensors: the AVHRR/2 instrument that spans July 1981 to November 2000 and the AVHRR/3 instrument that continues these measurements from November 2000 to the present. The main difficulty in processing AVHRR NDVI data is to properly deal with limitations of the AVHRR instruments. Complicating among-instrument AVHRR inter-calibration of channels one and two is the dual gain introduced in late 2000 on the AVHRR/3 instruments for both these channels. We have processed NDVI data derived from the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) from 1997 to 2010 to overcome among-instrument AVHRR calibration difficulties. We use Bayesian methods with high quality well-calibrated SeaWiFS NDVI data for deriving AVHRR NDVI calibration parameters. Evaluation of the uncertainties of our resulting NDVI values gives an error of plus or minus 0.005 NDVI units for our 1981 to present data set that is independent of time within our AVHRR NDVI continuum and has resulted in a non-stationary climate data set.

  8. Comparison and Evaluation of Annual NDVI Time Series in China Derived from the NOAA AVHRR LTDR and Terra MODIS MOD13C1 Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Hongyan; Wu, Zhengfang; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhengxiang

    2017-06-06

    Time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from multiple satellite sensors are crucial data to study vegetation dynamics. The Land Long Term Data Record Version 4 (LTDR V4) NDVI dataset was recently released at a 0.05 × 0.05° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. In this study, annual NDVI time series that are composited by the LTDR V4 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI datasets (MOD13C1) are compared and evaluated for the period from 2001 to 2014 in China. The spatial patterns of the NDVI generally match between the LTDR V4 and MOD13C1 datasets. The transitional zone between high and low NDVI values generally matches the boundary of semi-arid and sub-humid regions. A significant and high coefficient of determination is found between the two datasets according to a pixel-based correlation analysis. The spatially averaged NDVI of LTDR V4 is characterized by a much weaker positive regression slope relative to that of the spatially averaged NDVI of the MOD13C1 dataset because of changes in NOAA AVHRR sensors between 2005 and 2006. The measured NDVI values of LTDR V4 were always higher than that of MOD13C1 in western China due to the relatively lower atmospheric water vapor content in western China, and opposite observation appeared in eastern China. In total, 18.54% of the LTDR V4 NDVI pixels exhibit significant trends, whereas 35.79% of the MOD13C1 NDVI pixels show significant trends. Good agreement is observed between the significant trends of the two datasets in the Northeast Plain, Bohai Economic Rim, Loess Plateau, and Yangtze River Delta. By contrast, the datasets contrasted in northwestern desert regions and southern China. A trend analysis of the regression slope values according to the vegetation type shows good agreement between the LTDR V4 and MOD13C1 datasets. This study demonstrates the spatial and temporal consistencies and discrepancies between the AVHRR LTDR and MODIS MOD13C1 NDVI

  9. Changes in the NDVI of Boreal Forests over the period 1984 to 2003 measured using time series of Landsat TM/ETM+ surface reflectance and the GIMMS AVHRR NDVI record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, A. M.; Rocha, A. V.; Goulden, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    There is a prevailing opinion that the boreal landscape is undergoing change as a result of warming temperatures leading to earlier springs, greater forest fire frequency and possibly CO2 fertilization. One widely- used line of evidence is the GIMMS AVHRR NDVI record. Several studies suggest increasing rates of photosynthesis in boreal forests from 1982 to 1991 (based on NDVI increases) while others suggest declining photosynthesis from 1996 to 2003. We suspect that a portion of these changes are due to the successional stage of the forests. We compiled a time-series of atmospherically-corrected Landsat TM/ETM+ images spanning the period 1984 to 2003 over the BOREAS Northern Study Area and compared spatial and temporal patterns of NDVI between the two records. The Landsat time series is higher resolution and, together with the Canadian Fire Service Large Fire Database, provides stand-age information. We then (1) analyzed the agreement between the Landsat and GIMMS AVHRR time series; (2) determined how the stage of forest succession affected NDVI; (3) assessed how the calculation method of annual averages of NDVI affects decadal-scale trends. The agreement between the Landsat and the AVHRR was reasonable although the depression of NDVI associated with the aerosols from the Pinatubo volcano was greater in the GIMMS time series. Pixels containing high proportions of stands burned within a decade of the observation period showed very high gains in NDVI while the more mature stands were constant. While NDVI appears to exhibit a large sensitivity to the presence of snow, the choice of a May to September averaging period for NDVI over a June to August averaging period did not affect the interannual patterns in NDVI at this location because the snow pack was seldom present in either of these periods. Knowledge of the spatial and temporal patterns of wild fire will prove useful in interpreting trends of remotely-sensed proxies of photosynthesis.

  10. Using NDVI to measure precipitation in semi-arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtwhistle, Amy N.; Laituri, Melinda; Bledsoe, Brian; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring precipitation in semi-arid landscapes is important for understanding the processes related to rainfall and run-off; however, measuring precipitation accurately can often be challenging especially within remote regions where precipitation instruments are scarce. Typically, rain-gauges are sparsely distributed and research comparing rain-gauge and RADAR precipitation estimates reveal that RADAR data are often misleading, especially for monsoon season convective storms. This study investigates an alternative way to map the spatial and temporal variation of precipitation inputs along ephemeral stream channels using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. NDVI values from 26 years of pre- and post-monsoon season Landsat imagery were derived across Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), a region covering 3,367 km2 of semiarid landscapes in southwestern Arizona, USA. The change in NDVI from a pre-to post-monsoon season image along ephemeral stream channels explained 73% of the variance in annual monsoonal precipitation totals from a nearby rain-gauge. In addition, large seasonal changes in NDVI along channels were useful in determining when and where flow events have occurred.

  11. Evaluation of the Quality of NDVI3g Dataset against Collection 6 MODIS NDVI in Central Europe between 2000 and 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Anikó Kern; Hrvoje Marjanović; Zoltán Barcza

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing provides invaluable insight into the dynamics of vegetation with global coverage and reasonable temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely used to study vegetation greenness, production, phenology and the responses of ecosystems to climate fluctuations. The extended global NDVI3g dataset created by Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) has an exceptional 32 years temporal coverage. Due to the methodology that was used to create ...

  12. Global Analysis of Empirical Relationships Between Annual Climate and Seasonality of NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    This study describes the use of satellite data to calibrate a new climate-vegetation greenness function for global change studies. We examined statistical relationships between annual climate indexes (temperature, precipitation, and surface radiation) and seasonal attributes of the AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series for the mid-1980s in order to refine our empirical understanding of intraannual patterns and global abiotic controls on natural vegetation dynamics. Multiple linear regression results using global l(sup o) gridded data sets suggest that three climate indexes: growing degree days, annual precipitation total, and an annual moisture index together can account to 70-80 percent of the variation in the NDVI seasonal extremes (maximum and minimum values) for the calibration year 1984. Inclusion of the same climate index values from the previous year explained no significant additional portion of the global scale variation in NDVI seasonal extremes. The monthly timing of NDVI extremes was closely associated with seasonal patterns in maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall, with lag times of 1 to 2 months. We separated well-drained areas from l(sup o) grid cells mapped as greater than 25 percent inundated coverage for estimation of both the magnitude and timing of seasonal NDVI maximum values. Predicted monthly NDVI, derived from our climate-based regression equations and Fourier smoothing algorithms, shows good agreement with observed NDVI at a series of ecosystem test locations from around the globe. Regions in which NDVI seasonal extremes were not accurately predicted are mainly high latitude ecosystems and other remote locations where climate station data are sparse.

  13. Estimating agricultural yield gap in Africa using MODIS NDVI dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y.; Zhu, W.; Luo, X.; Liu, J.; Cui, X.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification characterized as 'Green Revolution', except for Africa, which is the region most affected by unreliable food access and undernourishment. Increasing crop production will be one of the most challenges and most effectual way to mitigate food insecurity there, as Africa's agricultural yield is on a much lower level comparing to global average. In this study we characterize cropland vegetation phenology in Africa based on MODIS NDVI time series between 2000 and 2012. Cumulated NDVI is a proxy for net primary productivity and used as an indicator for evaluating the potential yield gap in Africa. It is achieved via translating the gap between optimum attainable productivity level in each classification of cropping systems and actual productivity level by the relationship of cumulated NDVI and cereal-equivalent production. The results show most of cropland area in Africa have decreasing trend in cumulated NDVI, distributing in the Nile Delta, Eastern Africa and central of semi-arid to arid savanna area, except significant positive cumulated NDVI trends are mainly found between Senegal and Benin. Using cumulated NDVI and statistics of cereal equivalent production, we find remarkable potential yield gap at the Horn of East Africa (especially in Somalia), Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Meanwhile, countries locating at the savanna area near Sahel desert and South Africa also show significant potential, though they already have a relatively high level of productivity. Our results can help provide policy recommendation for local government or NGO to tackle food security problems by identifying zones with high potential of yield improvement.

  14. Detecting long-duration cloud contamination in hyper-temporal NDVI imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.; de Bie, C.A.J.M.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud contamination impacts on the quality of hyper-temporal NDVI imagery and its subsequent interpretation. Short-duration cloud impacts are easily removed by using quality flags and an upper envelope filter, but long-duration cloud contamination of NDVI imagery remains. In this paper, an approach

  15. NDVI indicated characteristics of vegetation cover change in China's metropolises over the last three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinyu; Wang, Xuhui; Chen, Anping; Ma, Yuecun; Cui, Mengdi; Piao, Shilong

    2011-08-01

    How urban vegetation was influenced by three decades of intensive urbanization in China is of great interest but rarely studied. In this paper, we used satellite derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and socioeconomic data to evaluate effects of urbanization on vegetation cover in China's 117 metropolises over the last three decades. Our results suggest that current urbanization has caused deterioration of urban vegetation across most cities in China, particularly in East China. At the national scale, average urban area NDVI (NDVI(u)) significantly decreased during the last three decades (P NDVI(u) did not show statistically significant trend before 1990 but decrease remarkably after 1990 (P NDVI(u) turning point. The year when NDVI(u) started to decline significantly for Central China and East China was 1987 and 1990, respectively, while NDVI(u) in West China remained relatively constant until 1998. NDVI(u) changes in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, two regions which has been undergoing the most rapid urbanization in China, also show different characteristics. The Pearl River Delta experienced a rapid decline in NDVI(u) from the early 1980s to the mid-1990s; while in the Yangtze River Delta, NDVI(u) did not decline significantly until the early 1990s. Such different patterns of NDVI(u) changes are closely linked with policy-oriented difference in urbanization dynamics of these regions, which highlights the importance of implementing a sustainable urban development policy.

  16. A modified integrated NDVI for improving estimates of terrestrial net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    Logic is presented for a time-integrated NDVI that is modified by an AVHRR derived surface evaporation resistance factor sigma, and truncated by temperatures that cause plant dormancy, to improve environmental sensitivity. With this approach, NDVI observed during subfreezing temperatures is not integrated. Water stress-related impairment in plant activity is incorporated by reducing the effective NDVI at each integration with sigma, which is derived from the slope of the surface temperature to NDVI ratio for climatically similar zones of the scene. A comparison of surface resistance before and after an extended drought period for a 1200 sq km region of coniferous forest in Montana is presented.

  17. A NDVI assisted remote sensing image adaptive scale segmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Shen, Jinxiang; Ma, Yanmei

    2018-03-01

    Multiscale segmentation of images can effectively form boundaries of different objects with different scales. However, for the remote sensing image which widely coverage with complicated ground objects, the number of suitable segmentation scales, and each of the scale size is still difficult to be accurately determined, which severely restricts the rapid information extraction of the remote sensing image. A great deal of experiments showed that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) can effectively express the spectral characteristics of a variety of ground objects in remote sensing images. This paper presents a method using NDVI assisted adaptive segmentation of remote sensing images, which segment the local area by using NDVI similarity threshold to iteratively select segmentation scales. According to the different regions which consist of different targets, different segmentation scale boundaries could be created. The experimental results showed that the adaptive segmentation method based on NDVI can effectively create the objects boundaries for different ground objects of remote sensing images.

  18. Analysis of the Relationship Between Climate and NDVI Variability at Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Wei; Collatz, G. James; Pinzon, Jorge; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    interannual variability in modeled (CASA) C flux is in part caused by interannual variability in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR). This study confirms a mechanism producing variability in modeled NPP: -- NDVI (FPAR) interannual variability is strongly driven by climate; -- The climate driven variability in NDVI (FPAR) can lead to much larger fluctuation in NPP vs. the NPP computed from FPAR climatology

  19. Analyses of GIMMS NDVI Time Series in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palka, Jessica; Wessollek, Christine; Karrasch, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    The value of remote sensing data is particularly evident where an areal monitoring is needed to provide information on the earth's surface development. The use of temporal high resolution time series data allows for detecting short-term changes. In Kogi State in Nigeria different vegetation types can be found. As the major population in this region is living in rural communities with crop farming the existing vegetation is slowly being altered. The expansion of agricultural land causes loss of natural vegetation, especially in the regions close to the rivers which are suitable for crop production. With regard to these facts, two questions can be dealt with covering different aspects of the development of vegetation in the Kogi state, the determination and evaluation of the general development of the vegetation in the study area (trend estimation) and analyses on a short-term behavior of vegetation conditions, which can provide information about seasonal effects in vegetation development. For this purpose, the GIMMS-NDVI data set, provided by the NOAA, provides information on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a geometric resolution of approx. 8 km. The temporal resolution of 15 days allows the already described analyses. For the presented analysis data for the period 1981-2012 (31 years) were used. The implemented workflow mainly applies methods of time series analysis. The results show that in addition to the classical seasonal development, artefacts of different vegetation periods (several NDVI maxima) can be found in the data. The trend component of the time series shows a consistently positive development in the entire study area considering the full investigation period of 31 years. However, the results also show that this development has not been continuous and a simple linear modeling of the NDVI increase is only possible to a limited extent. For this reason, the trend modeling was extended by procedures for detecting structural breaks in

  20. Trend Change Detection in NDVI Time Series: Effects of Inter-Annual Variability and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Verbesselt, Jan; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Neigh, Christopher S.R.; Reichstein, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Changing trends in ecosystem productivity can be quantified using satellite observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the estimation of trends from NDVI time series differs substantially depending on analyzed satellite dataset, the corresponding spatiotemporal resolution, and the applied statistical method. Here we compare the performance of a wide range of trend estimation methods and demonstrate that performance decreases with increasing inter-annual variability in the NDVI time series. Trend slope estimates based on annual aggregated time series or based on a seasonal-trend model show better performances than methods that remove the seasonal cycle of the time series. A breakpoint detection analysis reveals that an overestimation of breakpoints in NDVI trends can result in wrong or even opposite trend estimates. Based on our results, we give practical recommendations for the application of trend methods on long-term NDVI time series. Particularly, we apply and compare different methods on NDVI time series in Alaska, where both greening and browning trends have been previously observed. Here, the multi-method uncertainty of NDVI trends is quantified through the application of the different trend estimation methods. Our results indicate that greening NDVI trends in Alaska are more spatially and temporally prevalent than browning trends. We also show that detected breakpoints in NDVI trends tend to coincide with large fires. Overall, our analyses demonstrate that seasonal trend methods need to be improved against inter-annual variability to quantify changing trends in ecosystem productivity with higher accuracy.

  1. Process conditions and volumetric composition in composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated...... as a function of the fiber weight fraction, and where parameters are included for the composite microstructure, and the fiber assembly compaction behavior. Based on experimental data of composites manufactured with different process conditions, together with model predictions, different types of process related...... effects are analyzed. The applied consolidation pressure is found to have a marked effect on the volumetric composition. A power-law relationship is found to well describe the found relations between the maximum obtainable fiber volume fraction and the consolidation pressure. The degree of fiber...

  2. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D A; Raynolds, M K; Kuss, P; Kade, A N; Epstein, H E; Frost, G V; Kopecky, M A; Daniëls, F J A; Leibman, M O; Moskalenko, N G; Khomutov, A V; Matyshak, G V; Khitun, O V; Forbes, B C; Bhatt, U S; Vonlanthen, C M; Tichý, L

    2012-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect. (letter)

  3. [Vegetation change of Yamzho Yumco Basin in southern Tibet based on SPOT-VGT NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu-Mei; Liu, Jing-Shi; Yuan, Jin-Guo

    2010-06-01

    The area we studied is Lake Yamzho Yumco Basin (28 degrees 27'-29 degrees 12'N, 90 degrees 08'-91 degrees 45'E), the largest inland lake basin in southern Tibetan Plateau, China. Using the SPOT-VGT NDVI vegetation index from 1998 to 2007 in the basin, the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of NDVI and its correlation with the major climatic factors (air temperature, precipitation) were analyzed. The results show that the average NDVI of the lake basin ranges from 0.12 to 0.31 and its seasonal change is obvious; the NDVI begins to rise rapidly in May and reaches the maximum value in early September. The average NDVI of the basin shows the slow increasing trend during 1998 to 2007, and it indicates that the eco-environment of the basin is recovering. The high value of NDVI has close relationships with water supply, altitude and vegetation types, so NDVI is relatively high near water sources and is the highest in meadow grassland. The summer air temperature and precipitation are the important climate elements that influence the vegetation in the basin, and the linear correlation coefficients between NDVI and air temperature and precipitation are 0.7 and 0.71, respectively. In recent years, warm and humid trend of the local climate is prevailing to improve the ecological environment in Yamzho Yumco Basin.

  4. Woody plant richness and NDVI response to drought events in Catalonian (northeastern Spain) forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, F; Lobo, A; Estevan, H; Maisongrande, P; Vayreda, J; Terradas, J

    2007-09-01

    The role of species diversity on ecosystem resistance in the face of strong environmental fluctuations has been addressed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints to reveal a variety of positive and negative relationships. Here we explore empirically the relationship between the richness of forest woody species and canopy resistance to extreme drought episodes. We compare richness data from an extensive forest inventory to a temporal series of satellite imagery that estimated drought impact on forest canopy as NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) anomalies of the dry summer in 2003 in relation to records of previous years. We considered five different types of forests that are representative of the main climatic and altitudinal gradients of the region, ranging from lowland Mediterranean to mountain boreal-temperate climates. The observed relationship differed among forest types and interacted with the climate, summarised by the Thorntwaite index. In Mediterranean Pinus halepensis forests, NDVI decreased during the drought. This decrease was stronger in forests with lower richness. In Mediterranean evergreen forests of Quercus ilex, drought did not result in an overall NDVI loss, but lower NDVI values were observed in drier localities with lower richness, and in more moist localities with higher number of species. In mountain Pinus sylvestris forests NDVI decreased, mostly due to the drought impact on drier localities, while no relation to species richness was observed. In moist Fagus sylvatica forests, NDVI only decreased in plots with high richness. No effect of drought was observed in the high mountain Pinus uncinata forests. Our results show that a shift on the diversity-stability relationship appears across the regional, climatic gradient. A positive relationship appears in drier localities, supporting a null model where the probability of finding a species able to cope with drier conditions increases with the number of species. However, in

  5. The study for the Spatial Distribution Pattern of NDVI in the Western of Jilin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-jie; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Shou-gang

    2018-02-01

    Using methods of spatial autocorrelation analysis and trend analysis, the paper studies the spatial distribution pattern of NDVI based on the GIMMS NDVI dataset (1998-2008), in Western Jilin. The maximum value for 15d is got through the method of MAX processing. Results show that: the NDVI in growing season shows a rising trend in western Jilin in 1998-2008. In the study area, the NDVI in Western Jilin shows positive spatial autocorrelation in the whole region, but the partial NDVI is apt to scattered distribution, which means the vegetation cover of Western Jilin is generally fragmental.

  6. Using NDVI to assess vegetative land cover change in central Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawitz, Dana F; Blewett, Tina M; Cohen, Alex; Alberti, Marina

    2006-03-01

    We used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the rapidly growing Puget Sound region over three 5-year time blocks between 1986-1999 at three spatial scales in 42 Watershed Administrative Units (WAUs) to assess changes in the amounts and patterns of green vegetation. On average, approximately 20% of the area in each WAU experienced significant NDVI change over each 5-year time block. Cumulative NDVI change over 15 years (summing change over each 5-year time block) was an average of approximately 60% of each WAU, but was as high as 100% in some. At the regional scale, seasonal weather patterns and green-up from logging were the primary drivers of observed increases in NDVI values. At the WAU scale, anthropogenic factors were important drivers of both positive and negative NDVI change. For example, population density was highly correlated with negative NDVI change over 15 years (r = 0.66, P < 0.01), as was road density (r = 0.71, P < 0.01). At the smallest scale (within 3 case study WAUs) land use differences such as preserving versus harvesting forest lands drove vegetation change. We conclude that large areas within most watersheds are continually and heavily impacted by the high levels of human use and development over short time periods. Our results indicate that varying patterns and processes can be detected at multiple scales using changes in NDVIa values.

  7. Revisiting the coupling between NDVI trends and cropland changes in the Sahel drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Xiaoye; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Hiernaux, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The impact of human activities via land use/cover changes on NDVI trends is critical for an improved understanding of satellite-observed changes in vegetation productivity in drylands. The dominance of positive NDVI trends in the Sahel, the so-called re-greening, is sometimes interpreted...... as a combined effect of an increase in rainfall and cropland expansion or agricultural intensification. Yet, the impact of changes in land use has yet to be thoroughly tested and supported by empirical evidence. At present, no studies have considered the importance of the different seasonal NDVI signals...... of cropped and fallowed fields when interpreting NDVI trends, as both field types are commonly merged into a single ‘cropland’ class. We make use of the distinctly different phenology of cropped and fallowed fields and use seasonal NDVI curves to separate these two field types. A fuzzy classifier is applied...

  8. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, F P F; Meijer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated. Stink bugs were spatially aggregated on the third week of bloom in 2011. Boll injury from stink bugs was spatially aggregated during the fourth week of bloom in 2012. The NDVI values were aggregated during both years. There was a positive association and correlation between stink bug numbers and NDVI values, as well as injured bolls and NDVI values, during the third week of bloom in 2011. During the third week of bloom in 2012, NDVI values were negatively correlated with stink bug numbers. During the fourth week of bloom in 2011, stink bug numbers and boll injury were both positively associated and correlated with NDVI values. During the fourth week of bloom in 2012, stink bugs were negatively correlated with NDVI values, and boll injury was negatively associated and correlated with NDVI values. This study suggests the potential of remote sensing as a tool to assist with sampling stink bugs in cotton, although more research is needed using NDVI and other plant measurements to predict stink bug injury. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  9. Transitioning from MODIS to VIIRS: an analysis of inter-consistency of NDVI data sets for agricultural monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Justice, Christopher O; Vermote, Eric; Roger, Jean-Claude

    2018-01-01

    The Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite was launched in 2011, in part to provide continuity with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Terra and Aqua remote sensing satellites. The VIIRS will eventually replace MODIS for both land science and applications and add to the coarse-resolution, long term data record. It is, therefore, important to provide the user community with an assessment of the consistency of equivalent products from the two sensors. For this study, we do this in the context of example agricultural monitoring applications. Surface reflectance that is routinely delivered within the M{O,Y}D09 and VNP09 series of products provide critical input for generating downstream products. Given the range of applications utilizing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) generated from M{O,Y}D09 and VNP09 products and the inherent differences between MODIS and VIIRS sensors in calibration, spatial sampling, and spectral bands, the main objective of this study is to quantify uncertainties related the transitioning from using MODIS to VIIRS-based NDVI's. In particular, we compare NDVI's derived from two sets of Level 3 MYD09 and VNP09 products with various spatial-temporal characteristics, namely 8-day composites at 500 m spatial resolution and daily Climate Modelling Grid (CMG) images at 0.05° spatial resolution. Spectral adjustment of VIIRS I1 (red) and I2 (near infra-red - NIR) bands to match MODIS/Aqua b1 (red) and b2 (NIR) bands is performed to remove a bias between MODIS and VIIRS-based red, NIR, and NDVI estimates. Overall, red reflectance, NIR reflectance, NDVI uncertainties were 0.014, 0.029 and 0.056 respectively for the 500 m product and 0.013, 0.016 and 0.032 for the 0.05° product. The study shows that MODIS and VIIRS NDVI data can be used interchangeably for

  10. Using NDVI-based measures to derive geographic information on drought-prone areas for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kumari Vadivel

    Remotely sensed NDVI imagery was used to detect drought in developing countries in three continents. The study shows that in spite of the various limitations the NDVI data provide valuable information on drought probabilities due to their significant correlation with rainfall time series (0.4 - 0.7). NDVI data are also accessible at different resolutions (1 degree, 8 km and 1 km) at a global scale in spatiotemporally continuous form for up to 19 years enabling this study to contribute a uniform and simultaneous analysis of drought in poor developing countries. The current study is also done with due consideration to the ecosystem underlying the pixel. Special consideration for the ecosystem is achieved by holding the temporal and spatial identity intact throughout the analysis. The study uses NDVI data from 19 years for a vigorous and quick estimate, using a new method called the 'percent carrying capacity index' method which is shown to perform better than the 'vegetation condition index' method. For a few selected geographic areas, the computed image analysis results were verified against actual occurrence of drought. The image analysis results were found to be consistent with reality in those cases, validating the analysis results for areas for which drought observations have not been recorded. The final continental scale drought maps show the frequently drought-prone areas derived from uniform spatial (8km * 8km) and temporal (decadal) resolution data across three continents.

  11. Warming, Sheep and Volcanoes: Land Cover Changes in Iceland Evident in Satellite NDVI Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Raynolds

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a greening Arctic, Iceland stands out as an area with very high increases in the AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1982–2010. We investigated the possible sources of this anomalous greening in Iceland’s dynamic landscape, analyzing changes due to volcanism and warming temperatures, and the effects of agricultural and industrial land use changes. The analysis showed the increases were likely due to reductions in grazing in erosion-prone rangelands, extensive reclamation and afforestation efforts, as well as a response to warming climate, including glacial retreat. Like Scandinavia and much of the rest of the Arctic, Iceland has shown a recent reduction in NDVI since 2002, but still above pre-2000 levels. Theil-Sen robust regression analysis of MODIS NDVI trends from 2002 to 2013 showed Iceland had a slightly negative NDVI trend of 0.003 NDVI units/year (p < 0.05, with significant decreases in an area three times greater (29,809 km2 than that with increases (9419 km2. Specific areas with large decreases in NDVI during the last decade were due to the formation of a large reservoir as a part of a hydroelectric power project (Kárahnjúkar, 2002–2009, and due to ashfall from two volcanic eruptions (Eyjafjallajökull, 2010; Grímsvötn, 2011. Increases in NDVI in the last decade were found in erosion control areas, around retreating glaciers, and in other areas of plant colonization following natural disturbance. Our analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of MODIS NDVI for identifying the causes of changes in land cover, and confirms the reduction in NDVI in the last decade using both the AVHRR and MODIS satellite data.

  12. Patrones fenológicos de la Provincia de Mendoza, Argentina, mediante serie temporal de imágenes NOAA-AVHRR NDVI GAC Phenological patterns of the province of Mendoza, Argentina, through a temporal series of NOAA-AVHRR NDVI GAC images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M González Loyarte

    2010-12-01

    map is related to ecosystems and vegetation units. The phenological pattern (monthly NDVI curve is modelled for 17 vegetation units. The map contributes dynamic elements to the regional study of vegetation, generating a new zonation explained by variables that determine vegetative activity. The phenological pattern describes the functioning of vegetation and allows understanding of its geographic variations. The overall vegetation of Mendoza responds to an annual cycle with localized weak bimodal patterns. The patterns of low winter-summer contrast correspond to xeric climate conditions, expressing the vegetative maximum at the end of the summer; water availability enhances this contrast, shortening the time of maximum vegetative expression.

  13. Estudo da variabilidade do NDVI sobre o Brasil, utilizando-se a análise de agrupamentos Study of NDVI variability in Brazil using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen da C. Gurgel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a variabilidade do NDVI (Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada sobre o Brasil, utilizando-se a análise de agrupamentos. As análises foram feitas através de imagens do sensor Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR para o período de janeiro de 1982 a dezembro de 1993. Os resultados obtidos mostram que na região Amazônica o ciclo anual do NDVI não é bem definido, visto que o máximo tipicamente ocorre em junho, dois meses após o período chuvoso, enquanto o mínimo se dá em dois períodos distintos: entre fevereiro e março e setembro e novembro. Na região central do Brasil, o cerrado apresenta um ciclo anual definido, com valores máximos de NDVI entre março e maio, e mínimos em setembro, final do período seco. Por outro lado, a vegetação das regiões da zona da mata nordestina e dos campos de Roraima apresentam um ciclo anual nítido, sendo que os maiores valores de NDVI ocorrem em junho e julho e os menores entre fevereiro e março, alguns meses antes do início das chuvas. No caso da região nordeste do Brasil, a caatinga mostra um ciclo anual bem definido, com um período seco marcante, sendo que os valores mais elevados de NDVI ocorrem entre os meses de abril e maio, que é o final da época das chuvas, e os menores em setembro e outubro. Em parte do Estado de Santa Catarina e no sul do Paraná, o ciclo anual das formações vegetais dominantes (floresta ombrófila aberta e floresta ombrófila mista não é muito nítido. No sul do Brasil, a região de estepes não apresenta ciclo anual nítido, os valores máximos de NDVI geralmente ocorrem entre março e junho e os valores mínimos no mês de agosto. Além disso, constatou-se que os eventos El Niño, independente da sua intensidade, afetam distintamente os vários tipos de vegetação.This paper deals with vegetation cover variability in Brazil using cluster analysis. The study was done using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation

  14. Variability of African Farming Systems from Phenological Analysis of NDVI Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; deBeurs, K. M.; Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Food security exists when people have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food at all times to meet their dietary needs. The natural resource base is one of the many factors affecting food security. Its variability and decline creates problems for local food production. In this study we characterize for sub-Saharan Africa vegetation phenology and assess variability and trends of phenological indicators based on NDVI time series from 1982 to 2006. We focus on cumulated NDVI over the season (cumNDVI) which is a proxy for net primary productivity. Results are aggregated at the level of major farming systems, while determining also spatial variability within farming systems. High temporal variability of cumNDVI occurs in semiarid and subhumid regions. The results show a large area of positive cumNDVI trends between Senegal and South Sudan. These correspond to positive CRU rainfall trends found and relate to recovery after the 1980's droughts. We find significant negative cumNDVI trends near the south-coast of West Africa (Guinea coast) and in Tanzania. For each farming system, causes of change and variability are discussed based on available literature (Appendix A). Although food security comprises more than the local natural resource base, our results can perform an input for food security analysis by identifying zones of high variability or downward trends. Farming systems are found to be a useful level of analysis. Diversity and trends found within farming system boundaries underline that farming systems are dynamic.

  15. Assessing onset and length of greening period in six vegetation types in Oaxaca, Mexico, using NDVI-precipitation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mendoza, L; Galicia, L; Cuevas-Fernández, M L; Magaña, V; Gómez, G; Palacio-Prieto, J L

    2008-07-01

    Variations in the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) for the state of Oaxaca, in southern Mexico, were analyzed in terms of precipitation anomalies for the period 1997-2003. Using 10-day averages in NDVI data, obtained from AVHRR satellite information, the response of six types of vegetation to intra-annual and inter-annual fluctuations in precipitation were examined. The onset and temporal evolution of the greening period were studied in terms of precipitation variations through spectral analysis (coherence and phase). The results indicate that extremely dry periods, such as those observed in 1997 and 2001, resulted in low values of NDVI for much of Oaxaca, while good precipitation periods produced a rapid response (20-30 days of delay) from a stressed to a non-stressed condition in most vegetation types. One of these rapid changes occurred during the transition from dry to wet conditions during the summer of 1998. As in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, the NDVI reflects low frequency variations in precipitation on several spatial scales. Even after long dry periods (2001-2002), the various regional vegetation types are capable of recovering when a good rainy season takes place, indicating that vegetation types such as the evergreen forests in the high parts of Oaxaca respond better to rainfall characteristics (timing, amount) than to temperature changes, as is the case in most mid-latitudes. This finding may be relevant to prepare climate change scenarios for forests, where increases in surface temperature and precipitation anomalies are expected.

  16. Deriving phenological metrics from NDVI through an open source tool developed in QGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Lia; Teodoro, A. C.; Gonçalves, Hernãni

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation indices have been commonly used over the past 30 years for studying vegetation characteristics using images collected by remote sensing satellites. One of the most commonly used is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The various stages that green vegetation undergoes during a complete growing season can be summarized through time-series analysis of NDVI data. The analysis of such time-series allow for extracting key phenological variables or metrics of a particular season. These characteristics may not necessarily correspond directly to conventional, ground-based phenological events, but do provide indications of ecosystem dynamics. A complete list of the phenological metrics that can be extracted from smoothed, time-series NDVI data is available in the USGS online resources (http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/methods_deriving.php).This work aims to develop an open source application to automatically extract these phenological metrics from a set of satellite input data. The main advantage of QGIS for this specific application relies on the easiness and quickness in developing new plug-ins, using Python language, based on the experience of the research group in other related works. QGIS has its own application programming interface (API) with functionalities and programs to develop new features. The toolbar developed for this application was implemented using the plug-in NDVIToolbar.py. The user introduces the raster files as input and obtains a plot and a report with the metrics. The report includes the following eight metrics: SOST (Start Of Season - Time) corresponding to the day of the year identified as having a consistent upward trend in the NDVI time series; SOSN (Start Of Season - NDVI) corresponding to the NDVI value associated with SOST; EOST (End of Season - Time) which corresponds to the day of year identified at the end of a consistent downward trend in the NDVI time series; EOSN (End of Season - NDVI) corresponding to the NDVI value

  17. Pattern of NDVI-based vegetation greening along an altitudinal gradient in the eastern Himalayas and its response to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haidong; Jiang, Jiang; Chen, Bin; Li, Yingkui; Xu, Yuyue; Shen, Weishou

    2016-03-01

    The eastern Himalayas, especially the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon Nature Reserve (YNR), is a global hotspot of biodiversity because of a wide variety of climatic conditions and elevations ranging from 500 to > 7000 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The mountain ecosystems at different elevations are vulnerable to climate change; however, there has been little research into the patterns of vegetation greening and their response to global warming. The objective of this paper is to examine the pattern of vegetation greening in different altitudinal zones in the YNR and its relationship with vegetation types and climatic factors. Specifically, the inter-annual change of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and its variation along altitudinal gradient between 1999 and 2013 was investigated using SPOT-VGT NDVI data and ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM) data. We found that annual NDVI increased by 17.58% in the YNR from 1999 to 2013, especially in regions dominated by broad-leaved and coniferous forests at lower elevations. The vegetation greening rate decreased significantly as elevation increased, with a threshold elevation of approximately 3000 m. Rising temperature played a dominant role in driving the increase in NDVI, while precipitation has no statistical relationship with changes in NDVI in this region. This study provides useful information to develop an integrated management and conservation plan for climate change adaptation and promote biodiversity conservation in the YNR.

  18. Mapping and Evaluation of NDVI Trends from Synthetic Time Series Obtained by Blending Landsat and MODIS Data around a Coalfield on the Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly intensive and extensive coal mining activities on the Loess Plateau pose a threat to the fragile local ecosystems. Quantifying the effects of coal mining activities on environmental conditions is of great interest for restoring and managing the local ecosystems and resources. This paper generates dense NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index time series between 2000 and 2011 at a spatial resolution of 30 m by blending Landsat and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM and further evaluates its capability for mapping vegetation trends around a typical coalfield on the Loss Plateau. Synthetic NDVI images were generated using (1 STARFM-generated NIR (near infrared and red band reflectance data (scheme 1 and (2 Landsat and MODIS NDVI images directly as inputs for STARFM (scheme 2. By comparing the synthetic NDVI images with the corresponding Landsat NDVI, we found that scheme 2 consistently generated better results (0.70 < R2 < 0.76 than scheme 1 (0.56 < R2 < 0.70 in this study area. Trend analysis was then performed with the synthetic dense NDVI time series and the annual maximum NDVI (NDVImax time series. The accuracy of these trends was evaluated by comparing to those from the corresponding MODIS time series, and it was concluded that both the trends from synthetic/MODIS NDVI dense time series and synthetic/MODIS NDVImax time series (2000–2011 were highly consistent. Compared to trends from MODIS time series, trends from synthetic time series are better able to capture fine scale vegetation changes. STARFM-generated synthetic NDVI time series could be used to quantify the effects of mining activities on vegetation, but the test areas should be selected with caution, as the trends derived from synthetic and MODIS time series may be significantly different in some areas.

  19. Estimating tree species diversity in the savannah using NDVI and woody canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonsela, Sabelo; Cho, Moses Azong; Ramoelo, Abel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Naidoo, Laven

    2018-04-01

    Remote sensing applications in biodiversity research often rely on the establishment of relationships between spectral information from the image and tree species diversity measured in the field. Most studies have used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate tree species diversity on the basis that it is sensitive to primary productivity which defines spatial variation in plant diversity. The NDVI signal is influenced by photosynthetically active vegetation which, in the savannah, includes woody canopy foliage and grasses. The question is whether the relationship between NDVI and tree species diversity in the savanna depends on the woody cover percentage. This study explored the relationship between woody canopy cover (WCC) and tree species diversity in the savannah woodland of southern Africa and also investigated whether there is a significant interaction between seasonal NDVI and WCC in the factorial model when estimating tree species diversity. To fulfil our aim, we followed stratified random sampling approach and surveyed tree species in 68 plots of 90 m × 90 m across the study area. Within each plot, all trees with diameter at breast height of >10 cm were sampled and Shannon index - a common measure of species diversity which considers both species richness and abundance - was used to quantify tree species diversity. We then extracted WCC in each plot from existing fractional woody cover product produced from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Factorial regression model was used to determine the interaction effect between NDVI and WCC when estimating tree species diversity. Results from regression analysis showed that (i) WCC has a highly significant relationship with tree species diversity (r2 = 0.21; p NDVI and WCC is not significant, however, the factorial model significantly reduced the error of prediction (RMSE = 0.47, p NDVI (RMSE = 0.49) or WCC (RMSE = 0.49) model during the senescence period. The result justifies our assertion

  20. Trend analysis of GIMMS and MODIS NDVI time series for establishing a land degradation neutrality national baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichenje, Helene; Godinho, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation is a key global environment and development problem that is recognized as a priority by the international development community. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by the global community in 2015, and include a goal related to land degradation and the accompanying target to achieve a land degradation-neutral (LDN) world by 2030. The LDN concept encompasses two joint actions of reducing the rate of degradation and increasing the rate of restoration. Using Kenya as the study area, this study aims to develop and test a spatially explicit methodology for assessing and monitoring the operationalization of a land degradation neutrality scheme at the national level. Time series analysis is applied to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) satellite data records, based on the hypothesis that the resulting NDVI residual trend would enable successful detection of changes in vegetation photosynthetic capacity and thus serve as a proxy for land degradation and regeneration processes. Two NDVI data sets are used to identify the spatial and temporal distribution of degraded and regenerated areas: the long term coarse resolution (8km, 1982-2015) third generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) NDVI3g data record; and the shorter-term finer resolution (250m, 2001-2015) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived NDVI data record. Climate data (rainfall, temperature and soil moisture) are used to separate areas of human-induced vegetation productivity decline from those driven by climate dynamics. Further, weekly vegetation health (VH) indexes (4km, 1982-2015) developed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), are assessed as indicators for early detection and monitoring of land degradation by estimating vegetation stress (moisture, thermal and combined conditions).

  1. Variations in Growing-Season NDVI and Its Response to Permafrost Degradation in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinting Guo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost is extremely sensitive to climate change. The degradation of permafrost has strong and profound effects on vegetation. The permafrost zone of northeastern China is the second largest region of permafrost in China and lies on the south edge of the Eurasian cryolithozone. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal variations of the growing-season Normalization Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI in the permafrost zone of northeastern China and analyzed the correlation between NDVI and ground surface temperatures (GST during the years 1981–2014. Mean growing-season NDVI (MGS-NDVI experienced a marked increase of 0.003 year−1 across the entire permafrost zone. The spatial dynamics of vegetation cover had a high degree of heterogeneity on a per pixel scale. The MGS-NDVI value increased significantly (5% significance level in 80.57%, and this increase was mostly distributed in permafrost zone except for the western steppe region. Only 7.72% experienced a significant decrease in NDVI, mainly in the cultivated and steppe portions. In addition, MGS-NDVI increased significantly with increasing growing-season mean ground surface temperature (GS-MGST. Our results suggest that a warming of GS-MGST (permafrost degradation in the permafrost region of northeastern China played a positive role in increasing plant growth and activities. Although increasing ground surface temperature resulted in increased vegetation cover and growth in the short time of permafrost degradation, from the long term point of view, permafrost degradation or disappearance may weaken or even hinder vegetation activities.

  2. High-Resolution NDVI from Planet's Constellation of Earth Observing Nano-Satellites: A New Data Source for Precision Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Planet Labs ("Planet") operate the largest fleet of active nano-satellites in orbit, offering an unprecedented monitoring capacity of daily and global RGB image capture at 3-5 m resolution. However, limitations in spectral resolution and lack of accurate radiometric sensor calibration impact the utility of this rich information source. In this study, Planet's RGB imagery was translated into a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): a common metric for vegetation growth and condition. Our framework employs a data mining approach to build a set of rule-based regression models that relate RGB data to atmospherically corrected Landsat-8 NDVI. The approach was evaluated over a desert agricultural landscape in Saudi Arabia where the use of near-coincident (within five days) Planet and Landsat-8 acquisitions in the training of the regression models resulted in NDVI predictabilities with an r2 of approximately 0.97 and a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) on the order of 0.014 (~9%). The MAD increased to 0.021 (~14%) when the Landsat NDVI training image was further away (i.e., 11-16 days) from the corrected Planet image. In these cases, the use of MODIS observations to inform on the change in NDVI occurring between overpasses was shown to significantly improve prediction accuracies. MAD levels ranged from 0.002 to 0.011 (3.9% to 9.1%) for the best performing 80% of the data. The technique is generic and extendable to any region of interest, increasing the utility of Planet's dense time-series of RGB imagery.

  3. High-Resolution NDVI from Planet's Constellation of Earth Observing Nano-Satellites: A New Data Source for Precision Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2016-09-19

    Planet Labs ("Planet") operate the largest fleet of active nano-satellites in orbit, offering an unprecedented monitoring capacity of daily and global RGB image capture at 3-5 m resolution. However, limitations in spectral resolution and lack of accurate radiometric sensor calibration impact the utility of this rich information source. In this study, Planet\\'s RGB imagery was translated into a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): a common metric for vegetation growth and condition. Our framework employs a data mining approach to build a set of rule-based regression models that relate RGB data to atmospherically corrected Landsat-8 NDVI. The approach was evaluated over a desert agricultural landscape in Saudi Arabia where the use of near-coincident (within five days) Planet and Landsat-8 acquisitions in the training of the regression models resulted in NDVI predictabilities with an r2 of approximately 0.97 and a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) on the order of 0.014 (~9%). The MAD increased to 0.021 (~14%) when the Landsat NDVI training image was further away (i.e., 11-16 days) from the corrected Planet image. In these cases, the use of MODIS observations to inform on the change in NDVI occurring between overpasses was shown to significantly improve prediction accuracies. MAD levels ranged from 0.002 to 0.011 (3.9% to 9.1%) for the best performing 80% of the data. The technique is generic and extendable to any region of interest, increasing the utility of Planet\\'s dense time-series of RGB imagery.

  4. Relationships between NDVI, canopy structure, and photosynthesis in three California vegetation types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamon, J.A.; Field, C.B.; Goulden, M.L.; Griffin, K.L.; Hartley, A.E.; Joel, G.; Penuelas, J.; Valentini, R.

    1995-01-01

    In a range of plant species from three Californian vegetation types, we examined the widely used ''normalized difference vegetation index'' (NDVI) and ''simple ratio'' (SR) as indicators of canopy structure, light absorption, and photosynthetic activity. These indices, which are derived from canopy reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavebands, highlighted phenological differences between evergreen and deciduous canopies. They were poor indicators of total canopy biomass due to the varying abundance of non-green standing biomass in these vegetation types. However, in sparse canopies (leaf area index (LAI) apprxeq 0-2), NDVI was a sensitive indicator of canopy structure and chemical content (green biomass, green leaf area index, chlorophyll content, and foliar nitrogen content). At higher canopy green LAI values ( gt 2; typical of dense shrubs and trees), NDVI was relatively insensitive to changes in canopy structure. Compared to SR, NDVI was better correlated with indicators of canopy structure and chemical content, but was equivalent to the logarithm of SR. In agreement with theoretical expectations, both NDVI and SR exhibited near-linear correlations with fractional PAR intercepted by green leaves over a wide range of canopy densities. Maximum daily photosynthetic rates were positively correlated with NDVI and SR in annual grassland and semideciduous shrubs where canopy development and photosynthetic activity were in synchrony. The indices were also correlated with peak springtime canopy photosynthetic rates in evergreens. However, over most of the year, these indices were poor predictors of photosynthetic performance in evergreen species due to seasonal reductions in photosynthetic radiation-use efficiency that occurred without substantial declines in canopy greenness. Our results support the use of these vegetation indices as remote indicators of PAR absorption, and thus potential photosynthetic activity, even in

  5. A Kalman Filter-Based Method to Generate Continuous Time Series of Medium-Resolution NDVI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sedano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A data assimilation method to produce complete temporal sequences of synthetic medium-resolution images is presented. The method implements a Kalman filter recursive algorithm that integrates medium and moderate resolution imagery. To demonstrate the approach, time series of 30-m spatial resolution NDVI images at 16-day time steps were generated using Landsat NDVI images and MODIS NDVI products at four sites with different ecosystems and land cover-land use dynamics. The results show that the time series of synthetic NDVI images captured seasonal land surface dynamics and maintained the spatial structure of the landscape at higher spatial resolution. The time series of synthetic medium-resolution NDVI images were validated within a Monte Carlo simulation framework. Normalized residuals decreased as the number of available observations increased, ranging from 0.2 to below 0.1. Residuals were also significantly lower for time series of synthetic NDVI images generated at combined recursion (smoothing than individually at forward and backward recursions (filtering. Conversely, the uncertainties of the synthetic images also decreased when the number of available observations increased and combined recursions were implemented.

  6. [Modeling continuous scaling of NDVI based on fractal theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hai-Jun; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Yu, Tao; Hu, Xin-Li; Huang, Yan; Du, Ling-Tong; Zhao, Li-Min; Wei, Xi; Han, Jie; Zhang, Zhou-Wei; Li, Shao-Peng

    2013-07-01

    Scale effect was one of the very important scientific problems of remote sensing. The scale effect of quantitative remote sensing can be used to study retrievals' relationship between different-resolution images, and its research became an effective way to confront the challenges, such as validation of quantitative remote sensing products et al. Traditional up-scaling methods cannot describe scale changing features of retrievals on entire series of scales; meanwhile, they are faced with serious parameters correction issues because of imaging parameters' variation of different sensors, such as geometrical correction, spectral correction, etc. Utilizing single sensor image, fractal methodology was utilized to solve these problems. Taking NDVI (computed by land surface radiance) as example and based on Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image, a scheme was proposed to model continuous scaling of retrievals. Then the experimental results indicated that: (a) For NDVI, scale effect existed, and it could be described by fractal model of continuous scaling; (2) The fractal method was suitable for validation of NDVI. All of these proved that fractal was an effective methodology of studying scaling of quantitative remote sensing.

  7. Using NDVI and guided sampling to develop yield prediction maps of processing tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, A.; Henar Prieto, M. del; García-Martín, A.; Córdoba, A.; Martínez, L.; Campillo, C.

    2015-07-01

    The use of yield prediction maps is an important tool for the delineation of within-field management zones. Vegetation indices based on crop reflectance are of potential use in the attainment of this objective. There are different types of vegetation indices based on crop reflectance, the most commonly used of which is the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index). NDVI values are reported to have good correlation with several vegetation parameters including the ability to predict yield. The field research was conducted in two commercial farms of processing tomato crop, Cantillana and Enviciados. An NDVI prediction map developed through ordinary kriging technique was used for guided sampling of processing tomato yield. Yield was studied and related with NDVI, and finally a prediction map of crop yield for the entire plot was generated using two geostatistical methodologies (ordinary and regression kriging). Finally, a comparison was made between the yield obtained at validation points and the yield values according to the prediction maps. The most precise yield maps were obtained with the regression kriging methodology with RRMSE values of 14% and 17% in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively, using the NDVI as predictor. The coefficient of correlation between NDVI and yield was correlated in the point samples taken in the two locations, with values of 0.71 and 0.67 in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively. The results suggest that the use of a massive sampling parameter such as NDVI is a good indicator of the distribution of within-field yield variation. (Author)

  8. Correlation of meteorological parameters and remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) in Multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A; Akhtar, A; Khalid, B; Shamim, A

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and weather has a profound effect on the spread of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) which is transmitted by whitefly. Climate change is altering temperature and precipitation patterns, resulting in the shift of some insect/pest from small population to large population thus effecting crops yield. To find out the relationship between the weather conditions, outburst of CLCV and changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values due to the outburst of CLCV, a study was carried out for tehsil Multan. Data was acquired for the months of June, July, August and September for the year 2010. Regression analysis between CLCV and meteorological conditions as well as between CLCV and NDVI was performed. Meteorological parameters included temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloud cover, wind direction, pan evaporation and sunshine hours. NDVI values were calculated from SPOT satellite imagery (1km) using ArcMap10 and WinDisp v5.1. Correlation coefficients obtained in most of the cases were acceptable however the significance F and P-value were higher than their critical value at 95% level of significance. Therefore significant correlation was found only between CLCV and temperature and between CLCV and PAN evaporation during the month of July.

  9. Analyzing the Velocity of Vegetation Phenology Over the Tibetan Plateau Using Gimms NDVI3g Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. K.

    2018-05-01

    Global environmental change is rapidly altering the dynamics of terrestrial vegetation, and phenology is a classic proxy to detect the response of vegetation to the changes. On the Tibetan Plateau, the earlier spring and delayed autumn vegetation phenology is widely reported. Remotely sensed NDVI can serve as a good data source for vegetation phenology study. Here GIMMS NDVI3g data was used to detect vegetation phenology status on the Tibetan Plateau. The spatial and temporal gradients are combined to depict the velocity of vegetation expanding process. This velocity index represents the instantaneous local velocity along the Earth's surface needed to maintain constant vegetation condition. This study found that NDVI velocity show a complex spatial pattern. A considerable number of regions display a later starting of growing season (SOS) and earlier end of growing season (EOS) reflected by the velocity change, particularly in the central part of the plateau. Nearly 74 % vegetation experienced a shortened growing season length. Totally, the magnitude of the phenology velocity is at a small level that reveals there is not a significant variation of vegetation phenology under the climate change context.

  10. Mapping irrigated areas in Afghanistan over the past decade using MODIS NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Budde, Michael; Rowland, James

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production capacity contributes to food security in Afghanistan and is largely dependent on irrigated farming, mostly utilizing surface water fed by snowmelt. Because of the high contribution of irrigated crops (> 80%) to total agricultural production, knowing the spatial distribution and year-to-year variability in irrigated areas is imperative to monitoring food security for the country. We used 16-day composites of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to create 23-point time series for each year from 2000 through 2013. Seasonal peak values and time series were used in a threshold-dependent decision tree algorithm to map irrigated areas in Afghanistan for the last 14 years. In the absence of ground reference irrigated area information, we evaluated these maps with the irrigated areas classified from multiple snapshots of the landscape during the growing season from Landsat 5 optical and thermal sensor images. We were able to identify irrigated areas using Landsat imagery by selecting as irrigated those areas with Landsat-derived NDVI greater than 0.30–0.45, depending on the date of the Landsat image and surface temperature less than or equal to 310 Kelvin (36.9 ° C). Due to the availability of Landsat images, we were able to compare with the MODIS-derived maps for four years: 2000, 2009, 2010, and 2011. The irrigated areas derived from Landsat agreed well r2 = 0.91 with the irrigated areas derived from MODIS, providing confidence in the MODIS NDVI threshold approach. The maps portrayed a highly dynamic irrigated agriculture practice in Afghanistan, where the amount of irrigated area was largely determined by the availability of surface water, especially snowmelt, and varied by as much as 30% between water surplus and water deficit years. During the past 14 years, 2001, 2004, and 2008 showed the lowest levels of irrigated area (~ 1.5 million hectares), attesting to

  11. Markov Chain Modelling for Short-Term NDVI Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepčenko Artūrs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the NDVI time series forecasting model has been developed based on the use of discrete time, continuous state Markov chain of suitable order. The normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI is an indicator that describes the amount of chlorophyll (the green mass and shows the relative density and health of vegetation; therefore, it is an important variable for vegetation forecasting. A Markov chain is a stochastic process that consists of a state space. This stochastic process undergoes transitions from one state to another in the state space with some probabilities. A Markov chain forecast model is flexible in accommodating various forecast assumptions and structures. The present paper discusses the considerations and techniques in building a Markov chain forecast model at each step. Continuous state Markov chain model is analytically described. Finally, the application of the proposed Markov chain model is illustrated with reference to a set of NDVI time series data.

  12. Stability of Spatial Distributions of Stink Bugs, Boll Injury, and NDVI in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K; Bauer, Philip J

    2016-10-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the degree of aggregation of stink bugs and boll injury in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and their spatial association with a multispectral vegetation index (normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]). Using the spatial analysis by distance indices analyses, stink bugs were less frequently aggregated (17% for adults and 4% for nymphs) than boll injury (36%). NDVI values were also significantly aggregated within fields in 19 of 48 analyses (40%), with the majority of significant indices occurring in July and August. Paired NDVI datasets from different sampling dates were frequently associated (86.5% for weekly intervals among datasets). Spatial distributions of both stink bugs and boll injury were less stable than for NDVI, with positive associations varying from 12.5 to 25% for adult stink bugs for weekly intervals, depending on species. Spatial distributions of boll injury from stink bug feeding were more stable than stink bugs, with 46% positive associations among paired datasets with weekly intervals. NDVI values were positively associated with boll injury from stink bug feeding in 11 out of 22 analyses, with no significant negative associations. This indicates that NDVI has potential as a component of site-specific management. Future work should continue to examine the value of remote sensing for insect management in cotton, with an aim to develop tools such as risk assessment maps that will help growers to reduce insecticide inputs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Does NDVI reflect variation in the structural attributes associated with increasing shrub dominance in arctic tundra?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelman, Natalie T [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Gough, Laura; McLaren, Jennie R [Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Greaves, Heather, E-mail: nboelman@ldeo.columbia.edu [Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, 321 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study explores relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and structural characteristics associated with deciduous shrub dominance in arctic tundra. Our structural measures of shrub dominance are stature, branch abundance, aerial per cent woody stem cover (deciduous and evergreen species), and per cent deciduous shrub canopy cover. All measurements were taken across a suite of transects that together represent a gradient of deciduous shrub height. The transects include tussock tundra shrub and riparian shrub tundra communities located in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, in northern Alaska. Plot-level NDVI measurements were made in 2010 during the snow-free period prior to deciduous shrub leaf-out (early June, NDVI{sub pre-leaf}), at the point in the growing season when canopy NDVI has reached half of its maximum growing season value (mid-June, NDVI{sub demi-leaf}) and during the period of maximum leaf-out (late July, NDVI{sub peak-leaf}). We found that: (1) NDVI{sub pre-leaf} is best suited to capturing variation in the per cent woody stem cover, maximum shrub height, and branch abundance, particularly between 10 and 50 cm height in the canopy; (2) NDVI{sub peak-leaf} is best suited to capturing variation in deciduous canopy cover; and (3) NDVI{sub demi-leaf} does not capture variability in any of our measures of shrub dominance. These findings suggest that in situ NDVI measurements made prior to deciduous canopy leaf-out could be used to identify small differences in maximum shrub height, woody stem cover, and branch abundance (particularly between 10 and 50 cm height in the canopy). Because shrubs are increasing in size and regional extent in several regions of the Arctic, investigation into spectrally based tools for monitoring these changes are worthwhile as they provide a first step towards development of remotely sensed techniques for quantifying associated changes in regional carbon cycling, albedo, radiative

  14. Does NDVI reflect variation in the structural attributes associated with increasing shrub dominance in arctic tundra?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boelman, Natalie T; Gough, Laura; McLaren, Jennie R; Greaves, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This study explores relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and structural characteristics associated with deciduous shrub dominance in arctic tundra. Our structural measures of shrub dominance are stature, branch abundance, aerial per cent woody stem cover (deciduous and evergreen species), and per cent deciduous shrub canopy cover. All measurements were taken across a suite of transects that together represent a gradient of deciduous shrub height. The transects include tussock tundra shrub and riparian shrub tundra communities located in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, in northern Alaska. Plot-level NDVI measurements were made in 2010 during the snow-free period prior to deciduous shrub leaf-out (early June, NDVI pre-leaf ), at the point in the growing season when canopy NDVI has reached half of its maximum growing season value (mid-June, NDVI demi-leaf ) and during the period of maximum leaf-out (late July, NDVI peak-leaf ). We found that: (1) NDVI pre-leaf is best suited to capturing variation in the per cent woody stem cover, maximum shrub height, and branch abundance, particularly between 10 and 50 cm height in the canopy; (2) NDVI peak-leaf is best suited to capturing variation in deciduous canopy cover; and (3) NDVI demi-leaf does not capture variability in any of our measures of shrub dominance. These findings suggest that in situ NDVI measurements made prior to deciduous canopy leaf-out could be used to identify small differences in maximum shrub height, woody stem cover, and branch abundance (particularly between 10 and 50 cm height in the canopy). Because shrubs are increasing in size and regional extent in several regions of the Arctic, investigation into spectrally based tools for monitoring these changes are worthwhile as they provide a first step towards development of remotely sensed techniques for quantifying associated changes in regional carbon cycling, albedo, radiative energy balance, and wildlife

  15. [Variation trends of the vegetations in distribution region of Amur tiger based on MODIS NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Ru; Wang, Tian-Ming; Ge, Han-Ping

    2012-10-01

    By using the averaged 250 m MODIS NDVI data in growth seasons of 2000-2010 and the approach of ordinary linear regression, this paper analyzed the variation trends of the vegetations in the distribution region of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), the Far East region of Russia and the eastern part of Northeast China, as well as the relationships between these variation trends and the anthropogenic activities. In 2000 - 2010, the areas with significantly decreased NDVI were sparsely distributed and accounted for 9.6% of the total, while the areas with significantly increased NDVI were mainly concentrated in the central part of northern Russia Far East Region and only accounted for 0.5% of the total. The percentage of the areas with significantly decreased NDVI in the distribution region of Amur tiger was slightly higher than that in the whole study region. The areas with significantly decreased NDVI were mainly distributed in the places of low elevation, gentle slope, and close to roads/railroads. The number of the pixels with significantly decreased NDVI increased with the increase of the nearest distance to residential locations first, and then decreased gradually. The significant decrease of the NDVI was closely related to the anthropogenic activities, and thus, to adopt effective measures to reduce human disturbances could control the vegetation degradation, and further, provide sustainable basis for the protection of Amur tiger and the conservation of the biodiversity in the studied region.

  16. Studies on MODIS NDVI and its relation with the south west monsoon, western ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Kumar, Tv; Barbosa, Humberto; Uma, R.; Rao, Koteswara

    2012-07-01

    Eleven years (2000 to 2010) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, derived from Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra with 250m resolution are used in the present study to discuss the changes in the trends of vegetal cover. The interannual variability of NDVI over western ghats (number of test sites are 17) showed increasing trend and the pronounced changes are resulted due to the monsoon variability in terms of its distribution (wide spread/fairly wide spread/scattered/isolated) and activity (vigorous/normal/weak) and are studied in detail. The NDVI progression is observed from June with a minimum value of 0.179 and yielded to maximum at 0.565 during September/October, on average. The study then relates the NDVI with the no of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events via statistical techniques such as correlation and regression to understand the connection in between the ground vegetation and the south west monsoon. The results of the study inferred i) NDVI, Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) are in good agreement throughout the monsoon which is evidenced by correlation as well as by Morlett Wavelet Analysis, ii) NDVI maintained good correlation with no of Light Rainy and Moderate Rainy alternatively but not with no of Heavy Rainy days, iii) Relation of NDVI with Isolated, Scattered distributions and active monsoons is substantial and iv) Phenological stages captured the Rate of Green Up during the crop season over western ghats.

  17. The Influence of Drought and Flood Disasters on Rice NDVI in Summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Meihua; Hongyan, Zhang; Zhao, Jianjun; Guo, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    During the period from 1995 to 2010, flooding and drought occurred frequently in North Korea. This greatly affected agriculture. The precipitation data was the main factor evaluated in flood and drought monitoring. In this study, the Z index method was used to estimate the change in precipitation, calculated from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data. The Z index and the NDVI were combined with the map of distribution of rice to analyze the relationship between the Z index and NDVI during the growing months of rice in recent 12 years. The results revealed that the Z index is a good indicator to study the relative changes of precipitation in North Korea, and that the relationship between the Z index and NDVI in a quadratic function

  18. QTL mapping of root traits in phosphorus-deficient soils reveals important genomic regions for improving NDVI and grain yield in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue; McDonald, Glenn

    2017-09-01

    Major QTLs for root rhizosheath size are not correlated with grain yield or yield response to phosphorus. Important QTLs were found to improve phosphorus efficiency. Root traits are important for phosphorus (P) acquisition, but they are often difficult to characterize and their breeding values are seldom assessed under field conditions. This has shed doubts on using seedling-based criteria of root traits to select and breed for P efficiency. Eight root traits were assessed under controlled conditions in a barley doubled-haploid population in soils differing in P levels. The population was also phenotyped for grain yield, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), grain P uptake and P utilization efficiency at maturity (PutE GY ) under field conditions. Several quantitative traits loci (QTLs) from the root screening and the field trials were co-incident. QTLs for root rhizosheath size and root diameter explained the highest phenotypic variation in comparison to QTLs for other root traits. Shared QTLs were found between root diameter and grain yield, and total root length and PutE GY . A common major QTL for rhizosheath size and NDVI was mapped to the HvMATE gene marker on chromosome 4H. Collocations between major QTLs for NDVI and grain yield were detected on chromosomes 6H and 7H. When results from BIP and MET were combined, QTLs detected for grain yield were also those QTLs found for NDVI. QTLs qGY5H, qGY6H and qGY7Hb on 7H were robust QTLs in improving P efficiency. A selection of multiple loci may be needed to optimize the breeding outcomes due to the QTL x Environment interaction. We suggest that rhizosheath size alone is not a reliable trait to predict P efficiency or grain yield.

  19. [Application of regression tree in analyzing the effects of climate factors on NDVI in loess hilly area of Shaanxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lü, Yi-he; Zheng, Hai-feng; Chen, Li-ding

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 10-day SPOT VEGETATION NDVI data and the daily meteorological data from 1998 to 2007 in Yan' an City, the main meteorological variables affecting the annual and interannual variations of NDVI were determined by using regression tree. It was found that the effects of test meteorological variables on the variability of NDVI differed with seasons and time lags. Temperature and precipitation were the most important meteorological variables affecting the annual variation of NDVI, and the average highest temperature was the most important meteorological variable affecting the inter-annual variation of NDVI. Regression tree was very powerful in determining the key meteorological variables affecting NDVI variation, but could not build quantitative relations between NDVI and meteorological variables, which limited its further and wider application.

  20. Using ESAP Software for Predicting the Spatial Distributions of NDVI and Transpiration of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has many applications in agricultural management, including monitoring real-time crop coefficients for estimating crop evapotranspiration (ET). However, frequent monitoring of NDVI as needed in such applications is generally not feasible from aerial ...

  1. [Spatiotemporal variation of vegetation in northern Shaanxi of Northwest China based on SPOT-VGT NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Zheng; Zhao, Peng-Xiang; Hao, Hong-Ke; Chang, Ming

    2012-07-01

    By using 1998-2010 SPOT-VGT NDVI images, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of vegetation in northern Shaanxi. In 1998-2010, the NDVI in northern Shaanxi had an obvious seasonal variation. The average monthly NDVI was the minimum (0.14) in January and the maximum (0.46) in August, with a mean value of 0.28. The average annual NDVI presented an overall increasing trend, indicating that the vegetation in this area was in restoring. Spatially, the restoration of vegetation in this area was concentrated in central south part, and the degradation mainly occurred in the north of the Great Wall. Air temperature and precipitation were the important climate factors affecting the variation of vegetation, with the linear correlation coefficients to NDVI being 0.72 and 0.58, respectively. The regions with better restored vegetation were mainly on the slopes of 15 degrees-25 degrees, indicating that the Program of Conversion of Cropland to Forestland and Grassland had a favorable effect in the vegetation restoration in northern Shaanxi.

  2. NDVI, scale invariance and the modifiable areal unit problem: An assessment of vegetation in the Adelaide Parklands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Hamideh; Anderson, Sharolyn; Sutton, Paul; Beecham, Simon; Nagler, Pamela; Jarchow, Christopher J; Roberts, Dar A

    2017-04-15

    This research addresses the question as to whether or not the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is scale invariant (i.e. constant over spatial aggregation) for pure pixels of urban vegetation. It has been long recognized that there are issues related to the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) pertaining to indices such as NDVI and images at varying spatial resolutions. These issues are relevant to using NDVI values in spatial analyses. We compare two different methods of calculation of a mean NDVI: 1) using pixel values of NDVI within feature/object boundaries and 2) first calculating the mean red and mean near-infrared across all feature pixels and then calculating NDVI. We explore the nature and magnitude of these differences for images taken from two sensors, a 1.24m resolution WorldView-3 and a 0.1m resolution digital aerial image. We apply these methods over an urban park located in the Adelaide Parklands of South Australia. We demonstrate that the MAUP is not an issue for calculation of NDVI within a sensor for pure urban vegetation pixels. This may prove useful for future rule-based monitoring of the ecosystem functioning of green infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal variations of leaf and canopy properties tracked by ground-based NDVI imagery in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hualei; Yang, Xi; Heskel, Mary; Sun, Shucun; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-04-28

    Changes in plant phenology affect the carbon flux of terrestrial forest ecosystems due to the link between the growing season length and vegetation productivity. Digital camera imagery, which can be acquired frequently, has been used to monitor seasonal and annual changes in forest canopy phenology and track critical phenological events. However, quantitative assessment of the structural and biochemical controls of the phenological patterns in camera images has rarely been done. In this study, we used an NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) camera to monitor daily variations of vegetation reflectance at visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands with high spatial and temporal resolutions, and found that the infrared camera based NDVI (camera-NDVI) agreed well with the leaf expansion process that was measured by independent manual observations at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. We also measured the seasonality of canopy structural (leaf area index, LAI) and biochemical properties (leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content). We found significant linear relationships between camera-NDVI and leaf chlorophyll concentration, and between camera-NDVI and leaf nitrogen content, though weaker relationships between camera-NDVI and LAI. Therefore, we recommend ground-based camera-NDVI as a powerful tool for long-term, near surface observations to monitor canopy development and to estimate leaf chlorophyll, nitrogen status, and LAI.

  4. Integrated NDVI images for Niger 1986-1987. [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John A., Jr.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Tucker, Compton J.

    1988-01-01

    Two NOAA AVHRR images are presented which provide a comparison of the geographic distribution of an integration of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for the Sahel zone in Niger for the growing seasons of 1986 and 1987. The production of the images and the application of the images for resource management are discussed. Daily large area coverage with a spatial resolution of 1.1 km at nadir were transformed to the NDVI and geographically registered to produce the images.

  5. Integrating age in the detection and mapping of incongruous patches in coffee (Coffea arabica) plantations using multi-temporal Landsat 8 NDVI anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemura, Abel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dube, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    The development of cost-effective, reliable and easy to implement crop condition monitoring methods is urgently required for perennial tree crops such as coffee (Coffea arabica), as they are grown over large areas and represent long term and higher levels of investment. These monitoring methods are useful in identifying farm areas that experience poor crop growth, pest infestation, diseases outbreaks and/or to monitor response to management interventions. This study compares field level coffee mean NDVI and LSWI anomalies and age-adjusted coffee mean NDVI and LSWI anomalies in identifying and mapping incongruous patches across perennial coffee plantations. To achieve this objective, we first derived deviation of coffee pixels from the global coffee mean NDVI and LSWI values of nine sequential Landsat 8 OLI image scenes. We then evaluated the influence of coffee age class (young, mature and old) on Landsat-scale NDVI and LSWI values using a one-way ANOVA and since results showed significant differences, we adjusted NDVI and LSWI anomalies for age-class. We then used the cumulative inverse distribution function (α ≤ 0.05) to identify fields and within field areas with excessive deviation of NDVI and LSWI from the global and the age-expected mean for each of the Landsat 8 OLI scene dates spanning three seasons. Results from accuracy assessment indicated that it was possible to separate incongruous and healthy patches using these anomalies and that using NDVI performed better than using LSWI for both global and age-adjusted mean anomalies. Using the age-adjusted anomalies performed better in separating incongruous and healthy patches than using the global mean for both NDVI (Overall accuracy = 80.9% and 68.1% respectively) and for LSWI (Overall accuracy = 68.1% and 48.9% respectively). When applied to other Landsat 8 OLI scenes, the results showed that the proportions of coffee fields that were modelled incongruent decreased with time for the young age category and

  6. Mapping grassland productivity with 250-m eMODIS NDVI and SSURGO database over the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Bliss, Norman B.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed and described a relationship between satellite-derived growing season averaged Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and annual productivity for grasslands within the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) of the United States. We compared growing season averaged NDVI (GSN) with Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database rangeland productivity and flux tower Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) for grassland areas. The GSN was calculated for each of nine years (2000–2008) using the 7-day composite 250-m eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. Strong correlations exist between the nine-year mean GSN (MGSN) and SSURGO annual productivity for grasslands (R2 = 0.74 for approximately 8000 pixels randomly selected from eight homogeneous regions within the GPRB; R2 = 0.96 for the 14 cluster-averaged points). Results also reveal a strong correlation between GSN and flux tower growing season averaged GPP (R2 = 0.71). Finally, we developed an empirical equation to estimate grassland productivity based on the MGSN. Spatially explicit estimates of grassland productivity over the GPRB were generated, which improved the regional consistency of SSURGO grassland productivity data and can help scientists and land managers to better understand the actual biophysical and ecological characteristics of grassland systems in the GPRB. This final estimated grassland production map can also be used as an input for biogeochemical, ecological, and climate change models.

  7. UAV-based NDVI calculation over grassland: An alternative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham; Tomelleri, Enrico; Asam, Sarah; Zebisch, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is one of the most widely used indicators for monitoring and assessing vegetation in remote sensing. The index relies on the reflectance difference between the near infrared (NIR) and red light and is thus able to track variations of structural, phenological, and biophysical parameters for seasonal and long-term monitoring. Conventionally, NDVI is inferred from space-borne spectroradiometers, such as MODIS, with moderate resolution up to 250 m ground resolution. In recent years, a new generation of miniaturized radiometers and integrated hyperspectral sensors with high resolution became available. Such small and light instruments are particularly adequate to be mounted on airborne unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used for monitoring services reaching ground sampling resolution in the order of centimetres. Nevertheless, such miniaturized radiometers and hyperspectral sensors are still very expensive and require high upfront capital costs. Therefore, we propose an alternative, mainly cheaper method to calculate NDVI using a camera constellation consisting of two conventional consumer-grade cameras: (i) a Ricoh GR modified camera that acquires the NIR spectrum by removing the internal infrared filter. A mounted optical filter additionally obstructs all wavelengths below 700 nm. (ii) A Ricoh GR in RGB configuration using two optical filters for blocking wavelengths below 600 nm as well as NIR and ultraviolet (UV) light. To assess the merit of the proposed method, we carry out two comparisons: First, reflectance maps generated by the consumer-grade camera constellation are compared to reflectance maps produced with a hyperspectral camera (Rikola). All imaging data and reflectance maps are processed using the PIX4D software. In the second test, the NDVI at specific points of interest (POI) generated by the consumer-grade camera constellation is compared to NDVI values obtained by ground spectral measurements using a

  8. NDVI as a predictor of canopy arthropod biomass in the Alaskan arctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Shannan K; Asmus, Ashley; Rich, Matthew E; Wingfield, John; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie T

    2015-04-01

    The physical and biological responses to rapid arctic warming are proving acute, and as such, there is a need to monitor, understand, and predict ecological responses over large spatial and temporal scales. The use of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) acquired from airborne and satellite sensors addresses this need, as it is widely used as a tool for detecting and quantifying spatial and temporal dynamics of tundra vegetation cover, productivity, and phenology. Such extensive use of the NDVI to quantify vegetation characteristics suggests that it may be similarly applied to characterizing primary and secondary consumer communities. Here, we develop empirical models to predict canopy arthropod biomass with canopy-level measurements of the NDVI both across and within distinct tundra vegetation communities over four growing seasons in the Arctic Foothills region of the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA. When canopy arthropod biomass is predicted with the NDVI across all four growing seasons, our overall model that includes all four vegetation communities explains 63% of the variance in canopy arthropod biomass, whereas our models specific to each of the four vegetation communities explain 74% (moist tussock tundra), 82% (erect shrub tundra), 84% (riparian shrub tundra), and 87% (dwarf shrub tundra) of the observed variation in canopy arthropod biomass. Our field-based study suggests that measurements of the NDVI made from air- and spaceborne sensors may be able to quantify spatial and temporal variation in canopy arthropod biomass at landscape to regional scales.

  9. A new NDVI measure that overcomes data sparsity in cloud-covered regions predicts annual variation in ground-based estimates of high arctic plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rune Karlsen, Stein; Anderson, Helen B.; van der Wal, René; Bremset Hansen, Brage

    2018-02-01

    Efforts to estimate plant productivity using satellite data can be frustrated by the presence of cloud cover. We developed a new method to overcome this problem, focussing on the high-arctic archipelago of Svalbard where extensive cloud cover during the growing season can prevent plant productivity from being estimated over large areas. We used a field-based time-series (2000-2009) of live aboveground vascular plant biomass data and a recently processed cloud-free MODIS-Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set (2000-2014) to estimate, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the onset of plant growth. We then summed NDVI values from onset of spring to the average time of peak NDVI to give an estimate of annual plant productivity. This remotely sensed productivity measure was then compared, at two different spatial scales, with the peak plant biomass field data. At both the local scale, surrounding the field data site, and the larger regional scale, our NDVI measure was found to predict plant biomass (adjusted R 2 = 0.51 and 0.44, respectively). The commonly used ‘maximum NDVI’ plant productivity index showed no relationship with plant biomass, likely due to some years having very few cloud-free images available during the peak plant growing season. Thus, we propose this new summed NDVI from onset of spring to time of peak NDVI as a proxy of large-scale plant productivity for regions such as the Arctic where climatic conditions restrict the availability of cloud-free images.

  10. Using MODIS NDVI phenoclasses and phenoclusters to characterize wildlife habitat: Mexican spotted owl as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra J. Hoagland; Paul Beier; Danny Lee

    2018-01-01

    Most uses of remotely sensed satellite data to characterize wildlife habitat have used metrics such as mean NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) in a year or season. These simple metrics do not take advantage of the temporal patterns in NDVI within and across years and the spatial arrangement of cells with various temporal NDVI signatures. Here we use 13 years...

  11. Climate and land use change in an Andean watershed: An NDVI analysis for the years 1985 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarino, M.; Finn, J.

    2013-12-01

    We perform a Landsat 5-TM derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis in a watershed (approximately 2700 km2) in southern Peru for the years 1985 through 2010. There in the Andes the livelihoods of the predominately Quechua speaking agro-pastoralists depend on access to natural resources. Vegetation within high-elevation wetlands, locally known as bofedales, is a critical resource that sustains herds of alpaca, sheep, and cattle especially during dry season months (June through August) and in drought. The watershed experiences high inter-annual variability in precipitation (attributed to the El Niño Southern Oscillation) and there are documented increases in air temperature and glacier retreat throughout the Andes. Using one dry-season scene per year for 20 of the 26 years from 1985 to 2010, we calculated NDVI for each pixel in the watershed and used these calculations to perform three objectives. First, we calculated mean NDVI for the Nuñoa watershed for each dry season scene. Using this annual watershed averaged NDVI as the response variable we performed a multiple linear regression with the covariates year, precipitation, and temperature in order to determine the relationship between the response and explanatory variables and if there is a trend in mean watershed dry-season NDVI from 1985 to 2010. Second, we delineated the wetlands (bofedales) based on a threshold value applied to the 26 year dry-season mean NDVI for each pixel in the watershed. Third, we performed a multiple linear regression for each pixel in the watershed (3,070,160) using cell specific annual dry-season NDVI as the response variable (n=20) and year, regional precipitation, and regional temperature indices as the predictor variables in order to review the spatial nature of NDVI changes in vegetation in the watershed throughout time (1985-2010), particularly with respect to bofedales. The results of these analyses indicate that there is reduced variability in dry season

  12. [Dynamic changes in vegetation NDVI from 1982 to 2012 and its responses to climate change and human activities in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia-qiang; Jiaerheng, Ahati; Zhao, Chenxi; Fang, Guang-ling; Yin, Jun-qi; Xiang, Bao; Yuan, Xin-jie; Fang, Shi-feng

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the terrestrial carbon balance and the climate system, and also overwhelmingly dominates the provisioning of ecosystem services. Therefore, it has significance to monitor the growth of vegetation. Based on AVHRR GIMMS NDVI and MODIS NDVI datasets, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of change in NDVI and their linkage with climate change and human activity from 1982 to 2012 in the typical arid region, Xinjiang of northwestern China, at pixel and regional scales. At regional scale, although a statistically significant positive trend of growing season NDVI with a rate of 4.09 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ was found during 1982-2012, there were two distinct periods with opposite trends in growing season NDVI before and after 1998, respectively. NDVI in growing season first significantly increased with a rate of 10 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ from 1982 to 1998, and then decreased with a rate of -3 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ from 1998 to 2012. The change in trend of NDVI from increase to decrease mainly occurred in summer, followed by autumn, and the reversal wasn't observed in spring. At pixel scale, the NDVI in farmland significantly increased; the NDVI changes in the growing season and all seasons showed polarization: Areas with significant change mostly increased in size as the NDVI record grown in length. The rate of increase in size of areas with significantly decreasing NDVI was larger than that with significantly increasing NDVI, which led to the NDVI increase obviously slowing down or stopping at regional scale. The vegetation growth in the study area was regulated by both climate change and human activity. Temperature was the most important driving factor in spring and autumn, whereas precipitation in summer. Extensive use of fertilizers and increased farmland irrigated area promoted the vegetation growth. However, the rapid increase in the proportion of cotton cultivation and use of drip irrigation might reduce spring NDVI in the

  13. Efficient Maize and Sunflower Multi-year Mapping with NDVI Time Series of HJ-1A/1B in Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B.; Shang, S.

    2016-12-01

    Food shortage is one of the major challenges that human beings are facing. It is urgent to improve the monitoring of the plantation and distribution of the main crops to solve the following economic and social issues. Recently, with the extensive use of remote sensing satellite data, it has provided favorable conditions for crop identification in large irrigation district with complex planting structure. Difference of different crop phenology is the main basis for crop identification, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time-series could better delineate crop phenology cycle. Therefore, the key of crop identification is to obtain high quality NDVI time-series. MODIS and Landsat TM satellite images are the most frequently used, however, neither of them could guarantee high temporal and spatial resolutions at once. Accordingly, this paper makes use of NDVI time-series extracted from China Environment Satellites data, which has two-day-repeat temporal and 30m spatial resolutions. The NDVI time-series are fitted with an asymmetric logistic curve, the fitting effect is good and the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.9. The phonological parameters are derived from NDVI fitting curves, and crop identification is carried out by different relation ellipses between NDVI and its phonological parameters of different crops. This paper takes Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia as an example, to identify multi-year maize and sunflower in the district, and the identification result is good. Compared with the official statistics, the relative errors are both lower than 5%. The results show that the NDVI time-series dataset derived from HJ-1A/1B CCD could delineate the crop phenology cycle accurately and demonstrate its application in crop identification in irrigated district.

  14. An application of plot-scale NDVI in predicting carbon dioxide exchange and leaf area index in heterogeneous subarctic tundra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagg, J.; Lafleur, P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the flow of carbon into and out of tundra ecosystems. It is necessary to accurately predict carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) exchange in the Tundra because of the impacts of climate change on carbon stored in permafrost. Understanding the relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation and CO{sub 2} exchange may explain how small-scale variation in vegetation community extends to remotely sensed estimates of landscape characteristics. In this study, CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured with a portable chamber in a range of Tundra vegetation communities. Biomass and leaf area were measured with destructive harvest, and NDVI was obtained using a hand-held infrared camera. There was a weak correlation between NDVI and leaf area index in some vegetation communities, but a significant correlation between NDVI and biomass, including mosses. NDVI was found to be strongly related to photosynthetic activity and net CO{sub 2} uptake in all vegetation groups. However, NDVI related to ecosystem respiration only in wet sedge. It was concluded that at plot scale, the ability of NDVI to predict ecosystem properties and CO{sub 2} exchange in heterogeneous Tundra vegetation is variable.

  15. An application of plot-scale NDVI in predicting carbon dioxide exchange and leaf area index in heterogeneous subarctic tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagg, J.; Lafleur, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the flow of carbon into and out of tundra ecosystems. It is necessary to accurately predict carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchange in the Tundra because of the impacts of climate change on carbon stored in permafrost. Understanding the relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation and CO 2 exchange may explain how small-scale variation in vegetation community extends to remotely sensed estimates of landscape characteristics. In this study, CO 2 fluxes were measured with a portable chamber in a range of Tundra vegetation communities. Biomass and leaf area were measured with destructive harvest, and NDVI was obtained using a hand-held infrared camera. There was a weak correlation between NDVI and leaf area index in some vegetation communities, but a significant correlation between NDVI and biomass, including mosses. NDVI was found to be strongly related to photosynthetic activity and net CO 2 uptake in all vegetation groups. However, NDVI related to ecosystem respiration only in wet sedge. It was concluded that at plot scale, the ability of NDVI to predict ecosystem properties and CO 2 exchange in heterogeneous Tundra vegetation is variable.

  16. High Spatial Resolution WorldView-2 Imagery for Mapping NDVI and Its Relationship to Temporal Urban Landscape Evapotranspiration Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration estimation has benefitted from recent advances in remote sensing and GIS techniques particularly in agricultural applications rather than urban environments. This paper explores the relationship between urban vegetation evapotranspiration (ET and vegetation indices derived from newly-developed high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery. The study site was Veale Gardens in Adelaide, Australia. Image processing was applied on five images captured from February 2012 to February 2013 using ERDAS Imagine. From 64 possible two band combinations of WorldView-2, the most reliable one (with the maximum median differences was selected. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI values were derived for each category of landscape cover, namely trees, shrubs, turf grasses, impervious pavements, and water bodies. Urban landscape evapotranspiration rates for Veale Gardens were estimated through field monitoring using observational-based landscape coefficients. The relationships between remotely sensed NDVIs for the entire Veale Gardens and for individual NDVIs of different vegetation covers were compared with field measured urban landscape evapotranspiration rates. The water stress conditions experienced in January 2013 decreased the correlation between ET and NDVI with the highest relationship of ET-Landscape NDVI (Landscape Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for shrubs (r2 = 0.66 and trees (r2 = 0.63. However, when the January data was excluded, there was a significant correlation between ET and NDVI. The highest correlation for ET-Landscape NDVI was found for the entire Veale Gardens regardless of vegetation type (r2 = 0.95, p > 0.05 and the lowest one was for turf (r2 = 0.88, p > 0.05. In support of the feasibility of ET estimation by WV2 over a longer period, an algorithm recently developed that estimates evapotranspiration rates based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from MODIS was employed. The results revealed a

  17. High spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery for mapping NDVI and its relationship to temporal urban landscape evapotranspiration factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Hamideh; Beecham, Simon; Anderson, Sharolyn; Nagler, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Evapotranspiration estimation has benefitted from recent advances in remote sensing and GIS techniques particularly in agricultural applications rather than urban environments. This paper explores the relationship between urban vegetation evapotranspiration (ET) and vegetation indices derived from newly-developed high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery. The study site was Veale Gardens in Adelaide, Australia. Image processing was applied on five images captured from February 2012 to February 2013 using ERDAS Imagine. From 64 possible two band combinations of WorldView-2, the most reliable one (with the maximum median differences) was selected. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values were derived for each category of landscape cover, namely trees, shrubs, turf grasses, impervious pavements, and water bodies. Urban landscape evapotranspiration rates for Veale Gardens were estimated through field monitoring using observational-based landscape coefficients. The relationships between remotely sensed NDVIs for the entire Veale Gardens and for individual NDVIs of different vegetation covers were compared with field measured urban landscape evapotranspiration rates. The water stress conditions experienced in January 2013 decreased the correlation between ET and NDVI with the highest relationship of ET-Landscape NDVI (Landscape Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) for shrubs (r2 = 0.66) and trees (r2 = 0.63). However, when the January data was excluded, there was a significant correlation between ET and NDVI. The highest correlation for ET-Landscape NDVI was found for the entire Veale Gardens regardless of vegetation type (r2 = 0.95, p > 0.05) and the lowest one was for turf (r2 = 0.88, p > 0.05). In support of the feasibility of ET estimation by WV2 over a longer period, an algorithm recently developed that estimates evapotranspiration rates based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS was employed. The results revealed a significant positive

  18. Evaluation of NDVI to assess avian abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, T.M.; van Riper, Charles; Johnson, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Remote-sensing models have become increasingly popular for identifying, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting avian habitat but have largely focused on single bird species. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been shown to positively correlate with avian abundance and richness and has been successfully applied to southwestern riparian systems which are uniquely composed of narrow bands of vegetation in an otherwise dry landscape. Desert riparian ecosystems are important breeding and stopover sites for many bird species but have been degraded due to altered hydrology and land management practices. Here we investigated the use of NDVI, coupled with vegetation, to model the avian community structure along the San Pedro River, Arizona. We also investigated how vegetation and physical features measured locally compared to those data that can be gathered through remote-sensing. We found that NDVI has statistically significant relationships with both avian abundance and species richness, although is better applied at the individual species level. However, the amount of variation explained by even our best models was quite low, suggesting that NDVI habitat models may not presently be an accurate tool for extensive modeling of avian communities. We suggest additional studies in other watersheds to increase our understanding of these bird/NDVI relationships.

  19. (measured as NDVI) over mine tailings at Mhangura Copper Mine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chari

    Remote sensing techniques are increasingly being employed in monitoring environmental ... normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), remote sensing, tailings ..... rehabilitation monitoring by adding landscape function characteristics.

  20. Response of vegetation NDVI to climatic extremes in the arid region of Central Asia: a case study in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junqiang; Chen, Yaning; Zhao, Yong; Mao, Weiyi; Xu, Xinbing; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Observed data showed the climatic transition from warm-dry to warm-wet in Xinjiang during the past 30 years and will probably affect vegetation dynamics. Here, we analyze the interannual change of vegetation index based on the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with temperature and precipitation extreme over the Xinjiang, using the 8-km NDVI third-generation (NDVI3g) from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) from 1982 to 2010. Few previous studies analyzed the link between climate extremes and vegetation response. From the satellite-based results, annual NDVI significantly increased in the first two decades (1981-1998) and then decreased after 1998. We show that the NDVI decrease over the past decade may conjointly be triggered by the increases of temperature and precipitation extremes. The correlation analyses demonstrated that the trends of NDVI was close to the trend of extreme precipitation; that is, consecutive dry days (CDD) and torrential rainfall days (R24) positively correlated with NDVI during 1998-2010. For the temperature extreme, while the decreases of NDVI correlate positively with warmer mean minimum temperature ( Tnav), it correlates negatively with the number of warmest night days ( Rwn). The results suggest that the climatic extremes have possible negative effects on the ecosystem.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  2. Evaluation of vegetation cover using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Camargos Lima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss by water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. However, erosion can be reduced by the presence of vegetation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI makes it possible to identify the vegetative vigor of crops or natural vegetation which facilities the identification of areas with vegetation covers. This information is very important in identifying the phenomena which might be occurring in a particular area, especially those related to soil degradation by water erosion. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the canopy cover by using NDVI, checking the image accuracy using the Coverage Index (CI based on the Stocking method, in the Sub-basin of Posses, which belongs to the Cantareira System, located in the Extrema municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Landsat-5 TM images were used. The sub-basin of Posses was very altered in comparison to the surrounding areas. The NDVI technique proved to be a suitable tool to assess the uses that occur in the sub-basin of Posses, as validated by the Stocking methodology. The map derived from NDVI allowed the geographic distribution of different land uses to be observed and allowed for the identification of critical areas in relation to vegetation cover as well. This finding can be used to optimize efforts to recover and protect soil in areas with bare soil and degraded pasture, in order to reduce environmental degradation. The CI has not exceeded 40% for land use classes that occur in the majority of the sub-basin (91%, except in areas of woody vegetation.

  3. Using Moderate-Resolution Temporal NDVI Profiles for High-Resolution Crop Mapping in Years of Absent Ground Reference Data: A Case Study of Bole and Manas Counties in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Hao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most methods used for crop classification rely on the ground-reference data of the same year, which leads to considerable financial and labor cost. In this study, we presented a method that can avoid the requirements of a large number of ground-reference data in the classification year. Firstly, we extracted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series profiles of the dominant crops from MODIS data using the historical ground-reference data in multiple years (2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010. Artificial Antibody Network (ABNet was then employed to build reference NDVI time series for each crop based on the historical NDVI profiles. Afterwards, images of Landsat and HJ were combined to obtain 30 m image time series with 15-day acquisition frequency in 2011. Next, the reference NDVI time series were transformed to Landsat/HJ NDVI time series using their linear model. Finally, the transformed reference NDVI profiles were used to identify the crop types in 2011 at 30 m spatial resolution. The result showed that the dominant crops could be identified with overall accuracy of 87.13% and 83.48% in Bole and Manas, respectively. In addition, the reference NDVI profiles generated from multiple years could achieve better classification accuracy than that from single year (such as only 2007. This is mainly because the reference knowledge from multiple years contains more growing conditions of the same crop. Generally, this approach showed potential to identify crops without using large number of ground-reference data at 30 m resolution.

  4. Detecting land cover change using an extended Kalman filter on MODIS NDVI time-series data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for detecting land cover change using NDVI time-series data derived from 500-m MODIS satellite data is proposed. The algorithm acts as a per-pixel change alarm and takes the NDVI time series of a 3 × 3 grid of MODIS pixels as the input...

  5. Inter-annual variability of NDVI in response to long-term warming and fertilization in wet sedge and tussock tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, Natalie T; Stieglitz, Marc; Griffin, Kevin L; Shaver, Gaius R

    2005-05-01

    This study explores the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and aboveground plant biomass for tussock tundra vegetation and compares it to a previously established NDVI-biomass relationship for wet sedge tundra vegetation. In addition, we explore inter-annual variation in NDVI in both these contrasting vegetation communities. All measurements were taken across long-term experimental treatments in wet sedge and tussock tundra communities at the Toolik Lake Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, in northern Alaska. Over 15 years (for wet sedge tundra) and 14 years (for tussock tundra), N and P were applied in factorial experiments (N, P and N+P), air temperature was increased using greenhouses with and without N+P fertilizer, and light intensity was reduced by 50% using shade cloth. during the peak growing seasons of 2001, 2002, and 2003, NDVI measurements were made in both the wet sedge and tussock tundra experimental treatment plots, creating a 3-year time series of inter-annual variation in NDVI. We found that: (1) across all tussock experimental tundra treatments, NDVI is correlated with aboveground plant biomass (r2 = 0.59); (2) NDVI-biomass relationships for tussock and wet sedge tundra communities are community specific, and; (3) NDVI values for tussock tundra communities are typically, but not always, greater than for wet sedge tundra communities across all experimental treatments. We suggest that differences between the response of wet sedge and tussock tundra communities in the same experimental treatments result from the contrasting degree of heterogeneity in species and functional types that characterize each of these Arctic tundra vegetation communities.

  6. Response of NDVI, biomass, and ecosystem gas exchange to long-term warming and fertilization in wet sedge tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, Natalie T; Stieglitz, Marc; Rueth, Heather M; Sommerkorn, Martin; Griffin, Kevin L; Shaver, Gaius R; Gamon, John A

    2003-05-01

    This study explores the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), aboveground plant biomass, and ecosystem C fluxes including gross ecosystem production (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production. We measured NDVI across long-term experimental treatments in wet sedge tundra at the Toolik Lake LTER site, in northern Alaska. Over 13 years, N and P were applied in factorial experiments (N, P and N + P), air temperature was increased using greenhouses with and without N + P fertilizer, and light intensity (photosynthetically active photon flux density) was reduced by 50% using shade cloth. Within each treatment plot, NDVI, aboveground biomass and whole-system CO(2) flux measurements were made at the same sampling points during the peak-growing season of 2001. We found that across all treatments, NDVI is correlated with aboveground biomass ( r(2)=0.84), GEP ( r(2)=0.75) and ER ( r(2)=0.71), providing a basis for linking remotely sensed NDVI to aboveground biomass and ecosystem carbon flux.

  7. Analysis of agricultural drought using vegetation temperature condition index (VTCI) from Terra/MODIS satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N R; Parida, B R; Venus, V; Saha, S K; Dadhwal, V K

    2012-12-01

    The most commonly used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from remote sensing often fall short in real-time drought monitoring due to a lagged vegetation response to drought. Therefore, research recently emphasized on the use of combination of surface temperature and NDVI which provides vegetation and moisture conditions simultaneously. Since drought stress effects on agriculture are closely linked to actual evapotranspiration, we used a vegetation temperature condition index (VTCI) which is more closely related to crop water status and holds a key place in real-time drought monitoring and assessment. In this study, NDVI and land surface temperature (T (s)) from MODIS 8-day composite data during cloud-free period (September-October) were adopted to construct an NDVI-T (s) space, from which the VTCI was computed. The crop moisture index (based on estimates of potential evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion) was calculated to represent soil moisture stress on weekly basis for 20 weather monitoring stations. Correlation and regression analysis were attempted to relate VTCI with crop moisture status and crop performance. VTCI was found to accurately access the degree and spatial extent of drought stress in all years (2000, 2002, and 2004). The temporal variation of VTCI also provides drought pattern changes over space and time. Results showed significant and positive relations between CMI (crop moisture index) and VTCI observed particularly during prominent drought periods which proved VTCI as an ideal index to monitor terminal drought at regional scale. VTCI had significant positive relationship with yield but weakly related to crop anomalies. Duration of terminal drought stress derived from VTCI has a significant negative relationship with yields of major grain and oilseeds crops, particularly, groundnut.

  8. Mapping Rice Cropping Systems in Vietnam Using an NDVI-Based Time-Series Similarity Measurement Based on DTW Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS time-series data has been widely used in the fields of crop and rice classification. The cloudy and rainy weather characteristics of the monsoon season greatly reduce the likelihood of obtaining high-quality optical remote sensing images. In addition, the diverse crop-planting system in Vietnam also hinders the comparison of NDVI among different crop stages. To address these problems, we apply a Dynamic Time Warping (DTW distance-based similarity measure approach and use the entire yearly NDVI time series to reduce the inaccuracy of classification using a single image. We first de-noise the NDVI time series using S-G filtering based on the TIMESAT software. Then, a standard NDVI time-series base for rice growth is established based on field survey data and Google Earth sample data. NDVI time-series data for each pixel are constructed and the DTW distance with the standard rice growth NDVI time series is calculated. Then, we apply thresholds to extract rice growth areas. A qualitative assessment using statistical data and a spatial assessment using sampled data from the rice-cropping map reveal a high mapping accuracy at the national scale between the statistical data, with the corresponding R2 being as high as 0.809; however, the mapped rice accuracy decreased at the provincial scale due to the reduced number of rice planting areas per province. An analysis of the results indicates that the 500-m resolution MODIS data are limited in terms of mapping scattered rice parcels. The results demonstrate that the DTW-based similarity measure of the NDVI time series can be effectively used to map large-area rice cropping systems with diverse cultivation processes.

  9. Monitoring cotton root rot by synthetic Sentinel-2 NDVI time series using improved spatial and temporal data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingquan; Yang, Chenghai; Song, Xiaoyu; Hoffmann, Wesley Clint; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao; Li, Wang; Yu, Bo

    2018-01-31

    To better understand the progression of cotton root rot within the season, time series monitoring is required. In this study, an improved spatial and temporal data fusion approach (ISTDFA) was employed to combine 250-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) and 10-m Sentinetl-2 NDVI data to generate a synthetic Sentinel-2 NDVI time series for monitoring this disease. Then, the phenology of healthy cotton and infected cotton was modeled using a logistic model. Finally, several phenology parameters, including the onset day of greenness minimum (OGM), growing season length (GLS), onset of greenness increase (OGI), max NDVI value, and integral area of the phenology curve, were calculated. The results showed that ISTDFA could be used to combine time series MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI data with a correlation coefficient of 0.893. The logistic model could describe the phenology curves with R-squared values from 0.791 to 0.969. Moreover, the phenology curve of infected cotton showed a significant difference from that of healthy cotton. The max NDVI value, OGM, GSL and the integral area of the phenology curve for infected cotton were reduced by 0.045, 30 days, 22 days, and 18.54%, respectively, compared with those for healthy cotton.

  10. Greenup and evapotranspiration following the Minute 319 pulse flow to Mexico: An analysis using Landsat 8 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Christopher J.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.

    2017-01-01

    In the southwestern U.S., many riparian ecosystems have been altered by dams, water diversions, and other anthropogenic activities. This is particularly true of the Colorado River, where numerous dams and agricultural diversions have affected this water course, especially south of the U.S.–Mexico border. In the spring of 2014, 130 million cubic meters of water was released to the lower Colorado River Delta in Mexico. To understand the impact of this pulse flow release on vegetation in the delta’s riparian corridor, we analyzed a modified form of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI*) data. We assessed greenup during the growing period and estimated actual evapotranspiration (ETa) for the period prior to (yr. 2013) and following (i.e., yr. 2014 and 2015) the pulse flow. We found a significant increase in NDVI* from 2013 to 2014 (P NDVI*. As a long term solution to the declining condition of vegetation, additional pulse releases are likely needed for restoration and survival of riparian plant communities in the Colorado River Delta.

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: NDVI [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term NDVI 名詞 一般 * * * * 正規化植生指数 セイキカショクセイシスウ セイキカショクセイシスー Thesaurus2015 200906004799738475 C KA01 UNKNOWN_1 NDVI

  12. Variation of biomass and carbon pool with NDVI and altitude in sub-tropical forests of northwestern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, D R; Banday, Muneesa; Pala, Nazir A; Rajput, Bhalendra Singh

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, forests at three altitudes, viz., A 1 (600-900 m), A 2 (900-1200 m) and A 3 (1200-1500 m) above mean sea level having normalised differential vegetation index (NDVI) values of N 1 (0.0-0.1), N 2 (0.1-0.2), N 3 (0.2-0.3), N 4 (0.3-0.4) and N 5 (0.4-0.5) were selected for studying their relationship with the biomass and carbon pool in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study reported maximum stem density of (928 trees ha -1 ) at the A 2 altitude and minimum in the A 3 and A 1 with 600 trees ha -1 each. The stem densities in relation to NDVIs were observed in the order N 5 > N 3 > N 4 > N 1 > N 2 and did not show any definite trend with increasing altitude. Highest stem volume (295.7 m 3  ha -1 ) was observed in N 1 NDVI and minimum (194.1 m 3  ha -1 ) in N 3 index. The trend observed for stem biomass at different altitudes was A 3 > A 1 > A 2 and for NDVIs, it was N 5 > N 1 > N 4 > N 2 > N 3 . Maximum aboveground biomass (265.83 t ha -1 ) was recorded in the 0.0-0.1 NDVI and minimum (169.05 t ha -1 ) in 0.2-0.3 NDVI index. Significantly, maximum total soil carbon density (90.82 t C ha -1 ) was observed in 0.4-0.5 NDVI followed by 0.3-0.4 NDVI (77.12 t C ha -1 ). The relationship between soil carbon and other studied parameters was derived through different functions simultaneously. Cubic function showed highest r 2 in most cases, followed by power, inverse and exponential function. The relationship with NDVI showed highest r 2 (0.62) through cubic functions. In relationship between ecosystem carbon with other parameters of different altitudinal gradient and NDVI, only one positively significant relation was formed with total density (0.579) through cubic function. The present study thus reveals that soil carbon density was directly related to altitude and NDVIs, but the vegetation carbon density did not bear any significant relation with altitude and NDVI.

  13. Dinámica temporal del NDVI del bosque y pastizal natural en el Chaco de la Provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina / The temporal dynamic of NDVI, of forest and grassland in the Chaco Seco of Santiago del Estero province, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Raul Zerda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediante imágenes mapas del índice de vegetación de diferencia normalizada (NDVI derivados del SPOT 4-Vegetation, se analizó la dinámica interanual y mensual de muestras de bosque nativo y pastizal natural de la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Los resultados, muestran diferencias significativas (p pequenõs 0.05 para ambas coberturas, en la dinámica interanual y mensual. La actividad fotosintética del bosque se muestra superior a la del pastizal natural, analizada a partir de las curvas de NDVI. La dinámica del bosque y del pastizal natural, sigue el modelo regional de precipitaciones, alcanzando mayores valores de NDVI, durante la estación húmeda estival (Octubre-Mayo y menores valores de NDVI, durante la estación seca invernal (Junio-Septiembre. El bosque presentó mayor estabilidad que el pastizal natural, ante variaciones en las precipitaciones y temperatura, esperable por la mayor diversidad de especies en los bosques, y especialmente por las leñosas de raíces más profundas. La curva NDVI del pastizal natural, muestra sensibilidad al efecto de las elevadas intensidades de radiación en el verano, evapotranspiración y sequías; y debido a la mayor eficiencia del sistema radicular para el aprovechamiento del agua disponible, responde de manera inmediata ante las precipitaciones.AbstarctThe interannual and monthly dynamic of samples of forest and grassland from Santiago del Estero province, Argentine Republic, was analyzed through maps of vegetation of normalized difference (NDVI index derived from Vegetation/SPOT4 sensor. The results demonstrate that both covers, interannual and monthly dynamic mentioned before, have significant differences (p<0.05. The photosynthetic activity of the forest is superior compared with the one of the grassland, analyzed from the NDVI curves. The forest and the grassland dynamic, follows the regional precipitation pattern, reaching higher values from NDVI, during the summer humid

  14. Spatiotemporal changes of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and response to climate extremes and ecological restoration in the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Anzhou; Zhang, Anbing; Liu, Xianfeng; Cao, Sen

    2018-04-01

    Extreme drought, precipitation, and other extreme climatic events often have impacts on vegetation. Based on meteorological data from 52 stations in the Loess Plateau (LP) and a satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the third-generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g) dataset, this study investigated the relationship between vegetation change and climatic extremes from 1982 to 2013. Our results showed that the vegetation coverage increased significantly, with a linear rate of 0.025/10a ( P NDVI revealed an increasing trend from the northwest to the southeast, with about 61.79% of the LP exhibiting a significant increasing trend ( P NDVI at the yearly time scale ( P NDVI during the spring and autumn ( P NDVI and RX1day, TMAXmean, TXn, and TXx was insignificant in summer. Vegetation exhibited a significant negative relationship with precipitation extremes in winter ( P NDVI in Yan'an and Yulin during 1998-2013, r = 0.859 and 0.85, n = 16, P < 0.001.

  15. Improving agricultural drought monitoring in West Africa using root zone soil moisture estimates derived from NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, A.; Funk, C. C.; Yatheendradas, S.; Michaelsen, J.; Cappelarere, B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) relies heavily on remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation data to monitor agricultural drought in Sub-Saharan Africa and other places around the world. Analysts use satellite rainfall to calculate rainy season statistics and force crop water accounting models that show how the magnitude and timing of rainfall might lead to above or below average harvest. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is also an important indicator of growing season progress and is given more weight over regions where, for example, lack of rain gauges increases error in satellite rainfall estimates. Currently, however, near-real time NDVI is not integrated into a modeling framework that informs growing season predictions. To meet this need for our drought monitoring system a land surface model (LSM) is a critical component. We are currently enhancing the FEWS NET monitoring activities by configuring a custom instance of NASA's Land Information System (LIS) called the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System. Using the LIS Noah LSM, in-situ measurements, and remotely sensed data, we focus on the following questions: What is the relationship between NDVI and in-situ soil moisture measurements over the West Africa Sahel? How can we use this relationship to improve modeled water and energy fluxes over the West Africa Sahel? We investigate soil moisture and NDVI cross-correlation in the time and frequency domain to develop a transfer function model to predict soil moisture from NDVI. This work compares sites in southwest Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso, and Mali to test the generality of the transfer function. For several sites with fallow and millet vegetation in the Wankama catchment in southwest Niger we developed a non-parametric frequency response model, using NDVI inputs and soil moisture outputs, that accurately estimates root zone soil moisture (40-70cm). We extend this analysis by developing a low order parametric transfer function

  16. Normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi) analysis for land cover types using landsat 8 oli in besitang watershed, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitunah, A.; Samsuri; Ahmad, A. G.; Safitri, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Watershed is an ecosystem area confined by topography and has function as a catcher, storage, and supplier of water, sediments, pollutants and nutrients in the river system and exit through a single outlet. Various activities around watershed areas of Besitang have changed the land cover and vegetation index (NDVI) that exist in the region. In order to detect changes in land cover and NDVI quickly and accurately, we used remote sensing technology and geographic information systems (GIS). The study aimed to assess changes in land cover and vegetation density (NDVI) between 2005 and 2015, as well as obtaining the density of vegetation (NDVI) on each of the land cover of 2005 and 2015. The research showed the extensive of forest area of 949.65 Ha and a decline of mangrove forest area covering an area of 2,884.06 Ha. The highest vegetation density reduced 39,714.58 Ha, and rather dense increased 24,410.72 Ha between 2005 and 2015. The land cover that have the highest NDVI value range with very dense vegetation density class is the primary dry forest (0.804 to 0.876), followed by secondary dry forest (0.737 to 0.804) for 2015. In 2015 the land cover has NDVI value range the primary dry forest (0.513 to 0.57), then secondary dry forest (0.456 to 0.513) with dense vegetation density class

  17. A Phenology-Based Method for Monitoring Woody and Herbaceous Vegetation in Mediterranean Forests from NDVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Helman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient method for monitoring woody (i.e., evergreen and herbaceous (i.e., ephemeral vegetation in Mediterranean forests at a sub pixel scale from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The method is based on the distinct development periods of those vegetation components. In the dry season, herbaceous vegetation is absent or completely dry in Mediterranean forests. Thus the mean NDVI in the dry season was attributed to the woody vegetation (NDVIW. A constant NDVI value was assumed for soil background during this period. In the wet season, changes in NDVI were attributed to the development of ephemeral herbaceous vegetation in the forest floor and its maximum value to the peak green cover (NDVIH. NDVIW and NDVIH agreed well with field estimates of leaf area index and fraction of vegetation cover in two differently structured Mediterranean forests. To further assess the method’s assumptions, understory NDVI was retrieved form MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF data and compared with NDVIH. After calibration, leaf area index and woody and herbaceous vegetation covers were assessed for those forests. Applicability for pre- and post-fire monitoring is presented as a potential use of this method for forest management in Mediterranean-climate regions.

  18. Estimating the effect of urease inhibitor on rice yield based on NDVI at key growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailou LIU,Yazhen LI,Huiwen HU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the urease inhibitor, N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT at a range of application rates on rice production was examined in a field experiment at Jinxian County, Jiangxi Province, China. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was measured at key growth stages in both early and late rice. The results showed that the grain yield increased significantly when urea was applied with NBPT, with the highest yield observed at 1.00% NBPT (wt/wt. NDVI differed with the growth stage of rice; it remained steady from the heading to the filling stage. Rice yield could be predicted from the NDVI taken at key rice growing stages, with R2 ranging from 0.34 to 0.69 in early rice and 0.49 to 0.70 in late rice. The validation test showed that RMSE (t·hm-2 values were 0.77 and 0.87 in early and late rice, respectively. Therefore, it was feasible to estimate rice yield for different amounts of urease inhibitor using NDVI.

  19. Improved Vegetation Profiles with GOCI Imagery Using Optimized BRDF Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-il Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to optimize a composite method for the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI, which is the first geostationary ocean color sensor in the world. Before interpreting the sensitivity of each composite with ground measurements, we evaluated the accuracy of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF performance by comparing modeled surface reflectance from BRDF simulation with GOCI-measured surface reflectance according to composite period. The root mean square error values for modeled and measured surface reflectance showed reasonable accuracy for all of composite days since each BRDF composite period includes at least seven cloud-free angular sampling for all BRDF performances. Also, GOCI-BRDF-adjusted NDVIs with four different composite periods were compared with field-observation NDVI and we interpreted the sensitivity of temporal crop dynamics of GOCI-BRDF-adjusted NDVIs. The results showed that vegetation index seasonal profiles appeared similar to vegetation growth curves in both field observations from crop scans and GOCI normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data. Finally, we showed that a 12-day composite period was optimal in terms of BRDF simulation accuracy, surface coverage, and real-time sensitivity.

  20. Remote sensing of surface water quality in relation to catchment condition in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masocha, Mhosisi; Murwira, Amon; Magadza, Christopher H. D.; Hirji, Rafik; Dube, Timothy

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of river catchments is one of the most important contemporary environmental problems affecting water quality in tropical countries. In this study, we used remotely sensed Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess how catchment condition varies within and across river catchments in Zimbabwe. We then used non-linear regression to test whether catchment condition assessed using the NDVI is significantly (α = 0.05) related with levels of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) measured at different sampling points in thirty-two sub-catchments in Zimbabwe. The results showed a consistent negative curvilinear relationship between Landsat 8 derived NDVI and TSS measured across the catchments under study. In the drier catchments of the country, 98% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI, while in wetter catchments, 64% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI. Our results suggest that NDVI derived from free and readily available multispectral Landsat series data (Landsat 8) is a potential valuable tool for the rapid assessment of physical water quality in data poor catchments. Overall, the finding of this study underscores the usefulness of readily available satellite data for near-real time monitoring of the physical water quality at river catchment scale, especially in resource-constrained areas, such as the sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, Daan; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank [Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela [Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bartholomeus, Harm [Centre for Geo-Information, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Maximov, Trofim C, E-mail: daan.blok@wur.nl [Biological Problems of the Cryolithozone, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division, 41, Lenin Prospekt, Yakutsk, The Republic of Sakha, Yakutia 677980 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming. However, it is unknown how albedo and NDVI are affected by shrub cover and inter-annual variations in the summer climate. Here, we examine the relationship between deciduous shrub fractional cover, NDVI and albedo using field data collected at a tundra site in NE Siberia. Field data showed that NDVI increased and albedo decreased with increasing deciduous shrub cover. We then selected four Arctic tundra study areas and compiled annual growing season maximum NDVI and minimum albedo maps from MODIS satellite data (2000-10) and related these satellite products to tundra vegetation types (shrub, graminoid, barren and wetland tundra) and regional summer temperature. We observed that maximum NDVI was greatest in shrub tundra and that inter-annual variation was negatively related to summer minimum albedo but showed no consistent relationship with summer temperature. Shrub tundra showed higher albedo than wetland and barren tundra in all four study areas. These results suggest that a northwards shift of shrub tundra might not lead to a decrease in summer minimum albedo during the snow-free season when replacing wetland tundra. A fully integrative study is however needed to link results from satellite data with in situ observations across the Arctic to test the effect of increasing shrub cover on summer albedo in different tundra vegetation types.

  2. The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, Daan; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Bartholomeus, Harm; Maximov, Trofim C

    2011-01-01

    Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming. However, it is unknown how albedo and NDVI are affected by shrub cover and inter-annual variations in the summer climate. Here, we examine the relationship between deciduous shrub fractional cover, NDVI and albedo using field data collected at a tundra site in NE Siberia. Field data showed that NDVI increased and albedo decreased with increasing deciduous shrub cover. We then selected four Arctic tundra study areas and compiled annual growing season maximum NDVI and minimum albedo maps from MODIS satellite data (2000-10) and related these satellite products to tundra vegetation types (shrub, graminoid, barren and wetland tundra) and regional summer temperature. We observed that maximum NDVI was greatest in shrub tundra and that inter-annual variation was negatively related to summer minimum albedo but showed no consistent relationship with summer temperature. Shrub tundra showed higher albedo than wetland and barren tundra in all four study areas. These results suggest that a northwards shift of shrub tundra might not lead to a decrease in summer minimum albedo during the snow-free season when replacing wetland tundra. A fully integrative study is however needed to link results from satellite data with in situ observations across the Arctic to test the effect of increasing shrub cover on summer albedo in different tundra vegetation types.

  3. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products Resident to the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. Sometimes these have resulted in regionally evident disturbance progressions (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and have resulted in extensive forest overstory mortality. In addition to stand replacement disturbances, other forests are subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and varying types and intensities of ephemeral damage from storms. Sometimes, after prolonged severe disturbance, signs of recovery in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can occur. The growing prominence and threat of forest disturbances in part have led to the formation and implementation of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act which mandated that national forest threat early warning system be developed and deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oakridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build and roll-out the near real time ForWarn early warning system for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines that are used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six forest change products that are refreshed every 8 days. ForWarn employs daily quarter kilometer MODIS NDVI data from the Aqua and Terra satellites, including MOD13 data for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS 7 NDVI for compiling current NDVI. In doing so, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally de-noise, fuse, and aggregate current and historical MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of products per year. The 24 day compositing interval enables disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. Forest change products are

  4. Using an Active-Optical Sensor to Develop an Optimal NDVI Dynamic Model for High-Yield Rice Production (Yangtze, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Ferguson, Richard B; Zheng, Hengbiao; Cao, Qiang; Tian, Yongchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2017-03-24

    The successful development of an optimal canopy vegetation index dynamic model for obtaining higher yield can offer a technical approach for real-time and nondestructive diagnosis of rice (Oryza sativa L) growth and nitrogen (N) nutrition status. In this study, multiple rice cultivars and N treatments of experimental plots were carried out to obtain: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), above-ground dry matter (DM), and grain yield (GY) data. The quantitative relationships between NDVI and these growth indices (e.g., LAI, DM and GY) were analyzed, showing positive correlations. Using the normalized modeling method, an appropriate NDVI simulation model of rice was established based on the normalized NDVI (RNDVI) and relative accumulative growing degree days (RAGDD). The NDVI dynamic model for high-yield production in rice can be expressed by a double logistic model: RNDVI = ( 1 + e - 15.2829 × ( R A G D D i - 0.1944 ) ) - 1 - ( 1 + e - 11.6517 × ( R A G D D i - 1.0267 ) ) - 1 (R2 = 0.8577**), which can be used to accurately predict canopy NDVI dynamic changes during the entire growth period. Considering variation among rice cultivars, we constructed two relative NDVI (RNDVI) dynamic models for Japonica and Indica rice types, with R2 reaching 0.8764** and 0.8874**, respectively. Furthermore, independent experimental data were used to validate the RNDVI dynamic models. The results showed that during the entire growth period, the accuracy (k), precision (R2), and standard deviation of RNDVI dynamic models for the Japonica and Indica cultivars were 0.9991, 1.0170; 0.9084**, 0.8030**; and 0.0232, 0.0170, respectively. These results indicated that RNDVI dynamic models could accurately reflect crop growth and predict dynamic changes in high-yield crop populations, providing a rapid approach for monitoring rice growth status.

  5. Quantification of Impact of Orbital Drift on Inter-Annual Trends in AVHRR NDVI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoteshwar R. Nagol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time-series data derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR have been extensively used for studying inter-annual dynamics of global and regional vegetation. However, there can be significant uncertainties in the data due to incomplete atmospheric correction and orbital drift of the satellites through their active life. Access to location specific quantification of uncertainty is crucial for appropriate evaluation of the trends and anomalies. This paper provides per pixel quantification of orbital drift related spurious trends in Long Term Data Record (LTDR AVHRR NDVI data product. The magnitude and direction of the spurious trends was estimated by direct comparison with data from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Aqua instrument, which has stable inter-annual sun-sensor geometry. The maps show presence of both positive as well as negative spurious trends in the data. After application of the BRDF correction, an overall decrease in positive trends and an increase in number of pixels with negative spurious trends were observed. The mean global spurious inter-annual NDVI trend before and after BRDF correction was 0.0016 and −0.0017 respectively. The research presented in this paper gives valuable insight into the magnitude of orbital drift related trends in the AVHRR NDVI data as well as the degree to which it is being rectified by the MODIS BRDF correction algorithm used by the LTDR processing stream.

  6. Relationship among land surface temperature and LUCC, NDVI in typical karst area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanhong; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Tian, Yichao; Wu, Luhua; Xiao, Jianyong; Chen, Fei; Qian, Qinghuan

    2018-01-12

    Land surface temperature (LST) can reflect the land surface water-heat exchange process comprehensively, which is considerably significant to the study of environmental change. However, research about LST in karst mountain areas with complex topography is scarce. Therefore, we retrieved the LST in a karst mountain area from Landsat 8 data and explored its relationships with LUCC and NDVI. The results showed that LST of the study area was noticeably affected by altitude and underlying surface type. In summer, abnormal high-temperature zones were observed in the study area, perhaps due to karst rocky desertification. LSTs among different land use types significantly differed with the highest in construction land and the lowest in woodland. The spatial distributions of NDVI and LST exhibited opposite patterns. Under the spatial combination of different land use types, the LST-NDVI feature space showed an obtuse-angled triangle shape and showed a negative linear correlation after removing water body data. In summary, the LST can be retrieved well by the atmospheric correction model from Landsat 8 data. Moreover, the LST of the karst mountain area is controlled by altitude, underlying surface type and aspect. This study provides a reference for land use planning, ecological environment restoration in karst areas.

  7. Spatiotemporal dynamics of grassland aboveground biomass on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on validated MODIS NDVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang; Cheng, Fangyan; Dong, Shikui; Zhao, Haidi; Hou, Xiaoyun; Wu, Xue

    2017-06-23

    Spatiotemporal dynamics of aboveground biomass (AGB) is a fundamental problem for grassland environmental management on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data can feasibly be used to estimate AGB at large scales, and their precise validation is necessary to utilize them effectively. In our study, the clip-harvest method was used at 64 plots in QTP grasslands to obtain actual AGB values, and a handheld hyperspectral spectrometer was used to calculate field-measured NDVI to validate MODIS NDVI. Based on the models between NDVI and AGB, AGB dynamics trends during 2000-2012 were analyzed. The results showed that the AGB in QTP grasslands increased during the study period, with 70% of the grasslands undergoing increases mainly in the Qinghai Province. Also, the meadow showed a larger increasing trend than steppe. Future AGB dynamic trends were also investigated using a combined analysis of the slope values and the Hurst exponent. The results showed high sustainability of AGB dynamics trends after the study period. Predictions indicate 60% of the steppe and meadow grasslands would continue to increase in AGB, while 25% of the grasslands would remain in degradation, with most of them distributing in Tibet.

  8. NDVI-Based analysis on the influence of human activities on vegetation variation on Hainan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongxia; Dai, Shengpei; Xie, Zhenghui; Fang, Jihua

    2018-02-01

    Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset, we analyzed the predicted NDVI values variation and the influence of human activities on vegetation on Hainan Island during 2001-2015. We investigated the roles of human activities in vegetation variation, particularly from 2002 when implemented the Grain-for-Greenprogram on Hainan Island. The trend analysis, linear regression model and residual analysis were used to analyze the data. The results of the study showed that (1) The predicted vegetation on Hainan Island showed an general upward trend with a linear growth rate of 0.0025/10y (phuman activities. (3) In general, human activities had played a positive role in the vegetation increase on Hainan Island, and the residual NDVI trend of this region showed positive outcomes for vegetation variation after implementing ecological engineering projects. However, it indicated a growing risk of vegetation degradation in the coastal region of Hainan Island as a result of rapid urbanization, land reclamation.

  9. Using NDVI to estimate carbon fluxes from small rotationally grazed pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. However, the usefulness of satellite-based images for monitoring rotationally-grazed pastures in the northea...

  10. Multifractal Downscaling of Rainfall Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the Andes Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffaut Espinosa, L A; Posadas, A N; Carbajal, M; Quiroz, R

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multifractal downscaling technique is applied to adequately transformed and lag corrected normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in order to obtain daily estimates of rainfall in an area of the Peruvian Andean high plateau. This downscaling procedure is temporal in nature since the original NDVI information is provided at an irregular temporal sampling period between 8 and 11 days, and the desired final scale is 1 day. The spatial resolution of approximately 1 km remains the same throughout the downscaling process. The results were validated against on-site measurements of meteorological stations distributed in the area under study.

  11. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel

    2017-08-11

    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  12. Applying Markov Chains for NDVI Time Series Forecasting of Latvian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepchenko Arthur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Time series of earth observation based estimates of vegetation inform about variations in vegetation at the scale of Latvia. A vegetation index is an indicator that describes the amount of chlorophyll (the green mass and shows the relative density and health of vegetation. NDVI index is an important variable for vegetation forecasting and management of various problems, such as climate change monitoring, energy usage monitoring, managing the consumption of natural resources, agricultural productivity monitoring, drought monitoring and forest fire detection. In this paper, we make a one-step-ahead prediction of 7-daily time series of NDVI index using Markov chains. The choice of a Markov chain is due to the fact that a Markov chain is a sequence of random variables where each variable is located in some state. And a Markov chain contains probabilities of moving from one state to other.

  13. Using MODIS NDVI products for vegetation state monitoring on the oil production territory in Western Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalev, Anton; Tokareva, Olga Sergeevna

    2016-01-01

    Article describes the results of using remote sensing data for vegetation state monitoring on the oil field territories in Western Siberia. We used MODIS data product providing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values. Average NDVI values of each studied area were calculated for the period from 2010 to 2015 with one year interval for June, July and August. Analysis was carried out via an open tool of geographic information system QGIS used for spatial analysis and calculation ...

  14. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229-54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  15. On the characterization of vegetation recovery after fire disturbance using Fisher-Shannon analysis and SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Lanorte, Antonio; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    Time series can fruitfully support fire monitoring and management from statistical analysis of fire occurrence (Tuia et al. 2008) to danger estimation (lasaponara 2005), damage evaluation (Lanorte et al 2014) and post fire recovery (Lanorte et al. 2014). In this paper, the time dynamics of SPOT-VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series are analyzed by using the statistical approach of the Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane to assess and monitor vegetation recovery after fire disturbance. Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis allows us to gain insight into the complex structure of a time series to quantify its degree of organization and order. The analysis was carried out using 10-day Maximum Value Composites of NDVI (MVC-NDVI) with a 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution. The investigation was performed on two test sites located in Galizia (North Spain) and Peloponnese (South Greece), selected for the vast fires which occurred during the summer of 2006 and 2007 and for their different vegetation covers made up mainly of low shrubland in Galizia test site and evergreen forest in Peloponnese. Time series of MVC-NDVI have been analyzed before and after the occurrence of the fire events. Results obtained for both the investigated areas clearly pointed out that the dynamics of the pixel time series before the occurrence of the fire is characterized by a larger degree of disorder and uncertainty; while the pixel time series after the occurrence of the fire are featured by a higher degree of organization and order. In particular, regarding the Peloponneso fire, such discrimination is more evident than in the Galizia fire. This suggests a clear possibility to discriminate the different post-fire behaviors and dynamics exhibited by the different vegetation covers. Reference Lanorte A, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to

  16. A Phenology-Based Method for Monitoring Woody and Herbaceous Vegetation in Mediterranean Forests from NDVI Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    David Helman; Itamar M. Lensky; Naama Tessler; Yagil Osem

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient method for monitoring woody (i.e., evergreen) and herbaceous (i.e., ephemeral) vegetation in Mediterranean forests at a sub pixel scale from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The method is based on the distinct development periods of those vegetation components. In the dry season, herbaceous vegetation is absent or completely dry in Mediterranean forests. Thus the mean NDVI ...

  17. Analysis of vegetation condition and its relationship with meteorological variables in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Han

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is located in the southwest border of China, which is of great significance to the socioeconomic development and ecological environment of Southwest China. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is an important index for investigating the change of vegetation cover, which is widely used as the representation value of vegetation cover. In this study, the NDVI is adopted to explore the vegetation condition in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin during the recent 17 years, and the relationship between NDVI and meteorological variables has also been discussed. The results show that the annual maximum value of NDVI usually appears from July to September, in which August occupies a large proportion. The minimum value of NDVI appears from January to March, in which February takes up most of the percentage. The higher values of NDVI are generally located in the lower elevation area. When the altitude is higher than 3250 m, NDVI began to decline gradually, and the NDVI became gradual stabilization as the elevation is up to 6000 m. The correlation coefficient between NDVI and precipitation in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is greater than that with temperature. The Hurst index of the whole basin is 0.51, indicating that the NDVI of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin shows a weak sustainability.

  18. Accurate prediction of severe allergic reactions by a small set of environmental parameters (NDVI, temperature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notas, George; Bariotakis, Michail; Kalogrias, Vaios; Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions.

  19. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Advanced Very High Resolution...

  20. Evaluating and Quantifying the Climate-Driven Interannual Variability in Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) at Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanwei; Collatz, George James; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations of surface reflected solar radiation contain informationabout variability in the absorption of solar radiation by vegetation. Understanding thecauses of variability is important for models that use these data to drive land surface fluxesor for benchmarking prognostic vegetation models. Here we evaluated the interannualvariability in the new 30.5-year long global satellite-derived surface reflectance index data,Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies normalized difference vegetation index(GIMMS NDVI3g). Pearsons correlation and multiple linear stepwise regression analyseswere applied to quantify the NDVI interannual variability driven by climate anomalies, andto evaluate the effects of potential interference (snow, aerosols and clouds) on the NDVIsignal. We found ecologically plausible strong controls on NDVI variability by antecedent precipitation and current monthly temperature with distinct spatial patterns. Precipitation correlations were strongest for temperate to tropical water limited herbaceous systemswhere in some regions and seasons 40 of the NDVI variance could be explained byprecipitation anomalies. Temperature correlations were strongest in northern mid- to-high-latitudes in the spring and early summer where up to 70 of the NDVI variance was explained by temperature anomalies. We find that, in western and central North America,winter-spring precipitation determines early summer growth while more recent precipitation controls NDVI variability in late summer. In contrast, current or prior wetseason precipitation anomalies were correlated with all months of NDVI in sub-tropical herbaceous vegetation. Snow, aerosols and clouds as well as unexplained phenomena still account for part of the NDVI variance despite corrections. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that GIMMS NDVI3g represents real responses of vegetation to climate variability that are useful for global models.

  1. NDVI indicated long-term interannual changes in vegetation activities and their responses to climatic and anthropogenic factors in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhaofei; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Jilong; Lü, Mingquan

    2017-01-01

    Natural and social environmental changes in the China's Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) have received worldwide attention. Identifying interannual changes in vegetation activities in the TGRR is an important task for assessing the impact these changes have on the local ecosystem. We used long-term (1982-2011) satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets and climatic and anthropogenic factors to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation activities in the TGRR, as well as their links to changes in temperature (TEM), precipitation (PRE), downward radiation (RAD), and anthropogenic activities. At the whole TGRR regional scale, a statistically significant overall uptrend in NDVI variations was observed in 1982-2011. More specifically, there were two distinct periods with different trends split by a breakpoint in 1991: NDVI first sharply increased prior to 1991, and then showed a relatively weak rate of increase after 1991. At the pixel scale, most parts of the TGRR experienced increasing NDVI before the 1990s but different trend change types after the 1990s: trends were positive in forests in the northeastern parts, but negative in farmland in southwest parts of the TGRR. The TEM warming trend was the main climate-related driver of uptrending NDVI variations pre-1990s, and decreasing PRE was the main climate factor (42%) influencing the mid-western farmland areas' NDVI variations post-1990s. We also found that anthropogenic factors such as population density, man-made ecological restoration, and urbanization have notable impacts on the TGRR's NDVI variations. For example, large overall trend slopes in NDVI were more likely to appear in TGRR regions with large fractions of ecological restoration within the last two decades. The findings of this study may help to build a better understanding of the mechanics of NDVI variations in the periods before and during TGDP construction for ongoing ecosystem monitoring and assessment in the

  2. A Simple Method for Retrieving Understory NDVI in Sparse Needleleaf Forests in Alaska Using MODIS BRDF Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global products of leaf area index (LAI usually show large uncertainties in sparsely vegetated areas because the understory contribution is not negligible in reflectance modeling for the case of low to intermediate canopy cover. Therefore, many efforts have been made to include understory properties in LAI estimation algorithms. Compared with the conventional data bank method, estimation of forest understory properties from satellite data is superior in studies at a global or continental scale over long periods. However, implementation of the current remote sensing method based on multi-angular observations is complicated. As an alternative, a simple method to retrieve understory NDVI (NDVIu for sparse boreal forests was proposed in this study. The method is based on the fact that the bidirectional variation in NDVIu is smaller than that in canopy-level NDVI. To retrieve NDVIu for a certain pixel, linear extrapolation was applied using pixels within a 5 × 5 target-pixel-centered window. The NDVI values were reconstructed from the MODIS BRDF data corresponding to eight different solar-view angles. NDVIu was estimated as the average of the NDVI values corresponding to the position in which the stand NDVI had the smallest angular variation. Validation by a noise-free simulation data set yielded high agreement between estimated and true NDVIu, with R2 and RMSE of 0.99 and 0.03, respectively. Using the MODIS BRDF data, we achieved an estimate of NDVIu close to the in situ measured value (0.61 vs. 0.66 for estimate and measurement, respectively and reasonable seasonal patterns of NDVIu in 2010 to 2013. The results imply a potential application of the retrieved NDVIu to improve the estimation of overstory LAI for sparse boreal forests and ultimately to benefit studies on carbon cycle modeling over high-latitude areas.

  3. Comparison of Gross Primary Productivity Derived from GIMMS NDVI3g, GIMMS, and MODIS in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP plays an important role in the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. It is particularly important to monitor GPP in Southeast Asia because of increasing rates of tropical forest degradation and deforestation in the region in recent decades. The newly available, improved, third generation Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS group provides a long temporal dataset, from July 1981 to December 2011, for terrestrial carbon cycle and climate response research. However, GIMMS NDVI3g-based GPP estimates are not yet available. We applied the GLOPEM-CEVSA model, which integrates an ecosystem process model and a production efficiency model, to estimate GPP in Southeast Asia based on three independent results of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR from GIMMS NDVI3g (GPPNDVI3g, GIMMS NDVI1g (GPPNDVI1g, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS MOD15A2 FPAR product (GPPMOD15. The GPP results were validated using ground data from eddy flux towers located in different forest biomes, and comparisons were made among the three GPPs as well as the MOD17A2 GPP products (GPPMOD17. Based on validation with flux tower derived GPP estimates the results show that GPPNDVI3g is more accurate than GPPNDVI1g and is comparable in accuracy with GPPMOD15. In addition, GPPNDVI3g and GPPMOD15 have good spatial-temporal consistency. Our results indicate that GIMMS NDVI3g is an effective dataset for regional GPP simulation in Southeast Asia, capable of accurately tracking the variation and trends in long-term terrestrial ecosystem GPP dynamics.

  4. Performance and effects of land cover type on synthetic surface reflectance data and NDVI estimates for assessment and monitoring of semi-arid rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Lawrence, Rick L

    2014-01-01

    Federal land management agencies provide stewardship over much of the rangelands in the arid andsemi-arid western United States, but they often lack data of the proper spatiotemporal resolution andextent needed to assess range conditions and monitor trends. Recent advances in the blending of com-plementary, remotely sensed data could provide public lands managers with the needed information.We applied the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) to five Landsat TMand concurrent Terra MODIS scenes, and used pixel-based regression and difference image analyses toevaluate the quality of synthetic reflectance and NDVI products associated with semi-arid rangeland. Pre-dicted red reflectance data consistently demonstrated higher accuracy, less bias, and stronger correlationwith observed data than did analogous near-infrared (NIR) data. The accuracy of both bands tended todecline as the lag between base and prediction dates increased; however, mean absolute errors (MAE)were typically ≤10%. The quality of area-wide NDVI estimates was less consistent than either spectra lband, although the MAE of estimates predicted using early season base pairs were ≤10% throughout the growing season. Correlation between known and predicted NDVI values and agreement with the 1:1regression line tended to decline as the prediction lag increased. Further analyses of NDVI predictions,based on a 22 June base pair and stratified by land cover/land use (LCLU), revealed accurate estimates through the growing season; however, inter-class performance varied. This work demonstrates the successful application of the STARFM algorithm to semi-arid rangeland; however, we encourage evaluation of STARFM’s performance on a per product basis, stratified by LCLU, with attention given to the influence of base pair selection and the impact of the time lag.

  5. Analysis of monotonic greening and browning trends from global NDVI time-series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Bruin, de S.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Dent, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation indices are widely used to detect greening and browning trends; especially the global coverage of time-series normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data which are available from 1981. Seasonality and serial auto-correlation in the data have previously been dealt

  6. NDVI-Based Analysis on the Influence of Climate Change and Human Activities on Vegetation Restoration in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Region, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, climate change has affected vegetation growth in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation cover on the Loess Plateau’s Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region in central China using MODIS-NDVI data for 2000–2014. We examined the roles of regional climate change and human activities in vegetation restoration, particularly from 1999 when conversion of sloping farmland to forestland or grassland began under the national Grain-for-Green program. Our results indicated a general upward trend in average NDVI values in the study area. The region’s annual growth rate greatly exceeded those of the Three-North Shelter Forest, the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the Qinling–Daba Mountains, and the Three-River Headwater region. The green vegetation zone has been annually extending from the southeast toward the northwest, with about 97.4% of the region evidencing an upward trend in vegetation cover. The NDVI trend and fluctuation characteristics indicate the occurrence of vegetation restoration in the study region, with gradual vegetation stabilization associated with 15 years of ecological engineering projects. Under favorable climatic conditions, increasing local vegetation cover is primarily attributable to ecosystem reconstruction projects. However, our findings indicate a growing risk of vegetation degradation in the northern part of Shaanxi Province as a result of energy production facilities and chemical industry infrastructure, and increasing exploitation of mineral resources.

  7. [Correlative analysis of the diversity patterns of regional surface water, NDVI and thermal environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jin-Long; Zhang, Xue-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taking Zhengzhou City, the capital of Henan Province in Central China, as the study area, and by using the theories and methodologies of diversity, a discreteness evaluation on the regional surface water, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and land surface temperature (LST) distribution was conducted in a 2 km x 2 km grid scale. Both the NDVI and the LST were divided into 4 levels, their spatial distribution diversity indices were calculated, and their connections were explored. The results showed that it was of operability and practical significance to use the theories and methodologies of diversity in the discreteness evaluation of the spatial distribution of regional thermal environment. There was a higher overlap of location between the distributions of surface water and the lowest temperature region, and the high vegetation coverage was often accompanied by low land surface temperature. In 1988-2009, the discreteness of the surface water distribution in the City had an obvious decreasing trend. The discreteness of the surface water distribution had a close correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution, while the discreteness of the NDVI classification distribution had a more complicated correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution. Therefore, more environmental factors were needed to be included for a better evaluation.

  8. Responses of the reflectance indices PRI and NDVI to experimental warming and drought in European shrublands along a north–south climatic gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänd, Pille; Hallik, Lea; Peñuelas, Josep

    2010-01-01

    NDVI680 [780 nm; 680 nm] using red spectral region, and NDVI570 [780 nm; 570 nm] using the same green spectral region as PRI. All three reflectance indices were significantly related to green LAIe and were able to detect changes in shrubland vegetation among treatments. In general warming treatment...... increased PRI and drought treatment reduced NDVI values. The significant treatment effect on photochemical efficiency of plants detected with PRI could not be detected by fluorescence measurements. However, we found canopy level measured PRI to be very sensitive to soil reflectance properties especially...

  9. [Winter wheat area estimation with MODIS-NDVI time series based on parcel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Zhang, Jin-shui; Zhu, Wen-quan; Hu, Tan-gao; Hou, Dong

    2011-05-01

    Several attributes of MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, especially the short temporal intervals and the global coverage, provide an extremely efficient way to map cropland and monitor its seasonal change. However, the reliability of their measurement results is challenged because of the limited spatial resolution. The parcel data has clear geo-location and obvious boundary information of cropland. Also, the spectral differences and the complexity of mixed pixels are weak in parcels. All of these make that area estimation based on parcels presents more advantage than on pixels. In the present study, winter wheat area estimation based on MODIS-NDVI time series has been performed with the support of cultivated land parcel in Tongzhou, Beijing. In order to extract the regional winter wheat acreage, multiple regression methods were used to simulate the stable regression relationship between MODIS-NDVI time series data and TM samples in parcels. Through this way, the consistency of the extraction results from MODIS and TM can stably reach up to 96% when the amount of samples accounts for 15% of the whole area. The results shows that the use of parcel data can effectively improve the error in recognition results in MODIS-NDVI based multi-series data caused by the low spatial resolution. Therefore, with combination of moderate and low resolution data, the winter wheat area estimation became available in large-scale region which lacks completed medium resolution images or has images covered with clouds. Meanwhile, it carried out the preliminary experiments for other crop area estimation.

  10. The 2010 Russian Drought Impact on Satellite Measurements of Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence: Insights from Modeling and Comparisons with the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y.; Joiner, J.; Tucker, C.; Berry, J.; Lee, J. -E.; Walker, G.; Reichle, R.; Koster, R.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We examine satellite-based measurements of chlorophyll solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) over the region impacted by the Russian drought and heat wave of 2010. Like the popular Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) that has been used for decades to measure photosynthetic capacity, SIF measurements are sensitive to the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation (fPAR). However, in addition, SIF is sensitive to the fluorescence yield that is related to the photosynthetic yield. Both SIF and NDVI from satellite data show drought-related declines early in the growing season in 2010 as compared to other years between 2007 and 2013 for areas dominated by crops and grasslands. This suggests an early manifestation of the dry conditions on fPAR. We also simulated SIF using a global land surface model driven by observation-based meteorological fields. The model provides a reasonable simulation of the drought and heat impacts on SIF in terms of the timing and spatial extents of anomalies, but there are some differences between modeled and observed SIF. The model may potentially be improved through data assimilation or parameter estimation using satellite observations of SIF (as well as NDVI). The model simulations also offer the opportunity to examine separately the different components of the SIF signal and relationships with Gross Primary Productivity (GPP).

  11. Monitoring and identification of spatiotemporal landscape changes in multiple remote sensing images by using a stratified conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach and geostatistical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chu, Hone-Jay; Huang, Yu-Long; Tang, Chia-Hsi; Rouhani, Shahrokh

    2011-06-01

    This study develops a stratified conditional Latin hypercube sampling (scLHS) approach for multiple, remotely sensed, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images. The objective is to sample, monitor, and delineate spatiotemporal landscape changes, including spatial heterogeneity and variability, in a given area. The scLHS approach, which is based on the variance quadtree technique (VQT) and the conditional Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS) method, selects samples in order to delineate landscape changes from multiple NDVI images. The images are then mapped for calibration and validation by using sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) with the scLHS selected samples. Spatial statistical results indicate that in terms of their statistical distribution, spatial distribution, and spatial variation, the statistics and variograms of the scLHS samples resemble those of multiple NDVI images more closely than those of cLHS and VQT samples. Moreover, the accuracy of simulated NDVI images based on SGS with scLHS samples is significantly better than that of simulated NDVI images based on SGS with cLHS samples and VQT samples, respectively. However, the proposed approach efficiently monitors the spatial characteristics of landscape changes, including the statistics, spatial variability, and heterogeneity of NDVI images. In addition, SGS with the scLHS samples effectively reproduces spatial patterns and landscape changes in multiple NDVI images.

  12. Fourier analysis of temporal NDVI in the Southern African and American continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzali, S.; Menenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of applying Fourier analysis of temporal NDVI in southern Africa and southern America are summarized. The decomposition of complex time series of images in simpler periodic components by Fourier analysis allowed the factors that affect the vegetation cover to be analysed much easier. The

  13. LAND-COVER CHARACTERIZATION AND CHANGE DETECTION USING MULTI-TEMPORAL MODIS NDVI DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research and development effort is to investigate the feasibility of using MODIS derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to delineate areas of LC change on an annual basis and identify the outcome of LC conversions (i.e., new steady state). ...

  14. Application-Ready Expedited MODIS Data for Operational Land Surface Monitoring of Vegetation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesslyn F. Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring systems benefit from high temporal frequency image data collected from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS system. Because of near-daily global coverage, MODIS data are beneficial to applications that require timely information about vegetation condition related to drought, flooding, or fire danger. Rapid satellite data streams in operational applications have clear benefits for monitoring vegetation, especially when information can be delivered as fast as changing surface conditions. An “expedited” processing system called “eMODIS” operated by the U.S. Geological Survey provides rapid MODIS surface reflectance data to operational applications in less than 24 h offering tailored, consistently-processed information products that complement standard MODIS products. We assessed eMODIS quality and consistency by comparing to standard MODIS data. Only land data with known high quality were analyzed in a central U.S. study area. When compared to standard MODIS (MOD/MYD09Q1, the eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI maintained a strong, significant relationship to standard MODIS NDVI, whether from morning (Terra or afternoon (Aqua orbits. The Aqua eMODIS data were more prone to noise than the Terra data, likely due to differences in the internal cloud mask used in MOD/MYD09Q1 or compositing rules. Post-processing temporal smoothing decreased noise in eMODIS data.

  15. MODIS-derived EVI, NDVI and WDRVI time series to estimate phenological metrics in French deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, S.; Soudani, K.; Boschetti, L.; Borgogno Mondino, E.

    2018-02-01

    Monitoring forest phenology allows us to study the effects of climate change on vegetated land surfaces. Daily and composite time series (TS) of several vegetation indices (VIs) from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data have been widely used in scientific works for phenological studies since the beginning of the MODIS mission. The objective of this work was to use MODIS data to find the best VI/TS combination to estimate start-of-season (SOS) and end-of-season (EOS) dates across 50 temperate deciduous forests. Our research used as inputs 2001-2012 daily reflectance from MOD09GQ/MOD09GA products and 16-day composite VIs from the MOD13Q1 dataset. The 50 pixels centered on the 50 forest plots were extracted from the above-mentioned MODIS imagery; we then generated 5 different types of TS (1 daily from MOD09 and 4 composite from MOD13Q1) and used all of them to implement 6 VIs, obtaining 30 VI/TS combinations. SOS and EOS estimates were determined for each pixel/year and each VI/TS combination. SOS/EOS estimations were then validated against ground phenological observations. Results showed that, in our test areas, composite TS, if actual acquisition date is considered, performed mostly better than daily TS. EVI, WDRVI0.20 and NDVI were more suitable to SOS estimation, while WDRVI0.05 and EVI were more convenient in estimating early and advanced EOS, respectively.

  16. Historical extension of operational NDVI products for livestock insurance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; Meroni, Michele; Shee, Apurba; Mude, Andrew G.; Woodard, Joshua; de Bie, C. A. J. M. (Kees); Rembold, Felix

    2014-05-01

    Droughts induce livestock losses that severely affect Kenyan pastoralists. Recent index insurance schemes have the potential of being a viable tool for insuring pastoralists against drought-related risk. Such schemes require as input a forage scarcity (or drought) index that can be reliably updated in near real-time, and that strongly relates to livestock mortality. Generally, a long record (>25 years) of the index is needed to correctly estimate mortality risk and calculate the related insurance premium. Data from current operational satellites used for large-scale vegetation monitoring span over a maximum of 15 years, a time period that is considered insufficient for accurate premium computation. This study examines how operational NDVI datasets compare to, and could be combined with the non-operational recently constructed 30-year GIMMS AVHRR record (1981-2011) to provide a near-real time drought index with a long term archive for the arid lands of Kenya. We compared six freely available, near-real time NDVI products: five from MODIS and one from SPOT-VEGETATION. Prior to comparison, all datasets were averaged in time for the two vegetative seasons in Kenya, and aggregated spatially at the administrative division level at which the insurance is offered. The feasibility of extending the resulting aggregated drought indices back in time was assessed using jackknifed R2 statistics (leave-one-year-out) for the overlapping period 2002-2011. We found that division-specific models were more effective than a global model for linking the division-level temporal variability of the index between NDVI products. Based on our results, good scope exists for historically extending the aggregated drought index, thus providing a longer operational record for insurance purposes. We showed that this extension may have large effects on the calculated insurance premium. Finally, we discuss several possible improvements to the drought index.

  17. Mapping farmland abandonment and recultivation across Europe using MODIS NDVI time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo

    2015-01-01

    for recultivation hinges on incomplete knowledge about the spatial patterns of fallow and abandoned farmland, especially at broad geographic scales. Our goals were to develop a methodology to map active and fallow land using MODIS Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series and to provide the first...

  18. Assessing the effects of human-induced land degradation in the former homelands of northern South Africa with a 1 km AVHRR NDVI time-series

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2004-05-15

    Full Text Available been successfully estimated with the normalized dif- ference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from satellite data (Deering et al., 1975; Jury et al., 1997; Myneni et al., 1997; Prince, 1991b; Prince & Tucker, 1986; Tucker & Sellers, 1986). NDVI captures... productivity (NPP; Schloss et al., 1999). In arid and semiarid lands, seasonal sums of multitemporal NDVI are strongly corre- lated with vegetation production (Prince, 1991b; Prince & Tucker, 1986; Nicholson & Farrar, 1994; Nicholson et al., 1998). Human...

  19. PENGGUNAAN ALGORITMA NDVI DAN EVI PADA CITRA MULTISPEKTRAL UNTUK ANALISA PERTUMBUHAN PADI (STUDI KASUS : KABUPATEN INDRAMAYU, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Hafizh S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Indramayu merupakan salah satu kabupaten yang merupakan daerah sentra pertanian dimana sektor ini menyumbang 43% dari total PDRB (Produk Domestik Regional Bruto. Strategi yang tepat dan cepat harus dicanangkan untuk selalu memenuhi kebutuhan akan bahan pokok tersebut. Teknologi penginderaan jauh dapat mengakomodir informasi suatu objek secara cepat dan akurat tanpa harus berinteraksi langsung dengan objek dan dapat dimanfaatkan dalam berbagai aplikasi yang diinginkan. Pembangunan model - model estimasi produktivitas pada beberapa komoditas vegetasi pertanian seperti padi telah digunakan sejak dua dekade lalu. Dari berbagai macam permodelan vegetasi, indeks vegetasi yang paling umum digunakan adalah NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dan EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah penentuan fase pertumbuhan , masa tanam, dan masa panen tumbuhan padi pada citra MODIS L1B. Masa tanam padi di kabupaten Indramayu berada pada bulan Juni dan Desember 2011, masa panen berada pada bulan  Mei dan September 2011. Citra Aster digunakan sebagai data pendukung untuk menentukan korelasi linear  terhadap data lapangan (fieldspectometer. Korelasi yang dihasilkan Antara Modis - Aster sebesar 0.9576 pada EVI dan 0.9654 pada NDVI; Modis - Fieldspectometer sebesar 0.8798 pada EVI dan 0.9077 pada NDVI; dan pada Aster - Fieldspectometer sebesar 0.9220 pada EVI dan 0.9460 pada NDVI. Korelasi dari ketiga data tersebut memiliki hubungan yang cukup kuat dikarenakan nilai yang dihasilkan mendekati nilai 1.

  20. Classification of Small-Scale Eucalyptus Plantations Based on NDVI Time Series Obtained from Multiple High-Resolution Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailang Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus, a short-rotation plantation, has been expanding rapidly in southeast China in recent years owing to its short growth cycle and high yield of wood. Effective identification of eucalyptus, therefore, is important for monitoring land use changes and investigating environmental quality. For this article, we used remote sensing images over 15 years (one per year with a 30-m spatial resolution, including Landsat 5 thematic mapper images, Landsat 7-enhanced thematic mapper images, and HJ 1A/1B images. These data were used to construct a 15-year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series for several cities in Guangdong Province, China. Eucalyptus reference NDVI time series sub-sequences were acquired, including one-year-long and two-year-long growing periods, using invested eucalyptus samples in the study region. In order to compensate for the discontinuity of the NDVI time series that is a consequence of the relatively coarse temporal resolution, we developed an inverted triangle area methodology. Using this methodology, the images were classified on the basis of the matching degree of the NDVI time series and two reference NDVI time series sub-sequences during the growing period of the eucalyptus rotations. Three additional methodologies (Bounding Envelope, City Block, and Standardized Euclidian Distance were also tested and used as a comparison group. Threshold coefficients for the algorithms were adjusted using commission–omission error criteria. The results show that the triangle area methodology out-performed the other methodologies in classifying eucalyptus plantations. Threshold coefficients and an optimal discriminant function were determined using a mosaic photograph that had been taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle platform. Good stability was found as we performed further validation using multiple-year data from the high-resolution Gaofen Satellite 1 (GF-1 observations of larger regions. Eucalyptus planting dates

  1. Spatial-temporal dynamics of NDVI and Chl-a concentration from 1998 to 2009 in the East coastal zone of China: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiyong; Li, Mingjie; Gao, Meng; Yu, Liangju; Bi, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Annual normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration are the most important large-scale indicators of terrestrial and oceanic ecosystem net primary productivity. In this paper, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor level 3 standard mapped image annual products from 1998 to 2009 are used to study the spatial-temporal characters of terrestrial NDVI and oceanic Chl-a concentration on two sides of the coastline of China by using the methods of mean value (M), coefficient of variation (CV), the slope of unary linear regression model (Slope), and the Hurst index (H). In detail, we researched and analyzed the spatial-temporal dynamics, the longitudinal zonality and latitudinal zonality, the direction, intensity, and persistency of historical changes. The results showed that: (1) spatial patterns of M and CV between NDVI and Chl-a concentration from 1998 to 2009 were very different. The dynamic variation of terrestrial NDVI was much mild, while the variation of oceanic Chl-a concentration was relatively much larger; (2) distinct longitudinal zonality was found for Chl-a concentration and NDVI due to their hypersensitivity to the distance to shoreline, and strong latitudinal zonality existed for Chl-a concentration while terrestrial NDVI had a very weak latitudinal zonality; (3) overall, the NDVI showed a slight decreasing trend while the Chl-a concentration showed a significant increasing trend in the past 12 years, and both of them exhibit strong self-similarity and long-range dependence which indicates opposite future trends between land and ocean.

  2. Automated Land Cover Change Detection and Mapping from Hidden Parameter Estimates of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Banerjee, A.; Gupta, S. K. S.; Christensen, P. R.; Papandreou-Suppappola, A.

    2017-12-01

    Multitemporal observations acquired frequently by satellites with short revisit periods such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), is an important source for modeling land cover. Due to the inherent seasonality of the land cover, harmonic modeling reveals hidden state parameters characteristic to it, which is used in classifying different land cover types and in detecting changes due to natural or anthropogenic factors. In this work, we use an eight day MODIS composite to create a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series of ten years. Improved hidden parameter estimates of the nonlinear harmonic NDVI model are obtained using the Particle Filter (PF), a sequential Monte Carlo estimator. The nonlinear estimation based on PF is shown to improve parameter estimation for different land cover types compared to existing techniques that use the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), due to linearization of the harmonic model. As these parameters are representative of a given land cover, its applicability in near real-time detection of land cover change is also studied by formulating a metric that captures parameter deviation due to change. The detection methodology is evaluated by considering change as a rare class problem. This approach is shown to detect change with minimum delay. Additionally, the degree of change within the change perimeter is non-uniform. By clustering the deviation in parameters due to change, this spatial variation in change severity is effectively mapped and validated with high spatial resolution change maps of the given regions.

  3. Impact of economic growth on vegetation health in China based on GIMMS NDVI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Wan, L.; Zhang, Y.K.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The negative impact of economic development on vegetation health in China was assessed using gross domestic product (GDP) and the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Five levels of vegetation changes were established based on the

  4. Compositeness condition in the renormalization group equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masako; Kugo, Taichiro; Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Sasakura, Naoki; Watabiki, Yoshiyuki; Suehiro, Kazuhiko

    1990-01-01

    The problems in imposing compositeness conditions as boundary conditions in renormalization group equations are discussed. It is pointed out that one has to use the renormalization group equation directly in cutoff theory. In some cases, however, it can be approximated by the renormalization group equation in continuum theory if the mass dependent renormalization scheme is adopted. (orig.)

  5. Remote sensing data with the conditional latin hypercube sampling and geostatistical approach to delineate landscape changes induced by large chronological physical disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chu, Hone-Jay; Wang, Cheng-Long; Yu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    This study applies variogram analyses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images derived from SPOT HRV images obtained before and after the ChiChi earthquake in the Chenyulan watershed, Taiwan, as well as images after four large typhoons, to delineate the spatial patterns, spatial structures and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach was applied to select samples from multiple NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with sufficient samples were then used to generate maps of NDVI images. The variography of NDVI image results demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by variogram analysis in study areas. The high-magnitude Chi-Chi earthquake created spatial landscape variations in the study area. After the earthquake, the cumulative impacts of typhoons on landscape patterns depended on the magnitudes and paths of typhoons, but were not always evident in the spatiotemporal variability of landscapes in the study area. The statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images were captured by 3,000 samples from 62,500 grids in the NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with the 3,000 samples effectively reproduced spatial patterns of NDVI images. However, the proposed approach, which integrates the conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach, variogram, kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation in remotely sensed images, efficiently monitors, samples and maps the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial variability and heterogeneity.

  6. Assessing vegetation response to climatic variations and human activities: spatiotemporal NDVI variations in the Hexi Corridor and surrounding areas from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Yang, Liqin; Guan, Wenqian; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Zeyu; Xu, Chuanqi

    2018-03-01

    Vegetation cover is a commonly used indicator for evaluating terrestrial environmental conditions, and for revealing environmental evolution and transitions. Spatiotemporal variations in the vegetation cover of the Hexi Corridor and surrounding areas from 2000 to 2010 were investigated using MODIS NDVI data, and the causes of vegetation cover changes were analyzed, considering both climatic variability and human activities. The vegetation cover of the study area increased during 2000-2010. The greenness of the vegetation showed a significant increase from the northwest to the southeast, which was similar to the spatial distribution of the annual precipitation. Variations in vegetation have a close relationship with those in precipitation within the Qilian Mountains region, but the NDVI is negatively correlated with precipitation in oasis areas. Increasing temperatures led to drought, inhibiting vegetation growth in summer; however, increasing temperatures may have also advanced and prolonged the growing periods in spring and autumn. The NDVI showed a slight degradation in March and July, primarily in the Qilian Mountains, and especially the Wushao Mountains. In March, due to low temperatures, the metabolism rate of vegetation was too slow to enable strong plant growth in high elevations of the Qilian Mountains. In July, increasing temperatures enhanced the intensity of transpiration and decreasing precipitation reduced the moisture available to plants, producing a slight degradation of vegetation in the Qilian Mountains. In May and August, the NDVI showed a significant improvement, primarily in the artificial oases and the Qilian Mountains. Abundant precipitation provided the necessary water for plant growth, and suitable temperatures increased the efficiency of photosynthesis, resulting in a significant improvement of vegetation in the Qilian Mountains. The improvement of production technologies, especially in irrigation, has been beneficial to the growth of

  7. Characterizing post-drainage succession in Thermokarst Lake Basins on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska with TerraSAR-X Backscatter and Landsat-based NDVI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Prajna; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Miriam C.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Walter Anthony, Katey

    2012-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins accumulate significant amounts of soil organic carbon in the form of peat, which is of interest to understanding carbon cycling and climate change feedbacks associated with thermokarst in the Arctic. Remote sensing is a tool useful for understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of drained basins. In this study, we tested the application of high-resolution X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data of the German TerraSAR-X satellite from the 2009 growing season (July–September) for characterizing drained thermokarst lake basins of various age in the ice-rich permafrost region of the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. To enhance interpretation of patterns identified in X-band SAR for these basins, we also analyzed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated from a Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on July 2009 and compared both X-band SAR and NDVI data with observations of basin age. We found significant logarithmic relationships between (a) TerraSAR-X backscatter and basin age from 0 to 10,000 years, (b) Landat-5 TM NDVI and basin age from 0 to 10,000 years, and (c) TerraSAR-X backscatter and basin age from 50 to 10,000 years. NDVI was a better indicator of basin age over a period of 0–10,000 years. However, TerraSAR-X data performed much better for discriminating radiocarbon-dated basins (50–10,000 years old). No clear relationships were found for either backscatter or NDVI and basin age from 0 to 50 years. We attribute the decreasing trend of backscatter and NDVI with increasing basin age to post-drainage changes in the basin surface. Such changes include succession in vegetation, soils, hydrology, and renewed permafrost aggradation, ground ice accumulation and localized frost heave. Results of this study show the potential application of X-band SAR data in combination with NDVI data to map long-term succession dynamics of drained thermokarst lake basins.

  8. Characterizing Post-Drainage Succession in Thermokarst Lake Basins on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska with TerraSAR-X Backscatter and Landsat-based NDVI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajna Regmi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Drained thermokarst lake basins accumulate significant amounts of soil organic carbon in the form of peat, which is of interest to understanding carbon cycling and climate change feedbacks associated with thermokarst in the Arctic. Remote sensing is a tool useful for understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of drained basins. In this study, we tested the application of high-resolution X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data of the German TerraSAR-X satellite from the 2009 growing season (July–September for characterizing drained thermokarst lake basins of various age in the ice-rich permafrost region of the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. To enhance interpretation of patterns identified in X-band SAR for these basins, we also analyzed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI calculated from a Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on July 2009 and compared both X-band SAR and NDVI data with observations of basin age. We found significant logarithmic relationships between (a TerraSAR-X backscatter and basin age from 0 to 10,000 years, (b Landat-5 TM NDVI and basin age from 0 to 10,000 years, and (c TerraSAR-X backscatter and basin age from 50 to 10,000 years. NDVI was a better indicator of basin age over a period of 0–10,000 years. However, TerraSAR-X data performed much better for discriminating radiocarbon-dated basins (50–10,000 years old. No clear relationships were found for either backscatter or NDVI and basin age from 0 to 50 years. We attribute the decreasing trend of backscatter and NDVI with increasing basin age to post-drainage changes in the basin surface. Such changes include succession in vegetation, soils, hydrology, and renewed permafrost aggradation, ground ice accumulation and localized frost heave. Results of this study show the potential application of X-band SAR data in combination with NDVI data to map long-term succession dynamics of drained thermokarst lake basins.

  9. A comparison of radiometric correction techniques in the evaluation of the relationship between LST and NDVI in Landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Chooi; Lim, Hwee San; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric corrections for multi-temporal optical satellite images are necessary, especially in change detection analyses, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) rationing. Abrupt change detection analysis using remote-sensing techniques requires radiometric congruity and atmospheric correction to monitor terrestrial surfaces over time. Two atmospheric correction methods were used for this study: relative radiometric normalization and the simplified method for atmospheric correction (SMAC) in the solar spectrum. A multi-temporal data set consisting of two sets of Landsat images from the period between 1991 and 2002 of Penang Island, Malaysia, was used to compare NDVI maps, which were generated using the proposed atmospheric correction methods. Land surface temperature (LST) was retrieved using ATCOR3_T in PCI Geomatica 10.1 image processing software. Linear regression analysis was utilized to analyze the relationship between NDVI and LST. This study reveals that both of the proposed atmospheric correction methods yielded high accuracy through examination of the linear correlation coefficients. To check for the accuracy of the equation obtained through linear regression analysis for every single satellite image, 20 points were randomly chosen. The results showed that the SMAC method yielded a constant value (in terms of error) to predict the NDVI value from linear regression analysis-derived equation. The errors (average) from both proposed atmospheric correction methods were less than 10%.

  10. Sugarcane leaf area estimate obtained from the corrected Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Moura Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large farmland areas and the knowledge on the interaction between solar radiation and vegetation canopies have increased the use of data from orbital remote sensors in sugarcane monitoring. However, the constituents of the atmosphere affect the reflectance values obtained by imaging sensors. This study aimed at improving a sugarcane Leaf Area Index (LAI estimation model, concerning the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI subjected to atmospheric correction. The model generated by the NDVI with atmospheric correction showed the best results (R2 = 0.84; d = 0.95; MAE = 0.44; RMSE = 0.55, in relation to the other models compared. LAI estimation with this model, during the sugarcane plant cycle, reached a maximum of 4.8 at the vegetative growth phase and 2.3 at the end of the maturation phase. Thus, the use of atmospheric correction to estimate the sugarcane LAI is recommended, since this procedure increases the correlations between the LAI estimated by image and by plant parameters.

  11. HUBUNGAN ANTARA INDEKS VEGETASI NDVI (NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX DAN KOEFISIEN RESESI BASEFLOW PADA BEBERAPA SUBDAS PROPINSI JAWA TENGAH DAN DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokiraiya Latuamury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research is the decrease of environment capacity in cacthment ecosystem, especially impact of vegetation forest on behavior streamflow. The indicators of cacthment destruction can be seen through hydrograph characteristics. Evaluation of cactment respons of flow hydrographic as an evaluation tools of river catchment responses becomes very important to analyze because it is a benchmark in determination several policy about flood, drough, sedimentation and landslide handling. The research purpose is to analyze the relationship between vegetation index NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the characteristic of baseflow recession coefficient at several subcatchment areas in province of Central Java and Specific District of Yogjakarta.The method of this research is surveillance on data recording of AWLR (Automatic Water Level Recorder and data of River Flow Measuring Stations in order to separate the baseflow by calibration curve, and image interpretation of Landsat ETM+ for the transformation of vegetation index (NDVI-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index.The analysis on recession coefficient data (Krb and NDVI were correlated to analyze the strength of relationship between these two parameters. The results of statistical analysis on index NDVI and recession coefficient showsthat NDVI and recession coefficient value at R2 is 0.1427, F = 2.17 which is not significant at 1% significance level of 0.1646. The result shows a very weak correlation of 0.077 which mean that vegetation density (NDVI indexhas a very weak control on low flows. Basically, river baseflow is a genetic component of river flow which comes from aquifer storage and/or other low flow sources. Thus, geology and soil have a significant effect on baseflow.

  12. Evaluating EO-based canopy water stress from seasonally detrended NDVI and SIWSI with modeled evapotranspiration in the Senegal River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen L.; Stisen, Simon; Proud, Simon Richard

    2015-01-01

    the Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index (SIWSI) as compared to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). We perform a spatio-temporal evaluation of NDVI and SIWSI using geostationary remote sensing imagery from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). The indices and their seasonally......Satellite remote sensing of vegetation parameters and stress is a key issue for semi-arid areas such as the Sahel, where vegetation is an important part of the natural resource base. In this study we examine if additional information can be obtained on intra-seasonal short term scale by using...... gradient in the river catchment. The hypothesis that short term evolution of index anomalies are related to canopy water status was tested by comparing 10-day averages of ETa with short term changes in daily NDVI and SIWSI anomalies, and moderate to strong coefficients of determination where found when...

  13. A Web Architecture to Geographically Interrogate CHIRPS Rainfall and eMODIS NDVI for Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Jason E.; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of rainfall and vegetation over the continent of Africa is important for assessing the status of crop health and agriculture, along with long-term changes in land use change. These issues can be addressed through examination of long-term precipitation (rainfall) data sets and remote sensing of land surface vegetation and land use types. Two products have been used previously to address these goals: the Climate Hazard Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) rainfall data, and multi-day composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the USGS eMODIS product. Combined, these are very large data sets that require unique tools and architecture to facilitate a variety of data analysis methods or data exploration by the end user community. To address these needs, a web-enabled system has been developed to allow end-users to interrogate CHIRPS rainfall and eMODIS NDVI data over the continent of Africa. The architecture allows end-users to use custom defined geometries, or the use of predefined political boundaries in their interrogation of the data. The massive amount of data interrogated by the system allows the end-users with only a web browser to extract vital information in order to investigate land use change and its causes. The system can be used to generate daily, monthly and yearly averages over a geographical area and range of dates of interest to the user. It also provides analysis of trends in precipitation or vegetation change for times of interest. The data provided back to the end-user is displayed in graphical form and can be exported for use in other, external tools. The development of this tool has significantly decreased the investment and requirements for end-users to use these two important datasets, while also allowing the flexibility to the end-user to limit the search to the area of interest.

  14. NDVI e fluxo de CO2 em lavoura de soja no Rio Grande do Sul NDVI and CO2 flow in a soybean crop in Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pinheiro Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O aumento das emissões dos gases de efeito estufa (GEE se configura, atualmente, como um dos principais problemas ambientais, o que pode afetar significativamente as atividades humanas e os ecossistemas terrestres. Um dos principais GEE é o CO2, o qual tem sido emitido indiscriminadamente em função do estilo de vida atual, assim como pela intensificação das atividades agrícolas. Neste contexto, o objetivo da pesquisa foi estudar a relação entre o comportamento espectral da cultura de soja ao longo de seu ciclo de desenvolvimento, utilizando imagens NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index e o fluxo de CO2, calculado pelo método de covariância de vórtices (eddy covariance, gerando informações e metodologia para investigar as trocas de carbono em uma área de cultivo de soja no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, durante a safra de 2008/2009. Utilizou-se imagens TM do satélite Landsat 5, dados fenológicos e dados coletados em estação micrometeorológica ao longo do ciclo de desenvolvimento da soja. Os resultados mostraram que o padrão temporal do fluxo de CO2 ao longo do dia é cíclico, sendo que no período diurno apresenta valores negativos (captura e no período noturno, positivos (liberação. A radiação solar global determina a magnitude do aprisionamento de CO2 pela cultura da soja, mas o fluxo é modulado pelo estádio fenológico da cultura. A atividade fotossintética das plantas de soja é maior durante o estádio vegetativo, quando coincide a maior incidência de radiação solar e o maior aparato fotossintético. O NDVI, obtido de imagens Landsat, é um indicador da evolução da biomassa da soja ao longo do ciclo. Existe correlação entre o NDVI e o fluxo negativo de CO2 (captura, ocorridos no período diurno. Portanto, técnicas de sensoriamento remoto demonstram potencialidade na geração de informações úteis sobre as trocas de CO2 entre a superfície e a atmosfera.The increasing on the greenhouse gases (GHG

  15. Change detection of bare areas in the Xolobeni region, South Africa using Landsat NDVI

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, RG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available to provide some information on the inter-relationship between vegetated classes and bare areas. Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data derived from multi-temporal Landsat 5 imagery has formed the baseline information for this study. A density...

  16. Browning of the landscape of interior Alaska based on 1986-2009 Landsat sensor NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca A. Baird; David Verbyla; Teresa N. Hollingsworth

    2012-01-01

    We used a time series of 1986-2009 Landsat sensor data to compute the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for 30 m pixels within the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest of interior Alaska. Based on simple linear regression, we found significant (p

  17. Análisis de la evolución espacio-temporal del NDVI sobre áreas vegetadas y zonas de riesgo de erosión en el Pirineo Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente-Serrano, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The temporal evolution of vegetation activity on various land cover classes in the Spanish Pyrenees was analyzed. Two time series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were used, corresponding to March (early spring and August (the end of summer. The series were generated from Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ images for the period 1984-2007. An increase in the NDVI in March was found for vegetated areas, and the opposite trend was found in both March and August for degraded areas (badlands and erosion risk areas. The rise in minimum temperature during the study period appears to be the most important factor explaining the increased NDVI in the vegetated areas. In degraded areas, no climatic or topographic variable was associated with the negative trend in the NDVI, which may be related to erosion processes taking place in these regions.

    En este trabajo se ha analizado la evolución temporal y espacial de la dinámica vegetal sobre varias coberturas de suelo en el Pirineo central, España. Se han utilizado dos series temporales de NDVI, la primera corresponde al mes de Abril (inicio de primavera y la segunda al mes de Agosto (final de verano. Las series fueron construidas a partir de imágenes Landsat TM y ETM+ para el periodo del 1984-2007. Los resultados muestran un incremento del NDVI en el mes de Marzo para las áreas vegetadas, mientras que las áreas degradadas (cárcavas y zonas de riesgo de erosión presentaron una tendencia negativa del NDVI. El incremento de las temperaturas mínimas durante el periodo de estudio fue el factor más importante para explicar el incremento del NDVI en las áreas vegetadas. En las áreas degradadas, no se encontró ninguna variable climática o topográfica que explicará la tendencia negativa del NDVI, lo cual se ha relacionado con los procesos de erosión acelerada que tienen lugar en la región.

  18. NDVI statistical distribution of pasture areas at different times in the Community of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sotoca, Juan J.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    The severity of drought has many implications for society, including its impacts on the water supply, water pollution, reservoir management and ecosystem. However, its impacts on rain-fed agriculture are especially direct. Because of the importance of drought, there have been many attempts to characterize its severity, resulting in the numerous drought indices that have been developed (Niemeyer 2008). 'Biomass index' based on satellite image derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used in countries like United States of America, Canada and Spain for pasture and forage crops for some years (Rao, 2010). This type of agricultural insurance is named as 'index-based insurance' (IBI). IBI is perceived to be substantially less costly to operate and manage than multiple peril insurance. IBI contracts pay indemnities based not on the actual yield (or revenue) losses experienced by the insurance purchaser but rather based on realized NDVI values (historical data) that is correlated with farm-level losses (Xiaohui Deng et al., 2008). Definition of when drought event occurs is defined on NDVI threshold values mainly based in statistical parameters, average and standard deviation that characterize a normal distribution. In this work a pasture area at the north of Community of Madrid (Spain) has been delimited. Then, NDVI historical data was reconstructed based on remote sensing imaging MODIS, with 500x500m2 resolution. A statistical analysis of the NDVI histograms at consecutives 46 intervals of that area was applied to search for the best statistical distribution based on the maximum likelihood criteria. The results show that the normal distribution is not the optimal representation when IBI is available; the implications in the context of crop insurance are discussed (Martín-Sotoca, 2014). References Kolli N Rao. 2010. Index based Crop Insurance. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 1, 193-203. Martín-Sotoca, J.J. (2014) Estructura Espacial

  19. Using MODIS-NDVI for the Modeling of Post-Wildfire Vegetation Response as a Function of Environmental Conditions and Pre-Fire Restoration Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant M. Casady

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-fire vegetation response is influenced by the interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors such as topography, climate, vegetation type and restoration practices. Previous research has analyzed the relationship of some of these factors to vegetation response, but few have taken into account the effects of pre-fire restoration practices. We selected three wildfires that occurred in Bandelier National Monument (New Mexico, USA between 1999 and 2007 and three adjacent unburned control areas. We used interannual trends in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series data derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS to assess vegetation response, which we define as the average potential photosynthetic activity through the summer monsoon. Topography, fire severity and restoration treatment were obtained and used to explain post-fire vegetation response. We applied parametric (Multiple Linear Regressions-MLR and non-parametric tests (Classification and Regression Trees-CART to analyze effects of fire severity, terrain and pre-fire restoration treatments (variable used in CART on post-fire vegetation response. MLR results showed strong relationships between vegetation response and environmental factors (p < 0.1, however the explanatory factors changed among treatments. CART results showed that beside fire severity and topography, pre-fire treatments strongly impact post-fire vegetation response. Results for these three fires show that pre-fire restoration conditions along with local environmental factors constitute key processes that modify post-fire vegetation response.

  20. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns in the Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research examined changes in agricultural cropping patterns across the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Specific research objectives were to characterize the distribut...

  1. Comparability of red/near-infrared reflectance and NDVI based on the spectral response function between MODIS and 30 other satellite sensors using rice canopy spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weijiao; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Wang, Fumin; Shi, Jingjing

    2013-11-26

    Long-term monitoring of regional and global environment changes often depends on the combined use of multi-source sensor data. The most widely used vegetation index is the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is a function of the red and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. The reflectance and NDVI data sets derived from different satellite sensor systems will not be directly comparable due to different spectral response functions (SRF), which has been recognized as one of the most important sources of uncertainty in the multi-sensor data analysis. This study quantified the influence of SRFs on the red and NIR reflectances and NDVI derived from 31 Earth observation satellite sensors. For this purpose, spectroradiometric measurements were performed for paddy rice grown under varied nitrogen levels and at different growth stages. The rice canopy reflectances were convoluted with the spectral response functions of various satellite instruments to simulate sensor-specific reflectances in the red and NIR channels. NDVI values were then calculated using the simulated red and NIR reflectances. The results showed that as compared to the Terra MODIS, the mean relative percentage difference (RPD) ranged from -12.67% to 36.30% for the red reflectance, -8.52% to -0.23% for the NIR reflectance, and -9.32% to 3.10% for the NDVI. The mean absolute percentage difference (APD) compared to the Terra MODIS ranged from 1.28% to 36.30% for the red reflectance, 0.84% to 8.71% for the NIR reflectance, and 0.59% to 9.32% for the NDVI. The lowest APD between MODIS and the other 30 satellite sensors was observed for Landsat5 TM for the red reflectance, CBERS02B CCD for the NIR reflectance and Landsat4 TM for the NDVI. In addition, the largest APD between MODIS and the other 30 satellite sensors was observed for IKONOS for the red reflectance, AVHRR1 onboard NOAA8 for the NIR reflectance and IKONOS for the NDVI. The results also indicated that AVHRRs onboard NOAA7-17 showed

  2. Evaluating the consistency of the 1982-1999 NDVI trends in the Iberian Peninsula across four time-series derived from the AVHRR sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Liras, Elisa; Tabik, Siham; Paruelo, José; Cabello, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations' carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982-1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast.

  3. Sensitivity of Climate to Changes in NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Los, S. O.; Sellers, P. J.; Dazlich, D. A.; Tucker, C. J.; Randall, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of global and regional climate to changes in vegetation density is investigated using a coupled biosphere-atmosphere model. The magnitude of the vegetation changes and their spatial distribution are based on natural decadal variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi). Different scenarios using maximum and minimum vegetation cover were derived from satellite records spanning the period 1982-1990. Albedo decreased in the northern latitudes and increased in the tropics with increased ndvi. The increase in vegetation density revealed that the vegetation's physiological response was constrained by the limits of the available water resources. The difference between the maximum and minimum vegetation scenarios resulted in a 46% increase in absorbed visible solar radiation and a similar increase in gross photosynthetic C02 uptake on a global annual basis. This caused the canopy transpiration and interception fluxes to increase, and reduced those from the soil. The redistribution of the surface energy fluxes substantially reduced the Bowen ratio during the growing season, resulting in cooler and moister near-surface climate, except when soil moisture was limiting. Important effects of increased vegetation on climate are : (1) A cooling of about 1.8 K in the northern latitudes during the growing season and a slight warming during the winter, which is primarily due to the masking of high albedo of snow by a denser canopy. and (2) A year round cooling of 0.8 K in the tropics. These results suggest that increases in vegetation density could partially compensate for parallel increases in greenhouse warming . Increasing vegetation density globally caused both evapotranspiration and precipitation to increase. Evapotranspiration, however increased more than precipitation resulting in a global soil-water deficit of about 15 %. A spectral analysis on the simulated results showed that changes in the state of vegetation could affect the low

  4. Structural Composite Supercapacitors: Electrical and Mechanical Impact of Separators and Processing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Structural Composite Supercapacitors : Electrical and Mechanical Impact of Separators and Processing Conditions by Edwin B. Gienger, James F...Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-6624 September 2013 Structural Composite Supercapacitors : Electrical and Mechanical Impact of...2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Structural Composite Supercapacitors : Electrical and Mechanical Impact of Separators and Processing Conditions 5a

  5. Relative sensitivity of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) for vegetation and desertification monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Francois; Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1988-01-01

    A simple equation relating the Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is proposed which represents well data obtained from Nimbus 7/SMMR at 37 GHz and NOAA/AVHRR Channels 1 and 2. It is found that there is a limit which is characteristic of a particular type of cover for which both indices are equally sensitive to the variation of vegetation, and below which MPDI is more efficient than NDVI. The results provide insight into the relationship between water content and chlorophyll absorption at pixel size scales.

  6. Analysis of vegetation recovery surrounding a restored wetland using the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natalie R.; Norman, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Watershed restoration efforts seek to rejuvenate vegetation, biological diversity, and land productivity at Cienega San Bernardino, an important wetland in southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico. Rock detention and earthen berm structures were built on the Cienega San Bernardino over the course of four decades, beginning in 1984 and continuing to the present. Previous research findings show that restoration supports and even increases vegetation health despite ongoing drought conditions in this arid watershed. However, the extent of restoration impacts is still unknown despite qualitative observations of improvement in surrounding vegetation amount and vigor. We analyzed spatial and temporal trends in vegetation greenness and soil moisture by applying the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference infrared index (NDII) to one dry summer season Landsat path/row from 1984 to 2016. The study area was divided into zones and spectral data for each zone was analyzed and compared with precipitation record using statistical measures including linear regression, Mann– Kendall test, and linear correlation. NDVI and NDII performed differently due to the presence of continued grazing and the effects of grazing on canopy cover; NDVI was better able to track changes in vegetation in areas without grazing while NDII was better at tracking changes in areas with continued grazing. Restoration impacts display higher greenness and vegetation water content levels, greater increases in greenness and water content through time, and a decoupling of vegetation greenness and water content from spring precipitation when compared to control sites in nearby tributary and upland areas. Our results confirm the potential of erosion control structures to affect areas up to 5 km downstream of restoration sites over time and to affect 1 km upstream of the sites.

  7. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE is a weekly product derived from the VIIRS...

  8. [NDVI difference rate recognition model of deciduous broad-leaved forest based on HJ-CCD remote sensing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Huang, Yan; Wei, Hong-Wei

    2013-04-01

    The present paper takes Chuzhou in Anhui Province as the research area, and deciduous broad-leaved forest as the research object. Then it constructs the recognition model about deciduous broad-leaved forest was constructed using NDVI difference rate between leaf expansion and flowering and fruit-bearing, and the model was applied to HJ-CCD remote sensing image on April 1, 2012 and May 4, 2012. At last, the spatial distribution map of deciduous broad-leaved forest was extracted effectively, and the results of extraction were verified and evaluated. The result shows the validity of NDVI difference rate extraction method proposed in this paper and also verifies the applicability of using HJ-CCD data for vegetation classification and recognition.

  9. Evaluating the Consistency of the 1982–1999 NDVI Trends in the Iberian Peninsula across Four Time-series Derived from the AVHRR Sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Liras, Elisa; Tabik, Siham; Paruelo, José; Cabello, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations’ carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982–1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast. PMID:22205868

  10. Inferências sobre o calendário agrícola a partir de perfis temporais de NDVI/MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cybis Fontana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores desafios para a modelagem de rendimentos de grãos, no contexto das estimativas de safras feitas de forma operacional para grandes áreas, está relacionado à identificação no tempo dos períodos em que as culturas anuais apresentam maior suscetibilidade a estresses ambientais. Para a cultura da soja, cultivada no período de primavera-verão no sul do Brasil, o principal fator de risco é a ocorrência de estresse hídrico no florescimento e enchimento de grãos. Esses subperíodos ocorrem em períodos distintos ao longo da região de produção como consequência de práticas de manejo diferenciadas dos produtores. Este trabalho teve como objetivo relacionar o calendário agrícola da cultura da soja a perfis temporais do índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI/MODIS, com intuito de apresentar/validar uma tecnologia de baixo custo e adequada acurácia para fins de monitoramento e previsão de safras. Para tanto, foram analisados os dados de calendário agrícola (subperíodos de floração, enchimento de grãos e maturação da cultura da soja em regionais da EMATER (RS e imagens NDVI do sensor MODIS. Os resultados mostraram que os perfis temporais de NDVI permitem acompanhar a evolução temporal da biomassa da cultura da soja e determinar a ocorrência dos subperíodos do ciclo. As diferenças no valor do NDVI entre safras, regionais e subperíodos do ciclo da cultura demonstram a sensibilidade deste índice em detectar as respostas das plantas de soja às condições ambientais. Como consequência dos dados de NDVI serem gerados a partir das imagens MODIS, é possível a espacialização da informação acerca dos subperíodos para todas as safras e em todo o Estado, o que permite maior detalhamento temporal e espacial comparativamente à atual disponibilidade dos dados.

  11. Spatio-temporal variability of NDVI-precipitation over southernmost South America: possible linkages between climate signals and epidemics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourre, Y M [METEO-France, Meteopole, 42 Avenue Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Jarlan, L [Centre d' Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphere (CESBIO), 18 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Lacaux, J-P [Universite Paul Sabatier (UPS), Observatoire Midi Pyrenees (OMP), 12 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Rotela, C H [Instituto de Altos Estudios Espaciales ' Mario Gulich' , Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); Lafaye, M [CNES, DSP/ARP/AV, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2008-10-15

    Climate-environment variability affects the rates of incidence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases and is possibly associated with epidemics outbreaks. Over southernmost South America the joint spatio-temporal evolution of climate-environment is analyzed for the 1982-2004 period. Detailed mapping of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall variability are then compared to zones with preliminary epidemiological reports. A significant quasi-biennial signal (2.2- to 2.4-year periods, or QB) for joint NDVI-rainfall variability is revealed. From rotated EOFs, dominant NDVI patterns are partitioned according to their lead frequencies: (1) the 'QB group' (2.1-to 3-year periods) includes six modes over southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern-central Argentina (two modes), the southern Paraguay-northern Argentina border, and the Santa Cruz Province; (2) the QB1 (2.4- to 3-year periods) + quasi-quadrennial (QQ) mode over the Misiones Province; and (3) the QB2 (2.1- to 2.5-year periods) + QQ + inter-annual (IA) (3- to 7-year periods) two modes over south-eastern Argentina. Modes within the 'QB group' are positively correlated with global climate signals and SST. The Uruguayan mode is correlated with global ENSO (8-month lag) whilst the southern Entre-Rios/northern Buenos Aires provinces are correlated with central equatorial Pacific SSTs (3-month lag). The Santa Cruz (Patagonia) Province is most correlated with the Pacific South America (PSA) index and SST patterns (3-month lag) along the Antarctica circumpolar current. The spatial distribution of lead NDVI modes includes the Formosa, Misiones, Chaco and Buenos Aires provinces among others, known for being prone to vector-borne epidemics such as dengue fever, malaria, leishmaniasis (American cutaneous leishmaniasis or ACL), hantivirus, chagas and Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Some provinces also correspond to regions where lead NDVI PCs' modes are associated with high

  12. Spatio-temporal variability of NDVI-precipitation over southernmost South America: possible linkages between climate signals and epidemics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourre, Y M [METEO-France, Meteopole, 42 Avenue Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Jarlan, L [Centre d' Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphere (CESBIO), 18 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Lacaux, J-P [Universite Paul Sabatier (UPS), Observatoire Midi Pyrenees (OMP), 12 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Rotela, C H [Instituto de Altos Estudios Espaciales ' Mario Gulich' , Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); Lafaye, M [CNES, DSP/ARP/AV, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2008-10-15

    Climate-environment variability affects the rates of incidence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases and is possibly associated with epidemics outbreaks. Over southernmost South America the joint spatio-temporal evolution of climate-environment is analyzed for the 1982-2004 period. Detailed mapping of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall variability are then compared to zones with preliminary epidemiological reports. A significant quasi-biennial signal (2.2- to 2.4-year periods, or QB) for joint NDVI-rainfall variability is revealed. From rotated EOFs, dominant NDVI patterns are partitioned according to their lead frequencies: (1) the 'QB group' (2.1-to 3-year periods) includes six modes over southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern-central Argentina (two modes), the southern Paraguay-northern Argentina border, and the Santa Cruz Province; (2) the QB1 (2.4- to 3-year periods) + quasi-quadrennial (QQ) mode over the Misiones Province; and (3) the QB2 (2.1- to 2.5-year periods) + QQ + inter-annual (IA) (3- to 7-year periods) two modes over south-eastern Argentina. Modes within the 'QB group' are positively correlated with global climate signals and SST. The Uruguayan mode is correlated with global ENSO (8-month lag) whilst the southern Entre-Rios/northern Buenos Aires provinces are correlated with central equatorial Pacific SSTs (3-month lag). The Santa Cruz (Patagonia) Province is most correlated with the Pacific South America (PSA) index and SST patterns (3-month lag) along the Antarctica circumpolar current. The spatial distribution of lead NDVI modes includes the Formosa, Misiones, Chaco and Buenos Aires provinces among others, known for being prone to vector-borne epidemics such as dengue fever, malaria, leishmaniasis (American cutaneous leishmaniasis or ACL), hantivirus, chagas and Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Some provinces also correspond to regions where lead NDVI PCs' modes are associated with high-frequency climate signals such as the

  13. Spatio-temporal variability of NDVI-precipitation over southernmost South America: possible linkages between climate signals and epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourre, Y. M.; Jarlan, L.; Lacaux, J.-P.; Rotela, C. H.; Lafaye, M.

    2008-10-01

    Climate-environment variability affects the rates of incidence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases and is possibly associated with epidemics outbreaks. Over southernmost South America the joint spatio-temporal evolution of climate-environment is analyzed for the 1982-2004 period. Detailed mapping of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall variability are then compared to zones with preliminary epidemiological reports. A significant quasi-biennial signal (2.2- to 2.4-year periods, or QB) for joint NDVI-rainfall variability is revealed. From rotated EOFs, dominant NDVI patterns are partitioned according to their lead frequencies: (1) the 'QB group' (2.1-to 3-year periods) includes six modes over southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern-central Argentina (two modes), the southern Paraguay-northern Argentina border, and the Santa Cruz Province; (2) the QB1 (2.4- to 3-year periods) + quasi-quadrennial (QQ) mode over the Misiones Province; and (3) the QB2 (2.1- to 2.5-year periods) + QQ + inter-annual (IA) (3- to 7-year periods) two modes over south-eastern Argentina. Modes within the 'QB group' are positively correlated with global climate signals and SST. The Uruguayan mode is correlated with global ENSO (8-month lag) whilst the southern Entre-Rios/northern Buenos Aires provinces are correlated with central equatorial Pacific SSTs (3-month lag). The Santa Cruz (Patagonia) Province is most correlated with the Pacific South America (PSA) index and SST patterns (3-month lag) along the Antarctica circumpolar current. The spatial distribution of lead NDVI modes includes the Formosa, Misiones, Chaco and Buenos Aires provinces among others, known for being prone to vector-borne epidemics such as dengue fever, malaria, leishmaniasis (American cutaneous leishmaniasis or ACL), hantivirus, chagas and Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Some provinces also correspond to regions where lead NDVI PCs' modes are associated with high-frequency climate signals such as the

  14. Spatio-temporal variability of NDVI-precipitation over southernmost South America: possible linkages between climate signals and epidemics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourre, Y M; Jarlan, L; Lacaux, J-P; Rotela, C H; Lafaye, M

    2008-01-01

    Climate-environment variability affects the rates of incidence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases and is possibly associated with epidemics outbreaks. Over southernmost South America the joint spatio-temporal evolution of climate-environment is analyzed for the 1982-2004 period. Detailed mapping of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall variability are then compared to zones with preliminary epidemiological reports. A significant quasi-biennial signal (2.2- to 2.4-year periods, or QB) for joint NDVI-rainfall variability is revealed. From rotated EOFs, dominant NDVI patterns are partitioned according to their lead frequencies: (1) the 'QB group' (2.1-to 3-year periods) includes six modes over southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern-central Argentina (two modes), the southern Paraguay-northern Argentina border, and the Santa Cruz Province; (2) the QB1 (2.4- to 3-year periods) + quasi-quadrennial (QQ) mode over the Misiones Province; and (3) the QB2 (2.1- to 2.5-year periods) + QQ + inter-annual (IA) (3- to 7-year periods) two modes over south-eastern Argentina. Modes within the 'QB group' are positively correlated with global climate signals and SST. The Uruguayan mode is correlated with global ENSO (8-month lag) whilst the southern Entre-Rios/northern Buenos Aires provinces are correlated with central equatorial Pacific SSTs (3-month lag). The Santa Cruz (Patagonia) Province is most correlated with the Pacific South America (PSA) index and SST patterns (3-month lag) along the Antarctica circumpolar current. The spatial distribution of lead NDVI modes includes the Formosa, Misiones, Chaco and Buenos Aires provinces among others, known for being prone to vector-borne epidemics such as dengue fever, malaria, leishmaniasis (American cutaneous leishmaniasis or ACL), hantivirus, chagas and Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Some provinces also correspond to regions where lead NDVI PCs' modes are associated with high-frequency climate signals such as the

  15. Characterisation of macrophyte phenology in the Doñana marshland using MODIS NDVI time series from 2000 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Carrillo, A.; Rodriguez-Galiano, V. F.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.

    2017-10-01

    The study of the interaction between vegetation development and climate factors is paramount for the management of protected natural areas. Data provided by remote-sensing satellites and derivative products, such as vegetation indices, permit the extraction of basic information regarding the functioning of vegetation masses and their interaction with certain environmental factors. This paper carries out an approach regarding the behaviour of radiation intercepted by aquatic macrophytes present in the Doñana National Park marshland, represented by the plant association Bolboschoenetum maritimi. Based on MODIS NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) data, the temporal dynamics of these vegetation masses were studied over a 16-year period (2000-2015), as was their typical annual behaviour, thereby deriving different indicators for seasonal dynamics (NDVI-I, RREL, MAX, MIN, MMAX and MMIN), which help to understand the basic functional characteristics for this type of vegetation. Afterwards, different regression analyses were performed between precipitation and the indicators derived from the NDVI time series. The obtained results indicated that the examined association has a strong dependence on the marshland's flooding processes, requiring a minimum annual precipitation volume (350 mm/year) for proper flooding and vegetation growth development. Furthermore, a strong correlation (r2 =0.70; <0.05) was found between seasonal nature of the vegetation masses, measured via RREL, and precipitation, as well as slightly weaker relationships between precipitation and other indicators, such as the maximum and minimum annual NDVI (r2 =0.43 and r2 =0.61; p<0.05 and p<0.05, respectively).

  16. Categorical likelihood method for combining NDVI and elevation information for cotton precision agricultural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation investigates an algorithm to fuse the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with LiDAR elevation data to produce a map useful for the site-specific scouting and pest management (Willers et al. 1999; 2005; 2009) of the cotton insect pests, the tarnished plant bug (Lygus lin...

  17. Materials Characterisation of Glass/epoxy Composites - Focusing on Process Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Lyckegaard, Anders; Jensen, Erik Appel

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the behaviour of fibre reinforced polymer composites taking the process conditions into account involves advanced modelling techniques and an extensive materials characterisation. The materials characterisation of a chopped strand mat glass/epoxy composite has been the focus...

  18. Mapping the change of Phragmites australis live biomass in the lower Mississippi River Delta marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina

    2017-07-28

    Multiyear remote sensing mapping of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was carried out as an indicator of live biomass composition of the Phragmites australis (hereafter Phragmites) marsh in the lower Mississippi River Delta (hereafter delta) from 2014 to 2017. Maps of NDVI change showed that the Phragmites condition was fairly stable between May 2014 and July 2015. From July 2015 to April 2016 NDVI change indicated Phragmites suffered a widespread decline in the live biomass proportion.  Between April and September 2016, most marsh remained unchanged from the earlier period or showed improvement; although there were pockets of continued decline scattered throughout the lower delta. From September 2016 to May 2017 a pronounced and widely exhibited decline in the condition of Phragmites marsh again occurred throughout the lower delta. This final NDVI change mapping supported field observations of Phragmites decline during the same period.

  19. Modeling of composite synthesis in conditions of controlled thermal explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukta, Yaroslav; Knyazeva, Anna

    2017-12-01

    The paper proposes the model for the titanium-based composite synthesis from powders of titanium and carbon of non-stoichiometric composition. The model takes into account the mixture heating from chamber walls, the dependence of liquidus and solidus temperatures on the composition of reacting mixture and the formation of possible irreversible phases. The reaction retardation by the reaction product is taken into consideration in kinetic laws. As an example, the results of temperature and conversion level calculation are presented for the system Ti-C with the summary reaction for different temperatures of chamber walls heating. It was revealed that the reaction retardation being the reaction product can be the cause of incomplete conversion in the thermal explosion conditions. Non-stoichiometric composition leads to the conditions of degenerated mode when some additional heating is necessary to complete the reaction.

  20. Historical Fire Detection of Tropical Forest from NDVI Time-series Data: Case Study on Jambi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah R. Panuju

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to forest encroachment, forest fire is a serious problem in Indonesia. Attempts at managing its widespread and frequent occurrence has led to intensive use of remote sensing data. Coarse resolution images have been employed to derive hot spots as an indicator of forest fire. However, most efforts to verify the hot spot data and to verify fire accidents have been restricted to the use of medium or high resolution data. At present, it is difficult to verify solely upon those data due to severe cloud cover and low revisit time. In this paper, we present a method to validate forest fire using NDVI time series data. With the freely available NDVI data from SPOT VEGETATION, we successfully detected changes in time series data which were associated with fire accidents.

  1. Analysis of vegetation and land cover dynamics in north-western Morocco during the last decade using MODIS NDVI time series data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Höpfner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation phenology as well as the current variability and dynamics of vegetation and land cover, including its climatic and human drivers, are examined in a region in north-western Morocco that is nearly 22 700 km2 big. A gapless time series of Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI composite raster data from 29 September 2000 to 29 September 2009 is utilised. The data have a spatial resolution of 250 m and were acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor.

    The presented approach allows to compose and to analyse yearly land cover maps in a widely unknown region with scarce validated ground truth data by deriving phenological parameters. Results show that the high temporal resolution of 16 d is sufficient for (a determining local land cover better than global land cover classifications of Plant Functional Types (PFT and Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC2000 and (b for drawing conclusions on vegetation dynamics and its drivers. Areas of stably classified land cover types (i.e. areas that did not change their land cover type show climatically driven inter- and intra-annual variability with indicated influence of droughts. The presented approach to determine human-driven influence on vegetation dynamics caused by agriculture results in a more than ten times larger area compared with stably classified areas. Change detection based on yearly land cover maps shows a gain of high-productive vegetation (cropland of about 259.3 km2. Statistically significant inter-annual trends in vegetation dynamics during the last decade could however not be discovered. A sequence of correlations was respectively carried out to extract the most important periods of rainfall responsible for the production of green biomass and for the extent of land cover types. Results show that mean daily precipitation from 1 October to 15 December has high correlation results (max. r2=0.85 on an intra

  2. Using the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to explain ranging patterns in a lek-breeding antelope: the importance of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Brown, Molly E; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2008-11-01

    Lek-breeding species are characterized by a negative association between territorial resource availability and male mating success; however, the impact of resources on the overall distribution patterns of the two sexes in lek systems is not clear. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has recently emerged as a powerful proxy measure for primary productivity, allowing the links between the distributions of animals and resources to be explored. Using NDVI at four spatial resolutions, we here investigate how the distribution of the two sexes in a lek-breeding population of topi antelopes relates to resource abundance before and during the rut. We found that in the dry season preceding the rut, topi density correlated positively with NDVI at the large, but not the fine, scale. This suggests that before the rut, when resources were relatively scant, topi preferred pastures where green grass was widely abundant. The pattern was less pronounced in males, suggesting that the need for territorial attendance prevents males from tracking resources as freely as females do. During the rut, which occurs in the wet season, both male and female densities correlated negatively with NDVI at the fine scale. At this time, resources were generally plentiful and the results suggest that, rather than by resource maximization, distribution during the rut was determined by benefits of aggregating on relatively resource-poor leks for mating, and possibly antipredator, purposes. At the large scale, no correlation between density and NDVI was found during the rut in either sex, which can be explained by leks covering areas too small to be reflected at this resolution. The study illustrates that when investigating spatial organization, it is important: (1) to choose the appropriate analytic scale, and (2) to consider behavioural as well as strictly ecological factors.

  3. Strategy for the Development of a Smart NDVI Camera System for Outdoor Plant Detection and Agricultural Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Zarezadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of (smart cameras for process control, mapping, and advanced imaging in agriculture has become an element of precision farming that facilitates the conservation of fertilizer, pesticides, and machine time. This technique additionally reduces the amount of energy required in terms of fuel. Although research activities have increased in this field, high camera prices reflect low adaptation to applications in all fields of agriculture. Smart, low-cost cameras adapted for agricultural applications can overcome this drawback. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI for each image pixel is an applicable algorithm to discriminate plant information from the soil background enabled by a large difference in the reflectance between the near infrared (NIR and the red channel optical frequency band. Two aligned charge coupled device (CCD chips for the red and NIR channel are typically used, but they are expensive because of the precise optical alignment required. Therefore, much attention has been given to the development of alternative camera designs. In this study, the advantage of a smart one-chip camera design with NDVI image performance is demonstrated in terms of low cost and simplified design. The required assembly and pixel modifications are described, and new algorithms for establishing an enhanced NDVI image quality for data processing are discussed.

  4. Strategy for the development of a smart NDVI camera system for outdoor plant detection and agricultural embedded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, Volker; Selbeck, Joern; Dammer, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Matthias; Zarezadeh, Ali Akbar; Bobda, Christophe

    2013-01-24

    The application of (smart) cameras for process control, mapping, and advanced imaging in agriculture has become an element of precision farming that facilitates the conservation of fertilizer, pesticides, and machine time. This technique additionally reduces the amount of energy required in terms of fuel. Although research activities have increased in this field, high camera prices reflect low adaptation to applications in all fields of agriculture. Smart, low-cost cameras adapted for agricultural applications can overcome this drawback. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each image pixel is an applicable algorithm to discriminate plant information from the soil background enabled by a large difference in the reflectance between the near infrared (NIR) and the red channel optical frequency band. Two aligned charge coupled device (CCD) chips for the red and NIR channel are typically used, but they are expensive because of the precise optical alignment required. Therefore, much attention has been given to the development of alternative camera designs. In this study, the advantage of a smart one-chip camera design with NDVI image performance is demonstrated in terms of low cost and simplified design. The required assembly and pixel modifications are described, and new algorithms for establishing an enhanced NDVI image quality for data processing are discussed.

  5. [Responses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to precipitation changes on the grassland of Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Peng; Zhang, Xian Zhou; He, Yong Tao; Li, Meng; Shi, Pei Li; Zu, Jia Xing; Niu, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation change is an important factor in the inter-annual variation of grassland growth on the Tibetan Plateau. The total amount, distribution pattern and concentration time are three basic characteristics of precipitation change. The temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation change were analyzed based on climate data of 145 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau and nearby areas from 2000 to 2015. The total precipitation amount was characterized by annual precipitation, distribution pattern of precipitation during the year was characterized by improved precipitation concentration index (PCI), and precipitation centroid (PC) was defined to indicate the change in precipitation concentrated time. To better illustrate the response of grassland to precipitation change, vegetation growth status was characterized by the maximum value of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI max ). Results indicated that the annual precipitation and PCI had an apparent gradient across the whole plateau and the latest PC occurred in the southern plateau. NDVI max of alpine shrub grassland was significantly correlated with the change of PCI,increased with even distribution of precipitation during growth period, and limited by the total annual precipitation. Alpine meadow did not show significantly correlations with these three indices. The inter-annual variability of NDVI max of steppe was controlled by both PCI and PC. NDVI max of alpine desert grassland was mainly controlled by annual precipitation. In addition to annual total amount of precipitation, the distribution characteristics of precipitation should be further considered when the influence of precipitation change on different types of vegetation on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau was studied.

  6. Insensitivity of Tree-Ring Growth to Temperature and Precipitation Sharpens the Puzzle of Enhanced Pre-Eruption NDVI on Mt. Etna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ruedi; Kirchner, James W; Krusic, Paul J; Tognetti, Roberto; Houlié, Nicolas; Andronico, Daniele; Cullotta, Sebastiano; Egli, Markus; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Cherubini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    On Mt. Etna (Italy), an enhanced Normalized Difference in Vegetation Index (NDVI) signature was detected in the summers of 2001 and 2002 along a distinct line where, in November 2002, a flank eruption subsequently occurred. These observations suggest that pre-eruptive volcanic activity may have enhanced photosynthesis along the future eruptive fissure. If a direct relation between NDVI and future volcanic eruptions could be established, it would provide a straightforward and low-cost method for early detection of upcoming eruptions. However, it is unclear if, or to what extent, the observed enhancement of NDVI can be attributed to volcanic activity prior to the subsequent eruption. We consequently aimed at determining whether an increase in ambient temperature or additional water availability owing to the rise of magma and degassing of water vapour prior to the eruption could have increased photosynthesis of Mt. Etna's trees. Using dendro-climatic analyses we quantified the sensitivity of tree ring widths to temperature and precipitation at high elevation stands on Mt. Etna. Our findings suggest that tree growth at high elevation on Mt. Etna is weakly influenced by climate, and that neither an increase in water availability nor an increase in temperature induced by pre-eruptive activity is a plausible mechanism for enhanced photosynthesis before the 2002/2003 flank eruption. Our findings thus imply that other, yet unknown, factors must be sought as causes of the pre-eruption enhancement of NDVI on Mt. Etna.

  7. The 1990 conterminous U.S. AVHRR data set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidenshink, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using NOAA-11 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data, has produced a time series of 19 biweekly maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites of the conterminous United States for the 1990 growing season. Each biweekly composite included data from approximately 20 calibrated and georegistered daily overpasses. The output is a data set which includes all five calibrated AVHRR channels, NDVI values, three satellite/solar viewing angles, and date of observation pointer for each biweekly composite. The data set is intended for assessing seasonal variations in vegetation condition and provides a foundation for studying long-term changes in vegetation resulting from human interactions or global climate alterations. 12 refs

  8. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time-series of idle agriculture lands: A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaiphasa, C.; Piamduaytham, S.; Vaiphasa, T.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the NDVI time-series collected from the study area between year 2003 and 2005 of all land cover types are plotted and compared. The study area is the agricultural zones in Banphai District, Khonkean, Thailand. The LANDSAT satellite images of different dates were first transformed into

  9. Spatial variability of NDVI at different seasons in the Community of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoca, Juan J. Martin; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Borondo, Javier; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural drought quantification is one of the most important tasks in the characterization process of this natural hazard and its implications in crop insurance. Recently, several vegetation indexes based on remote-sensing data (VI) has been applied to quantify it (Dalezios et al, 2012). VIs are obtained combining several frequency bands that represent the relationship between photosynthesis and absorbed/reflected radiation. The most widely used VI is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). It is based on the principle that healthy vegetation mainly absorbs visible light and reflects the near-infrared frequency band. Drought can be highly localized, and several authors have recognized the critical role of soil moisture and its spatial variability in agricultural losses (Anderson et al., 2011). Therefore, it is important to delimit locations within a homogeneous area that will share main NDVI statistics and in which the same threshold value can be applied to define drought event. In order to do so, we have applied for the first time in this context the method of singularity maps (Cheng and Agterberg, 1996) commonly used in localization of mineral deposits. The NDVI singularity maps calculated in each season through 2011/2012 are showed and discussed (Martín-Sotoca, 2014). References Anderson, M:C:, C. R. Hain, B. Wardlow, J. R. Mecikalski and W. P. Kustas (2011) Evaluation of drought indices based on thermal remote sensing of evapotranspiration over the continental United States. J. Climate, 24, 2025-2044. Dalezios, N.R., A. Blanta, N.V. Spyropoulos and A.M. Tarquis (2012) Risk identification of agricultural drought for sustainable Agroecosystems. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2435-2448. Cheng, Q. and F.P. Agterberg (1996) Multifractal modeling and spatial statistics. Math. Geol., 28, 1-16. Martín-Sotoca, J.J. (2014) Estructura Espacial de la Sequía en Pastos y sus Aplicaciones en el Seguro Agrario. Master Thesis, UPM (In Spanish

  10. High NDVI and Potential Canopy Photosynthesis of South American Subtropical Forests despite Seasonal Changes in Leaf Area Index and Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad M. Cristiano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The canopy photosynthesis and carbon balance of the subtropical forests are not well studied compared to temperate and tropical forest ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to assess the seasonal dynamics of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and potential canopy photosynthesis in relation to seasonal changes in leaf area index (LAI, chlorophyll concentration, and air temperatures of NE Argentina subtropical forests throughout the year. We included in the analysis several tree plantations (Pinus, Eucalyptus and Araucaria species that are known to have high productivity. Field studies in native forests and tree plantations were conducted; stem growth rates, LAI and leaf chlorophyll concentration were measured. MODIS satellite-derived LAI (1 km SIN Grid and NDVI (250m SIN Grid from February 2000 to 2012 were used as a proxy of seasonal dynamics of potential photosynthetic activity at the stand level. The remote sensing LAI of the subtropical forests decreased every year from 6 to 5 during the cold season, similar to field LAI measurements, when temperatures were 10 °C lower than during the summer. The yearly maximum NDVI values were observed during a few months in autumn and spring (March through May and November, respectively because high and low air temperatures may have a small detrimental effect on photosynthetic activity during both the warm and the cold seasons. Leaf chlorophyll concentration was higher during the cold season than the warm season which may have a compensatory effect on the seasonal variation of the NDVI values. The NDVI of the subtropical forest stands remained high and fairly constant throughout the year (the intra-annual coefficient of variation was 1.9%, and were comparable to the values of high-yield tree plantations. These results suggest that the humid subtropical forests in NE Argentina potentially could maintain high canopy photosynthetic activity throughout the year and thus this ecosystem may

  11. An NDVI-Based Vegetation Phenology Is Improved to be More Consistent with Photosynthesis Dynamics through Applying a Light Use Efficiency Model over Boreal High-Latitude Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siheng Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of high-latitude forests phenology is essential for understanding the global carbon cycle and the response of vegetation to climate change. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI has long been used to study boreal evergreen needleleaf forests (ENF and deciduous broadleaf forests. However, the NDVI-based growing season is generally reported to be longer than that based on gross primary production (GPP, which can be attributed to the difference between greenness and photosynthesis. Instead of introducing environmental factors such as land surface or air temperature like previous studies, this study attempts to make VI-based phenology more consistent with photosynthesis dynamics through applying a light use efficiency model. NDVI (MOD13C2 was used as a proxy for both fractional of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR and light use efficiency at seasonal time scale. Results show that VI-based phenology is improved towards tracking seasonal GPP changes more precisely after applying the light use efficiency model compared to raw NDVI or APAR, especially over ENF.

  12. Monitoring Grassland Seasonal Carbon Dynamics, by Integrating MODIS NDVI, Proximal Optical Sampling, and Eddy Covariance Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nestola, E.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Emmerton, C. A.; Wrong, Ch. Y. S.; Thayer, D. R.; Gamon, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), č. článku 260. ISSN 2072-4292 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grassland * NDVI * CO2 flux * optical remote sensing * LUE model * gap filling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.244, year: 2016

  13. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Anikieiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  14. Evaluating the Relationship between Field Aerodynamic Roughness and the MODIS BRDF, NDVI, and Wind Speed over Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic roughness (AR is an important parameter that influences the momentum and energy exchange between the earth’s surface and the atmosphere. In this study, profile wind data observed during the vegetation growing period (April–September in 2013 and 2014 at the A’rou grassland station, which is in the upstream of the Heihe River Basin (HRB, were used to determine the relationship between the field AR and the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS near-infrared (NIR bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF R index, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, and a combination of these indices. In addition, the relationship between the average wind speed at a height of 1 m and the field AR is also presented. The results indicate that the MODIS NIR BRDF_R index and the NDVI are both sensitive indicators of the AR over grassland (R2: 0.5228 for NIR BRDF_R; R2: 0.579 for NDVI. Moreover, the combined index shows a significantly increased R2 value of 0.721, which is close to the result inferred from the wind speed (R2: 0.7411. The proposed remote sensing-based combination index (CI has the potential for use in evaluations of the AR over grasslands during growing season and its sensitivity can reach levels that are comparable to considering the effects of wind speed, which usually requires ground-based observations.

  15. Wear Behavior of Woven Roving Aramid / Epoxy Composite under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad A. Khalid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wear behavior studies of aramid woven roving /epoxy composite has been conducted. Sliding the material against smooth steel counter face under dry and  lubricated with oil conditions has been investigated. Powder of Silicon carbide has been mixed with the epoxy resin and tested also. The powder was mixed in a volumetric fraction of 10% with the epoxy resin. Four Laminates of six layers were fabricated by hand lay up  method. A pin on disc apparatus has been fabricated to conduct the sliding wear tests on specimens of (4 mm   4 mm   12 mm in size have been cut from the four laminates. The effect of sliding condition including dry, lubricated, dry with additives and lubricated with additives have been studied. Wear rate tests have been conducted at different sliding speeds and loads. Results show that the wear characteristics are influenced by the operating conditions and the construction of the composite material used. It was also found that the wear of aramid /epoxy composite onto the steel counter face were significantly reduced by using lubricant and additives but still took place.Keywords: Wear, Composite materials, Woven roving aramid, Epoxy, Additives, Lubricant.

  16. Simple method of calculating the transient thermal performance of composite material and its applicable condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寅平; 梁新刚; 江忆; 狄洪发; 宁志军

    2000-01-01

    Degree of mixing of composite material is defined and the condition of using the effective thermal diffusivity for calculating the transient thermal performance of composite material is studied. The analytical result shows that for a prescribed precision of temperature, there is a condition under which the transient temperature distribution in composite material can be calculated by using the effective thermal diffusivity. As illustration, for the composite material whose temperatures of both ends are constant, the condition is presented and the factors affecting the relative error of calculated temperature of composite materials by using effective thermal diffusivity are discussed.

  17. Deriving Vegetation Dynamics of Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems from MODIS NDVI/EVI Data over Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrendilek, Fatih; Gulbeyaz, Onder

    2008-09-01

    The 16-day composite MODIS vegetation indices (VIs) at 500-m resolution for the period between 2000 to 2007 were seasonally averaged on the basis of the estimated distribution of 16 potential natural terrestrial ecosystems (NTEs) across Turkey. Graphical and statistical analyses of the time-series VIs for the NTEs spatially disaggregated in terms of biogeoclimate zones and land cover types included descriptive statistics, correlations, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), time-series decomposition, and simple linear regression (SLR) models. Our spatio-temporal analyses revealed that both MODIS VIs, on average, depicted similar seasonal variations for the NTEs, with the NDVI values having higher mean and SD values. The seasonal VIs were most correlated in decreasing order for: barren/sparsely vegetated land > grassland > shrubland/woodland > forest; (sub)nival > warm temperate > alpine > cool temperate > boreal = Mediterranean; and summer > spring > autumn > winter. Most pronounced differences between the MODIS VI responses over Turkey occurred in boreal and Mediterranean climate zones and forests, and in winter (the senescence phase of the growing season). Our results showed the potential of the time-series MODIS VI datasets in the estimation and monitoring of seasonal and interannual ecosystem dynamics over Turkey that needs to be further improved and refined through systematic and extensive field measurements and validations across various biomes.

  18. Conditions for pseudo strain-hardening in fiber reinforced brittle matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, V.C.; Wu, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    Apart from imparting increased fracture toughness, one of the useful purposes of reinforcing brittle matrices with fibers is to create enhanced composite strain capacity. This paper reviews the conditions underwhich such a composite will exhibit the pseudo strain-hardening phenomenon. The presentation is given in a unified manner for both continuous aligned and discontinuous random fiber composites. It is demonstrated that pseudo strain hardening can be practically designed for both gills of composites by proper tailoring of material structures. 18 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Incorporating NDVI in a gravity model setting to describe spatio-temporal patterns of Lyme borreliosis incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, J. M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Farifteh, J.; Maes, P.; Aerts, J. M.; Coppin, P.

    2012-04-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick-borne disease in Europe and incidence growth has been reported in several European countries during the last decade. LB is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and the main vector of this pathogen in Europe is the tick Ixodes ricinus. LB incidence and spatial spread is greatly dependent on environmental conditions impacting habitat, demography and trophic interactions of ticks and the wide range of organisms ticks parasite. The landscape configuration is also a major determinant of tick habitat conditions and -very important- of the fashion and intensity of human interaction with vegetated areas, i.e. human exposure to the pathogen. Hence, spatial notions as distance and adjacency between urban and vegetated environments are related to human exposure to tick bites and, thus, to risk. This work tested the adequacy of a gravity model setting to model the observed spatio-temporal pattern of LB as a function of location and size of urban and vegetated areas and the seasonal and annual change in the vegetation dynamics as expressed by MODIS NDVI. Opting for this approach implies an analogy with Newton's law of universal gravitation in which the attraction forces between two bodies are directly proportional to the bodies mass and inversely proportional to distance. Similar implementations have proven useful in fields like trade modeling, health care service planning, disease mapping among other. In our implementation, the size of human settlements and vegetated systems and the distance separating these landscape elements are considered the 'bodies'; and the 'attraction' between them is an indicator of exposure to pathogen. A novel element of this implementation is the incorporation of NDVI to account for the seasonal and annual variation in risk. The importance of incorporating this indicator of vegetation activity resides in the fact that alterations of LB incidence pattern observed the last decade have been ascribed

  20. Assessing the Performance of MODIS NDVI and EVI for Seasonal Crop Yield Forecasting at the Ecodistrict Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Kouadio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop yield forecasting plays a vital role in coping with the challenges of the impacts of climate change on agriculture. Improvements in the timeliness and accuracy of yield forecasting by incorporating near real-time remote sensing data and the use of sophisticated statistical methods can improve our capacity to respond effectively to these challenges. The objectives of this study were (i to investigate the use of derived vegetation indices for the yield forecasting of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS at the ecodistrict scale across Western Canada with the Integrated Canadian Crop Yield Forecaster (ICCYF; and (ii to compare the ICCYF-model based forecasts and their accuracy across two spatial scales-the ecodistrict and Census Agricultural Region (CAR, namely in CAR with previously reported ICCYF weak performance. Ecodistricts are areas with distinct climate, soil, landscape and ecological aspects, whereas CARs are census-based/statistically-delineated areas. Agroclimate variables combined respectively with MODIS-NDVI and MODIS-EVI indices were used as inputs for the in-season yield forecasting of spring wheat during the 2000–2010 period. Regression models were built based on a procedure of a leave-one-year-out. The results showed that both agroclimate + MODIS-NDVI and agroclimate + MODIS-EVI performed equally well predicting spring wheat yield at the ECD scale. The mean absolute error percentages (MAPE of the models selected from both the two data sets ranged from 2% to 33% over the study period. The model efficiency index (MEI varied between −1.1 and 0.99 and −1.8 and 0.99, respectively for the agroclimate + MODIS-NDVI and agroclimate + MODIS-EVI data sets. Moreover, significant improvement in forecasting skill (with decreasing MAPE of 40% and 5 times increasing MEI, on average was obtained at the finer, ecodistrict spatial scale, compared to the coarser CAR scale. Forecast

  1. CHARACTERIZING LANDSCAPE SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY USING SEMIVARIOGRAM PARAMETERS DERIVED FROM NDVI IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Martiniano de Oliveira Silveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Assuming a relationship between landscape heterogeneity and measures of spatial dependence by using remotely sensed data, the aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of semivariogram parameters, derived from satellite images with different spatial resolutions, to characterize landscape spatial heterogeneity of forested and human modified areas. The NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was generated in an area of Brazilian amazon tropical forest (1,000 km².We selected samples (1 x 1 km from forested and human modified areas distributed throughout the study area, to generate the semivariogram and extract the sill (σ²-overall spatial variability of the surface property and range (φ-the length scale of the spatial structures of objects parameters. The analysis revealed that image spatial resolution influenced the sill and range parameters. The average sill and range values increase from forested to human modified areas and the greatest between-class variation was found for LANDSAT 8 imagery, indicating that this image spatial resolution is the most appropriate for deriving sill and range parameters with the intention of describing landscape spatial heterogeneity. By combining remote sensing and geostatistical techniques, we have shown that the sill and range parameters of semivariograms derived from NDVI images are a simple indicator of landscape heterogeneity and can be used to provide landscape heterogeneity maps to enable researchers to design appropriate sampling regimes. In the future, more applications combining remote sensing and geostatistical features should be further investigated and developed, such as change detection and image classification using object-based image analysis (OBIA approaches.

  2. Durability study of neat/nanophased GFRP composites subjected to different environmental conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainuddin, S.; Hosur, M.V.; Zhou, Y.; Kumar, Ashok; Jeelani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the durability of E-glass/nanoclay-epoxy composites are reported. SC-15 epoxy system was modified using 1-2 wt.% of nanoclay. Extent of clay platelet exfoliation in epoxy was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite panels were fabricated using modified epoxy and exposed to four different conditions, i.e. hot (elevated temperature-dry, wet: 60 and 80 deg. C) and cold (subzero-dry, wet) for 15, 45 and 90 days. Weight change due to conditioning, quasi-static flexure and micrographic characterization were studied on the conditioned samples. Room temperature samples were also tested for baseline consideration. XRD results showed exfoliation of clay platelets in nanoclay-epoxy samples with decrease in peak intensity and increase in interplanar spacing. Samples subjected to hot-wet conditions showed higher percentage weight gain with a maximum of 4.25% in neat and 3.1% in 2 wt.% samples. Flexural tests results showed degradation with increasing time. Maximum degradation were observed for hot-wet (80 deg. C) for 90 days neat samples, i.e. 22.6% and 29.8% reduction in flexural strength and stiffness, respectively. However, less degradation was noticed for nanophased composites under similar conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results of failed samples showed better interfacial bonding in nanophased composites.

  3. Sufficient Conditions for Vertical Composition of Security Protocols (Extended Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Viganò, Luca

    a certain kind of channel as a goal and another secure protocol P2 that assumes this kind of channel, can we then derive that their vertical composition P2[P1] is secure? It is well known that protocol composition can lead to attacks even when the individual protocols are all secure in isolation......Vertical composition of security protocols means that an application protocol (e.g., a banking service) runs over a channel established by another protocol (e.g., a secure channel provided by TLS). This naturally gives rise to a compositionality question: given a secure protocol P1 that provides....... In this paper, we formalize seven easy-to-check static conditions that support a large class of channels and applications and that we prove to be su_cient for vertical security protocol composition....

  4. A Remote Sensing Approach for Regional-Scale Mapping of Agricultural Land-Use Systems Based on NDVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bellón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for generic remote sensing tools to support large-scale agricultural monitoring, we present a new approach for regional-scale mapping of agricultural land-use systems (ALUS based on object-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series analysis. The approach consists of two main steps. First, to obtain relatively homogeneous land units in terms of phenological patterns, a principal component analysis (PCA is applied to an annual MODIS NDVI time series, and an automatic segmentation is performed on the resulting high-order principal component images. Second, the resulting land units are classified into the crop agriculture domain or the livestock domain based on their land-cover characteristics. The crop agriculture domain land units are further classified into different cropping systems based on the correspondence of their NDVI temporal profiles with the phenological patterns associated with the cropping systems of the study area. A map of the main ALUS of the Brazilian state of Tocantins was produced for the 2013–2014 growing season with the new approach, and a significant coherence was observed between the spatial distribution of the cropping systems in the final ALUS map and in a reference map extracted from the official agricultural statistics of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. This study shows the potential of remote sensing techniques to provide valuable baseline spatial information for supporting agricultural monitoring and for large-scale land-use systems analysis.

  5. Estimation of leaf area index using ground-based remote sensed NDVI measurements: validation and comparison with two indirect techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontailler, J.-Y.; Hymus, G.J.; Drake, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    This study took place in an evergreen scrub oak ecosystem in Florida. Vegetation reflectance was measured in situ with a laboratory-made sensor in the red (640-665 nm) and near-infrared (750-950 nm) bands to calculate the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and derive the leaf area index (LAI). LAI estimates from this technique were compared with two other nondestructive techniques, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and hemispherical photographs, in four contrasting 4 m 2 plots in February 2000 and two 4m 2 plots in June 2000. We used Beer's law to derive LAI from PAR interception and gap fraction distribution to derive LAI from photographs. The plots were harvested manually after the measurements to determine a 'true' LAI value and to calculate a light extinction coefficient (k). The technique based on Beer's law was affected by a large variation of the extinction coefficient, owing to the larger impact of branches in winter when LAI was low. Hemispherical photographs provided satisfactory estimates, slightly overestimated in winter because of the impact of branches or underestimated in summer because of foliage clumping. NDVI provided the best fit, showing only saturation in the densest plot (LAI = 3.5). We conclude that in situ measurement of NDVI is an accurate and simple technique to nondestructively assess LAI in experimental plots or in crops if saturation remains acceptable. (author)

  6. Effects of age condition on the distribution and integrity of inorganic fillers in dental resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Svizero, Nádia da Rocha; Bim Júnior, Odair; Valduga, Claudete Justina; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Sauro, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the distribution of the filler size along with the zeta potential, and the integrity of silane-bonded filler surface in different types of restorative dental composites as a function of the material age condition. Filtek P60 (hybrid composite), Filtek Z250 (small-particle filled composite), Filtek Z350XT (nanofilled composite), and Filtek Silorane (silorane composite) (3M ESPE) were tested at different stage condition (i.e., fresh/new, aged, and expired). Composites were submitted to an accelerated aging protocol (Arrhenius model). Specimens were obtained by first diluting each composite specimen in ethanol and then dispersed in potassium chloride solution (0.001 mol%). Composite fillers were characterized for their zeta potential, mean particle size, size distribution, via poly-dispersion dynamic light scattering. The integrity of the silane-bonded surface of the fillers was characterized by FTIR. The material age influenced significantly the outcomes; Zeta potential, filler characteristics, and silane integrity varied both after aging and expiration. Silorane presented the broadest filler distribution and lowest zeta potential. Nanofilled and silorane composites exhibited decreased peak intensities in the FTIR analysis, indicating a deficiency of the silane integrity after aging or expiry time. Regardless to the material condition, the hybrid and the small-particle-filled composites were more stable overtime as no significant alteration in filler size distribution, diameter, and zeta potential occurred. A deficiency in the silane integrity in the nanofilled and silorane composites seems to be affected by the material stage condition. The materials conditions tested in this study influenced the filler size distribution, the zeta potential, and integrity of the silane adsorbed on fillers in the nanofilled and silorane composites. Thus, this may result in a decrease of the clinical performance of aforementioned composites, in

  7. NDVI, scale invariance and the modifiable areal unit problem : An assessment of vegetation in the Adelaide Parklands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri, Hamideh; Anderson, Sharolyn; Sutton, Paul; Beecham, Simon; Nagler, Pamela; Jarchow, Christopher J.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2017-01-01

    This research addresses the question as to whether or not the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is scale invariant (i.e. constant over spatial aggregation) for pure pixels of urban vegetation. It has been long recognized that there are issues related to the modifiable areal unit problem

  8. Modelling the Phenological Relationships of Questing Immature Ixodes Ricinus (Ixodidae) Using Temperature and NDVI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Carné, J; García-Martín, A; Estrada-Peña, A

    2016-02-01

    All active stages of the tick Ixodes ricinus were collected monthly at two sites in northern Spain between the years 2000 and 2007. We used percentile accumulation of the active stage in the environment to evaluate simple and coherent correlations between accumulation of the active stages of larvae and nymphs and medium-resolution MODIS satellite-derived information on the climate, including monthly and accumulated temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This framework is not intended to predict the actual abundance of ticks in the field as a measure of the hazard to humans, but to provide a basic structure for addressing the phenology of the tick in its geographic range. We demonstrated that the accumulation of larval ticks in the active stage is a sigmoid function of the accumulated temperature from the beginning of the calendar year. We also demonstrated that the accumulated temperature necessary to recruit nymphs from the questing larval stage is a function of the changes in accumulated larvae and nymphs and the accumulated temperature and NDVI recorded by the Aqua sensor. The low p-values obtained in the regressions confirmed that such recruitment can be calculated using time intervals to estimate, for example, the beginning of the questing period or the time of the year when a population peak can be expected. The comparison among predicted and actual accumulated temperatures between larvae and nymph recruitment had an averaged error of ±20 days in one complete year. The use of accumulated temperature and NDVI proposed in this study opens up the re-evaluation of reports on the phenology of the tick in Europe. This framework is intended to evaluate the same correlations along the tick's range and predict its phenological patterns in areas of pathogen transmission risk for humans. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. A Case Study on a Combination NDVI Forecasting Model Based on the Entropy Weight Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shengzhi; Ming, Bo; Huang, Qiang; Leng, Guoyong; Hou, Beibei

    2017-05-05

    It is critically meaningful to accurately predict NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), which helps guide regional ecological remediation and environmental managements. In this study, a combination forecasting model (CFM) was proposed to improve the performance of NDVI predictions in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) based on three individual forecasting models, i.e., the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) models. The entropy weight method was employed to determine the weight coefficient for each individual model depending on its predictive performance. Results showed that: (1) ANN exhibits the highest fitting capability among the four orecasting models in the calibration period, whilst its generalization ability becomes weak in the validation period; MLR has a poor performance in both calibration and validation periods; the predicted results of CFM in the calibration period have the highest stability; (2) CFM generally outperforms all individual models in the validation period, and can improve the reliability and stability of predicted results through combining the strengths while reducing the weaknesses of individual models; (3) the performances of all forecasting models are better in dense vegetation areas than in sparse vegetation areas.

  10. Improving the SMAC atmospheric correction code by analysis of Meteosat Second Generation NDVI and surface reflectance data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proud, Simon Richard; Rasmussen, M.O.; Fensholt, R.

    2010-01-01

    . When examining the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the relative difference between SMAC and in-situ values decreases by 1.5% with the improvements in place. Similarly, the mean relative difference between SMAC and 6S reflectance values decreases by a mean of 13, 14.5 and 8...

  11. Monitoring phenology of photosynthesis in temperate evergreen and mixed deciduous forests using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) at leaf and canopy scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. Y.; Arain, M. A.; Ensminger, I.

    2016-12-01

    Evergreen conifers in boreal and temperate regions undergo strong seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperatures, which determines their phenology of high photosynthetic activity in the growing season and downregulation during the winter. Monitoring the timing of the transition between summer activity and winter downregulation in evergreens is difficult since this is a largely invisible process, unlike in deciduous trees that have a visible budding and a sequence of leaf unfolding in the spring and leaf abscission in the fall. The light-use efficiency (LUE) model estimates gross primary productivity (GPP) and may be parameterized using remotely sensed vegetation indices. Using spectral reflectance data, we derived the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a measure of leaf "greenness", and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), a proxy for chlorophyll:carotenoid ratios which is related to photosynthetic activity. To better understand the relationship between these vegetation indices and photosynthetic activity and to contrast this relationship between plant functional types, the phenology of NDVI, PRI and photosynthesis was monitored in an evergreen forest and a mixed deciduous forest at the leaf and canopy scale. Our data indicates that the LUE model can be parameterized by NDVI and PRI to track forest phenology. Differences in the sensitivity of PRI and NDVI will be discussed. These findings have implications to address the phenology of evergreen conifers by using PRI to complement NDVI in the LUE model, potentially improving model productivity estimates in northern hemisphere forests, that are dominated by conifers.

  12. Mapping crop based on phenological characteristics using time-series NDVI of operational land imager data in Tadla irrigated perimeter, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzemou, Jamal-eddine; El Harti, Abderrazak; EL Moujahid, Ali; Bouch, Naima; El Ouazzani, Rabii; Lhissou, Rachid; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2015-10-01

    Morocco is a primarily arid to semi-arid country. These climatic conditions make irrigation an imperative and inevitable technique. Especially, agriculture has a paramount importance for the national economy. Retrieving of crops and their location as well as their spatial extent is useful information for agricultural planning and better management of irrigation water resource. Remote sensing technology was often used in management and agricultural research. Indeed, it's allows crops extraction and mapping based on phenological characteristics, as well as yield estimation. The study area of this work is the Tadla irrigated perimeter which is characterized by heterogeneous areas and extremely small size fields. Our principal objectives are: (1) the delimitation of the major crops for a good water management, (2) the insulation of sugar beet parcels for modeling its yields. To achieve the traced goals, we have used Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) data pan-sharpened to 15 m. Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifications were applied to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series of 10 periods. Classifications were calculated for a site of more than 124000 ha. This site was divided into two parts: the first part for selecting, training datasets and the second one for validating the classification results. The SVM and SAM methods classified the principal crops with overall accuracies of 85.27% and 57.17% respectively, and kappa coefficient of 80% and 43% respectively. The study showed the potential of using time-series OLI NDVI data for mapping different crops in irrigated, heterogeneous and undersized parcels in arid and semi-arid environment.

  13. Relation of NDVI obtained from different remote sensing at different space and resolutions sensors in Spanish Dehesas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano Rodríguez, Juan; Tarquis, Ana M.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite data are an important source of information and serve as monitoring crops on large scales. There are several indexes, but the most used for monitoring vegetation is NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), calculated from the spectral bands of red (RED) and near infrared (NIR), obtaining the value according to relationship: [(NIR - RED) / (NIR + RED)]. During the years 2010-2013 monthly monitoring was conducted in three areas of Spain (Salamanca, Caceres and Cordoba). Pasture plots were selected and satellite images of two different sensors, DEIMOS-1 and MODIS were obtained. DEIMOS-1 is based on the concept Microsat-100 from Surrey. It is designed for imaging the Earth with a resolution good enough to study terrestrial vegetation cover (20x20 m), although with a wide range of visual field (600 km) to get those images with high temporal resolution. By contrast, MODIS images present a much lower spatial resolution (500x500 m). Indices obtained from both sensors to the same area and date are compared and the results show r2 = 0.56; r2 = 0.65 and r2 = 0.90 for the areas of Salamanca, Cáceres and Cordoba respectively. According to the results obtained show that the NDVI obtained by MODIS is slightly larger than that obtained by the sensor for DEIMOS for same time and area. References J.A. Escribano, C.G.H. Diaz-Ambrona, L. Recuero, M. Huesca, V. Cicuendez, A. Palacios-Orueta y A.M. Tarquis. Aplicacion de Indices de Vegetacion para evaluar la falta de produccion de pastos y montaneras en dehesas. I Congreso Iberico de la Dehesa y el Montado. 6-7 Noviembre, 2013, Badajoz. J.A. Escribano Rodriguez, A.M. Tarquis, C.G. Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona. Pasture Drought Insurance Based on NDVI and SAVI. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 14, EGU2012-13945, 2012. EGU General Assembly 2012. Juan Escribano Rodriguez, Carmelo Alonso, Ana Maria Tarquis, Rosa Maria Benito, Carlos Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona. Comparison of NDVI fields obtained from different remote sensors

  14. Biocrust spectral response as affected by changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Guirado, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Reyes, Andres; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Drylands are characterized by scarce vegetation coverage and low rates of biological activity, both constrained by water scarcity. Under these conditions, biocrusts form key players of ecosystem functioning. They comprise complex poikilohydric communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea and fungi, which cover the uppermost soil layer. Biocrusts can cope with prolonged phases of drought, being rapidly re-activated when water becomes available again. Upon reactivation, biocrusts almost immediately turn green, fixing atmospheric carbon and nitrogen and increasing ecosystem productivity. However, due to their inconspicuous growth they have only rarely been analysed and spatially and temporally continuous information on their response to water pulses is missing. These data are particularly important under changing climatic conditions predicting an increase in aridity and variations in precipitation patterns within most of the dryland regions. In the present study, we used multi-temporal series of NDVI obtained from LANDSAT images to analyze biocrust and vegetation response to water pulses within the South African Succulent Karoo and we predicted their future response under different climate change scenarios. The results showed that biocrust and vegetation greenness are controlled by aridity, solar radiation and soil water content, showing similar annual patterns, with minimum values during dry periods that increased within the rainy season and decreased again after the onset of drought. However, biocrusts responded faster to water availability and turned green almost immediately after small rains, producing a small NDVI peak only few days after rainfall, whereas more time was needed for vegetation to grow new green tissue. However, once the photosynthetic tissue of vegetation was restored, it caused the highest increase of NDVI values after the rain. Predicted changes in precipitation patterns and aridity

  15. Estimation of leaf area index using ground-based remote sensed NDVI measurements: validation and comparison with two indirect techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontailler, J.-Y. [Univ. Paris-Sud XI, Dept. d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale, Orsay Cedex (France); Hymus, G.J.; Drake, B.G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida (United States)

    2003-06-01

    This study took place in an evergreen scrub oak ecosystem in Florida. Vegetation reflectance was measured in situ with a laboratory-made sensor in the red (640-665 nm) and near-infrared (750-950 nm) bands to calculate the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and derive the leaf area index (LAI). LAI estimates from this technique were compared with two other nondestructive techniques, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and hemispherical photographs, in four contrasting 4 m{sup 2} plots in February 2000 and two 4m{sup 2} plots in June 2000. We used Beer's law to derive LAI from PAR interception and gap fraction distribution to derive LAI from photographs. The plots were harvested manually after the measurements to determine a 'true' LAI value and to calculate a light extinction coefficient (k). The technique based on Beer's law was affected by a large variation of the extinction coefficient, owing to the larger impact of branches in winter when LAI was low. Hemispherical photographs provided satisfactory estimates, slightly overestimated in winter because of the impact of branches or underestimated in summer because of foliage clumping. NDVI provided the best fit, showing only saturation in the densest plot (LAI = 3.5). We conclude that in situ measurement of NDVI is an accurate and simple technique to nondestructively assess LAI in experimental plots or in crops if saturation remains acceptable. (author)

  16. Assessing the Influence of Precipitation Variability on the Vegetation Dynamics of the Mediterranean Rangelands using NDVI and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Mitigating the vulnerability of Mediterranean rangelands against degradation is limited by our ability to understand and accurately characterize those impacts in space and time. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a radiometric measure of the photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation canopy chlorophyll and is therefore a good surrogate measure of vegetation dynamics. On the other hand, meteorological indices such as the drought assessing Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) are can be easily estimated from historical and projected datasets at the global scale. This work investigates the potential of driving Random Forest (RF) models with meteorological indices to approximate NDVI-based vegetation dynamics. A sufficiently large number of RF models are trained using random subsets of the dataset as predictors, in a bootstrapping approach to account for the uncertainty introduced by the subset selection. The updated E-OBS-v13.1 dataset of the ENSEMBLES EU FP6 program provides observed monthly meteorological input to estimate SPI over the Mediterranean rangelands. RF models are trained to depict vegetation dynamics using the latest version (3g.v1) of the third generation GIMMS NDVI generated from NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors. Analysis is conducted for the period 1981-2015 at a gridded spatial resolution of 25 km. Preliminary results demonstrate the potential of machine learning algorithms to effectively mimic the underlying physical relationship of drought and Earth Observation vegetation indices to provide estimates based on precipitation variability.

  17. Can linear trend analyses of NDVI time series data truly detect land degradation? Simulations may provide the answer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of sufficient field data. The authors suggest that such an approach is not sufficiently rigorous. Therefore, they demonstrate an approach which simulates land degradation so that the intensity, rate and timing of the reduction in NDVI can be controlled, in order...

  18. An Evaluation of Fracture Toughness of Vinyl Ester Composites Cured under Microwave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, H.; Chan, W. L.; Trada, M.; Baddeley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The shrinkage of vinyl ester particulate composites has been reduced by curing the resins under microwave conditions. The reduction in the shrinkage of the resins by microwaves will enable the manufacture of large vinyl ester composite items possible (H.S. Ku, G. Van Erp, J.A.R. Ball, and S. Ayers, Shrinkage Reduction of Thermoset Fibre Composites during Hardening using Microwaves Irradiation for Curing, Proceedings, Second World Engineering Congress, Kuching, Malaysia, 2002a, 22-25 July, p 177-182; H.S. Ku, Risks Involved in Curing Vinyl Ester Resins Using Microwaves Irradiation. J. Mater. Synth. Proces. 2002b, 10(2), p 97-106; S.H. Ku, Curing Vinyl Ester Particle Reinforced Composites Using Microwaves. J. Comp. Mater., (2003a), 37(22), p 2027-2042; S.H. Ku and E. Siores, Shrinkage Reduction of Thermoset Matrix Particle Reinforced Composites During Hardening Using Microwaves Irradiation, Trans. Hong Kong Inst. Eng., 2004, 11(3), p 29-34). In tensile tests, the yield strengths of samples cured under microwave conditions obtained are within 5% of those obtained by ambient curing; it is also found that with 180 W microwave power, the tensile strengths obtained for all duration of exposure to microwaves are also within the 5% of those obtained by ambient curing. While, with 360 W microwave power, the tensile strengths obtained for all duration of exposure to microwaves are 5% higher than those obtained by ambient curing. Whereas, with 540 W microwave power, the tensile strengths obtained for most samples are 5% below those obtained by ambient curing (H. Ku, V.C. Puttgunta, and M. Trada, Young’s Modulus of Vinyl Ester Composites Cured by Microwave Irradiation: Preliminary Results, J. Electromagnet. Waves Appl., 2007, 20(14), p. 1911-1924). This project, using 33% by weight fly ash reinforced vinyl ester composite [VE/FLYSH (33%)], is to further investigate the difference in fracture toughness between microwave cured vinyl ester particulate composites and those cured

  19. Using classification and NDVI differencing methods for monitoring sparse vegetation coverage: a case study of saltcedar in Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A change detection experiment for an invasive species, saltcedar, near Lovelock, Nevada, was conducted with multi-date Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral datasets. Classification and NDVI differencing change detection methods were tested, In the classification strategy, a p...

  20. Patterns of zone management uncertainty in cotton using tarnished plant bug distributions, NDVI, soil EC, yield and thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management zones for various crops have been delineated using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), apparent bulk soil electrical conductivity (ECa - Veris), and yield data; however, estimations of uncertainty for these data layers are equally important considerations. The objective of this...

  1. Bond strength of resin composite to differently conditioned amalgam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Vallittu, PK; Huysmans, MC; Kalk, W; Vahlberg, T

    Bulk fracture of teeth, where a part of the amalgam restoration and/or the cusp is fractured, is a common clinical problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface conditioning methods on the shear bond strength of a hybrid resin composite to fresh amalgam. Amalgams (N

  2. Environmental Drivers of NDVI-Based Vegetation Phenology in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahan Kariyeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the application and use of geospatial data, this study aimed to detect and characterize some of the key environmental drivers contributing to landscape-scale vegetation response patterns in Central Asia. The objectives of the study were to identify the variables driving the year-to-year vegetation dynamics in three regional landscapes (desert, steppe, and mountainous; and to determine if the identified environmental drivers can be used to explain the spatial-temporal variability of these spatio-temporal dynamics over time. It was posed that patterns of change in terrestrial phenology, derived from the 8 km bi-weekly time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data acquired by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR satellites (1981–2008, can be explained through a multi-scale analysis of a suite of environmental drivers. Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses and address the objectives of the study. The annually computed phenological response variables or pheno-metricstime (season start, season length, and an NDVI-based productivity metric were modeled as a function of ten environmental factors relating to soil, topography, and climate. Each of the three studied regional landscapes was shown to be governed by a distinctive suite of environmental drivers. The phenological responses of the steppe landscapes were affected by the year-to-year variation in temperature regimes. The phenology of the mountainous landscapes was influenced primarily by the elevation gradient. The phenological responses of desert landscapes were demonstrated to have the greatest variability over time and seemed to be affected by soil carbon content and year-to-year variation of both temperature regimes and winter precipitation patterns. Amounts and scales of observed phenological variability over time (measured through coefficient of variation for each pheno-metrictime in each of the regional

  3. Assessment of MODIS sun-sensor geometry variations effect on observed NDVI using MSG SEVIRI geostationary data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fensholt, R.; Sandholt, I.; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    The quality of Earth observation (EO) based vegetation monitoring has improved during recent years, which can be attributed to the enhanced sensor design of new satellites such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on Terra and Aqua. It is however expected that sun-sensor geome......The quality of Earth observation (EO) based vegetation monitoring has improved during recent years, which can be attributed to the enhanced sensor design of new satellites such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on Terra and Aqua. It is however expected that sun......-sensor geometry variations will have a more visible impact on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS compared to earlier data sources, since noise related to atmosphere and sensor calibration is substantially reduced in the MODIS data stream. For this reason, the effect of varying MODIS......, including a red and NIR band, and the high temporal resolution (15 min) of data, enabling MSG data to be used as a reference for estimating MODIS surface reflectance and NDVI variations caused by varying sun-sensor geometry. The study was performed on data covering West Africa for periods of lowest possible...

  4. Downscaling of Open Coarse Precipitation Data through Spatial and Statistical Analysis, Integrating NDVI, NDWI, Elevation, and Distance from Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Ezzine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to improve the statistical spatial downscaling of coarse precipitation (TRMM 3B43 product and also to explore its limitations in the Mediterranean area. It was carried out in Morocco and was based on an open dataset including four predictors (NDVI, NDWI, DEM, and distance from sea that explain TRMM 3B43 product. For this purpose, four groups of models were established based on different combinations of the four predictors, in order to compare from one side NDVI and NDWI based models and the other side stepwise with multiple regression. The models that have given rise to the best approximations and best fits were used to downscale TRMM 3B43 product. The resulting downscaled and calibrated precipitations were validated by independent RGS. Aside from that, the limitations of the proposed approach were assessed in five bioclimatic stages. Furthermore, the influence of the sea was analyzed in five classes of distance. The findings showed that the models built using NDVI and NDWI have a high correlation and therefore can be used to downscale precipitation. The integration of elevation and distance improved the correlation models. According to R2, RMSE, bias, and MAE, the study revealed that there is a great agreement between downscaled precipitations and RGS measurements. In addition, the analysis showed that the contribution of the variable (distance from sea is evident around the coastal area and decreases progressively. Likewise, the study demonstrated that the approach performs well in humid and arid bioclimatic stages compared to others.

  5. Compositions and methods for providing plants with tolerance to abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Hirt, Heribert

    2017-07-27

    It has been discovered that the desert endophytic bacterium SA187 SA187 can provide resistance or tolerance to abiotic stress conditions to seeds or plants. Compositions containing SA187 can be used to enhance plant development and yield under environmental stress conditions.

  6. Monitoring of spatiotemporal patterns of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) and their ratios (NPP/GPP) derived from MODIS data: assessment natural drivers and their effects on NDVI anomalies in arid and semi-arid zones of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralova, Dildora; Jarihani, Ben; Khujanazarov, Timur; Toderich, Kristina; Gafurov, Dilshod; Gismatulina, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Turkmenistan (3.59 kg C/m2); Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan 0.88 & 1.46 kg C /m2. The ratings of dynamical GPP & NPP were similar for each 5 years (2000-2005, 2005-2010 and 2010-2015) and ranges GPP ≈ 2.42 kg C/m2 and NPP ≈ 2.36 kg C/m2. NPP is more accuracy in desert zones, basically, the bare areas shown a high values. The results shown that meanwhile values of NPP/GPP is relatively illustrated same results as NDVI annual trends, and NPP/GPP average value of 1.03, and incorporating well for sparsely vegetated ecosystems of CA. MODIS derived primary production datasets could improve a better estimate ecosystem process and vegetation/carbon change anomalies during water-stressed conditions in the regional level.

  7. Studying the Post-Fire Response of Vegetation in California Protected Areas with NDVI-based Pheno-Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S.; Gillespie, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Post-fire response from vegetation is determined by the intensity and timing of fires as well as the nature of local biomes. Though the field-based studies focusing on selected study sites helped to understand the mechanisms of post-fire response, there is a need to extend the analysis to a broader spatial extent with the assistance of remotely sensed imagery of fires and vegetation. Pheno-metrics, a series of variables on the growing cycle extracted from basic satellite measurements of vegetation coverage, translate the basic remote sensing measurements such as NDVI to the language of phenology and fire ecology in a quantitative form. In this study, we analyzed the rate of biomass removal after ignition and the speed of post-fire recovery in California protected areas from 2000 to 2014 with USGS MTBS fire data and USGS eMODIS pheno-metrics. NDVI drop caused by fire showed the aboveground biomass of evergreen forest was removed much slower than shrubland because of higher moisture level and greater density of fuel. In addition, the above two major land cover types experienced a greatly weakened immediate post-fire growing season, featuring a later start and peak of season, a shorter length of season, and a lower start and peak of NDVI. Such weakening was highly correlated with burn severity, and also influenced by the season of fire and the land cover type, according to our modeling between the anomalies of pheno-metrics and the difference of normalized burn ratio (dNBR). The influence generally decayed over time, but can remain high within the first 5 years after fire, mostly because of the introduction of exotic species when the native species were missing. Local-specific variables are necessary to better address the variance within the same fire and improve the outcomes of models. This study can help ecologists in validating the theories of post-fire vegetation response mechanisms and assist local fire managers in post-fire vegetation recovery.

  8. Extrusion conditions affect chemical composition and in vitro digestion of select food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust, Jolene M; Gajda, Angela M; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Burkhalter, Toni M; Merchen, Neal R; Fahey, George C

    2004-05-19

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of extrusion conditions on chemical composition and in vitro hydrolytic and fermentative digestion of barley grits, cornmeal, oat bran, soybean flour, soybean hulls, and wheat bran. Extrusion conditions altered crude protein, fiber, and starch concentrations of ingredients. Organic matter disappearance (OMD) increased for extruded versus unprocessed samples of barley grits, cornmeal, and soybean flour that had been hydrolytically digested. After 8 h of fermentative digestion, OMD decreased as extrusion conditions intensified for barley grits and cornmeal but increased for oat bran, soybean hulls, and wheat bran. Total short-chain fatty acid production decreased as extrusion conditions intensified for barley grits, soybean hulls, and soybean flour. These data suggest that the effects of extrusion conditions on ingredient composition and digestion are influenced by the unique chemical characteristics of individual substrates.

  9. SACRA - global data sets of satellite-derived crop calendars for agricultural simulations: an estimation of a high-resolution crop calendar using satellite-sensed NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsuki, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2015-01-01

    To date, many studies have performed numerical estimations of food production and agricultural water demand to understand the present and future supply-demand relationship. A crop calendar (CC) is an essential input datum to estimate food production and agricultural water demand accurately with the numerical estimations. CC defines the date or month when farmers plant and harvest in cropland. This study aims to develop a new global data set of a satellite-derived crop calendar for agricultural simulations (SACRA) and reveal advantages and disadvantages of the satellite-derived CC compared to other global products. We estimate global CC at a spatial resolution of 5 min (≈10 km) using the satellite-sensed NDVI data, which corresponds well to vegetation growth and death on the land surface. We first demonstrate that SACRA shows similar spatial pattern in planting date compared to a census-based product. Moreover, SACRA reflects a variety of CC in the same administrative unit, since it uses high-resolution satellite data. However, a disadvantage is that the mixture of several crops in a grid is not considered in SACRA. We also address that the cultivation period of SACRA clearly corresponds to the time series of NDVI. Therefore, accuracy of SACRA depends on the accuracy of NDVI used for the CC estimation. Although SACRA shows different CC from a census-based product in some regions, multiple usages of the two products are useful to take into consideration the uncertainty of the CC. An advantage of SACRA compared to the census-based products is that SACRA provides not only planting/harvesting dates but also a peak date from the time series of NDVI data.

  10. Changes in Isotopic Composition of Bottled Natural Waters Due to Different Storage Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferjan, T. [Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Brencic, M. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, and Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vreca, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    To establish the influence of environmental conditions on processes affecting the stable isotopic composition of bottled water during storage, various brands of bottled water were exposed for 2 years in different conditions. Selected low mineralized natural mineral water of one particular brand stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was placed at three different locations with different physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, exposure to sunlight). For comparison, bottles of three other low mineralized natural mineral water brands, each from a different aquifer source, were placed in parallel at one of the locations. Each location was characterized by temperature, relative humidity and air pressure measurements. pH, conductivity and stable isotopic composition of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) were measured in regular intervals for nearly two years. Preliminary results from each location show noticeable changes in isotopic composition as well as the physical parameters of water with time of storage.

  11. A categorical, improper probability method for combining NDVI and LiDAR elevation information for potential cotton precision agricultural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    An algorithm is presented to fuse the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) elevation data to produce a map potentially useful for the site-specific scouting and pest management of several insect pests. In cotton, these pests include the Tarnished Pl...

  12. Effect of preparation conditions on the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TiO2/purified diatomite composite photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhiming; Hu, Zhibo; Yan, Yang; Zheng, Shuilin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 /purified diatomite composites were synthesized under different conditions. • The optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. • The obtained photocatalyst showed good photocatalytic activity. • The dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO 2 NPs are the critical factors. - Abstract: TiO 2 /purified diatomite composite materials were prepared through a modified hydrolysis-deposition method under low temperature using titanium tetrachloride as precursor combined with a calcination crystallization process. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the obtained composites prepared under different preparation conditions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 /purified diatomite composites was evaluated by Rhodamine B as the target pollutant under UV irradiation, and the optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. The TiO 2 crystal form in composites prepared under optimum conditions was anatase, the grain size of which was 34.12 nm. The relationships between structure and property of composite materials were analyzed and discussed. It is indicated that the TiO 2 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on the surface of diatoms, and the photocatalytic performance of the composite materials was mainly determined by the dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO 2 nanoparticles

  13. Multifractal characteristics of NDVI maps in space and time in the Community of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoca, Juan J. Martin; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite information has contributed to improve our understanding of the spatial variability of hydro-climatic and ecological processes. Vegetation activity is tightly coupled with climate, hydro-ecological fluxes, and terrain dynamics in river basins at a wide range of space-time scales (Scheuring and Riedi, 1994). Indices of vegetation activity are constructed using satellite information of reflectance of the relevant spectral bands which enhance the contribution of vegetation being Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) widely used. How can we study such a complex system? Multifractals and fractals are related techniques mainly used in physics to characterize the scaling behaviour of a system; they differ in that fractals look at the geometry of presence/absence patterns, while multifractals look at the arrangement of quantities such as population or biomass densities (Saravia et al., 2012). Scaling laws are an emergent general feature of ecological systems; they reflect constraints in their organization that can provide tracks about the underlying mechanisms (Solé and Bascompte, 2006). In this work, we have applied these techniques to study the spatial pattern through one year of NDVI maps. A rectangular area that includes the Community of Madrid and part of the surroundings, consisting of 300 x 280 pixels with a resolution of 500 x 500 m2 has been selected and monthly NDVI maps analyzed using the multifractal spectrum and the map of singularities (Cheng and Agterberg, 1996). The results show a cyclical pattern in the multifractal behaviour and singularity points related to river basin networks (Martín-Sotoca, 2014). References Cheng, Q. and Agterberg, F.P. (1996). Multifractal modeling and spatial statistics. Math. Geol. Vol 28, 1-16. Martín-Sotoca, J.J. (2014) Estructura Espacial de la Sequía en Pastos y sus Aplicaciones en el Seguro Agrario. Master Thesis, UPM (In Spanish). Saravia LA, Giorgi A, Momo F.: Multifractal growth in periphyton

  14. Linking phenology and biomass productivity in South Dakota mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigge, Matthew; Smart, Alexander; Wylie, Bruce; Gilmanov, Tagir; Johnson, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the health of rangeland ecosystems based solely on annual biomass production does not fully describe plant community condition; the phenology of production can provide inferences on species composition, successional stage, and grazing impacts. We evaluate the productivity and phenology of western South Dakota mixed-grass prairie using 2000 to 2008 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite imagery at 250 m spatial resolution. Growing season NDVI images were integrated weekly to produce time-integrated NDVI (TIN), a proxy of total annual biomass production, and integrated seasonally to represent annual production by cool (C3) and warm (C4) season species. Additionally, a variety of phenological indicators including cool season percentage of TIN were derived from the seasonal profiles of NDVI. Cool season percentage and TIN were combined to generate vegetation classes, which served as proxies of plant community condition. TIN decreased with precipitation from east to west across the study area. Alternatively, cool season percentage increased from east to west, following patterns related to the reliability (interannual coefficient of variation [CV]) and quantity of mid-summer precipitation. Cool season TIN averaged 76.8% of total. Seasonal accumulation of TIN corresponded closely (R2 > 0.90) to that of gross photosynthesis data from a carbon flux tower. Field-collected biomass and community composition data were strongly related to the TIN and cool season percentage products. The patterns of vegetation classes were responsive to topographic, edaphic, and land management influences on plant communities. Accurate maps of biomass production, cool/warm season composition, and vegetation classes can improve the efficiency of land management by adjusting stocking rates and season of use to maximize rangeland productivity and achieve conservation objectives. Further, our results clarify the spatial and

  15. Effects of distribution density and cell dimension of 3D vegetation model on canopy NDVI simulation base on DART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhu; Shi, Runhe; Zeng, Yuyan; Gao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The 3D model is an important part of simulated remote sensing for earth observation. Regarding the small-scale spatial extent of DART software, both the details of the model itself and the number of models of the distribution have an important impact on the scene canopy Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI).Taking the phragmitesaustralis in the Yangtze Estuary as an example, this paper studied the effect of the P.australias model on the canopy NDVI, based on the previous studies of the model precision, mainly from the cell dimension of the DART software and the density distribution of the P.australias model in the scene, As well as the choice of the density of the P.australiass model under the cost of computer running time in the actual simulation. The DART Cell dimensions and the density of the scene model were set by using the optimal precision model from the existing research results. The simulation results of NDVI with different model densities under different cell dimensions were analyzed by error analysis. By studying the relationship between relative error, absolute error and time costs, we have mastered the density selection method of P.australias model in the simulation of small-scale spatial scale scene. Experiments showed that the number of P.australias in the simulated scene need not be the same as those in the real environment due to the difference between the 3D model and the real scenarios. The best simulation results could be obtained by keeping the density ratio of about 40 trees per square meter, simultaneously, of the visual effects.

  16. A Method for Estimating the Aerodynamic Roughness Length with NDVI and BRDF Signatures Using Multi-Temporal Proba-V Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhao Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic roughness length is an important parameter for surface fluxes estimates. This paper developed an innovative method for estimation of aerodynamic roughness length (z0m over farmland with a new vegetation index, the Hot-darkspot Vegetation Index (HDVI. To obtain this new index, the normalized-difference hot-darkspot index (NDHD is introduced using a semi-empirical, kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance model with multi-temporal Proba-V 300-m top-of-canopy (TOC reflectance products. A linear relationship between HDVI and z0m was found during the crop growth period. Wind profiles data from two field automatic weather station (AWS were used to calibrate the model: one site is in Guantao County in Hai Basin, in which double-cropping systems and crop rotations with summer maize and winter wheat are implemented; the other is in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin from the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER project, with the main crop of spring maize. The iterative algorithm based on Monin–Obukhov similarity theory is employed to calculate the field z0m from time series. Results show that the relationship between HDVI and z0m is more pronounced than that between NDVI and z0m for spring maize at Yingke site, with an R2 value that improved from 0.636 to 0.772. At Guantao site, HDVI also exhibits better performance than NDVI, with R2 increasing from 0.630 to 0.793 for summer maize and from 0.764 to 0.790 for winter wheat. HDVI can capture the impacts of crop residue on z0m, whereas NDVI cannot.

  17. Calibration of remotely sensed, coarse resolution NDVI to CO2 fluxes in a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, B.K.; Johnson, D.A.; Laca, Emilio; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Gilmanov, T.G.; Reed, B.C.; Tieszen, L.L.; Worstell, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon flux can be partitioned into gross primary productivity (GPP) and respiration (R). The contribution of remote sensing and modeling holds the potential to predict these components and map them spatially and temporally. This has obvious utility to quantify carbon sink and source relationships and to identify improved land management strategies for optimizing carbon sequestration. The objective of our study was to evaluate prediction of 14-day average daytime CO2 fluxes (Fday) and nighttime CO2 fluxes (Rn) using remote sensing and other data. Fday and Rn were measured with a Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB) technique in a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-steppe ecosystem in northeast Idaho, USA, during 1996-1999. Micrometeorological variables aggregated across 14-day periods and time-integrated Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (iNDVI) were determined during four growing seasons (1996-1999) and used to predict Fday and Rn. We found that iNDVI was a strong predictor of Fday (R2 = 0.79, n = 66, P improved predictions of Fday (R2= 0.82, n = 66, P management strategies, carbon certification, and validation and calibration of carbon flux models. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Calibration of remotely sensed, coarse resolution NDVI to CO2 fluxes in a sagebrush–steppe ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Johnson, Douglas A.; Laca, Emilio; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Reed, Bradley C.; Tieszen, Larry L.; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2003-01-01

    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon flux can be partitioned into gross primary productivity (GPP) and respiration (R). The contribution of remote sensing and modeling holds the potential to predict these components and map them spatially and temporally. This has obvious utility to quantify carbon sink and source relationships and to identify improved land management strategies for optimizing carbon sequestration. The objective of our study was to evaluate prediction of 14-day average daytime CO2 fluxes (Fday) and nighttime CO2 fluxes (Rn) using remote sensing and other data. Fday and Rnwere measured with a Bowen ratio–energy balance (BREB) technique in a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)–steppe ecosystem in northeast Idaho, USA, during 1996–1999. Micrometeorological variables aggregated across 14-day periods and time-integrated Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (iNDVI) were determined during four growing seasons (1996–1999) and used to predict Fday and Rn. We found that iNDVI was a strong predictor of Fday(R2=0.79, n=66, Pimproved predictions of Fday (R2=0.82, n=66, Pmanagement strategies, carbon certification, and validation and calibration of carbon flux models.

  19. Mapping of topsoil organic carbon in agro-ecosystems of a flat terrain area (Lombardy) by means of legacy soil data, climatic data and NDVI time series predictors with machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Calogero; Saia, Sergio; Braun, Andreas; Acutis, Marco

    2017-04-01

    the study area. The use of machine learning approach for the generation of a SOC map of the flat terrain agricultural topsoil of Lombardy using the regional soil database relies on two assumptions: (1) the slow change in the content of the stabilised soil organic matter (SOM) fraction, which is almost everywhere the most represented SOM fraction; and (2) the intrinsic low erosion rates due to the low mean slope. In particular, NDVI, which is related land cover and to the amount of biomass returned the soil, can have drawbacks when applied in cultivated fields. These drawbacks mainly concern the variability on crop biomass within and across the year. Notwithstanding, this issue makes NDVI very suitable for differentiating contrasting land use (e.g. field crops vs. orchards) when computed from images captured in particular crop cycle moments (e.g. in summer). However, the same issue reduces NDVI suitability to estimate the amount of biomass within each land use or when aiming at highly detailed resolution. Different grade of cloud cover were admitted to construct the average NDVI. Boosted regression trees were used to reveal the effect of each spatial covariate in predicting the SOC content. Preliminary results highlighted that the integration of the soil pedological classification and the mean NDVI improved the pixel classification in SOC classes according to crop type and management. As expected, climatic gradient played an important role in SOC modelling but did not affect the spatial resolution of the final map. In conclusion, SOC estimate strongly depends on sample density and homogeneity of distribution and the environmental heterogeneity. The lack of the strong topographical traits in flat terrain areas represents a challenge for soil mapping. In such conditions, the computation of a reliable biomass-related RS trait such as the mean NDVI can increase the prediction ability of the models and reduce the mapping biases. References Acutis, M., Alfieri, L., Giussani

  20. Effects of alloy composition and flow condition on the flow accelerated corrosion in neutral water condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Tomonori; Ugachi, Hirokazu; Tsukada, Takashi; Uchida, Shunsuke

    2008-01-01

    The major mechanism of Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is the dissolution of the protective oxide on carbon steel, which is enhanced by mass transfer and erosion under high flow velocity conditions. In this study, the effects of alloy composition and flow velocity on FAC of carbon steel were evaluated by measuring FAC rate of tube type carbon steel specimens in the neutral water condition at 150degC. Obtained results are summarized in follows. 1) High FAC rate was depended upon the v 1.2 in the tube type specimen made of the standard alloy. 2) FAC was mitigated for the carbon steel with more than 0.03% of Cr content. 3) FAC rate decreased as Ni content increased in more than 0.1% of Ni content. 4) The difference in chemical composition of oxide film between Ni added carbon steel and Cr added one was confirmed. The hematite rich oxide was observed for Ni added carbon steel. 5) The effects of Cu on FAC rate was not observed up to 0.1% of Cu content. (author)

  1. Adhesive Wear Performance of CFRP Multilayered Polyester Composites Under Dry/wet Contact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaelan, D.; Yousif, B. F.

    The tribo-performance of a new engineering composite material based on coconut fibers was investigated. In this work, coconut fibers reinforced polyester (CFRP) composites were developed. The tribo-experiments were conducted by using pin-on-disc machine under dry and wet sliding contact condition against smooth stainless steel counterface. Worn surfaces were observed using optical microscope. Friction coefficient and specific wear rate were presented as a function of sliding distance (0-0.6 km) at different sliding velocities (0.1-0.28 m/s). The effect of applied load and sliding velocity was evaluated. The results showed that all test parameters have significant influence on friction and wear characteristics of the composites. Moreover, friction coefficient increased as the normal load and speed increased, the values were about 0.7-0.9 under dry contact condition. Meanwhile, under wet contact condition, there was a great reduction in the friction coefficient, i.e. the values were about 0.1-0.2. Furthermore, the specific wear rates were found to be around 2-4 (10-3) mm3/Nm under dry contact condition and highly reduced under wet condition. In other words, the presence of water as cleaner and polisher assisted to enhance the adhesive wear performance of CFRP by about 10%. The images from optical microscope showed evidence of adhesive wear mode with transition to abrasive wear mode at higher sliding velocities due to third body abrasion. On the other hand, optical images for wet condition showed less adhesive wear and smooth surfaces.

  2. AVALIAÇÃO DOS ÍNDICES DE VEGETAÇÃO NDVI, SR E TVI NA DISCRIMINAÇÃO DE FITOFISIONOMIAS DOS AMBIENTES DO PANTANAL DE CÁCERES/MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinéia Aparecida dos Santos Galvanin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the performance of some vegetation indexes: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Simple Ratio (SR e Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI, applied in seasonal periods to verify which one best fits to discriminate the vegetation types of environments of ‘Pantanal’ in Cáceres, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, in Landsat TM 5 image of 2009 in the dry period and 2010 in the humid period. Result verification of indexes images showed that NDVI provide a better performance than the SR and TVI indexes for different environments.

  3. Aplicação de índices das condições de vegetação no monitoramento em tempo quase real da seca em Moçambique usando NOAA_AVHRR- NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alberto Covele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo aplicar diferentes índices das condições de vegetação e avaliar suas diferenças e aptidão no monitoramento da distribuição espacial e temporal da seca em Moçambique com base em imagens NDVI da NOAA- AVHRR. Para tanto, avalia as differenças de aptidão dos índices das condições de vegetação especialmente o Índice das Condições de Vegetação (Vegetation Condition Index- VCI, Índice Padronizado de Vegetação (Standardized Vegetation Index- SVI e o Indicador de Productividade da Vegetação (Vegetation Productivity Indicator- VPI no monitoramento da seca em Moçambique. Estes índices são derivados a partir de imagens da Diferença Normalizada do Índice da Vegetação (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index- NDVI de 1981 a 2005, produzidas a partir dos canais 1 e 2 do sensor Advanced Very Higher Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR a bordo dos satélites da National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA.

  4. [Variability of vegetation growth season in different latitudinal zones of North China: a monitoring by NOAA NDVI and MSAVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaobing; Han, Ruibo; Ge, Yongqin

    2006-12-01

    In this study, North China was latitudinally divided into five zones, i.e., 32 degrees - 36 degrees N (Zone I), 36 degrees - 40 degrees N (Zone II), 40 degrees - 44 degrees N (Zone III), 44 degrees - 48 degrees N (Zone IV) and 48 degrees - 52 degrees N (Zone V), and the NOAA/ AVHRR NDVI and MSAVI time-series images from 1982 to 1999 were smoothed with Savitzky-Golay filter algorithm. Based on the EOF analysis, the principal components of NDVI and MSAVI for the vegetations in different latitudinal zones of North China were extracted, the annual beginning and ending dates and the length of growth season in 1982 - 1999 were estimated, and the related parameters were linearly fitted, aimed to analyze the variability of vegetation growth season. The results showed that the beginning date of the growth season in different zones tended to be advanced, while the ending date tended to be postponed with increasing latitude. The length of the growth season was also prolonged, with the prolonging time exceeded 10 days.

  5. The Composition of the Protosolar Disk and the Formation Conditions for Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willacy, K.; Alexander, C.; Ali-Dib, M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Charnley, S. B.; Doronin, M.; Ellinger, Y.; Gast, P.; Gibb, E.; Milam, S. N.; Mousis, O.; Pauzat, F.; Tornow, C.; Wirström, E. S.; Zicler, E.

    2015-12-01

    Conditions in the protosolar nebula have left their mark in the composition of cometary volatiles, thought to be some of the most pristine material in the solar system. Cometary compositions represent the end point of processing that began in the parent molecular cloud core and continued through the collapse of that core to form the protosun and the solar nebula, and finally during the evolution of the solar nebula itself as the cometary bodies were accreting. Disentangling the effects of the various epochs on the final composition of a comet is complicated. But comets are not the only source of information about the solar nebula. Protostellar disks around young stars similar to the protosun provide a way of investigating the evolution of disks similar to the solar nebula while they are in the process of evolving to form their own solar systems. In this way we can learn about the physical and chemical conditions under which comets formed, and about the types of dynamical processing that shaped the solar system we see today.

  6. Tribological properties of three-dimensional braided carbon/Kevlar/epoxy hybrid composites under dry and lubricated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Y.Z.; Huang, Y.; He, F.; Li, Q.Y.; Lian, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the tribological properties of three-dimensional (3-D) braided carbon/Kevlar/epoxy hybrid composites. Their specific wear rate and the coefficient of friction were examined as a function of operating conditions (load and sliding distance) under dry and lubricated conditions. In addition, the 3-D braided hybrid composites with varying carbon to Kevlar fiber volume ratio were tested to assess hybrid effects. It was found that the friction and wear rate decreased with sliding distance and then leveled off under dry and lubricated conditions. Different changing patterns with normal load were observed under two different sliding conditions. Furthermore, it was noted that negative hybrid effects on the wear resistance and the friction coefficient were identified for the current 3-D braided hybrid system. The composite with a carbon to Kevlar ratio of 3:2 was found to have the least wear and friction among all 3-D braided hybrid composites studied. Worn surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and wear mechanisms were discussed in this study

  7. Effect of preparation conditions on the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composite photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhiming, E-mail: szmcumtb@hotmail.com; Hu, Zhibo; Yan, Yang; Zheng, Shuilin, E-mail: shuilinzh@sina.com

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composites were synthesized under different conditions. • The optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. • The obtained photocatalyst showed good photocatalytic activity. • The dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO{sub 2} NPs are the critical factors. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composite materials were prepared through a modified hydrolysis-deposition method under low temperature using titanium tetrachloride as precursor combined with a calcination crystallization process. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the obtained composites prepared under different preparation conditions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composites was evaluated by Rhodamine B as the target pollutant under UV irradiation, and the optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. The TiO{sub 2} crystal form in composites prepared under optimum conditions was anatase, the grain size of which was 34.12 nm. The relationships between structure and property of composite materials were analyzed and discussed. It is indicated that the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on the surface of diatoms, and the photocatalytic performance of the composite materials was mainly determined by the dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  8. Effect of preparation conditions on the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TiO2/purified diatomite composite photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiming; Hu, Zhibo; Yan, Yang; Zheng, Shuilin

    2014-09-01

    TiO2/purified diatomite composite materials were prepared through a modified hydrolysis-deposition method under low temperature using titanium tetrachloride as precursor combined with a calcination crystallization process. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the obtained composites prepared under different preparation conditions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The photocatalytic performance of TiO2/purified diatomite composites was evaluated by Rhodamine B as the target pollutant under UV irradiation, and the optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. The TiO2 crystal form in composites prepared under optimum conditions was anatase, the grain size of which was 34.12 nm. The relationships between structure and property of composite materials were analyzed and discussed. It is indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on the surface of diatoms, and the photocatalytic performance of the composite materials was mainly determined by the dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO2 nanoparticles.

  9. Fretting and wear behaviors of Ni/nano-WC composite coatings in dry and wet conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benea, Lidia; Başa, Sorin-Bogdan; Dănăilă, Eliza; Caron, Nadège; Raquet, Olivier; Ponthiaux, Pierre; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The friction and wear properties of Ni/nano-WC composite were studied. • Nano-WC reinforcement decreased friction coefficient in dry and wet conditions. • Nano-WC reinforcement fraction was seen to be 12 wt.%. • Nanohardness increased by 27% compared to nickel without WC reinforcements. • Ennoblement of OCP corresponding to the Ni/nano-WC composite coating. - Abstract: The fretting and wear behaviors of Ni/nano-WC composite coatings were studied by considering the effect of fretting frequency of 1 Hz during 10,000 cycles, at different applied loads in dry or wet conditions. The studies were performed on a ball-on-disk tribometer and the results were compared with pure Ni coating. The nanohardness of pure Ni and Ni/nano-WC composite coatings was tested by nanoindentation technique. To evaluate the wet wear (tribocorrosion) behavior the open circuit potential (OCP) was measured before, during and after the fretting tests at room temperature in the solution that simulates the primary water circuit of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The results show that Ni/nano-WC composite coatings exhibited a low friction coefficient, high nanohardness and wear resistance compared with pure Ni coatings under similar experimental conditions. Ni/nano-WC composite coatings were obtained on stainless steel support by electrochemical codeposition of nano-sized WC particles (diameter size of ∼60 nm) with nickel, from a standard nickel Watts plating bath. The surface morphology and the composition of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) respectively

  10. Adult survival, apparent lamb survival, and body condition of desert bighorn sheep in relation to habitat and precipitation on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Matthew; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Cain, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The decline of desert bighorn sheep on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR) beginning in 2003 stimulated efforts to determine the factors limiting survival and recruitment. We 1) determined pregnancy rates, body fat, and estimated survival rates of adults and lambs; 2) investigated the relationship between precipitation, forage conditions, previous year’s reproductive success, and adult body condition; 3) assessed the relative influence of body condition of adult females, precipitation, and forage characteristics on apparent survival of lambs; and 4) determined the prevalence of disease. To assess the influence of potential limiting factors on female desert bighorn sheep on the KNWR, we modeled percent body fat of adult females as a function of previous year’s reproductive effort, age class, and forage conditions (i.e., seasonal NDVI and seasonal precipitation). In addition, we assessed the relative influence of the body condition of adult females, precipitation, and forage conditions (NDVI) on length of time a lamb was observed at heel.Adult female survival was high in both 2009 (0.90 [SE = 0.05]) and 2010 (0.96 [SE = 0.03]). Apparent lamb survival to 6 months of age was 0.23 (SE = 0.05) during 2009-2010 and 0.21 (SE = 0.05) during 2010-2011 lambing seasons. Mean body fat for adult females was 12.03% (SE = 0.479) in 2009-2010 and 11.11% (SE= 0.486) in 2010-2011 and was not significantly different between years. Pregnancy rate was 100% in 2009 and 97.5% in 2010.Models containing the previous year’s reproductive effort, spring NDVI and previous year’s reproductive effort and spring precipitation best approximated data on percent body fat in adult females in 2009-2010. In 2010-2011, the two highest-ranking models included the previous year’s reproductive effort and winter NDVI and previous year’s reproductive effort, and winter and spring NDVI. None of the models assessing the influence of maternal body fat, precipitation, or forage conditions were

  11. Potential of ALOS2 and NDVI to Estimate Forest Above-Ground Biomass, and Comparison with Lidar-Derived Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Vaglio Laurin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing supports carbon estimation, allowing the upscaling of field measurements to large extents. Lidar is considered the premier instrument to estimate above ground biomass, but data are expensive and collected on-demand, with limited spatial and temporal coverage. The previous JERS and ALOS SAR satellites data were extensively employed to model forest biomass, with literature suggesting signal saturation at low-moderate biomass values, and an influence of plot size on estimates accuracy. The ALOS2 continuity mission since May 2014 produces data with improved features with respect to the former ALOS, such as increased spatial resolution and reduced revisit time. We used ALOS2 backscatter data, testing also the integration with additional features (SAR textures and NDVI from Landsat 8 data together with ground truth, to model and map above ground biomass in two mixed forest sites: Tahoe (California and Asiago (Alps. While texture was useful to improve the model performance, the best model was obtained using joined SAR and NDVI (R2 equal to 0.66. In this model, only a slight saturation was observed, at higher levels than what usually reported in literature for SAR; the trend requires further investigation but the model confirmed the complementarity of optical and SAR datatypes. For comparison purposes, we also generated a biomass map for Asiago using lidar data, and considered a previous lidar-based study for Tahoe; in these areas, the observed R2 were 0.92 for Tahoe and 0.75 for Asiago, respectively. The quantitative comparison of the carbon stocks obtained with the two methods allows discussion of sensor suitability. The range of local variation captured by lidar is higher than those by SAR and NDVI, with the latter showing overestimation. However, this overestimation is very limited for one of the study areas, suggesting that when the purpose is the overall quantification of the stored carbon, especially in areas with high carbon

  12. Vine vigor, yield and grape quality assessment by airborne remote sensing over three years: Analysis of unexpected relationships in cv. Tempranillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonilla, I.; Martinez de Toda, F.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J.A.

    2015-07-01

    The prediction of grape composition is becoming more important due to the need of reducing the current levels of alcohol and pH of the wines, a problem that is exacerbated by climate change. This work presents a 3-year study of the spatial variability of grape composition in a rainfed Tempranillo vineyard located in Rioja (Spain). It is based on the acquisition of multispectral imagery at véraison (start of the ripening process); and zoning based on NDVI, to assess its performance for zonal management. The results reveal a high spatial variability within the plot, with a stable pattern over the years, even with very different climate conditions. NDVI was a good predictor of vegetative growth variables. However, the prediction of grape composition was more complex. Unexpectedly, anthocyanins were found to be higher in the highest vigor zone, which is probably related to the effects of climate change. This unexpected relationship is particularly discussed in the article. (Author)

  13. Long-term trends in vegetation phenology and productivity over Namaqualand using the GIMMS AVHRR NDVI3g data from 1982 to 2011

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis, CL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation monitoring of arid and semi-arid environments using remotely sensed vegetation indices over long periods of time is essential to improve the understanding of the processes related to change. In this paper, 30 years of biweekly AVHRR NDVI3...

  14. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Casady, Grant M.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fi...

  15. VegScape: U.S. Crop Condition Monitoring Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    mueller, R.; Yang, Z.; Di, L.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1995, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)/National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has provided qualitative biweekly vegetation condition indices to USDA policymakers and the public on a weekly basis during the growing season. Vegetation indices have proven useful for assessing crop condition and identifying the areal extent of floods, drought, major weather anomalies, and vulnerabilities of early/late season crops. With growing emphasis on more extreme weather events and food security issues rising to the forefront of national interest, a new vegetation condition monitoring system was developed. The new vegetation condition portal named VegScape was initiated at the start of the 2013 growing season. VegScape delivers web mapping service based interactive vegetation indices. Users can use an interactive map to explore, query and disseminate current crop conditions. Vegetation indices like Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), and mean, median, and ratio comparisons to prior years can be constructed for analytical purposes and on-demand crop statistics. The NASA MODIS satellite with 250 meter (15 acres) resolution and thirteen years of data history provides improved spatial and temporal resolutions and delivers improved detailed timely (i.e., daily) crop specific condition and dynamics. VegScape thus provides supplemental information to support NASS' weekly crop reports. VegScape delivers an agricultural cultivated crop mask and the most recent Cropland Data Layer (CDL) product to exploit the agricultural domain and visualize prior years' planted crops. Additionally, the data can be directly exported to Google Earth for web mashups or delivered via web mapping services for uses in other applications. VegScape supports the ethos of data democracy by providing free and open access to digital geospatial data layers using open geospatial standards, thereby supporting transparent and collaborative government

  16. Numerical optimization of composite hip endoprostheses under different loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T. A.; Davy, D. T.; Saravanos, D. A.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The optimization of composite hip implants was investigated. Emphasis was placed on the effect of shape and material tailoring of the implant to improve the implant-bone interaction. A variety of loading conditions were investigated to better understand the relationship between loading and optimization outcome. Comparisons of the initial and optimal models with more complex 3D finite element models were performed. The results indicate that design improvements made using this method result in similar improvements in the 3D models. Although the optimization outcomes were significantly affected by the choice of loading conditions, certain trends were observed that were independent of the applied loading.

  17. Mapping tropical dry forest habitats integrating landsat NDVI, Ikonos imagery, and topographic information in the Caribbean island of Mona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzi, Sebastiáin; Gould, William A; Ramos Gonzalez, Olga M; Martinez Robles, Alma; Calle Maldonado, Paulina; Pérez-Buitrago, Néstor; Fumero Caban, José J

    2008-06-01

    Assessing the status of tropical dry forest habitats using remote sensing technologies is one of the research priorities for Neotropical forests. We developed a simple method for mapping vegetation and habitats in a tropical dry forest reserve, Mona Island, Puerto Rico, by integrating the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Landsat, topographic information, and high-resolution Ikonos imagery. The method was practical for identifying vegetation types in areas with a great variety of plant communities and complex relief, and can be adapted to other dry forest habitats of the Caribbean Islands. NDVI was useful for identifying the distribution of forests, woodlands, and shrubland, providing a natural representation of the vegetation patterns on the island. The use of Ikonos imagery allowed increasing the number of land cover classes. As a result, sixteen land-cover types were mapped over the 5500 ha area, with a kappa coefficient of accuracy equal to 79%. This map is a central piece for modeling vertebrate species distribution and biodiversity patterns by the Puerto Rico Gap Analysis Project, and it is of great value for assisting research and management actions in the island.

  18. Recycling of carbon fibre reinforced composites using water in subcritical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuyan, E-mail: liuyy@hit.edu.cn [Harbin Institute of Technology, No.92 Xidazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Shan Guohua; Meng Linghui [Harbin Institute of Technology, No.92 Xidazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, a method of chemical recycling of thermosetting epoxy composite was discussed. Water was used to be reaction medium and the decomposition of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites was studied. Experiments were devised in order to identify the significant process parameters that affect fibre reinforced composite recovery potential including temperature, time, catalyst, feedstock, and pressure. Experiments were performed in a batch-type reactor without stirring. Under the condition that the temperature was 260 deg. C and the ratio of resin and water was 1:5 g/mL, the decomposition rate could reach 100 wt.% and the carbon fibres were obtained. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements showed that the fibres were clean and no cracks or defects were found. The average tensile strength of the reclaimed fibres was about 98.2% than that of the virgin fibres.

  19. Compositions and methods for providing plants with tolerance to abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Hirt, Heribert; De Zelicourt, Axel; Saad, Maged

    2017-01-01

    It has been discovered that the desert endophytic bacterium SA187 SA187 can provide resistance or tolerance to abiotic stress conditions to seeds or plants. Compositions containing SA187 can be used to enhance plant development and yield under

  20. Spatial distribution of volcanic ash deposits of 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption in Patagonia as measured by a perturbation in NDVI temporal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easdale, M. H.; Bruzzone, O.

    2018-03-01

    Volcanic ash fallout is a recurrent environmental disturbance in forests, arid and semi-arid rangelands of Patagonia, South America. The ash deposits over large areas are responsible for several impacts on ecological processes, agricultural production and health of local communities. Public policy decision making needs monitoring information of the affected areas by ash fallout, in order to better orient social, economic and productive aids. The aim of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of volcanic ash deposits from the eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle in 2011, by identifying a sudden change in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) temporal dynamics, defined as a perturbation located in the time series. We applied a sparse-wavelet transform using the Basis Pursuit algorithm to NDVI time series obtained from the Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, to identify perturbations at a pixel level. The spatial distribution of the perturbation promoted by ash deposits in Patagonia was successfully identified and characterized by means of a perturbation in NDVI temporal dynamics. Results are encouraging for the future development of a new platform, in combination with data from forecasting models and tracking of ash cloud trajectories and dispersion, to inform stakeholders to mitigate impact of volcanic ash on agricultural production and to orient public intervention strategies after a volcanic eruption followed by ash fallout over a wide region.

  1. Evapotranspiração real obtida através da relação entre o coeficiente dual de cultura da FAO-56 e o NDVI Real actual evapotranspiration obtained through the relationship between the FAO-56 crop dual coefficient and NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergson Guedes Bezerra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Um requisito fundamental para adoção de manejo da irrigação é a determinação diária da evapotranspiração (ET das culturas. Em caráter operacional o método do coeficiente de cultura proposto pela Food Agriculture Organization (FAO, através do seu relatório 56 (Irrigation and Drainage Paper, é largamente utilizado na determinação da ET, e tem apresentado precisões que o tornam mundialmente aceito. A ET com base no coeficiente de cultura (Kc, obtido a partir de índices de vegetação, particularmente o NDVI, tem sido calculada em vários estudos e para diversas culturas alcançando muita precisão, quando comparado com observações de campo. Diante do exposto, este trabalho teve por objetivo calcular a ET diária e sazonal da cultura do algodoeiro utilizando o método do Kc dual obtido em função do Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada - NDVI, obtido a partir de imagens TM - Landsat 5 livre da presença de nuvens. Os resultados revelaram precisões bastante confiáveis, pois foram verificadas diferenças menores que 10%, quando comparados com valores da ET obtidos pela técnica da Bowen, corroborando com o desempenho alcançado pelo método em outras pesquisas realizadas em outras regiões do planeta. Dessa forma, pode-se concluir que o método apresenta bastante confiabilidade e simplicidade.A fundamental requirement for adoption of irrigation management is to determine the crop daily evapotranspiration (ET. On an operational basis the crop coefficient method proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO through its report 56 (Irrigation and Drainage Paper is widely used in the determination of ET and due to its accurate estimative, it has been globally accepted. The ET-based crop coefficient (Kc obtained from vegetation indices, particularly the Vegetation Index Normalized Difference (NDVI has been measured in several studies and various crops showing great accuracy when compared to field observations

  2. Assessing vegetation structure and ANPP dynamics in a grassland-shrubland Chihuahuan ecotone using NDVI-rainfall relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-de las Heras, M.; Diaz-Sierra, R.; Turnbull, L.; Wainwright, J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and the widespread alteration of natural habitats are major drivers of vegetation change in drylands. A classic case of vegetation change is the shrub-encroachment process that has been taking place over the last 150 years in the Chihuahuan Desert, where large areas of grasslands dominated by perennial grass species (black grama, Bouteloua eriopoda, and blue grama, B. gracilis) have transitioned to shrublands dominated by woody species (creosotebush, Larrea tridentata, and mesquite, Prosopis glandulosa), accompanied by accelerated water and wind erosion. Multiple mechanisms drive the shrub-encroachment process, including exogenous triggering factors such as precipitation variations and land-use change, and endogenous amplifying mechanisms brought about by soil erosion-vegetation feedbacks. In this study, simulations of plant biomass dynamics with a simple modelling framework indicate that herbaceous (grasses and forbs) and shrub vegetation in drylands have different responses to antecedent precipitation due to functional differences in plant growth and water-use patterns, and therefore shrub encroachment may be reflected in the analysis of landscape-scale vegetation-rainfall relationships. We analyze the structure and dynamics of vegetation at an 18 km2 grassland-shrubland ecotone in the northern edge of the Chihuahuan Desert (McKenzie Flats, Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, NM, USA) by investigating the relationship between decade-scale (2000-2013) records of medium-resolution remote sensing of vegetation greenness (MODIS NDVI) and precipitation. Spatial evaluation of NDVI-rainfall relationship at the studied ecotone indicates that herbaceous vegetation shows quick growth pulses associated with short-term (previous 2 months) precipitation, while shrubs show a slow response to medium-term (previous 5 months) precipitation. We use these relationships to (a) classify landscape types as a function of the spatial distribution of dominant vegetation

  3. Hillslope terracing effects on the spatial variability of plant development as assessed by NDVI in vineyards of the Priorat region (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casasnovas, José A; Ramos, María Concepción; Espinal-Utgés, Sílvia

    2010-04-01

    The availability of heavy machinery and the vineyard restructuring and conversion plans of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy (Commission Regulation EC no. 1227/2000 of 31 May 2000) have encouraged the restructuring of many vineyards on hillslopes of Mediterranean Europe, through the creation of terraces to favor the mechanization of agricultural work. Terrace construction requires cutting and filling operations that create soil spatial variability, which affects soil properties and plant development. In the present paper, we study the effects of hillslope terracing on the spatial variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in fields of the Priorat region (NE Spain) during 2004, 2005, and 2006. This index was computed from high-resolution remote sensing data (Quickbird-2). Detailed digital terrain models before and after terrace construction were used to assess the earth movements. The results indicate that terracing by heavy machinery induced high variability on the NDVI values over the years, showing significant differences as effect of the cut and fill operations.

  4. Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill obtained by different distillation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica-Dukić, N; Kujundzić, S; Soković, M; Couladis, M

    2003-04-01

    The influence of different hydrodistillation conditions was evaluated from the standpoint of essential oil yield, chemical composition and antifungal activity from seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Three hydrodistillation conditions were considered. The main constituents of the oils were: (E)-anethole (72.27%-74.18%), fenchone (11.32%-16.35%) and methyl chavicol (3.78%-5.29%). The method of distillation significantly effected the essential oil yield and quantitative composition, although the antifungal activity of the oils against some fungi was only slightly altered. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Study on generation and sharing of on-demand global seamless data—Taking MODIS NDVI as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dayong; Deng, Meixia; Di, Liping; Han, Weiguo; Peng, Chunming; Yagci, Ali Levent; Yu, Genong; Chen, Zeqiang

    2013-04-01

    By applying advanced Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) and BigTIFF technology in a Geographical Information System (GIS) with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), this study has derived global datasets using tile-based input data and implemented Virtual Web Map Service (VWMS) and Virtual Web Coverage Service (VWCS) to provide software tools for visualization and acquisition of global data. Taking MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as an example, this study proves the feasibility, efficiency and features of the proposed approach.

  6. Mapping tropical dry forest habitats integrating Landsat NDVI, Ikonos imagery, and topographic information in the Caribbean Island of Mona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Martinuzzi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the status of tropical dry forest habitats using remote sensing technologies is one of the research priorities for Neotropical forests. We developed a simple method for mapping vegetation and habitats in a tropical dry forest reserve, Mona Island, Puerto Rico, by integrating the Normalized Difference vegetation Index (NDvI from Landsat, topographic information, and high-resolution Ikonos imagery. The method was practical for identifying vegetation types in areas with a great variety of plant communities and complex relief, and can be adapted to other dry forest habitats of the Caribbean Islands. NDvI was useful for identifying the distribution of forests, woodlands, and shrubland, providing a natural representation of the vegetation patterns on the island. The use of Ikonos imagery allowed increasing the number of land cover classes. As a result, sixteen land-cover types were mapped over the 5 500 ha area, with a kappa coefficient of accuracy equal to 79 %. This map is a central piece for modeling vertebrate species distribution and biodiversity patterns by the Puerto Rico Gap Analysis Project, and it is of great value for assisting research and management actions in the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 625-639. Epub 2008 June 30.El estudio y evaluación de los bosques tropicales secos mediante herramientas de teledetección es una de las prioridades de investigación en los ambientes neotropicales. Desarrollamos una metodología simple para mapear la vegetación de la isla de Mona, Puerto Rico, mediante el uso del índice de vegetación normalizado (NDVI por sus siglas en inglés de Landsat, información topográfica, e imágenes auxiliares de alta resolución Ikonos. La metodología fue útil para identificar las clases de vegetación en un área de gran variedad de comunidades vegetales y relieve complejo, y puede ser adaptada a otras regiones de bosque seco de las islas del Caribe. El NDVI permitió identificar la distribución de

  7. Efficacy of Thermally Conditioned Sisal FRP Composite on the Shear Characteristics of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Tara; Reddy, H. N. Jagannatha

    2013-01-01

    The development of commercially viable composites based on natural resources for a wide range of applications is on the rise. Efforts include new methods of production and the utilization of natural reinforcements to make biodegradable composites with lignocellulosic fibers, for various engineering applications. In this work, thermal conditioning of woven sisal fibre was carried out, followed by the development of woven sisal fibre reinforced polymer composite system, and its tensile and flex...

  8. Remotely sensed rice yield prediction using multi-temporal NDVI data derived from NOAA's-AVHRR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

    2013-01-01

    Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha(-1). Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly.

  9. Refinamento de imagens termais do Landsat 5 - TM com base em classes de NDVI Sharpening of thermal Landsat 5 - TM imagery data based on NDVI classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argemiro Lucena de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar um método simplificado, baseado em classes de NDVI para refinamento das imagens de temperatura da superfície (Ts, obtidas pelo sensor TM do Landsat 5 referentes aos anos de 2005 e 2006. Para tanto, foram propostos e comparados três modelos de refinamento baseados no método de regressão linear. Os erros percentuais e erros médios quadráticos obtidos com a utilização dos modelos avaliados foram, respectivamente, da ordem de 0,37% e 1,38 ºC, enquanto o modelo original apresentou erro médio quadrático da ordem de 1,32 ºC. Foram constatados que os erros obtidos com as calibrações realizadas não influenciaram significativamente nos valores médios das imagens termais, e que os resultados contribuíram substancialmente para a melhoria da resolução espacial das mesmas. O refinamento permitiu ainda a identificação precisa de alvos da superfície e a identificação de feições não detectáveis na resolução original. Isto evidencia que o método simplificado sugerido neste estudo, permite um refinamento preciso com uma forma de obtenção mais simples em relação ao modelo original.The objective of this study was to use a simplified method based on NDVI classes for the sharpening of the Landsat 5 - TM surface temperature images (Ts obtained during the years of 2005 and 2006. Thus, three sharpening models, based on the linear regression method, were proposed and compared. The relative and the root mean square errors obtained through the suggested models were of 0.37% and 1.38 ºC, respectively, while the original model presented root mean square error of 1.32 ºC. It was verified that the errors obtained with the accomplished calibrations did not significantly influence in the average values of the thermal images and the results contributed substantially to the improvement of their spatial resolution. The sharpening allowed the precise identification of the targets and features undetectable at

  10. [Spatiotemporal characteristics of MODIS NDVI in Hulunber Grassland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Yang, Gui-Xia; Wu, Wen-Bin; Li, Gang; Chen, Bao-Rui; Xin, Xiao-Ping

    2009-11-01

    Time-series MODIS NDVI datasets from 2000 to 2008 were used to study the spatial change trend, fluctuation degree, and occurrence time of the annual NDVImax of four typical grassland types, i.e., lowland meadow, temperate steppe, temperate meadow steppe, and upland meadow, in Hulunber Grassland. In 2000-2008, the vegetation in Hulunber Grassland presented an obvious deterioration trend. The mean annual NDVImax of the four grassland types had a great fluctuation, especially in temperate steppe where the maximum change in the mean value of annual NDVImax approximated to 50%. As for the area change of different grade grasslands, the areas with NDVImax between 0.4 and 1 accounted for about 91% of the total grassland area, which suggested the good vegetation coverage in the Grassland. However, though the areas with NDVImax values in (0.4, 0.8) showed an increasing trend, the areas with NDVImax values in (0.2, 0.4) and (0.8, 1) decreased greatly in the study period. Overall, the deteriorating grassland took up about 66.25% of the total area, and the restoring grassland took the rest. There was about 62.85% of the grassland whose NDVImax occurred between the 193rd day and the 225th day in each year, indicating that this period was the most important vegetation growth season in Hulunber Grassland.

  11. Large-scale heterogeneity of Amazonian phenology revealed from 26-year long AVHRR/NDVI time-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fabrício B; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Anderson, Liana O; Pereira, Gabriel; Cardozo, Franciele; Arai, Egídio

    2013-01-01

    Depiction of phenological cycles in tropical forests is critical for an understanding of seasonal patterns in carbon and water fluxes as well as the responses of vegetation to climate variations. However, the detection of clear spatially explicit phenological patterns across Amazonia has proven difficult using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this work, we propose an alternative approach based on a 26-year time-series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to identify regions with homogeneous phenological cycles in Amazonia. Specifically, we aim to use a pattern recognition technique, based on temporal signal processing concepts, to map Amazonian phenoregions and to compare the identified patterns with field-derived information. Our automated method recognized 26 phenoregions with unique intra-annual seasonality. This result highlights the fact that known vegetation types in Amazonia are not only structurally different but also phenologically distinct. Flushing of new leaves observed in the field is, in most cases, associated to a continuous increase in NDVI. The peak in leaf production is normally observed from the beginning to the middle of the wet season in 66% of the field sites analyzed. The phenoregion map presented in this work gives a new perspective on the dynamics of Amazonian canopies. It is clear that the phenology across Amazonia is more variable than previously detected using remote sensing data. An understanding of the implications of this spatial heterogeneity on the seasonality of Amazonian forest processes is a crucial step towards accurately quantifying the role of tropical forests within global biogeochemical cycles. (letter)

  12. Monitoring drought using multi-sensor remote sensing data in cropland of Gansu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Linglin; Shan, Jie; Xiang, Daxiang

    2014-01-01

    Various drought monitoring models have been developed from different perspectives, as drought is impacted by various factors (precipitation, evaporation, runoff) and usually reflected in various aspects (vegetation condition, temperature). Cloud not only plays an important role in the earth's energy balance and climate change, but also directly impacts the regional precipitation and evaporation. As a result, the change of cloud cover and cloud type can be used to monitor drought. This paper proposes a new drought composite index, the Drought Composite Index (DCI), for drought monitoring based on multi-sensor remote sensing data in cropland of Gansu Province. This index combines the cloud classification data (CLS) from FY satellite and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) which was calculated using the maximum and minimum NDVI values for the same time period from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Pearson correlation was performed to correlate NDVI, VCI, CLS and DCI values to precipitation data and soil moisture (SM) data collected from 20 meteorological stations during the growing season of 2011 and 2012. Better agreement was observed between DCI and precipitation as compared with that between NDVI/VCI and precipitation, especially the one-month precipitation, and there is an obvious time lag in the response of vegetation to precipitation. In addition, the results indicated that DCI well reflected precipitation fluctuations in the study area promising a possibility for early drought awareness necessary and near real-time drought monitoring

  13. Effect of processing conditions on the interfacial zone of high performances thermoplastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeau, Caroline

    1988-01-01

    This study concerns the microstructural and mechanical characterization performances thermoplastic unidirectional composites. Two semi-crystalline composites, APC2 (Peek/Carbon) and AC 40.60 (Pps/carbon) and one amorphous composite FC.PEI (PEI/Carbon) have been studied. Different processing conditions for the APC2 and AC 40.60 specimens have been employed. Amorphous matrix composites (fast cooling rates), crystalline matrix composites (slow cooling rates) and the effects of heat treatments on the matrix (lengthy hold time at the melting point followed by slow cooling) have been studied. Static test (3 points bending tests, transverse tensile tests - ±45 deg., tensile tests) allowed the different interfacial qualities to be revealed. If the fiber/matrix adhesion is excellent for APC2, it is poor for the FCPEI and AC 40.60 composites. The dynamic tests conducted on the torsion pendulum (forced oscillations; low frequencies) have shown for APC2 the existence of trans-crystallinity (mono-dimensional growth, perpendicular to the fiber surface) in the vicinity of the fiber. It has been shown that the fraction of trans-crystallinity is most important for treated specimens. In this study, an approach of the modelization of the viscoelastic behaviour of composites materials has been proposed. (author) [fr

  14. Comparison of Eight Techniques for Reconstructing Multi-Satellite Sensor Time-Series NDVI Data Sets in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Geng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 techniques have been developed to de-noise time-series vegetation index data from different satellite sensors to reconstruct long time-series data sets. Although many studies have compared Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI noise-reduction techniques, few studies have compared these techniques systematically and comprehensively. This study tested eight techniques for smoothing different vegetation types using different types of multi-temporal NDVI data (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR (Global Inventory Modeling and Map Studies (GIMMS and Pathfinder AVHRR Land (PAL, Satellite Pour l’ Observation de la Terre (SPOT VEGETATION (VGT, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS (Terra with the ultimate purpose of determining the best reconstruction technique for each type of vegetation captured with four satellite sensors. These techniques include the modified best index slope extraction (M-BISE technique, the Savitzky-Golay (S-G technique, the mean value iteration filter (MVI technique, the asymmetric Gaussian (A-G technique, the double logistic (D-L technique, the changing-weight filter (CW technique, the interpolation for data reconstruction (IDR technique, and the Whittaker smoother (WS technique. These techniques were evaluated by calculating the root mean square error (RMSE, the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC. The results indicate that the S-G, CW, and WS techniques perform better than the other tested techniques, while the IDR, M-BISE, and MVI techniques performed worse than the other techniques. The best de-noise technique varies with different vegetation types and NDVI data sources. The S-G performs best in most situations. In addition, the CW and WS are effective techniques that were exceeded only by the S-G technique. The assessment results are consistent in terms of the three evaluation indexes for GIMMS, PAL, and SPOT data in the study

  15. Future Climate Impact on the Desertification in the Dry Land Asia Using AVHRR GIMMS NDVI3g Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Miao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry Land Asia is the largest arid and semi-arid region in the northern hemisphere that suffers from land desertification. Over the period 1982–2011, there were both overall improvement and regional degeneration in the vegetation NDVI. We analyze future climate changes in these area using two ensemble-average methods from CMIP5 data. Bayesian Model Averaging shows a better capability to represent the future climate and less uncertainty represented by the 22-model ensemble than does the Simple Model Average. From 2006 to 2100, the average growing season temperature value will increase by 2.9 °C, from 14.4 °C to 17.3 °C under three climate scenarios (RCP 26, RCP 45 and RCP 85. We then conduct multiple regression analysis between climate changes compiled from the Climate Research Unit database and vegetation greenness from the GIMMS NDVI3g dataset. There is a general acceleration in the desertification trend under the RCP 85 scenario in middle and northern part of Middle Asia, northwestern China except Xinjiang and the Mongolian Plateau (except the middle part. The RCP 85 scenario shows a more severe desertification trend than does RCP 26. Desertification in dry land Asia, particularly in the regions highlighted in this study, calls for further investigation into climate change impacts and adaptations.

  16. Efficacy of Thermally Conditioned Sisal FRP Composite on the Shear Characteristics of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of commercially viable composites based on natural resources for a wide range of applications is on the rise. Efforts include new methods of production and the utilization of natural reinforcements to make biodegradable composites with lignocellulosic fibers, for various engineering applications. In this work, thermal conditioning of woven sisal fibre was carried out, followed by the development of woven sisal fibre reinforced polymer composite system, and its tensile and flexural behaviour was characterized. It was observed that thermal conditioning improved the tensile strength and the flexural strength of the woven sisal fibre composites, which were observed to bear superior values than those in the untreated ones. Then, the efficacy of woven sisal fibre reinforced polymer composite for shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams was evaluated using two types of techniques: full and strip wrapping techniques. Detailed analysis of the load deflection behaviour and fracture study of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with woven sisal under shearing load were carried out, and it was concluded that woven sisal FRP strengthened beams, underwent very ductile nature of failure, without any delamination or debonding of sisal FRP, and also increased the shear strength and the first crack load of the reinforced concrete beams.

  17. Thermal analysis of polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation composites under outdoor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Luiz G.H.; Oliani, Washington L.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the influence of the clay in the degradation process of the HMSPP.The polypropylene (PP) was irradiated under acetylene atmosphere in gamma irradiation source ( 60 Co) to obtain the HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene). Composites of HMSPP were processed in twin-screw extruder with clay Cloisite 20A and Maleic Anhydride (PP-g-MA) as coupling agent. The obtained composites were exposed under outdoor conditions for 6 months. The ageing effects were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA). Chemical oxidation was evaluated by Carbonyl Index (IC) through infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed correlation between carbonyl index and ageing time. (author)

  18. Thermal analysis of polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation composites under outdoor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Luiz G.H.; Oliani, Washington L.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the influence of the clay in the degradation process of the HMSPP.The polypropylene (PP) was irradiated under acetylene atmosphere in gamma irradiation source ({sup 60}Co) to obtain the HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene). Composites of HMSPP were processed in twin-screw extruder with clay Cloisite 20A and Maleic Anhydride (PP-g-MA) as coupling agent. The obtained composites were exposed under outdoor conditions for 6 months. The ageing effects were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA). Chemical oxidation was evaluated by Carbonyl Index (IC) through infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed correlation between carbonyl index and ageing time. (author)

  19. The Influence Of Mass Fraction Of Dressed Coal On Ignition Conditions Of Composite Liquid Fuel Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlegel Nikita E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The laws of condition modification of inert heat and ignition in an oxidant flow of composite liquid fuel droplet were studied by the developed experimental setup. Investigations were for composite liquid fuel composition based on the waste of bituminous and nonbaking coal processing, appropriate carbon dust, water, used motor oil. The characteristics of boundary layer inertia heat of composite liquid fuel droplet, thermal decomposition of coal organic part, the yield of volatiles and evaporation of liquid combustion component, ignition of the gas mixture and coke residue were defined.

  20. Using High-Resolution Hyperspectral and Thermal Airborne Imagery to Assess Physiological Condition in the Context of Wheat Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gonzalez-Dugo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for developing high-throughput tools for crop phenotyping that would increase the rate of genetic improvement. In most cases, the indicators used for this purpose are related with canopy structure (often acquired with RGB cameras and multispectral sensors allowing the calculation of NDVI, but using approaches related with the crop physiology are rare. High-resolution hyperspectral remote sensing imagery provides optical indices related to physiological condition through the quantification of photosynthetic pigment and chlorophyll fluorescence emission. This study demonstrates the use of narrow-band indicators of stress as a potential tool for phenotyping under rainfed conditions using two airborne datasets acquired over a wheat experiment with 150 plots comprising two species and 50 varieties (bread and durum wheat. The flights were performed at the early stem elongation stage and during the milking stage. Physiological measurements made at the time of flights demonstrated that the second flight was made during the terminal stress, known to largely determine final yield under rainfed conditions. The hyperspectral imagery enabled the extraction of thermal, radiance, and reflectance spectra from 260 spectral bands from each plot for the calculation of indices related to photosynthetic pigment absorption in the visible and red-edge regions, the quantification of chlorophyll fluorescence emission, as well as structural indices related to canopy structure. Under the conditions of this study, the structural indices (i.e., NDVI did not show a good performance at predicting yield, probably because of the large effects of terminal water stress. Thermal indices, indices related to chlorophyll fluorescence (calculated using the FLD method, and carotenoids pigment indices (PRI and CAR demonstrated to be better suited for screening complex traits such as crop yield. The study concludes that the indicators derived from high

  1. USAID Expands eMODIS Coverage for Famine Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkerson, C.; Meyer, D. J.; Evenson, K.; Merritt, M.

    2011-12-01

    Food security in countries at risk is monitored by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through its Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) using many methods including Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data processed by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) into eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products. Near-real time production is used comparatively with trends derived from the eMODIS archive to operationally monitor vegetation anomalies indicating threatened cropland and rangeland conditions. eMODIS production over Central America and the Caribbean (CAMCAR) began in 2009, and processes 10-day NDVI composites every 5 days from surface reflectance inputs produced using predicted spacecraft and climatology information at Land and Atmosphere Near real time Capability for Earth Observing Systems (EOS) (LANCE). These expedited eMODIS composites are backed by a parallel archive of precision-based NDVI calculated from surface reflectance data ordered through Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System (LAADS). Success in the CAMCAR region led to the recent expansion of eMODIS production to include Africa in 2010, and Central Asia in 2011. Near-real time 250-meter products are available for each region on the last day of an acquisition interval (generally before midnight) from an anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) distribution site (ftp://emodisftp.cr.usgs.gov/eMODIS). The FTP site concurrently hosts the regional historical collections (2000 to present) which are also searchable using the USGS Earth Explorer (http://edcsns17.cr.usgs.gov/NewEarthExplorer). As eMODIS coverage continues to grow, these geographically gridded, georeferenced tagged image file format (GeoTIFF) NDVI composites increase their utility as effective tools for operational monitoring of near-real time vegetation data against historical trends.

  2. Fracture Strength of Indirect Resin Composite Laminates to Teeth with Existing Restorations : An Evaluation of Conditioning Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mese, Ayse; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the fracture strength and failure types of indirect resin-based composite laminates bonded to teeth with aged Class III composite restorations that were conditioned according to various protocols. Materials and Methods: Maxillary central incisors (N = 60) with

  3. [Cross comparison of ASTER and Landsat ETM+ multispectral measurements for NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han-qiu; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2011-07-01

    The present paper investigates the quantitative relationship between the NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices of Landsat and ASTER sensors based on three tandem image pairs. The study examines how well ASTER sensor vegetation observations replicate ETM+ vegetation observations, and more importantly, the difference in the vegetation observations between the two sensors. The DN values of the three image pairs were first converted to at-sensor reflectance to reduce radiometric differences between two sensors, images. The NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices of the two sensors were then calculated using the converted reflectance. The quantitative relationship was revealed through regression analysis on the scatter plots of the vegetation index values of the two sensors. The models for the conversion between the two sensors, vegetation indices were also obtained from the regression. The results show that the difference does exist between the two sensors, vegetation indices though they have a very strong positive linear relationship. The study found that the red and near infrared measurements differ between the two sensors, with ASTER generally producing higher reflectance in the red band and lower reflectance in the near infrared band than the ETM+ sensor. This results in the ASTER sensor producing lower spectral vegetation index measurements, for the same target, than ETM+. The relative spectral response function differences in the red and near infrared bands between the two sensors are believed to be the main factor contributing to their differences in vegetation index measurements, because the red and near infrared relative spectral response features of the ASTER sensor overlap the vegetation "red edge" spectral region. The obtained conversion models have high accuracy with a RMSE less than 0.04 for both sensors' inter-conversion between corresponding vegetation indices.

  4. Effects of phosphourus addition on the physical properties and surface condition of tungsten-copper composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyoshi, N.; Nakada, K.; Nakayama, M.; Kohda, K.

    2001-01-01

    Tungsten-copper composites containing a small amount of phosphorus prepared using conventional P/M method. Cu 3 P powder was used as phosphorous source. The effects of phosphorus addition on the physical properties and the surface condition were investigated and the existing form of phosphorus was specified on the tungsten-copper composites The results are summarized as follows. The tungsten-copper composite containing 10 % copper, for example, demonstrated optimum thermal conductivity at the phosphorus addition of 0.02 %. The density of the composites was almost 100 % and the surface of the sintered body was flat and smooth after sintering at a temperature between 1100 and 1150 o C. It was shown that phosphorus exists as Co 2 P. (author)

  5. Microbiological composition of untreated water during different weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Bešić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water can support the growth of different microorganisms which may result in contamination. Therefore, the microbiological examination is required for testing the hygienic probity of water. In the study of microbial composition of untreated, natural spring and mineral water differences in the presence and number of bacteria during the two periods, winter and summer, are detectable.Methods: In our study, we analyzed and compared the following parameters, specified in the Rulebook: total bacteria and total aerobic bacteria (ml/22 and 37°C, total Coliform bacteria and Coliforms of fecalorigin (MPN/100ml, fecal streptococci as Streptococcus faecalis  (MPN/100ml, Proteus spp (MPN/100ml, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MPN/100 ml Sulphoreducing Clostridia (cfu / ml. The paper is a retrospective study in which we processed data related to the period of 2005-2009 year. While working, we used the descriptive-analytical comparative statistical treatment.Results: The obtained results show statistically significant differences in the microbial composition of untreated water in the two observed periods,Conclusions: Findings were consequence of different weather conditions in these periods, which imply a number of other variable factors.

  6. Effects of machining conditions on the specific cutting energy of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, A. I.; Syahmi, A. Z.; Naquib, M.; Lih, T. C.; Mansor, A. F.; Khalil, A. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents an approach to evaluate the effects of different machining conditions on the specific cutting energy of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites (CFRP). Although research works in the machinability of CFRP composites have been very substantial, the present literature rarely discussed the topic of energy consumption and the specific cutting energy. A series of turning experiments were carried out on two different CFRP composites in order to determine the power and specific energy constants and eventually evaluate their effects due to the changes in machining conditions. A good agreement between the power and material removal rate using a simple linear relationship. Further analyses revealed that a power law function is best to describe the effect of feed rate on the changes in the specific cutting energy. At lower feed rate, the specific cutting energy increases exponentially due to the nature of finishing operation, whereas at higher feed rate, the changes in specific cutting energy is minimal due to the nature of roughing operation.

  7. Analysis of Vegetation Coverage Change Characteristics in Chongqing Based on MODIS - NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianfeng, WU; Cao, Guangjie; Zhang, Fengtai; Li, Wei; Wang, Haiqing

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the characteristics of vegetation cover change in Chongqing, MODIS-NDVI is used as data source. In this paper, the change of vegetation coverage in Chongqing from 2000 to 2011 was analyzed by mean value method and difference method from year, spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively. The results showed that the change of vegetation cover was larger than that of the western region on the annual scale. On the seasonal scale, the vegetation in the spring was in the middle with a high and low trend. The higher vegetation area was distributed in the summer area, and the lower area of vegetation was concentrated in the western part of the study area. Vegetation in autumn showed a flaky distribution in space. Winter vegetation to the Yangtze River as the boundary, the south cover is slightly higher than the north.

  8. Development of on-line condition monitoring system in aerospace structures using advanced composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.M.

    2005-01-01

    This research aims to develop condition monitoring systems for advanced aerospace composite structures. To perform these functions successfully a smart system is required that could autonomously respond to environmental changes. The integrated structure senses the environments, conveys the message to central processing unit and reacts instantaneously to external stimuli. Such structures not only monitor their own health but also for warn about onset of failures, fatigue and impending disasters. This required development of methods for embedding optical fibers in composite panels for sensing given defect. The thick and cylindrical composite structures have layer waviness due to fiber microbend defect. Such kind of defect is characteristically hard to detect. It leads to delamination, cracking and deterioration of mechanical properties. The experimental investigation revealed correlation of the intensity of light with the microbend defect in composite structure. (author)

  9. Assessing Habitat Quality of Forest-Corridors through NDVI Analysis in Dry Tropical Forests of South India: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramesha Mallegowda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most wildlife habitats and migratory routes are extremely threatened due to increasing demands on forestland and forest resources by burgeoning human population. Corridor landscape in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT is one among them, subjected to various anthropogenic pressures. Human habitation, intensive farming, coffee plantations, ill-planned infrastructure developments and rapid spreading of invasive plant species Lantana camara, pose a serious threat to wildlife habitat and their migration. Aim of this work is to create detailed NDVI based land change maps and to use them to identify time-series trends in greening and browning in forest corridors in the study area and to identify the drivers that are influencing the observed changes. Over the four decades in BRT, NDVI increased in the core area of the forest and reduced in the fringe areas. The change analysis between 1973 and 2014 shows significant changes; browning due to anthropogenic activities as well as natural processes and greening due to Lantana spread. This indicates that the change processes are complex, involving multiple driving factors, such as socio-economic changes, high population growth, historical forest management practices and policies. Our study suggests that the use of updated and accurate change detection maps will be useful in taking appropriate site specific action-oriented conservation decisions to restore and manage the degraded critical wildlife corridors in human-dominated landscape.

  10. Climatic conditions and child height: Sex-specific vulnerability and the protective effects of sanitation and food markets in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulmi, Prajula; Block, Steven A; Shively, Gerald E; Masters, William A

    2016-12-01

    Environmental conditions in early life are known to have impacts on later health outcomes, but causal mechanisms and potential remedies have been difficult to discern. This paper uses the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys of 2006 and 2011, combined with earlier NASA satellite observations of variation in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at each child's location and time of birth to identify the trimesters of gestation and periods of infancy when climate variation is linked to attained height later in life. We find significant differences by sex: males are most affected by conditions in their second trimester of gestation, and females in the first three months after birth. Each 100-point difference in NDVI at those times is associated with a difference in height-for-age z-score (HAZ) measured at age 12-59 months of 0.088 for boys and 0.054 for girls, an effect size similar to that of moving within the distribution of household wealth by close to one quintile for boys and one decile for girls. The entire seasonal change in NDVI from peak to trough is approximately 200-300 points during the 2000-2011 study period, implying a seasonal effect on HAZ similar to one to three quintiles of household wealth. This effect is observed only in households without toilets; in households with toilets, there is no seasonal fluctuation, implying protection against climatic conditions that facilitate disease transmission. We also use data from the Nepal Living Standards Surveys on district-level agricultural production and marketing, and find a climate effect on child growth only in districts where households' food consumption derives primarily from their own production. Robustness tests find no evidence of selection effects, and placebo regression results reveal no significant artefactual correlations. The timing and sex-specificity of climatic effects are consistent with previous studies, while the protective effects of household sanitation and food markets are

  11. Improvement of Alternative Crop Phenology Detection Algorithms using MODIS NDVI Time Series Data in US Corn Belt Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kang, S.; Seo, B.; Lee, K.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting crop phenology is important for understanding of crop development and growth processes and improving the accuracy of crop model. Remote sensing offers a feasible tool for monitoring spatio-temporal patterns of crop phenology in region and continental scales. Various methods have been developed to determine the timing of crop phenological stages using spectral vegetation indices (i.e. NDVI and EVI) derived from satellite data. In our study, it was compared four alternative detection methods to identify crop phenological stages (i.e. the emergence and harvesting date) using high quality NDVI time series data derived from MODIS. Also we investigated factors associated with crop development rate. Temperature and photoperiod are the two main factors which would influence the crop's growth pattern expressed in the VI data. Only the effect of temperature on crop development rate was considered. The temperature response function in the Wang-Engel (WE) model was used, which simulates crop development using nonlinear models with response functions that range from zero to one. It has attempted at the state level over 14 years (2003-2016) in Iowa and Illinois state of USA, where the estimated phenology date by using four methods for both corn and soybean. Weekly crop progress reports produced by the USDA NASS were used to validate phenology detection algorithms effected by temperature. All methods showed substantial uncertainty but the threshold method showed relatively better agreement with the State-level data for soybean phenology.

  12. Evaluation of a linear spectral mixture model and vegetation indices (NDVI and EVI) in a study of schistosomiasis mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata distribution in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Carvalho, Omar S

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the associations between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) on the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. Additionally, vegetation, soil and shade fraction images were created using a Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) from the blue, red and infrared channels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer spaceborne sensor and the relationship between these images and the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of B. glabrata was analysed. First, we found a high correlation between the vegetation fraction image and EVI and second, a high correlation between soil fraction image and NDVI. The results also indicate that there was a positive correlation between prevalence and the vegetation fraction image (July 2002), a negative correlation between prevalence and the soil fraction image (July 2002) and a positive correlation between B. glabrata and the shade fraction image (July 2002). This paper demonstrates that the LSMM variables can be used as a substitute for the standard vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) to determine and delimit risk areas for B. glabrata and schistosomiasis in MG, which can be used to improve the allocation of resources for disease control.

  13. Smoke composition and predicting relationships for international commercial cigarettes smoked with three machine-smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, M E; Morton, M J; Laffoon, S W; Cox, R H; Lipowicz, P J

    2005-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine the effects of smoking machine puffing parameters on mainstream smoke composition and to express those effects as predicting relationships. Forty-eight commercial Philip Morris USA and Philip Morris International cigarettes from international markets and the 1R4F reference cigarette were machine-smoked using smoking conditions defined by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), and Health Canada (HC). Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), and ammonia. Mainstream yields for tar and 44 individual smoke constituents and "smoke pH" were determined. Cigarette constituent yields typically increased in the order ISOrelationships were developed between ISO tar and ISO, MDPH, and HC constituent yields and between MDPH tar and HC tar and respective smoking condition yields. MDPH and HC constituent yields could be predicted with similar reliability using ISO tar or the corresponding smoking-condition tar. The reliability of the relationships varied from strong to weak, depending on particular constituents. Weak predicting relationships for nitrogen oxides and TSNA's, for example, were improved with inclusion of tobacco filler composition factors. "Smoke pH" was similar for all cigarettes at any one smoking condition, and overall marginally lower at HC conditions than at ISO or MDPH conditions.

  14. Effect of Stress Conditions on Body Composition Parameters of Farmed Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Hussain, Muhammad Zubair; Asif Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Various stressors affect the body composition of fish. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of stress conditions on the body composition of farmed Labeo rohita. Sixty fingerlings were subjected to experimentation in aquaria after being acclimatized. The specimens were divided...... into control, starvation stress and double stress (pH 8 and starvation) groups with 20 individuals in each group. Fish samples for the estimation of body composition were taken after 12 days, 24 days, 36 days and 48 days. Standard procedures and protocols were used for analysis. There was a trend of gradual...... increase in ash contents (% dry body weight) in starvation and double stress group with increase in number of days. However, fat contents (% dry body weight) considerably decreased and protein contents remained unchanged. The inter-comparison of three groups showed that there was significant effect...

  15. Fracture toughness of epoxy/multi-walled carbon nanotube nano-composites under bending and shear loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayatollahi, M.R.; Shadlou, S.; Shokrieh, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mode I and mode II fracture tests were conducted on epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites. → Addition of MWCNT to epoxy increased both K Ic and K IIc of nano-composites. → The improvement in K IIc was more pronounced than in K Ic . → Mode I and mode II fracture surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy. -- Abstract: The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the mechanical properties of epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites were studied with emphasis on fracture toughness under bending and shear loading conditions. Several finite element (FE) analyses were performed to determine appropriate shear loading boundary conditions for a single-edge notch bend specimen (SENB) and an equation was derived for calculating the shear loading fracture toughness from the fracture load. It was seen that the increase in fracture toughness of nano-composite depends on the type of loading. That is to say, the presence of MWCNTs had a greater effect on fracture toughness of nano-composites under shear loading compared with normal loading. To study the fracture mechanisms, several scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures were taken from the fracture surfaces. A correlation was found between the characteristics of fracture surface and the mechanical behaviors observed in the fracture tests.

  16. Long-term Satellite NDVI Data Sets: Evaluating Their Ability to Detect Ecosystem Functional Changes in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Germán; Nosetto, Marcelo D; Aragón, Roxana; Aversa, Fernando; Paruelo, José M; Jobbágy, Esteban G

    2008-09-03

    In the last decades, South American ecosystems underwent important functional modifications due to climate alterations and direct human intervention on land use and land cover. Among remotely sensed data sets, NOAA-AVHRR "Normalized Difference Vegetation Index" (NDVI) represents one of the most powerful tools to evaluate these changes thanks to their extended temporal coverage. In this paper we explored the possibilities and limitations of three commonly used NOAA-AVHRR NDVI series (PAL, GIMMS and FASIR) to detect ecosystem functional changes in the South American continent. We performed pixel-based linear regressions for four NDVI variables (average annual, maximum annual, minimum annual and intra-annual coefficient of variation) for the 1982-1999 period and (1) analyzed the convergences and divergences of significant multi-annual trends identified across all series, (2) explored the degree of aggregation of the trends using the O-ring statistic, and (3) evaluated observed trends using independent information on ecosystem functional changes in five focal regions. Several differences arose in terms of the patterns of change (the sign, localization and total number of pixels with changes). FASIR presented the highest proportion of changing pixels (32.7%) and GIMMS the lowest (16.2%). PAL and FASIR data sets showed the highest agreement, with a convergence of detected trends on 71.2% of the pixels. Even though positive and negative changes showed substantial spatial aggregation, important differences in the scale of aggregation emerged among the series, with GIMMS showing the smaller scale (≤11 pixels). The independent evaluations suggest higher accuracy in the detection of ecosystem changes among PAL and FASIR series than with GIMMS, as they detected trends that match expected shifts. In fact, this last series eliminated most of the long term patterns over the continent. For example, in the "Eastern Paraguay" and "Uruguay River margins" focal regions, the

  17. An Updated Decision Support Interface: A Tool for Remote Monitoring of Crop Growing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, G. J.; Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.; Verdin, J. P.; Funk, C. C.; Landsfeld, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing of agroclimatological variables to monitor food production conditions is a critical component of the Famine Early Warning Systems Network portfolio of tools for assessing food security in the developing world. The Decision Support Interface (DSI) seeks to integrate a number of remotely sensed and modeled variables to create a single, simplified portal for analysis of crop growing conditions. The DSI has been reformulated to incorporate more variables and give the user more freedom in exploring the available data. This refinement seeks to transition the DSI from a "first glance" agroclimatic indicator to one better suited for the differentiation of drought events. The DSI performs analysis of variables over primary agricultural zones at the first sub-national administrative level. It uses the spatially averaged rainfall, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI), and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) to identify potential hazards to food security. Presenting this information in a web-based client gives food security analysts and decision makers a lightweight portal for information on crop growing conditions in the region. The crop zones used for the aggregation contain timing information which is critical to the DSI presentation. Rainfall and ETa are accumulated from different points in the crop phenology to identify season-long deficits in rainfall or transpiration that adversely affect the crop-growing conditions. Furthermore, the NDVI and WRSI serve as their own seasonal accumulated measures of growing conditions by capturing vegetation vigor or actual evapotranspiration deficits. The DSI is currently active for major growing regions of sub-Saharan Africa, with intention of expanding to other areas over the coming years.

  18. Evaluation of the shear bond strength of the Orthobond composite under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded with Orthobond composite (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil under different enamel surface conditions. Methods: Ninety bovine mandibular permanent incisors were divided into six groups (n = 15. In Group 1 (control and Group 2 the bonding procedures were performed by using Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA and Orthobond (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil composites,respectively, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. In the other groups brackets were bonded with Orthobond composite (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil as follows: Group 3 – dental surface conditioned with Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer (3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA; Group 4 – bonding procedure without application of Orthoprimer (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil; Group 5 - Eagle Bond applied on saliva/blood-contaminated dental surface; and Group 6 – use of homogenized Orthobond (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil. After bonding the brackets, all the samples were submitted to shear bond strength tests by means of an Emic Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results obtained in mega Pascal (MPa were submitted to the analysis of variance (ANOVA and then to the Tukey test. Results: The results in mega Pascal showed statistically significant differences between Groups 1 and 2 (p= 0.041, 1 and 5 (p=0.000 and between 4 and 5 (p=0.016. The ARI (Adhesive Remnant Index scores showed evidence of a higher number of fractures at the bracket/composite interface. Conclusion: In all tested situations the Orthobond (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil was shown to be apt for bracket bonding.

  19. Species composition of sand flies and bionomics of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic foci, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaa, Samia; Kahime, Kholoud; Samy, Abdallah M; Salem, Abdelkrim Ben; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-02-02

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in Morocco. Leishmania major and L. tropica are the main culprits identified in all endemic foci across the country. These two etiological agents are transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti, the two most prevalent sand fly species in Morocco. Previous studies reflected gaps of knowledge regarding the environmental fingerprints that affect the distribution of these two potential vectors across Morocco. The sand flies were collected from 48 districts across Morocco using sticky paper traps. Collected specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol for further processing and identification. Male and female densities were calculated in each site to examine their relations to the environmental conditions across these sites. The study used 19 environmental variables including precipitation, aridity, elevation, soil variables and a composite representing maximum, minimum and mean of day- and night-time Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A total of 11,717 specimens were collected during this entomological survey. These specimens represented 11 species of two genera; Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia. Correlations of the sand fly densities with the environmental variables were estimated to identify the variables which influence the distribution of the two potential vectors, Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti, associated with all CL endemic foci across the country. The density of P. papatasi was most affected by temperature changes. The study showed a significant positive correlation between the densities of both sexes of P. papatasi and night-time temperatures. Both P. papatasi and P. sergenti showed a negative correlation with aridity, but, such correlation was only significant in case of P. papatasi. NDVI showed a positive correlation only with densities of P. sergenti, while, soil PH and soil water stress were negatively correlated with the

  20. ZnO/graphite composites and its antibacterial activity at different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dědková, Kateřina; Janíková, Barbora; Matějová, Kateřina; Čabanová, Kristina; Váňa, Rostislav; Kalup, Aleš; Hundáková, Marianna; Kukutschová, Jana

    2015-10-01

    The paper reports laboratory preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of ZnO/graphite nanocomposites. Zinc chloride and sodium carbonate served as precursors for synthesis of zinc oxide, while micromilled and natural graphite were used as the matrix for ZnO nanoparticles anchoring. During the reaction of ZnCl2 with saturated aqueous solution of Na2CO3a new compound is created. During the calcination at the temperature of 500 °C this new precursors decomposes and ZnO nanoparticles are formed. Composites ZnO/graphite with 50 wt.% of ZnO particles were prepared. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman microspectroscopy served as phase-analytical methods. Scanning electron microscopy technique was used for morphology characterization of the prepared samples and EDS mapping for visualization of elemental distribution. A developed modification of the standard microdilution test was used for in vitro evaluation of daylight induced antibacterial activity and antibacterial activity at dark conditions. Common human pathogens served as microorganism for antibacterial assay. Antibacterial activity of ZnO/graphite composites could be based on photocatalytic reaction; however there is a role of Zn(2+) ions on the resulting antibacterial activity which proved the experiments in dark condition. There is synergistic effect between Zn(2+) caused and reactive oxygen species caused antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Vegetation Trends and Drivers in Beijing-Tianjing Region from 1982 TO 2013 Based on Time Series Gimms NDVI3g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Tian, H.; Wang, X.; Li, H.; He, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Vegetation plays a leading role in ecosystems. Plant communities are the main components of ecosystems. Green plants in ecosystems are the primary producers, and they provide the living organic matter for the survival of other organisms. The dynamics of most landscapes are driven by both natural processes and human activities. In this study, the growing season GIMMS NDVI3g and climatic data were used to analyse the vegetation trends and drivers in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 1982 to 2013. Result shows that, the vegetation in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shows overall restoration and partial degradation trend. The significant restoration region accounts for 61.5 % of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, while the significant degradation region accounts for 2.1 %. The dominant climatic factor for time series NDVI were analyzed using the multi-linear regression model. Vegetation growth in 17.9 % of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is dominated by temperature, 35.5 % is dominated by precipitation, and 11.68 % is dominated by solar radiance. Human activities play important role for vegetation restoration in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, where the large scale forest restoration programs are the main human activities, such as the three-north shelterbelt construction project, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei sandstorm source control project and grain for green projects.

  2. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance Across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-01-01

    This case study shows the promise of computing current season forest disturbance detection products at regional to CONUS scales. Use of the eMODIS expedited product enabled a NRT CONUS forest disturbance detection product, a requirement for an eventual, operational forest threat EWS. The 2009 classification product from this study can be used to quantify the areal extent of forest disturbance across CONUS, although a quantitative accuracy assessment still needs to be completed. However, the results would not include disturbances that occurred after July 27, such as the Station Fire. While not shown here, the project also produced maximum NDVI products for the June 10-July 27 period of each year of the 2000-2009 time frame. These products could be applied to compute forest change products on an annual basis. GIS could then be used to assess disturbance persistence. Such follow-on work could lead to attribution of year in which a disturbance occurred. These products (e.g., Figures 6 and 7) may also be useful for assessing forest change associated with climate change, such as carbon losses from bark beetle-induced forest mortality in the Western United States. Other MODIS phenological products are being assessed for aiding forest monitoring needs of the EWS, including cumulative NDVI products (Figure 10).

  3. Energetic conditions of effective recycling of composite castings

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jackowski

    2009-01-01

    The most reasonable way of recycling the metal composite materials consists in separation of the components. In case of the composites with saturated reinforcement it is the only recycling method. The process of separation of the components always undergoes in the presence of an additional liquid phase called a recycling medium. In a three-phase system including the material of composite reinforcement – liquid composite matrix – liquid recycling medium, an important role for the recycling pro...

  4. Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian; Dahl, Espen

    2015-11-04

    Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 european countries. People with ill health tend to be overrepresented among the unemployment population. The relationship between health and unemployment might, however, be sensitive to the overall economic condition. Specifically, the health composition of the unemployment population could change dramatically when the economy takes a turn for the worse. Using EU-SILC cross sectional data from 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011 (during crisis) and linear regression models, this paper investigates the relationship between health and unemployment probabilities under differing economic conditions in 28 European countries. The countries are classified according to (i) the level of and (ii) increase in unemployment rate (i.e. >10 percent and doubling of unemployment rate = crisis country). Firstly, the unemployment likelihood for people with ill health is remarkably stable over time in Europe: the coefficients are very similar in pre-crisis and crisis years. Secondly, people with ill health have experienced unemployment to a lesser extent than those with good health status in the crisis year (when we pool the data and compare 2007 and 2011), but only in the countries with a high and rising unemployment rate. The health composition of the unemployment population changes significantly for the better, but only in those European countries that have been severely hit by the current economic crisis.

  5. Condition Assessment of Kevlar Composite Materials Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washer, Glenn; Brooks, Thomas; Saulsberry, Regor

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes the following main concepts. Goal: To evaluate Raman spectroscopy as a potential NDE tool for the detection of stress rupture in Kevlar. Objective: Test a series of strand samples that have been aged under various conditions and evaluate differences and trends in the Raman response. Hypothesis: Reduction in strength associated with stress rupture may manifest from changes in the polymer at a molecular level. If so, than these changes may effect the vibrational characteristics of the material, and consequently the Raman spectra produced from the material. Problem Statement: Kevlar composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) on the space shuttles are greater than 25 years old. Stress rupture phenomena is not well understood for COPVs. Other COPVs are planned for hydrogen-fueled vehicles using Carbon composite material. Raman spectroscopy is being explored as an non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique to predict the onset of stress rupture in Kevlar composite materials. Test aged Kevlar strands to discover trends in the Raman response. Strength reduction in Kevlar polymer will manifest itself on the Raman spectra. Conclusions: Raman spectroscopy has shown relative changes in the intensity and FWHM of the 1613 cm(exp -1) peak. Reduction in relative intensity for creep, fleet leader, and SIM specimens compared to the virgin strands. Increase in FWHM has been observed for the creep and fleet leader specimens compared to the virgin strands. Changes in the Raman spectra may result from redistributing loads within the material due to the disruption of hydrogen bonding between crystallites or defects in the crystallites from aging the Kevlar strands. Peak shifting has not been observed to date. Analysis is ongoing. Stress measurements may provide a tool in the short term.

  6. Plasticity of Streptomyces coelicolor membrane composition under different growth conditions and during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eSandoval-Calderón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces coelicolor is a model actinomycete that is well known for the diversity of its secondary metabolism and its complex life cycle. As a soil inhabitant, it is exposed to heterogeneous and frequently changing environmental circumstances. In the present work, we studied the effect of diverse growth conditions and phosphate depletion on its lipid profile and the relationship between membrane lipid composition and development in S. coelicolor. The lipid profile from cultures grown on solid media, which is closer to the natural habitat of this microorganism, does not resemble the previously reported lipid composition from liquid grown cultures of S. coelicolor. Wide variations were also observed across different media, growth phases, and developmental stages indicating active membrane remodeling. Ornithine lipids (OL are phosphorus-free polar lipids that were accumulated mainly during sporulation stages, but were also major components of the membrane under phosphorus limitation. In contrast, phosphatidylethanolamine, which had been reported as one of the major polar lipids in the genus Streptomyces, is almost absent under these conditions. We identified one of the genes responsible for the synthesis of OL (SCO0921 and found that its inactivation causes the absence of OL, precocious morphological development and actinorhodin production. Our observations indicate a remarkable plasticity of the membrane composition in this bacterial species, reveal a higher metabolic complexity than expected, and suggest a relationship between cytoplasmic membrane components and the differentiation programs in S. coelicolor.

  7. Effect of Spark-Plasma-Sintering Conditions on Tensile Properties of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Imai, H.; Umeda, J.; Takahashi, M.; Kondoh, K.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, aluminum (Al) matrix composites containing 2 wt.% multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were fabricated by powder metallurgy using high-energy ball milling (HEBM), spark plasma sintering (SPS), and subsequent hot extrusion. The effect of SPS conditions on the tensile properties of CNT/Al composites was investigated. The results showed that composites with well-dispersed CNTs and nearly full-density CNT/Al can be obtained. During HEBM, CNTs were shortened, inserted into welded Al powder particles, bonded to Al, and still stable without CNT-Al reaction. After consolidation, Al4C3 phases formed in composites under different sintering conditions. With the increase of sintering temperature and holding time, the strength decreased. Conversely, the ductility and toughness noticeably increased. As a result, a good balance between strength (367 MPa in ultimate tensile strength) and ductility (13% in elongation) was achieved in the as-extruded CNT/Al composite sintered at 630°C with a holding time of 300 min.

  8. Validation for Vegetation Green-up Date Extracted from GIMMS NDVI and NDVI3g Using Variety of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Q.; Jiao, W.

    2017-12-01

    Phenology is a sensitive and critical feature of vegetation change that has regarded as a good indicator in climate change studies. So far, variety of remote sensing data sources and phenology extraction methods from satellite datasets have been developed to study the spatial-temporal dynamics of vegetation phenology. However, the differences between vegetation phenology results caused by the varies satellite datasets and phenology extraction methods are not clear, and the reliability for different phenology results extracted from remote sensing datasets is not verified and compared using the ground observation data. Based on three most popular remote sensing phenology extraction methods, this research calculated the Start of the growing season (SOS) for each pixels in the Northern Hemisphere for two kinds of long time series satellite datasets: GIMMS NDVIg (SOSg) and GIMMS NDVI3g (SOS3g). The three methods used in this research are: maximum increase method, dynamic threshold method and midpoint method. Then, this study used SOS calculated from NEE datasets (SOS_NEE) monitored by 48 eddy flux tower sites in global flux website to validate the reliability of six phenology results calculated from remote sensing datasets. Results showed that both SOSg and SOS3g extracted by maximum increase method are not correlated with ground observed phenology metrics. SOSg and SOS3g extracted by the dynamic threshold method and midpoint method are both correlated with SOS_NEE significantly. Compared with SOSg extracted by the dynamic threshold method, SOSg extracted by the midpoint method have a stronger correlation with SOS_NEE. And, the same to SOS3g. Additionally, SOSg showed stronger correlation with SOS_NEE than SOS3g extracted by the same method. SOS extracted by the midpoint method from GIMMS NDVIg datasets seemed to be the most reliable results when validated with SOS_NEE. These results can be used as reference for data and method selection in future's phenology study.

  9. Optimization of the time series NDVI-rainfall relationship using linear mixed-effects modeling for the anti-desertification area in the Beijing and Tianjin sandstorm source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Sun, Tao; Fu, Anmin; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xinjie

    2018-05-01

    Degradation in drylands is a critically important global issue that threatens ecosystem and environmental in many ways. Researchers have tried to use remote sensing data and meteorological data to perform residual trend analysis and identify human-induced vegetation changes. However, complex interactions between vegetation and climate, soil units and topography have not yet been considered. Data used in the study included annual accumulated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 2002 to 2013, accumulated rainfall from September to August, digital elevation model (DEM) and soil units. This paper presents linear mixed-effect (LME) modeling methods for the NDVI-rainfall relationship. We developed linear mixed-effects models that considered the random effects of sample points nested in soil units for nested two-level modeling and single-level modeling of soil units and sample points, respectively. Additionally, three functions, including the exponential function (exp), the power function (power), and the constant plus power function (CPP), were tested to remove heterogeneity, and an additional three correlation structures, including the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)] and the compound symmetry structure (CS), were used to address the spatiotemporal correlations. It was concluded that the nested two-level model considering both heteroscedasticity with (CPP) and spatiotemporal correlation with [ARMA(1,1)] showed the best performance (AMR = 0.1881, RMSE = 0.2576, adj- R 2 = 0.9593). Variations between soil units and sample points that may have an effect on the NDVI-rainfall relationship should be included in model structures, and linear mixed-effects modeling achieves this in an effective and accurate way.

  10. Conditional standard errors of measurement for composite scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Larry R; Raju, Nambury; Lurie, Anna; Wilkins, Charles; Zhu, Jianjun

    2006-02-01

    A specific recommendation of the 1999 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing by the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education is that test publishers report estimates of the conditional standard error of measurement (SEM). Procedures for calculating the conditional (score-level) SEM based on raw scores are well documented; however, few procedures have been developed for estimating the conditional SEM of subtest or composite scale scores resulting from a nonlinear transformation. Item response theory provided the psychometric foundation to derive the conditional standard errors of measurement and confidence intervals for composite scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition.

  11. The expansion of the sugarcane in the hydrographic basin from Rio Brilhante, Mato Grosso do Sul state: the use of NDVI technique as an instrument for evidencing territorial dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Silva Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The areas of sugarcane cultivation have expanding, often at the expense of the agricultural and pasture areas. Under this perspective, this manuscript aims to present a methodological guide in order to identify and to map up the areas of sugarcane cultivation, whose unity of analysis was located in the surrounding area of the Rio Brilhante hydrographic basin. We aimed to identify the changes through TM-Landsat5 and OLI-Landsat8 satellite pictures by comparing the scenarios from the years of 2001 and 2015, respectively. The classification of the vegetation was made through the technique of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Thus, this study points that the use of some techniques and remote sensing tools, like NDVI, when used together with the field research, are extremely efficient for identifying the areas of the sugarcane cultivation.

  12. Effect of environmental conditions on the mechanical properties and fungal degradation of polycaprolactone/microcrystalline cellulose/wood flour composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Liwei Jin; Nicole Stark; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), wood flour (WF), or both were characterized before and after exposure to various environmental conditions for 60 days. PCL/WF composites had the greatest tensile strength and modulus compared to neat PCL or PCL composites containing MCC. Electron microscopy indicated better adhesion between WF...

  13. Application of a method of analysis of remote sensing data obtained by targeting the estimated productivity in cane for quantifying panela NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rueda Calier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity estimation sugar cane is very important for Colombian economy. The Net Primary Production (NPP model is applied on present investigation from Kumar & Monteith to regional scale. Analyzing spatiotemporal with geomantic techniques and edaphoclimatic environment characterization. Field surveys were conducted too, to acquire physiological information of plants evaluated and soil conditions of the plantation under study. The data acquired was input in ArcGIS10.1 software, to make processing these. A series thematic map was resulted from data processing from spatiotemporal distribution of plantation soil characteristics and biophysical characteristics. The variables fPAR, PAR, EUR was calculate from Kumar & Monteith efficiency model. Remote sensing and mathematic models related and fraction absorbed photosynthetically active radiation derivates from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and incident photosynthetically active radiation in land sensors recorded was calculated. Chemical and physical properties in laboratory tests were realized to soil, for relation knowledge between edaphoclimatic conditions and biophysical variables related with the sugar cane biomass gainer for Panela production. The information integrated from Geographic Information System (GIS and edaphic data and climatic data in country recorded, shows the behavior of the plantation as it develops.

  14. Effect of processing conditions on the mechanical properties of polypropylene/bentonite nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Tatianny S.; Cipriano, Pamela B.; Lira, Vanize F.; Canedo, Eduardo L.; Carvalho, Laura H. de

    2009-01-01

    This work dealt with the effect of processing conditions on the properties of polypropylene/bentonite compounds, using natural clay and an organoclay prepared with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. Compounds with 1% clay were prepared by melt compounding in a single-screw extruder and in a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder, and characterized x-ray diffraction; tensile and impact mechanical tests. X ray diffraction results on clays and compounds show that the surfactant was incorporated within the clay galleries and that intercalated nano composites were obtained with the organoclay processed in either the single or the twin-screw extruder. The data also indicated that, without the addition of a compatibilizer, no significant variation of mechanical properties was observed for the composites processed in either extruder. (author)

  15. Modelling crop yield in Iberia under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Páscoa, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia

    2017-04-01

    The improved assessment of the cereal yield and crop loss under drought conditions are essential to meet the increasing economy demands. The growing frequency and severity of the extreme drought conditions in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) has been likely responsible for negative impacts on agriculture, namely on crop yield losses. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of vegetation activity and a reliable estimation of drought impacts is crucial to contribute for the agricultural drought management and development of suitable information tools. This works aims to assess the influence of drought conditions in agricultural yields over the IP, considering cereal yields from mainly rainfed agriculture for the provinces with higher productivity. The main target is to develop a strategy to model drought risk on agriculture for wheat yield at a province level. In order to achieve this goal a combined assessment was made using a drought indicator (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI) to evaluate drought conditions together with a widely used vegetation index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) to monitor vegetation activity. A correlation analysis between detrended wheat yield and SPEI was performed in order to assess the vegetation response to each time scale of drought occurrence and also identify the moment of the vegetative cycle when the crop yields are more vulnerable to drought conditions. The time scales and months of SPEI, together with the months of NDVI, better related with wheat yield were chosen to perform a multivariate regression analysis to simulate crop yield. Model results are satisfactory and highlighted the usefulness of such analysis in the framework of developing a drought risk model for crop yields. In terms of an operational point of view, the results aim to contribute to an improved understanding of crop yield management under dry conditions, particularly adding substantial information on the advantages of combining

  16. Prediction of fracture toughness and durability of adhesively bonded composite joints with undesirable bonding conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaramthota, Vishal

    Advanced composite materials have enabled the conventional aircraft structures to reduce weight, improve fuel efficiency and offer superior mechanical properties. In the past, materials such as aluminum, steel or titanium have been used to manufacture aircraft structures for support of heavy loads. Within the last decade or so, demand for advanced composite materials have been emerging that offer significant advantages over the traditional metallic materials. Of particular interest in the recent years, there has been an upsurge in scientific significance in the usage of adhesively bonded composite joints (ABCJ's). ABCJ's negate the introduction of stress risers that are associated with riveting or other classical techniques. In today's aircraft transportation market, there is a push to increase structural efficiency by promoting adhesive bonding to primary joining of aircraft structures. This research is focused on the issues associated with the durability and related failures in bonded composite joints that continue to be a critical hindrance to the universal acceptance of ABCJ's. Of particular interest are the short term strength, contamination and long term durability of ABCJ's. One of the factors that influence bond performance is contamination and in this study the influence of contamination on composite-adhesive bond quality was investigated through the development of a repeatable and scalable surface contamination procedure. Results showed an increase in the contaminant coverage area decreases the overall bond strength significantly. A direct correlation between the contaminant coverage area and the fracture toughness of the bonded joint was established. Another factor that influences bond performance during an aircraft's service life is its long term strength upon exposure to harsh environmental conditions or when subjected to severe mechanical loading. A test procedure was successfully developed in order to evaluate durability of ABCJ's comprising severe

  17. Storage conditions affect oxidative stability and nutritional composition of freeze-dried Nannochloropsis salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Langvad, Sten; Møller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    composition of microalgae biomass. In order to investigate the worsening of the nutritional quality of freeze dried biomass, a multifactorial storage experiment was conducted on a high EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) Nannochloropsis salina biomass. The storage time (0–56 days), storage temperature (5, 20,and 40...... °C and packaging conditions (under vacuum and ambient pressure)used as main factors. During the 56 days of storage, both time and temperature strongly influenced the oxidation reactions which result in deterioration of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and EPA. Lipid deterioration......, or cosmetics requires the knowledge of the optimum storage conditions to prevent the value-added compounds from deterioration. Results of this study improve our understanding of the chemical deterioration under different storage conditions and can help the producers/customers to extend the shelf life...

  18. Collapse mechanisms of metal foam matrix composites under static and dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linul, Emanoil, E-mail: emanoil.linul@upt.ro [Department of Mechanics and Strength of Materials, Politehnica University of Timisoara, 1 Mihai Viteazu Avenue, 300 222 Timisoara (Romania); Marsavina, Liviu [Department of Mechanics and Strength of Materials, Politehnica University of Timisoara, 1 Mihai Viteazu Avenue, 300 222 Timisoara (Romania); Kováčik, Jaroslav [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 13 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2017-04-06

    The collapse mechanisms of metal foam matrix composites under static and dynamic loading conditions were experimentally and analytically investigated. Closed-cell aluminium foam AlSi10 with 325±10 kg/m{sup 3} density was used as core material, while stainless-steel-mesh is the faces materials. Prior to characterizing the composite sandwich structure, the stainless steel mesh face material and closed-cell aluminium foam were characterized by tensile testing and compression testing, respectively. Experimental tests were performed on sandwich beams using both High Speed Camera and Digital Image Correlation system for strain distribution. All experimental tests were performed at room temperature with constant crosshead speed of 1.67×10{sup −4} m/s for static tests and 2 m/s impact loading speed for dynamic tests. Two main deformation behaviours of investigated metal foam matrix composites were observed following post-failure collapse: face failure and core shear. It was showed that the initiation, propagation and interaction of failure modes depend on the type of loading, constituent material properties and geometrical parameters.

  19. Effects of surface conditioning on repair bond strengths of non-aged and aged microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinastiti, Margareta; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Busscher, Henk J.; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates effects of aging on repair bond strengths of microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins and characterizes the interacting surfaces after aging. Disk-shaped composite specimens were assigned to one of three aging conditions: (1) thermocycling (5,000x, 5-55 degrees

  20. Distribución espacial de anomalías del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 ysu relación con las coberturas vegetales, usos de la tierra y características geomorfológicas en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina / Spatial distribution of anomalies of NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 and its relation with vegetation cover, uses of ground and geomorphology in Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Tiedermann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las anomalías negativas (AN y positivas (AP del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5, en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. El periodo analizado (1998-2008 tuvo fuertes variaciones en los patrones de precipitación, por efecto del ENSO, por cuanto las anomalías del NDVI fueron evaluadas, mediante tabulación cruzada, en función de dos periodos: húmedo (PH y seco (PS. Las AN, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con vegetación halófila en áreas deprimidas salobres, con vegetación hidrófila en ambientes acuáticos y con suelo rocoso. Durante el PS, las AN se relacionaron con áreas deforestadas con fines agrícolas. Las AP, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con el bosque Chaqueño denso y bosque Chaqueño Serrano denso. La mayor estabilidad y productividad de biomasa verde de los bosques, estaría relacionada, a su mayor biodiversidad, estratificación, al predominio de especies leñosas perennes de raíces profundas y a las estratégicas adaptaciones, morfológicas y fisiológicas, para el uso eficiente del agua. Las regiones geomorfológicas no se relacionan entre si entre periodos.AbstractThe negative (AN and positive (AP anomalies of the NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 were determined in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. The analyzed period (1998-2008 presented strong variations in rainfall patterns, as a result of the ENSO, inasmuch as the anomalies of the NDVI were evaluated, by means of crossed tabulation, based on two periods: humid (PH and dry (PS. The AN, were related with halophytic species of depressed areas, with vegetation aquatic hydrophilic and rocky ground. During the dry period, the AN were related to deforested areas with agricultural aims. The AP, were related, throughout the period with the forest dense Chaco Semiarid and forest dense Chaco Serrano. The greater stability and productivity of green biomass of forest, would be related, greater

  1. A study on the manufacturing conditions of metal matrix composites by low pressure infiltration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Jo; Hessian, Md Anowar; Park, Sung Ho [Gyeongsang National University, Tongyoung (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Sun Chul [Gyeongsang National University, JinJu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Metal fiber preform reinforced aluminum alloy composite as made by the infiltration of molten metal under low pressure casting process. The infiltration behavior of filling pattern and the velocity profile with low-pressure casting process was investigated. The thermocouple was inserted into the preform in order to observe the infiltration behavior. The infiltration of applied pressure time, 1, 2 and 5 s under constant pressure of 0.4 MPa was completely filled during 0.4 s. In these conditions, molten aluminum alloy has successfully infiltrated to FeCrSi metal fiber preform by low-pressure casting process. It was observed the porosity of composites for reliability of composites. The automobile piston was developed with FeCrSi reinforced aluminum alloy that is 0% porosity by the optimal applied pressure and applied pressure time.

  2. Nutritional value and chemical composition of Cichorium spinosum L. under saline conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, Spyridon Α.; Vasilios, Antoniadis; Efi, Levizou; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is an ever‐growing problem that hinders vegetable cultivation in many areas within the Mediterranean basin. Cichorium spinosum is native to the Mediterranean basin and is usually found in coastal areas and plateaus. In the present study, C. spinosum plants were grown under saline conditions (1.8, 4 and 8 dS/m), in order to evaluate the effect of salinity on their nutritional value and chemical composition. From the results it was observed that high salinity levels...

  3. Dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition in mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition of a mixed pasture of marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight. Sward condition was characterized in each stocking cycle by measuring pre- and post-grazing sward height, forage mass and percentage of bare ground. Botanical composition (grass, forage peanut, tropical kudzu and weeds was evaluated before each stocking period. Swards under smaller forage allowances presented lower height, forage mass and ground cover. This condition favored the growth of forage peanut, which constituted 21.1, 15.2, 8.4 and 3.8% of forage mass in the last quarter of the experimental period, from the lowest to the highest forage allowance, respectively. Tropical kudzu was sensitive to all forage allowance levels and its percentage in the botanical composition was strongly reduced along the experimental period, especially during the dry season (July to September. Forage peanut cv. Mandobi and marandugrass form a more balanced mixture when pre-grazing sward height is maintained shorter than 45 cm. Tropical kudzu is intolerant to intensive grazing management systems when associated to marandugrass.

  4. Spatio-temporal monitoring of vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid region of Nigeria using time series of AVHRR NDVI and TAMSAT datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunmadewa, Babatunde Adeniyi; Gebrehiwot, Worku Zewdie; Csaplovics, Elmar; Adeofun, Olabinjo Clement

    2018-03-01

    Time series data are of great importance for monitoring vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid regions where change in land cover has influence on biomass productivity. However few studies have inquired into examining the impact of rainfall and land cover change on vegetation phenology. This study explores Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) approach in order to investigate overall greenness, peak of annual greenness and timing of annual greenness in the seasonal NDVI cycle. Phenological pattern for the start of season (SOS) and end of season (EOS) was also examined across different land cover types in four selected locations. A significant increase in overall greenness (amplitude 0) and a significant decrease in other greenness trend maps (amplitude 1 and phase 1) was observed over the study period. Moreover significant positive trends in overall annual rainfall (amplitude 0) was found which follows similar pattern with vegetation trend. Variation in the timing of peak of greenness (phase 1) was seen in the four selected locations, this indicate a change in phenological trend. Additionally, strong relationship was revealed by the result of the pixel-wise regression between NDVI and rainfall. Change in vegetation phenology in the study area is attributed to climatic variability than anthropogenic activities.

  5. Spatio-temporal monitoring of vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid region of Nigeria using time series of AVHRR NDVI and TAMSAT datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osunmadewa Babatunde Adeniyi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Time series data are of great importance for monitoring vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid regions where change in land cover has influence on biomass productivity. However few studies have inquired into examining the impact of rainfall and land cover change on vegetation phenology. This study explores Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA approach in order to investigate overall greenness, peak of annual greenness and timing of annual greenness in the seasonal NDVI cycle. Phenological pattern for the start of season (SOS and end of season (EOS was also examined across different land cover types in four selected locations. A significant increase in overall greenness (amplitude 0 and a significant decrease in other greenness trend maps (amplitude 1 and phase 1 was observed over the study period. Moreover significant positive trends in overall annual rainfall (amplitude 0 was found which follows similar pattern with vegetation trend. Variation in the timing of peak of greenness (phase 1 was seen in the four selected locations, this indicate a change in phenological trend. Additionally, strong relationship was revealed by the result of the pixel-wise regression between NDVI and rainfall. Change in vegetation phenology in the study area is attributed to climatic variability than anthropogenic activities.

  6. Modeling the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and host snails in Uganda using satellite sensor data and Geographical Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, A; Kabatereine, N B

    2005-01-01

    The potential value of MODIS satellite sensor data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperatures (LST) for describing the distribution of the Schistosoma mansoni-"Biomphalaria pfeifferi"/Biomphalaria sudanica parasite-snail system in inland Uganda, were tested...... by developing annual and seasonal composite models, and iteratively analysing for their relationship with parasite and snail distribution. The dry season composite model predicted an endemic area that produced the best fit with the distribution of schools with > or =5% prevalence. NDVI values of 151-174, day...

  7. Short-Term Impacts of the Air Temperature on Greening and Senescence in Alaskan Arctic Plant Tundra Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy L. May

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is warming the temperatures and lengthening the Arctic growing season with potentially important effects on plant phenology. The ability of plant species to acclimate to changing climatic conditions will dictate the level to which their spatial coverage and habitat-type dominance is different in the future. While the effect of changes in temperature on phenology and species composition have been observed at the plot and at the regional scale, a systematic assessment at medium spatial scales using new noninvasive sensor techniques has not been performed yet. At four sites across the North Slope of Alaska, changes in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI signal were observed by Mobile Instrumented Sensor Platforms (MISP that are suspended over 50 m transects spanning local moisture gradients. The rates of greening (measured in June and senescence (measured in August in response to the air temperature was estimated by changes in NDVI measured as the difference between the NDVI on a specific date and three days later. In June, graminoid- and shrub-dominated habitats showed the greatest rates of NDVI increase in response to the high air temperatures, while forb- and lichen-dominated habitats were less responsive. In August, the NDVI was more responsive to variations in the daily average temperature than spring greening at all sites. For graminoid- and shrub-dominated habitats, we observed a delayed decrease of the NDVI, reflecting a prolonged growing season, in response to high August temperatures. Consequently, the annual C assimilation capacity of these habitats is increased, which in turn may be partially responsible for shrub expansion and further increases in net summer CO2 fixation. Strong interannual differences highlight that long-term and noninvasive measurements of such complex feedback mechanisms in arctic ecosystems are critical to fully articulate the net effects of climate variability and climate change on

  8. Satellite-derived NDVI, LST, and climatic factors driving the distribution and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes in a former malarious area in northwest Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantur Juri, María Julia; Estallo, Elizabet; Almirón, Walter; Santana, Mirta; Sartor, Paolo; Lamfri, Mario; Zaidenberg, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Distribution and abundance of disease vectors are directly related to climatic conditions and environmental changes. Remote sensing data have been used for monitoring environmental conditions influencing spatial patterns of vector-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climatic factors (temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and accumulated rainfall) on the distribution and abundance of Anopheles species in northwestern Argentina using Poisson regression analyses. Samples were collected from December, 2001 to December, 2005 at three localities, Aguas Blancas, El Oculto and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. We collected 11,206 adult Anopheles species, with the major abundance observed at El Oculto (59.11%), followed by Aguas Blancas (22.10%) and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán (18.79%). Anopheles pseudopunctipennis was the most abundant species at El Oculto, Anopheles argyritarsis predominated in Aguas Blancas, and Anopheles strodei in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. Samples were collected throughout the sampling period, with the highest peaks during the spring seasons. LST and mean temperature appear to be the most important variables determining the distribution patterns and major abundance of An. pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis within malarious areas. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Relationship between herbaceous biomass and 1km (2) advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) NDVI in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available biomass and 1-km2 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) NDVI in Kruger National Park, South Africa K. J. WESSELS*{, S. D. PRINCE{, N. ZAMBATIS{, S. MACFADYEN{, P. E. FROST§" and D. VAN ZYL§ {Department of Geography, University of Maryland... production (Prince and Justice 1991, Tucker et al. 1991a,b, Myneni et al. *Corresponding author. Email: wessels@geog.umd.edu International Journal of Remote Sensing Vol. 27, No. 5, 10 March 2006, 951–973 International Journal of Remote Sensing ISSN 0143...

  10. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  11. THE VEGETATION TRENDS AND DRIVERS IN BEIJING-TIANJING-HEIBEI REGION FROM 1982 TO 2013 BASED ON TIME SERIES GIMMS NDVI3g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a leading role in ecosystems. Plant communities are the main components of ecosystems. Green plants in ecosystems are the primary producers, and they provide the living organic matter for the survival of other organisms. The dynamics of most landscapes are driven by both natural processes and human activities. In this study, the growing season GIMMS NDVI3g and climatic data were used to analyse the vegetation trends and drivers in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 1982 to 2013. Result shows that, the vegetation in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shows overall restoration and partial degradation trend. The significant restoration region accounts for 61.5 % of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, while the significant degradation region accounts for 2.1 %. The dominant climatic factor for time series NDVI were analyzed using the multi-linear regression model. Vegetation growth in 17.9 % of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is dominated by temperature, 35.5 % is dominated by precipitation, and 11.68 % is dominated by solar radiance. Human activities play important role for vegetation restoration in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, where the large scale forest restoration programs are the main human activities, such as the three-north shelterbelt construction project, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei sandstorm source control project and grain for green projects.

  12. Structural and compositional evolution of carbon-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film under different annealing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hong; Kyoung, Yong-Koo; Yun, Dong-Jin [AS group, CAS center, SAIT, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang-Jun, E-mail: sangjun5545.choi@samsung.com [Device Architecture Lab, Semiconductor R and D center, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-02

    Changes in the microstructural and electrical properties of carbon-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} during thermal annealing under N{sub 2} and air atmospheres are investigated. The occurrence of compositional and structural changes was found to depend on the annealing conditions, and in particular, on the out-diffusion of germanium atoms. The thick oxidation layer generated during air annealing prevented germanium out-diffusion, leading to structural changes but no compositional changes. In contrast, germanium out-diffusion occurred during annealing under N{sub 2}, leading to compositional changes but preventing structural changes. - Highlights: • We investigate the stability of 10% carbon-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 alloys. • The compositional and structural changes depend on the annealing conditions. • Germanium out-diffusion occurs during N2 annealing, leading to compositional changes. • The oxidation layer generated during air annealing prevents germanium out-diffusion.

  13. Ferrospheres from fly ashes of Chelyabinsk coals: chemical composition, morphology and formation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokol, E.V.; Kalugin, V.M.; Nigmatulina, E.N.; Volkova, N.I.; Frenkel, A.E.; Maksimova, N.V. [Geophysics and Mineralogy Sb RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). United Institute of Geology

    2002-05-01

    Ferrospheres originating during the pulverised fuel firing of brown coals from the Chelyabinsk basin (South Urals, Russia) have been examined for determination of their chemical and phase compositions, morphology and formation conditions. Most of the ferrospheres are close to ideal spheres with dendritic or skeletal structure. The appearance of microsphere inner anatomy is determined by morphology of ferrispinel aggregates, which compose more than 85 vol% of these globules. The analysed ferrispinels are complex solid solutions based on FeFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with impurities of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and nCaO x mFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The glasses coexisted with ferrispinel crystallites are basic-ultrabasic in composition. Ferrospheres are the quenching products of high-ferrous melts originated from melting of iron-bearing carbonate admixtures in coals. The mass crystallisation of ferrispinels in ferrospheres was a result of iron changes from Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} and following ferritisation of high-ferrous melts during molten drops cooling. The residual melt is quenched to form a low-silicon, high-calcium, high-ferrous glass. the skeletal and dendritic forms of ferrispinel are due to their crystallisation under drastic supercooling conditions. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Tribological Characteristics of C/C-SiC-Cu Composite and Al/SiC Composite Materials under Various Contact Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Kook; Shin, Dong-Gap; Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun; Goo, Byeong-Choon

    2017-01-01

    The surface temperature of disc brakes varies during braking, which can affect the friction and wear behavior of braking systems. In order to develop an efficient braking system, the friction and wear behaviors of brake materials need to be clearly understood. In this work, the friction and wear behavior of the C/C-SiC-Cu composite and the Al/SiC composite, which are used in disc braking systems, were investigated. Both the surface temperature and contact pressure were studied. A pin-on-reciprocating tribotester was used for this purpose, in order to control temperature and load. Results showed that the friction varied significantly with temperature and sliding distance. It was found that a transfer layer of compacted wear debris formed on the wear track of the two materials. These layers caused the surface roughness of the wear track to increase. The outcome of this work is expected to serve as a basis for the development of braking systems under various operating conditions.

  15. Tribological Characteristics of C/C-SiC-Cu Composite and Al/SiC Composite Materials under Various Contact Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung-Kook; Shin, Dong-Gap; Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Byeong-Choon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The surface temperature of disc brakes varies during braking, which can affect the friction and wear behavior of braking systems. In order to develop an efficient braking system, the friction and wear behaviors of brake materials need to be clearly understood. In this work, the friction and wear behavior of the C/C-SiC-Cu composite and the Al/SiC composite, which are used in disc braking systems, were investigated. Both the surface temperature and contact pressure were studied. A pin-on-reciprocating tribotester was used for this purpose, in order to control temperature and load. Results showed that the friction varied significantly with temperature and sliding distance. It was found that a transfer layer of compacted wear debris formed on the wear track of the two materials. These layers caused the surface roughness of the wear track to increase. The outcome of this work is expected to serve as a basis for the development of braking systems under various operating conditions.

  16. Analyzing the non-stationary space relationship of a city's degree of vegetation and social economic conditions in Shanghai, China using OLS and GWR models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejing; Zhang, Yuan; An, Youzhi; Jing, Zhuoxin; Wang, Chao

    2013-09-01

    With the fast urbanization process, how does the vegetation environment change in one of the most economically developed metropolis, Shanghai in East China? To answer this question, there is a pressing demand to explore the non-stationary relationship between socio-economic conditions and vegetation across Shanghai. In this study, environmental data on vegetation cover, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODIS imagery in 2003 were integrated with socio-economic data to reflect the city's vegetative conditions at the census block group level. To explore regional variations in the relationship of vegetation and socio-economic conditions, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were applied to characterize mean NDVI against three independent socio-economic variables, an urban land use ratio, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and population density. The study results show that a considerable distinctive spatial variation exists in the relationship for each model. The GWR model has superior effects and higher precision than the OLS model at the census block group scale. So, it is more suitable to account for local effects and geographical variations. This study also indicates that unreasonable excessive urbanization, together with non-sustainable economic development, has a negative influence of vegetation vigor for some neighborhoods in Shanghai.

  17. Influence of Compatibilizer and Processing Conditions on Morphology, Mechanical Properties, and Deformation Mechanism of PP/Clay Nano composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, B.; Bagheri, R.

    2012-01-01

    Polypropylene/montmorillonite nano composite was prepared by melt intercalation method using a twin-screw extruder with starve feeding system in this paper. The effects of compatibilizer, extruder rotor speed and feeding rate on properties of nano composite were investigated. Structure, tensile, and impact properties and deformation mechanism of the compounds were studied. For investigation of structure and deformation mechanisms, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission optical microscopy (TOM) techniques were utilized, respectively. The results illustrate that introduction of the compatibilizer and also variation of the processing conditions affect structure and mechanical properties of nano composite.

  18. Selection of vegetation indices for mapping the sugarcane condition around the oil and gas field of North West Java Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saepuloh, Asep; Handoyo Harsolumakso, Agus

    2018-05-01

    Selection of vegetation indices in plant mapping is needed to provide the best information of plant conditions. The methods used in this research are the standard deviation and the linear regression. This research tried to determine the vegetation indices used for mapping the sugarcane conditions around oil and gas fields. The data used in this study is Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS. The standard deviation analysis on the 23 vegetation indices with 27 samples has resulted in the six highest standard deviations of vegetation indices, termed as GRVI, SR, NLI, SIPI, GEMI and LAI. The standard deviation values are 0.47; 0.43; 0.30; 0.17; 0.16 and 0.13. Regression correlation analysis on the 23 vegetation indices with 280 samples has resulted in the six vegetation indices, termed as NDVI, ENDVI, GDVI, VARI, LAI and SIPI. This was performed based on regression correlation with the lowest value R2 than 0,8. The combined analysis of the standard deviation and the regression correlation has obtained the five vegetation indices, termed as NDVI, ENDVI, GDVI, LAI and SIPI. The results of the analysis of both methods show that a combination of two methods needs to be done to produce a good analysis of sugarcane conditions. It has been clarified through field surveys and showed good results for the prediction of microseepages.

  19. The effect of choosing three different C factor formulae derived from NDVI on a fully raster-based erosion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyo, Bambang

    2016-11-01

    The research was aimed at studying the efect of choosing three different C factor formulae derived from NDVI on a fully raster-based erosion modelling of The USLE using remote sensing data and GIS technique. Methods applied was by analysing all factors affecting erosion such that all data were in the form of raster. Those data were R, K, LS, C and P factors. Monthly R factor was evaluated based on formula developed by Abdurachman. K factor was determined using modified formula used by Ministry of Forestry based on soil samples taken in the field. LS factor was derived from Digital Elevation Model. Three C factors used were all derived from NDVI and developed by Suriyaprasit (non-linear) and by Sulistyo (linear and non-linear). P factor was derived from the combination between slope data and landcover classification interpreted from Landsat 7 ETM+. Another analysis was the creation of map of Bulk Density used to convert erosion unit. To know the model accuracy, model validation was done by applying statistical analysis and by comparing Emodel with Eactual. A threshold value of ≥ 0.80 or ≥ 80% was chosen to justify. The research result showed that all Emodel using three formulae of C factors have coeeficient of correlation value of > 0.8. The results of analysis of variance showed that there was significantly difference between Emodel and Eactual when using C factor formula developed by Suriyaprasit and Sulistyo (non-linear). Among the three formulae, only Emodel using C factor formula developed by Sulistyo (linear) reached the accuracy of 81.13% while the other only 56.02% as developed by Sulistyo (nonlinear) and 4.70% as developed by Suriyaprasit, respectively.

  20. Fatty Acid Composition of Fourteen Wood-decaying Basidiomycete Species Growing in Permafrost Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA compositions of 14 wild wood-decaying basidiomycete species (Bjerkandera adusta, Daedaleopsis septentrionalis, Dichomitus squalens, Inonotus hispidus, I.radiatus, Irpex lacteus, Fomitopsis cajanderi, F.pinicola, F. rosea, Gloeophyllum protractum, Lenzites betulina, Phellinus pini, Trametes gibbosa, T. ochracea growing in permafrost conditions in Katanga region (Russian Federation were investigated using GC-MS. Generally, C18:2 ω 6 (linoleic acid, C18:1 ω 9 (oleic acid, C16:0 (palmitic acid and C20:0 (arachinic acid were found to be the major FA in fungal species. Data about chemical components of Daedaleopsis septentrionalis , Fomitopsis cajanderi and Gloeophyllum protractum were obtained at the first time. Increased level of degree of FA unsaturation was probably a result of extreme environmental conditions.

  1. Permafrost hydrology in changing climatic conditions: seasonal variability of stable isotope composition in rivers in discontinuous permafrost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streletskiy, Dmitry A; Shiklomanov, Nikolay I; Nyland, Kelsey E; Tananaev, Nikita I; Opel, Thomas; Streletskaya, Irina D; Tokarev, Igor’; Shiklomanov, Alexandr I

    2015-01-01

    Role of changing climatic conditions on permafrost degradation and hydrology was investigated in the transition zone between the tundra and forest ecotones at the boundary of continuous and discontinuous permafrost of the lower Yenisei River. Three watersheds of various sizes were chosen to represent the characteristics of the regional landscape conditions. Samples of river flow, precipitation, snow cover, and permafrost ground ice were collected over the watersheds to determine isotopic composition of potential sources of water in a river flow over a two year period. Increases in air temperature over the last forty years have resulted in permafrost degradation and a decrease in the seasonal frost which is evident from soil temperature measurements, permafrost and active-layer monitoring, and analysis of satellite imagery. The lowering of the permafrost table has led to an increased storage capacity of permafrost affected soils and a higher contribution of ground water to river discharge during winter months. A progressive decrease in the thickness of the layer of seasonal freezing allows more water storage and pathways for water during the winter low period making winter discharge dependent on the timing and amount of late summer precipitation. There is a substantial seasonal variability of stable isotopic composition of river flow. Spring flooding corresponds to the isotopic composition of snow cover prior to the snowmelt. Isotopic composition of river flow during the summer period follows the variability of precipitation in smaller creeks, while the water flow of larger watersheds is influenced by the secondary evaporation of water temporarily stored in thermokarst lakes and bogs. Late summer precipitation determines the isotopic composition of texture ice within the active layer in tundra landscapes and the seasonal freezing layer in forested landscapes as well as the composition of the water flow during winter months. (letter)

  2. Improving Post-Hurricane Katrina Forest Management with MODIS Time Series Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark David; Spruce, Joseph; Evans, David; Anderson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane damage to forests can be severe, causing millions of dollars of timber damage and loss. To help mitigate loss, state agencies require information on location, intensity, and extent of damaged forests. NASA's MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data products offers a potential means for state agencies to monitor hurricane-induced forest damage and recovery across a broad region. In response, a project was conducted to produce and assess 250 meter forest disturbance and recovery maps for areas in southern Mississippi impacted by Hurricane Katrina. The products and capabilities from the project were compiled to aid work of the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory (MIFI). A series of NDVI change detection products were computed to assess hurricane induced damage and recovery. Hurricane-induced forest damage maps were derived by computing percent change between MODIS MOD13 16-day composited NDVI pre-hurricane "baseline" products (2003 and 2004) and post-hurricane NDVI products (2005). Recovery products were then computed in which post storm 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 NDVI data was each singularly compared to the historical baseline NDVI. All percent NDVI change considered the 16-day composite period of August 29 to September 13 for each year in the study. This provided percent change in the maximum NDVI for the 2 week period just after the hurricane event and for each subsequent anniversary through 2009, resulting in forest disturbance products for 2005 and recovery products for the following 4 years. These disturbance and recovery products were produced for the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory's (MIFI) Southeast Inventory District and also for the entire hurricane impact zone. MIFI forest inventory products were used as ground truth information for the project. Each NDVI percent change product was classified into 6 categories of forest disturbance intensity. Stand age

  3. Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of A356 Alloy/Mg2Sip Functionally Graded in-situ Composites: Effect of Processing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Ram

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the effect of dry sliding wear conditions of A356 alloy/Mg2Sip functionally graded in-situ composites developed by centrifugal casting method has been studied. A pure commercial A356 alloy (Al–7.5Si–0.3Mg was selected to be the matrix of the composites and primary Mg2Sip reinforcing particles were formed by in-situ chemical reaction with an average grain size of 40-47.8 µm. The Al–(Mg2Sip functionally graded metal matrix composites (FGMMC’s were synthesized by centrifugal casting technique with radial geometry, using two different mould rotating speeds ( 1200 and 1600 rpm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD characterization technique was carried out to confirm the in-situ formed Mg2Si particles in composites. Optical microscopy examination was carried out to reveals the grain refinement of Al-rich grains due to in-situ formed Mg2Si particles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS techniques were carried out to reveal the distribution of phases, morphological characteristics and confirmation of primary Mg2Si particles in the matrix. The sliding wear behavior was studied using a Pin-on-Disc set-up machine with sliding wear parameters: effect of loads (N, effect of sliding distances (m and effect of Mg on wear at room temperature with a high-carbon chromium steel disc (HRC-64 as counter surfaces. A good correlation was evidenced between the dry sliding behaviour of functionally graded in-situ composites and the distribution of Mg2Si reinforcing particles. Beside the above processing conditions, the dominant wear mechanisms of functionally graded in-situ composites have been correlated with the microstructures. The hardness and wear resistance properties of these composites increase with increasing volume percent of reinforced primary Si/Mg2Si particles toward inner zone of cast cylindrical shapes. The objective of this works was to study the tribological characteristics under dry sliding

  4. Beyond the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Developing a Natural Space Index for population-level health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugel, Emily J; Henderson, Sarah B; Carpiano, Richard M; Brauer, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Natural spaces can provide psychological benefits to individuals, but population-level epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results. Refining current exposure-assessment methods is necessary to advance our understanding of population health and to guide the design of health-promoting urban forms. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive Natural Space Index that robustly models potential exposure based on the presence, form, accessibility, and quality of multiple forms of greenspace (e.g., parks and street trees) and bluespace (e.g., oceans and lakes). The index was developed for greater Vancouver, Canada. Greenness presence was derived from remote sensing (NDVI/EVI); forms were extracted from municipal and private databases; and accessibility was based on restrictions such as private ownership. Quality appraisals were conducted for 200 randomly sampled parks using the Public Open Space Desktop Appraisal Tool (POSDAT). Integrating these measures in GIS, exposure was assessed for 60,242 postal codes using 100- to 1,600-m buffers based on hypothesized pathways to mental health. A single index was then derived using principal component analysis (PCA). Comparing NDVI with alternate approaches for assessing natural space resulted in widely divergent results, with quintile rankings shifting for 22-88% of postal codes, depending on the measure. Overall park quality was fairly low (mean of 15 on a scale of 0-45), with no significant difference seen by neighborhood-level household income. The final PCA identified three main sets of variables, with the first two components explaining 68% of the total variance. The first component was dominated by the percentages of public and private greenspace and bluespace and public greenspace within 250m, while the second component was driven by lack of access to bluespace within 1 km. Many current approaches to modeling natural space may misclassify exposures and have limited specificity. The Natural Space Index

  5. Inorganic Polymer Matrix Composite Strength Related to Interface Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bridge

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin transfer molding of an inorganic polymer binder was successfully demonstrated in the preparation of ceramic fiber reinforced engine exhaust valves. Unfortunately, in the preliminary processing trials, the resulting composite valves were too brittle for in-engine evaluation. To address this limited toughness, the effectiveness of a modified fiber-matrix interface is investigated through the use of carbon as a model material fiber coating. After sequential heat treatments composites molded from uncoated and carbon coated fibers are compared using room temperature 3-point bend testing. Carbon coated Nextel fiber reinforced geopolymer composites demonstrated a 50% improvement in strength, versus that of the uncoated fiber reinforced composites, after the 250 °C postcure.

  6. Monitoring start of season in Alaska with GLOBE, AVHRR, and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Dubayah, Ralph; Sparrow, Elena; Levine, Elissa

    2008-03-01

    This work evaluates whether continuity between Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is achievable for monitoring phenological changes in Alaska. This work also evaluates whether NDVI can detect changes in start of the growing season (SOS) in this region. Six quadratic regression models with NDVI as a function of accumulated growing degree days (AGDD) were developed from 2001 through 2004 AVHRR and MODIS NDVI data sets for urban, mixed, and forested land covers. Model parameters determined NDVI values for start of the observational period as well as peak and length of the growing season. NDVI values for start of the growing season were determined from the model equations and field observations of SOS made by GLOBE students and researchers at University of Alaska Fairbanks. AGDD was computed from daily air temperature. AVHRR and MODIS models were significantly different from one another with differences in the start of the observational season as well as start, peak, and length of the growing season. Furthermore, AGDD for SOS was significantly lower during the 1990s than the 1980s. NDVI values at SOS did not detect this change. There are limitations with using NDVI to monitor phenological changes in these regions because of snow, the large extent of conifers, and clouds, which restrict the composite period. In addition, differing processing and spectral characteristics restrict continuity between AVHRR and MODIS NDVI data sets.

  7. THE EFFECT OF PREPARATION CONDITIONS OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED IRON BASED GRANULES ON PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL FORMED BY CASTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variety of requirements for friction pairs requires the development of different technologies for the production of tribological materials with reference to the operation modes. Composite materials obtained by the casting technology have been successfully applied for the normalization of the thermomechanical state of the steam turbines. These composites consist of the matrix based on copper alloys reinforced with cast iron granules. Because the structure and properties of cast iron are determined by the conditions of their production studies have been conducted on determination of preparation conditions on grain structure and properties of the synthesized composite material. Using an upgraded unit for production of granules technological regimes were determined providing narrow fractional composition. It has been found that granules formed are characterized with typical microstructure of white cast iron containing perlite and ledeburite. Microhardness of pilot cast iron granules is characterized by high values (from 7450 up to 9450 MPa and depends on the size of the fraction. Composite materials obtained using experimental granules had a microhardness of the reinforcing cast iron granules about 3500 MPa, and a bronze matrix – 1220 MPa, which is higher than the hardness of the composite material obtained by using the annealed DCL-1granules (2250 MPa. Metal base of experimental granules in the composite material has the structure of perlitic ductile iron with inclusions of ferrite not exceeding 10–15% and set around a flocculent graphite. As a result, the increase of physical-mechanical properties of finished products made of composite material is observed. 

  8. Growing Degree Vegetation Production Index (GDVPI): A Novel and Data-Driven Approach to Delimit Season Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, W. D.; Spruce, J.; Ross, K. W.; Gasser, J.; Grulke, N.

    2014-12-01

    Growing Degree Vegetation Production Index (GDVPI) is a parametric approach to delimiting vegetation seasonal growth and decline cycles using incremental growing degree days (GDD), and NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) 8-day composite cumulative integral data. We obtain a specific location's daily minimum and maximum temperatures from the nearest National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather stations posted on the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) Climate Data Online (CDO) archive and compute GDD. The date range for this study is January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2012. We employ a novel process, a repeating logistic product (RLP), to compensate for short-term weather variability and data drops from the recording stations and fit a curve to the median daily GDD values, adjusting for asymmetry, amplitude, and phase shift that minimize the sum of squared errors when comparing the observed and predicted GDD. The resulting curve, here referred to as the surrogate GDD, is the time-temperature phasing parameter used to convert Cartesian NDVI values into polar coordinate pairs, multiplying the NDVI values as the radial by the cosine and sine of the surrogate GDD as the angular. Depending on the vegetation type and the original NDVI curve, the polar NDVI curve may be nearly circular, kidney-shaped, or pear-shaped in the case of conifers, deciduous, or agriculture, respectively. We examine the points of tangency about the polar coordinate NDVI curve, identifying values of 1, 0, -1, or infinity, as each of these represent natural inflection points. Lines connecting the origin to each tangent point illustrate and quantify the parametrically segmentation of the growing season based on the GDD and NDVI ostensible dependency. Furthermore, the area contained by each segment represents the apparent vegetation production. A particular benefit is that the inflection points are determined

  9. Condition of red tide appearance in Wakasa Bay based on Terra, Aqua/MODIS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Oya, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Since June, 2004, studies on triggering factors of the red tide have been carried out in Awara Space Radio Observatory (ASRO), Fukui University of Technology utilizing directly received data of MODIS on the Terra and Aqua satellites which have been acquired in ASRO. Preliminary results of the data analyses for the period from July, 2001 to April, 2005 indicate conditions, for the appearance of the red tide bloom in Wakasa bay as follows: (1) the threshold amount of chlorophyll-a is close to 1.5mg/m 3, (2) the range of sea surface temperature (SST) is limited in a range from 12 to 20 °C and (3) the period of sunlit time in spring is also a significantly sensitive factor. We propose here to utilize MODIS band1 images corresponding to a red band with spatial resolution of 250m together with NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) images which has also spatial resolution of 250m, for the confirmation of the red tide. The problem of coincidence between colored region due to SS (Suspended Sediment) and red tide region using only band1 of MODIS, has been solved by using NDVI images in addition to band1 images together as two dimensional diagram.

  10. Methods and Piezoelectric Imbedded Sensors for Damage Detection in Composite Plates Under Ambient and Cryogenic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Robert; Ooi, Teng K.

    2004-01-01

    New methods for structural health monitoring are being assessed, especially in high-performance, extreme environment, safety-critical applications. One such application is for composite cryogenic fuel tanks. The work presented here attempts to characterize and investigate the feasibility of using imbedded piezoelectric sensors to detect cracks and delaminations under cryogenic and ambient conditions. A variety of damage detection methods and different Sensors are employed in the different composite plate samples to aid in determining an optimal algorithm, sensor placement strategy, and type of imbedded sensor to use. Variations of frequency, impedance measurements, and pulse echoing techniques of the sensors are employed and compared. Statistical and analytic techniques are then used to determine which method is most desirable for a specific type of damage. These results are furthermore compared with previous work using externally mounted sensors. Results and optimized methods from this work can then be incorporated into a larger composite structure to validate and assess its structural health. This could prove to be important in the development and qualification of any 2" generation reusable launch vehicle using composites as a structural element.

  11. The investigation of spatiotemporal variations of land surface temperature based on land use changes using NDVI in southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathizad, Hassan; Tazeh, Mahdi; Kalantari, Saeideh; Shojaei, Saeed

    2017-10-01

    Land use changes can bring about changes in land surface temperature (LST) which is influenced by climatic conditions and physical characteristics of the land surface. In this study, spatiotemporal variations of land surface temperature have been investigated in the desert area of Dasht-e-Abbas, Ilam, based on a variety of land use changes. The investigated periods for the study include 1990, 2000 and 2010 using Landsat image data. First, in mapping land use we used the Fuzzy ARTMAP Neural Network Classification method followed by determination of the NDVI Index to estimate land surface temperature. The results show an increase in LST in areas where degradation, land use and land cover changes have occurred. In 1990, 2000 and 2010, the average land surface temperature of the Fair Rangelands was 26.72 °C, 30.06 °C and 30.95 °C, respectively. This rangeland has been reduced by about 5%. For poor rangelands, the average LSTs were 26.95, 32.83 and 34.49 Cº, respectively which had a 18% reduction. In 1990, 2000 and 2010, the average land surface temperatures of agricultural lands were 24.31 °C, 27.87 °C and 28.61 °C, respectively which has been an increasing trend. The reason can be attributed to changes in cropping patterns of the study area.

  12. Operating modes of high-Tc composite superconductors and thermal runaway conditions under current charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskii, V R; Watanabe, K

    2006-01-01

    The operating thermal and electric modes of a high-T c superconducting composite in partially and fully penetrated states induced by the charging current are investigated. They were studied under conditions in which the current charging rate, the volume fraction of the superconductor in a composite or the temperature of the cooling bath were changed. The transient behaviour of the voltage-current dependence, which is characteristic during stable and unstable increases in electric field inside the composite under a continuous current charging, is discussed. Simulations were done using zero- and one-dimensional steady and unsteady thermoelectric models with a power equation describing the virgin voltage-current characteristic of a superconductor. It is found that some thermoelectric trends underlie the shape of the voltage-current characteristic of the high-T c superconducting composite. These have to be considered during experiments in which the critical or quench currents are defined. First, in the initial stage of the fully penetrated regime (in the low voltage range), the electric field distribution does not have a uniform character. These states depend on the volume fraction of the superconductor and the current charging rate: the higher these quantities, the higher the heterogeneity of the electric field. Second, during the stable over-critical regime (in the high voltage range) occurring in complete penetration modes, the evolution of the electric field may depend on the relevant temperature increase of a composite according to the corresponding increase in its temperature-dependent heat capacity. Consequently, the shape of the voltage-current characteristic of a composite high-T c superconductor during continuous current charging, both before and after thermal runaway, has only a positive slope. Moreover, it is proved that the growth of the fully penetrated part of the voltage-current characteristic becomes less intensive when the current charging rate or the

  13. THE APPLICATION OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS IN MODERN AVIATION AND CONTROL OF ITS CONDITION DURING DESIGN SERVICE GOAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zibitsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has a purpose to give a brief review of usage of composite materials in the structure of modern civil aircraft. The current condition of civil aviation was analyzed, serious problems were determined and possible achievements in the future were discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of composite materials were analyzed, non-destructive methods of control were reviewed and the necessity to design new method, which allows to control the integrity of structure in real time during design service goal of the aircraft (the concept of “clever material” was shown.

  14. Early forecasting of crop condition using an integrative remote sensing method for corn and soybeans in Iowa and Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bumsuk; Lee, Jihye; Kang, Sinkyu

    2017-04-01

    The weather-related risks in crop production is not only crucial for farmers but also for market participants and policy makers since securing food supply is an important issue for society. While crop growth condition and phenology are essential information about such risks, the extensive observations on those are often non-existent in many parts of the world. In this study, we have developed a novel integrative approach to remotely sense crop growth condition and phenology at a large scale. For corn and soybeans in Iowa and Illinois of USA (2003-2014), we assessed crop growth condition and crop phenology by EO data and validated it against the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agriculture Statistics System (NASS) crop statistics. For growth condition, we used two distinguished approaches to acquire crop condition indicators: a process-based crop growth modelling and a satellite NDVI based method. Based on their pixel-wise historic distributions, we determined relative growth conditions and scaled-down to the state-level. For crop phenology, we calculated three crop phenology metrics [i.e., start of season (SOS), end of season (EOS), and peak of season (POS)] at the pixel level from MODIS 8-day Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The estimates were compared with the Crop Progress and Condition (CPC) data of NASS. For the condition, the state-level 10-day estimates showed a moderate agreement (RMSE 70%). Notably, the condition estimates corresponded to the severe soybeans disease in 2003 and the drought in 2012 for both crops. For the phenology, the average RMSE of the estimates was 8.6 day for the all three metrics. The average |ME| was smaller than 1.0 day after bias correction. The proposed method enables us to evaluate crop growth at any given period and place. Global climate changes are increasing the risk in agricultural production such as long-term drought. We hope that the presented remote sensing method for crop condition

  15. The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Wishwas R; Kamphorst, Kiki; Swarge, Bhagyashree N; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G; de Koning, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for the first time assesses, at the proteomic level, the effect of two commonly used sporulation conditions on spore protein presence. 14 N spores prepared on solid Schaeffer's-glucose (SG) agar plates and 15 N metabolically labeled spores prepared in shake flasks containing 3-( N -morpholino) propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) buffered defined liquid medium differ in their coat protein composition as revealed by LC-FT-MS/MS analyses. The former condition mimics the industrial settings while the latter conditions mimic the routine laboratory environment wherein spores are developed. As seen previously in many studies, the spores prepared on the solid agar plates show a higher thermal resistance than the spores prepared under liquid culture conditions. The 14 N: 15 N isotopic ratio of the 1:1 mixture of the spore suspensions exposes that most of the identified inner coat and crust proteins are significantly more abundant while most of the outer coat proteins are significantly less abundant for the spores prepared on solid SG agar plates relative to the spores prepared in the liquid MOPS buffered defined medium. Sporulation condition-specific differences and variation in isotopic ratios between the tryptic peptides of expected cross-linked proteins suggest that the coat protein cross-linking may also be condition specific. Since the core dipicolinic acid content is found to be similar in both the spore populations, it appears that the difference in wet heat resistance is connected to the

  16. The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Wishwas R.; Kamphorst, Kiki; Swarge, Bhagyashree N.; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G.; de Koning, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for the first time assesses, at the proteomic level, the effect of two commonly used sporulation conditions on spore protein presence. 14N spores prepared on solid Schaeffer’s-glucose (SG) agar plates and 15N metabolically labeled spores prepared in shake flasks containing 3-(N-morpholino) propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) buffered defined liquid medium differ in their coat protein composition as revealed by LC-FT-MS/MS analyses. The former condition mimics the industrial settings while the latter conditions mimic the routine laboratory environment wherein spores are developed. As seen previously in many studies, the spores prepared on the solid agar plates show a higher thermal resistance than the spores prepared under liquid culture conditions. The 14N:15N isotopic ratio of the 1:1 mixture of the spore suspensions exposes that most of the identified inner coat and crust proteins are significantly more abundant while most of the outer coat proteins are significantly less abundant for the spores prepared on solid SG agar plates relative to the spores prepared in the liquid MOPS buffered defined medium. Sporulation condition-specific differences and variation in isotopic ratios between the tryptic peptides of expected cross-linked proteins suggest that the coat protein cross-linking may also be condition specific. Since the core dipicolinic acid content is found to be similar in both the spore populations, it appears that the difference in wet heat resistance is connected to the

  17. The influence of sporulation conditions on the spore coat protein composition of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishwas R. Abhyankar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for the first time assesses, at the proteomic level, the effect of two commonly used sporulation conditions on spore protein presence. 14N spores prepared on solid SG agar plates and 15N metabolically labelled spores prepared in shake flasks containing MOPS buffered defined liquid medium differ in their coat protein composition as revealed by LC-FT-MS/MS analyses. The former condition mimics the industrial settings while the latter conditions mimic the routine laboratory environment wherein spores are developed. As seen previously in many studies, the spores prepared on the solid agar plates show a higher thermal resistance than the spores prepared under liquid culture conditions. The 14N: 15N isotopic ratio of the 1:1 mixture of the spore suspensions exposes that most of the identified inner coat and crust proteins are significantly more abundant while most of the outer coat proteins are significantly less abundant for the spores prepared on solid SG agar plates relative to the spores prepared in the liquid MOPS buffered defined medium. Sporulation condition-specific differences and variation in isotopic ratios between the tryptic peptides of expected cross-linked proteins suggest that the coat protein cross-linking may also be condition specific. Since the core dipicolinic acid content is found to be similar in both the spore populations, it appears that the difference in wet heat resistance is connected to the differences in the coat protein composition and

  18. Effect of laminate edge conditions on the formation of microvoids in composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. P.; Altan, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    Manufacturing defects such as microvoids are common in thermoset composite components and are known to negatively affect their strength. The resin pressure developed in and the resin flow out from the laminates during cure have been reported to be the primary factors influencing the final void content of a composite component. In this work, the effect of laminate edge conditions during the cure process on the formation of microvoids was experimentally investigated. This was achieved by fabricating eight-ply laminates from TenCate® BT250/7781 prepreg in a hot-press at a constant cure pressure of 170 kPa while limiting the laminate perimeter available for resin flow by 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The individual plies of these five laminates were conditioned at 99% relative humidity before curing to maximize the moisture present in the lay-up before fabrication. The presence of moisture in the lay-ups was expected to promote void formation and allow the effect of restricting flow at the edges of a laminate to be better identified. The restriction of resin outflow was found to cause the average characteristic void diameter to decrease by 17% and void content to rise by 33%. This phenomenon was identified to be a result of the outflow restriction increasing the number of voids trapped within the laminate and indicates that for laminates cured at low pressures resin outflow is the dominant mechanism for void reduction.

  19. Influence of preparation conditions of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres on their catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umegaki, Tetsuo, E-mail: umegaki.tetsuo@nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Seki, Ayano [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Xu, Qiang [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Kojima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • We study influence of preparation conditions on activity of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres. • The activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} increases with increase of Si+Ni content. • The particle size distribution affects the activity and reducibility of active nickel species. • The amount of PS residue in the hollow spheres decreases by treatment of as-prepared sample in toluene. -- Abstract: In this paper, we investigated influence of preparation conditions of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres on their morphology and catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane. In the preparation method of this study, when silica–nickel composite shells were coated on polystyrene templates by the sol–gel method using L(+)-arginine as the promoter for the reaction to form silica–nickel composite shell, the polystyrene templates were dissolved subsequently, even synchronously, in the same medium to form hollow spheres. The as-prepared silica–nickel composite spheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of Si+Ni content on the morphology were systematically evaluated. All the as-prepared hollow silica–nickel composite spheres have the similar morphology as identified by SEM and TEM measurement. Homogeneity of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres increases with the increase in the Si+Ni content as shown by the laser diffraction particle size analysis. The catalytic activities of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane prepared with different Si+Ni contents were compared. The catalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution in the presence of the hollow spheres increases with the increase of Si+Ni content. The results of FTIR spectra of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres indicate that a certain amount of residual PS templates exists in hollow silica

  20. Critical Conditions for Liquid Chromatography of Statistical Copolymers: Functionality Type and Composition Distribution Characterization by UP-LCCC/ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Ruben; Panne, Ulrich; Falkenhagen, Jana

    2017-02-07

    Statistical ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO) copolymers of different monomer compositions and different average molar masses additionally containing two kinds of end groups (FTD) were investigated by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography under critical conditions (UP-LCCC) combined with electrospray ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Theoretical predictions of the existence of a critical adsorption point (CPA) for statistical copolymers with a given chemical and sequence distribution1 could be studied and confirmed. A fundamentally new approach to determine these critical conditions in a copolymer, alongside the inevitable chemical composition distribution (CCD), with mass spectrometric detection, is described. The shift of the critical eluent composition with the monomer composition of the polymers was determined. Due to the broad molar mass distribution (MMD) and the presumed existence of different end group functionalities as well as monomer sequence distribution (MSD), gradient separation only by CCD was not possible. Therefore, isocratic separation conditions at the CPA of definite CCD fractions were developed. Although the various present distributions partly superimposed the separation process, the goal of separation by end group functionality was still achieved on the basis of the additional dimension of ESI-TOF-MS. The existence of HO-H besides the desired allylO-H end group functionalities was confirmed and their amount estimated. Furthermore, indications for a MSD were found by UPLC/MS/MS measurements. This approach offers for the first time the possibility to obtain a fingerprint of a broad distributed statistical copolymer including MMD, FTD, CCD, and MSD.

  1. Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior and Critical Conditions of SiCp/A1-Cu Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Shiming

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the Gleeble-1500D simulator, the high temperature plastic deformation behavior of 40%SiCP/Al-Cu composite were investigated at 350-500℃ with the strain rate of 0.01-10 s-1. The stress-strain curves were obtained during the tests. The critical conditions of dynamic recrystallization for onset of DRX during deformation of 40%SiCP/Al-Cu composite was obtained by computation of the strain hardening rate (θ from initial stress-strain data and introduction of the inflection point criterion of ln θ-ε curves and the minimum value criterion of (-∂(ln θ/∂ε-ε curves. The results indicate that the softening mechanism of the dynamic recrystallization is a feature of high-temperature flow stress strain curves of the composites, and the peak stress increases with the decrease of deformation temperature or the increase of strain rate. The inflection point in the ln θ-ε curve appears, and the minimum value of the (-∂(ln θ/∂ε-ε curve is presented when the critical state is attained for this composite. The critical strain decreases with the decrease of strain rate and the increase of deformation temperature. There is linear relationship between critical strain and peak strain, i.e. εc=0.528εp. The predicting model of critical strain is described by the function of εc=4.58×10-3Z0.09. Electron microscopic analysis show that the dynamic recrystallization occurs when the strain is 0.06 (T=400℃, ε=10 s-1, and the dynamic recrystallization grains fully grow up when the strain is 0.2.

  2. Assessing Vegetation Response to Soil Moisture Fluctuation under Extreme Drought Using Sentinel-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry West

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which Sentinel-2 Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI reflects soil moisture conditions, and whether this product offers an improvement over Landsat-8. Based on drought exposure, cloud-free imagery availability, and measured soil moisture, five sites in the Southwestern United States were selected. These sites, normally dry to arid, were in various states of drought. A secondary focus was therefore the performance of the NDVI under extreme conditions. Following supervised classification, the NDVI values for one-kilometre radius areas were calculated. Sentinel-2 NDVI variants using Spectral Bands 8 (10 m spatial resolution, 5, 6, 7, and 8A (20 m spatial resolution were calculated. Landsat-8 NDVI was calculated at 30 m spatial resolution. Pearson correlation analysis was undertaken for NDVI against moisture at various depths. To assess the difference in correlation strength, a principal component analysis was performed on the combination of all bands and the combination of the new red-edge bands. Performance of the red-edge NDVI against the standard near infrared (NIR was then evaluated using a Steiger comparison. No significant correlations between Landsat-8 NDVI and soil moisture were found. Significant correlations at depths of less than 30 cm were present between Sentinel-2 NDVI and soil moisture at three sites. The remaining two sites were characterised by low vegetation cover, suggesting a cover threshold of approximately 30–40% is required for a correlation to be present. At all sites of significant positive moisture to NDVI correlation, the linear combination of the red-edge bands produced stronger correlations than the poorer spectral but higher spatial resolution band. NDVI calculated using the higher spectral resolution bands may therefore be of greater use in this context than the higher spatial resolution option. Results suggest potential for the application of Sentinel-2

  3. Biological effects of plant residues with constrasting chemical compositions on plant and soil under humid tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, G.

    1992-01-01

    A study on plant residues with contrasting chemical compositions was conducted under laboratory, growth chamber and humid tropical field conditions to understand the function of the soil fauna in the breakdown of plant residues, the cycling of nutrients, in particular nitrogen, and the

  4. Improving predictive capabilities of environmental change with GLOBE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica Hill

    This dissertation addresses two applications of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) essential for predicting environmental changes. The first study focuses on whether NDVI can improve model simulations of evapotranspiration for temperate Northern (>35°) regions. The second study focuses on whether NDVI can detect phenological changes in start of season (SOS) for high Northern (>60°) environments. The overall objectives of this research were to (1) develop a methodology for utilizing GLOBE data in NDVI research; and (2) provide a critical analysis of NDVI as a long-term monitoring tool for environmental change. GLOBE is an international partnership network of K-12 students, teachers, and scientists working together to study and understand the global environment. The first study utilized data collected by one GLOBE school in Greenville, Pennsylvania and the second utilized phenology observations made by GLOBE students in Alaska. Results from the first study showed NDVI could predict transpiration periods for environments like Greenville, Pennsylvania. In phenological terms, these environments have three distinct periods (QI, QII, and QIII). QI reflects onset of the growing season (mid March--mid May) when vegetation is greening up (NDVI 0.60). Results from the second study showed that a climate threshold of 153 +/- 22 growing degree days was a better predictor of SOS for Fairbanks than a NDVI threshold applied to temporal AVHRR and MODIS datasets. Accumulated growing degree days captured the interannual variability of SOS better than the NDVI threshold and most closely resembled actual SOS observations made by GLOBE students. Overall, biweekly composites and effects of clouds, snow, and conifers limit the ability of NDVI to monitor phenological changes in Alaska. Both studies did show that GLOBE data provides an important source of input and validation information for NDVI research.

  5. Effect of EDTA Conditioning on Microleakage of Four Adhesive Systems in Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shafiei

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluating the effect of dentin conditioning with EDTA on microleakage of composite resin restorations, using two etch and rinse and two self-etch adhesives.Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty extracted molars received class V cavity preparations right under the CEJ and were randomly divided into eight groups of 20, usingfour different adhesive systems. These adhesives included Adper Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SBMP, Adper Single Bond (SB, Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB, and Adper Prompt L-Pop (PLP. In the SBMP and SB experimental groups, EDTA was applied instead of phosphoric acid. In the CSEB and PLP experimental groups, EDTA conditioning was added to the bonding process. After thermocycling, the amount of dye penetration was evaluated using stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests.Results: Two etch and rinse adhesives (SBMP, SB showed a significantly lower micro-leakage than the two self-etch adhesives, CSEB and PLP, (P<0.05. No significant differ-ence was observed among the experimental groups. PLP and CSEB showed significantly less microleakage using EDTA conditioning (P<0.05. There was no significant difference for SBMP and SB when applying either phosphoric acid or EDTA.Conclusion: In the cases of SBMP and SB, EDTA conditioning is as effective as phos-phoric acid in preventing microleakage. In cases of CSEB and PLP, EDTA conditioning can significantly improve the sealing ability.

  6. Maximum Likelihood Method for Predicting Environmental Conditions from Assemblage Composition: The R Package bio.infer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester L. Yuan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief introduction to the R package bio.infer, a set of scripts that facilitates the use of maximum likelihood (ML methods for predicting environmental conditions from assemblage composition. Environmental conditions can often be inferred from only biological data, and these inferences are useful when other sources of data are unavailable. ML prediction methods are statistically rigorous and applicable to a broader set of problems than more commonly used weighted averaging techniques. However, ML methods require a substantially greater investment of time to program algorithms and to perform computations. This package is designed to reduce the effort required to apply ML prediction methods.

  7. Discriminating the Mediterranean Pinus spp. using the land surface phenology extracted from the whole MODIS NDVI time series and machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Aragones, David; Caparros-Santiago, Jose A.; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2017-10-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) can improve the characterisation of forest areas and their change processes. The aim of this work was: i) to characterise the temporal dynamics in Mediterranean Pinus forests, and ii) to evaluate the potential of LSP for species discrimination. The different experiments were based on 679 mono-specific plots for the 5 native species on the Iberian Peninsula: P. sylvestris, P. pinea, P. halepensis, P. nigra and P. pinaster. The entire MODIS NDVI time series (2000-2016) of the MOD13Q1 product was used to characterise phenology. The following phenological parameters were extracted: the start, end and median days of the season, and the length of the season in days, as well as the base value, maximum value, amplitude and integrated value. Multi-temporal metrics were calculated to synthesise the inter-annual variability of the phenological parameters. The species were discriminated by the application of Random Forest (RF) classifiers from different subsets of variables: model 1) NDVI-smoothed time series, model 2) multi-temporal metrics of the phenological parameters, and model 3) multi-temporal metrics and the auxiliary physical variables (altitude, slope, aspect and distance to the coastline). Model 3 was the best, with an overall accuracy of 82%, a kappa coefficient of 0.77 and whose most important variables were: elevation, coast distance, and the end and start days of the growing season. The species that presented the largest errors was P. nigra, (kappa= 0.45), having locations with a similar behaviour to P. sylvestris or P. pinaster.

  8. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  9. Séries temporais de NDVI do sensor SPOT Vegetation e algoritmo SAM aplicados ao mapeamento de cana‑de‑açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Vicente

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o mapeamento de área de cana‑de‑açúcar por meio de série temporal, de seis anos de dados do índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI, oriundos do sensor Vegetation, a bordo do satélite "système pour l'observation de la Terre" (SPOT. Três classes de cobertura do solo (cana‑de‑açúcar, pasto e floresta, do Estado de São Paulo, foram selecionadas como assinaturas espectro‑temporais de referência, que serviram como membros extremos ("endmembers" para classificação com o algoritmo "spectral angle mapper" (SAM. A partir desta classificação, o mapeamento da área de cana‑de‑açúcar foi realizado com uso de limiares na imagem-regra do SAM, gerados a partir dos valores dos espectros de referência. Os resultados mostram que o algoritmo SAM pode ser aplicado a séries de dados multitemporais de resolução moderada, o que permite eficiente mapeamento de alvo agrícola em escala mesorregional. Dados oficiais de áreas de cana‑de‑açúcar, para as microrregiões paulistas, apresentam boa correlação (r² = 0,8 com os dados obtidos pelo método avaliado. A aplicação do algoritmo SAM mostrou ser útil em análises temporais. As séries temporais de NDVI do sensor SPOT Vegetation podem ser utilizadas para mapeamento da área de cana‑de‑açúcar em baixa resolução.

  10. Monitoring Start of Season in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, J.; Dubayah, R.; Sparrow, E.; Levine, E.

    2006-12-01

    In biomes that have distinct winter seasons, start of spring phenological events, specifically timing of budburst and green-up of leaves, coincides with transpiration. Seasons leave annual signatures that reflect the dynamic nature of the hydrologic cycle and link the different spheres of the Earth system. This paper evaluates whether continuity between AVHRR and MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is achievable for monitoring land surface phenology, specifically start of season (SOS), in Alaska. Additionally, two thresholds, one based on NDVI and the other on accumulated growing degree-days (GDD), are compared to determine which most accurately predicts SOS for Fairbanks. Ratio of maximum greenness at SOS was computed from biweekly AVHRR and MODIS composites for 2001 through 2004 for Anchorage and Fairbanks regions. SOS dates were determined from annual green-up observations made by GLOBE students. Results showed that different processing as well as spectral characteristics of each sensor restrict continuity between the two datasets. MODIS values were consistently higher and had less inter-annual variability during the height of the growing season than corresponding AVHRR values. Furthermore, a threshold of 131-175 accumulated GDD was a better predictor of SOS for Fairbanks than a NDVI threshold applied to AVHRR and MODIS datasets. The NDVI threshold was developed from biweekly AVHRR composites from 1982 through 2004 and corresponding annual green-up observations at University of Alaska-Fairbanks (UAF). The GDD threshold was developed from 20+ years of historic daily mean air temperature data and the same green-up observations. SOS dates computed with the GDD threshold most closely resembled actual green-up dates observed by GLOBE students and UAF researchers. Overall, biweekly composites and effects of clouds, snow, and conifers limit the ability of NDVI to monitor phenological changes in Alaska.

  11. Sorption of Cu(II) Ions on Chitosan-Zeolite X Composites: Impact of Gelling and Drying Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelad, Amal; Morsli, Amine; Robitzer, Mike; Bengueddach, Abdelkader; di Renzo, Francesco; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-01-19

    Chitosan-zeolite Na-X composite beads with open porosity and different zeolite contents were prepared by an encapsulation method. Preparation conditions had to be optimised in order to stabilize the zeolite network during the polysaccharide gelling process. Composites and pure reference components were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy (SEM); N₂ adsorption-desorption; and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Cu(II) sorption was investigated at pH 6. The choice of drying method used for the storage of the adsorbent severely affects the textural properties of the composite and the copper sorption effectiveness. The copper sorption capacity of chitosan hydrogel is about 190 mg·g(-1). More than 70% of this capacity is retained when the polysaccharide is stored as an aerogel after supercrititcal CO₂ drying, but nearly 90% of the capacity is lost after evaporative drying to a xerogel. Textural data and Cu(II) sorption data indicate that the properties of the zeolite-polysaccharide composites are not just the sum of the properties of the individual components. Whereas a chitosan coating impairs the accessibility of the microporosity of the zeolite; the presence of the zeolite improves the stability of the dispersion of chitosan upon supercritical drying and increases the affinity of the composites for Cu(II) cations. Chitosan-zeolite aerogels present Cu(II) sorption properties.

  12. Assessing land cover performance in Senegal, West Africa using 1-km integrated NDVI and local variance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M.E.; Tappan, G.; Rowland, James; Lewis, J.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    The researchers calculated seasonal integrated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each of 7 years using a time-series of 1-km data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (1992-93, 1995) and SPOT Vegetation (1998-2001) sensors. We used a local variance technique to identify each pixel as normal or either positively or negatively anomalous when compared to its surroundings. We then summarized the number of years that a given pixel was identified as an anomaly. The resulting anomaly maps were analysed using Landsat TM imagery and extensive ground knowledge to assess the results. This technique identified anomalies that can be linked to numerous anthropogenic impacts including agricultural and urban expansion, maintenance of protected areas and increased fallow. Local variance analysis is a reliable method for assessing vegetation degradation resulting from human pressures or increased land productivity from natural resource management practices. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Vine vigor components and its variability - relationship to wine composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Magali; Tittmann, Susanne; Stoll, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    It was pointed out that a high spatial variability for canopy size and yield would exist within a vineyard but a high temporal stability over the years was observed. Furthermore, a greater variability in grape phenolics than in sugars and pH was detected within a vineyard. But the link between remote sensing indices and quality parameters of grapes is still unclear. Indeed, though in red grape varieties anthocyanins content was spatially negatively correlated to vigor parameters, it seemed that yield, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Plant Cell Density (PCD) indices were poorly correlated. Moreover, the link to quality parameters of wines remains uncertain. It was shown that more vigorous vines would lead to wines with less tannins while anthocyanins in wines would be highest when the vines were balanced but the question is if vine size or architecture, yield or nitrogen assimilation would play major contribution to those differences. The general scope of our project was to provide further knowledge on the relationship between vigor parameters and wine composition and relate these to the information gained by remote sensing. Variability in a 0.15 ha vineyard of Pinot noir planted in 2003 and grafted on SO4 rootstock at Geisenheim (Germany) was followed. Vine vigor was assessed manually for each of the 400 vines (cane number, pruning weight, trunk diameter) together with yield parameters (number of bunches per vine, crop yield). Leaf composition was assessed with a hand-held optical sensor (Multiplex3® [Mx3] (Force-A, Orsay, France) based on chlorophyll fluorescence screening providing information on leaf chlorophyll (SFR_G) and nitrogen (NBI_G) content. A micro-scale winemaking of single vines with a 3 factorial design on yield (L low, M middle, H high), SFRG (L, M, H) and canopy size (pruning weight, trunk diameter) (L, M, H) was performed for 2013 and 2014 to completely reflect variability. Wine tannin concentration represented the highest

  14. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  15. Optimization of preparation conditions of polyamide thin film composite membrane for organic solvent nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namvar-Mahboub, Mahdieh; Pakizeh, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Separation performance of polyamide composite membranes is affected by several parameters during formation of thin upper layer via interfacial polymerization. We investigated the effect of various polyamide synthesis conditions on the performance of organic solvent resistant polyamide composite membranes through the model equations designed by 2-level fractional factorial design. The dewaxing solvent recovery was selected as separation process. Five factors were changed in two level includin; TMC concentration (0.05-0.1%), MPD concentration (1-2%), support immersion time in organic solution (2-4 min), support immersion time in aqueous solution (1-2 min), and curing temperature (70-80 .deg. C). The resultant equations showed 93.48% and 94.82% of the variability (R 2 adj ) in data used to fit oil rejection and permeate flux models, respectively. The analysis of variance revealed that both models were high significant. It was also observed that TMC concentration, MPD concentration and immersion time in TMC have more pronounced effect on the oil rejection and permeate flux than other factors and interactions. Optimal polyamide preparation conditions were obtained using multiple response method for 94% oil rejection as target value. According to the results, the best value of permeate flux (8.86 l/(m 2 ·h)) was found at TMC concentration of 0.1%, MPD concentration of 1.94%, immersion time in TMC of 3.88 min, immersion time in MPD of 1.95 min and curing temperature of 71.96 .deg. C with desirability factor of 1

  16. Upscaling from leaf to canopy chlorophyll/carotenoid pigment based vegetation indices reveal phenology of photosynthesis in temperate evergreen and deciduous trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. Y.; Bhathena, Y.; Arain, M. A.; Ensminger, I.

    2017-12-01

    Optically derived vegetation indices have been developed to provide information about plant status including photosynthetic activity. They reflect changes in leaf pigments, which vary seasonally in pigment composition, enabling them to be used as a proxy of photosynthetic phenology. Important pigments in photosynthetic activity are carotenoids and chlorophylls, which are associated with light harvesting and energy dissipation. In temperate forests, which consist of deciduous and evergreen trees, there are difficulties resolving evergreen phenology using the most widely used index, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). NDVI works well in deciduous trees, which exhibit a "visible" phenological process of leaf growth in the spring, and leaf senescence and abscission in the autumn. Evergreen conifers stay green year-round and utilize "invisible" changes of overwintering pigment composition that NDVI cannot resolve, so carotenoid pigment sensitive vegetation indices have been suggested for evergreens. The aim of this study was to evaluate carotenoid based vegetation indices over the chlorophyll sensitive NDVI. For this purpose, we evaluated the greenness index, NDVI, and carotenoid pigment sensitive indices: photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and chlorophyll/carotenoid index (CCI) in red maple, white oak and eastern white pine for two years. We also measured leaf gas exchange and pigment concentrations. We observed that NDVI correlated with photosynthetic activity in deciduous trees, whereas PRI and CCI correlated with photosynthesis across both evergreen and deciduous trees. This pattern was consistent, upscaling from leaf- to canopy-scales indicating that the mechanisms involved in winter acclimation can be resolved at larger spatial scales. PRI and CCI detected seasonal changes in carotenoids and chlorophylls linked to photoprotection and are suitable as a proxy of photosynthetic activity. These findings have implications to improve our use and

  17. Determination of equilibrium composition of thermally ionized monoatomic gas under different physical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, M. S.; Rydalevskaya, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    Perfect gas mixtures that result from thermal ionization of spatially and chemically homogeneous monoatomic gases are considered. Equilibrium concentrations of the components of such mixtures are determined using integration over the momentum space and summation with respect to energy levels of the distribution functions that maximize the entropy of system under condition for constancy of the total number of nuclei and electrons. It is demonstrated that such a method allows significant simplification of the calculation of the equilibrium composition for ionized mixtures at different temperatures and makes it possible to study the degree of ionization of gas versus gas density and number in the periodic table of elements.

  18. Size dependence of the thermo-electrodynamics states of composite high-T c superconductors and its effect on the current instability conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskii, V.R.; Watanabe, K.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of transverse geometries of the slab of composite high-T c superconductors on their stable and unstable thermal and electrodynamics transient states in the incomplete and complete penetration modes during the current charging are discussed. The transient period when the electric field that is induced by the charged current becomes more homogeneous during the initial stage of the complete penetration mode in the sub-critical voltage range is studied. In the over-critical voltage range, the cross-section shape of the slab affects its stable and unstable temperature variation. As a result, the current instability condition is not identical for high-T c superconducting composite tapes that have the same cross-sectional area with various shapes of the cross-section. The condition depends on their thickness: the less thickness, the more stable the current distribution in the composite superconductors with the same cross-sectional area. This feature is a result of the unavoidable reduction of the current-carrying capacity of a high-T c superconducting composite by the temperature increase. This reduction is caused by the relevant temperature dependence of electrodynamics states of the composite. This temperature dependence happens even during a stable stage of the current charging. These mechanisms must be considered during experiments at which the critical or quenching currents are defined

  19. El Niño-Southern Oscillation is linked to decreased energetic condition in long-distance migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L Paxton

    Full Text Available Predicting how migratory animals respond to changing climatic conditions requires knowledge of how climatic events affect each phase of the annual cycle and how those effects carry-over to subsequent phases. We utilized a 17-year migration dataset to examine how El Niño-Southern Oscillation climatic events in geographically different regions of the Western hemisphere carry-over to impact the stopover biology of several intercontinental migratory bird species. We found that migratory birds that over-wintered in South America experienced significantly drier environments during El Niño years, as reflected by reduced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI values, and arrived at stopover sites in reduced energetic condition during spring migration. During El Niño years migrants were also more likely to stopover immediately along the northern Gulf coast of the southeastern U.S. after crossing the Gulf of Mexico in small suboptimal forest patches where food resources are lower and migrant density often greater than larger more contiguous forests further inland. In contrast, NDVI values did not differ between El Niño and La Niña years in Caribbean-Central America, and we found no difference in energetic condition or use of coastal habitats for migrants en route from Caribbean-Central America wintering areas. Birds over-wintering in both regions had consistent median arrival dates along the northern Gulf coast, suggesting that there is a strong drive for birds to maintain their time program regardless of their overall condition. We provide strong evidence that not only is the stopover biology of migratory landbirds influenced by events during the previous phase of their life-cycle, but where migratory birds over-winter determines how vulnerable they are to global climatic cycles. Increased frequency and intensity of ENSO events over the coming decades, as predicted by climatic models, may disproportionately influence long-distance migrants

  20. submitter Elemental composition and clustering behaviour of α-pinene oxidation products for different oxidation conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Praplan, A P; Bianchi, F; Rissanen, M P; Ehn, M; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H; Adamov, A; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Duplissy, J; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Heinritzi, M; Kangasluoma, J; Kirkby, J; Krapf, M; Kürten, A; Lehtipalo, K; Riccobono, F; Rondo, L; Sarnela, N; Simon, M; Tomé, A; Tröstl, J; Winkler, P M; Williamson, C; Ye, P; Curtius, J; Baltensperger, U; Donahue, N M; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the difference between oxidised organic compounds formed by α-pinene oxidation under various conditions in the CLOUD environmental chamber: (1) pure ozonolysis (in the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger) and (2) OH oxidation (initiated by nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis by ultraviolet light) in the absence of ozone. We discuss results from three Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers measuring simultaneously the composition of naturally charged as well as neutral species (via chemical ionisation with nitrate). Natural chemical ionisation takes place in the CLOUD chamber and organic oxidised compounds form clusters with nitrate, bisulfate, bisulfate/sulfuric acid clusters, ammonium, and dimethylaminium, or get protonated. The results from this study show that this process is selective for various oxidised organic compounds with low molar mass and ions, so that in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the elemental composition o...

  1. 1D and 2D oxidized carbon nanomaterials on epoxy matrix: performance of composites over the same processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Galicia, Lourdes; Martinez-Hernandez, Ana Laura; Fuentes-Ramirez, Rosalba; Velasco-Santos, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide were evaluated as reinforcements of an epoxy resin. The composites were synthesized at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 wt% under the same processing conditions. Nanocomposites with graphene oxide at 0.5 wt% present the highest mechanical properties, reaching up to ~180%, and ~760% of improvement in tensile strength and tensile toughness with respect to neat epoxy. Nevertheless, composites with oxidized nanotubes exhibit a tendency to improve mechanical properties as load increases. Storage moduli diminish due to cross-linking density reduction in all nanocomposites. Difference in thermal degradation are not observed in composites in comparison with matrix. Dimension play an important role in mechanical properties, because each nanoreinforcement has different performance with the concentration.

  2. Evolution of Chemical Composition, Morphology, and Photovoltaic Efficiency of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 Perovskite under Ambient Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Weixin; Manser, Joseph S.; Kamat, Prashant V.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The surface composition and morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films stored for several days under ambient conditions were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Chemical analysis revealed the loss of CH3NH3 + and I- species from CH3NH3PbI3 and its subsequent decomposition into lead carbonate, lead hydroxide, and lead oxide. After long-term storage under ambient conditions, morphological analysis revealed the transformation of randomly distributed defects and cracks, initially present in the densely packed crystalline structure, into relatively small grains. In contrast to PbI2 powder, CH3NH3PbI3 exhibited a different degradation trend under ambient conditions. Therefore, we propose a plausible CH3NH3PbI3 decomposition pathway that explains the changes in the chemical composition of CH3NH3PbI3 under ambient conditions. In addition, films stored under such conditions were incorporated into photovoltaic cells, and their performances were examined. The chemical changes in the decomposed films were found to cause a significant decrease in the photovoltaic efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3.

  3. Evolution of Chemical Composition, Morphology, and Photovoltaic Efficiency of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 Perovskite under Ambient Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Weixin

    2016-01-12

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The surface composition and morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films stored for several days under ambient conditions were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Chemical analysis revealed the loss of CH3NH3 + and I- species from CH3NH3PbI3 and its subsequent decomposition into lead carbonate, lead hydroxide, and lead oxide. After long-term storage under ambient conditions, morphological analysis revealed the transformation of randomly distributed defects and cracks, initially present in the densely packed crystalline structure, into relatively small grains. In contrast to PbI2 powder, CH3NH3PbI3 exhibited a different degradation trend under ambient conditions. Therefore, we propose a plausible CH3NH3PbI3 decomposition pathway that explains the changes in the chemical composition of CH3NH3PbI3 under ambient conditions. In addition, films stored under such conditions were incorporated into photovoltaic cells, and their performances were examined. The chemical changes in the decomposed films were found to cause a significant decrease in the photovoltaic efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3.

  4. The effect of sintering conditions and ZrN volume fraction on the mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered W/ZrN composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongju; Umer, Malik Adeel; Shin, Yoochul; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soonhyung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of sintering conditions on properties of W composites was investigated. ► Effect of ZrN volume fraction on properties of W composites was investigated. ► The grain size and relative density increased with increasing sintering temperature. ► ZrN particles led to an increase in strength of W and a decrease in grain size. ► Highest flexural strength was obtained for 10 vol.% W/ZrN with lowest agglomeration. - Abstract: In an effort to improve the room temperature mechanical properties of tungsten, W/ZrN composites were fabricated by high energy ball milling followed by spark plasma sintering at temperatures in a range of 1200–1700 °C under a pressure of 50 MPa. The effects of sintering conditions and ZrN volume fraction on the mechanical properties of the W/ZrN composites were studied and the results were compared to the properties of monolithic tungsten. The grain size of monolith tungsten and W/ZrN composites was found to increase with an increase in sintering temperature and time. In the case of the W/ZrN composites, ZrN particles led to an increase in the compressive strength of tungsten and a decrease in grain size. The increase in compressive strength of the composites was attributed to a reinforcement effect of ZrN particles as well as grain size refinement according to the Hall–Petch relation. Compressive strength of the composites increased with increasing ZrN content while the flexural strength decreased for samples with ZrN content exceeding 10 vol.%. This was attributed to the effects of ZrN agglomeration within the tungsten matrix.

  5. Important Value of Economic Potency Mangrove Using NDVI Satellite High Resolution Image To Support Eco Tourism Of Pamurbaya Area (Case Study: East Cost of Surabaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukojo, B. M.; Hidayat, H.; Ratnasari, D.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is a vast maritime country; many mangrove conservations is found around coastal areas of Indonesia. Mangroves support the life of a large number of animal species by providing breeding, spawning and feeding. Mangrove forests as one of the unique ecosystems are potential natural resources, supporting the diversity of flora and fauna of terrestrial aquatic communities that directly or indirectly play an important role for human life in economic, social and environmental terms. East Coast Surabaya is an area with the most extensive and diverse mangrove ecosystems along the coast of Surabaya. Currently Pamurbaya used as a recreational object or nature tourism called eco tours. Utilization of mangrove ecosystem as a place of this eco tour bring positive impact on economic potency around pamurbaya area. So, to know the value of the economic potential of mangrove ecosystems for support of nature tourism Pamurbaya region needs to study mapping mangrove ecosystem conditions in the East Coast area of Surabaya. Mapping of mangrove conditions can use remote sensing technology by utilizing satellite image data with high resolution. Data used for mapping mangrove ecosystem conditions on the east coast of Surabaya are high resolution satellite image data of Pleiades 1A and field observation data such as Ground Control Point, soil spectral parameters and water quality. From satellite image data will be classification of mangrove vegetation canopy classification using NDVI vegetation index method using algorithm formula which then will be tested correlation with field observation data on reflectant value of field and water quality parameter. The purpose of this research is to know the condition of mangrove ecosystem to know the economic potential of mangrove ecosystem in supporting Pamurbaya nature tourism. The expected result of this research is the existence of basic geospatial information in the form of mangrove ecosystem condition map. So that can be used as decision

  6. Composition of Myrtus communis L. Essential Oils as Affected by Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae family, commonly known as myrtle, possesses a set of qualities that make it very interesting for the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. In this work, myrtle was studied over a period of three years (2006-2008, encompassing the main stages of the development cycle of the plant. The influence of climatic conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, on the chemical composition and yield of the essential oils obtained from leaves and berries was studied. The leaves and berries essential oils were obtained by Clevenger distillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The results show that the major components were limonene+1,8-cineole, myrtenyl acetate, α-pinene and linalool. Over the three year period of study, a decrease in the composition of the most volatile compounds (α-pinene and limonene+1,8-cineole was observed, the reverse being found for linalool and myrtenyl acetate. The highest value for the yield of the leaves’ essential oils was observed in the third year (0.64%, w/w, whereas that same year the lowest yield (0.07%, w/w of fruit was observed. These results were likely due to an atypically high record for rainfall in April and May of that year. The highest value of the berry essential oils (0.14%, w/w was obtained in the second year.

  7. The dynamics of the cellular composition of urine sediment in conditions of an artificial bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Savchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The evaluation of the urine cytological profile in the dynamics of adaptation of the orthotopic bladder to the functional properties of the urinary reservoir and determination of the connection between the cellular composition of the urine with the functional role of the formed from the intestinal fragment neocyst in experimental conditions and in humans. Materials and methods. The material in experimental study were the results of a cytological study of the urine sediment obtained from 21 female pigs (mini-pigs. The portion of urine had received in experimental animals one month after orthotopic ileocystoplasty, 6 months and 1 year later and prepared as smear from the resulting precipitate. The level of lymphocytes, neutrophils, erythrocytes, as well as the superficial, intermediate and basal epitheliocytes evaluated during study. An analysis of the cell composition of centrifugal smears from the neocyst were performed in 21 patients with bladder cancer undergoing cystectomy and the formation of an orthotopic bladder, at various periods after surgery, from 3 months to 5 years. The preparation of a centrifugal sediment and the subsequent production of smears carried out as well as experimental animals. Results and conclusions. The results of study showed that the formation of an artificial bladder in experimental animals with a fragment of the ileum changes the composition of the cells of the urinary sediment mucosa. These changes consist of an increase in the content of red blood cells, a decrease in the number of lymphocytes and neutrophils and change in the number of epithelial cells. The cellular composition of the sediment changes with the increasing duration of the postoperative period and manifests by reduction and even disappearance of erythrocytes in smears. The level of lymphocytes and neutrophils is close to those observed in intact animals. The content and ratio of epithelial cells also approached to experimental animals. The

  8. Continuous 1985-2012 Landsat monitoring to assess fire effects on meadows in Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Albano, Christine M.; Villarreal, Miguel; Walker, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    To assess how montane meadow vegetation recovered after a wildfire that occurred in Yosemite National Park, CA in 1996, Google Earth Engine image processing was applied to leverage the entire Landsat Thematic Mapper archive from 1985 to 2012. Vegetation greenness (normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]) was summarized every 16 days across the 28-year Landsat time series for 26 meadows. Disturbance event detection was hindered by the subtle influence of low-severity fire on meadow vegetation. A hard break (August 1996) was identified corresponding to the Ackerson Fire, and monthly composites were used to compare NDVI values and NDVI trends within burned and unburned meadows before, immediately after, and continuously for more than a decade following the fire date. Results indicate that NDVI values were significantly lower at 95% confidence level for burned meadows following the fire date, yet not significantly lower at 95% confidence level in the unburned meadows. Burned meadows continued to exhibit lower monthly NDVI in the dormant season through 2012. Over the entire monitoring period, the negative-trending, dormant season NDVI slopes in the burned meadows were also significantly lower than unburned meadows at 90% confidence level. Lower than average NDVI values and slopes in the dormant season compared to unburned meadows, coupled with photographic evidence, strongly suggest that evergreen vegetation was removed from the periphery of some meadows after the fire. These analyses provide insight into how satellite imagery can be used to monitor low-severity fire effects on meadow vegetation.

  9. Effects of resin content and preparing conditions on the properties of polyphenylene sulfide resin/graphite composite for bipolar plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Li-gang; Li, Ai-ju; Yin, Qiang [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Shandong Key Laboratory of Engineering Ceramics, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang, Wei-qiang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Lin, Heng; Zhao, Yi-bo [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2008-03-15

    In the paper, a kind of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) resin/graphite (G) composite for bipolar plate was prepared by using the PPS resin as adhesive and simple hot pressing. The influences of the resin content, the molding temperature and holding time on the conductivity and the bending strength of the PPS/G composite bipolar plate were investigated firstly and then the optimum content and the preparing conditions of the composite were obtained. The experimental results show that the electrical conductivity decreases and the bending strength reveals a serrated variation with increase in PPS resin content; when the holding time is certain, the conductivity decreases and the bending strength increases with the molding temperature increasing. The experimental results further show that the effect of the holding time on the properties of the composite is different at different molding temperatures. The PPS/G composite with 20% PPS resin content has electrical conductivity of 118.9 S cm{sup -1} and bending strength of 52.4 MPa when it molded at 380 C for 30 min, and has electrical conductivity of 105 S cm{sup -1}, bending strength of 55.7 MPa when it molded at 390 C for 30 min. The properties of the composites can meet the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE). (author)

  10. Composition of silicon fibrous nanostructures synthesized using ultrafast laser pulses under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the composition of nanostructures generated owing to ablation of crystalline silicon using high repletion rate femtosecond laser under ambient condition is investigated. The web-like silicon fibrous nanostructures are formed in and around the laser irradiated area. Electron Microscopy investigation revealed that the nanostructures are made of nanoparticles of size about 40 nm. In addition Micro-Raman analysis shows that the nanofibrous structures comprises a mixture of amorphous and polycrystalline silicon. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals the oxidized and un-oxidized elemental states of silicon in the nanostructures. Moreover web-like fibrous nanostructures are generated due to condensation of super saturated vapour and subsequent nucleus growth in the laser induced plasma plume.

  11. The Landsat Phenology Study (LaPS): Preliminary CONUS Results for 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, Geoffrey M.; Roy, David P.; Ju, Junchang; Kovalskyy, Valeriy

    2010-05-01

    Most studies of land surface phenology (LSP) have used time series derived from moderate spatial resolution satellite sensor data (e.g., AVHRR, MODIS, VEGETATION) because these data are freely available and because they provide an acceptable trade-off between higher, near daily, temporal frequency of observation needed to reduce cloud contamination against lower (500m-5km) spatial resolution. The recent opening of the USGS Landsat archive to web-enabled access presents the opportunity to explore how well Landsat time series can portray LSPs at high spatial resolution. The NASA Web-enabled Landsat data (WELD) project (http://landsat.usgs.gov/WELD.php) has produced 30m composited mosaics for all the conterminous US (CONUS) from Landsat 7 ETM+ data. The composited mosaics are generated on monthly, seasonal, and annual basis and include spectral reflectance, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the acquisition date of each composited pixel. The WELD compositing approach is designed to select valid land surface observations with minimal cloud, snow, and atmospheric contamination. We extracted 30m pixel time series from the twelve monthly WELD composited mosaics for 2008 at 320 locations across the CONUS where we have ground phenological observations that are heterogeneous with respect to the types of plants observed, the phenophases recorded (predominantly spring green-up) and the ground sampling protocols used. The ground data came from several sources, including the cloned lilac/honeysuckle network, the Phenocam network, five LTER sites (H.J. Andrews, Harvard Forest, Jornada, Konza Prairie, and Sevilleta), and a private woodlot in Maine. Temporal profiles of the 30m WELD Landsat NDVI, the green NDVI (GNDVI), the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) derived from the composited reflectances, are compared to the ground observations. Results show that (i) inclusion of the Landsat acquisition date for each pixel improves the characterization of the LSP

  12. Ultrathin Sicopion Composite Cation-Exchange Membranes: Characteristics and Electrodialytic Performance following a Conditioning Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ayala-Bribiesca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the properties of Sicopion membranes: an ultrathin (≈20 μm composite cation-exchange membrane (CEM made from sulphonated poly(ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK containing different levels of sulphonic-functionalized silica particles (SFSPs. Sicopion membranes were conditioned according to the French Normalization Association procedure, consisting in a series of acid and alkaline washes, and their electrodialytic characteristics were compared to an existent commercial food-grade membrane (CMX-SB. Electrical conductivity of Sicopion membranes was higher than that of CMX-SB membranes (9.92 versus 6.98 mS/cm, as well as their water content (34.0 versus 27.6%. As the SFSP level was reduced, the ion-exchange capacity (IEC of Sicopion membranes increased. Concerning their electrodialytic performances, Sicopion membranes presented a lower demineralization rate than CMX-SB membranes (35.9 versus 45.5%, due to an OH− leakage through the pores created by dislodging the SFSP particles during the conditioning procedure.

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Burn Severity Field Data and Very High Resolu