WorldWideScience

Sample records for conditional independence relations

  1. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  2. Efficient algorithms for conditional independence inference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouckaert, R.; Hemmecke, R.; Lindner, S.; Studený, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2010), s. 3453-3479 ISSN 1532-4435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0539; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : conditional independence inference * linear programming approach Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.949, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/studeny-efficient algorithms for conditional independence inference.pdf

  3. On conditional independence and log-convexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 1137-1147 ISSN 0246-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603; GA ČR GA201/08/0539 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Conditional independence * Markov properties * factorizable distributions * graphical Markov models * log-convexity * Gibbs- Markov equivalence * Markov fields * Gaussian distributions * positive definite matrices * covariance selection model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/matus-0386229.pdf

  4. Evidence for conjugated linoleic acid-induced embryonic mortality that is independent of egg storage conditions and changes in egg relative fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, V A; Stransky, D L; Aydin, R; Cook, M E

    2009-09-01

    Three experiments were performed to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on embryonic development in the absence of vitelline membrane disruption. In experiment 1, when eggs from control and CLA (0.5%)-fed hens were stored at 21 or 15 degrees C for 48 h, mineral movement between the yolk and albumen was not observed (with the exception of Mg and Na). Also, it was found that CLA-induced changes in yolk fatty acid content (e.g., increased saturated fatty acids and CLA) had begun to change after 5 d of feeding hens CLA, and no differences were detected in fatty acid composition after 14 d. In experiment 2, the hatchability of eggs incubated directly after oviposition or stored 24 h at 21 or 15 degrees C was determined from hens fed control or 0.5% CLA diets. Regardless of storage conditions, CLA reduced hatchability. These data showed that CLA elicits negative effects on hatchability independent of vitelline membrane disruption or egg storage condition. In experiment 3, eggs were collected from hens fed 0 or 1% CLA daily for 3 wk, stored at 21 degrees C for 24 h, and incubated. Not only did CLA decrease hatchability, the data showed as the days of CLA feeding increased, the days of survival during incubation decreased. Average days of embryonic survival during incubation for the CLA group diminished to 18.0, 13.4, and 6.3 d for wk 1, 2, and 3 of CLA feeding, respectively, and control remained at 20.6, 20.8, and 19.8 for the 3 wk. These studies suggested that without the disruption of the vitelline membrane, hatchability and embryonic days of survival were significantly reduced by maternal CLA feeding in comparison to control-fed hens. Evidence that embryos die earlier the longer the hens are fed CLA, even though no additional changes in the fatty acid content of eggs were found, suggested that factors other than storage and egg yolk fatty acid composition played a role in CLA-induced embryonic mortality.

  5. On the path independence conditions for discrete-continuous demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batley, Richard; Ibáñez Rivas, Juan Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    We consider the manner in which the well-established path independence conditions apply to Small and Rosen's (1981) problem of discrete-continuous demand, focussing especially upon the restricted case of discrete choice (probabilistic) demand. We note that the consumer surplus measure promoted...... by Small and Rosen, which is specific to the probabilistic demand, imposes path independence to price changes a priori. We find that path independence to income changes can further be imposed provided a numeraire good is available in the consumption set. We show that, for practical purposes, Mc...

  6. A linear-algebraic tool for conditional independence inference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tanaka, K.; Studený, Milan; Takemura, A.; Sei, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2015), s. 150-167 ISSN 1309-3452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Conditional independence inference * Automated theorem proving Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/studeny-0450036.pdf

  7. Compositional models and conditional independence in evidence theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Radim; Vejnarová, Jiřina

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2011), s. 316-334 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Evidence theory * Conditional independence * multidimensional models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.948, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/jirousek-0370515.pdf

  8. Empirical Bayes conditional independence graphs for regulatory network recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Rami; Madduri, Abishek S.; Wang, Guoqing; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Salit, Jacqueline; Hackett, Neil R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Mezey, Jason G.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Computational inference methods that make use of graphical models to extract regulatory networks from gene expression data can have difficulty reconstructing dense regions of a network, a consequence of both computational complexity and unreliable parameter estimation when sample size is small. As a result, identification of hub genes is of special difficulty for these methods. Methods: We present a new algorithm, Empirical Light Mutual Min (ELMM), for large network reconstruction that has properties well suited for recovery of graphs with high-degree nodes. ELMM reconstructs the undirected graph of a regulatory network using empirical Bayes conditional independence testing with a heuristic relaxation of independence constraints in dense areas of the graph. This relaxation allows only one gene of a pair with a putative relation to be aware of the network connection, an approach that is aimed at easing multiple testing problems associated with recovering densely connected structures. Results: Using in silico data, we show that ELMM has better performance than commonly used network inference algorithms including GeneNet, ARACNE, FOCI, GENIE3 and GLASSO. We also apply ELMM to reconstruct a network among 5492 genes expressed in human lung airway epithelium of healthy non-smokers, healthy smokers and individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assayed using microarrays. The analysis identifies dense sub-networks that are consistent with known regulatory relationships in the lung airway and also suggests novel hub regulatory relationships among a number of genes that play roles in oxidative stress and secretion. Availability and implementation: Software for running ELMM is made available at http://mezeylab.cb.bscb.cornell.edu/Software.aspx. Contact: ramimahdi@yahoo.com or jgm45@cornell.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22685074

  9. Scale-Independent Relational Query Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, Michael Paul

    2013-01-01

    An increasingly common pattern is for newly-released web applications to succumb to a "Success Disaster". In this scenario, overloaded database machines and resultant high response times destroy a previously good user experience, just as a site is becoming popular. Unfortunately, the data independence provided by a traditional relational…

  10. Condition monitoring with Mean field independent components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    We discuss condition monitoring based on mean field independent components analysis of acoustic emission energy signals. Within this framework it is possible to formulate a generative model that explains the sources, their mixing and also the noise statistics of the observed signals. By using...... a novelty approach we may detect unseen faulty signals as indeed faulty with high precision, even though the model learns only from normal signals. This is done by evaluating the likelihood that the model generated the signals and adapting a simple threshold for decision. Acoustic emission energy signals...... from a large diesel engine is used to demonstrate this approach. The results show that mean field independent components analysis gives a better detection of fault compared to principal components analysis, while at the same time selecting a more compact model...

  11. Scale-Independent Relational Query Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    source options are also available, including Postgresql, MySQL , and SQLite. These mod- ern relational databases are generally very complex software systems...and Their Application to Data Stream Management. IGI Global, 2010. [68] George Reese. Database Programming with JDBC and Java , Second Edition. Ed. by

  12. State-independent uncertainty relations and entanglement detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chen; Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The uncertainty relation is one of the key ingredients of quantum theory. Despite the great efforts devoted to this subject, most of the variance-based uncertainty relations are state-dependent and suffering from the triviality problem of zero lower bounds. Here we develop a method to get uncertainty relations with state-independent lower bounds. The method works by exploring the eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix composed by Bloch vectors of incompatible observables and is applicable for both pure and mixed states and for arbitrary number of N-dimensional observables. The uncertainty relation for the incompatible observables can be explained by geometric relations related to the parallel postulate and the inequalities in Horn's conjecture on Hermitian matrix sum. Practical entanglement criteria are also presented based on the derived uncertainty relations.

  13. Functional Independent Scaling Relation for ORR/OER Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune; Hansen, Heine Anton; Dickens, Colin F.

    2016-01-01

    reactions. Here, we show that the oxygen-oxygen bond in the OOH* intermediate is, however, not well described with the previously used class of exchange-correlation functionals. By quantifying and correcting the systematic error, an improved description of gaseous peroxide species versus experimental data...... and a reduction in calculational uncertainty is obtained. For adsorbates, we find that the systematic error largely cancels the vdW interaction missing in the original determination of the scaling relation. An improved scaling relation, which is fully independent of the applied exchange-correlation functional...

  14. On criteria for algebraic independence of collections of functions satisfying algebraic difference relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ogawara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives conditions for algebraic independence of a collection of functions satisfying a certain kind of algebraic difference relations. As applications, we show algebraic independence of two collections of special functions: (1 Vignéras' multiple gamma functions and derivatives of the gamma function, (2 the logarithmic function, \\(q\\-exponential functions and \\(q\\-polylogarithm functions. In a similar way, we give a generalization of Ostrowski's theorem.

  15. Water quality and ecological condition of urban streams in Independence, Missouri, June 2005 through December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.; Harris, Thomas E.; Niesen, Shelley L.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the sources of selected constituents in urban streams and better understand processes affecting water quality and their effects on the ecological condition of urban streams and the Little Blue River in Independence, Missouri the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Independence Water Pollution Control Department initiated a study in June 2005 to characterize water quality and evaluate the ecological condition of streams within Independence. Base-flow and stormflow samples collected from five sites within Independence, from June 2005 to December 2008, were used to characterize the physical, chemical, and biologic effects of storm runoff on the water quality in Independence streams and the Little Blue River. The streams draining Independence-Rock Creek, Sugar Creek, Mill Creek, Fire Prairie Creek, and the Little Blue River-drain to the north and the Missouri River. Two small predominantly urban streams, Crackerneck Creek [12.9-square kilometer (km2) basin] and Spring Branch Creek (25.4-km2 basin), were monitored that enter into the Little Blue River between upstream and downstream monitoring sites. The Little Blue River above the upstream site is regulated by several reservoirs, but streamflow is largely uncontrolled. The Little Blue River Basin encompasses 585 km2 with about 168 km2 or 29 percent of the basin lying within the city limits of Independence. Water-quality samples also were collected for Rock Creek (24.1-km2 basin) that drains the western part of Independence. Data collection included streamflow, physical properties, dissolved oxygen, chloride, metals, nutrients, common organic micro-constituents, and fecal indicator bacteria. Benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys and habitat assessments were conducted to establish a baseline for evaluating the ecological condition and health of streams within Independence. Additional dry-weather screenings during base flow of all streams draining Independence were conducted to

  16. The generalized scheme-independent Crewther relation in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Ming; Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2017-07-01

    The Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to set the renormalization scales order-by-order for any perturbative QCD calculable processes. The resulting predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme, a requirement of renormalization group invariance. The Crewther relation, which was originally derived as a consequence of conformally invariant field theory, provides a remarkable connection between two observables when the β function vanishes: one can show that the product of the Bjorken sum rule for spin-dependent deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering times the Adler function, defined from the cross section for electron-positron annihilation into hadrons, has no pQCD radiative corrections. The ;Generalized Crewther Relation; relates these two observables for physical QCD with nonzero β function; specifically, it connects the non-singlet Adler function (Dns) to the Bjorken sum rule coefficient for polarized deep-inelastic electron scattering (CBjp) at leading twist. A scheme-dependent ΔCSB-term appears in the analysis in order to compensate for the conformal symmetry breaking (CSB) terms from perturbative QCD. In conventional analyses, this normally leads to unphysical dependence in both the choice of the renormalization scheme and the choice of the initial scale at any finite order. However, by applying PMC scale-setting, we can fix the scales of the QCD coupling unambiguously at every order of pQCD. The result is that both Dns and the inverse coefficient CBjp-1 have identical pQCD coefficients, which also exactly match the coefficients of the corresponding conformal theory. Thus one obtains a new generalized Crewther relation for QCD which connects two effective charges, αˆd (Q) =∑i≥1 αˆg1 i (Qi), at their respective physical scales. This identity is independent of the choice of the renormalization scheme at any finite order, and the dependence on the choice of the initial scale is negligible. Similar

  17. Naïve and Robust: Class-Conditional Independence in Human Classification Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecki, Jana B.; Meder, Björn; Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2018-01-01

    Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference…

  18. Conditional expectations on the von Neumann algebras and causal independence of quantized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadashyan, K.Yu.; Khoruzhij, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    Implementation of the condition of casual independence of quantized fields has been established for a number of quantum-field systems. Implementation of a property of the Haag-Castler casual independence has been proved for a net of the von Neumann local algebras in a number of models of free and quantized fields interacting in the Fock local way. In particular, proved is a theorem of meeting the condition of casual independence with the net of local albegras of the Dirac free field. A new method based on the techniques of noncommutative probability law has been used for the proof [ru

  19. Blind Separation of Event-Related Brain Responses into Independent Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makeig, Scott

    1996-01-01

    .... We report here a method for the blind separation of event-related brain responses into spatially stationary and temporally independent subcomponents using an Independent Component Analysis algorithm...

  20. Rate-Independent Processes with Linear Growth Energies and Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Zimmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2012), s. 591-604 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : concentrations * oscillations * time - dependent boundary conditions * rate-independent evolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/MTR/kruzik-rate-independent processes with linear growth energies and time - dependent boundary conditions.pdf

  1. Energy conditions and stability in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    The dominant energy condition in general relativity theory, which says that every observer measures a nonnegative local energy density and a nonspacelike local energy flow, is examined in connection with the types of energy-momentum tensor it permits. The condition that the energy-momentum tensor be ''stable'' in obeying the dominant energy conditions is then defined in terms of a suitable topology on the set of energy-momentum tensors on space-time and the consequences are evaluated and discussed. (author)

  2. The finite sample performance of estimators for mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Mellace, Giovanni

    Using a comprehensive simulation study based on empirical data, this paper investigates the finite sample properties of different classes of parametric and semi-parametric estimators of (natural) direct and indirect causal effects used in mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence...

  3. PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS OF ACTIVATION OF CREATIVE COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE OF A COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Strogina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to creation of the model and methodic conditions of activation of creative cognitive independence of a college students. Useof the present system could allow to solve one ofthe prime tasks in the modern studying process,as well as significantly increase professionalqualifications of the college graduates.

  4. Relating masses and mixing angles. A model-independent model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Saldana-Salazar, Ulises Jesus [CINVESTAV (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    In general, mixing angles and fermion masses are seen to be independent parameters of the Standard Model. However, exploiting the observed hierarchy in the masses, it is viable to construct the mixing matrices for both quarks and leptons in terms of the corresponding mass ratios only. A closer view on the symmetry properties leads to potential realizations of that approach in extensions of the Standard Model. We discuss the application in the context of flavored multi-Higgs models.

  5. Constant conditional entropy and related hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Dębowski, Łukasz; Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-01-01

    Constant entropy rate (conditional entropies must remain constant as the sequence length increases) and uniform information density (conditional probabilities must remain constant as the sequence length increases) are two information theoretic principles that are argued to underlie a wide range of linguistic phenomena. Here we revise the predictions of these principles in the light of Hilberg’s law on the scaling of conditional entropy in language and related laws. We show that constant entropy rate (CER) and two interpretations for uniform information density (UID), full UID and strong UID, are inconsistent with these laws. Strong UID implies CER but the reverse is not true. Full UID, a particular case of UID, leads to costly uncorrelated sequences that are totally unrealistic. We conclude that CER and its particular cases are incomplete hypotheses about the scaling of conditional entropies. (letter)

  6. On patterns of conditional independences and covariance signs among binary variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František

    Roč. 154, č. 2 ( 2018 ), s. 511-524 ISSN 0236-5294 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12010S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : conditional independence * covariance * correlation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/ 2018 /MTR/matus-0488279.pdf

  7. Pain in fibromyalgia and related conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cassisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the hallmark symptom of fibromyalgia (FM and other related syndromes, but quite different from that of other rheumatic diseases, which depends on the degree of damage or inflammation in peripheral tissues. Sufferers are often defined as patients with chronic pain without an underlying mechanistic cause, and these syndromes and their symptoms are most appropriately described as “central pain”, “neuropathic pain”, “nonnociceptive pain” or “central sensitivity syndromes”. The pain is particular, regional or widespread, and mainly relates to the musculoskeletal system; hyperalgesia or allodynia are typical. Its origin is currently considered to be distorted pain or sensory processing, rather than a local or regional abnormality. FM is probably the most important and extensively described central pain syndrome, but the characteristics and features of FM-related pain are similar in other disorders of particular interest for rheumatologists, such as myofascial pain syndromes and temporo-mandibular joint disorders, and there is also an intriguing overlap between FM and benign joint hypermobility syndrome. This suggests that the distinctive aspects of pain in these idiopathic or functional conditions is caused by central nervous system hypersensitivity and abnormalities. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been suggested for the treatment of these conditions, but a multidisciplinary approach is required in order to reduce the abnormal cycle of pain amplification and the related maladaptive and self-limiting behaviours.

  8. Perfect independent sets with respect to infinitely many relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Martin; Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 7 (2016), s. 847-856 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07880S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : perfect clique * free subgroup * open relation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00153-016-0498-3

  9. Recovery of Work-Related Stress: Complaint Reduction and Work-Resumption are Relatively Independent Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Wieke; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Blonk, Roland W B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-09-01

    The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the association between predictors and work-resumption. Seventy-one patients on sickness-leave because of work-related stress complaints were followed over a period of 13 months. Predictors comprised personal (demographics, coping, cognitions), work-related (job-characteristics, social support), and illness-related (complaint duration, absence duration) variables. Dependent variables were distress complaints, burnout complaints, and work-resumption. Complaints reduced considerably over time to borderline clinical levels and work-resumption increased to 68% at 13 months. Predictors of stronger reduction of distress complaints were male gender, less working hours, less decision authority, more co-worker support, and shorter absence duration. Predictors of stronger reduction of burnout complaints were male gender, lower age, high education, less avoidant coping, less decision authority, more job security, and more co-worker support. Predictors of work-resumption were lower age and stronger reduction of burnout complaints. No indication for a mediating role of burnout complaints between the predictor age and work-resumption was found. Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes. Symptom reduction is influenced by individual and work-related characteristics, which holds promise for a multidisciplinary treatment approach for work-related stress.

  10. Rapid, Labile, and Protein Synthesis– Independent Short-Term Memory in Conditioned Taste Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Houpt, Thomas A.; Berlin, RoseAnn

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with int...

  11. Bayesian conditional-independence modeling of the AIDS epidemic in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilks, Walter R.; De Angelis, Daniela; Day, Nicholas E.

    We describe the use of conditional-independence modeling, Bayesian inference and Markov chain Monte Carlo, to model and project the HIV-AIDS epidemic in homosexual/bisexual males in England and Wales. Complexity in this analysis arises through selectively missing data, indirectly observed underlying processes, and measurement error. Our emphasis is on presentation and discussion of the concepts, not on the technicalities of this analysis, which can be found elsewhere [D. De Angelis, W.R. Gilks, N.E. Day, Bayesian projection of the the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic (with discussion), Applied Statistics, in press].

  12. Electrode size and boundary condition independent measurement of the effective piezoelectric coefficient of thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stewart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the piezoelectric coefficient of thin films using interferometry is hindered by bending contributions. Using finite element analysis (FEA simulations, we show that the Lefki and Dormans approximations using either single or double-beam measurements cannot be used with finite top electrode sizes. We introduce a novel method for characterising piezoelectric thin films which uses a differential measurement over the discontinuity at the electrode edge as an internal reference, thereby eliminating bending contributions. This step height is shown to be electrode size and boundary condition independent. An analytical expression is derived which gives good agreement with FEA predictions of the step height.

  13. Bosonization relations as bag boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, S.; Nielsen, H.B.; Zahed, I.

    1984-10-01

    The more sophisticated bag models of hadrons become, the less precisely they seem to determine the bag radius. Idealizing this situation leads to the concept of exact bag models - ''Cheshire Cat'' models, CCM'S - where the physics is completely insensitive to changes in the bag radius. CCM's are constructed explitly in 1+1-dimensions, where exact bosonization relations are known. In the formalism of bag models, these relations appear as boundary conditions which ensure that the shifting of the bag wall has no physical effect. Other notable features of 1+1-dimensional CCM's are: (i) Fermion number, though classically confined, can escape the bag via a vector current anomaly at the surface. (ii) Essentially the same boundary action works for a variety of models and its symmetries determine those of the external boson fields. Remarkably enough, this 1+1-dimensional boundary action has precisely the same form as the one used in 3+1-dimensional chiral bag models, lending support to the belief that the latter are indeed approximateCCM's. These 1+1-dimensional results are expected to provide useful guidelines in the attempt to, at least approximately, besonize 3+1-dimensional QCD. (orig.)

  14. Experimental stress during molt suggests the evolution of condition-dependent and condition-independent ornaments in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, Quentin; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Dobson, F Stephen; Saadaoui, Hédi; Viblanc, Vincent A; Bize, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Sexual selection and social selection are two important theories proposed for explaining the evolution of colorful ornamental traits in animals. Understanding signal honesty requires studying how environmental and physiological factors during development influence the showy nature of sexual and social ornaments. We experimentally manipulated physiological stress and immunity status during the molt in adult king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ), and studied the consequences of our treatments on colourful ornaments (yellow-orange and UV beak spots and yellow-orange auricular feather patches) known to be used in sexual and social contexts in this species. Whereas some ornamental features showed strong condition-dependence (yellow auricular feather chroma, yellow and UV chroma of the beak), others were condition-independent and remained highly correlated before and after the molt (auricular patch size and beak UV hue). Our study provides a rare examination of the links between ornament determinism and selection processes in the wild. We highlight the coexistence of ornaments costly to produce that may be honest signals used in mate choice, and ornaments for which honesty may be enforced by social mediation or rely on genetic constraints.

  15. Conditioning and learning in relation to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, T A; Guy, W

    1985-12-01

    Of the two generally recognized processes through which learning occurs--imprinting and conditioning--only the latter with its two paradigms, classical and operant, has both practical and heuristic implications for disease. From the classical conditioning experiments of Pavlov's laboratory over 100 years ago to the later work in operant conditioning by Skinner and others in the past four decades has evolved much of the basis of modern learning theory and its applications to disease in the form of behavior therapy. Variants of behavior therapy have been employed in the treatment of wide variety of medical and psychiatric illnesses. Recent developments in the study of brain function and biochemistry have led to renewed interest in the conditioning paradigm and its value as tool in these areas of research.

  16. Rapid, labile, and protein synthesis-independent short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, T A; Berlin, R

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with intraoral catheters to allow presentation of taste solutions at arbitrary times. Intraoral intake was measured under conditions of long-delay, single-trial learning typical of CTA. Rats decreased intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min after contingent pairing of sucrose and LiCl, but not after noncontingent LiCl or sucrose. Thus CTA learning can be expressed rapidly. To determine if short-term CTA memory is labile and decays in the absence of long-term memory, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose after pairing sucrose with low doses of LiCl. Rats received an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6 ml/6 min); 30 min later LiCl was injected at three different doses (19, 38, or 76 mg/kg). A second intraoral infusion of sucrose was administered 15 min, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4.5 hr, 6 hr, or 48 hr later. The formation of long-term CTA memory was dependent on the dose of LiCl paired with sucrose during acquisition. Low doses of LiCl induced a CTA that decayed within 6 hr after pairing. Central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide prior to LiCl injection blocked long-term CTA expression at 6 and 48 hr, but not short-term CTA expression at 1 hr. Thus, short-term memory for CTA learning exists that is acquired rapidly and independent of protein synthesis, but labile in the absence of long-term memory formation.

  17. Development of Boundary Condition Independent Reduced Order Thermal Models using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Arun; Ghia, Karman; Ghia, Urmila

    2008-11-01

    Compact Thermal Models (CTM) to represent IC packages has been traditionally developed using the DELPHI-based (DEvelopment of Libraries of PHysical models for an Integrated design) methodology. The drawbacks of this method are presented, and an alternative method is proposed. A reduced-order model that provides the complete thermal information accurately with less computational resources can be effectively used in system level simulations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), a statistical method, can be used to reduce the order of the degree of freedom or variables of the computations for such a problem. POD along with the Galerkin projection allows us to create reduced-order models that reproduce the characteristics of the system with a considerable reduction in computational resources while maintaining a high level of accuracy. The goal of this work is to show that this method can be applied to obtain a boundary condition independent reduced-order thermal model for complex components. The methodology is applied to the 1D transient heat equation.

  18. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions What's in this article? ...

  19. Improving Healthcare Transition Planning and Health Related Independence for Youth with ASD and their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Autism and Developmental Disorders; Journal of Adolescent Research; Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics; and Autism: The...skills and desires for financial independence of youth with ASD” Submitted to Journal of Consumer Affairs. 6/30/2016  Cheak-Zamora, NC, Michelle...14.3 Bachelor’s Degree 9.5 Young adult’s chronic condition(s) Asthma 14.3 Behavior or conduct disorder 14.3 Attention

  20. Precursor conditions related to Zimbabwe's summer droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangombe, Shingirai; Madyiwa, Simon; Wang, Jianhong

    2018-01-01

    Despite the increasing severity of droughts and their effects on Zimbabwe's agriculture, there are few tools available for predicting these droughts in advance. Consequently, communities and farmers are more exposed, and policy makers are always ill prepared for such. This study sought to investigate possible cycles and precursor meteorological conditions prior to drought seasons that could be used to predict impending droughts in Zimbabwe. The Single Z-Index was used to identify and grade drought years between 1951 and 2010 according to rainfall severity. Spectral analysis was used to reveal the cycles of droughts for possible use of these cycles for drought prediction. Composite analysis was used to investigate circulation and temperature anomalies associated with severe and extreme drought years. Results indicate that severe droughts are more highly correlated with circulation patterns and embedded weather systems in the Indian Ocean and equatorial Pacific Ocean than any other area. This study identified sea surface temperatures in the average period June to August, geopotential height and wind vector in July to September period, and air temperature in September to November period as precursors that can be used to predict a drought occurrence several months in advance. Therefore, in addition to sea surface temperature, which was identified through previous research for predicting Zimbabwean droughts, the other parameters identified in this study can aid in drought prediction. Drought cycles were established at 20-, 12.5-, 3.2-, and 2.7-year cycles. The spectral peaks, 12.5, 3.2, and 2.7, had a similar timescale with the luni-solar tide, El Niño Southern Oscillation and Quasi Biennial Oscillation, respectively, and hence, occurrence of these phenomena have a possibility of indicating when the next drought might be.

  1. Early Extinction after Fear Conditioning Yields a Context-Independent and Short-Term Suppression of Conditional Freezing in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-hui; Maren, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats is a useful model for therapeutic interventions in humans with anxiety disorders. Recently, we found that delivering extinction trials soon (15 min) after fear conditioning yields a short-term suppression of fear, but little long-term extinction. Here, we explored the possible mechanisms underlying…

  2. Factors related to oral health-related quality of life of independent brazilian elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulinski, Karla Giovana Bavaresco; do Nascimento, Mariele Andrade; Lima, Arinilson Moreira Chaves

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the factors associated with the impact of oral health on the quality of life in a sample of 504 Brazilian independent elderly. Data collection included oral examinations and structured interviews. The simplified form of the Oral Health Impact...... Profile (OHIP-14) was used to measure OHRQoL. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, use of dental services, and subjective measures of health was collected. Poisson regression within a hierarchical model was used to data analyses. The following variables were associated with a negative impact...

  3. The independent roles of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary time on chronic conditions and Body Mass Index in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathokostas, L; Dogra, S; Paterson, D H

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the independent influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary behavior on chronic disease incidence and body composition in older adults. A sample of 292 community dwelling men and women (mean 69.3±8.1 years) underwent maximal treadmill testing and completed questionnaires relating to their leisure-time physical activity, sedentary time, and health. The average V O2 of the sample was approximately 21 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) with the average sedentary time being over 3 hours per day. Cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of number of chronic conditions and BMI than total physical activity and sedentary. Those with a higher cardiorespiratory fitness had fewer chronic conditions and a lower BMI. No such associations were seen for either total physical activity levels or sedentary time. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger predictor of health among older adults and further highlights the importance of promoting public health guidelines for cardiorespiratory fitness.

  4. Older women's perceptions of independence versus dependence in food-related work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Kerstin; Andersson, Ingegerd; Andersson, Jenny; Fjellström, Christina; Sidenvall, Birgitta

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to explore the cultural meaning of accomplishing food-related work by older women, when disease has diminished their abilities and threatens to make them dependent. Seventy-two women with stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, and Parkinson's disease, as well as women without those diseases, were interviewed. All were living at home. Results showed that older women valued independence and feared dependence when declining ability threatened performance of food-related work. They also had strong beliefs about living a "normal life," managing by oneself as long as possible, and becoming their own masters again. To remain independent, participants used three kinds of strategies: Public Health Service Support, self-managing, and adaptation. Their beliefs about dependence included not becoming a burden, retaining self-determination, and maintaining order in life. Implications for nursing include supporting independent cooking, developing care plans with the care recipient, and demonstrating respect for the women's self-determination.

  5. Mental Condition and Ventricular Size in Arrested Hydrocephalus: an Analysis of 29 Shunt‐independent Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLTZER, G.J.; de LANGE, S.A.; ORBAAN, I.J.C.; GELSEMA, R.

    1971-01-01

    textabstractMeasurement of the diameter of the ventricular system, in a series of 29 patients with arrested hydrocephalus who had become shunt‐independent, showed that enlargement of the ventricles does not necessarily play a part in the arrest of hydrocephalus, for in many of these cases the

  6. Field study of visual and biological light conditions of independently-living elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.P.J.; Westerlaken, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A field study was carried out to learn more about the influence of light on the lives of elderly people . The results should lead to the development and design of a light concept for elderly people that will improve their everyday health and well-being. Methods: Ninetyone independently-living

  7. Independent Representation of Parts and the Relations between Them: Evidence from Integrative Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Marlene; Peterson, Mary A.; Moscovitch, Morris; Suzuki, Satoru

    2006-01-01

    Whether objects are represented as a collection of parts whose relations are coded independently remains a topic of ongoing discussion among theorists in the domain of shape perception. S. M., an individual with integrative agnosia, and neurologically intact ("normal") individuals learned initially to identify 4 target objects constructed of 2…

  8. Oral hygiene caregivers' educational programme improves oral health conditions in institutionalised independent and functional elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando F; Rocha, Aline W; Haddad, Daniel C; Fortes, Carmem B B; Hugo, Fernando N; Padilha, Dalva M P; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of an oral hygiene education programme for caregivers on the oral health of institutionalised elderly and to examine the effect of disability and low muscle strength on programme outcomes. The subjects of this study were geriatric patients (n = 80) from a nursing home. Katz Index for activities of daily living, handgrip strength and mucosal-plaque score (MPS) was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after intervention. The intervention consisted of an educational programme and specific guidelines for caregivers (to perform oral hygiene for dependent elderly and to supervise the independent elderly during oral hygiene practices). Differences on MPS were evaluated using a paired-sample t-test. A stratified analysis was carried out to identify differences in response to the programme according to the Katz Index and handgrip strength of elderly. The MPS was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) at follow-up; however, a separate analysis showed that only the independent elderly (p = 0.002) and those with normal muscle strength (p = 0.006) showed a reduction in MPS during the follow-up examination. The oral hygiene education programme for caregivers resulted in a positive impact on oral hygiene of the independent and functional elderly. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Recovery of Work-Related Stress: Complaint Reduction and Work-Resumption are Relatively Independent Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, W. de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.; Emmelkamp, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the

  10. Recovery of work-related stress: Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vente, W.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the

  11. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-10-25

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7-15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework) was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI ( p 0.09), while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI ( p = 0.03). Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls.

  12. Independent and inverse association of healthcare utilisation with physical activity in older adults with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Ambrose, T Y L; Ashe, M C; Marra, C

    2010-11-01

    In this study, whether physical activity is independently associated with direct healthcare costs in community-dwelling older adults with multiple chronic conditions was examined. Cross-sectional analysis. Research laboratory. 299 community-dwelling men and women volunteers aged 65 years and older with chronic conditions. None. Primary dependent variable was direct healthcare costs incurred in the previous 3 months. Participants completed the Health Resource Utilisation (HRU) questionnaire. To estimate HRU, direct costs in the previous 3 months were calculated using the three-party payer perspective of the British Columbia Ministry of Health, deemed representative of the Canadian healthcare system costs. For medications, the Retail Pharmacy Dispensed prescription cost tables were used. Primary independent variables were (1) self-report current level of physical activity as assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) and (2) general balance and mobility as assessed by the National Institute on Aging Balance Scale. The mean number of chronic conditions per participant was six. Current level of physical activity was independently and inversely associated with HRU. Age, sex, number of chronic conditions, global cognitive function, body mass index, and general balance and mobility together accounted for 24.3% of the total variance. Adding the PASIPD score resulted in an R2 change of 3.3% and significantly improved the model. The total variance accounted by the final model was 27.6%. Physical activity promotion may reduce healthcare costs in older adults with chronic conditions.

  13. Identifying significant genetic regulatory networks in the prostate cancer from microarray data based on transcription factor analysis and conditional independency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Cheng-Yu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is a world wide leading cancer and it is characterized by its aggressive metastasis. According to the clinical heterogeneity, prostate cancer displays different stages and grades related to the aggressive metastasis disease. Although numerous studies used microarray analysis and traditional clustering method to identify the individual genes during the disease processes, the important gene regulations remain unclear. We present a computational method for inferring genetic regulatory networks from micorarray data automatically with transcription factor analysis and conditional independence testing to explore the potential significant gene regulatory networks that are correlated with cancer, tumor grade and stage in the prostate cancer. Results To deal with missing values in microarray data, we used a K-nearest-neighbors (KNN algorithm to determine the precise expression values. We applied web services technology to wrap the bioinformatics toolkits and databases to automatically extract the promoter regions of DNA sequences and predicted the transcription factors that regulate the gene expressions. We adopt the microarray datasets consists of 62 primary tumors, 41 normal prostate tissues from Stanford Microarray Database (SMD as a target dataset to evaluate our method. The predicted results showed that the possible biomarker genes related to cancer and denoted the androgen functions and processes may be in the development of the prostate cancer and promote the cell death in cell cycle. Our predicted results showed that sub-networks of genes SREBF1, STAT6 and PBX1 are strongly related to a high extent while ETS transcription factors ELK1, JUN and EGR2 are related to a low extent. Gene SLC22A3 may explain clinically the differentiation associated with the high grade cancer compared with low grade cancer. Enhancer of Zeste Homolg 2 (EZH2 regulated by RUNX1 and STAT3 is correlated to the pathological stage

  14. Identifying significant genetic regulatory networks in the prostate cancer from microarray data based on transcription factor analysis and conditional independency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiang-Yuan; Cheng, Shih-Wu; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Shih-Fang; Soo, Von-Wun

    2009-12-21

    Prostate cancer is a world wide leading cancer and it is characterized by its aggressive metastasis. According to the clinical heterogeneity, prostate cancer displays different stages and grades related to the aggressive metastasis disease. Although numerous studies used microarray analysis and traditional clustering method to identify the individual genes during the disease processes, the important gene regulations remain unclear. We present a computational method for inferring genetic regulatory networks from micorarray data automatically with transcription factor analysis and conditional independence testing to explore the potential significant gene regulatory networks that are correlated with cancer, tumor grade and stage in the prostate cancer. To deal with missing values in microarray data, we used a K-nearest-neighbors (KNN) algorithm to determine the precise expression values. We applied web services technology to wrap the bioinformatics toolkits and databases to automatically extract the promoter regions of DNA sequences and predicted the transcription factors that regulate the gene expressions. We adopt the microarray datasets consists of 62 primary tumors, 41 normal prostate tissues from Stanford Microarray Database (SMD) as a target dataset to evaluate our method. The predicted results showed that the possible biomarker genes related to cancer and denoted the androgen functions and processes may be in the development of the prostate cancer and promote the cell death in cell cycle. Our predicted results showed that sub-networks of genes SREBF1, STAT6 and PBX1 are strongly related to a high extent while ETS transcription factors ELK1, JUN and EGR2 are related to a low extent. Gene SLC22A3 may explain clinically the differentiation associated with the high grade cancer compared with low grade cancer. Enhancer of Zeste Homolg 2 (EZH2) regulated by RUNX1 and STAT3 is correlated to the pathological stage. We provide a computational framework to reconstruct

  15. Mode of delivery has an independent impact on neonatal condition at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Tomas; Kumar, Sailesh

    2014-10-01

    Current intra-partum monitoring techniques are often criticized for their poor specificity, with their performance frequently evaluated using measures of the neonatal condition at birth as a surrogate marker for intra-partum fetal compromise. However, these measures may potentially be influenced by a multitude of other factors, including the mode of delivery itself. This study aimed to investigate the impact of mode of delivery on neonatal condition at birth. This prospective observational study, undertaken at a tertiary referral maternity unit in London, UK, included 604 'low risk' women recruited prior to delivery. Commonly assessed neonatal outcome variables (Apgar score at 1 and 5min, umbilical artery pH and base excess, neonatal unit admission, and a composite neonatal outcome score) were used to compare the condition at birth between babies born by different modes of delivery, using one-way ANOVA and chi-squared testing. Infants born by instrumental delivery for presumed fetal compromise had the poorest condition at birth (mean composite score=1.20), whereas those born by Cesarean section for presumed fetal compromise had a better condition at birth (mean composite score=0.64) (p=surrogate marker of intra-partum fetal compromise. When evaluating the efficacy of intra-partum monitoring techniques, the isolated use of Apgar scores, umbilical artery acidosis and neonatal unit admission should be discouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Independent Component Analysis and Time-Frequency Masking for Speech Recognition in Multitalker Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Orglmeister

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When a number of speakers are simultaneously active, for example in meetings or noisy public places, the sources of interest need to be separated from interfering speakers and from each other in order to be robustly recognized. Independent component analysis (ICA has proven a valuable tool for this purpose. However, ICA outputs can still contain strong residual components of the interfering speakers whenever noise or reverberation is high. In such cases, nonlinear postprocessing can be applied to the ICA outputs, for the purpose of reducing remaining interferences. In order to improve robustness to the artefacts and loss of information caused by this process, recognition can be greatly enhanced by considering the processed speech feature vector as a random variable with time-varying uncertainty, rather than as deterministic. The aim of this paper is to show the potential to improve recognition of multiple overlapping speech signals through nonlinear postprocessing together with uncertainty-based decoding techniques.

  17. The finite sample performance of estimators for mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Mellace, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Using a comprehensive simulation study based on empirical data, this paper investigates the finite sample properties of different classes of parametric and semi-parametric estimators of (natural) direct and indirect causal effects used in mediation analysis under sequential conditional independen...... of the methods often (but not always) varies with the features of the data generating process....

  18. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls aged 7–15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, and fat-free mass index (FFMI. Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI (p < 0.03 after adjusting for maternal overweight, the average annual income of family, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity energy expenditure, and energy intake: Girls in the highest tertile of screen time/homework had 16.7%/23.3% higher relative FMI and 2.9%/2.9% higher relative FFMI than girls in the lowest tertile. Among boys, screen time was positively associated with FFMI (p < 0.003, but not related to %BF and FMI (p > 0.09, while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI (p = 0.03. Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls.

  19. Body condition variation in kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) nestlings in relation to breeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, David; Casagrande, Stefania; Carello, Livia; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    The body condition index (i.e., body mass corrected for age or size differences) is commonly used to investigate offspring condition in nestling birds. The body condition index reflects different parameters related to the general nutritional state of nestlings and may predict survival prospects.

  20. Lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in elderly Chinese people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiken A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adake Saiken, Fang Gu Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma (CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. Methods: During the 5-year follow-up after the initial colonoscopy, participants aged >60 years with the diagnosis and removal of CRA underwent a complete surveillance colonoscopy, and 152 participants with CRA recurrence plus 152 participants free of recurrence were included in this analysis. Results: Participants with CRA recurrence were more likely to consume less vegetables and fruits, and more red meats compared with the control group (P<0.05 for all. Lifestyle-related comorbidities, including hypertension and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, were more common in participants with CRA recurrence than in the control group (P<0.05 for all. In the multivariate analysis, pack-years of smoking were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; P<0.05. Eating less vegetables (OR: 099; P<0.05 and fruits (OR: 0.98; P<0.05 was identified as a statistically independent factor influencing CRA recurrence, as was eating more red meats (OR: 1.01; P<0.05. Hypertension was also found to be a factor independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 2.44; P<0.05. NAFLD had an independent association, with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 3.43; P<0.05. Conclusion: Smoking cigarettes, high consumption of red meats, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and the presence of hypertension and NAFLD were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. This conclusion helps elderly Chinese people to make effective behavioral changes, such as smoking cessation, substitution of fruits and vegetables for red meats, and timely treatment of hypertension and NAFLD

  1. Automatic generation of boundary conditions using demons nonrigid image registration for use in 3-D modality-independent elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Thomas S; Ou, Jao J; Ong, Rowena E; Miga, Michael I

    2011-09-01

    Modality-independent elastography (MIE) is a method of elastography that reconstructs the elastic properties of tissue using images acquired under different loading conditions and a biomechanical model. Boundary conditions are a critical input to the algorithm and are often determined by time-consuming point correspondence methods requiring manual user input. This study presents a novel method of automatically generating boundary conditions by nonrigidly registering two image sets with a demons diffusion-based registration algorithm. The use of this method was successfully performed in silico using magnetic resonance and X-ray-computed tomography image data with known boundary conditions. These preliminary results produced boundary conditions with an accuracy of up to 80% compared to the known conditions. Demons-based boundary conditions were utilized within a 3-D MIE reconstruction to determine an elasticity contrast ratio between tumor and normal tissue. Two phantom experiments were then conducted to further test the accuracy of the demons boundary conditions and the MIE reconstruction arising from the use of these conditions. Preliminary results show a reasonable characterization of the material properties on this first attempt and a significant improvement in the automation level and viability of the method.

  2. Technical Note: Assessing predictive capacity and conditional independence of landslide predisposing factors for shallow landslide susceptibility models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the landslide predisposing factors' combination using a bivariate statistical model that best predicts landslide susceptibility. The best model is one that has simultaneously good performance in terms of suitability and predictive power and has been developed using variables that are conditionally independent. The study area is the Santa Marta de Penaguião council (70 km2 located in the Northern Portugal.

    In order to identify the best combination of landslide predisposing factors, all possible combinations using up to seven predisposing factors were performed, which resulted in 120 predictions that were assessed with a landside inventory containing 767 shallow translational slides. The best landslide susceptibility model was selected according to the model degree of fitness and on the basis of a conditional independence criterion. The best model was developed with only three landslide predisposing factors (slope angle, inverse wetness index, and land use and was compared with a model developed using all seven landslide predisposing factors.

    Results showed that it is possible to produce a reliable landslide susceptibility model using fewer landslide predisposing factors, which contributes towards higher conditional independence.

  3. Independencies Induced from a Graphical Markov Model After Marginalization and Conditioning: The R Package ggm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni M. Marchetti

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe some functions in the R package ggm to derive from a given Markov model, represented by a directed acyclic graph, different types of graphs induced after marginalizing over and conditioning on some of the variables. The package has a few basic functions that find the essential graph, the induced concentration and covariance graphs, and several types of chain graphs implied by the directed acyclic graph (DAG after grouping and reordering the variables. These functions can be useful to explore the impact of latent variables or of selection effects on a chosen data generating model.

  4. The independent contribution of executive functions to health related quality of life in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition is a multidimensional construct and to our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of specific domains of cognition to health related quality of life. To determine whether executive functions are independently associated with health related quality of life assessed using Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs calculated from the EuroQol EQ-5D (EQ-5D in older women after adjusting for known covariates, including global cognition. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of community-dwelling older women aged 65-75 years who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. We assessed global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and executive functions using the: 1 Stroop Test; 2 Trail Making Test (Part B and 3 Digits Verbal Span Backwards Test. We calculated QALYs from the EQ-5D administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Our multivariate linear regression model demonstrated the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test (Part B and Digits Verbal Span Backward Test (p Conclusions Our study highlights the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory were independently associated with QALYs -- a measure of health related quality of life. Given that executive functions explain variability in QALYs, clinicians may need to consider assessing executive functions when measuring health related quality of life. Further, the EQ-5D may be used to track changes in health status over time and serve as a screening tool for clinicians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881.

  5. A new delay-independent condition for global robust stability of neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samli, Ruya

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the problem of robust stability of dynamical neural networks with discrete time delays under the assumptions that the network parameters of the neural system are uncertain and norm-bounded, and the activation functions are slope-bounded. By employing the results of Lyapunov stability theory and matrix theory, new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for delayed neural networks are presented. The results reported in this paper can be easily tested by checking some special properties of symmetric matrices associated with the parameter uncertainties of neural networks. We also present a numerical example to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scheme-Independent Predictions in QCD: Commensurate Scale Relations and Physical Renormalization Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Commensurate scale relations are perturbative QCD predictions which relate observable to observable at fixed relative scale, such as the ''generalized Crewther relation'', which connects the Bjorken and Gross-Llewellyn Smith deep inelastic scattering sum rules to measurements of the e + e - annihilation cross section. All non-conformal effects are absorbed by fixing the ratio of the respective momentum transfer and energy scales. In the case of fixed-point theories, commensurate scale relations relate both the ratio of couplings and the ratio of scales as the fixed point is approached. The relations between the observables are independent of the choice of intermediate renormalization scheme or other theoretical conventions. Commensurate scale relations also provide an extension of the standard minimal subtraction scheme, which is analytic in the quark masses, has non-ambiguous scale-setting properties, and inherits the physical properties of the effective charge α V (Q 2 ) defined from the heavy quark potential. The application of the analytic scheme to the calculation of quark-mass-dependent QCD corrections to the Z width is also reviewed

  7. Test-potentiated learning: three independent replications, a disconfirmed hypothesis, and an unexpected boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2018-04-01

    Arnold and McDermott [(2013). Test-potentiated learning: Distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of testing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 940-945] isolated the indirect effects of testing and concluded that encoding is enhanced to a greater extent following more versus fewer practice tests, referred to as test-potentiated learning. The current research provided further evidence for test-potentiated learning and evaluated the covert retrieval hypothesis as an alternative explanation for the observed effect. Learners initially studied foreign language word pairs and then completed either one or five practice tests before restudy occurred. Results of greatest interest concern performance on test trials following restudy for items that were not correctly recalled on the test trials that preceded restudy. Results replicate Arnold and McDermott (2013) by demonstrating that more versus fewer tests potentiate learning when trial time is limited. Results also provide strong evidence against the covert retrieval hypothesis concerning why the effect occurs (i.e., it does not reflect differential covert retrieval during pre-restudy trials). In addition, outcomes indicate that the magnitude of the test-potentiated learning effect decreases as trial length increases, revealing an unexpected boundary condition to test-potentiated learning.

  8. Conditional Müllercell ablation causes independent neuronal and vascular pathologies in a novel transgenic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weiyong; Fruttiger, Marcus; Zhu, Ling; Chung, Sook H; Barnett, Nigel L; Kirk, Joshua K; Lee, SoRa; Coorey, Nathan J; Killingsworth, Murray; Sherman, Larry S; Gillies, Mark C

    2012-11-07

    Müller cells are the major glia of the retina that serve numerous functions essential to retinal homeostasis, yet the contribution of Müller glial dysfunction to retinal diseases remains largely unknown. We have developed a transgenic model using a portion of the regulatory region of the retinaldehyde binding protein 1 gene for conditional Müller cell ablation and the consequences of primary Müller cell dysfunction have been studied in adult mice. We found that selective ablation of Müller cells led to photoreceptor apoptosis, vascular telangiectasis, blood-retinal barrier breakdown and, later, intraretinal neovascularization. These changes were accompanied by impaired retinal function and an imbalance between vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and pigment epithelium-derived factor. Intravitreal injection of ciliary neurotrophic factor inhibited photoreceptor injury but had no effect on the vasculopathy. Conversely, inhibition of VEGF-A activity attenuated vascular leak but did not protect photoreceptors. Our findings show that Müller glial deficiency may be an important upstream cause of retinal neuronal and vascular pathologies in retinal diseases. Combined neuroprotective and anti-angiogenic therapies may be required to treat Müller cell deficiency in retinal diseases and in other parts of the CNS associated with glial dysfunction.

  9. Conditions for Change Related to Groupware in a Distributed Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Pors, Jens Kaaber

    2003-01-01

    general types of settings where the groupware has been used: Newly established organizational units, special interest groups, short term projects, and teams handling recurrent tasks. We characterize these settings and present the overall conditions that have proven to be critical to the deployment...... of groupware in the case. Challenges and expectations are discussed and ideas concerning strategies for change are suggested. It is concluded that change related to groupware faces conditions that challenge ambitious goals in three of the settings, while conditions in general favour successful change related...

  10. RESEARCH OF CONDITION OF PUBLIC DRUG ASSISTANCE DURING INDEPENDENCE YEARS OF UKRAINE - FORMATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Boryshchuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the correspondence of existing legislative and regulatory requirements of the pharmaceutical industry development, the analysis of the formation of the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market, the condition of drug assistance according to European requirements and recommendations of the WHO. For the study archival materials, publications in scientific journals, and mass media were used, laws and provisions regulating pharmaceutical activity were studied and a survey among citizens was conducted. Systematic and logical methods, analytical and comparative analysis were applied, and own researches were performed. For 22 years of Ukrainian statehood formation the following institutes were created: Pharmacological College, Pharmacopoeia Committee and State Service for Quality Control of Drugs which were transported to other institutes. Important laws were adopted: the Law of Ukraine «On Medicines», the Law of Ukraine «On small-scale privatization», the Law of Ukraine «On large-scale privatization» and others, which contributed to the formation and development of the pharmaceutical market. In comparison with 1990 the amount of drugstore chains increased two and a half times and in 2013 in the country already worked 15 566 drugstores, including 3 025 in villages. Specific peculiarity of pharmaceutical market formation in Ukraine was the creation of powerful own regional and all-Ukrainian drugstore chains, that is greatly different from such situation in EU countries, where the legislation allows to have only one or two drugstores. As the result of pharmaceutical market formation the drugs nomenclature increased eight times and now makes up more than 20 000 names, including 92.4 % generic drugs. According to publications, Ukraine lacks about 40 % of drug molecules needed for medical treatment, and 30 % of studied drugs are not proved. There is the problem of uncontrollable turnover and drugs consumption in Ukraine

  11. Negative appraisals and fear extinction are independently related to PTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuj, Daniel V; Palmer, Matthew A; Gray, Kate E; Hsu, Chia-Ming K; Nicholson, Emma L; Malhi, Gin S; Bryant, Richard A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2017-08-01

    Considerable research has revealed impaired fear extinction to be a significant predictor of PTSD. Fear extinction is also considered the primary mechanism of exposure therapy, and a critical factor in PTSD recovery. The cognitive theory of PTSD proposes that symptoms persist due to excessive negative appraisals about the trauma and its sequelae. Research has not yet examined the relationship between fear extinction and negative appraisals in PTSD. A cross-sectional sample of participants with PTSD (n =21), and trauma-exposed controls (n =33) underwent a standardized differential fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, with skin conductance response (SCR) amplitude serving as the index of conditioned responses. The Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) was used to index catastrophic negative appraisals. Participants with PTSD demonstrated a slower decrease in overall SCR responses during extinction and greater negative appraisals compared to the group. A moderation analysis revealed that both negative trauma-relevant appraisals and fear extinction learning were independently associated with PTSD symptoms, but there was no moderation interaction. The current study was limited by a modest sample size, leading to the inclusion of participants with subclinical PTSD symptoms. Further, the current study only assessed fear extinction learning; including a second day extinction recall task may show alternative effects. These findings indicate that negative appraisals and fear extinction did not interact, but had independent relationships with PTSD symptoms. Here we show for the first time in an experimental framework that negative appraisals and fear extinction play separate roles in PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Comparison of Independent Event-Related Desynchronization Responses in Motor-Related Brain Areas to Movement Execution, Movement Imagery, and Movement Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duann, Jeng-Ren; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) event-related desynchronization (ERD) induced by movement imagery or by observing biological movements performed by someone else has recently been used extensively for brain-computer interface-based applications, such as applications used in stroke rehabilitation training and motor skill learning. However, the ERD responses induced by the movement imagery and observation might not be as reliable as the ERD responses induced by movement execution. Given that studies on the reliability of the EEG ERD responses induced by these activities are still lacking, here we conducted an EEG experiment with movement imagery, movement observation, and movement execution, performed multiple times each in a pseudorandomized order in the same experimental runs. Then, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to the EEG data to find the common motor-related EEG source activity shared by the three motor tasks. Finally, conditional EEG ERD responses associated with the three movement conditions were computed and compared. Among the three motor conditions, the EEG ERD responses induced by motor execution revealed the alpha power suppression with highest strengths and longest durations. The ERD responses of the movement imagery and movement observation only partially resembled the ERD pattern of the movement execution condition, with slightly better detectability for the ERD responses associated with the movement imagery and faster ERD responses for movement observation. This may indicate different levels of involvement in the same motor-related brain circuits during different movement conditions. In addition, because the resulting conditional EEG ERD responses from the ICA preprocessing came with minimal contamination from the non-related and/or artifactual noisy components, this result can play a role of the reference for devising a brain-computer interface using the EEG ERD features of movement imagery or observation.

  13. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility...... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...... as well as those items from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank that are relevant to patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Selection will be based on consensus among reviewers. Content validity of selected items will be established...

  14. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline B; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    as well as those items from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank that are relevant to patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Selection will be based on consensus among reviewers. Content validity of selected items will be established......INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility...... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...

  15. Independent component analysis of gait-related movement artifact recorded using EEG electrodes during treadmill walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Lynne Snyder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent surge in the use of electroencephalography (EEG as a tool for mobile brain imaging due to its portability and fine time resolution. When EEG is combined with independent component analysis (ICA and source localization techniques, it can model electrocortical activity as arising from temporally independent signals located in spatially distinct cortical areas. However, for mobile tasks, it is not clear how movement artifacts influence ICA and source localization. We devised a novel method to collect pure movement artifact data (devoid of any electrophysiological signals with a 256-channel EEG system. We first blocked true electrocortical activity using a silicone swim cap. Over the silicone layer, we placed a simulated scalp with electrical properties similar to real human scalp. We collected EEG movement artifact signals from ten healthy, young subjects wearing this setup as they walked on a treadmill at speeds from 0.4-1.6 m/s. We performed ICA and dipole fitting on the EEG movement artifact data to quantify how accurately these methods would identify the artifact signals as non-neural. ICA and dipole fitting accurately localized 99% of the independent components in non-neural locations or lacked dipolar characteristics. The remaining 1% of sources had locations within the brain volume and low residual variances, but had topographical maps, power spectra, time courses, and event related spectral perturbations typical of non-neural sources. Caution should be exercised when interpreting ICA for data that includes semi-periodic artifacts including artifact arising from human walking. Alternative methods are needed for the identification and separation of movement artifact in mobile EEG signals, especially methods that can be performed in real time. Separating true brain signals from motion artifact could clear the way for EEG brain computer interfaces for assistance during mobile activities, such as walking.

  16. FEATURES OF THE INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE FORM OF TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Dyvak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of introduction of information and communication technologies in educational process of higher educational institutions in the conditions of implementation of the correspondence form of training. Examples of the use of information and communication technologies in educational process of higher educational institutions, in particular in the preparation of specialists in pedagogics of higher school in the conditions of the correspondence form of training are presented. Discussed the basic didactic principles of distance and traditional forms of education. The theoretical substantiation of a choice of a virtual learning environment compass for the needs of training of specialists in pedagogics of higher school is presented. Determined the location of independent work of students in the educational process of higher education. Outputed the main functional modules of modern management systems of distance learning.

  17. Heartburn and other related symptoms are independent of body mass index in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmulson, M; Pulido, D; Escobar, C; Farfán-Labone, B; Gutiérrez-Reyes, G; López-Alvarenga, J C

    2010-04-01

    increasing body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for GERD but little is known about this association in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). to determine the presence of heartburn and other related symptoms in relation with BMI in IBS. volunteers (n = 483) answered the Rome II-Modular Questionnaire, and were divided into IBS and non-IBS (controls) groups. The frequency of heartburn, chest pain, epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and belching was compared between the groups in the study sample and within three BMI categories. the IBS (23.7%) and controls (76.3%) were similar in gender (females: 68.1%), age (32.2 +/- 12.7 years), and BMI (25.4 +/- 4.4). Raw associations analysis showed that heartburn: OR: 1.62 (95%CI: 1.04-2.53), chest pain: 1.77 (1.13-2.77), epigastric pain: 1.75 (1.03-2.98) and nausea: 2.45 (1.10-5.32) were more frequent in IBS vs. controls. Meanwhile, according to BMI, in those with obesity, heartburn was more frequent in IBS and among those with overweight, epigastric pain and nausea were also more frequent in IBS. However, in an adjusted log linear model, no significant interaction was found between BMI and any other studied symptom and heartburn was found to be independent of IBS: 1,4 (0.9, 4.7). Finally, a logistic regression model found no interaction between BMI and the presence of heartburn or IBS. while heartburn and other reflux-related symptoms are more frequent in IBS than in controls, these associations are independent of BMI.

  18. A Modified Conjugacy Condition and Related Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conjugate gradient (CG method has played a special role in solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems due to the simplicity of their very low memory requirements. In this paper, we propose a new conjugacy condition which is similar to Dai-Liao (2001. Based on this condition, the related nonlinear conjugate gradient method is given. With some mild conditions, the given method is globally convergent under the strong Wolfe-Powell line search for general functions. The numerical experiments show that the proposed method is very robust and efficient.

  19. Relative position control and coalescence of independent microparticles using ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuang; Jia, Kun; Chen, Jian; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji

    2017-05-01

    Controlling the relative positions and coalescence of independent cells or microparticles is of particular importance for studying many physical phenomena, biological research, pharmaceutical tests, and chemical material processing. In this work, contactless maneuvering of two independent microparticles initially lying on a rigid surface was performed at a stable levitation height within a water-filled ultrasonic chamber. Three lead zirconate titanate transducers with 2 MHz thickness resonance frequency were obliquely mounted in a homemade device to form a sound field in a half space. By modulating the excitation voltage of a single transducer and the subsequent combination of amplitude and phase modulation, two separate 80 μm diameter silica beads were picked up from the chamber bottom, approached, and then coalesced to form a cluster in different ways. Both particles simultaneously migrated towards each other in the former process, while more dexterous movement with single-particle migration was realized for the other process. There is good agreement between the measured trajectories and theoretical predictions based on the theory of the first-order acoustic radiation force. The method introduced here also has the ability to form a cluster at any desired location in the chamber, which is promising for macromolecule processing ranging from the life sciences to biochemistry and clinical practice.

  20. Lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in elderly Chinese people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiken, Adake; Gu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma (CRA) recurrence in elderly Chinese people. Methods During the 5-year follow-up after the initial colonoscopy, participants aged >60 years with the diagnosis and removal of CRA underwent a complete surveillance colonoscopy, and 152 participants with CRA recurrence plus 152 participants free of recurrence were included in this analysis. Results Participants with CRA recurrence were more likely to consume less vegetables and fruits, and more red meats compared with the control group (PCRA recurrence than in the control group (PCRA recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; PCRA recurrence, as was eating more red meats (OR: 1.01; PCRA recurrence (OR: 2.44; PCRA recurrence (OR: 3.43; Pmeats, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and the presence of hypertension and NAFLD were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. This conclusion helps elderly Chinese people to make effective behavioral changes, such as smoking cessation, substitution of fruits and vegetables for red meats, and timely treatment of hypertension and NAFLD, to reduce CRA recurrence and colorectal cancer risk. PMID:27382263

  1. Comparison of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Benedetti, Dario; D'Andrea, Francesco; Procaccini, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We consider the two most studied proposals of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass: the one discussed by Amelino-Camelia as an illustrative example for the original proposal (Preprint gr-qc/0012051) of theories with two relativistic invariants, and an alternative more recently proposed by Magueijo and Smolin (Preprint hep-th/0112090). We show that these two relativistic theories are much more closely connected than it would appear on the basis of a naive analysis of their original formulations. In particular, in spite of adopting a rather different formal description of the deformed boost generators, they end up assigning the same dependence of momentum on rapidity, which can be described as the core feature of these relativistic theories. We show that this observation can be used to clarify the concepts of particle mass, particle velocity and energy-momentum conservation rules in these theories with two relativistic invariants

  2. Technical guide for monitoring selected conditions related to wilderness character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Landres; Steve Boutcher; Liese Dean; Troy Hall; Tamara Blett; Terry Carlson; Ann Mebane; Carol Hardy; Susan Rinehart; Linda Merigliano; David N. Cole; Andy Leach; Pam Wright; Deb Bumpus

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of monitoring wilderness character is to improve wilderness stewardship by providing managers a tool to assess how selected actions and conditions related to wilderness character are changing over time. Wilderness character monitoring provides information to help answer two key questions about wilderness character and wilderness stewardship: 1. How is...

  3. Subjective fear, interference by threat, and fear associations independently predict fear-related behavior in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Anke M; Kleinherenbrink, Annelies V; Simons, Carlijn; de Gier, Erwin; Klein, Steven; Allart, Esther; Bögels, Susan M; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2012-09-01

    Several information-processing models highlight the independent roles of controlled and automatic processes in explaining fearful behavior. Therefore, we investigated whether direct measures of controlled processes and indirect measures of automatic processes predict unique variance components of children's spider fear-related behavior. Seventy-seven children between 8 and 13 years performed an Affective Priming Task (APT) measuring associative bias, a pictorial version of the Emotional Stroop Task (EST) measuring attentional bias, filled out the Spider Anxiety and Disgust Screening for Children (SADS-C) in order to assess self-perceived fear, and took part in a Behavioral Assessment Test (BAT) to measure avoidance of spiders. The SADS-C, EST, and APT did not correlate with each other. Spider fear-related behavior was best explained by SADS-C, APT, and EST together; they explained 51% of the variance in BAT behavior. No children with clinical levels of spider phobia were tested. The direct and the different indirect measures did no correlate with each other. These results indicate that both direct and indirect measures are useful for predicting unique variance components of fear-related behavior in children. The lack of relations between direct and indirect measures may explain why some earlier studies did not find stronger color-naming interference or stronger fear associations in children with high levels of self-reported fear. It also suggests that children with high levels of spider-fearful behavior have different fear-related associations and display higher interference by spider stimuli than children with non-fearful behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The European Parliament in the EU-Ukraine relations - from independence to Orange revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr MOSKALENKO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides insight into the involvement of the European Parliament in the EU-Ukraine relations for the 1991-2004 period. The article argues that the European Parliament proved to be capable of developing and actively promoting its specific “European values” agenda. It demonstrated the ability to maintain the multi-level influence on the relations with the target country by both direct and indirect means. Its involvement into the EU-Ukraine relations was one of the factors which led to the change of Ukraine’s development paradigm, marked by the increasing influence of the civil society on the political system. However, the limited number of EU incentives as well as the rigidity of the conditionality patterns application decreased the potential benefits for the bilateral relations. Moreover, the fallacious assumption that the conditionality patterns which were successful for the CEE countries would also be successful for post-Soviet countries became one of the factors that facilitated the split of the Ukrainian society.

  5. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gagarina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2×2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent condition

  6. Conditional High-Order Boltzmann Machines for Supervised Relation Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Liang; Tan, Tieniu

    2017-09-01

    Relation learning is a fundamental problem in many vision tasks. Recently, high-order Boltzmann machine and its variants have shown their great potentials in learning various types of data relation in a range of tasks. But most of these models are learned in an unsupervised way, i.e., without using relation class labels, which are not very discriminative for some challenging tasks, e.g., face verification. In this paper, with the goal to perform supervised relation learning, we introduce relation class labels into conventional high-order multiplicative interactions with pairwise input samples, and propose a conditional high-order Boltzmann Machine (CHBM), which can learn to classify the data relation in a binary classification way. To be able to deal with more complex data relation, we develop two improved variants of CHBM: 1) latent CHBM, which jointly performs relation feature learning and classification, by using a set of latent variables to block the pathway from pairwise input samples to output relation labels and 2) gated CHBM, which untangles factors of variation in data relation, by exploiting a set of latent variables to multiplicatively gate the classification of CHBM. To reduce the large number of model parameters generated by the multiplicative interactions, we approximately factorize high-order parameter tensors into multiple matrices. Then, we develop efficient supervised learning algorithms, by first pretraining the models using joint likelihood to provide good parameter initialization, and then finetuning them using conditional likelihood to enhance the discriminant ability. We apply the proposed models to a series of tasks including invariant recognition, face verification, and action similarity labeling. Experimental results demonstrate that by exploiting supervised relation labels, our models can greatly improve the performance.

  7. Atrophy of reward-related striatal structures in fatigued MS patients is independent of physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Alfredo; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    MRI studies have shown gray-matter abnormalities in fatigued multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, given that physical disability is highly correlated to MS fatigue, it is often difficult to disentangle its effect in these MRI findings. The objective of this research paper is to investigate gray-matter damage in mildly disabled MS patients, addressing which variables were better related to fatigue while controlling for physical disability and depression. Forty-nine relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and 30 controls underwent MRI (3T). Fatigue was assessed using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the contribution of clinical and MRI metrics to fatigue. Statistical analyses were performed controlling for disability and depression. Fatigue was present in 22 (44.9%) patients. FSS score was highly correlated with EDSS (p = 0.00001). Patients with fatigue had lower brain cortical and subcortical gray-matter volumes. However, after controlling for EDSS, only the caudate and the accumbens volumes remained statistically significant. Fatigued MS patients have a global cortical and subcortical gray-matter atrophy that seems largely related to higher physical disability. However, striatal structures involved in effort-reward functions exhibited smaller volumes in fatigued patients, independently of physical disability and depressive symptoms, supporting the theory of cortico-striatal network impairment in MS fatigue. © The Author(s), 2015.

  8. HYDRIDE-RELATED DEGRADATION OF SNF CLADDING UNDER REPOSITORY CONDITIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, K.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this analysis/model report is to analyze the degradation of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) cladding under repository conditions by the hydride-related metallurgical processes, such as delayed hydride cracking (DHC), hydride reorientation and hydrogen embrittlement, thereby providing a better understanding of the degradation process and clarifying which aspects of the process are known and which need further evaluation and investigation. The intended use is as an input to a more general analysis of cladding degradation

  9. Class dependency of fuzzy relational database using relational calculus and conditional probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deni Akbar, Mohammad; Mizoguchi, Yoshihiro; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a design of fuzzy relational database to deal with a conditional probability relation using fuzzy relational calculus. In the previous, there are several researches about equivalence class in fuzzy database using similarity or approximate relation. It is an interesting topic to investigate the fuzzy dependency using equivalence classes. Our goal is to introduce a formulation of a fuzzy relational database model using the relational calculus on the category of fuzzy relations. We also introduce general formulas of the relational calculus for the notion of database operations such as ’projection’, ’selection’, ’injection’ and ’natural join’. Using the fuzzy relational calculus and conditional probabilities, we introduce notions of equivalence class, redundant, and dependency in the theory fuzzy relational database.

  10. Database Independent Migration of Objects into an Object-Relational Database

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A; Munir, K; Waseem-Hassan, M; Willers, I

    2002-01-01

    CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) WISDOM project [1] deals with the replication of data between homogeneous sources in a Wide Area Network (WAN) using the extensible Markup Language (XML). The last phase of the WISDOM (Wide-area, database Independent Serialization of Distributed Objects for data Migration) project [2], indicates the future directions for this work to be to incorporate heterogeneous sources as compared to homogeneous sources as described by [3]. This work will become essential for the CERN community once the need to transfer their legacy data to some other source, other then Objectivity [4], arises. Oracle 9i - an Object-Relational Database (including support for abstract data types, ADTs) appears to be a potential candidate for the physics event store in the CERN CMS experiment as suggested by [4] & [5]. Consequently this database has been selected for study. As a result of this work the HEP community will get a tool for migrating their data from Objectivity to Oracle9i.

  11. Antimüllerian hormone levels are independently related to ovarian hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L.; Wroblewski, Kristen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Mortensen, Monica; Ehrmann, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels to polycystic ovaries and ovarian androgenic function. Design Prospective case-control study. Setting General clinical research center. Participant(s) Eumenorrheic asymptomatic volunteers without (V-NO; n = 19; reference population) or with (V-PCO; n = 28) a polycystic ovary and hyperandrogenemic anovulatory subjects grouped according to ovarian function into typical PCOS (PCOS-T; n = 37) and atypical PCOS (PCOS-A; n = 18). Intervention(s) Pelvic ultrasonography, short dexamethasone androgen-suppression test (SDAST), and GnRH agonist (GnRHag) test. Main Outcome Measure(s) Baseline AMH levels were related to polycystic ovary status, testosterone response to SDAST, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to GnRHag test. Result(s) AMH levels correlated with SDAST and GnRHag test outcomes. AMH was elevated (>6.2 ng/mL) in 32% of V-PCO versus 5% V-NO. The 21% of V-PCO who met Rotterdam PCOS criteria all had functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, but AMH levels were similar to nonhyperandrogenic V-PCO. AMH >10.7 ng/mL discriminated V-PCO from PCOS with 96% specificity and 41% sensitivity for PCOS-T, and insignificantly for PCOS-A. Conclusion(s) AMH levels are independently related to ovarian androgenic function and polycystic ovaries. Very high AMH levels are specific but insensitive for PCOS. In the absence of hyperandrogenism, moderate AMH elevation in women with normal-variant polycystic ovaries seems to indicate an enlarged oocyte pool. PMID:22541936

  12. Antimüllerian hormone levels are independently related to ovarian hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Wroblewski, Kristen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Mortensen, Monica; Ehrmann, David A

    2012-07-01

    To determine the relationship of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels to polycystic ovaries and ovarian androgenic function. Prospective case-control study. General clinical research center. Eumenorrheic asymptomatic volunteers without (V-NO; n = 19; reference population) or with (V-PCO; n = 28) a polycystic ovary and hyperandrogenemic anovulatory subjects grouped according to ovarian function into typical PCOS (PCOS-T; n = 37) and atypical PCOS (PCOS-A; n = 18). Pelvic ultrasonography, short dexamethasone androgen-suppression test (SDAST), and GnRH agonist (GnRHag) test. Baseline AMH levels were related to polycystic ovary status, testosterone response to SDAST, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to GnRHag test. AMH levels correlated with SDAST and GnRHag test outcomes. AMH was elevated (>6.2 ng/mL) in 32% of V-PCO versus 5% V-NO. The 21% of V-PCO who met Rotterdam PCOS criteria all had functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, but AMH levels were similar to nonhyperandrogenic V-PCO. AMH >10.7 ng/mL discriminated V-PCO from PCOS with 96% specificity and 41% sensitivity for PCOS-T, and insignificantly for PCOS-A. AMH levels are independently related to ovarian androgenic function and polycystic ovaries. Very high AMH levels are specific but insensitive for PCOS. In the absence of hyperandrogenism, moderate AMH elevation in women with normal-variant polycystic ovaries seems to indicate an enlarged oocyte pool. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep-related problems in common medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, James M

    2009-02-01

    Common medical problems are often associated with abnormalities of sleep. Patients with chronic medical disorders often have fewer hours of sleep and less restorative sleep compared to healthy individuals, and this poor sleep may worsen the subjective symptoms of the disorder. Individuals with lung disease often have disturbed sleep related to oxygen desaturations, coughing, or dyspnea. Both obstructive lung disease and restrictive lung diseases are associated with poor quality sleep. Awakenings from sleep are common in untreated or undertreated asthma, and cause sleep disruption. Gastroesophageal reflux is a major cause of disrupted sleep due to awakenings from heartburn, dyspepsia, acid brash, coughing, or choking. Patients with chronic renal disease commonly have sleep complaints often due to insomnia, insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, or restless legs syndrome. Complaints related to sleep are very common in patients with fibromyalgia and other causes of chronic pain. Sleep disruption increases the sensation of pain and decreases quality of life. Patients with infectious diseases, including acute viral illnesses, HIV-related disease, and Lyme disease, may have significant problems with insomnia and hypersomnolence. Women with menopause have from insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome, or fibromyalgia. Patients with cancer or receiving cancer therapy are often bothered by insomnia or other sleep disturbances that affect quality of life and daytime energy. The objective of this article is to review frequently encountered medical conditions and examine their impact on sleep, and to review frequent sleep-related problems associated with these common medical conditions.

  14. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side. (orig.)

  15. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side.

  16. Subjective fear, interference by threat, and fear associations independently predict fear-related behavior in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.M.; Kleinherenbrink, A.V.; Simons, C.; de Gier, E.; Klein, S.; Allart, E.; Bögels, S.M.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: Several information-processing models highlight the independent roles of controlled and automatic processes in explaining fearful behavior. Therefore, we investigated whether direct measures of controlled processes and indirect measures of automatic processes predict

  17. The Relation of Birth Order, Social Class, and Need Achievement to Independent Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhine, W. Ray

    1974-01-01

    This article reports an investigation in which the brith order, social class, and level of achievement arousal are the variables considered when fifth and sixth-grade girls make independent judgements in performing a set task. (JH)

  18. Higher Language Ability is Related to Angular Gyrus Activation Increase During Semantic Processing, Independent of Sentence Incongruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Thomas; Engström, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task—which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency—employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, there was a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing, is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that no evidence is found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation. PMID

  19. Higher language ability is related to angular gyrus activation increase during semantic processing, independent of sentence incongruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene eVan Ettinger-Veenstra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task - which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency - employing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that there is no evidence found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation.

  20. Relational databases for conditions data and event selection in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas, F; Hawkings, R; Dimitrov, G

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC will make extensive use of relational databases in both online and offline contexts, running to O(TBytes) per year. Two of the most challenging applications in terms of data volume and access patterns are conditions data, making use of the LHC conditions database, COOL, and the TAG database, that stores summary event quantities allowing a rapid selection of interesting events. Both of these databases are being replicated to regional computing centres using Oracle Streams technology, in collaboration with the LCG 3D project. Database optimisation, performance tests and first user experience with these applications will be described, together with plans for first LHC data-taking and future prospects

  1. Relational databases for conditions data and event selection in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viegas, F; Hawkings, R; Dimitrov, G [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2008-07-15

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC will make extensive use of relational databases in both online and offline contexts, running to O(TBytes) per year. Two of the most challenging applications in terms of data volume and access patterns are conditions data, making use of the LHC conditions database, COOL, and the TAG database, that stores summary event quantities allowing a rapid selection of interesting events. Both of these databases are being replicated to regional computing centres using Oracle Streams technology, in collaboration with the LCG 3D project. Database optimisation, performance tests and first user experience with these applications will be described, together with plans for first LHC data-taking and future prospects.

  2. A novel fission-independent role of dynamin-related protein 1 in cardiac mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiliang; Wang, Pei; Bisetto, Sara; Yoon, Yisang; Chen, Quan; Sheu, Shey-Shing; Wang, Wang

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondria in adult cardiomyocytes exhibit static morphology and infrequent dynamic changes, despite the high abundance of fission and fusion regulatory proteins in the heart. Previous reports have indicated that fusion proteins may bear functions beyond morphology regulation. Here, we investigated the role of fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), on mitochondrial respiration regulation in adult cardiomyocytes. By using genetic or pharmacological approaches, we manipulated the activity or protein level of fission and fusion proteins and found they mildly influenced mitochondrial morphology in adult rodent cardiomyocytes, which is in contrast to their significant effect in H9C2 cardiac myoblasts. Intriguingly, inhibiting endogenous DRP1 by dominant-negative DRP1 mutation (K38A), shRNA, or Mdivi-1 suppressed maximal respiration and respiratory control ratio in isolated mitochondria from adult mouse heart or in adult cardiomyocytes from rat. Meanwhile, basal respiration was increased due to increased proton leak. Facilitating mitofusin-mediated fusion by S3 compound, however, failed to inhibit mitochondrial respiration in adult cardiomyocytes. Mechanistically, DRP1 inhibition did not affect the maximal activity of individual respiratory chain complexes or the assembly of supercomplexes. Knocking out cyclophilin D, a regulator of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), abolished the effect of DRP1 inhibition on respiration. Finally, DRP1 inhibition decreased transient mPTP-mediated mitochondrial flashes, delayed laser-induced mPTP opening and suppressed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results uncover a novel non-canonical function of the fission protein, DRP1 in maintaining or positively stimulating mitochondrial respiration, bioenergetics and ROS signalling in adult cardiomyocyte, which is likely independent of morphological changes. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The

  3. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    RN) and the rightist Independent Democratic Union (Unión Demócrata Independiente , UDI). A third coalition, the “Broad Party of the Socialist Left...independents and members of the Regionalist Party of Independents (Partido Regionalista de los Independientes , PRI), who are unaffiliated with either of the...Wilde, “Piñera Won. Will he uphold Chile’s post -Pinochet moral legacy?” Christian Science Monitor, January 18, 2010. Chile: Political and Economic

  4. Young adolescents' independent mobility, related factors and association with transport to school. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme Lucie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's independent mobility differs between groups of adolescents, but knowledge is lacking on how mobility-limiting factors interact. This study explores the association between factors that can affect young adolescents' mobility, searching for typical patterns within a geographical area where mobility is both relatively high and promoted (in this case Stockholm County, Sweden. An additional question is how clusters of limiting factors and demographic attributes relate to active commuting to school. Methods A sample of 7th grade students (ca 13-14 years old in Stockholm County, Sweden, answered a survey (n = 1008. A cluster analysis was performed on variables descriptive of the respondents and of potential limitations to their independent mobility, such as fears, coping, traffic situation in the neighbourhood and parent/child opinions on mobility (18 variables and 50 categories. Active commuting to/from school was compared using proportion (with 95% confidence intervals by cluster. Results Five consistent and distinct clusters were identified. Among the most discriminating factors were fears experienced in the neighbourhood, strategies to cope with fear, type of housing and traffic environment. Girls were over-represented in the two clusters most typical of respondents experiencing fears (either several of these or darkness in particular and boys in two others where housing (house vs. apartment and neighbourhood conditions played a more determinant role. The proportion of active commuting among respondents was quite similar over clusters but was nonetheless higher in the cluster (over girls reporting more fears and other factors limiting mobility. Conclusions Whereas fears - and coping - are more typical of adolescent girls in the formation of the clusters, household and neighbourhood characteristics are more typical of boys. Broadly speaking, there seem to be two groups of girls with fears but these differ based on

  5. Field dependence-independence as related to young women's participation in sports activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Jeanne L; Cuevas, Jacqueline L

    2007-06-01

    To estimate association between field dependence-independence measured by scores on the Group Embedded Figures Test and young women's participation in sports activity. Participants were 37 undergraduate college women between the ages of 18 and 25 years (M=21). Participants were categorized into two groups, one high in participation in sports activity and one low. A one-tailed independent samples t test yielded no significant difference. Correlations of .36 and .18 were significant but account for little common variance. An ad hoc analysis performed without participants who reported softball activity but who were highly involved in sport activities was significant.

  6. Aggressive antisocial behaviors are related to character maturity in young Swedish violent offenders independent of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nilsson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated 1 whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and 2 whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: Swedish males (N=270, aged 18-25 sentenced to prison for violent and/or sexual criminality in the western region of the Swedish Prison and Probation Service underwent a thorough clinical examination during their incarceration. Data on character maturity as measured by the character dimensions Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness of the Temperament and Character Inventory were available for n=148 subjects, and used to divide these offenders into three groups with low, medium, and high character maturity. These groups were then compared for variables reflecting criminal history, a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD, Conduct disorder (CD and substance use disorders (SUD, aggressive behaviors, and psychopathic traits.Results: Character maturity was consistently associated with less aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic personality traits; the group with the highest character maturity showed; i a later age at onset of criminality, ii a smaller number of prior violent criminal acts, iii lower prevalences of ADHD, CD, and SUD, iv less self-rated and expert-rated aggressive behaviors, and v less psychopathic traits. The association between character maturity and aggressive behaviors/psychopathic personality traits remained even when ADHD was controlled for. The only exception was sexual criminality, where the group with the highest character maturity contained the largest amount

  7. Learning-dependent and -independent enhancement of mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses following olfactory fear conditioning in awake mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jordan M; Fletcher, Max L

    2018-04-18

    Associative fear learning produces fear toward the conditioned stimulus (CS) and often generalization, the expansion of fear from the CS to similar, unlearned stimuli. However, how fear learning affects early sensory processing of learned and unlearned stimuli in relation to behavioral fear responses to these stimuli remains unclear. We subjected male and female mice expressing the fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP3 in olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells to a classical olfactory fear conditioning paradigm. We then used awake, in vivo calcium imaging to quantify learning-induced changes in glomerular odor responses, which constitute the first site of olfactory processing in the brain. The results demonstrate that odor-shock pairing non-specifically enhances glomerular odor representations in a learning-dependent manner and increases representational similarity between the CS and non-conditioned odors, potentially priming the system towards generalization of learned fear. Additionally, CS-specific glomerular enhancements remain even when associative learning is blocked, suggesting two separate mechanisms lead to enhanced glomerular responses following odor-shock pairings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the olfactory bulb (OB), odors are uniquely coded in a spatial map that represents odor identity, making the OB a unique model system for investigating how learned fear alters sensory processing. Classical fear conditioning causes fear of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and of neutral stimuli, known as generalization. Combining fear conditioning with fluorescent calcium imaging of OB glomeruli, we found enhanced glomerular responses of the CS as well as neutral stimuli in awake mice, which mirrors fear generalization. We report that CS and neutral stimuli enhancements are, respectively, learning- independent and learning-dependent. Together, these results reveal distinct mechanisms leading to enhanced OB processing of fear-inducing stimuli and provide important

  8. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  9. Is work engagement related to work ability beyond working conditions and lifestyle factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airila, Auli; Hakanen, Jari; Punakallio, Anne; Lusa, Sirpa; Luukkonen, Ritva

    2012-11-01

    To examine the associations of age, lifestyle and work-related factors, and particularly work engagement with the work ability index (WAI) and its sub-dimensions. Step-wise regression analysis with a sample of Finnish firefighters (n = 403) was used. The outcome variables were the WAI and its six sub-dimensions. The independent variables consisted of age, lifestyle variables (alcohol consumption, BMI, smoking, physical exercise, and sleep problems), working conditions (job demands, physical workload, supervisory relations, and task resources), and work engagement. The outcome variables and all the variables related to lifestyle, working conditions, and work engagement were measured in 2009. Work ability at baseline 10 years earlier was adjusted for in the models. Work engagement, age, physical exercise, sleep problems, and physical workload were associated with the WAI. All independent variables, except BMI and alcohol consumption, were associated with at least one sub-dimension of the WAI after controlling the baseline WAI. Lifestyle variables, working conditions, and work engagement were more strongly related to the subjective WAI sub-dimensions than to the two more objective WAI sub-dimensions. Work engagement was significantly associated with work ability even after adjusting for various factors, indicating its importance in promoting work ability. Other key factors for good work ability were frequent exercise, good sleep, non-smoking, low job demands, low physical workload, and high task resources. More specifically, this study suggests that in maintaining work ability, it is valuable not only to promote lifestyle factors or working conditions, but also to enhance employees' positive state of work engagement.

  10. IgG4-Related Disease: A Multispecialty Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Usêda Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently recognized group of conditions, characterized by tumor-like swelling of involved organs, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, variable degrees of fibrosis, and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. Currently IgG4-RD is recognized as a systemic condition that can affect several organs and tissues. Herein we report the case of a 34-year-old male patient who was admitted to our hospital with diffuse abdominal pain, weight loss, and painful stiffness in his neck. He had a history of tumoral mass of the left maxillary region, right palpebral ptosis with protrusion of the eyeball, and chronic dry cough for about 6 years. Laboratory tests revealed polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and increased serum IgG4 levels. Immunohistochemical staining of the maxillary biopsy was compatible with IgG4-RD. He had an excellent response to corticosteroid therapy. This case highlights that IgG4-RD should be included in the differential diagnosis with multisystem diseases.

  11. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-01-01

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7–15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free...

  12. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (F v /F m ) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses.

  13. The influence of COPD on health-related quality of life independent of the influence of comorbidity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manen, J.G. van; Bindels, P.J.E.; Dekker, F.W.; Bottema, B.J.A.M.; Zee, J.S. van der; IJzermans, C.J.; Schadé, E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the influence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) independent of comorbidity. METHODS: Patients with COPD in general practice, >/=40 years, were selected. To recruit controls, a random

  14. Conflict of roles: a conflict of ideas? The unsettled relations between care team staff and independent mental health advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mick; Ridley, Julie; Newbigging, Karen; Machin, Karen; Poursanidou, Konstantina; Cruse, Kaaren

    2014-10-01

    Drawing on a national study of independent mental health advocacy, we explored the social relations of independent advocacy. The study was commissioned by the Department of Health (England), and involved a case study design covering eight different geographies and service configurations, and interviews or focus groups with a total of 289 stakeholders across two phases of inquiry. This paper focused on the analysis of qualitative data relevant to the relationship between mental health-care services and independent advocacy services, drawn from interviews with 214 participants in phase two of the study. Discussion of these particular findings affords insights into the working relations of independent advocacy within mental health services beset by reorganizational change and funding cuts, and increasing levels of legally-sanctioned compulsion and coercion. We offer a matrix, which accounts for the different types of working relationships that can arise, and how these are associated with various levels of understanding of independent advocacy and appreciation for the value of advocacy. The discussion is framed by the wider literature on advocacy and the claims by practitioners, such as nurses, for an advocacy role as part of their professional repertoire. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity is independently related to coronary atherosclerosis. A multidetector computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracon, R.; Kruk, M.; Kepka, C.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary research indicates that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may display both anti- and proatherosclerotic properties. Because the varying radiodensities of selected human tissues assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been shown to reflect differences in biological characteristics, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the proatherosclerotic properties of EAT may be linked to its radiodensity. The study included 164 consecutive patients (82 females, mean age 58.8±11.1 years) with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing MDCT coronary angiography. Coronary atherosclerosis was defined as: CAD (id est (ie), presence of at least 1 coronary stenosis ≥50%) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) determined by Agatston score. EAT radiodensity was assessed by MDCT and averaged -81.00±4.64 HU (Hounsfield unit (HU) scale). Mean CAC score was 96.0±220.0. Patients with CAD (n=36) showed higher EAT radiodensity than patients without CAD (-78.99±4.12 vs. -81.57±4.64 HU, P<0.01). In the multivariable model, only EAT radiodensity and age were independently associated with CAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95%confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.28; OR 1.08, 95%CI 1.04-1.12; respectively). EAT radiodensity also correlated with CAC score (r=0.23, P<0.01). EAT radiodensity (P<0.001), age (P<0.001), sex (P=0.03), and past smoking (P<0.01) were independent correlates of CAC in the multivariable linear regression model. Increased EAT radiodensity is independently associated with coronary atherosclerosis, which may reflect the unfavorable, proatherosclerotic metabolic properties of more radiodense epicardial fat. (author)

  16. Analysis of independent components of cognitive event related potentials in a group of ADHD adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan

    In the last decade, many studies have tried to define the neural correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main aim of this study is the comparison of the ERPs independent components in the four QEEG subtypes in a group of ADHD adults as a basis for defining the corresponding endophenotypes among ADHD population. Sixty-seven adults diagnosed as ADHD according to the DSM-IV criteria and 50 age-matched control subjects participated in the study. The brain activity of the subjects was recorded by 19 channel quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) system in two neuropsychological tasks (visual and emotional continuous performance tests). The ICA method was applied for separation of the independent ERPs components. The components were associated with distinct psychological operations, such as engagement operations (P3bP component), comparison (vcomTL and vcom TR), motor inhibition (P3supF) and monitoring (P4monCC) operations. The ERPs results point out that there is disturbance in executive functioning in investigated ADHD group obtained by the significantly lower amplitude and longer latency for the engagement (P3bP), motor inhibition (P3supF) and monitoring (P4monCC) components. Particularly, the QEEG subtype IV was with the most significant ERPs differences comparing to the other subtypes. In particular, the most prominent difference in the ERPs independent components for the QEEG subtype IV in comparison to other three subtypes, rise many questions and becomes the subject for future research. This study aims to advance and facilitate the use of neurophysiological procedures (QEEG and ERPs) in clinical practice as objective measures of ADHD for better assessment, subtyping and treatment of ADHD.

  17. Season-independent cognitive deficits in seasonal affective disorder and their relation to depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Ozenne, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Modalities Test (SDMT) and the Simple Reaction Time (SRT) twice; in summer and in winter. Compared to controls, SAD individuals showed significant season-independent impairments in tasks measuring working memory (LNS), cognitive processing speed (SDMT) and motor speed (SRT). In SAD individuals, cognitive...... processing speed was significantly negatively associated with the seasonal change in SAD depressive symptoms. We present novel evidence that in SAD individuals, working memory, cognitive processing- and motor speed is not only impaired in the winter but also in the summer. This suggests that certain...

  18. Digital subtaction angiography (DSA) in renal-related conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Jeong, Seong Wook; Bae, Kwang Soo; Chung, Moo Chan; Kim, Ki Jeong

    1986-01-01

    DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography) is a valuable diagnostic imaging method in many clinical fields, including renal-related conditions. Sixty four renal DSA examination were performed in 59 patients with renal-related diseases from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1985. Summary of These were as follows: 1. Intraarterial(IA)-DSA is performed in 6 cases, intravenous(IV)-DSA in 58 cases. In 58 Examinations of IV-DSA, diagnostic image quality is obtained in 51 cases (88%). 2. In investigations of a possible renovascular etiology of hypertension, IV-DSA is a simple, safe, sensitive and accurate method. On screening for evaluation of renovascular hypertension, RSP should be replaced with IV-DSA, because IV-DSA is more sensitive and accurate and can detect not only anatomic change of renal artery but also functional hemodynamic change. 3. IV-DSA is valuable in diseases with morphologic changes of vessels. In characterization of a known renal mass, and evaluation of hematuria, suspected aneurysm and renal trauma, IV-DSA is very useful diagnostic imaging modality. 4. In evaluation of potential renal donors, IV-DSA is an accurate and safe method with 82.4% of accuracy. IV-DSA also is useful in follow-up of allograft recipients. 5. In investigation of diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, IV-DSA is little helpful. 6. The advantages of DSA are well known, particularly post-procedure process using computer program is helpful for obtaining information's of hemodynamic change or time-suquence-curve of density etc. More technical improvement with this modality is required for improvement of the image quality and resolution. And more accumulation of clinical experience is required in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy.

  19. Digital subtaction angiography (DSA) in renal-related conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Jeong, Seong Wook; Bae, Kwang Soo; Chung, Moo Chan; Kim, Ki Jeong [Soon Chun Hyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography) is a valuable diagnostic imaging method in many clinical fields, including renal-related conditions. Sixty four renal DSA examination were performed in 59 patients with renal-related diseases from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1985. Summary of These were as follows: 1. Intraarterial(IA)-DSA is performed in 6 cases, intravenous(IV)-DSA in 58 cases. In 58 Examinations of IV-DSA, diagnostic image quality is obtained in 51 cases (88%). 2. In investigations of a possible renovascular etiology of hypertension, IV-DSA is a simple, safe, sensitive and accurate method. On screening for evaluation of renovascular hypertension, RSP should be replaced with IV-DSA, because IV-DSA is more sensitive and accurate and can detect not only anatomic change of renal artery but also functional hemodynamic change. 3. IV-DSA is valuable in diseases with morphologic changes of vessels. In characterization of a known renal mass, and evaluation of hematuria, suspected aneurysm and renal trauma, IV-DSA is very useful diagnostic imaging modality. 4. In evaluation of potential renal donors, IV-DSA is an accurate and safe method with 82.4% of accuracy. IV-DSA also is useful in follow-up of allograft recipients. 5. In investigation of diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, IV-DSA is little helpful. 6. The advantages of DSA are well known, particularly post-procedure process using computer program is helpful for obtaining information's of hemodynamic change or time-suquence-curve of density etc. More technical improvement with this modality is required for improvement of the image quality and resolution. And more accumulation of clinical experience is required in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy.

  20. The Severity of Fatty Liver Disease Relating to Metabolic Abnormalities Independently Predicts Coronary Calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ying-Hsiang; Wu, Yih-Jer; Liu, Chuan-Chuan; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Yeh, Hung-I.; Tsai, Cheng-Ho; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Hung, Chung-Lieh

    2011-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the metabolic disorders presented in liver. The relationship between severity of NAFLD and coronary atherosclerotic burden remains largely unknown. Methods and Materials. We analyzed subjects undergoing coronary calcium score evaluation by computed tomography (MDCT) and fatty liver assessment using abdominal ultrasonography. Framingham risk score (FRS) and metabolic risk score (MRS) were obtained in all subjects. A graded, semiquantitative score was established to quantify the severity of NAFLD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to depict the association between NAFLD and calcium score. Results. Of all, 342 participants (female: 22.5%, mean age: 48.7 ± 7.0 years) met the sufficient information rendering detailed analysis. The severity of NAFLD was positively associated with MRS (X 2 = 6.12, trend P < 0.001) and FRS (X 2 = 5.88, trend P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment for clinical variables and life styles, the existence of moderate to severe NAFLD was independently associated with abnormal calcium score (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The severity of NAFLD correlated well with metabolic abnormality and was independently predict coronary calcification beyond clinical factors. Our data suggests that NAFLD based on ultrasonogram could positively reflect the burden of coronary calcification

  1. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave , SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Chileno por Crímenes de ‘Caravana de la Muerte ’,” Agencia Mexicana de Noticias, October 15, 2008. 64 “Chile Arrests 25 Ex-Military On Rights Abuse

  2. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Akinari; Takahashi, Ippei; Kurauchi, Sizuka; Soma, Yuki; Oyama, Toshiaki; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Takao; Murashita, Kouichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females). Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8%) and 76 females (21.9%). To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females) and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males) were found to be significantly related to dysphagia. Conclusion This cross-sectional study demonstrated associations between oral conditions and dysphagia. Factors such as oral dryness and number of teeth may contribute to dysphagia more so than aging, lifestyle and comorbidity in community-dwelling adults over the age of 50. PMID:28352164

  3. Spatial and begging behaviours of juvenile Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) from fledging to independence under contrasting food conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Naundrup, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    The post-fledging dependency period (PFDP: from fledging to cessation of parental care) is a critical yet poorly studied life history transition phase during which juveniles mature and develop skills for independence. We studied the spatial and vocal behaviour of radio-tagged juvenile Tawny Owls...... during the last 5 days before juvenile independence. Hence, juvenile Tawny Owls old enough to survive on their own invested heavily in begging, with no noticeable signs of increased hunting or exploration of potential settling areas outside the natal range, until they were no longer fed by their parents...... of the parental home range. The probability of begging per 20-min nocturnal observation period increased from 21 % at fledging to 80 % at independence during years of good food supply, but remained high (>82 %) in years of poor food supply. No change was observed in nocturnal movement distances or begging rates...

  4. Is the sex hormone binding globulin related to preeclampsia independent of insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, M.; Salari, Z.; Mirmohammadkhani, M.; Ghorbani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and preeclampsia in Iranian women considering the probable confounding effect of insulin resistance. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, and comprised pregnant women who received prenatal care at Amiralmomenin Hospital in 2011. Cases represented patients admitted because of preeclampsia, while controls were randomly selected eligible pregnant women without hypertension and/or proteinuria. Fasting blood sugar and insulin were assessed for all participants as well as their blood concentration of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin. The Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Score was used. The correlation between dependant and independent variables was reported by crude and adjusted odds ratio applying logistic regression models. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 100 pregnant women in the study, 45(45%) were cases. Insulin resistance was found to be significantly more frequent in the cases compared to the controls (adjusted odds ratio=2.78; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.11, 6.90; p<0.01). There was a significant reverse correlation between level of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin in blood and being a case of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio=0.99; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.98, 1.00; p=0.04). Conclusion: Independent of insulin resistance, every 1nmol/l increase in Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, decreases the odds of preeclampsia by 1%, notifying Sex Hormone Binding Globulin as an important biomarker about its etiology and prediction. (author)

  5. Estimating relations between temperature, relative humidity as independed variables and selected water quality parameters in Lake Manzala, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan A.H. Sallam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, Lake Manzala is the largest and the most productive lake of northern coastal lakes. In this study, the continuous measurements data of the Real Time Water Quality Monitoring stations in Lake Manzala were statistically analyzed to measure the regional and seasonal variations of the selected water quality parameters in relation to the change of air temperature and relative humidity. Simple formulas are elaborated using the DataFit software to predict the selected water quality parameters of the Lake including pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Turbidity, and Chlorophyll as a function of air temperature, relative humidity and quantities and qualities of the drainage water that discharge into the lake. An empirical positive relation was found between air temperature and the relative humidity and pH, EC and TDS and negative relation with DO. There is no significant effect on the other two parameters of turbidity and chlorophyll.

  6. Topological and Graph-Coloring Conditions on the Parameter-Independent Stability of Second-Order Networked Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerts, Filip; Bürger, Mathias; van der Schaft, Abraham; De Persis, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study parameter-independent stability in qualitatively heterogeneous passive networked systems containing damped and undamped nodes. Given the graph topology and a set of damped nodes, we ask if output consensus is achieved for all system parameter values. For given parameter

  7. Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla M; Kritz, Eivor I K; Bogren, I Kristina

    2002-06-01

    Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females The aims of this study were to examine self-reported sleep quality, perceived strain and health in relation to working conditions; the prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances and daytime distress arising from poor sleep in women on different work shifts. Furthermore, to see whether females with gastrointestinal symptoms, joint-, back- or muscle-pain and who are dissatisfied with working hours differ with regard to the above aspects. Finally, degree of strain-related symptoms and sleep difficulties were tested as predictors of sleep quality and general health outcome. Important research questions are whether registered nurses and those on rotating work shifts have greater sleep problems than others. A total of 156 females, aged 20-59 years, working at three different casualty departments, answered structured questionnaires. The results showed a persistently high rate of psycho-physiological long-term effects of stress related to working conditions. Thirty-four per cent were dissatisfied with their working hours, and exhibited significantly more mental strain, fatigue/excessive tiredness and inability to relax after work because of involuntary thoughts, in relation to working conditions than others did. Sixty-two females (39.7%) complained of insufficient sleep. The sleep quality outcome was significantly predicted by difficulty falling asleep (odds ratio 8.4), difficulty in falling asleep after nocturnal awakening (odds ratio 3.4) and perceived exhaustion (odds ratio 2.6). Females suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and joint-, back- and muscle symptoms for several days in a week or even everyday were especially sensitive to worse sleep quality. Independent of work shifts, registered nurses exhibited a higher degree of mental strain and prolonged recovery in comparison with others. In conclusions, sleep initiation difficulties, troubled sleep and

  8. A prospective evaluation of ventilator-associated conditions and infection-related ventilator-associated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Anthony F; Schoenberg, Noah; Babcock, Hilary; McMullen, Kathleen M; Micek, Scott T; Kollef, Marin H

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has shifted policy away from using ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and toward using ventilator-associated conditions (VACs) as a marker of ICU quality. To date, limited prospective data regarding the incidence of VAC among medical and surgical ICU patients, the ability of VAC criteria to capture patients with VAP, and the potential clinical preventability of VACs are available. This study was a prospective 12-month cohort study (January 2013 to December 2013). We prospectively surveyed 1,209 patients ventilated for ≥ 2 calendar days. Sixty-seven VACs were identified (5.5%), of which 34 (50.7%) were classified as an infection-related VAC (IVAC) with corresponding rates of 7.0 and 3.6 per 1,000 ventilator days, respectively. The mortality rate of patients having a VAC was significantly greater than that of patients without a VAC (65.7% vs 14.4%, P VACs included IVACs (50.7%), ARDS (16.4%), pulmonary edema (14.9%), and atelectasis (9.0%). Among IVACs, 44.1% were probable VAP and 17.6% were possible VAP. Twenty-five VACs (37.3%) were adjudicated to represent potentially preventable events. Eighty-six episodes of VAP occurred in 84 patients (10.0 of 1,000 ventilator days) during the study period. The sensitivity of the VAC criteria for the detection of VAP was 25.9% (95% CI, 16.7%-34.5%). Although relatively uncommon, VACs are associated with greater mortality and morbidity when they occur. Most VACs represent nonpreventable events, and the VAC criteria capture a minority of VAP episodes.

  9. [Characteristics of working conditions at metallurgy-related plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, A M

    2008-01-01

    Working conditions at more versus less advanced technology steel plants of the Volgograd Region are analyzed. The working conditions at the less advanced technology plants are referred to as a very high occupational risk. It is necessary to work out measures to lower the poor impact of microclimate, dust, noise, to improve illumination, and to regulate labor at steel plants.

  10. Pain Report and Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Operantly Conditioned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, Richel; Vuurman, Eric; Lamers, Theo; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jongen, Ellen; Rijnen, Heidi; Maessen, Christa; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to answer the ques- tion whether pain report can be increased and decreased by operant conditioning. We predicted that the conditioned pain effects would remain significant after correction for social desirability and fantasy proneness. Furthermore, we

  11. Role of physical activity, physical fitness, and chronic health conditions on the physical independence of community-dwelling older adults over a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catarina; Baptista, Fátima; Cruz-Ferreira, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The variability in the individual characteristics and habits could help determine how older adults maintain independence. The impact of the variability in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic health conditions (co-morbidities) on the independence of older adults, especially over time, is seldom examined. This study aims to analyze quantitatively the impact of baseline values and changes in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and co-morbidities on the physical independence of community-dwelling, older adults over a 5-year period. Data from 106 and 85 community-dwelling adults (≥60 years) were collected at baseline and after five years, respectively. Linear regression selected the main predictors of changes in physical independence as follows: the baseline physical independence (β=0.032, R(2)=9.9%) and co-morbidities (β=-0.191, R(2)=6.3%) and the changes in co-morbidities (β=-0.244, R(2)=10.8%), agility (β=-0.288, R(2)=6.7%), aerobic endurance (β=0.007, R(2)=3.2%), and walking expenditure (β=0.001, R(2)=5.1%) (page and gender. Gains of up to 8.3% in physical independence were associated with improvements in these variables, which corresponds to regaining independence for performing one or two activities of daily living. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Functionally Independent Components of the Late Positive Event-Related Potential During Visual Spatial Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makeig, Scott; Westeifleld, Marissa; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Covington, James; Townsend, Jeanne; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Courchesne, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Human event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 10 subjects presented with visual target and nontarget stimuli at five screen locations and responding to targets presented at one of the locations...

  13. Exploring the relation between positive emotions and the functional status of older adults living independently: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Miriam; Lamers, Sanne M A; Trompetter, Hester R; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R

    2017-11-01

    Literature suggests that positive emotions positively influence physiological parameters but their relation to functioning in the daily life of older adults living independently remains unclear. The present work aims to investigate the relation between positive emotions and functional status in daily life of older people living independently. A systematic literature review was conducted using the PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus electronic databases. Included works were peer-reviewed empirical studies that analysed the relation between positive emotions and ability to perform activities of daily living with older adults living independently. After removal of duplicates, 10 out of 963 papers met the inclusion criteria. Cross-sectional studies (n = 6) provided limited evidence about a relation between positive emotions and functioning in daily life. However, longitudinal studies (n = 4) provide significant evidence for an interaction between the two factors, suggesting that time influences this interaction. The variety on the design and samples of the studies included in this review does not allow a cohesive conclusion of the results. Nevertheless, limited evidence suggests that higher frequency in the experience of positive emotions might be associated with lower functional limitations. The issue of causality in emotions-functioning remains unclear from the review. Further observational studies are highly recommended, supported by innovative technologies.

  14. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Akinari Inui,1 Ippei Takahashi,2 Sizuka Kurauchi,2 Yuki Soma,2 Toshiaki Oyama,1 Yoshihiro Tamura,1 Takao Noguchi,1 Kouichi Murashita,3 Shigeyuki Nakaji,2 Wataru Kobayashi1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2Department of Social Medicine, 3COI Research Initiatives Organization, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori Prefecture, Japan Purpose: Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods: In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females. Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results: Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8% and 76 females (21.9%. To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males were found to be significantly related to dysphagia

  15. Sleep-related attentional bias in poor versus good sleepers is independent of affective valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Nicola L; Ellis, Jason G

    2013-08-01

    Contradictory evidence exists relating to the presence of an attention bias to sleep-related stimuli in poor sleepers/insomnia using the emotional Stroop task (EST). These inconsistencies may be due to methodological issues related to the affective valence of the sleep-related stimuli. Thus, individuals may attend differentially to sleep-related stimuli not because of their 'sleep' properties, but their negativity. The current study addresses this by controlling the affective valence of sleep-related words. A total of 107 participants [mean age = 33.22 years, standard deviation (SD) = 12.31 years; 61.7% female] were recruited during an evening event at the Newcastle Science Festival. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a computerized EST containing 20 non-affective sleep-related, 20 neutral and 20 negatively valenced threat words. Good and poor sleepers were categorized using the PSQI. There were no significant differences between groups on response latency to sleep-related words (t(105) = -0.30, P = 0.76). However, the interaction between good versus poor sleepers and word-type on response latency was significant (F(2,210) = 3.06, P sleep-related words (mean = 723.35, SD = 172.55) compared to threat words (mean = 694.63, SD = 162.17) than good sleepers (mean = 713.20, SD = 166.32; and mean = 716.65, SD = 181.14). The results demonstrate the presence of an attention bias towards sleep-related stimuli compared to threat stimuli in poor sleepers. Accordingly, poor sleepers may be consumed by stimuli relevant to their specific difficulties, as well as being more highly attuned to negative cues that signal anxious states. Thus, the present research suggests that there are two opposing forces at play: one which facilitates performance (non-specific threats) and one which hinders performance (personally relevant threats). © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. One-against-all weighted dynamic time warping for language-independent and speaker-dependent speech recognition in adverse conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglilan Zhang

    Full Text Available Considering personal privacy and difficulty of obtaining training material for many seldom used English words and (often non-English names, language-independent (LI with lightweight speaker-dependent (SD automatic speech recognition (ASR is a promising option to solve the problem. The dynamic time warping (DTW algorithm is the state-of-the-art algorithm for small foot-print SD ASR applications with limited storage space and small vocabulary, such as voice dialing on mobile devices, menu-driven recognition, and voice control on vehicles and robotics. Even though we have successfully developed two fast and accurate DTW variations for clean speech data, speech recognition for adverse conditions is still a big challenge. In order to improve recognition accuracy in noisy environment and bad recording conditions such as too high or low volume, we introduce a novel one-against-all weighted DTW (OAWDTW. This method defines a one-against-all index (OAI for each time frame of training data and applies the OAIs to the core DTW process. Given two speech signals, OAWDTW tunes their final alignment score by using OAI in the DTW process. Our method achieves better accuracies than DTW and merge-weighted DTW (MWDTW, as 6.97% relative reduction of error rate (RRER compared with DTW and 15.91% RRER compared with MWDTW are observed in our extensive experiments on one representative SD dataset of four speakers' recordings. To the best of our knowledge, OAWDTW approach is the first weighted DTW specially designed for speech data in adverse conditions.

  17. Tyrphostin AG-related compounds attenuate H2O2-induced TRPM2-dependent and -independent cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Toda, Takahiro; Yonezawa, Ryo; Negoro, Takaharu; Shimizu, Shunichi

    2017-05-01

    TRPM2 is a Ca 2+ -permeable channel that is activated by H 2 O 2 . TRPM2-mediated Ca 2+ signaling has been implicated in the aggravation of inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the development of TRPM2 inhibitors to prevent the aggravation of these diseases is expected. We recently reported that some Tyrphostin AG-related compounds inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced activation of TRPM2 by scavenging the intracellular hydroxyl radical. In the present study, we examined the effects of AG-related compounds on H 2 O 2 -induced cellular responses in human monocytic U937 cells, which functionally express TRPM2. The effects of AG-related compounds on H 2 O 2 -induced changes in intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, and CXCL8 secretion were assessed using U937 cells. Ca 2+ influxes via TRPM2 in response to H 2 O 2 were blocked by AG-related compounds. AG-related compounds also inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced activation of ERK, and subsequent secretion of CXCL8 mediated by TRPM2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our results show that AG-related compounds inhibit H 2 O 2 -induced CXCL8 secretion following ERK activation, which is mediated by TRPM2-dependent and -independent mechanisms in U937 cells. We previously reported that AG-related compounds blocked H 2 O 2 -induced TRPM2 activation by scavenging the hydroxyl radical. The inhibitory effects of AG-related compounds on TRPM2-independent responses may be due to scavenging of the hydroxyl radical. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Conditional non-independence of radiographic image features and the derivation of post-test probabilities – A mammography BI-RADS example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Bayes' theorem has proven to be one of the cornerstones in medical decision making. It allows for the derivation of post-test probabilities, which in case of a positive test result become positive predictive values. If several test results are observed successively Bayes' theorem may be used with assumed conditional independence of test results or with incorporated conditional dependencies. Herein it is examined whether radiographic image features should be considered conditionally independent diagnostic tests when post-test probabilities are to be derived. For this purpose the mammographic mass dataset from the UCI (University of California, Irvine) machine learning repository is analysed. It comprises the description of 961 (516 benign, 445 malignant) mammographic mass lesions according to the BI-RADS (Breast Imaging: Reporting and Data System) lexicon. Firstly, an exhaustive correlation matrix is presented for mammography BI-RADS features among benign and malignant lesions separately; correlation can be regarded as measure for conditional dependence. Secondly, it is shown that the derived positive predictive values for the conjunction of the two features “irregular shape” and “spiculated margin” differ significantly depending on whether conditional dependencies are incorporated into the decision process or not. It is concluded that radiographic image features should not generally be regarded as conditionally independent diagnostic tests.

  19. A novel evaluation of two related and two independent algorithms for eye movement classification during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lee; Rigas, Ioannis; Abdulin, Evgeny; Komogortsev, Oleg V

    2018-05-15

    Nystrӧm and Holmqvist have published a method for the classification of eye movements during reading (ONH) (Nyström & Holmqvist, 2010). When we applied this algorithm to our data, the results were not satisfactory, so we modified the algorithm (now the MNH) to better classify our data. The changes included: (1) reducing the amount of signal filtering, (2) excluding a new type of noise, (3) removing several adaptive thresholds and replacing them with fixed thresholds, (4) changing the way that the start and end of each saccade was determined, (5) employing a new algorithm for detecting PSOs, and (6) allowing a fixation period to either begin or end with noise. A new method for the evaluation of classification algorithms is presented. It was designed to provide comprehensive feedback to an algorithm developer, in a time-efficient manner, about the types and numbers of classification errors that an algorithm produces. This evaluation was conducted by three expert raters independently, across 20 randomly chosen recordings, each classified by both algorithms. The MNH made many fewer errors in determining when saccades start and end, and it also detected some fixations and saccades that the ONH did not. The MNH fails to detect very small saccades. We also evaluated two additional algorithms: the EyeLink Parser and a more current, machine-learning-based algorithm. The EyeLink Parser tended to find more saccades that ended too early than did the other methods, and we found numerous problems with the output of the machine-learning-based algorithm.

  20. Tau protein degradation is catalyzed by the ATP/ubiquitin-independent 20S proteasome under normal cell conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Grune, Tilman; Botzen, Diana; Engels, Martina; Voss, Peter; Kaiser, Barbara; Jung, Tobias; Grimm, Stefanie; Ermak, Gennady; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Tau is the major protein exhibiting intracellular accumulation in Alzheimer disease. The mechanisms leading to its accumulation are not fully understood. It has been proposed that the proteasome is responsible for degrading tau but, since proteasomal inhibitors block both the ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasome and the ubiqutin-independent 20S proteasome pathways, it is not clear which of these pathways is involved in tau degradation. Some involvement of the ubiquitin ligase, CHIP in tau degra...

  1. Univalence Conditions Related to a General Integral Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Breaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a general integral operator based on two types of analytic functions, namely, regular functions and, respectively, functions having a positive real part. Some univalence conditions for this integral operator are obtained.

  2. New Conjugacy Conditions and Related Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Y.-H.; Liao, L.-Z.

    2001-01-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are a class of important methods for unconstrained optimization, especially when the dimension is large. This paper proposes a new conjugacy condition, which considers an inexact line search scheme but reduces to the old one if the line search is exact. Based on the new conjugacy condition, two nonlinear conjugate gradient methods are constructed. Convergence analysis for the two methods is provided. Our numerical results show that one of the methods is very efficient for the given test problems

  3. Rearing conditions determine offspring survival independent of egg quality : A cross-foster experiment with Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Bakker, T; Saaltink, DJ; Verhulst, S; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan

    Variation in rearing conditions, due either to parental or to environmental quality, can result in offspring of different quality (e.g. body condition, immune function). However, evidence is accumulating that egg size and composition can also affect offspring quality. In Oystercatchers Haematopus

  4. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than 137 Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms

  5. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada))

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than {sup 137}Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium {times} V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms.

  6. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...

  7. Gauge-independent scales related to the Standard Model vacuum instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, J.R.; Garny, M.; Konstandin, T.; Riotto, A.

    2016-08-01

    The measured (central) values of the Higgs and top quark masses indicate that the Standard Model (SM) effective potential develops an instability at high field values. The scale of this instability, determined as the Higgs field value at which the potential drops below the electroweak minimum, is about 10"1"1 GeV. However, such a scale is unphysical as it is not gauge invariant and suffers from a gauge-fixing uncertainty of up to two orders of magnitude. Subjecting our system, the SM, to several probes of the instability (adding higher order operators to the potential; letting the vacuum decay through critical bubbles; heating up the system to very high temperature; inflating it) and asking in each case physical questions, we are able to provide several gauge-invariant scales related with the Higgs potential instability.

  8. Gauge-Independent Scales Related to the Standard Model Vacuum Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, Jose R.; Konstandin, Thomas; Riotto, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The measured (central) values of the Higgs and top quark masses indicate that the Standard Model (SM) effective potential develops an instability at high field values. The scale of this instability, determined as the Higgs field value at which the potential drops below the electroweak minimum, is about $10^{11}$ GeV. However, such a scale is unphysical as it is not gauge-invariant and suffers from a gauge-fixing uncertainty of up to two orders of magnitude. Subjecting our system, the SM, to several probes of the instability (adding higher order operators to the potential; letting the vacuum decay through critical bubbles; heating up the system to very high temperature; inflating it) and asking in each case physical questions, we are able to provide several gauge-invariant scales related with the Higgs potential instability.

  9. Inequality in oral health related to early and later life social conditions: a study of elderly in Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcan, Ferda; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-02-10

    A life course perspective recognizes influences of socially patterned exposures on oral health across the life span. This study assessed the influence of early and later life social conditions on tooth loss and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) of people aged 65 and 70 years. Whether social inequalities in oral health changed after the usual age of retirement was also examined. In accordance with "the latent effect life course model", it was hypothesized that adverse early-life social conditions increase the risk of subsequent tooth loss and impaired OIDP, independent of later-life social conditions. Data were obtained from two cohorts studies conducted in Sweden and Norway. The 2007 and 2012 waves of the surveys were used for the present study. Early-life social conditions were measured in terms of gender, education and country of birth, and later-life social conditions were assessed by working status, marital status and size of social network. Logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to analyse the data. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was used to adjust estimates for missing responses and loss to follow-up. Early-life social conditions contributed to tooth loss and OIDP in each survey year and both countries independent of later-life social conditions. Lower education correlated positively with tooth loss, but did not influence OIDP. Foreign country of birth correlated positively with oral impacts in Sweden only. Later-life social conditions were the strongest predictors of tooth loss and OIDP across survey years and countries. GEE revealed significant interactions between social network and survey year, and between marital status and survey year on tooth loss. The results confirmed the latent effect life course model in that early and later life social conditions had independent effects on tooth loss and OIDP among the elderly in Norway and Sweden. Between age 65 and 70, inequalities in tooth loss related to marital

  10. Condition monitoring of pumps with co-relating field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.K.; Prasad, V.; Sharma, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The maintenance of 40 MWth research reactor, Cirus has been carried out for over 30 years following the time based maintenance schedule. With the commissioning of indigenously built 100 MWth nuclear research reactor Dhruva in the year 1985, a systematic work on condition monitoring has been commissioned. Apart from process parameters, which are recorded on hourly basis, vibration, noise, temperature, kurtosis etc. are measured for assessment of condition of pumps. The bearings of flywheel assembly of main pumps, Dhruva broke down almost abruptly during the initial years after first commissioning. The regular measurements of vibration level and kurtosis have greatly helped in avoiding breakdown. In a recent case one newly procured herringbone gear box (300 hp, 1475/1760 rpm) for the primary coolant pump was showing high vibration. In further checking using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analyser in a time domain plot the gear teeth damage was indicated. The pump was shut down for inspection and when the gear box was dismantled teeth were found broken. An attempt has been made in this paper to discuss a few interesting field experiences with condition monitoring and correlating field observations on pumps. (author). 3 figs

  11. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Gagarina; Indre Pikturniene

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla) and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2×2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambi...

  12. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  13. Increased serum ferritin levels are independently related to incidence of prediabetes in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, G; Yang, H; Bao, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, L; Wu, H; Du, H; Xia, Y; Shi, H; Guo, X; Liu, X; Li, C; Su, Q; Gu, Y; Fang, L; Yu, F; Sun, S; Wang, X; Zhou, M; Jia, Q; Guo, Q; Song, K; Huang, G; Wang, G; Wu, Y; Niu, K

    2017-04-01

    To comprehensively and exhaustively assess the relationship between serum ferritin levels and incidence of prediabetes in a prospective study. This prospective cohort study (n=7380) with a mean follow-up of 3.07 years (range: 1-7, 95% CI: 3.03-3.12) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Blood fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum ferritin levels and other potentially confounding factors were measured at baseline and at each year of follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the gender-specific relationship between baseline and mean serum ferritin quintiles and prediabetes. The incidence of prediabetes was 85 per 1000 person-years among men and 44 per 1000 person-years among women during follow-up (from 2007 to 2014). After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (95% CI) for prediabetes across baseline ferritin quintiles were: for men, 1.00, 1.13 (0.90-1.40), 1.20 (0.97-1.48), 1.41 (1.14-1.73) and 1.73 (1.41-2.11); and for women, 1.00, 1.01 (0.74-1.38), 0.68 (0.48-0.96), 0.84 (0.61-1.15) and 1.07 (0.80-1.45), respectively. Similar results were also observed for mean ferritin levels. Both baseline and mean serum ferritin levels were significantly and linearly related to prediabetes in men, whereas U-shaped relationships were observed between baseline and mean serum ferritin and prediabetes in women. The relationship between prediabetes risk and mean serum ferritin levels may be more stable than one with baseline serum ferritin levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  15. Fundamental Evaluation of Adaptation and Human Capabilities in a Condition Using a System to Give a User an Artificial Oculomotor Function to Control Directions of Both Eyes Independently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Mizuno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate flexible adaptation of visual system, we developed a system to provide a user an artificial oculomotor function to control directions of both eyes. The system named “Virtual Chameleon” consists of two CCD cameras independently controlled and a head-mounted display. The user can control each tracking directions of two cameras with sensors set to both hands so that the user can get independent arbitrary view fields for both eyes. We performed fundamental experiments to evaluate capability to evaluate adaptation to use of Virtual Chameleon and effects on the user's capabilities. Eleven healthy volunteers with normal and corrected-to-normal vision participated in the experiments. The experiments were tests to find out each position of targets put in both side of a subject. In the experiments, a condition using Virtual Chameleon and a condition without it was adopted. We obtained accuracy rates and time intervals to find out target positions as experimental results. The experiments showed all of volunteers became able to actively control independent visual axes and correctly understood two different views by using Virtual Chameleon, even though two independent view fields yielded binocular rivalry to volunteers and binocular rivalry reduced human capabilities compared to cases without Virtual Chameleon.

  16. Name conditioning in event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Pavlov, Yuri G

    2017-11-01

    Four experiments are reported in which two harmonic tones (CS+ and CS-) were paired with a participant's own name (SON) and different names (DN), respectively. A third tone was not paired with any other stimulus and served as a standard (frequent stimulus) in a three-stimuli oddball paradigm. The larger posterior positivity (P3) to SON than DN, found in previous studies, was replicated in all experiments. Conditioning of the P3 response was albeit observed in two similar experiments (1 and 3), but the obtained effects were weak and not identical in the two experiments. Only Experiment 4, where the number of CS/UCS pairings and the Stimulus-Onset Asynchrony between CS and UCS were increased, showed clear CS+/CS- differences both in time and time-frequency domains. Surprisingly, differential responses to CS+ and CS- were also obtained in Experiment 2, although SON and DN in that experiment were masked and never consciously recognized as meaningful words (recognition rate 0/63 participants). The results are discussed in the context of other ERP conditioning experiments and, particularly, the studies of non-conscious effect on ERP. Several further experiments are suggested to replicate and extend the present findings and to remove the remaining methodological limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted.

  18. Stress-Related Growth in Two Challenging Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 4. ISSN 1529-5168 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Mars-500 * cruise * personal growth * spirituality, cognitive growth * social growth Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  19. The influence of COPD on health-related quality of life independent of the influence of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Jeannette G; Bindels, Patrick J E; Dekker, Friedo W; Bottema, Bernardus J A M; van der Zee, Jaring S; Ijzermans, C Joris; Schadé, Egbert

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the influence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) independent of comorbidity. Patients with COPD in general practice, >/=40 years, were selected. To recruit controls, a random sample of persons without COPD and >/=40 years, was taken. HRQL was assessed with the SF-36 and comorbidity was determined by questionnaire. The influence of COPD on HRQL independent of comorbidity (represented by adjusted regression coefficients) was significant for physical functioning (-27.6), role functioning due to physical problems (-21.6), vitality (-14.4), and general health (-25.7), and was minor and not significant for social functioning (-5.6), mental health (-1.3), role functioning due to emotional problems (-2.7), and bodily pain (-2.5). Comorbidity contributed significantly to the HRQL of all domains (-7.6 to -27.1). COPD patients can be impaired in all domains of HRQL. However, impairments in physical functioning, vitality, and general health are related to COPD and to some extent to comorbidity, while impairments in social and emotional functioning do not seem to be related to COPD, but only to comorbidity.

  20. Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Mauritania and Related Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Caminade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four large outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever (RVF occurred in Mauritania in 1998, 2003, 2010 and 2012 which caused lots of animal and several human deaths. We investigated rainfall and vegetation conditions that might have impacted on RVF transmission over the affected regions. Our results corroborate that RVF transmission generally occurs during the months of September and October in Mauritania, similarly to Senegal. The four outbreaks were preceded by a rainless period lasting at least a week followed by heavy precipitation that took place during the second half of the rainy season. First human infections were generally reported three to five weeks later. By bridging the gap between meteorological forecasting centers and veterinary services, an early warning system might be developed in Senegal and Mauritania to warn decision makers and health services about the upcoming RVF risk.

  1. Integrase-independent HIV-1 infection is augmented under conditions of DNA damage and produces a viral reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebina, Hirotaka, E-mail: hebina@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kanemura, Yuka; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Urata, Kozue; Misawa, Naoko; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2012-05-25

    HIV-1 possesses a viral protein, integrase (IN), which is necessary for its efficient integration in target cells. However, it has been reported that an IN-defective HIV strain is still capable of integration. Here, we assessed the ability of wild type (WT) HIV-1 to establish infection in the presence of IN inhibitors. We observed a low, yet clear infection of inhibitor-incubated cells infected with WT HIV which was identical to cells infected with IN-deficient HIV, D64A. Furthermore, the IN-independent integration could be enhanced by the pretreatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents suggesting that integration is mediated by a DNA repair system. Moreover, significantly faster viral replication kinetics with augmented viral DNA integration was observed after infection in irradiated cells treated with IN inhibitor compared to nonirradiated cells. Altogether, our results suggest that HIV DNA has integration potential in the presence of an IN inhibitor and may serve as a virus reservoir.

  2. Integrase-independent HIV-1 infection is augmented under conditions of DNA damage and produces a viral reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebina, Hirotaka; Kanemura, Yuka; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Urata, Kozue; Misawa, Naoko; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 possesses a viral protein, integrase (IN), which is necessary for its efficient integration in target cells. However, it has been reported that an IN-defective HIV strain is still capable of integration. Here, we assessed the ability of wild type (WT) HIV-1 to establish infection in the presence of IN inhibitors. We observed a low, yet clear infection of inhibitor-incubated cells infected with WT HIV which was identical to cells infected with IN-deficient HIV, D64A. Furthermore, the IN-independent integration could be enhanced by the pretreatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents suggesting that integration is mediated by a DNA repair system. Moreover, significantly faster viral replication kinetics with augmented viral DNA integration was observed after infection in irradiated cells treated with IN inhibitor compared to nonirradiated cells. Altogether, our results suggest that HIV DNA has integration potential in the presence of an IN inhibitor and may serve as a virus reservoir.

  3. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    improving the transparency of its financial system. It signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement ( TIEA ) with the United States in November 2010, and by...work of money launderers. Both the signing of a TIEA with the United States and Panama’s approval of legislation related to “bearer shares” were...had wanted to delay consideration of the Panama FTA until the United States and Panama signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement ( TIEA ). This

  4. The relationships between the combination of person- and organization-related conditions and patients' perceptions of palliative care quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandsdalen, Tuva; Høye, Sevald; Rystedt, Ingrid; Grøndahl, Vigdis Abrahamsen; Hov, Reidun; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2017-12-06

    Little is known about the combination of person- and organization- related conditions and the relationships with patients' perspectives of care quality. Such a combination could contribute knowledge reflecting the complexity of clinical practice, and enhance individualized care. The aim was to investigate the relationships between the combination of person- and organization-related conditions and patients' perceptions of palliative care quality. A cross-sectional study, including 191 patients in the late palliative phase (73% response rate) admitted to hospice inpatient care (n = 72), hospice day care (n = 51), palliative units in nursing homes (n = 30) and home care (n = 38), was conducted between November 2013 and December 2014, using the instrument Quality from the Patients' Perspective specific to palliative care (QPP-PC). Data were analysed, using analysis of covariance, to explore the amount of the variance in the dependent variables (QPP-PC) that could be explained by combination of the independent variables - Person- and organization-related conditions, - while controlling for differences in covariates. Patients scored the care received and the subjective importance as moderate to high. The combination of person- and organization - related conditions revealed that patients with a high sense of coherence, lower age (person - related conditions) and being in a ward with access to and availability of physicians (organization-related condition) might be associated with significantly higher scores for the quality of care received. Gender (women), daily contact with family and friends, and low health-related quality of life (person-related conditions) might be associated with higher scores for subjective importance of the aspects of care quality. Healthcare personnel, leaders and policy makers need to pay attention to person- and organization-related conditions in order to provide person-centered palliative care of high quality. Further studies from

  5. Adiposity, physical activity, and muscle quality are independently related to physical function performance in middle-aged postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Ritacco, Christie L; Adrian, Amanda L; Johnson, Mary Ann; Rogers, Laura Q; Evans, Ellen M

    2014-10-01

    Poor physical function performance is associated with risks for disability in late life; however, determinants of physical function are not well characterized in middle-aged women. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the contributions of body composition, physical activity, muscle capacity, and muscle quality to physical function performance. Postmenopausal women (N = 64; mean [SD] age, 58.6 [3.6] y) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, for physical activity via accelerometer (steps per day), and for physical function via Timed Up and Go, 30-second chair stand, and 6-minute walk. Leg strength was assessed using isokinetic dynamometry at 60° second. Leg power was assessed with the Nottingham Leg Extensor Power Rig. Muscle quality was calculated as (1) the ratio of leg strength at 60° second to upper leg lean mass and (2) the ratio of leg power to total lower body lean mass. Regression analyses revealed the following: (1) age and muscle quality calculated with leg power are independently related to Timed Up and Go, explaining 12% and 11% of the variance, respectively (P quality calculated with leg strength are independently related to 30-second chair stand, explaining 12% and 10% of the variance, respectively (P quality calculated with leg strength, steps per day, and adiposity are independent predictors of 6-minute walk, collectively explaining 51% of the variance. In postmenopausal women, a more optimal body composition (including lower adiposity and higher lean mass) and higher levels of physical activity are associated with better physical function performance at midlife.

  6. Inhibition of Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer by Estrogenic Compounds Is Associated with Increased Expression of Immune-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsa M. Coleman

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical utility of estrogens for treating prostate cancer (CaP was established in the 1940s by Huggins. The classic model of the anti-CaP activity of estrogens postulates an indirect mechanism involving the suppression of androgen production. However, clinical, preclinical studies have shown that estrogens exert growth-inhibitory effects on CaP under low-androgen conditions, suggesting additional modes whereby estrogens affect CaP cells and/or the microenvironment. Here we have investigated the activity of 17β estradiol (E2 against androgen-independent CaP, identified molecular alterations in tumors exposed to E2. E2 treatment inhibited the growth of all four androgen-independent CaP xenografts studied (LuCaP 35V, LuCaP 23.1AI, LuCaP 49, LuCaP 58 in castrated male mice. The molecular basis of growth suppression was studied by cDNA microarray analysis, which indicated that multiple pathways are altered by E2 treatment. Of particular interest are changes in transcripts encoding proteins that mediate immune responses, regulate androgen receptor signaling. In conclusion, our data show that estrogens have powerful inhibitory effects on CaP in vivo in androgendepleted environments, suggest novel mechanisms of estrogen-mediated antitumor activity. These results indicate that incorporating estrogens into CaP treatment protocols could enhance therapeutic efficacy even in cases of advanced disease.

  7. Site-specific issues related to structural/seismic design of an underground independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Utilities owning and operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) in USA may choose to build an underground Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) to store the spent nuclear fuels. The regulatory requirements and other guidance are based on 10 CFR Part 72, Regulatory Guide RG 3.73, Standard Review Plans NUREG-1536 and NUREG-1567, and Interim staff Guidance (ISG) documents as applicable. Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) classified as important to safety are designed to withstand the effects of site-specific environmental conditions and natural phenomena such as earthquake, tornado, flood, etc. An underground ISFSI for storage of spent nuclear fuel, presents some unique analysis and design challenges. This paper will briefly address some of these challenges and discuss site-specific loads, including seismic for the ISFSI design. (authors)

  8. [Development and reliability evaluation of an instrument to measure health-related quality of life in independent elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria José Barbosa de; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo

    2010-08-01

    This study presents an instrument, the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) profile for independent elderly, to measure the health-related quality of life of the functionally independent elderly assisted in the outpatient setting, based on the adaptation of four validated scales: Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Duke-UNC Health Profile (DUHP), Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). The study also evaluates the instrument's reliability based on its use by two different observers with a 15-day interval. The instrument includes five dimensions (health perception, symptoms, physical function, psychological function, and social function) and 45 items. Reliability evaluation of the QUASI instrument was based on interviews with 142 elderly outpatients in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Prevalence-adjusted kappa statistic was used to assess all 45 items. Correlation was also calculated between overall scores and scores on individual dimensions. In the reliability evaluation, 39 of the 45 items showed prevalence-adjusted kappa greater than 0.60.

  9. PARP-2 regulates cell cycle-related genes through histone deacetylation and methylation independently of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Ya-Chen; Hsu, Chiao-Yu; Yao, Ya-Li; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PARP-2 acts as a transcription co-repressor independently of PARylation activity. ► PARP-2 recruits HDAC5, 7, and G9a and generates repressive chromatin. ► PARP-2 is recruited to the c-MYC promoter by DNA-binding factor YY1. ► PARP-2 represses cell cycle-related genes and alters cell cycle progression. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and regulates numerous nuclear processes, including transcription. Depletion of PARP-2 alters the activity of transcription factors and global gene expression. However, the molecular action of how PARP-2 controls the transcription of target promoters remains unclear. Here we report that PARP-2 possesses transcriptional repression activity independently of its enzymatic activity. PARP-2 interacts and recruits histone deacetylases HDAC5 and HDAC7, and histone methyltransferase G9a to the promoters of cell cycle-related genes, generating repressive chromatin signatures. Our findings propose a novel mechanism of PARP-2 in transcriptional regulation involving specific protein–protein interactions and highlight the importance of PARP-2 in the regulation of cell cycle progression

  10. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Bum Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jee Wook [Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Woong [College of Medical Science, Konyang University, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  11. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Bum Seok; Choi, Jee Wook; Kim, Ji Woong

    2012-01-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  12. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: a distinct condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal inherited autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians, affecting approximately one out of every 2,000 births. Survival of patients with cystic fibrosis has significantly improved due to advances in respiratory and nutritional care, and their current average life expectancy is 30-40 years. Development of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is a comorbidity that increases with age and may reach a prevalence up to 50% in adults. Its development is associated to impaired lung function and nutritional status, and early diagnosis and treatment are therefore essential to improve quality of life and performance status. Insulin therapy for diabetes and other early carbohydrate metabolism disorders may improve lung function and nutritional status of patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Relating coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) incidence to soil moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, E J; Bell, J E; Benedict, K; Shriber, J; McCotter, O; Cosh, M H

    2017-04-17

    Coccidioidomycosis (also called Valley fever) is caused by a soilborne fungus, Coccidioides spp. , in arid regions of the southwestern United States. Though some who develop infections from this fungus remain asymptomatic, others develop respiratory disease as a consequence. Less commonly, severe illness and death can occur when the infection spreads to other regions of the body. Previous analyses have attempted to connect the incidence of coccidioidomycosis to broadly available climatic measurements, such as precipitation or temperature. However, with the limited availability of long-term, in situ soil moisture data sets, it has not been feasible to perform a direct analysis of the relationships between soil moisture levels and coccidioidomycosis incidence on a larger temporal and spatial scale. Utilizing in situ soil moisture gauges throughout the southwest from the U.S. Climate Reference Network and a model with which to extend those estimates, this work connects periods of higher and lower soil moisture in Arizona and California between 2002 and 2014 to the reported incidence of coccidioidomycosis. The results indicate that in both states, coccidioidomycosis incidence is related to soil moisture levels from previous summers and falls. Stated differently, a higher number of coccidioidomycosis cases are likely to be reported if previous bands of months have been atypically wet or dry, depending on the location.

  14. Lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells under LDL loading is independent of LDL receptor pathway and enhanced by hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Youichiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Yamamoto, Takashi; Naito, Makoto; Noguchi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Tsujita, Maki; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Mika; Izumi, Akashi; Kohro, Takahide; Tanaka, Toshiya; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Koyama, Hidenori; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Shizuya; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Niki, Etsuo; Hamakubo, Takao; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    2002-10-01

    The effect of a variety of hypoxic conditions on lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was studied in an arterial wall coculture and monocultivation model. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was loaded under various levels of oxygen tension. Oil red O staining of rabbit and human SMCs revealed that lipid accumulation was greater under lower oxygen tension. Cholesterol esters were shown to accumulate in an oxygen tension-dependent manner by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Autoradiograms using radiolabeled LDL indicated that LDL uptake was more pronounced under hypoxia. This result holds in the case of LDL receptor-deficient rabbit SMCs. However, cholesterol biosynthesis and cellular cholesterol release were unaffected by oxygen tension. Hypoxia significantly increases LDL uptake and enhances lipid accumulation in arterial SMCs, exclusive of LDL receptor activity. Although the molecular mechanism is not clear, the model is useful for studying lipid accumulation in arterial wall cells and the difficult-to-elucidate events in the initial stage of atherogenesis.

  15. Autocrine growth induced by the insulin-related factor in the insulin-independent teratoma cell line 1246-3A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yukio; Serrero, G.

    1988-01-01

    An insulin-independent teratoma-derived cell line, called 1246-3A, has been isolated from the adipogenic cell line 1246, which stringently requires insulin for proliferation. The 1246-3A cell line, which can proliferate in the absence of exogenous insulin, produces in its conditioned medium a growth factor similar to pancreatic insulin by its biological and immunological properties. This factor, called insulin-related factor (IRF), was purified and iodinated to study its binding to cell surface receptors. 125 I-labeled IRF binding to intact 1246-3A cells is lower than to 1246 cells. Cell surface binding can be restored by culturing the 1246-3A cells in the presence of an anti-porcine insulin monoclonal antibody of by acid prewash of the cells prior to performing the binding. Scatchard analysis of binding indicates that IRF secreted by the 1246-3A cells partially occupies high-affinity binding sites on the producer cells. Moreover, insulin monoclonal antibody inhibits the proliferation of the IRF-producing 1246-3A cells, suggesting that these cells are dependent on the secreted IRF for growth in culture. The authors conclude that the insulin-related factor secreted by the insulin-independent 1246-3A cells stimulates their proliferation in an autocrine fashion

  16. Struggling for the Future, Burdened by the Past: Croatia’s Relations with the United Kingdom from Independence to Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaurdić Josip

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart from relations with its neighbours, Croatia’s relations with the United Kingdom (UK were undoubtedly its greatest international challenge since it won its independence in the early 1990s. Relations between the two countries during this period were frequently strained partly due to Zagreb’s democratic shortcomings, but partly also due to competing visions of post-Cold War Southeast Europe and due to long-lasting biases rooted in Croatia’s and Britain’s conflicting policies during Yugoslavia’s breakup and wars. Croatia’s accession to the EU in 2013 offered an opportunity for the two countries to leave the burdens of their past behind, since Zagreb and London had similar preferences on a number of crucial EU policy fronts. However, Brexit changed everything. Croatia’s future relations with the UK are likely to be determined by the nature of Brexit negotiations and the evolution of British policy toward the pace and direction of EU integration.

  17. Relative advantages and disadvantages of independent contractor status : a survey of owner-operators' opinions and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Commercial truck drivers range from company drivers that are employees of a carrier to independent owner-operators that operate under their own authority. From the drivers perspective, there are both benefits and drawbacks of being an independent ...

  18. Independent risk of mechanical ventilation for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Emborg, J.; Elkjaer, J.

    2001-01-01

    The use of mechanical ventilation (MV) for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has varied over time. The introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy has changed the pathophysiology of PCP. In the present study, we attempted to identify factors predictive of severe respiratory......%). In a logistic regression analysis, higher age, increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophilia and a positive BAL cytomegalovirus CMV culture were associated with the need of MV. In multivariate analyses, only BAL neutrophilia remained independently predictive of mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, short......-term mortality remained high after the introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy. BAL neutrophilia may be a useful prognostic marker to identify patients at high risk of requiring mechanical ventilation Udgivelsesdato: 2001/8...

  19. MORPHOLOGY OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: A COSMOLOGICAL MODEL-INDEPENDENT TEST OF THE COSMIC DISTANCE-DUALITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiaolei; Zhang Tongjie; Zhan Hu; Wang Xin

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at comparing different morphological models of galaxy clusters, we use two new methods to make a cosmological model-independent test of the distance-duality (DD) relation. The luminosity distances come from the Union2 compilation of Supernovae Type Ia. The angular diameter distances are given by two cluster models (De Filippis et al. and Bonamente et al.). The advantage of our methods is that they can reduce statistical errors. Concerning the morphological hypotheses for cluster models, it is mainly focused on the comparison between the elliptical β-model and spherical β-model. The spherical β-model is divided into two groups in terms of different reduction methods of angular diameter distances, i.e., the conservative spherical β-model and corrected spherical β-model. Our results show that the DD relation is consistent with the elliptical β-model at 1σ confidence level (CL) for both methods, whereas for almost all spherical β-model parameterizations, the DD relation can only be accommodated at 3σ CL, particularly for the conservative spherical β-model. In order to minimize systematic uncertainties, we also apply the test to the overlap sample, i.e., the same set of clusters modeled by both De Filippis et al. and Bonamente et al. It is found that the DD relation is compatible with the elliptically modeled overlap sample at 1σ CL; however, for most of the parameterizations the DD relation cannot be accommodated even at 3σ CL for any of the two spherical β-models. Therefore, it is reasonable that the marked triaxial ellipsoidal model is a better geometrical hypothesis describing the structure of the galaxy cluster compared with the spherical β-model if the DD relation is valid in cosmological observations.

  20. Only low frequency event-related EEG activity is compromised in multiple sclerosis: insights from an independent component clustering analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni Kiiski

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment (CI, often examined with neuropsychological tests such as the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT, affects approximately 65% of multiple sclerosis (MS patients. The P3b event-related potential (ERP, evoked when an infrequent target stimulus is presented, indexes cognitive function and is typically compared across subjects' scalp electroencephalography (EEG data. However, the clustering of independent components (ICs is superior to scalp-based EEG methods because it can accommodate the spatiotemporal overlap inherent in scalp EEG data. Event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs; event-related mean power spectral changes and inter-trial coherence (ITCs; event-related consistency of spectral phase reveal a more comprehensive overview of EEG activity. Ninety-five subjects (56 MS patients, 39 controls completed visual and auditory two-stimulus P3b event-related potential tasks and the PASAT. MS patients were also divided into CI and non-CI groups (n = 18 in each based on PASAT scores. Data were recorded from 128-scalp EEG channels and 4 IC clusters in the visual, and 5 IC clusters in the auditory, modality were identified. In general, MS patients had significantly reduced ERSP theta power versus controls, and a similar pattern was observed for CI vs. non-CI MS patients. The ITC measures were also significantly different in the theta band for some clusters. The finding that MS patients had reduced P3b task-related theta power in both modalities is a reflection of compromised connectivity, likely due to demyelination, that may have disrupted early processes essential to P3b generation, such as orientating and signal detection. However, for posterior sources, MS patients had a greater decrease in alpha power, normally associated with enhanced cognitive function, which may reflect a compensatory mechanism in response to the compromised early cognitive processing.

  1. Health-related quality of life and working conditions among nursing providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda Aparecida; Souza, José Maria Pacheco de; Borges, Flávio Notarnicola da Silva; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate working conditions associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among nursing providers. Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, during 2004-2005. The study sample comprised 696 registered nurses, nurse technicians and nurse assistants, predominantly females (87.8%), who worked day and/or night shifts. Data on sociodemographic information, working and living conditions, lifestyles, and health symptoms were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The following questionnaires were also used: Job Stress Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Ordinal logistic regression analysis using proportional odds model was performed to evaluate each dimension of the SF-36. Around 22% of the sample was found to be have high strain and 8% showed an effort-reward imbalance at work. The dimensions with the lowest mean scores in the SF-36 were vitality, bodily pain and mental health. High-strain job, effort-reward imbalance (ERI>1.01), and being a registered nurse were independently associated with low scores on the role emotional dimension. Those dimensions associated to mental health were the ones most affected by psychosocial factors at work. Effort-reward imbalance was more associated with health than high-strain (high demand and low control). The study results suggest that the joint analysis of psychosocial factors at work such as effort-reward imbalance and demand-control can provide more insight to the discussion of professional roles, working conditions and HRQL of nursing providers.

  2. Age-related effects on postural control under multi-task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wehrle, Anja; Kressig, Reto W

    2011-01-01

    Changes in postural sway and gait patterns due to simultaneously performed cognitive (CI) and/or motor interference (MI) tasks have previously been reported and are associated with an increased risk of falling in older adults. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a CI and/or MI task on static and dynamic postural control in young and elderly subjects, and to find out whether there is an association between measures of static and dynamic postural control while concurrently performing the CI and/or MI task. A total of 36 healthy young (n = 18; age: 22.3 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 21.0 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) and elderly adults (n = 18; age: 73.5 ± 5.5 years; BMI: 24.2 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) participated in this study. Static postural control was measured during bipedal stance, and dynamic postural control was obtained while walking on an instrumented walkway. Irrespective of the task condition, i.e. single-task or multiple tasks, elderly participants showed larger center-of-pressure displacements and greater stride-to-stride variability than younger participants. Associations between measures of static and dynamic postural control were found only under the single-task condition in the elderly. Age-related deficits in the postural control system seem to be primarily responsible for the observed results. The weak correlations detected between static and dynamic measures could indicate that fall-risk assessment should incorporate dynamic measures under multi-task conditions, and that skills like erect standing and walking are independent of each other and may have to be trained complementarily. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Estimating risks and relative risks in case-base studies under the assumptions of gene-environment independence and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Tsz-Ting Chui

    Full Text Available Many diseases result from the interactions between genes and the environment. An efficient method has been proposed for a case-control study to estimate the genetic and environmental main effects and their interactions, which exploits the assumptions of gene-environment independence and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. To estimate the absolute and relative risks, one needs to resort to an alternative design: the case-base study. In this paper, the authors show how to analyze a case-base study under the above dual assumptions. This approach is based on a conditional logistic regression of case-counterfactual controls matched data. It can be easily fitted with readily available statistical packages. When the dual assumptions are met, the method is approximately unbiased and has adequate coverage probabilities for confidence intervals. It also results in smaller variances and shorter confidence intervals as compared with a previous method for a case-base study which imposes neither assumption.

  4. Estimating Risks and Relative Risks in Case-Base Studies under the Assumptions of Gene-Environment Independence and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Tina Tsz-Ting; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Many diseases result from the interactions between genes and the environment. An efficient method has been proposed for a case-control study to estimate the genetic and environmental main effects and their interactions, which exploits the assumptions of gene-environment independence and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. To estimate the absolute and relative risks, one needs to resort to an alternative design: the case-base study. In this paper, the authors show how to analyze a case-base study under the above dual assumptions. This approach is based on a conditional logistic regression of case-counterfactual controls matched data. It can be easily fitted with readily available statistical packages. When the dual assumptions are met, the method is approximately unbiased and has adequate coverage probabilities for confidence intervals. It also results in smaller variances and shorter confidence intervals as compared with a previous method for a case-base study which imposes neither assumption. PMID:25137392

  5. Data-independent MS/MS quantification of neuropeptides for determination of putative feeding-related neurohormones in microdialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerberg, Claire M; Liang, Zhidan; Li, Lingjun

    2015-01-21

    Food consumption is an important behavior that is regulated by an intricate array of neuropeptides (NPs). Although many feeding-related NPs have been identified in mammals, precise mechanisms are unclear and difficult to study in mammals, as current methods are not highly multiplexed and require extensive a priori knowledge about analytes. New advances in data-independent acquisition (DIA) MS/MS and the open-source quantification software Skyline have opened up the possibility to identify hundreds of compounds and quantify them from a single DIA MS/MS run. An untargeted DIA MS(E) quantification method using Skyline software for multiplexed, discovery-driven quantification was developed and found to produce linear calibration curves for peptides at physiologically relevant concentrations using a protein digest as internal standard. By using this method, preliminary relative quantification of the crab Cancer borealis neuropeptidome (winnowing candidate NPs related to a behavior of interest in a functionally relevant manner, and demonstrates the success of such a UPLC-MS(E) quantification method using the open source software Skyline.

  6. An analysis of online health information on schizophrenia or related conditions: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 20% of those who seek health information online, search specifically for mental health. However, little is known about the nature of the online health information offered by two European countries, Finland and Greece, which are characterized by markedly differing levels of Internet access and online health information seeking. This study aims to assess, describe and compare websites, written in two European, non-English languages (Finnish and Greek) that appear first after performing an online search concerning schizophrenia or related conditions. Methods The first 20 results from four search terms (searched in Finnish and Greek) in the Web search engine ‘Google’ were screened. A total of 160 websites were retrieved (80 Finnish, 80 Greek) and evaluated using a preformulated coding system which consisted of websites’ indicators, such as: types, characteristics, accountability, interactivity, aesthetics and content. Differences between websites were evaluated with Chi-Square or Fisher’s Exact tests for categorical data and independent t-tests for parametric data. Results Twenty-four Finnish and thirty-four Greek websites (36% in total) were included. Almost two-thirds (62%, n=36) were owned by an organization, compared to 17% (n=10) by an individual. In both countries, aesthetics had the highest score (possible range 0–4, mean = 2.6, SD = .62), while interactivity the lowest (range 0–5, mean = 1.79, SD = .87). There were no statistically significant differences among the accountability, interactivity and aesthetics scores of the Finnish and Greek websites. Conclusions All assessed indicators suggest there is a need to improve Finnish and Greek online information about schizophrenia or related conditions. The poor website interactivity is of particular concern given the challenges faced by the target group. The findings can be used to guide the development and dissemination of online mental health information aimed at Finnish and Greek

  7. The Effect Of Non-Audit Services And Related Threats On Investors' Perceptions Of Auditor Independence: An Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    The provision of non-audit services by the statutory auditor may have a negative impact on independence in mind as well as on independence in appearance. Prior research revealed that different advisory services have a different effect on perceived auditor independence. This could be caused...... impair auditor independence disregarding their size. Furthermore, it was found that a higher self-review threat increases the negative impact on independence perceptions. an advocacy threat, however, seens to be irrelevant. Manipulation checks disclose that the manipulation of the familiarity chedk...

  8. Conditional Independence in Applied Probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Paul E.

    This material assumes the user has the background provided by a good undergraduate course in applied probability. It is felt that introductory courses in calculus, linear algebra, and perhaps some differential equations should provide the requisite experience and proficiency with mathematical concepts, notation, and argument. The document is…

  9. On Gaussian conditional independence structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lněnička, Radim; Matúš, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2007), s. 327-342 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multivariate Gaussian distribution * positive definite matrices * determinants * gaussoids * covariance selection models * Markov perfectness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.552, year: 2007

  10. A method comparison of total and HMW adiponectin: HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies versus total adiponectin, independent of clinical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Merel; Drent, Madeleine L; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2017-02-01

    Total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin have been associated with endocrine and cardiovascular pathology. As no gold standard is available, the discussion about biological relevance of isoforms is complicated. In our study we perform a method comparison between two commercially available assays measuring HMW and total adiponectin, in various patient groups, thus contributing further to this discussion. We determined levels of HMW and total adiponectin using assays by Lumipulse® and Millipore® respectively, in 126 patients with different clinical characteristics (n=29 healthy volunteers, n=22 dialysis patients, n=25 elderly with body mass index (BMI) LUMIPULSE ∗0.5-0.9=total adiponectin MILLIPORE , albeit with significant deviation from linearity (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation was R=0.987 (p=0.000). No significant differences between patient groups were observed (p=0.190). The HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies with total adiponectin concentration independent of clinical conditions studied. Our results imply that total and HMW adiponectin have similar utility when assessing adiponectin levels in blood, as the ratio is independent of clinical condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Benefits of marriage on relative and conditional relative cancer survival differ between males and females in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Johnson, Erin

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the influence of marital status on conditional relative survival of cancer according to sex. Analyses involved 779,978 males and 1,032,868 females diagnosed with 1 of 13 cancer types between 2000 and 2008, and followed through 2013. Data are from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race, and tumor stage. Five-year relative survival conditional on years already survived is higher among married patients with less lethal cancers (oral cavity and pharynx, colon and rectum, breast, urinary bladder, kidney and renal pelvis, melanoma of the skin, thyroid, lymphoma). For more lethal cancers, married patients have similar (liver, lung and bronchus, pancreas, leukemia) or poorer (brain and other nervous system) cancer survival. Separated/divorced or widowed patients have the lowest conditional relative survival rates. For most cancers, 5-year cancer relative survival rates conditional on time already survived through 5 years approach 70 to 90% of that for the general population. The beneficial effect of marriage on survival decreases with years already survived. Superior conditional relative survival rates in females decrease with time already survived and are less pronounced in married patients. Five-year relative survival rates improve with time already survived. The benefits of marriage on conditional relative survival are greater for less lethal cancers. Greater 5-year conditional relative survival rates in females narrow with time already survived and are less pronounced in married patients. Conditional relative survival rates of cancer can lead to more informed decisions and understanding regarding treatment and prognosis.

  12. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.L.A.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wagner, C.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful

  13. Androgen-independent proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells infected by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakoki, Katsura; Kamiyama, Haruka; Izumida, Mai; Yashima, Yuka; Hayashi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • XMRV infection induces androgen-independent growth in LNCaP cells. • XMRV infection reduces expression of androgen receptor. • XMRV promotes appearance of androgen blocker-resistant prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a novel gammaretrovirus that was originally isolated from human prostate cancer. It is now believed that XMRV is not the etiologic agent of prostate cancer. An analysis of murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection in various human cell lines revealed that prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected by XMRV, and this suggested that XMRV infection may confer some sort of growth advantage to prostate cancer cell lines. To examine this hypothesis, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells were infected with XMRV and tested for changes in certain cell growth properties. We found that XMRV-infected LNCaP cells can proliferate in the absence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, androgen receptor expression is significantly reduced in XMRV-infected LNCaP cells. Such alterations were not observed in uninfected and amphotropic MLV-infected LNCaP cells. This finding explains why prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected with XMRV

  14. Independent Versus Co-occurring Substance Use in Relation to Gambling Outcomes in Older Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronce, Jessica M; Bittinger, Joyce N; Di Lodovico, Cory M; Liu, Junny

    2017-05-01

    Gambling is prevalent among college students and can be associated with significant negative consequences. Students who report gambling also tend to report use of alcohol and cannabis, but little research has explored the associated risks of using these substances in relation to gambling episodes. This study explored associations between the independent and co-occurring use of alcohol and cannabis before/during gambling episodes and gambling outcomes. Students (n = 1,834) completed an online survey that included measures of gambling frequency, amount lost, negative gambling consequences, gambling problem severity, and substance use. As hypothesized, individuals who reported using either alcohol or cannabis alone or both substances before/while gambling endorsed greater gambling quantity, frequency, negative consequences, and problem severity than individuals who used alcohol and cannabis in general but denied use of either substance before/while gambling. Use of both substances compared to use of alcohol alone was associated with greater gambling quantity, frequency, and negative consequences, although these groups did not differ on gambling problem severity. Cannabis use alone was no different on any outcome than use of both substances, and alcohol use alone was no different than cannabis use alone on any outcome. Use of cannabis alone before/while gambling may confer the same level of risk for negative gambling outcomes as use of both cannabis and alcohol. Prevention efforts may, therefore, benefit from targeting cannabis use in relation to gambling. Additional investigation is needed in light of recent and upcoming state legislation on the legalization of cannabis. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 42 CFR 410.55 - Services related to kidney donations: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services related to kidney donations: Conditions... Services § 410.55 Services related to kidney donations: Conditions. Medicare Part B pays for medical and other health services covered under this subpart that are furnished in connection with a kidney donation...

  16. 42 CFR 447.257 - FFP: Conditions relating to institutional reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to institutional reimbursement. 447.257 Section 447.257 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...: Conditions relating to institutional reimbursement. FFP is not available for a State's expenditures for...

  17. Independent and additive association of prenatal famine exposure and intermediary life conditions with adult mortality between age 18-63 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekamper, P.; van Poppel, F.W.A.; Stein, A.D.; Lumey, L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the relation between prenatal famine exposure and adult mortality, taking into account mediating effects of intermediary life conditions. Design Historical follow-up study. Setting The Dutch famine (Hunger Winter) of 1944–1945 which occurred towards the end of WWII in occupied

  18. Relating Building and Classroom Conditions to Student Achievement in Virginia's Elementary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lanham III, James Warren

    1999-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement and a number of variables relating to building and classroom conditions in Virginia elementary schools were examined. A systematic random sample of 300 schools was selected from all elementary schools in Virginia with grades three and five. Data on building condition, classroom condition, and demographics were collected with "An Assessment of Building and Classroom Conditions in Elementary Schools in Virginia." Building prin...

  19. Fear conditioning-related changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell activities in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Masayuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear conditioning-induced changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus have been reported in rabbits. It has been suggested that synaptic long-term potentiation and the resulting increases in firing rates of Purkinje cells are related to the acquisition of conditioned fear in mammals. However, Purkinje cell activities during acquisition of conditioned fear have not been analysed, and changes in Purkinje cell activities throughout the development of conditioned fear have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we tracked Purkinje cell activities throughout a fear conditioning procedure and aimed to elucidate further how cerebellar circuits function during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. Methods Activities of single Purkinje cells in the corpus cerebelli were tracked throughout a classical fear conditioning procedure in goldfish. A delayed conditioning paradigm was used with cardiac deceleration as the conditioned response. Conditioning-related changes of Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus were examined. Results The majority of Purkinje cells sampled responded to the conditioned stimulus by either increasing or decreasing their firing rates before training. Although there were various types of conditioning-related changes in Purkinje cells, more than half of the cells showed suppressed activities in response to the conditioned stimulus after acquisition of conditioned fear. Purkinje cells that showed unconditioned stimulus-coupled complex-spike firings also exhibited conditioning-related suppression of simple-spike responses to the conditioned stimulus. A small number of Purkinje cells showed increased excitatory responses in the acquisition sessions. We found that the magnitudes of changes in the firing frequencies of some Purkinje cells in response to the conditioned stimulus correlated with the magnitudes of the conditioned

  20. Modulation of opiate-related signaling molecules in morphine-dependent conditioned behavior: conditioned place preference to morphine induces CREB phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, José A; Gullapalli, Srinivas; Taylor, Chirisse; Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2010-03-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic, relapsing behavioral disorder where learned associations that develop between the abused opiate and the environment in which it is consumed are brought about through Pavlovian (classical) conditioning processes. However, the signaling mechanisms/pathways regulating the mechanisms that underlie the responses to opiate-associated cues or the development of sensitization as a consequence of repeated context-independent administration of opiates are unknown. In this study we examined the phosphorylation levels of various classic signaling molecules in brain regions implicated in addictive behaviors after acute and repeated morphine administration. An unbiased place conditioning protocol was used to examine changes in phosphorylation that are associated with (1) the expression of the rewarding effects of morphine and (2) the sensitization that develops to this effect. We also examined the effects of a delta-receptor antagonist on morphine-induced conditioned behavior and on the phosphorylation of classic signaling molecules in view of data showing that blockade of delta-opioid receptor (deltaOR) prevents the development of sensitization to the rewarding effects of morphine. We find that CREB phosphorylation is specifically induced upon the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-induced conditioned behavior in brain areas related to memory consolidation, such as the hippocampus and cortex. A similar effect is also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the case of the GluR1 subunit of AMPA glutamate receptor. These increases in the phosphorylation levels of CREB and pGluR1 are significantly blocked by pretreatment with a deltaOR antagonist. These results indicate a critical role for phospho-CREB, AMPA, and deltaOR activities in mediating the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-dependent conditioned behavior.

  1. Independent technical review and analysis of hydraulic modeling and hydrology under low-flow conditions of the Des Plaines River near Riverside, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Thomas M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Hortness, Jon E.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated a streamgage and published daily flows for the Des Plaines River at Riverside since Oct. 1, 1943. A HEC-RAS model has been developed to estimate the effect of the removal of Hofmann Dam near the gage on low-flow elevations in the reach approximately 3 miles upstream from the dam. The Village of Riverside, the Illinois Department of Natural Resources-Office of Water Resources (IDNR-OWR), and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-Chicago District (USACE-Chicago) are interested in verifying the performance of the HEC-RAS model for specific low-flow conditions, and obtaining an estimate of selected daily flow quantiles and other low-flow statistics for a selected period of record that best represents current hydrologic conditions. Because the USGS publishes streamflow records for the Des Plaines River system and provides unbiased analyses of flows and stream hydraulic characteristics, the USGS served as an Independent Technical Reviewer (ITR) for this study.

  2. Growth platform-dependent and -independent phenotypic and metabolic responses of Arabidopsis and its halophytic relative, Eutrema salsugineum, to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachkova, Yana; Batushansky, Albert; Cisneros, Aroldo; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Fait, Aaron; Barak, Simon

    2013-07-01

    Comparative studies of the stress-tolerant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) halophytic relative, Eutrema salsugineum, have proven a fruitful approach to understanding natural stress tolerance. Here, we performed comparative phenotyping of Arabidopsis and E. salsugineum vegetative development under control and salt-stress conditions, and then compared the metabolic responses of the two species on different growth platforms in a defined leaf developmental stage. Our results reveal both growth platform-dependent and -independent phenotypes and metabolic responses. Leaf emergence was affected in a similar way in both species grown in vitro but the effects observed in Arabidopsis occurred at higher salt concentrations in E. salsugineum. No differences in leaf emergence were observed on soil. A new effect of a salt-mediated reduction in E. salsugineum leaf area was unmasked. On soil, leaf area reduction in E. salsugineum was mainly due to a fall in cell number, whereas both cell number and cell size contributed to the decrease in Arabidopsis leaf area. Common growth platform-independent leaf metabolic signatures such as high raffinose and malate, and low fumarate contents that could reflect core stress tolerance mechanisms, as well as growth platform-dependent metabolic responses were identified. In particular, the in vitro growth platform led to repression of accumulation of many metabolites including sugars, sugar phosphates, and amino acids in E. salsugineum compared with the soil system where these same metabolites accumulated to higher levels in E. salsugineum than in Arabidopsis. The observation that E. salsugineum maintains salt tolerance despite growth platform-specific phenotypes and metabolic responses suggests a considerable degree of phenotypic and metabolic adaptive plasticity in this extremophile.

  3. A State-Independent Education for Citizenship? Comparing Beliefs and Values Related to Civic and Moral Issues among Students in Swedish Mainstream and Steiner Waldorf Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Bo

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of globalisation, multiculturalism, and the "marketisation" of schools the education-for-citizenship question in relation to state and independent schools seems increasingly relevant. This paper is based on a comparison of beliefs and values related to civic and moral issues among students in Swedish mainstream and Steiner…

  4. Under what conditions is recognition spared relative to recall after selective hippocampal damage in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdstock, J S; Mayes, A R; Roberts, N; Cezayirli, E; Isaac, C L; O'Reilly, R C; Norman, K A

    2002-01-01

    The claim that recognition memory is spared relative to recall after focal hippocampal damage has been disputed in the literature. We examined this claim by investigating object and object-location recall and recognition memory in a patient, YR, who has adult-onset selective hippocampal damage. Our aim was to identify the conditions under which recognition was spared relative to recall in this patient. She showed unimpaired forced-choice object recognition but clearly impaired recall, even when her control subjects found the object recognition task to be numerically harder than the object recall task. However, on two other recognition tests, YR's performance was not relatively spared. First, she was clearly impaired at an equivalently difficult yes/no object recognition task, but only when targets and foils were very similar. Second, YR was clearly impaired at forced-choice recognition of object-location associations. This impairment was also unrelated to difficulty because this task was no more difficult than the forced-choice object recognition task for control subjects. The clear impairment of yes/no, but not of forced-choice, object recognition after focal hippocampal damage, when targets and foils are very similar, is predicted by the neural network-based Complementary Learning Systems model of recognition. This model postulates that recognition is mediated by hippocampally dependent recollection and cortically dependent familiarity; thus hippocampal damage should not impair item familiarity. The model postulates that familiarity is ineffective when very similar targets and foils are shown one at a time and subjects have to identify which items are old (yes/no recognition). In contrast, familiarity is effective in discriminating which of similar targets and foils, seen together, is old (forced-choice recognition). Independent evidence from the remember/know procedure also indicates that YR's familiarity is normal. The Complementary Learning Systems model can

  5. Mice lacking Ras-GRF1 show contextual fear conditioning but not spatial memory impairments: convergent evidence from two independently generated mouse mutant lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele ed'Isa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ras-GRF1 is a neuronal specific guanine exchange factor that, once activated by both ionotropic and metabotropic neurotransmitter receptors, can stimulate Ras proteins, leading to long-term phosphorylation of downstream signaling. The two available reports on the behavior of two independently generated Ras-GRF1 deficient mouse lines provide contrasting evidence on the role of Ras-GRF1 in spatial memory and contextual fear conditioning. These discrepancies may be due to the distinct alterations introduced in the mouse genome by gene targeting in the two lines that could differentially affect expression of nearby genes located in the imprinted region containing the Ras-grf1 locus. In order to determine the real contribution of Ras-GRF1 to spatial memory we compared in Morris Water Maze learning the Brambilla’s mice with a third mouse line (GENA53 in which a nonsense mutation was introduced in the Ras-GRF1 coding region without additional changes in the genome and we found that memory in this task is normal. Also, we measured both contextual and cued fear conditioning, which were previously reported to be affected in the Brambilla’s mice, and we confirmed that contextual learning but not cued conditioning is impaired in both mouse lines. In addition, we also tested both lines for the first time in conditioned place aversion in the Intellicage, an ecological and remotely controlled behavioral test, and we observed normal learning. Finally, based on previous reports of other mutant lines suggesting that Ras-GRF1 may control body weight, we also measured this non-cognitive phenotype and we confirmed that both Ras-GRF1 deficient mutants are smaller than their control littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Ras-GRF1 has no unique role in spatial memory while its function in contextual fear conditioning is likely to be due not only to its involvement in amygdalar functions but possibly to some distinct hippocampal connections specific to

  6. Integrated plumage colour variation in relation to body condition, reproductive investment and laying date in the collared flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczi, Miklós; Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Kiss, Dorottya; Markó, Gábor; Nagy, Gergely; Rosivall, Balázs; Szöllősi, Eszter; Török, János

    2013-10-01

    The possible integration of different sexual ornaments into a composite system, and especially the information content of such ornament complexes, is poorly investigated. Many bird species display complex plumage coloration, but whether this represents one integrated or several independent sexual traits can be unclear. Collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis) display melanised and depigmented plumage areas, and the spectral features (brightness and UV chroma) of these are correlated with each other across the plumage. In a 5-year dataset of male and female plumage reflectance, we examined some of the potential information content of integrated, plumage-level colour attributes by estimating their relationships to previous and current year body condition, laying date and clutch size. Females were in better condition the year before they became darker pigmented, and males in better current year condition were also darker pigmented. Female pigment-based brightness was positively, while male structurally based brightness was negatively related to current laying date. Finally, the overall UV chroma of white plumage areas in males was positively associated with current clutch size. Our results show that higher degree of pigmentation is related to better condition, while the structural colour component is associated with some aspects of reproductive investment. These results highlight the possibility that correlated aspects of a multiple plumage ornamentation system may reflect together some aspects of individual quality, thereby functioning as a composite signal.

  7. Guide to Geriatric Syndromes: Common and Often Related Medical Conditions in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Often Related Medical Conditions in Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary previous ... provider so he or she can identify the type of sleep problem you have. Delirium : Many older ...

  8. Relative Effectiveness of Operant Conditioning and Play Therapy in Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Philip G.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study designed to examine the relative effectiveness of operant conditioning and play therapy in improving the communication and social functioning of psychotic children was presented and discussed. (Author)

  9. Conditions of Educational Environment for the Development of Teenagers' Moral Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Shafikova, Gulnaz R.; Kapranova, Vera A.

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the fact that social relations require from a school graduator not only the subject specific competences, but also the ability to build interpersonal interaction based on moral norms. Therefore, this article is aimed to reveal the conditions of the school educational environment organization promoting…

  10. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Fang-Ju Tsai; Shu-Tsen Liu; Chi-Mei Lee; Wang-Tso Lee; Pi-Chuan Fan; Wei-Sheng Lin; Yen-Nan Chiu; Susan Shur-Fen Gau

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. Methods: We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6–16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parenta...

  11. Valsartan independent of AT1 receptor inhibits tissue factor, TLR-2 and-4 expression by regulation of Egr-1 through activation of AMPK in diabetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Kang, Young Jin; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) are at a severe risk of atherothrombosis. Early growth response (Egr)-1 is well characterized as a central mediator in vascular pathophysiology. We tested whether valsartan independent of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can reduce tissue factor (TF) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and-4 by regulating Egr-1 in THP-1 cells and aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. High glucose (HG, 15 mM) increased expressions of Egr-1, TF, TLR-2 and-4 which were significantly reduced by valsartan. HG increased Egr-1 expression by activation of PKC and ERK1/2 in THP-1 cells. Valsartan increased AMPK phosphorylation in a concentration and time-dependent manner via activation of LKB1. Valsartan inhibited Egr-1 without activation of PKC or ERK1/2. The reduced expression of Egr-1 by valsartan was reversed by either silencing Egr-1, or compound C, or DN-AMPK-transfected cells. Valsartan inhibited binding of NF-κB and Egr-1 to TF promoter in HG condition. Furthermore, valsartan reduced inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activity in HG-activated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, these effects of valsartan were not affected by either silencing AT1R in THP-1 cells or CHO cells, which were devoid of AT1R. Importantly, administration of valsartan (20 mg/kg, i.p) for 8 weeks significantly reduced plasma TF activity, expression of Egr-1, TLR-2,-4 and TF in thoracic aorta and improved glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, we concluded that valsartan may reduce atherothrombosis in diabetic conditions through AMPK/Egr-1 regulation. PMID:25109475

  12. Valsartan independent of AT₁ receptor inhibits tissue factor, TLR-2 and -4 expression by regulation of Egr-1 through activation of AMPK in diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Kang, Young Jin; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2014-10-01

    Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) are at a severe risk of atherothrombosis. Early growth response (Egr)-1 is well characterized as a central mediator in vascular pathophysiology. We tested whether valsartan independent of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can reduce tissue factor (TF) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4 by regulating Egr-1 in THP-1 cells and aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. High glucose (HG, 15 mM) increased expressions of Egr-1, TF, TLR-2 and -4 which were significantly reduced by valsartan. HG increased Egr-1 expression by activation of PKC and ERK1/2 in THP-1 cells. Valsartan increased AMPK phosphorylation in a concentration and time-dependent manner via activation of LKB1. Valsartan inhibited Egr-1 without activation of PKC or ERK1/2. The reduced expression of Egr-1 by valsartan was reversed by either silencing Egr-1, or compound C, or DN-AMPK-transfected cells. Valsartan inhibited binding of NF-κB and Egr-1 to TF promoter in HG condition. Furthermore, valsartan reduced inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activity in HG-activated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, these effects of valsartan were not affected by either silencing AT1R in THP-1 cells or CHO cells, which were devoid of AT1R. Importantly, administration of valsartan (20 mg/kg, i.p) for 8 weeks significantly reduced plasma TF activity, expression of Egr-1, TLR-2, -4 and TF in thoracic aorta and improved glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, we concluded that valsartan may reduce atherothrombosis in diabetic conditions through AMPK/Egr-1 regulation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. Conditional uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Gilad; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Kłobus, Waldemar; Łodyga, Justyna; Narasimhachar, Varun

    2018-04-01

    We develop a general operational framework that formalizes the concept of conditional uncertainty in a measure-independent fashion. Our formalism is built upon a mathematical relation which we call conditional majorization. We define conditional majorization and, for the case of classical memory, we provide its thorough characterization in terms of monotones, i.e., functions that preserve the partial order under conditional majorization. We demonstrate the application of this framework by deriving two types of memory-assisted uncertainty relations, (1) a monotone-based conditional uncertainty relation and (2) a universal measure-independent conditional uncertainty relation, both of which set a lower bound on the minimal uncertainty that Bob has about Alice's pair of incompatible measurements, conditioned on arbitrary measurement that Bob makes on his own system. We next compare the obtained relations with their existing entropic counterparts and find that they are at least independent.

  14. Paresthesia-Independence: An Assessment of Technical Factors Related to 10 kHz Paresthesia-Free Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Giuliano; Paroli, Mery; Tollapi, Lara; Doust, Matthew W; Burgher, Abram H; Yu, Cong; Yang, Thomas; Morgan, Donna M; Amirdelfan, Kasra; Kapural, Leonardo; Sitzman, B Todd; Bundschu, Richard; Vallejo, Ricardo; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Yearwood, Thomas L; Gliner, Bradford E; Powell, Ashley A; Bradley, Kerry

    2017-05-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been successfully used to treat chronic intractable pain for over 40 years. Successful clinical application of SCS is presumed to be generally dependent on maximizing paresthesia-pain overlap; critical to achieving this is positioning of the stimulation field at the physiologic midline. Recently, the necessity of paresthesia for achieving effective relief in SCS has been challenged by the introduction of 10 kHz paresthesia-free stimulation. In a large, prospective, randomized controlled pivotal trial, HF10 therapy was demonstrated to be statistically and clinically superior to paresthesia-based SCS in the treatment of severe chronic low back and leg pain. HF10 therapy, unlike traditional paresthesia-based SCS, requires no paresthesia to be experienced by the patient, nor does it require paresthesia mapping at any point during lead implant or post-operative programming. To determine if pain relief was related to technical factors of paresthesia, we measured and analyzed the paresthesia responses of patients successfully using HF10 therapy. Prospective, multicenter, non-randomized, non-controlled interventional study. Outpatient pain clinic at 10 centers across the US and Italy. Patients with both back and leg pain already implanted with an HF10 therapy device for up to 24 months were included in this multicenter study. Patients provided pain scores prior to and after using HF10 therapy. Each patient's most efficacious HF10 therapy stimulation program was temporarily modified to a low frequency (LF; 60 Hz), wide pulse width (~470 mus), paresthesia-generating program. On a human body diagram, patients drew the locations of their chronic intractable pain and, with the modified program activated, all regions where they experienced LF paresthesia. Paresthesia and pain drawings were then analyzed to estimate the correlation of pain relief outcomes to overlap of pain by paresthesia, and the mediolateral distribution of paresthesia (as a

  15. Face learning and the emergence of view-independent face recognition: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike G S; Eimer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Recognizing unfamiliar faces is more difficult than familiar face recognition, and this has been attributed to qualitative differences in the processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces are assumed to be represented by view-independent codes, whereas unfamiliar face recognition depends mainly on view-dependent low-level pictorial representations. We employed an electrophysiological marker of visual face recognition processes in order to track the emergence of view-independence during the learning of previously unfamiliar faces. Two face images showing either the same or two different individuals in the same or two different views were presented in rapid succession, and participants had to perform an identity-matching task. On trials where both faces showed the same view, repeating the face of the same individual triggered an N250r component at occipito-temporal electrodes, reflecting the rapid activation of visual face memory. A reliable N250r component was also observed on view-change trials. Crucially, this view-independence emerged as a result of face learning. In the first half of the experiment, N250r components were present only on view-repetition trials but were absent on view-change trials, demonstrating that matching unfamiliar faces was initially based on strictly view-dependent codes. In the second half, the N250r was triggered not only on view-repetition trials but also on view-change trials, indicating that face recognition had now become more view-independent. This transition may be due to the acquisition of abstract structural codes of individual faces during face learning, but could also reflect the formation of associative links between sets of view-specific pictorial representations of individual faces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychosocial and other working conditions in relation to body mass index in a representative sample of Australian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Amber M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial and other working conditions and body-mass index (BMI in a working population. This study contributes to the approximately dozen investigations of job stress, which have demonstrated mixed positive and negative results in relation to obesity, overweight and BMI. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted among working Australians in the state of Victoria. Participants were contacted by telephone from a random sample of phone book listings. Information on body mass index was self-reported as were psychosocial work conditions assessed using the demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models. Other working conditions measured included working hours, shift work, and physical demand. Separate linear regression analyses were undertaken for males and females, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results A total of 1101 interviews (526 men and 575 women were completed. Multivariate models (adjusted for socio-demographics demonstrated no associations between job strain, as measured using the demand/control model, or ERI using the effort/reward imbalance model (after further adjustment for over commitment and BMI among men and women. Multivariate models demonstrated a negative association between low reward and BMI among women. Among men, multivariate models demonstrated positive associations between high effort, high psychological demand, long working hours and BMI and a negative association between high physical demand and BMI. After controlling for the effort/reward imbalance or the demand/control model, the association between physical demand and working longer hours and BMI remained. Conclusion Among men and women the were differing patterns of both exposures to psychosocial working conditions and associations with BMI. Among men, working long hours was positively associated with higher BMI and this association was partly

  17. Controlling Relations in Baseline Conditional Discriminations as Determinants of Stimulus Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rose, Julio C.; Hidalgo, Matheus; Vasconcellos, Mariliz

    2013-01-01

    Variation in baseline controlling relations is suggested as one of the factors determining variability in stimulus equivalence outcomes. This study used single- comparison trials attempting to control such controlling relations. Four children learned AB, BC, and CD conditional discriminations, with 2 samples and 2 comparison stimuli. In Condition…

  18. Fear conditioned responses and PTSD symptoms in children: Sex differences in fear-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Kaitlyn; Nylocks, Maria; Cross, Dorthie; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-11-01

    Fear conditioning studies in adults have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with heightened fear responses and impaired discrimination. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between PTSD symptoms and fear conditioned responses in children from a highly traumatized urban population. Children between 8 and 13 years old participated in a fear conditioning study in addition to providing information about their trauma history and PTSD symptoms. Results showed that females showed less discrimination between danger and safety signals during conditioning compared to age-matched males. In boys, intrusive symptoms were predictive of fear responses, even after controlling for trauma exposure. However, in girls, conditioned fear to the danger cue was predictive of self-blame and fear of repeated trauma. This study suggests there are early sex differences in the patterns of fear conditioning and that these sex differences may translate to differential risk for trauma-related psychopathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  20. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van Merel R.; Winkels, Renate M.; Janssen, Silvie H.M.; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel

  1. Relationships between nutritional condition of adult females and relative carrying capacity for rocky mountain Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecke, J.R.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Lactation can have significant costs to individual and population-level productivity because of the high energetic demands it places on dams. Because the difference in condition between lactating and dry Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) cows tends to disappear as nutritional quality rises, the magnitude of that difference could be used to relate condition to habitat quality or the capability of habitats to support elk. We therefore compared nutritional condition of ???2.5-yr-old lactating and dry cows from six free-ranging RockyMountain elk populations throughout the United States.Our goal was to quantify differential accrual of body fat (BF) reserves to determine whether the condition of dry and lactating cows could be used to define relevant management thresholds of habitat quality (i.e., relative carrying capacity) and consequently potential performance of elk populations. Levels of BF that lactating cows were able to accrue in autumn and the proportional difference in BF between dry and lactating cows in autumn were related (F 1-2,10???16.2, Plogistic model to predict relative proximity to ecological carrying capacity (ECC), our population-years ranged from3-97%ofECCand proportion of the population lactating (an index of calf survival) was negatively related to proportion of ECC. Results indicate that the proportional difference in accrual of BF between lactating and dry cows can provide a sensitive index to where elk populations reside relative to the quality of their range.

  2. Income-related inequalities in diseases and health conditions over the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; Hildur Margrét, Jóhannsdóttir

    2017-01-01

    How business cycles affect income-related distribution of diseases and health disorders is largely unknown. We examine how the prevalence of thirty diseases and health conditions is distributed across the income spectrum using survey data collected in Iceland in 2007, 2009 and 2012. Thus, we are able to take advantage of the unusually sharp changes in economic conditions in Iceland during the Great Recession initiated in 2008 and the partial recovery that had already taken place by 2012 to an...

  3. TITANIUM ISOTOPE SOURCE RELATIONS AND THE EXTENT OF MIXING IN THE PROTO-SOLAR NEBULA EXAMINED BY INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Robert C. J.; Boehnke, Patrick [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Ti isotope variations observed in hibonites represent some of the largest isotope anomalies observed in the solar system. Titanium isotope compositions have previously been reported for a wide variety of different early solar system materials, including calcium, aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs) and CM hibonite grains, some of the earliest materials to form in the solar system, and bulk meteorites which formed later. These data have the potential to allow mixing of material to be traced between many different regions of the early solar system. We have used independent component analysis to examine the mixing end-members required to produce the compositions observed in the different data sets. The independent component analysis yields results identical to a linear regression for the bulk meteorites. The components identified for hibonite suggest that most of the grains are consistent with binary mixing from one of three highly anomalous nucleosynthetic sources. Comparison of these end-members show that the sources which dominate the variation of compositions in the meteorite parent body forming regions was not present in the region in which the hibonites formed. This suggests that the source which dominates variation in Ti isotope anomalies between the bulk meteorites was not present when the hibonite grains were forming. One explanation is that the bulk meteorite source may not be a primary nucleosynthetic source but was created by mixing two or more of the hibonite sources. Alternatively, the hibonite sources may have been diluted during subsequent nebula processing and are not a dominant solar system signatures.

  4. A “Forward Genomics” Approach Links Genotype to Phenotype using Independent Phenotypic Losses among Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hiller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genotype-phenotype mapping is hampered by countless genomic changes between species. We introduce a computational “forward genomics” strategy that—given only an independently lost phenotype and whole genomes—matches genomic and phenotypic loss patterns to associate specific genomic regions with this phenotype. We conducted genome-wide screens for two metabolic phenotypes. First, our approach correctly matches the inactivated Gulo gene exactly with the species that lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C. Second, we attribute naturally low biliary phospholipid levels in guinea pigs and horses to the inactivated phospholipid transporter Abcb4. Human ABCB4 mutations also result in low phospholipid levels but lead to severe liver disease, suggesting compensatory mechanisms in guinea pig and horse. Our simulation studies, counts of independent changes in existing phenotype surveys, and the forthcoming availability of many new genomes all suggest that forward genomics can be applied to many phenotypes, including those relevant for human evolution and disease.

  5. Health condition of juvenile Chelonia mydas related to fibropapillomatosis in southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renan de Deus Santos, Marcello; Silva Martins, Agnaldo; Baptistotte, Cecília; Work, Thierry M.

    2015-01-01

    Packed cell volume (PCV), plasma biochemistry, visual body condition (BC), and calculated body condition index (BCI) were evaluated in 170 wild juvenile green sea turtles Chelonia mydas from an aggregation in the effluent canal of a steel mill in Brazil. Occurrence of cutaneous fibropapillomatosis (FP) was observed in 44.1% of the animals examined. BCI alone did not differ significantly between healthy animals and those afflicted with FP. However, all turtles with low BCI were severely afflicted and were uremic, hypoglycemic, and anemic in relation to healthy animals. Severe FP was not always reflected by a poor health condition of the individual. Clinical evaluation and plasma biochemistry indicated that most animals afflicted with FP were in good health condition. Differences in FP manifestations and associated health conditions in different geographic regions must be assessed by long-term health monitoring programs to help define priorities for conservation efforts.

  6. Pointwise second-order necessary optimality conditions and second-order sensitivity relations in optimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowska, Hélène; Hoehener, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This paper is devoted to pointwise second-order necessary optimality conditions for the Mayer problem arising in optimal control theory. We first show that with every optimal trajectory it is possible to associate a solution p (ṡ) of the adjoint system (as in the Pontryagin maximum principle) and a matrix solution W (ṡ) of an adjoint matrix differential equation that satisfy a second-order transversality condition and a second-order maximality condition. These conditions seem to be a natural second-order extension of the maximum principle. We then prove a Jacobson like necessary optimality condition for general control systems and measurable optimal controls that may be only ;partially singular; and may take values on the boundary of control constraints. Finally we investigate the second-order sensitivity relations along optimal trajectories involving both p (ṡ) and W (ṡ).

  7. At what conditions does zircon grow/dissolve during high-T metamorphism? Relating zircon textures to PT-conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Regis, Daniele; Manzotti, Paola; Engi, Martin

    2015-04-01

    A key question in ziconology is when and how zircon grows during metamorphism. To shed light on zircon forming processes and the corresponding PT-conditions during high-T metamorphism a case study was undertaken. The Ivrea Zone (N-Italy) exposes a lower continental crustal section in which a continuous metamorphic field gradient from amphibolite to granulite facies is documented. This field gradient is thought to reflect protracted heating during late Paleozoic times, with a probable high-T peak in the Permian. We present first results from a primarily textural study supported by U-Pb ages, Th/U ratios and Ti-in-Zrn thermometry. Four types of zircon were identified based on their overgrowth proportions and the preservation of detrital cores. Zircon grains were thus classified as Type1 - detrital grains with no overgrowth or very narrow rims (300 Ma) and appears to reflect an early dehydration phase. Rim2b has Permian ages (median 275 Ma), is by far the most common overgrowth type, found in a wide PT-range. Its development appears related to biotite breakdown. Rim3 is texturally indicative of magmatic zircon, occurs only in diatexites. Rim4 is the latest overgrowth and is locally found at all metamorphic grades. Textural features suggest late fluid-related recrystallization of existing zircon. At lowest grade (675±35°C, 6±2 kbar) zircons show type1 only, overgrowths are too thin to clearly identify the rim type. Further upgrade (~700°C, 7 kbar) type1 and type2 dominate. Type2 zircons show rim1, rim2a and occasionally rim4. At the Mu-out isograd (750±50°C, 8.2±1.4 kbar) most zircons are of type2, now with rim2b instead of 2a, in addition to rim1 and rim4. Near and in granulite facies (to 800°C, 8±2 kbar) mostly zircon type2 and type4 are present. While rim1 gets more narrow with increasing metamorphic grade, rim2b grows significantly thicker. Occasionally rim2a and rim4 occur. Close to the Bt-out isograd (~860°C, 9.2±1.7 kbar), mostly type3 and type4 are

  8. XBP1-Independent UPR Pathways Suppress C/EBP-β Mediated Chondrocyte Differentiation in ER-Stress Related Skeletal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor L Cameron

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (MCDS involves dwarfism and growth plate cartilage hypertrophic zone expansion resulting from dominant mutations in the hypertrophic zone collagen, Col10a1. Mouse models phenocopying MCDS through the expression of an exogenous misfolding protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in hypertrophic chondrocytes have demonstrated the central importance of ER stress in the pathology of MCDS. The resultant unfolded protein response (UPR in affected chondrocytes involved activation of canonical ER stress sensors, IRE1, ATF6, and PERK with the downstream effect of disrupted chondrocyte differentiation. Here, we investigated the role of the highly conserved IRE1/XBP1 pathway in the pathology of MCDS. Mice with a MCDS collagen X p.N617K knock-in mutation (ColXN617K were crossed with mice in which Xbp1 was inactivated specifically in cartilage (Xbp1CartΔEx2, generating the compound mutant, C/X. The severity of dwarfism and hypertrophic zone expansion in C/X did not differ significantly from ColXN617K, revealing surprising redundancy for the IRE1/XBP1 UPR pathway in the pathology of MCDS. Transcriptomic analyses of hypertrophic zone cartilage identified differentially expressed gene cohorts in MCDS that are pathologically relevant (XBP1-independent or pathologically redundant (XBP1-dependent. XBP1-independent gene expression changes included large-scale transcriptional attenuation of genes encoding secreted proteins and disrupted differentiation from proliferative to hypertrophic chondrocytes. Moreover, these changes were consistent with disruption of C/EBP-β, a master regulator of chondrocyte differentiation, by CHOP, a transcription factor downstream of PERK that inhibits C/EBP proteins, and down-regulation of C/EBP-β transcriptional co-factors, GADD45-β and RUNX2. Thus we propose that the pathology of MCDS is underpinned by XBP1 independent UPR-induced dysregulation of C/EBP-β-mediated chondrocyte differentiation

  9. Stratifying empiric risk of schizophrenia among first degree relatives using multiple predictors in two independent Indian samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Triptish; Gettig, Elizabeth A; Gottesman, Irving I; Berliner, Jonathan; Mishra, N N; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Deshpande, Smita N

    2016-12-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) has an estimated heritability of 64-88%, with the higher values based on twin studies. Conventionally, family history of psychosis is the best individual-level predictor of risk, but reliable risk estimates are unavailable for Indian populations. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors are equally important and should be considered when predicting risk in 'at risk' individuals. To estimate risk based on an Indian schizophrenia participant's family history combined with selected demographic factors. To incorporate variables in addition to family history, and to stratify risk, we constructed a regression equation that included demographic variables in addition to family history. The equation was tested in two independent Indian samples: (i) an initial sample of SZ participants (N=128) with one sibling or offspring; (ii) a second, independent sample consisting of multiply affected families (N=138 families, with two or more sibs/offspring affected with SZ). The overall estimated risk was 4.31±0.27 (mean±standard deviation). There were 19 (14.8%) individuals in the high risk group, 75 (58.6%) in the moderate risk and 34 (26.6%) in the above average risk (in Sample A). In the validation sample, risks were distributed as: high (45%), moderate (38%) and above average (17%). Consistent risk estimates were obtained from both samples using the regression equation. Familial risk can be combined with demographic factors to estimate risk for SZ in India. If replicated, the proposed stratification of risk may be easier and more realistic for family members. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Specialization of the left supramarginal gyrus for hand-independent praxis representation is not related to hand dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Króliczak, Gregory; Piper, Brian J.; Frey, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    Data from focal brain injury and functional neuroimaging studies implicate a distributed network of parieto-fronto-temporal areas in the human left cerebral hemisphere as playing distinct roles in the representation of meaningful actions (praxis). Because these data come primarily from right-handed individuals, the relationship between left cerebral specialization for praxis representation and hand dominance remains unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate the hypothesis that strongly left-handed (right hemisphere motor dominant) adults also exhibit this left cerebral specialization. Participants planned familiar actions for subsequent performance with the left or right hand in response to transitive (e.g., “pounding”) or intransitive (e.g. “waving”) action words. In linguistic control trials, cues denoted non-physical actions (e.g., “believing”). Action planning was associated with significant, exclusively left-lateralized and extensive increases of activity in the supramarginal gyrus (SMg), and more focal modulations in the left caudal middle temporal gyrus (cMTg). This activity was hand- and gesture-independent, i.e., unaffected by the hand involved in subsequent action performance, and the type of gesture (i.e., transitive or intransitive). Compared directly with right-handers, left-handers exhibited greater involvement of the right angular gyrus (ANg) and dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), which is indicative of a less asymmetric functional architecture for praxis representation. We therefore conclude that the organization of mechanisms involved in planning familiar actions is influenced by one’s motor dominance. However, independent of hand dominance, the left SMg and cMTg are specialized for ideomotor transformations—the integration of conceptual knowledge and motor representations into meaningful actions. These findings support the view that higher-order praxis representation and lower-level motor dominance rely

  11. Organizing Independent Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhadyra T. Zhumasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses issues in organizing independent student work. The author defines the term “independence”, discusses the concepts of independent learner work and independent learner work under the guidance of an instructor, proposes a classification of assignments to be done independently, and provides methodological recommendations as to the organization of independent student work. The article discusses the need for turning the student from a passive consumer of knowledge into an active creator of it, capable of formulating a problem, analyzing the ways of solving it, coming up with an optimum outcome, and proving its correctness. The preparation of highly qualified human resources is the primary condition for boosting Kazakhstan’s competitiveness. Independent student work is a means of fostering the professional competence of future specialists. The primary form of self-education is independent work.

  12. How does susceptibility to proactive interference relate to speech recognition in aided and unaided conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rachel J; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2015-01-01

    Proactive interference (PI) is the capacity to resist interference to the acquisition of new memories from information stored in the long-term memory. Previous research has shown that PI correlates significantly with the speech-in-noise recognition scores of younger adults with normal hearing. In this study, we report the results of an experiment designed to investigate the extent to which tests of visual PI relate to the speech-in-noise recognition scores of older adults with hearing loss, in aided and unaided conditions. The results suggest that measures of PI correlate significantly with speech-in-noise recognition only in the unaided condition. Furthermore the relation between PI and speech-in-noise recognition differs to that observed in younger listeners without hearing loss. The findings suggest that the relation between PI tests and the speech-in-noise recognition scores of older adults with hearing loss relates to capability of the test to index cognitive flexibility.

  13. Anxiety-related biases in visual orienting and spatial motor response selection independently assessed by a probe-classification task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, M.G.S.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Mogg, K.; Bradley, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    This dot-probe study assessed anxiety-related biases in visual attentional orienting and spatial motor response selection (motor attention) in high- and low-trait-anxious adults, and whether anxiety-related biases depend on response speed. Emotional-neutral word pairs appeared for 14 or 500 ms, with

  14. Commissioning healthcare for people with long term conditions: the persistence of relational contracting in England's NHS quasi-market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Alison; Mays, Nicholas; Shaw, Sara E; Rosen, Rebecca; Smith, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991, there has been a series of reforms of the English National Health Service (NHS) entailing an increasing separation between the commissioners of services and a widening range of public and independent sector providers able to compete for contracts to provide services to NHS patients. We examine the extent to which local commissioners had adopted a market-oriented (transactional) model of commissioning of care for people with long term conditions several years into the latest period of market-oriented reform. The paper also considers the factors that may have inhibited or supported market-oriented behaviour, including the presence of conditions conducive to a health care quasi-market. We studied the commissioning of services for people with three long term conditions - diabetes, stroke and dementia - in three English primary care trust (PCT) areas over two years (2010-12). We took a broadly ethnographic approach to understanding the day-to-day practice of commissioning. Data were collected through interviews, observation of meetings and from documents. In contrast to a transactional, market-related approach organised around commissioner choice of provider and associated contracting, commissioning was largely relational, based on trust and collaboration with incumbent providers. There was limited sign of commissioners significantly challenging providers, changing providers, or decommissioning services.In none of the service areas were all the conditions for a well functioning quasi-market in health care in place. Choice of provider was generally absent or limited; information on demand and resource requirements was highly imperfect; motivations were complex; and transaction costs uncertain, but likely to be high. It was difficult to divide care into neat units for contracting purposes. As a result, it is scarcely surprising that commissioning practice in relation to all six commissioning developments was dominated by a relational approach. Our findings

  15. Stereotypes Associated With Age-related Conditions and Assistive Device Use in Canadian Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah Anne; Kenyon, Virginia; Lagacé, Martine; Wittich, Walter; Southall, Kenneth Edmund

    2016-12-01

    Newspapers are an important source of information. The discourses within the media can influence public attitudes and support or discourage stereotypical portrayals of older individuals. This study critically examined discourses within a Canadian newspaper in terms of stereotypical depictions of age-related health conditions and assistive technology devices (ATDs). Four years (2009-2013) of Globe and Mail articles were searched for terms relevant to the research question. A total of 65 articles were retained, and a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the texts was conducted. The articles were coded for stereotypes associated with age-related health conditions and ATDs, consequences of the stereotyping, and context (overall setting or background) of the discourse. The primary code list included 4 contexts, 13 stereotypes, and 9 consequences of stereotyping. CDA revealed discourses relating to (a) maintaining autonomy in a stereotypical world, (b) ATDs as obstacles in employment, (c) barriers to help seeking for age-related conditions, and (d) people in power setting the stage for discrimination. Our findings indicate that discourses in the Canadian media include stereotypes associated with age-related health conditions. Further, depictions of health conditions and ATDs may exacerbate existing stereotypes about older individuals, limit the options available to them, lead to a reduction in help seeking, and lower ATD use. Education about the realities of age-related health changes and ATDs is needed in order to diminish stereotypes and encourage ATD uptake and use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Assessment of inservice conditions of safety-related nuclear plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, H.; Bagchi, G.

    1995-06-01

    The report is a compilation from a number of sources of information related to the condition Of structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants in the United States. The most significant information came from the hands-on inspection of the six old plants (licensed prior to 1977) performed by the staff of the Civil Engineering and Geosciences Branch (ECGB) in the Division of Engineering of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. For the containment structures, most of the information related to the degraded conditions came from the licensees as part of the Licensing Event Report System (10 CFR 50.73), or as part of the requirement under limiting condition of operation of the plant-specific Technical Specifications. Most of the information related to the degradation of other Structures and civil engineering features was extracted from the industry survey, the reported incidents, and the plant visits. The report discusses the condition of the structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants and provides information that would help detect, alleviate, and correct the degraded conditions of the structures and civil engineering features

  17. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior.

  18. Employment conditions and work-related stressors are associated with menopausal symptom reporting among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariola, Emily; Jack, Gavin; Pitts, Marian; Riach, Kathleen; Sarrel, Philip

    2017-03-01

    While many women undergo menopausal transition while they are in paid employment, the effect of poor working conditions on women's experience of the menopause has received scant empirical attention. We examined associations between employment conditions, work-related stressors, and menopausal symptom reporting among perimenopausal and postmenopausal working women. Data were drawn from an online survey conducted between 2013 and 2014 involving 476 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women working in the higher education sector in Australia. Survey questions assessed demographics; health-related variables; menopausal symptom reporting; employment status; presence of flexible working hours; presence of temperature control; job autonomy; and supervisor support. A forced entry multivariable regression analysis revealed that high supervisor support (β = -0.10, P = 0.04), being employed on a full-time basis (β = -0.11, P = 0.02), and having control over workplace temperature (β = -0.11, P = 0.02) were independently associated with lower menopausal symptom reporting. These findings may help inform the development of tailored occupational health policies and programs that cater for the needs of older women as they transition through menopause in the workplace.

  19. Ratio of Dietary n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Independently Related to Muscle Mass Decline in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Chih Wong

    Full Text Available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might be useful nutritional strategy for treating patients with sarcopenia. We evaluated the effect of the intake of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the skeletal muscle mass (SMM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM, and its determinants in patients receiving standard hemodialysis (HD treatment for the management of end stage renal disease.In this cross-sectional study, data of 111 HD patients were analyzed. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements used to estimate the muscle mass were performed the day of dialysis immediately after the dialysis session. Routine laboratory and 3-day dietary data were also collected. The cutoff value of adequate intake (AI for both n-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA was 1.6 g/day and 1.1 g/day for men and women, respectively.The mean age, mean dietary n-3 PUFAs intake, ALA intake, ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs intake, SMM, and ASM of patients were 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 2.0 ± 1.3 g/day, 1.5 ± 1.0 g/day, 9.5 ± 6.7 g/day, 23.9 ± 5.5 kg, and 17.5 ± 4.5 kg, respectively. A higher SMM and ASM significantly observed in patients who achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Similar trends appeared to be observed among those patients who achieved the AI of ALA, but the difference was not significantly, except for ASM (P = 0.047. No relevant differences in demographics, laboratory and nutritional parameters were observed, regardless of whether the patients achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Multivariate analysis showed that the BMI and equilibrated Kt/V were independent determinants of the muscle mass. Moreover, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was an independent risk determinant of reduced ASM in HD patients.Patients with an AI of n-3 PUFAs had better total-body SMM and ASM. A higher dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs seemed to be associated with a reduced muscle mass in HD patients.

  20. Ratio of Dietary n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Independently Related to Muscle Mass Decline in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Yu-Tong; Wu, Pei-Yu; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2015-01-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might be useful nutritional strategy for treating patients with sarcopenia. We evaluated the effect of the intake of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the skeletal muscle mass (SMM), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), and its determinants in patients receiving standard hemodialysis (HD) treatment for the management of end stage renal disease. In this cross-sectional study, data of 111 HD patients were analyzed. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements used to estimate the muscle mass were performed the day of dialysis immediately after the dialysis session. Routine laboratory and 3-day dietary data were also collected. The cutoff value of adequate intake (AI) for both n-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was 1.6 g/day and 1.1 g/day for men and women, respectively. The mean age, mean dietary n-3 PUFAs intake, ALA intake, ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs intake, SMM, and ASM of patients were 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 2.0 ± 1.3 g/day, 1.5 ± 1.0 g/day, 9.5 ± 6.7 g/day, 23.9 ± 5.5 kg, and 17.5 ± 4.5 kg, respectively. A higher SMM and ASM significantly observed in patients who achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Similar trends appeared to be observed among those patients who achieved the AI of ALA, but the difference was not significantly, except for ASM (P = 0.047). No relevant differences in demographics, laboratory and nutritional parameters were observed, regardless of whether the patients achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Multivariate analysis showed that the BMI and equilibrated Kt/V were independent determinants of the muscle mass. Moreover, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was an independent risk determinant of reduced ASM in HD patients. Patients with an AI of n-3 PUFAs had better total-body SMM and ASM. A higher dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs seemed to be associated with a reduced muscle mass in HD patients.

  1. Sporulation of Bremia lactucae affected by temperature, relative humidity, and wind in controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, H.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Subbarao, K.V.; Scherm, H.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of temperature (5 to 25degreesC), relative humidity (81 to 100%), wind speed (0 to 1.0 in s(-1)), and their interactions on sporulation of Bremia lactucae on lettuce cotyledons were investigated in controlled conditions. Sporulation was affected significantly (P <0.0001) by

  2. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  3. Conditioning techniques and ischemic reperfusion injury in relation to on-pump cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Fredrik Eric Olof; Ottas, Konstantin Alex; Andreasen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the potential protective effects of two conditioning methods, on myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury in relation to cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Totally 68 patients were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 23), a remote ischemic...

  4. Skill of a global seasonal streamflow forecasting system, relative roles of initial conditions and meteorological forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candogan Yossef, N.; Winsemius, H.C.; Weerts, A.; Van Beek, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through

  5. QTL mapping of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity and conditional lethality in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding-related and conditionally expressed lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. The lethal effect was triggered by exposure to a cold shock. We used a North Carolina crossing Design 3 to establish the mapping population, as well as to estimate the average dominance ratio and heritability. We found two......Inbreeding depression is a central theme within genetics, and is of specific interest for researchers within evolutionary and conservation genetics and animal and plant breeding. Inbreeding effects are thought to be caused by the joint expression of conditional and unconditional deleterious alleles....... Whenever the expression of deleterious alleles is conditional, this can result in extreme environmental sensitivity in certain inbred lineages. Analysis of conditional lethal effects can reveal some of the loci that are sensitive to inbreeding. We performed a QTL (quantitative trait locus) mapping study...

  6. Parkinson's disease-related LRRK2 G2019S mutation results from independent mutational events in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Suzanne; Patin, Etienne; Condroyer, Christel; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Lohmann, Ebba; Giladi, Nir; Bar-Shira, Anat; Belarbi, Soraya; Hecham, Nassima; Pollak, Pierre; Ouvrard-Hernandez, Anne-Marie; Bardien, Soraya; Carr, Jonathan; Benhassine, Traki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Pirkevi, Caroline; Hamadouche, Tarik; Cazeneuve, Cécile; Basak, A Nazli; Hattori, Nobutaka; Dürr, Alexandra; Tazir, Meriem; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Brice, Alexis

    2010-05-15

    Mutations in the leucine-rich-repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been identified in families with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD) and in sporadic cases; the G2019S mutation is the single most frequent. Intriguingly, the frequency of this mutation in PD patients varies greatly among ethnic groups and geographic origins: it is present at <0.1% in East Asia, approximately 2% in European-descent patients and can reach frequencies of up to 15-40% in PD Ashkenazi Jews and North African Arabs. To ascertain the evolutionary dynamics of the G2019S mutation in different populations, we genotyped 74 markers spanning a 16 Mb genomic region around G2019S, in 191 individuals carrying the mutation from 126 families of different origins. Sixty-seven families were of North-African Arab origin, 18 were of North/Western European descent, 37 were of Jewish origin, mostly from Eastern Europe, one was from Japan, one from Turkey and two were of mixed origins. We found the G2019S mutation on three different haplotypes. Network analyses of the three carrier haplotypes showed that G2019S arose independently at least twice in humans. In addition, the population distribution of the intra-allelic diversity of the most widespread carrier haplotype, together with estimations of the age of G2019S determined by two different methods, suggests that one of the founding G2019S mutational events occurred in the Near East at least 4000 years ago.

  7. Relating demographic characteristics of a small mammal to remotely sensed forest-stand condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Lada

    Full Text Available Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change and indirect (climate change human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes in 60,000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times.

  8. Statement on the conditions of use for health claims related to meal replacements for weight control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2015-01-01

    ) and maintenance of body weight after weight loss (ID1418) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. Taking into account that the mechanisms by which meal replacements could exert the claimed effects were mostly related to their controlled energy content and the relatively high protein/low fat...... content, the Panel concludes that the differences in the micronutrient composition of meal replacements which would derive from changing the conditions of use from Directive 96/8/EC to Regulation (EU) 1169/2011 do not affect the scientific substantiation of health claims related to meal replacements...

  9. Influence of shock absorber condition on pavement fatigue using relative damage concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kubo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the road transportation nowadays, concerns related to pavement deterioration and maintenance have become relevant subjects. Especially for commercial vehicles, the vertical dynamic load (characterized by the tire-road interaction is directly related to wear on the road surface. Given this, the main objective of this paper is to analyse effects of vertical loads applied on the flexible pavement, considering the variation of the condition of shock absorbers from a truck's front suspension. The measurements were performed on a rigid truck, with 2 steering front axles, in a durability test track located in Brazil. With a constant load of 6 tons on the front suspension (the maximum allowed load on front axles according to Brazilian legislation, 3 different shock absorber conditions were evaluated: new, used and failed. By applying the relative damage concept, it is possible to conclude that the variation of the shock absorber conditions will significantly affect the vertical load applied on the pavement. Although the results clearly point to a dependent relationship between the load and the condition of the shock absorbers, it is recommended to repeat the same methodology, in future to analyse the influence of other quarter car model variants (such as spring rate, mass and tire spring stiffness.

  10. Contingency awareness shapes acquisition and extinction of emotional responses in a conditioning model of pain-related fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eLabrenz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental learning process, fear conditioning promotes the formation of associations between predictive cues and biologically-significant signals. In its application to pain, conditioning may provide important insight into mechanisms underlying pain-related fear, although knowledge especially in interoceptive pain paradigms remains scarce. Furthermore, while the influence of contingency awareness on excitatory learning is subject of ongoing debate, its role in pain-related acquisition is poorly understood and essentially unknown regarding extinction as inhibitory learning. Therefore, we addressed the impact of contingency awareness on learned emotional responses to pain- and safety-predictive cues in a combined dataset of two pain-related conditioning studies.In total, 75 healthy participants underwent differential fear acquisition, during which rectal distensions as interoceptive unconditioned stimuli (US were repeatedly paired with a predictive visual cue (conditioned stimulus; CS+ while another cue (CS- was presented unpaired. During extinction, both CS were presented without US. CS valence, indicating learned emotional responses, and CS-US contingencies were assessed on visual analogue scales. Based on an integrative measure of contingency accuracy, a median-split was performed to compare groups with low versus high contingency accuracy regarding learned emotional responses. To investigate predictive value of contingency accuracy, regression analyses were conducted. Highly accurate individuals revealed more pronounced negative emotional responses to CS+ and increased positive responses to CS- when compared to participants with low contingency accuracy. Following extinction, highly accurate individuals had fully extinguished pain-predictive cue properties, while exhibiting persistent positive emotional responses to safety signals. In contrast, individuals with low accuracy revealed equally positive emotional responses to both, CS+ and

  11. Contingency Awareness Shapes Acquisition and Extinction of Emotional Responses in a Conditioning Model of Pain-Related Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrenz, Franziska; Icenhour, Adriane; Benson, Sven; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental learning process, fear conditioning promotes the formation of associations between predictive cues and biologically significant signals. In its application to pain, conditioning may provide important insight into mechanisms underlying pain-related fear, although knowledge especially in interoceptive pain paradigms remains scarce. Furthermore, while the influence of contingency awareness on excitatory learning is subject of ongoing debate, its role in pain-related acquisition is poorly understood and essentially unknown regarding extinction as inhibitory learning. Therefore, we addressed the impact of contingency awareness on learned emotional responses to pain- and safety-predictive cues in a combined dataset of two pain-related conditioning studies. In total, 75 healthy participants underwent differential fear acquisition, during which rectal distensions as interoceptive unconditioned stimuli (US) were repeatedly paired with a predictive visual cue (conditioned stimulus; CS(+)) while another cue (CS(-)) was presented unpaired. During extinction, both CS were presented without US. CS valence, indicating learned emotional responses, and CS-US contingencies were assessed on visual analog scales (VAS). Based on an integrative measure of contingency accuracy, a median-split was performed to compare groups with low vs. high contingency accuracy regarding learned emotional responses. To investigate predictive value of contingency accuracy, regression analyses were conducted. Highly accurate individuals revealed more pronounced negative emotional responses to CS(+) and increased positive responses to CS(-) when compared to participants with low contingency accuracy. Following extinction, highly accurate individuals had fully extinguished pain-predictive cue properties, while exhibiting persistent positive emotional responses to safety signals. In contrast, individuals with low accuracy revealed equally positive emotional responses to both, CS(+) and CS

  12. An assessment of the relationships between overweight, obesity, related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeffrey T; Potter, Lloyd B

    2014-01-01

    Worker absenteeism is an important area of study within the field of occupational health. Prior studies have linked the presence of obesity to higher rates of absenteeism, but have not examined whether or not the relationship is moderated by the presence of other chronic health conditions or whether or not the relationships have been stable over time. Data from the 2000 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative sample of the US population, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the presence of 5 obesity-related chronic health conditions moderates the relationship between overweight/obesity and worker absenteeism, and whether or not these relationships are stable over time. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between overweight/obesity, the obesity-related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism, while controlling for demographic, socio-economic, occupational, health related and behavioral variables. The findings suggest that obesity (p absenteeism, and that the effect is doubled for those with both class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40) and diabetes. The moderating effect between class III obesity and diabetes was observed only in 2010, indicating that this may be a relatively new phenomenon. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Merel R; Winkels, Renate M; Janssen, Silvie H M; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel of cancer survivors and relatives. This panel completed a survey about their experiences with nutritional information provision by healthcare professionals and the media in the period after diagnosis, their information needs regarding nutrition and cancer, and whether they changed their dietary behavior since diagnosis. The survey showed that 56% of respondents obtained nutritional information, mostly during treatment. Respondents who obtained nutritional information more often reported to have altered their dietary behavior after diagnosis. This association was not altered by having information needs. The reported changes in dietary behavior were coherent with the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund: respondents reported to choose less products that promote weight gain, increased intake of plant foods, and decreased meat and alcohol use. Respondents who obtained nutritional information more often changed their dietary behavior, regardless whether they had nutritional information needs. This might be an indication that healthcare professionals should provide nutritional information not only to those expressing a need for nutritional information.

  14. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schi?th, H B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. OBJECTIVE: To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese...

  15. S-Denying of the Signature Conditions Expands General Relativity's Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We apply the S-denying procedure to signature conditions in a four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian space — i. e. we change one (or even all of the conditions to be partially true and partially false. We obtain five kinds of expanded space-time for General Relativity. Kind I permits the space-time to be in collapse. Kind II permits the space-time to change its own signature. Kind III has peculiarities, linked to the third signature condition. Kind IV permits regions where the metric fully degenerates: there may be non-quantum teleportation, and a home for virtual photons. Kind V is common for kinds I, II, III, and IV.

  16. Independent from muscle power and balance performance, a creatinine clearance below 65 ml/min is a significant and independent risk factor for falls and fall-related fractures in elderly men and women diagnosed with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukas, L; Schacht, E; Runge, M

    2010-07-01

    We assessed in a cross-sectional study in elderly men and women with osteoporosis, the association between the creatinine clearance (CrCl) and the performance in different balance and muscle power and function tests and found that a decreasing creatinine clearance was significantly associated with lower balance and muscle power. To determine if a creatinine clearance of balance and an increased risk for falls and fractures. We assessed in a cross-sectional-study in 1781 German osteoporotic patients, the association between the CrCl, the physical performance, and the number of falls and fractures. Controlling for age, gender, BMI, and osteoporosis treatment (fracture analysis only), a decreasing CrCl was associated with lower physical performance in the timed-up-and-go test (corr -0.2337, P risk for falls (47.7% vs. 36.2%, P = 0.0008) and fall-related fractures (33.1% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.0003) compared with a CrCl of >or=65 ml/min. In this study, we found a significant gender-independent correlation between decreasing CrCl and lower performance in balance and muscle power tests. Reduced muscle power and balance may therefore be involved in the low creatinine clearance associated increased risk for falls and fall-related fractures. Furthermore, we found that a CrCl balance tests, is a significant risk factor for falls and fractures.

  17. Divided attention of adolescents related to lifestyles and academic and family conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Development of the ability to divide attention is of crucial importance in the transitional period from elementary to junior high school. The relationship between divided attention and the prevalence of fatigue or low academic motivation is observed in junior high school students. In order to clarify the factors underlying decreased ability to divide attention, we examined the relationships between divided attention, as assessed by the kana pick-out test, lifestyle factors, and academic and family conditions in junior high school students. The study group consisted of 158 healthy 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-grade level junior high school students. Each participant performed the kana pick-out test and questionnaires dealing with lifestyle factors (nocturnal sleeping hours on school days, breakfast, exercise, watching television, and spending time with family members), and academic and family conditions (good friendships at school and praise from family members when participants showed good academic performance). On multiple regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, scores on the kana pick-out test were positively associated with spending time with family members. In addition, the comprehension score of the kana pick-out test was positively associated with having breakfast every day and praise by family members. The score was negatively associated with watching television. The present findings suggest that the ability to divide attention is independently associated with good lifestyles and academic and family conditions in junior high school students. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Satellite Based Assessment of Hydroclimatic Conditions Related to Cholera in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarpreet Jutla

    Full Text Available Cholera, an infectious diarrheal disease, has been shown to be associated with large scale hydroclimatic processes. The sudden and sporadic occurrence of epidemic cholera is linked with high mortality rates, in part, due to uncertainty in timing and location of outbreaks. Improved understanding of the relationship between pathogenic abundance and climatic processes allows prediction of disease outbreak to be an achievable goal. In this study, we show association of large scale hydroclimatic processes with the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe reported to have begun in Chitungwiza, a city in Mashonaland East province, in August, 2008.Climatic factors in the region were found to be associated with triggering cholera outbreak and are shown to be related to anomalies of temperature and precipitation, validating the hypothesis that poor conditions of sanitation, coupled with elevated temperatures, and followed by heavy rainfall can initiate outbreaks of cholera. Spatial estimation by satellite of precipitation and global gridded air temperature captured sensitivities in hydroclimatic conditions that permitted identification of the location in the region where the disease outbreak began.Satellite derived hydroclimatic processes can be used to capture environmental conditions related to epidemic cholera, as occurred in Zimbabwe, thereby providing an early warning system. Since cholera cannot be eradicated because the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to the aquatic environment, prediction of conditions favorable for its growth and estimation of risks of triggering the disease in a given population can be used to alert responders, potentially decreasing infection and saving lives.

  19. Sex-related differences in amygdala functional connectivity during resting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, L A; Zald, D H; Pardo, J V; Cahill, L F

    2006-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have established a sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala involvement in memory for emotionally arousing material. Here, we examine the possibility that sex-related differences in amygdala involvement in memory for emotional material develop from differential patterns of amygdala functional connectivity evident in the resting brain. Seed voxel partial least square analyses of regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant sex-related differences in amygdala functional connectivity during resting conditions. The right amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in men than in women. In contrast, the left amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in women than in men. Furthermore, the regions displaying stronger functional connectivity with the right amygdala in males (sensorimotor cortex, striatum, pulvinar) differed from those displaying stronger functional connectivity with the left amygdala in females (subgenual cortex, hypothalamus). These differences in functional connectivity at rest may link to sex-related differences in medical and psychiatric disorders.

  20. Impact of pre-conditioning on the qualification of safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isgro, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper shares some recent experiences on the effects of preconditioning on the qualification of safety-related equipment not located in a harsh environment. Environmental and seismic qualification testing programs were conducted following the guidelines of IEEE 323-1974, IEEE 344-1975 and appropriate IEEE daughter standards, where available. The examples that follow will illustrate the degree of pre-conditioning of safety-related equipment qualified to the requirements of IEEE-323-1974, and its effect on the outcome of the qualification program

  1. Deployment Related Risk of Incident Mental Health Conditions Among Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    everyday life, and decreasing the stigma associated with a diagnosis of a mental health condition. The Holmes-Rehe Stress Scale is commonly used to...being fatigued. A crucial factor to consider with this study is the stigma related to receiving a mental health diagnosis. While the Office of the...Alliance on Mental Illness estimates that up to 33% of qualified individuals are turned down for a job due to a psychiatric label (Williamson & Mulhall

  2. A selection of problems related to safe working conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two representative examples were chosen to demonstrate that the problems related to safe working conditions can be solved with work being prepared extensively and in detail taking into consideration radiation protection and conventional job safety measures and with qualified staff. Most of the job safety problems in nuclear power plants are pretty much the same as in conventional plants. Despite successful implementation of employment and radiation protection in nuclear power plants, improvements in detail are possible and make sense. (orig.) [de

  3. Provision of educationally related services for children and adolescents with chronic diseases and disabling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, J Daniel

    2007-06-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic diseases and disabling conditions often need educationally related services. As medical home providers, physicians and other health care professionals can assist children, adolescents, and their families with the complex federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and systems associated with these services. Expanded roles for physicians and other health care professionals in individualized family service plan, individualized education plan, and Section 504 plan development and implementation are recommended. Recent updates to the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act will also affect these services. Funding for these services by private and nonprivate sources also continue to affect the availability of these educationally related services. The complex range of federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and systems for special education and related services for children and adolescents in public schools is beyond the scope of this statement. Readers are referred to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "The Pediatrician's Role in Development and Implementation of an Individual Education Plan (IEP) and/or an Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)" for additional background materials. The focus of this statement is the role that health care professionals have in determining and managing educationally related services in the school setting. This policy statement is a revision of a previous statement, "Provision of Educationally Related Services for Children and Adolescents With Chronic Diseases and Disabling Conditions," published in February 2000 by the Committee on Children With Disabilities (http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;105/2/448).

  4. Widespread dissemination of class 1 integron components in soils and related ecosystems as revealed by cultivation-independent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechalke, Sven; Schreiter, Susanne; Wolters, Birgit; Dealtry, Simone; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2013-01-01

    Class 1 integrons contribute to the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance in human medicine by acquisition, exchange, and expression of resistance genes embedded within gene cassettes. Besides the clinical setting they were recently reported from environmental habitats and often located on plasmids and transposons, facilitating their transfer and spread within bacterial communities. In this study we aimed to provide insights into the occurrence of genes typically associated with the class 1 integrons in previously not studied environments with or without human impact and their association with IncP-1 plasmids. Total community DNA was extracted from manure-treated and untreated soils, lettuce and potato rhizosphere, digestates, and an on-farm biopurification system and screened by PCR with subsequent Southern blot hybridization for the presence of the class 1 integrase gene intI1 as well as qacE and qacEΔ 1 resistance genes. The results revealed a widespread dissemination of class 1 integrons in the environments analyzed, mainly related to the presence of qacEΔ 1 genes. All 28 IncP-1ε plasmids carrying class 1 integrons, which were captured exogenously in a recent study from piggery manure and soils treated with manure, carried qacEΔ 1 genes. Based on the strong hybridization signals in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to the potato rhizosphere, the abundances of intI1, qacE/qacEΔ 1, and sul1 genes were quantified relative to the 16S rRNA gene abundance by real-time PCR in the rhizosphere of lettuce planted in three different soils and in the corresponding bulk soil. A significant enrichment of intI1 and qacE/qacEΔ 1 genes was confirmed in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to bulk soil. Additionally, the relative abundance of korB genes specific for IncP-1 plasmids was enriched in the rhizosphere and correlated to the intI1 gene abundance indicating that IncP-1 plasmids might have contributed to the spread of class 1 integrons in the analyzed soils.

  5. Widespread dissemination of class 1 integron components in soils and related ecosystems as revealed by cultivation-independent analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eJechalke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Class 1 integrons contribute to the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance in human medicine by acquisition, exchange, and expression of resistance genes embedded within gene cassettes. Besides the clinical setting they were recently reported from environmental habitats and often located on plasmids and transposons, facilitating their transfer and spread within bacterial communities. In this study we aimed to provide insights into the occurrence of genes typically associated with the class 1 integrons in previously not studied environments with or without human impact and their association with IncP-1 plasmids. Total community DNA was extracted from manure-treated and untreated soils, lettuce and potato rhizosphere, digestates, and an on-farm biopurification system and screened by PCR with subsequent Southern blot hybridization for the presence of the class 1 integrase gene intI1 as well as qacE and qacEΔ1 resistance genes. The results revealed a widespread dissemination of class 1 integrons in the environments analyzed, mainly related to the presence of qacEΔ1 genes. All 28 IncP-1ε plasmids carrying class 1 integrons, which were captured exogenously in a recent study from piggery manure and soils treated with manure, carried qacEΔ1 genes. Based on the strong hybridization signals in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to the potato rhizosphere, the abundances of intI1, qacE/qacEΔ1, and sul1 genes were quantified relative to the 16S rRNA gene abundance by real time PCR in the rhizosphere of lettuce planted in three different soils and in the corresponding bulk soil. A significant enrichment of intI1 and qacE/qacEΔ1 genes was confirmed in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to bulk soil. Additionally, the relative abundance of korB genes specific for IncP-1 plasmids was enriched in the rhizosphere and correlated to the intI1 gene abundance indicating that IncP-1 plasmids might have contributed to the spread of class 1 integrons in the

  6. Histidine Decarboxylase Knockout Mice as a Model of the Pathophysiology of Tourette Syndrome and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    While the normal functions of histamine (HA) in the central nervous system have gradually come into focus over the past 30 years, the relationship of abnormalities in neurotransmitter HA to human disease has been slower to emerge. New insight came with the 2010 description of a rare nonsense mutation in the biosynthetic enzyme histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) that was associated with Tourette syndrome (TS) and related conditions in a single family pedigree. Subsequent genetic work has provided further support for abnormalities of HA signaling in sporadic TS. As a result of this genetic work, Hdc knockout mice, which were generated more than 15 years ago, have been reexamined as a model of the pathophysiology of TS and related conditions. Parallel work in these KO mice and in human carriers of the Hdc mutation has revealed abnormalities in the basal ganglia system and its modulation by dopamine (DA) and has confirmed the etiologic, face, and predictive validity of the model. The Hdc-KO model thus serves as a unique platform to probe the pathophysiology of TS and related conditions, and to generate specific hypotheses for subsequent testing in humans. This chapter summarizes the development and validation of this model and recent and ongoing work using it to further investigate pathophysiological changes that may contribute to these disorders.

  7. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  8. Self-perceived memory impairment and cognitive performance in an elderly independent population with age-related white matter changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, B.; Madureira, S.; Verdelho, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether self-perceived memory impairment is associated with the severity of white matter changes (WMC) and is related to cognitive impairment. METHODS: Data were drawn from the multinational Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study (LADIS), which investigates the impact of WMC....... A question about self-perceived memory impairment was used as a measure for presence of memory complaints. Cognitive performance was analysed test-by-test and in three main domains: memory, executive functions and speed/motor control. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used as a measure of depressive...... symptoms. RESULTS: Six hundred and thirty-eight subjects were included in this study. No association was found between memory complaints and the severity of WMC. Subjects with memory complaints (n = 399) had a higher GDS score [t((637)) = -7.15; pcognitive tests...

  9. Treatment-dependent and treatment-independent risk factors associated with the risk of diabetes-related events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Thomas; Mueller, Sabrina; Groth, Antje

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse which factors predict the real-world macro-/microvascular event, hospitalisation and death risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether there exists both an under- and over-treatment risk...... of these patients. METHODS: We used a German claims/clinical data set covering the years 2010-12. Diabetes-related events were defined as (1) macro-, (2) microvascular events leading to inpatient hospitalisation, (3) other hospitalisations with type 2 diabetes mellitus as main diagnosis, (4) all-cause death and (5......) a composite outcome including all event categories 1-4. Factors associated with event risk were analysed by a Kaplan-Meier curve analysis and by multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: 229,042 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age 70.2 years; mean CCI 6.03) were included. Among factors...

  10. Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; ≥C20 ɷ-3 and ɷ-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) concentrations and ɷ-3:ɷ-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms

  11. Motor-independent Visual Perception Skill Indexes are Related with Reading Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Reza Khodabandeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is one of the most common causes of physical disability in childhood that lead to various difficulties for children. These children may have abnormalities in visual perception. Visual perception plays an important role in learning of basic childhood’s skills. This research was designed to study the relation between each of subtests of visual perception with accuracy and speed components of reading skills in school-aged cerebral palsy children. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 24 spastic cerebral palsy students in second grade (10 girls and 14 boy were selected be available as from Tehran’s rehabilitation clinics. Visual perception and Reading skills were evaluated with the Test of Visual Perceptual Skill-revised (TVPS-R and Diagnostic Reading Test. Results: The results showed that between standard score of visual perception with accuracy and speed components of reading skills of cerebral palsy student were significantly correlated. Visual Discrimination with accuracy (P<0.001 and with speed (P<0.001, Visual Memory with accuracy  (P=0.002 and with speed (P=0.004, Visual-Spatial with accuracy (P<0.001 and with speed (P<0.001, Form Constancy with accuracy (P=0.003 and with speed (p<0.001, Visual Sequential Memory with accuracy (P=0.023 and with speed (P<0.028, Figure Ground Discrimination with accuracy (P=0.010 and with speed (P<0.011, Visual Closure with accuracy (p=0.009 and with speed (P<0.009 Conclusion: In general we can say that the relationship between visual perception skills with reading skills in first and second grade students with cerebral palsy is evident.

  12. Protozoa and metazoa relations to technological conditions of non-woven textile filters for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, Marcin; Sowińska, Aleksandra; Starzyk, Justyna; Masłowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was a preliminary identification of basic groups of micro-organisms in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for septic tank effluent (STE) treatment and their relations to technological conditions. Reactors with textile filters treating wastewater were investigated on a semi-technical scale. Filters were vertically situated and STE was filtered through them under hydrostatic pressure at a wastewater surface height of 7-20 cm. Filters were made of four layers of non-woven TS 20 geotextile of 0.9 mm thickness. Various groups of organisms were observed; the most abundant group comprised free-swimming and crawling ciliates, less abundant were stalked ciliates and the least numerous were nematodes. The individual counts of all groups of micro-organisms investigated during the study were variable according to time and space. The high abundance of Opercularia, a commonly observed genus of stalked ciliates, was related to the high efficiency of wastewater treatment and dissolved oxygen concentration of about 1.0 g/m3. Numbers of free-swimming and crawling ciliates had a tendency to decrease in relation to the depth of filter cross-sectional profile. The variability in counts of particular groups of organisms could be related to the local stress conditions. No correlation between identified organism count and total mass concentration in the cross-sectional filter profile was found.

  13. Income-related inequalities in diseases and health conditions over the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Jóhannsdóttir, Hildur Margrét

    2017-12-01

    How business cycles affect income-related distribution of diseases and health disorders is largely unknown. We examine how the prevalence of thirty diseases and health conditions is distributed across the income spectrum using survey data collected in Iceland in 2007, 2009 and 2012. Thus, we are able to take advantage of the unusually sharp changes in economic conditions in Iceland during the Great Recession initiated in 2008 and the partial recovery that had already taken place by 2012 to analyze how income-related health inequality changed across time periods that can be described as a boom, crisis and recovery. The concentration curve and the concentration index are calculated for each disease, both overall and by gender. In all cases, we find a considerable income-related health inequality favoring higher income individuals, with a slight increase over the study period. Between 2007 and 2009, our results indicate increased inequality for women but decreased inequality for men. Between 2009 and 2012 on the contrary, men's inequality increases but women's decreases. The overarching result is thus that the economic hardship of the crisis temporarily increased female income-related health inequality, but decreased that of men.

  14. How does susceptibility to proactive interference relate to speech recognition in aided and unaided conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jane Ellis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Proactive interference (PI is the capacity to resist interference to the acquisition of new memories from information stored in the long-term memory. Previous research has shown that PI correlates significantly with the speech-in-noise recognition scores of younger adults with normal hearing. In this study, we report the results of an experiment designed to investigate the extent to which tests of visual PI relate to the speech-in-noise recognition scores of older adults with hearing loss, in aided and unaided conditions. The results suggest that measures of PI correlate significantly with speech-in-noise recognition only in the unaided condition. Furthermore the relation between PI and speech-in-noise recognition differs to that observed in younger listeners without hearing loss. The findings suggest that the relation between PI tests and the speech-in-noise recognition scores of older adults with hearing loss relates to capability of the test to index cognitive flexibility.

  15. General factorization relations and consistency conditions in the sudden approximation via infinite matrix inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Hoffman, D.K.; Evans, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Local, i.e., multiplicative, operators satisfy well-known linear factorization relations wherein matrix elements (between states associated with a complete set of wave functions) can be obtained as a linear combination of those out of the ground state (the input data). Analytic derivation of factorization relations for general state input data results in singular integral expressions for the coefficients, which can, however, be regularized using consistency conditions between matrix elements out of a single (nonground) state. Similar results hold for suitable ''symmetry class'' averaged matrix elements where the symmetry class projection operators are ''complete.'' In several cases where the wave functions or projection operators incorporate orthogonal polynomial dependence, we show that the ground state factorization relations have a simplified structure allowing an alternative derivation of the general factorization relations via an infinite matrix inversion procedure. This form is shown to have some advantages over previous versions. In addition, this matrix inversion procedure obtains all consistency conditions (which is not always the case from regularization of singular integrals)

  16. Java project on periodontal disease. Periodontal condition in relation to vitamin C, systemic conditions and tooth loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaliya, A.

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of the PhD research described in this thesis was to investigate, in an Indonesian population deprived from regular dental care, associations between the periodontal condition assessed by alveolar and periapical bone loss with the plasma levels of vitamin C, vitamin D, HbA1c and CRP,

  17. Ectodomains of the LDL receptor-related proteins LRP1b and LRP4 have anchorage independent functions in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Dietrich

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor gene family is a highly conserved group of membrane receptors with diverse functions in developmental processes, lipoprotein trafficking, and cell signaling. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor-related protein 1b (LRP1B was reported to be deleted in several types of human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer. Our group has previously reported that a distal extracellular truncation of murine Lrp1b that is predicted to secrete the entire intact extracellular domain (ECD is fully viable with no apparent phenotype.Here, we have used a gene targeting approach to create two mouse lines carrying internally rearranged exons of Lrp1b that are predicted to truncate the protein closer to the N-terminus and to prevent normal trafficking through the secretary pathway. Both mutations result in early embryonic lethality, but, as expected from the restricted expression pattern of LRP1b in vivo, loss of Lrp1b does not cause cellular lethality as homozygous Lrp1b-deficient blastocysts can be propagated normally in culture. This is similar to findings for another LDL receptor family member, Lrp4. We provide in vitro evidence that Lrp4 undergoes regulated intramembraneous processing through metalloproteases and gamma-secretase cleavage. We further demonstrate negative regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the soluble extracellular domain.Our results underline a crucial role for Lrp1b in development. The expression in mice of truncated alleles of Lrp1b and Lrp4 with deletions of the transmembrane and intracellular domains leads to release of the extracellular domain into the extracellular space, which is sufficient to confer viability. In contrast, null mutations are embryonically (Lrp1b or perinatally (Lrp4 lethal. These findings suggest that the extracellular domains of both proteins may function as a scavenger for signaling ligands or signal modulators in the extracellular space, thereby

  18. Social transmission of Pavlovian fear: fear-conditioning by-proxy in related female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn E; Riha, Penny D; Gore, Andrea C; Monfils, Marie-H

    2014-05-01

    Pairing a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., a tone) to an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a foot-shock) leads to associative learning such that the tone alone will elicit a conditioned response (e.g., freezing). Individuals can also acquire fear from a social context, such as through observing the fear expression of a conspecific. In the current study, we examined the influence of kinship/familiarity on social transmission of fear in female rats. Rats were housed in triads with either sisters or non-related females. One rat from each cage was fear conditioned to a tone CS+ shock US. On day two, the conditioned rat was returned to the chamber accompanied by one of her cage mates. Both rats were allowed to behave freely, while the tone was played in the absence of the foot-shock. The previously untrained rat is referred to as the fear-conditioned by-proxy (FCbP) animal, as she would freeze based on observations of her cage-mate's response rather than due to direct personal experience with the foot-shock. The third rat served as a cage-mate control. The third day, long-term memory tests to the CS were performed. Consistent with our previous application of this paradigm in male rats (Bruchey et al. in Behav Brain Res 214(1):80-84, 2010), our results revealed that social interactions between the fear conditioned and FCbP rats on day two contribute to freezing displayed by the FCbP rats on day three. In this experiment, prosocial behavior occurring at the termination of the cue on day two was significantly greater between sisters than their non-sister counterparts, and this behavior resulted in increased freezing on day three. Our results suggest that familiarity and/or kinship influences the social transmission of fear in female rats.

  19. Application of the extended completeness relation to the absorbing boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Masataka; Otani, Reiji; Ito, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The strength function of the linear response by the external field is calculated in the formalism of the absorbing boundary condition (ABC). The dipole excitation of a schematic two-body system is treated in the present study. The extended completeness relation, which is assumed on the analogy of the formulation in the complex scaling method (CSM), is applied to the calculation of the strength function. The calculation of the strength function is successful in the present formalism and hence, the extended completeness relation seems to work well in the ABC formalism. The contributions from the resonance and the non-resonant continuum are also analyzed according to the decomposition of the energy levels in the extended completeness relation. (author)

  20. Obstetric Outcomes and Delivery-Related Health Care Utilization and Costs Among Pregnant Women With Multiple Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Tyler N. A.; Heisler, Michele; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among pregnant women with multiple chronic conditions. We used 2013–2014 data from the National Inpatient Sample to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among women with no chronic conditions, 1 chronic condition, and multiple chronic conditions. Women with multiple chronic conditions were at significantly higher risk than women with 1 chronic condition or no chronic conditions across all outcomes measured. High-value strategies are needed to improve birth outcomes among vulnerable mothers and their infants. PMID:29420168

  1. Microcephaly epidemic related to the Zika virus and living conditions in Recife, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de; Vazquez, Enrique; Bezerra, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque; Mendes, Antonio da Cruz Gouveia; Lyra, Tereza Maciel; Araujo, Thalia Velho Barreto de; Oliveira, André Luiz Sá de; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros; Cabral Silva, Amanda Priscila de Santana; Rodrigues, Laura; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi

    2018-01-12

    Starting in August 2015, there was an increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly in Northeast Brazil. These findings were identified as being an epidemic of microcephaly related to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. The present study aims to analyse the spatial distribution of microcephaly cases in Recife (2015-2016), which is in Northeast Brazil, and its association with the living conditions in this city. This was an ecological study that used data from reported cases of microcephaly from the State Health Department of Pernambuco (August 2015 to July 2016). The basic spatial unit of analysis was the 94 districts of Recife. The case definition of microcephaly was: neonates with a head circumference of less than the cut-off point of -2 standard deviations below the mean value from the established Fenton growth curve. As an indicator of the living conditions of the 94 districts, the percentage of heads of households with an income of less than twice the minimum wage was calculated. The districts were classified into four homogeneous strata using the K-means clustering algorithm. We plotted the locations of each microcephaly case over a layer of living conditions. During the study period, 347 microcephaly cases were reported, of which 142 (40.9%) fulfilled the definition of a microcephaly case. Stratification of the 94 districts resulted in the identification of four strata. The highest stratum in relation to the living conditions presented the lowest prevalence rate of microcephaly, and the overall difference between this rate and the rates of the other strata was statistically significant. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test demonstrated that there was a strong association between a higher prevalence of microcephaly and poor living conditions. After the first 6 months of the study period, there were no microcephaly cases recorded within the population living in the richest socio-economic strata. This study showed that those residing in areas with

  2. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  3. Self-reported financial barriers to care among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David J T; King-Shier, Kathryn; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Sanmartin, Claudia; Ronksley, Paul E; Weaver, Robert G; Tonelli, Marcello; Hennessy, Deirdre; Manns, Braden J

    2014-05-01

    People with chronic conditions who do not achieve therapeutic targets have a higher risk of adverse health outcomes. Failure to meet these targets may be due to a variety of barriers. This article examines self-reported financial barriers to health care among people with cardiovascular-related chronic conditions. A population-based survey was administered to western Canadians with cardiovascular-related chronic conditions (n = 1,849). Associations between self-reported financial barriers and statin use, the likelihood of stopping use of prescribed medications, and emergency department visits or hospitalizations were assessed. More than 10% respondents reported general financial barriers (12%) and lack of drug insurance (14%); 4% reported financial barriers to accessing medications. Emergency department visits or hospitalizations were 70% more likely among those reporting a general financial barrier. Those reporting a financial barrier to medications were 50% less likely to take statins and three times more likely to stop using prescribed medications. Individuals without drug insurance were nearly 30% less likely to take statins. In this population, self-reported financial barriers were associated with lower medication use and increased likelihood of emergency department visits or hospitalization.

  4. The relative effectiveness of extinction and counter-conditioning in diminishing children's fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newall, Carol; Watson, Tiffany; Grant, Kerry-Ann; Richardson, Rick

    2017-08-01

    Two behavioural strategies for reducing learned fear are extinction and counter-conditioning, and in this study we compared the relative effectiveness of the two procedures at diminishing fear in children. Seventy-three children aged 7-12 years old (M = 9.30, SD = 1.62) were exposed to pictures of two novel animals on a computer screen during the fear acquisition phase. One of these animals was paired with a picture of a scared human face (CS+) while the other was not (CS-). The children were then randomly assigned to one of three conditions: counter-conditioning (animal paired with a happy face), extinction (animal without scared face), or control (no fear reduction procedure). Changes in fear beliefs and behavioural avoidance of the animal were measured. Counter-conditioning was more effective at reducing fear to the CS + than extinction. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for behavioural treatments of childhood anxiety disorders. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical state condition in quantum general relativity as a consequence of BRST symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellana, Michele; Montani, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Quantization of systems with constraints can be carried out with several methods. In the Dirac formulation the classical generators of gauge transformations are required to annihilate physical quantum states to ensure their gauge invariance. Carrying on BRST symmetry it is possible to get a condition on physical states which, different from the Dirac method, requires them to be invariant under the BRST transformation. Employing this method for the action of general relativity expressed in terms of the spin connection and tetrad fields with path integral methods, we construct the generator of the BRST transformation associated with the underlying local Lorentz symmetry of the theory and write a physical state condition following from BRST invariance. This derivation is based on the general results on the dependence of the effective action used in path integrals and consequently of Green's functions on the gauge-fixing functionals used in the DeWitt-Faddeev-Popov method. The condition we gain differs from the one obtained within Ashtekar's canonical formulation, showing how we recover the latter only by a suitable choice of the gauge-fixing functionals. Finally we discuss how it should be possible to obtain all of the requested physical state conditions associated with all the underlying gauge symmetries of the classical theory using our approach

  6. Auditory event-related responses to diphthongs in different attention conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, David Jackson; Steinmetzger, Kurt; Tøndering, John

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of auditory event-related potentials (ERP) by attention generally results in larger amplitudes when stimuli are attended. We measured the P1-N1-P2 acoustic change complex elicited with synthetic overt (second formant, F2 = 1000 Hz) and subtle (F2 = 100 Hz) diphthongs, while subjects...... (i) attended to the auditory stimuli, (ii) ignored the auditory stimuli and watched a film, and (iii) diverted their attention to a visual discrimination task. Responses elicited by diphthongs where F2 values rose and fell were found to be different and this precluded their combined analysis....... Multivariate analysis of ERP components from the rising F2 changes showed main effects of attention on P2 amplitude and latency, and N1-P2 amplitude. P2 amplitude decreased by 40% between the attend and ignore conditions, and by 60% between the attend and divert conditions. The effect of diphthong magnitude...

  7. CYP polymorphisms and pathological conditions related to chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Oana Docea

    Full Text Available The association between genetic variations in the cytochrome P450 (CYP family genes and pathological conditions related to long-term exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs deserves further elucidation. OCs are persistent organic pollutants with bioaccumulative and lipophilic characteristics. They can act as endocrine disruptors and perturb cellular mechanisms. Prolonged exposure to OCs has been associated with different pathological manifestations. CYP genes are responsible for transcribing enzymes essential in xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, polymorphisms in these genetic sequences a. alter the metabolic pathways, b. induce false cellular responses, and c. may provoke pathological conditions. The main aim of this review is to define the interaction between parameters a, b and c at a mechanistic/molecular level, with references in clinical cases. Keywords: Organochlorine compounds, Cytochrome P450, Genetic polymorphisms, Pathogenesis, Environmental pollutants

  8. [Affective bipolar disorder and ambivalence in relation to the drug treatment: analyzing the causal conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study was performed with an aim to understand the conditions causing the ambivalence of the person with bipolar affective disorder (BAD) regarding following the drug treatment. A qualitative approach was used, with the Grounded Theory as the methodology framework, under the light of Symbolic Interactionism. Participants were 14 individuals with BAD who were being followed at an Outpatient Clinic for Mood Disorders of a university hospital and 14 relatives they indicated. Interviews and observation were the main forms of obtaining data. Results revealed three categories that described the referred causal conditions: experiencing the crises of the disorder; needing the drug; and living with the side effects of the drugs. It was found that there is a need to change the attitude of some health professionals from blaming the patient for interrupting the treatment to one of listening, valuing their symbolic and affective universe as well as the partnership in the treatment.

  9. Hospital nurses' working conditions in relation to motivation and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of empirical knowledge about nurses' perceptions of their workplace characteristics and conditions, such as level of autonomy and decision authority, work climate, teamwork, skill exploitation and learning opportunities, and their work motivation in relation to practice outputs such as patient safety. Such knowledge is needed particularly in countries, such as Estonia, where hospital systems for preventing errors and improving patient safety are in the early stages of development. This article reports the findings from a cross-sectional survey of hospital nurses in Estonia that was aimed at determining their perceptions of workplace characteristics, working conditions, work motivation and patient safety, and at exploring the relationship between these. Results suggest that perceptions of personal control over their work can affect nurses' motivation, and that perceptions of work satisfaction might be relevant to patient safety improvement work.

  10. Independent and joint associations of race/ethnicity and educational attainment with sleep-related symptoms in a population-based US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Ford, Earl S; Chapman, Daniel P; Liu, Yong; Croft, Janet B

    2015-08-01

    Prior studies have documented disparities in short and long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia by educational attainment and race/ethnicity separately. We examined both independent and interactive effects of these factors with a broader range of sleep indicators in a racially/ethnically diverse sample. We analyzed 2012 National Health Interview Survey data from 33,865 adults aged ≥18years. Sleep-related symptomatology included short sleep duration (≤6h), long sleep duration (≥9h), fatigue >3days, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia. Bivariate analyses with chi-square tests and log-linear regression were performed. The overall age-adjusted prevalence was 29.1% for short sleep duration, 8.5% for long sleep duration, 15.1% for fatigue, 12.6% for excessive daytime sleepiness, and 18.8% for insomnia. Educational attainment and race/ethnicity were independently related to the five sleep-related symptoms. Among Whites, the likelihood of most sleep indicators increased as educational attainment decreased; relationships varied for the other racial/ethnic groups. For short sleep duration, the educational attainment-by-race/ethnicity interaction effect was significant for African Americans (peducational attainment and race/ethnicity simultaneously to more fully understand disparities in sleep health. Increased understanding of the mechanisms linking sociodemographic factors to sleep health is needed to determine whether policies and programs to increase educational attainment may also reduce these disparities within an increasingly diverse population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Bacterial diversity in saliva and oral health-related conditions: the Hisayama Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Toru; Kageyama, Shinya; Furuta, Michiko; Tsuboi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shibata, Yukie; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2016-02-01

    This population-based study determined the salivary microbiota composition of 2,343 adult residents of Hisayama town, Japan, using 16S rRNA gene next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Of 550 identified species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 72 were common, in ≥75% of all individuals, as well as in ≥75% of the individuals in the lowest quintile of phylogenetic diversity (PD). These “core” OTUs constituted 90.9 ± 6.1% of each microbiome. The relative abundance profiles of 22 of the core OTUs with mean relative abundances ≥1% were stratified into community type I and community type II by partitioning around medoids clustering. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a lower PD was associated with better conditions for oral health, including a lower plaque index, absence of decayed teeth, less gingival bleeding, shallower periodontal pockets and not smoking, and was also associated with tooth loss. By contrast, multiple Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that community type II, as characterized by a higher ratio of the nine dominant core OTUs, including Neisseria flavescens, was implicated in younger age, lower body mass index, fewer teeth with caries experience, and not smoking. Our large-scale data analyses reveal variation in the salivary microbiome among Japanese adults and oral health-related conditions associated with the salivary microbiome.

  12. Health warnings on tobacco packaging in Italy: do they describe all possible smoking-related conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Colamesta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to evaluate the adherence between the health warnings on tobacco products in Italy and the smoking-related conditions known in the scientific literature. The Legislative Decree 2003 and 2012 established the general and the additional warnings on tobacco packaging. Regarding the smoking-related conditions, the health damages presented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC report are reported. Also a narrative review was performed. Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood neurobehavioral disorders are well reported in the textual health warning. Also there is at least one message indicating that the exposure of secondhand smoke is harmful. Conversely, several smoking-related cancers and other adverse health effects (diabetes, hip fractures, low bone density in postmenopausal women, rheumatoid arthritis, mental decline, acne and allergy, etc are not considered. The health warnings represent an important mean for communicating that may change smokers’ attitudes and behaviours, therefore, it’s important to implement them, also considering the introduction of graphical warnings, to maintain their effectiveness over time.

  13. Psychosocial working conditions and work-related stressors among UK veterinary surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, David J; Yadegarfar, Ghasem; Baldwin, David S

    2009-08-01

    Anecdotally, veterinary surgeons report high levels of work-related stress. To investigate psychosocial working conditions, self-reported causes of work-related stress and satisfaction among a representative sample of vets practising in the UK. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample of 3200 vets. The Health & Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool and a series of bespoke questions were embedded in a 120 item questionnaire, which also assessed anxiety and depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, suicidal ideation, positive mental well-being and work-home interaction. A total of 1796 useable questionnaires were returned (response rate 56%). Number of hours worked and making professional mistakes were the main reported contributors to stress. Good clinical outcomes and relationships with colleagues were the greatest sources of satisfaction. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with less favourable working conditions. Compared to the general population, the sample reported higher risk of work-related stress for demands and managerial support but lower risk for relationships and change. The results could be used to inform the development of targeted interventions.

  14. Imagined futures in living with multiple conditions: Positivity, relationality and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Lindsay-Ann; Atkinson, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    Hope serves as an overarching concept for a range of engagements that demonstrate the benefits of a positive outlook for coping with chronic conditions of ill-health and disability. A dominant engagement through medicine has positioned hope as a desirable attribute and its opposite, hopelessness, as pathological. In this engagement hope is individual, internally located and largely cognitive and able to be learned. Attaining hope reflects a process of coming to terms with the losses associated with long-term conditions and of imagining new meanings and purposes for the future ahead. This process is characterised by a set of linear temporal stages, from loss and denial to acceptance and reappraising the life-course, by an emphasis on the morally desirable exercise of self-care and by a desired outcome that, in the absence of cure, is hope. Through interviews, we aim to unsettle the privileged status given to a positive outlook through examining the expressions, contexts and negotiations of hopelessness of people living with multiple conditions of ill-health and/or disability. These narratives of hopelessness disclose the ways in which realistic imagined possibilities for the future are constrained by external structures of time and function that demand complex negotiations with places, bodies and other people. As a situated and relational narrative, hopelessness draws our attention to the need to rebalance the exclusive attention to individual, internal resources with a renewed attention to contexts and settings. Moreover, hopelessness can be generative for those living with multiple conditions in shaping alternatively framed priorities with respect to their temporal and interpersonal relations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  16. Hospitalisations and costs relating to ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, A

    2012-03-08

    BACKGROUND: Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are conditions for which the provision of timely and effective outpatient care can reduce the risks of hospitalisation by preventing, controlling or managing a chronic disease or condition. AIMS: The aims of this study were to report on ACSCs in Ireland, and to provide a baseline for future reference. METHODS: Using HIPE, via Health Atlas Ireland, inpatient discharges classified as ACSCs using definitions from the Victorian ACSC study were extracted for the years 2005-2008. Direct methods of standardisation allowed comparison of rates using the EU standard population as a comparison for national data, and national population as comparison for county data. Costs were estimated using diagnosis-related groups. RESULTS: The directly age-standardised discharge rate for ACSC-related discharges increased slightly, but non-significantly, from 15.40 per 1,000 population in 2005 to 15.75 per 1,000 population in 2008. The number of discharges increased (9.5%) from 63,619 in 2005 to 69,664 in 2008, with the estimated associated hospital costs increasing (31.5%) from 267.8 million in 2005 to 352.2 million in 2008. Across the country, there was considerable variation in the discharge rates for the Top-10 ACSCs for the years 2005-2008. Significantly lower rates of hospitalisation were observed in more urban areas including Cork, Dublin and Galway. The most common ACSC in 2008 was diabetes with complications (29.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The variation in rates observed indicates the scope of reducing hospitalisations and associated costs for ACSCs, across both adult\\'s and children\\'s services and particularly in relation to diabetes complications.

  17. A meta-analysis of motivational interviewing process: Technical, relational, and conditional process models of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Molly; Apodaca, Timothy R; Borsari, Brian; Gaume, Jacques; Hoadley, Ariel; Gordon, Rebecca E F; Tonigan, J Scott; Moyers, Theresa

    2018-02-01

    In the present meta-analysis, we test the technical and relational hypotheses of Motivational Interviewing (MI) efficacy. We also propose an a priori conditional process model where heterogeneity of technical path effect sizes should be explained by interpersonal/relational (i.e., empathy, MI Spirit) and intrapersonal (i.e., client treatment seeking status) moderators. A systematic review identified k = 58 reports, describing 36 primary studies and 40 effect sizes (N = 3,025 participants). Statistical methods calculated the inverse variance-weighted pooled correlation coefficient for the therapist to client and the client to outcome paths across multiple target behaviors (i.e., alcohol use, other drug use, other behavior change). Therapist MI-consistent skills were correlated with more client change talk (r = .55, p technical hypothesis was supported. Specifically, proportion MI consistency was related to higher proportion change talk (r = .11, p = .004) and higher proportion change talk was related to reductions in risk behavior at follow up (r = -.16, p technical hypothesis path effect sizes was partially explained by inter- and intrapersonal moderators. This meta-analysis provides additional support for the technical hypothesis of MI efficacy; future research on the relational hypothesis should occur in the field rather than in the context of clinical trials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Dressing method and quadratic bundles related to symmetric spaces. Vanishing boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, T. I.

    2016-02-01

    We consider quadratic bundles related to Hermitian symmetric spaces of the type SU(m + n)/S(U(m) × U(n)). The simplest representative of the corresponding integrable hierarchy is given by a multi-component Kaup-Newell derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation which serves as a motivational example for our general considerations. We extensively discuss how one can apply Zakharov-Shabat's dressing procedure to derive reflectionless potentials obeying zero boundary conditions. Those could be used for one to construct fast decaying solutions to any nonlinear equation belonging to the same hierarchy. One can distinguish between generic soliton type solutions and rational solutions.

  19. Relation between parameters of self-sustaining magnetically confined electron cloud and external conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the fluid theory of the axisymmetrical self-sustaining magnetically confined electron clouds an approximate analytical method is developed. By means of this method the relations between the parameters of this type of electron cloud and external conditions are studied. The parameters include electron density, electron temperature, drift angular frequency of electrons, radius of the electron cloud and electric potential at the centre of the electron cloud. They depend on the voltage, magnetic induction, pressure, electromagnetic field distribution in the confinement device and parameters of electron-atom collisions

  20. Relation between the conditions of helium ion implantation and helium void equilibrium parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Rybalko, V.F.; Ruzhitskij, V.V.; Tolstolutskaya, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The conditions of helium thermodynamic equilibrium in a system of voids produced by helium ion bombardment of a metal sample are studied. As an initial equation for description of the equilibrium the Clapeyron equation was used. The equation is obtained relating basic parameters of helium voids (average diameter and density) to irradiation parameters (dose, ion energy (straggling)) and properties of the metal (surface tension coefficient, yield strength). Comparison of the calculations with experimental data on helium in nickel found in literature shows that the equation yields satisfactory resutls for the dose range 1.10 16 -1x10 17 cm -2 and temperatures T [ru

  1. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus...

  2. Boundary conditions, energies and gravitational heat in general relativity (a classical analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francaviglia, M; Raiteri, M

    2004-01-01

    The variation of the energy for a gravitational system is directly defined from the Hamiltonian field equations of general relativity. When the variation of the energy is written in a covariant form, it splits into two (covariant) contributions: one of them is the Komar energy, while the other is the so-called covariant ADM correction term. When specific boundary conditions are analysed one sees that the Komar energy is related to the gravitational heat while the ADM correction term plays the role of the Helmholtz free energy. These properties allow one to establish, inside a classical geometric framework, a formal analogy between gravitation and the laws governing the evolution of a thermodynamical system. The analogy applies to stationary spacetimes admitting multiple causal horizons as well as to AdS Taub-bolt solutions

  3. Three new genetic loci (R1210C in CFH, variants in COL8A1 and RAD51B) are independently related to progression to advanced macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Johanna M; Reynolds, Robyn; Yu, Yi; Rosner, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    To assess the independent impact of new genetic variants on conversion to advanced stages of AMD, controlling for established risk factors, and to determine the contribution of genes in predictive models. In this prospective longitudinal study of 2765 individuals, 777 subjects progressed to neovascular disease (NV) or geographic atrophy (GA) in either eye over 12 years. Recently reported genetic loci were assessed for their independent effects on incident advanced AMD after controlling for 6 established loci in 5 genes, and demographic, behavioral, and macular characteristics. New variants which remained significantly related to progression were then added to a final multivariate model to assess their independent effects. The contribution of genes to risk models was assessed using reclassification tables by determining risk within cross-classified quintiles for alternative models. THREE NEW GENETIC VARIANTS WERE SIGNIFICANTLY RELATED TO PROGRESSION: rare variant R1210C in CFH (hazard ratio (HR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-5.3, P = 0.01), and common variants in genes COL8A1 (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.5, P = 0.02) and RAD51B (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.60-0.97, P = 0.03). The area under the curve statistic (AUC) was significantly higher for the 9 gene model (.884) vs the 0 gene model (.873), P = .01. AUC's for the 9 vs 6 gene models were not significantly different, but reclassification analyses indicated significant added information for more genes, with adjusted odds ratios (OR) for progression within 5 years per one quintile increase in risk score of 2.7, Padvanced AMD beyond macular and behavioral phenotypes.

  4. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Liu, Shu-Tsen; Lee, Chi-Mei; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-07-01

    Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6-16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parental education-matched school controls. Data on demographics, parental reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV), and medical records were collected. The average full-scale intelligence quotient of the case group was 95.8. There were 11 (18.0%), 7 (11.5%), 26 (42.6%), and 26 (42.6%) of children with epilepsy ever clinically diagnosed with developmental delay, overt ADHD symptoms, allergies reported by physicians, and behavior problems measured by the CBCL, respectively. Those children with epilepsy had more severe ADHD-related symptoms and a wider range of emotional/behavioral problems than controls (Cohen's d 0.36-0.80). The rate of potential cases of ADHD among children with epilepsy was 24.6%. A history of developmental delay predicted ADHD- related symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems. Among children with epilepsy, a longer duration of treatment with antiepileptic drugs predicted externalizing problems, and an earlier onset of epilepsy predicted inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Far red/near infrared light-induced protection against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury remains intact under diabetic conditions and is independent of nitric oxide synthase

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    Agnes eKeszler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Far red/near-infrared light (NIR promotes a wide range of biological effects including tissue protection but whether and how NIR is capable of acutely protecting myocardium against ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo is not fully elucidated. Our previous work indicates that NIR exposure immediately before and during early reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction through mechanisms that are nitric oxide (NO-dependent. Here we tested the hypothesis that NIR elicits protection in a diabetic mouse model where other cardioprotective interventions such as pre- and postconditioning fail, and that the protection is independent of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. NIR reduced infarct size dose dependently. Importantly, NIR-induced protection was preserved in a diabetic mouse model (db/db and during acute hyperglycemia, as well as in endothelial NOS-/- mice and in wild type mice treated with NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In in vitro experiments NIR light liberates NO from nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO and nitrosyl myoglobin (MbNO in a wavelength (660-830 nm and dose-dependent manner. Irradiation at 660 nm yields the highest release of NO, while at longer wavelengths a dramatic decrease of NO release can be observed. Similar wavelength dependence was observed for the protection of mice against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo. NIR-induced NO release from deoxymyoglobin in the presence of nitrite mildly inhibits respiration of isolated mitochondria after hypoxia. In summary, NIR applied during reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction in an NO dependent, but NOS-independent mechanisms, whereby mitochondria may be a target of NO released by NIR, leading to reduced reactive oxygen species generation during reperfusion. This unique mechanism preserves protection even during diabetes where other protective strategies fail.

  6. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

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    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  7. Injury-related visits and comorbid conditions among homeless persons presenting to emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammig, Bart; Jozkowski, Kristen; Jones, Ches

    2014-04-01

    The authors examined the clinical characteristics of homeless patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in the United States, with a focus on unintentional and intentional injury events and related comorbid conditions. The study included a nationally representative sample of patients presenting to EDs with data obtained from the 2007 through 2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Descriptive and analytical epidemiologic analyses were employed to examine injuries among homeless patients. Homeless persons made 603,000 visits annually to EDs, 55% of which were for injuries, with the majority related to unintentional (52%) and self-inflicted (23%) injuries. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that homeless patients had a higher odds of presenting with injuries related to unintentional (odds ratio [OR]=1.4. 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.1 to 1.9), self-inflicted (OR=6.0, 95% CI=3.7 to 9.5), and assault (OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.5 to 5.9) injuries. A better understanding of the injuries affecting homeless populations may provide medical and public health professionals insight into more effective ways to intervene and limit further morbidity and mortality related to specific injury outcomes. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  8. CARBON FIXING CAPACITY OF AMAZONIAN SOILS IN RELATION TO ITS DEGRADATION CONDITIONS

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    Clara Patricia Peña Venegas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian deforestation and transformation alert about their effects worldwide. One concern is the increase of the Carbon (C levels emitted. Previous works have estimated the fixed C in Amazon forests without including the C stored in soils. Within soil, the organic carbon molecules are highly sensitive to degradation, affecting the natural capacity of soils to fix and store C. The present study evaluates the impact of degradation in the natural capacity of Amazon soils to fix C. Thirty five farms with different typology were selected in Caquetá department which hold the highest deforestation and soil degradation rates in the Colombian Amazon. Soil samples were taken from natural forest relicts, cropping areas and introduced pastures of the farms, in locations with high, intermediate and low soil degradation. Aerial biomass was estimated in pastures with different level of soil degradation. Changes in the labile C stock were estimated from the soil organic carbon and the microbial biomass using substrate induced respiration. Results showed that the main C pool is in the natural forest relicts and the crops of the farms, independently from the size or type of farm sampled. The hills with higher intervention showed the lowest soil C fixation capacities. The soil C fixation capacity was related with changes in the soil microbial composition where conserved soils store preferentially C as fungal biomass while degraded soils store C as bacterial biomass. These estimations contribute to establish the cost of sustainability and soil degradation in the Colombian Amazon.

  9. Autism and classical eyeblink conditioning: Performance changes of the conditioned response related to autism spectrum disorder diagnosis

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    John P Welsh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the timing performance of conditioned responses (CRs acquired during trace and delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC are presented for diagnostic subgroups of children having autism spectrum disorder (ASD aged 6-15 years. Children diagnosed with autistic disorder (AD were analyzed separately from children diagnosed with either Asperger’s syndrome or Pervasive-developmental disorder not-otherwise-specified (Asp/PDD and compared to an age- and IQ-matched group of children that were typically developing (TD. Within-subject and between-groups contrasts in CR performance on sequential exposure to trace and delay EBC were analyzed to determine whether any differences would expose underlying functional heterogeneities of the cerebral and cerebellar systems in ASD subgroups. The EBC parameters measured were percentage CRs, CR onset latency, and CR peak latency. Neither AD nor Asp/PDD groups were impaired in CR acquisition during trace or delay EBC. AD and Asp/PDD both altered CR timing, but not always in the same way. Although the AD group showed normal CR timing during trace EBC, the Asp/PDD group showed a significant 27 and 28 ms increase in CR onset and peak latency, respectively, during trace EBC. In contrast, the direction of the timing change was opposite during delay EBC, during which the Asp/PDD group showed a significant 29 ms decrease in CR onset latency and the AD group showed a larger 77 ms decrease in CR onset latency. Only the AD group showed a decrease in CR peak latency during delay EBC, demonstrating another difference between AD and Asp/PDD. The difference in CR onset latency during delay EBC for both AD and Asp/PDD was due to an abnormal prevalence of early onset CRs that were intermixed with CRs having normal timing, as observed both in CR onset histograms and mean CR waveforms. In conclusion, significant heterogeneity in EBC performance was apparent within diagnostic groups, and this may indicate that EBC performance can

  10. Gambling and physical intimate partner violence: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda; Landon, Jason; Sharman, Stephen; Hakes, Jahn; Suomi, Aino; Cowlishaw, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and gambling problems are under researched in general population samples. Understanding these relationships will allow for improved identification and intervention. We investigated these relationships and sought to determine whether links were attenuated by axis I and II disorders. This study examined data from waves 1 and 2 (N = 25,631) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC); a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults. Gambling symptoms and other psychiatric disorders were measured at wave 1 by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disability Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Physical IPV victimization and perpetration in the last 12 months were assessed 3 years later at wave 2 using items from the Conflict Tactics Scale-R. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine associations separately for males and females. Problem gambling was associated with increased odds of both IPV perpetration for males (OR = 2.62, 95%CI = 1.22-5.60) and females (OR = 2.87, 95%CI = 1.29-6.42), and with IPV victimization for females only (OR = 2.97, 95%CI = 1.31-6.74). Results were attenuated with inclusion of axis I and axis II disorders; links between gambling and IPV were weaker than those involving other mental health conditions. There are prospective associations with gambling problems and physical IPV which have implications for identification, spontaneous disclosure, and treatment seeking. The links between gambling problems and violence are complex and should not be considered independently of co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. (Am J Addict 2018;27:7-14). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. Age-related alterations of brain network underlying the retrieval of emotional autobiographical memories: an fMRI study using independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ruiyang; Fu, Yan; Wang, Dahua; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2014-01-01

    Normal aging has been shown to modulate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and emotion processing. Moreover, previous researches have suggested that aging produces a "positivity effect" in autobiographical memory. Although a few imaging studies have investigated the neural mechanism of the positivity effect, the neural substrates underlying the positivity effect in emotional autobiographical memory is unclear. To understand the age-related neural changes in emotional autobiographical memory that underlie the positivity effect, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used the independent component analysis (ICA) method to compare brain networks in younger and older adults as they retrieved positive and negative autobiographical events. Compared to their younger counterparts, older adults reported relatively higher positive feelings when retrieving emotional autobiographical events. Imaging data indicated an age-related reversal within the ventromedial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (VMPFC/ACC) and the left amygdala of the brain networks that were engaged in the retrieval of autobiographical events with different valence. The retrieval of negative events compared to positive events induced stronger activity in the VMPFC/ACC and weaker activity in the amygdala for the older adults, whereas the younger adults showed a reversed pattern. Moreover, activity in the VMPFC/ACC within the task-related networks showed a negative correlation with the emotional valence intensity. These results may suggest that the positivity effect in older adults' autobiographical memories is potentially due to age-related changes in controlled emotional processing implemented by the VMPFC/ACC-amygdala circuit.

  12. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

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    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  13. Practical method for targeted disruption of cilia-related genes by using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated, homology-independent knock-in system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yohei; Michisaka, Saki; Nozaki, Shohei; Funabashi, Teruki; Hirano, Tomoaki; Takei, Ryota; Nakayama, Kazuhisa

    2017-04-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized genome editing in virtually all organisms. Although the CRISPR/Cas9 system enables the targeted cleavage of genomic DNA, its use for gene knock-in remains challenging because levels of homologous recombination activity vary among various cells. In contrast, the efficiency of homology-independent DNA repair is relatively high in most cell types. Therefore the use of a homology-independent repair mechanism is a possible alternative for efficient genome editing. Here we constructed a donor knock-in vector optimized for the CRISPR/Cas9 system and developed a practical system that enables efficient disruption of target genes by exploiting homology-independent repair. Using this practical knock-in system, we successfully disrupted genes encoding proteins involved in ciliary protein trafficking, including IFT88 and IFT20, in hTERT-RPE1 cells, which have low homologous recombination activity. The most critical concern using the CRISPR/Cas9 system is off-target cleavage. To reduce the off-target cleavage frequency and increase the versatility of our knock-in system, we constructed a universal donor vector and an expression vector containing Cas9 with enhanced specificity and tandem sgRNA expression cassettes. We demonstrated that the second version of our system has improved usability. © 2017 Katoh et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Kramers-Kronig relations and causality conditions for graphene in the framework of the Dirac model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the concept of causality for the conductivity of graphene described by the Dirac model. It is recalled that the condition of causality leads to the analyticity of conductivity in the upper half-plane of complex frequencies and to the standard symmetry properties for its real and imaginary parts. This results in the Kramers-Kronig relations, which explicit form depends on whether the conductivity has no pole at zero frequency (as in the case of zero temperature when the band gap of graphene is larger than twice the chemical potential) or it has a pole (as in all other cases, specifically, at nonzero temperature). Through the direct analytic calculation it is shown that the real and imaginary parts of graphene conductivity, found recently on the basis of first principles of thermal quantum field theory using the polarization tensor in (2 +1 )-dimensional space-time, satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relations precisely. In so doing, the values of two integrals in the commonly used tables, which are also important for a wider area of dispersion relations in quantum field theory and elementary particle physics, are corrected. The obtained results are not of only fundamental theoretical character, but can be used as a guideline in testing the validity of different phenomenological approaches and for the interpretation of experimental data.

  15. Hybridization rates between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative (L. serriola) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Guadagnuolo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between crops and wild relatives may have important evolutionary and ecological consequences such as gene swamping or increased invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated hybridization under field conditions between crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative prickly lettuce (L. serriola), two cross-compatible, predominantly autogamous and insect pollinated species. In 2003 and 2004, we estimated the rates of hybridization between L. sativa and L. serriola in close-to-reality field experiments carried out in two locations of Northern Switzerland. Seeds set by the experimental wild plants were collected and sown (44 352 in 2003 and 252 345 in 2004). Progeny was screened morphologically for detecting natural hybrids. Prior to the experiment, specific RAPD markers were used to confirm that morphological characters were reliable for hybrid identification. Hybridization occurred up to the maximal distance tested (40 m), and hybridization rates varied between 0 to 26%, decreasing with distance. More than 80% of the wild plants produced at least one hybrid (incidence of hybridization, IH) at 0 m and 1 m. It equaled 4 to 5% at 40 m. In sympatric crop-wild populations, cross-pollination between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative has to be seen as the rule rather than the exception for short distances.

  16. Parent reports of health-related quality of life and heart failure severity score independently predict outcome in children with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Susanna L; Baart, Sara J; van der Meulen, Marijke H; van Iperen, Gabriëlle G; Backx, Ad P; Ten Harkel, Arend D; Rammeloo, Lukas A; du Marchie Sarvaas, Gideon J; Tanke, Ronald B; Helbing, Willem A; Utens, Elisabeth M; Dalinghaus, Michiel

    2017-08-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy in children causes heart failure and has a poor prognosis. Health-related quality of life in this patient group is unknown. Moreover, results may provide detailed information of parents' sense of their child's functioning. We hypothesised that health-related quality of life, as rated by parents, and the paediatric heart failure score, as assessed by physicians, have both predictive value on outcome. Methods and results In this prospective study, health-related quality of life was assessed by parent reports: the Infant Toddler Quality of Life questionnaire (0-4 years) or Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50 (4-18 years) at 3-6-month intervals. We included 90 children (median age 3.8 years, interquartile range (IQR) 0.9-12.3) whose parents completed 515 questionnaires. At the same visit, physicians completed the New York University Pediatric Heart Failure Index. Compared with Dutch normative data, quality of life was severely impaired at diagnosis (0-4 years: 7/10 subscales and 4-18 years: 8/11 subscales) and ⩾1 year after diagnosis (3/10 and 6/11 subscales). Older children were more impaired (pFailure Index were independently predictive of the risk of death and heart transplantation (hazard ratio 1.24 per 10% decrease of predicted, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.47 and hazard ratio 1.38 per unit, 95% CI 1.19-1.61, respectively). Physical impairment rated by parents and heart failure severity assessed by physicians independently predicted the risk of death or heart transplantation in children with dilated cardiomyopathy.

  17. The relation between working conditions, aberrant driving behaviour and crash propensity among taxi drivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Li, Linchao; Prato, Carlo G

    2018-04-03

    Although the taxi industry is playing an important role in Chinese everyday life, little attention has been posed towards occupational health issues concerning the taxi drivers' working conditions, driving behaviour and road safety. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1021 taxi drivers from 21 companies in four Chinese cities and collected information about (i) sociodemographic characteristics, (ii) working conditions, (iii) frequency of daily aberrant driving behaviour, and (iv) involvement in property-damage-only (PDO) and personal injury (PI) crashes over the past two years. A hybrid bivariate model of crash involvement was specified: (i) the hybrid part concerned a latent variable model capturing unobserved traits of the taxi drivers; (ii) the bivariate part modelled jointly both types of crashes while capturing unobserved correlation between error terms. The survey answers paint a gloomy picture in terms of workload, as taxi drivers reported averages of 9.4 working hours per day and 6.7 working days per week that amount on average to about 63.0 working hours per week. Moreover, the estimates of the hybrid bivariate model reveal that increasing levels of fatigue, reckless behaviour and aggressive behaviour are positively related to a higher propensity of crash involvement. Lastly, the heavy workload is also positively correlated with the higher propensity of crashing, not only directly as a predictor of crash involvement, but also indirectly as a covariate of fatigue and aberrant driving behaviour. The findings from this study provide insights into potential strategies for preventive education and taxi industry management to improve the working conditions and hence reduce fatigue and road risk for the taxi drivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Complement Factor 3 Could Be an Independent Risk Factor for Mortality in Patients with HBV Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

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    Geng-lin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complement is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple liver disorders. However, its role in patients with HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF remains unclear. Serum levels of the third and fourth complement components (C3, C4 and complement function (CH50 were examined in this prospective, observational study. Associations between their expression and disease activity were analyzed. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves. Predictors of clinical outcome were determined by Cox regression analysis. C3, C4, and CH50 levels were significantly lower in HBV-ACLF patients compared to controls. C3, C4, and CH50 levels were negatively correlated with Tbil levels but positively associated with PTA levels. C3 levels were negatively associated with MELD-Na. C3 levels were significantly lower in HBV-ACLF patients who died compared to patients who survived. In a median hospital stay of 39 days, mortality occurred in 41 patients with a progressive increase based on C3 grade (P=0.008. The actuarial probability of developing mortality was significantly higher in patients with low C3 grade compared to those with high C3 grade (P<0.001. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that C3 levels were an independent predictor of mortality. Complement played a pathogenic role in HBV-ACLF patients and C3 was an independent predictor of mortality.

  19. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

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    Charice S. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQL for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS and Functional Independence Measure (FIM instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life—Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL.

  20. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  1. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie

    2012-05-15

    BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and

  2. IgG4-related disease: a systemic condition with characteristic microscopic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke

    2013-01-01

    that a significant proportion of the AIP patients had a variety of extrapancreatic fibroinflammatory lesions, and that AIP therefore was the pancreatic manifestation of a systemic disease. Among these extrapancreatic manifestations, the extrahepatic bile ducts, salivary glands, thyroid, lymph nodes......During the first decade of the 21st century, IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), a fibroinflammatory condition occurring at multiple sites of the body, has been newly recognized. As indicated by its name, elevation of IgG4 in the serum and tissue is a common denominator of IgG4-RD. Since...... diseases on their own, others have been included under the umbrella of "multifocal fibrosclerosis". Biopsies or resection specimens from affected organs in IgG4-RD reveal several common microscopic features irrespective of the site of the lesion. Cellular and storiform fibrosis, lymphoplasmacytic...

  3. A mathematical model for malaria transmission relating global warming and local socioeconomic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun M Yang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sensitivity analysis was applied to a mathematical model describing malaria transmission relating global warming and local socioeconomic conditions. METHODS: A previous compartment model was proposed to describe the overall transmission of malaria. This model was built up on several parameters and the prevalence of malaria in a community was characterized by the values assigned to them. To assess the control efforts, the model parameters can vary on broad intervals. RESULTS: By performing the sensitivity analysis on equilibrium points, which represent the level of malaria infection in a community, the different possible scenarios are obtained when the parameters are changed. CONCLUSIONS: Depending on malaria risk, the efforts to control its transmission can be guided by a subset of parameters used in the mathematical model.

  4. Recruitment and condition of juvenile sandeel on the Faroe shelf in relation to primary production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Kirstin; Reinert, Jákup; Gaard, Eilif

    The food of early-life sandeel is dominated by zooplankton, which again depends on primary production. On the Faroe Shelf, measurements of accumulated new primary production and chlorophyll a during spring and summer have been carried out since 1990 and 1997, respectively. Large inter...... availability. We compare the time series from the sandeel 0-group surveys with data on phytoplankton production and biomass. The results confirm that survival and condition of the early-life stages of sandeel on the Faroe Shelf is dependent on the magnitude of the primary production. Although the sandeel......-annual variations in the onset of the spring bloom and its intensity have been observed. Since 1974 juvenile sandeels have been sampled annually on the Faroe shelf. These results also show large variations – both in number and in average length. Here, we investigate the variations in recruitment in relation to food...

  5. Single-dose relative biological effectiveness and toxicity studies under conditions of hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, E.R.; Blekkenhorst, G.; Harrison, G.G.; Morrell, D.; Korrubel, J.; Gregory, A.; Phillips, J.; Manca, V.; Sealy, R.; Cape Town Univ.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to using hyperbaric oxygen with radiation in a clinical situation has been described in the preceding paper in this issue. To ascertain whether there might be a change in the relative biological effectiveness of radiation on normal mammalian tissue treated under conditions of hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen, the acute reaction to radiation of pig skin was studied. A single dose enhancement ratio at the erythema reaction level of 1.4+-0.08 was obtained when compared with irradiation at normal body temperature in air. The authors studied also a series of antioxidant enzymes in rat liver and lung after exposure to hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen. Enzyme changes were such as to combat oxygen toxicity which might develop as a result of the pre-treatment. (author)

  6. Affect dysregulation, psychoform dissociation, and adult relational fears mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and complex posttraumatic stress disorder independent of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijke, Annemiek; Hopman, Juliette A B; Ford, Julian D

    2018-01-01

    Objective : Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) as defined by the Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) formulation is associated with childhood relational trauma and involves relational impairment, affect dysregulation, and identity alterations. However, the distinct contributions of relational impairment (operationalized in the form fears of closeness or abandonment), affect dysregulation (operationalized in the form of overregulation and under-regulation of affect), and identity alterations (operationalized in the form of positive or negative psychoform or somatoform dissociation) to the relationship between childhood trauma and CPTSD/DESNOS have not been systematically tested. Method and Results : In a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with severe and chronic psychiatric and personality disorders ( n  = 472; M  = 34.7 years, SD  = 10.1), structural equation modelling with bootstrap 95% confidence intervals demonstrated that the association between childhood trauma and CPTSD/DESNOS symptoms in adulthood was partially mediated by under-regulation of affect, negative psychoform dissociation, and adult relational fears of closeness and of abandonment. These results also were independent of the effects of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Conclusions : Some, but not all, hypothesized components of the DESNOS formulation of CPTSD statistically mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and adult CPTSD/DESNOS. These relationships appear specific to CPTSD/DESNOS and not to the effects of another potential sequelae of childhood trauma BPD. Replication with prospective longitudinal studies is needed.

  7. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmink, Jan T.

    2010-01-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  8. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmink, Jan T. [University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. Radiology

    2010-07-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  9. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.

  10. Static flexural properties of hedgehog spines conditioned in coupled temperature and relative humidity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emily B; Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Swift, Nathan B; Tan, Kwek-Tze

    2017-11-01

    Hedgehogs are agile climbers, scaling trees and plants to heights exceeding 10m while foraging insects. Hedgehog spines (a.k.a. quills) provide fall protection by absorbing shock and could offer insights for the design of lightweight, material-efficient, impact-resistant structures. There has been some study of flexural properties of hedgehog spines, but an understanding of how this keratinous biological material is affected by various temperature and relative humidity treatments, or how spine color (multicolored vs. white) affects mechanics, is lacking. To bridge this gap in the literature, we use three-point bending to analyze the effect of temperature, humidity, spine color, and their interactions on flexural strength and modulus of hedgehog spines. We also compare specific strength and stiffness of hedgehog spines to conventional engineered materials. We find hedgehog spine flexural properties can be finely tuned by modifying environmental conditioning parameters. White spines tend to be stronger and stiffer than multicolored spines. Finally, for most temperature and humidity conditioning parameters, hedgehog spines are ounce for ounce stronger than 201 stainless steel rods of the same diameter but as pliable as styrene rods with a slightly larger diameter. This unique combination of strength and elasticity makes hedgehog spines exemplary shock absorbers, and a suitable reference model for biomimicry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Remote sensing of surface water quality in relation to catchment condition in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masocha, Mhosisi; Murwira, Amon; Magadza, Christopher H. D.; Hirji, Rafik; Dube, Timothy

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of river catchments is one of the most important contemporary environmental problems affecting water quality in tropical countries. In this study, we used remotely sensed Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess how catchment condition varies within and across river catchments in Zimbabwe. We then used non-linear regression to test whether catchment condition assessed using the NDVI is significantly (α = 0.05) related with levels of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) measured at different sampling points in thirty-two sub-catchments in Zimbabwe. The results showed a consistent negative curvilinear relationship between Landsat 8 derived NDVI and TSS measured across the catchments under study. In the drier catchments of the country, 98% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI, while in wetter catchments, 64% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI. Our results suggest that NDVI derived from free and readily available multispectral Landsat series data (Landsat 8) is a potential valuable tool for the rapid assessment of physical water quality in data poor catchments. Overall, the finding of this study underscores the usefulness of readily available satellite data for near-real time monitoring of the physical water quality at river catchment scale, especially in resource-constrained areas, such as the sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Water-Yield Relations of Drip Irrigated Watermelon in Temperate Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Borivoj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study, conducted in Vojvodina a northern part of the Serbia Republic, was to analyse the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of watermelon (Cirullus lanatus Thunb. grown with plasticulture. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration was computed using the reference evapotranspiration and crop coefficient. The yield of watermelon in irrigation conditions (37,28 t/ha was significantly higher compared to non irrigated (9,98 t/ha. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions was 398 mm and 117 mm on non irrigated variant. The crop yield response factor of 1,04 for the whole growing season reveals that relative yield decrease was nearly equal to the rate of evapotranspiration deficit. The values of irrigation water use efficiency and evapotranspiration water use efficiency were 9,93 kg/m3 and 10,29 kg/m3 respectively. The determined results could be used as a good platform for watermelon growers in the region, in terms of improvement of the optimum utilization of irrigation water.

  13. Stability in the country as a key condition for the progressive improvement of the quality of life in the new independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Rotman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the sociological data the article determines the causes of emergence of social tensions in the country and society, estimates the reliance of such situations on the population’s satisfaction with the living conditions, and argues the importance of maintaining the sustainable stability for the sustainable development of the state. The author aims to build a comprehensive rating of ‘social concern’ of the post-Soviet states’ citizens as a sum of the following empirical indicators: economic problems of individuals and their families; chances to ensure decent living conditions (health care, access to education, security, etc.; environmental problems; political problems. The article also reconstructs an ideal-typical model of social transformation of post-communist societies consisting of three main stages: searching, stabilization, sustainable development. Based on the analysis of empirical data, the author states that some transitional societies at the turn of the third millennium (for instance, Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan have reached the stabilization phase. The author proposes to assess the level of social stability with the indicator of social tension obtained through the ‘many-stage data grouping’. The empirical data presented in the article are the results of the projects of the Center for Sociological and Political Studies of the Belarusian State University.

  14. Functional independence and health-related functional status following spinal cord injury : a prospective study of the association with physical capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, Janneke A.; Post, Marcel W.; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Stam, Henk J.; Bergen, Michael P.; Sluis, Tebbe A.; van den Berg-Emons, Hendrika J.; Bussmann, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine changes in functional independence following spinal cord injury and to evaluate the association between functional independence and physical capacity. Design: Multi-centre prospective cohort study. Subjects: Patients with spinal cord injury admitted for initial

  15. Redox Conditions and Related Color Change in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments: IODP Site U1334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, W. E.; Gussone, N. C.; Hathorne, E. C.; Kimoto, K.; Delaney, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    This study was prompted by a 65 m thick brown-green color change in deep-sea sediments of IODP Site U1334 (0-38 Ma, 4799 m water depth) that corresponds to its equatorial crossing (caused by the Northward movement of the pacific plate). Green sediment is a visual indicator of reducing conditions in sediment due to enhanced organic matter deposition and burial. Here we use geochemical redox indicators to characterize the effect of equatorial upwelling on bottom water. The modern redox signal is captured in porewater profiles (nitrate, manganese, iron, sulfate) while trace metal Enrichment Factors (EF) in bulk sediment (manganese, uranium, molybdenum, rhenium) normalized to the detrital component (titanium) record redox state at burial. To measure export productivity we also measure biogenic barium. Porewater profiles reveal suboxic diagenesis; profiles follow the expected sequence of nitrate, manganese oxide, and iron oxide reduction with increasing depth. Constant sulfate (~28 μM) implies anoxia has not occurred. Bulk sediment Mn EF are enriched (EF > 1) throughout the record (Mn EF = 15-200) while U and Mo enrichment corresponds to green color and equatorial proximity (U EF = 4-19; Mo EF = 0-7). Constant Mn enrichment implies continuous oxygenation. Uranium and Mo enrichment near the equator represents suboxic conditions also seen in the porewater. Low Re concentrations (below detection) provide additional evidence against anoxia. A comparison of Mn EF from total digestions to samples treated with an additional reductive cleaning step distinguishes between Mn-oxides and Mn-carbonates, indicating oxygenated and reducing conditions respectively. Mn-carbonate occurrence agrees with U and Mo EF; conditions were more reducing near the equator. Bio-Ba shows significant variability over this interval (22-99 mmol g-1). Our geochemical results indicate that bottom waters became suboxic at the equator as a result of equatorial upwelling-influenced increases in organic

  16. Nutritional modulation of IGF-1 in relation to growth and body condition in Sceloporus lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Christine A; Jetzt, Amanda E; Cohick, Wendie S; John-Alder, Henry B

    2015-05-15

    Nutrition and energy balance are important regulators of growth and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. However, our understanding of these functions does not extend uniformly to all classes of vertebrates and is mainly limited to controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards can be useful models to improve our understanding of the nutritional regulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis because many species are relatively easy to observe and manipulate both in the laboratory and in the field. In the present study, the effects of variation in food intake on growth, body condition, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA levels were measured in (1) juveniles of Sceloporus jarrovii maintained on a full or 1/3 ration and (2) hatchlings of Sceloporus undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. These parameters plus plasma IGF-1 were measured in a third experiment using adults of S. undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. In all experiments, plasma corticosterone was measured as an anticipated indicator of nutritional stress. In S. jarrovii, growth and body condition were reduced but lizards remained in positive energy balance on 1/3 ration, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA and plasma corticosterone were not affected in comparison to full ration. In S. undulatus, growth, body condition, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA, and plasma IGF-1 were all reduced by zero ration and restored by refeeding. Plasma corticosterone was increased in response to zero ration and restored by full ration in hatchlings but not adults of S. undulatus. These data indicate that lizards conform to the broader vertebrate model in which severe food deprivation and negative energy balance is required to attenuate systemic IGF-1 expression. However, when animals remain in positive energy balance, reduced food intake does not appear to affect systemic IGF-1. Consistent with other studies on lizards, the corticosterone response to reduced food intake is an unreliable indicator

  17. HOLSTEIN CATTLE REPRODUCTION IN RELATION ON MILK YIELD AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav MARŠÁLEK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic conditions of the economical success in milk production is the high and periodic reproduction of the cows. That means the parturition of a healthy calf from every cow per a year. The development and level of reproduction functions is very susceptible to the quantity and mainly quality of nutrition. The insuffi ciency in nutrition is strongly related to the fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproduction indicators depending upon the level of the milk yield and body condition of the Holstein cows at the family-owned farm. The basic dataset was obtained during the years 2004 – 2007. The milk yield and fertility data were gained from the herd records. The extreme values were removed from the basic set. Body condition score was evaluated every month. The groups according to the milk yield level and body condition score were evaluated. The basic statistical characteristics were determined in the groups of cows and in the evaluated sets. The effect of particular factors was proved by the one-factorial analysis of variance ANOVA. Increasing milk yield in the groups with milk yield up to 7000 kg of milk, 7000-8000 kg and more than 8000 kg had negative impact on the reproduction indicators. The differences in the length of calving to fififi rst service interval among particular groups were statistically signifififi cant (P ≥ 0.01. The average length of this interval was 96, 111 and 122 days for 1st, 2nd and 3rd group, respectively. In addition, the average length of calving to conception (service period interval was 154, 165 and 171 days. There were found no signifi cant differences in numbers of services per conception. The average BCS at calving was 3.59 points. After calving BCS level decreased till the 6th month of lactation, where its level 2.43 points, then the BCS level increased. Average BCS level at conception was under 2.5 points. The variation of BCS during the lactation was 2 points.

  18. The relative and absolute reliability of the Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale in community-dwelling frail elderly Japanese people using long-term care insurance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takashi; Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Shuichiro

    2017-06-01

    The newly developed Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale is a tool for assessing the performance of basic activities of daily living in terms of both independence and difficulty. The reliability of this new scale has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to examine the relative reliability and absolute reliability of the newly developed scale in community-dwelling frail elderly people in Japan. Participants were 47 community-dwelling elderly subjects (22 for assessing test-retest reliability and 25 for assessing inter-rater reliability). As relative reliability indices, intra-class correlation coefficients were used. From an absolute reliability perspective, we conducted Bland-Altman analysis and calculated the limit of agreement or minimal detectable change to determine the acceptable range of error. Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest and inter-rater reliability were 0.90 (P reliability was -5.2 to 1.8, representing an increase of over six points for improvement and a decrease of over two points for decline of basic activities of daily living ability. The minimal detectable change for inter-rater reliability was 3.7, indicating that a three-point difference might be existed between difference raters. The results of this study demonstrated that the FIDS appeared to be a reliable instrument for use in Japanese community-dwelling frail elderly people. While further research using a large and more diverse sample of participants is needed, our findings support the use of FIDS in clinical practice or clinical research targeting frail elderly Japanese people.

  19. Quantum reversibility is relative, or does a quantum measurement reset initial conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech H

    2018-07-13

    I compare the role of the information in classical and quantum dynamics by examining the relation between information flows in measurements and the ability of observers to reverse evolutions. I show that in the Newtonian dynamics reversibility is unaffected by the observer's retention of the information about the measurement outcome. By contrast-even though quantum dynamics is unitary, hence, reversible-reversing quantum evolution that led to a measurement becomes, in principle, impossible for an observer who keeps the record of its outcome. Thus, quantum irreversibility can result from the information gain rather than just its loss-rather than just an increase of the (von Neumann) entropy. Recording of the outcome of the measurement resets, in effect, initial conditions within the observer's (branch of) the Universe. Nevertheless, I also show that the observer's friend-an agent who knows what measurement was successfully carried out and can confirm that the observer knows the outcome but resists his curiosity and does not find out the result-can, in principle, undo the measurement. This relativity of quantum reversibility sheds new light on the origin of the arrow of time and elucidates the role of information in classical and quantum physics. Quantum discord appears as a natural measure of the extent to which dissemination of information about the outcome affects the ability to reverse the measurement.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. The fat cover in gilts in relation to body condition and reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Matoušek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in a set of hybrid gilts of F1 generation of Czech Large White x Czech Landrace breeds coming from a multiplication herd. The objective of the study was to test a possibility of using the measured traits, i.e. backfat thickness (BT and lean meat content (LM, for objective determination of changes in the body condition score of gilts during rearing and in relation to their subsequent fertility in parities 1. At the ultrasonic measurement in the multiplication herd the purchased gilts showed the average daily gain (ADG from birth 612.5 g, average backfat thickness (ABT 8.34 mm, loin muscle depth (LMD 48.83 mm and LM 62.26%. At the first determination of own performance traits in a production herd the values of ABT, LMD and LM were 13.26 mm, D 59.29 mm and 58.83%, respectively. In a subsequent measurement (at the onset of standing heat the respective values of ABT, LMD and LM were 15.15 mm, 62.31 mm and 57.42%. Correlation coefficients for the measured traits of own performance in relation to reproductive traits in parities 1 were mostly low, statistically insignificant.

  1. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  2. Three new genetic loci (R1210C in CFH, variants in COL8A1 and RAD51B are independently related to progression to advanced macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Seddon

    Full Text Available To assess the independent impact of new genetic variants on conversion to advanced stages of AMD, controlling for established risk factors, and to determine the contribution of genes in predictive models.In this prospective longitudinal study of 2765 individuals, 777 subjects progressed to neovascular disease (NV or geographic atrophy (GA in either eye over 12 years. Recently reported genetic loci were assessed for their independent effects on incident advanced AMD after controlling for 6 established loci in 5 genes, and demographic, behavioral, and macular characteristics. New variants which remained significantly related to progression were then added to a final multivariate model to assess their independent effects. The contribution of genes to risk models was assessed using reclassification tables by determining risk within cross-classified quintiles for alternative models.THREE NEW GENETIC VARIANTS WERE SIGNIFICANTLY RELATED TO PROGRESSION: rare variant R1210C in CFH (hazard ratio (HR 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-5.3, P = 0.01, and common variants in genes COL8A1 (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.5, P = 0.02 and RAD51B (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.60-0.97, P = 0.03. The area under the curve statistic (AUC was significantly higher for the 9 gene model (.884 vs the 0 gene model (.873, P = .01. AUC's for the 9 vs 6 gene models were not significantly different, but reclassification analyses indicated significant added information for more genes, with adjusted odds ratios (OR for progression within 5 years per one quintile increase in risk score of 2.7, P<0.001 for the 9 vs 6 loci model, and OR 3.5, P<0.001 for the 9 vs. 0 gene model. Similar results were seen for NV and GA.Rare variant CFH R1210C and common variants in COL8A1 and RAD51B plus six genes in previous models contribute additional predictive information for advanced AMD beyond macular and behavioral phenotypes.

  3. Leprosy-related mortality in Brazil: a neglected condition of a neglected disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Assunção-Ramos, Adriana Valéria; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Wand-Del-Rey de Oliveira, Maria Leide; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-10-01

    Leprosy is a public health problem and a neglected condition of morbidity and mortality in several countries of the world. We analysed time trends and spatiotemporal patterns of leprosy-related mortality in Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study using secondary mortality data. We included all deaths that occurred in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which leprosy was mentioned in any field of death certificates. Leprosy was identified in 7732/12 491 280 deaths (0.1%). Average annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.43 deaths/100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 0.40-0.46). The burden of leprosy deaths was higher among males, elderly, black race/colour and in leprosy-endemic regions. Lepromatous leprosy was the most common clinical form mentioned. Mortality rates showed a significant nationwide decrease over the period (annual percent change [APC]: -2.8%; 95% CI -4.2 to -2.4). We observed decreasing mortality rates in the South, Southeast and Central-West regions, while the rates remained stable in North and Northeast regions. Spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk clusters for leprosy-related deaths were distributed mainly in highly endemic and socio-economically deprived regions. Leprosy is a neglected cause of death in Brazil since the disease is preventable, and a cost-effective treatment is available. Sustainable control measures should include appropriate management and systematic monitoring of leprosy-related complications, such as severe leprosy reactions and adverse effects to multidrug therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Age-related alterations of brain network underlying the retrieval of emotional autobiographical memories: An fMRI study using independent component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyang eGe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging has been shown to modulate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and emotion processing. Moreover, previous researches have suggested that aging produces a positivity effect in autobiographical memory. Although a few imaging studies have investigated the neural mechanism of the positivity effect, the neural substrates underlying the positivity effect in emotional autobiographical memory is unclear. To understand the age-related neural changes in emotional autobiographical memory that underlie the positivity effect, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study used the independent component analysis (ICA method to compare brain networks in younger and older adults as they retrieved positive and negative autobiographical events. Compared to their younger counterparts, older adults reported relatively higher positive feelings when retrieving emotional autobiographical events. Imaging data indicated an age-related reversal within the ventromedial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (VMPFC/ACC and the left amygdala of the brain networks that were engaged in the retrieval of autobiographical events with different valence. The retrieval of negative events compared to positive events induced stronger activity in the VMPFC/ACC and weaker activity in the amygdala for the older adults, whereas the younger adults showed a reversed pattern. Moreover, activity in the VMPFC/ACC within the task-related networks showed a negative correlation with the emotional valence intensity. These results may suggest that the positivity effect in older adults’ autobiographical memories is potentially due to age-related changes in controlled emotional processing implemented by the VMPFC/ACC-amygdala circuit.

  5. Relations of Change in Condition Severity and School Self-Concept To Change in Achievement-Related Behavior in Children with Asthma or Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Thomas J.; Austin, Joan K.; Huster, Gertrude A.; Dunn, David W.

    2000-01-01

    Explores relation of gender, change in condition of severity, and change in school self-concept, to change in teachers' ratings of academic-related behaviors in children with asthma or epilepsy. Tests showed that these children were near population mean in academic-related behaviors, except students with high-severity epilepsy. (Author/JDM)

  6. Microbial communities related to volatile organic compound emission in automobile air conditioning units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2013-10-01

    During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded.

  7. Work-related thumb disorders in South African physiotherapists treating musculoskeletal conditions using manual therapy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Jenkins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of and factors associated with work-related thumb problems (WRTP in South African physiotherapists treating musculoskeletal conditions using manual therapy techniques? Design: A cross-sectional, descriptive study design was used and data were collected using two Internet-based questionnaires. Participants: The sample size calculated for the study was 284 using 95% confidence levels and a 5% margin of error. There were 395 participants that were included in the study. Outcome measures: The variables measured included demographic, employment, educational and occupational factors. Results: The lifetime prevalence of WRTP in the physiotherapists was 65.3%. The manual techniques that were significantly associated with WRTP in the respondents who reported thumb problems were all grades of transverse glides applied to the spine as well as grade II–IV unilateral and central posterior-anterior pressures to the spine. The factors that remained significantly associated with WRTP in all 395 respondents after regression analysis were the cervical treatment of up to six patients a day and hyperextension > 30° of the non-dominant interphalangeal (IP joint of the thumb. Conclusion: This study confirms that a high percentage of physiotherapists using manual therapy techniques to treat musculoskeletal conditions are experiencing WRTP. Recommendations: The development of a valid and reliable WRTP screening tool is needed to aid in the identification of physiotherapists at risk and thus in the primary prevention of WRTP. A longitudinal study which follows newly qualified physiotherapists is recommended to investigate a possible cause-effect relationship and preventative strategies for WRTP in physiotherapists.

  8. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Shulei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs). Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2)>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2)>10%) were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918) involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE) and germination percentage (GP), and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440) that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360) mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  9. Evaluation of operational numerical weather predictions in relation to the prevailing synoptic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Karacostas, Theodore; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Kartsios, Stergios; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    The Thessaly plain, which is located in central Greece, has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The aim of DAPHNE project (http://www.daphne-meteo.gr) is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification in convective clouds. This problem is reinforced by the increase of population and the water demand for irrigation, especially during the warm period of the year. The nonhydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), is utilized for research and operational purposes of DAPHNE project. The WRF output fields are employed by the partners in order to provide high-resolution meteorological guidance and plan the project's operations. The model domains cover: i) Europe, the Mediterranean sea and northern Africa, ii) Greece and iii) the wider region of Thessaly (at selected periods), at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km, respectively, using 2-way telescoping nesting. The aim of this research work is to investigate the model performance in relation to the prevailing upper-air synoptic circulation. The statistical evaluation of the high-resolution operational forecasts of near-surface and upper air fields is performed at a selected period of the operational phase of the project using surface observations, gridded fields and weather radar data. The verification is based on gridded, point and object oriented techniques. The 10 upper-air circulation types, which describe the prevailing conditions over Greece, are employed in the synoptic classification. This methodology allows the identification of model errors that occur and/or are maximized at specific synoptic conditions and may otherwise be obscured in aggregate statistics. Preliminary analysis indicates that the largest errors are associated with cyclonic conditions. Acknowledgments This research work of Daphne project (11SYN_8_1088) is co-funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund

  10. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanping Han

    Full Text Available High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs. Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2>10% were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918 involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE and germination percentage (GP, and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440 that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360 mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  11. Postnatal liver growth and regeneration are independent of c-myc in a mouse model of conditional hepatic c-myc deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Jennifer A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor c-myc regulates genes involved in hepatocyte growth, proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation. It has also been assigned roles in liver development and regeneration. In previous studies, we made the unexpected observation that c-Myc protein levels were similar in proliferating fetal liver and quiescent adult liver with c-Myc displaying nucleolar localization in the latter. In order to investigate the functional role of c-Myc in adult liver, we have developed a hepatocyte-specific c-myc knockout mouse, c-mycfl/fl;Alb-Cre. Results Liver weight to body weight ratios were similar in control and c-myc deficient mice. Liver architecture was unaffected. Conditional c-myc deletion did not result in compensatory induction of other myc family members or in c-Myc's binding partner Max. Floxed c-myc did have a negative effect on Alb-Cre expression at 4 weeks of age. To explore this relationship further, we used the Rosa26 reporter line to assay Cre activity in the c-myc floxed mice. No significant difference in Alb-Cre activity was found between control and c-mycfl/fl mice. c-myc deficient mice were studied in a nonproliferative model of liver growth, fasting for 48 hr followed by a 24 hr refeeding period. Fasting resulted in a decrease in liver mass and liver protein, both of which recovered upon 24 h of refeeding in the c-mycfl/fl;Alb-Cre animals. There was also no effect of reducing c-myc on recovery of liver mass following 2/3 partial hepatectomy. Conclusions c-Myc appears to be dispensable for normal liver growth during the postnatal period, restoration of liver mass following partial hepatectomy and recovery from fasting.

  12. Properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Raj; Mendiratta, S K; Mane, B G

    2013-04-01

    The properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat meat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions were evaluated. The conditions evaluated were: cooking of meat within 1-2 h post-slaughter (condition 1); deboning meat storage at 25 ± 2 °C for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 2); post-slaughter storage of carcass at room temperature for 5-6 h, then deboning followed by storage of meat at refrigeration temperature for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 3); deboning and storage of meat at 25 ± 2 °C for 10-12 h and cooking (condition 4). Significant difference was observed in pH values in condition 1 (p meat as compared to the conditions 2, 3 and 4. However, the moisture content of cooked meat was significantly higher (p meat chunks, that is, the mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for condition 2 and significantly lower for condition 1. Sensory scores were significantly higher in condition 1 and significantly lower in condition 2. However, sensory scores for condition 4 were almost similar to the condition 1.

  13. Exploring the relation between teachers’ perceptions of workplace conditions and their professional learning goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    2017-01-01

    Schools’ structural workplace conditions (e.g. learning resources and professional development policies) and cultural workplace conditions (e.g. school leadership, teachers’ collaborative culture) have been found to affect the way teachers learn. It is not so much the objective conditions that

  14. Exploring the Relation between Teachers' Perceptions of Workplace Conditions and Their Professional Learning Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    2017-01-01

    Schools' structural workplace conditions (e.g. learning resources and professional development policies) and cultural workplace conditions (e.g. school leadership, teachers' collaborative culture) have been found to affect the way teachers learn. It is not so much the objective conditions that support or impede professional learning but the way…

  15. Association of personality traits with oral health-related quality of life independently of objective oral health status: a study of community-dwelling elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hajime; Ikebe, Kazunori; Kagawa, Ryosuke; Okada, Tadashi; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Ishioka, Yoshiko; Inomata, Chisato; Tada, Sayaka; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Kurushima, Yuko; Enoki, Kaori; Kamide, Kei; Masui, Yukie; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Arai, Yasumichi; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-03-01

    Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is being increasingly used in epidemiologic studies of dentistry. However, patient-reported OHRQoL does not always coincide with clinical measures. Previous studies have shown a relationship between OHRQoL and personality, but did not concomitantly investigate oral function. We aimed to examine the association among personality traits, oral function, and OHRQoL using a large sample of community-dwelling Japanese elderly. The participants (n = 938; age, 69-71 years) were drawn from a complete enumeration of an urban area and a rural area of both the Tokyo metropolitan area and Hyogo Prefecture. The self-perceived impact of OHRQoL was measured using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The oral status and socioeconomic characteristics were recorded in each participant, and personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) were assessed with the NEO-five-factor inventory. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between OHRQoL and other factors, with p Personality traits are associated with OHRQoL independently of objective measures of oral health status in community-dwelling elderly Japanese. This study showed personality traits are associated with OHRQoL independently of dental status and oral function in old Japanese people. As elderly patients undergo increasingly complex dental treatments, there is a need to evaluate patient personality traits prior to dental treatment and predict patient expectations and responses to planned treatment. This is advantageous in determining the most appropriate therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis and sclerosing cholangitis independent of autoimmune pancreatitis. A recurrent case after a 5-year history of spontaneous remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hideaki; Miyachi, Yasutaka

    2009-07-06

    A new clinicopathological concept of IgG4-related sclerosing disease affecting various organs has recently been proposed in relation to autoimmune pancreatitis. This report describes the case of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis and sclerosing cholangitis independent of autoimmune pancreatitis, which recurred after a long period of spontaneous remission. An 80-year-old Japanese man presented with obstructive jaundice owing to a hepatic hilum bile duct stricture. Coincidentally, a soft tissue mass surrounding the abdominal aorta, suggesting retroperitoneal fibrosis, was identified. Unexpectedly, spontaneous regression of obstructive jaundice together with retroperitoneal fibrosis occurred. The presence of high serum IgG4 concentrations measured later led us to consider a possible association with autoimmune pancreatitis; however, there were no clinical features confirming autoimmune pancreatitis. After a 5-year history of spontaneous clinical remission, there was an elevation of serum IgG4 levels and renal dysfunction owing to bilateral hydronephrosis caused by a reemergence of the retroperitoneal mass. Evaluation by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a biliary stricture, suggesting sclerosing cholangitis which was observed without the presence of any pancreatic duct abnormality. The subsequent excellent results obtained using steroid therapy, namely the decrease in serum IgG4 levels and the regression of the retroperitoneal mass, strongly suggested that the present case was an IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Aside from high serum IgG4 concentrations, markedly elevated levels of serum IgE was found retrospectively, although the clinical significance remains unknown. When we encounter fibrotic diseases of unknown etiology, we should measure serum IgG4 concentrations and monitor the disease activity over long periods even after achieving clinical remission.

  17. Abortion and sex-related conditions in substance-dependent Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Diehl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Abortion is a very sensitive issue with relevance to public health; however few clinical or population-based studies have examined induced abortion among drug users. The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of induced abortion and sex-related conditions in an inpatient drug user sample. A cross-sectional design study was conducted in an inpatient addiction treatment unit in São Paulo, Brazil, with a sample of 616 patients, aged 18-75. Sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, and dependence severity were evaluated in relation to induced abortion. Approximately 27% of patients reported having a history of abortion (themselves in the case of women or partners in the case of men. The mean age was 34.6±10.9 years old, 34.9% diagnosed with severe alcohol dependence, 33% were diagnosed with severe levels of dependence on other drugs, 69.6% were diagnosed cocaine users (inhaled and smoked, and alcohol was the drug of choice for 30.4%. Chances of having a history of abortion is greater for women than for men with a odds ratio (OR = 2.9; 95%CI: 1.75-4.76, (OR = 1.7; 95%CI: 1.09-2.75 of no condom use; (OR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.35-3.23 of history of STI and (OR = 3.2; 95%CI: 1.29-5.73 use of morning-after pill. Drug- and alcohol-dependent patients have high-risk behaviours of sporadic use or no-condom use which contribute to unplanned pregnancy and induced abortion, making this vulnerable population a group which deserves special attention in sexual health prevention programmes and health promotion efforts for the reduction of induced abortion.

  18. Cyprininae phylogeny revealed independent origins of the Tibetan Plateau endemic polyploid cyprinids and their diversifications related to the Neogene uplift of the plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Gan, Xiaoni; Li, Junbing; Chen, Yiyu; He, Shunping

    2016-11-01

    Origin and diversification of the Tibetan polyploid cyprinids (schizothoracins) may help us to explore relationships between diversification of the cyprinids and the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Cyprininae phylogeny was analyzed using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to trace origins of polyploidy and diversifications of schizothoracins. Ancestral states reconstruction for ploidy levels indicated that the Cyprininae was diploid origin and the schizothoracin clades tetraploid origins. There were two diversification rate shifts along with diversification of the cyprinine fishes in response to the Tibetan uplift. The unusual diversification shifts were located to branches subtending the clades of Tibetan polyploid cyprinids. Our analyses suggested that (i) phylogeny of Cyprininae recovered two independent origins of the Tibetan polyploidy schizothoracins; (ii) diversifications of the schizothoracins were closely related to the Neogene uplift of the Tibetan plateau in the following ways: the relatively ancient Late Oligocene-Middle Miocene adaptive radiation may be associated with the uplift of the southern Tibet and Himalaya; the Middle Miocene-Early Pleistocene lineage-specific diversification broadly coincident with major phase of the Neogene Tibetan uplift; and the most recent Pleistocene diversification shift in Schizothorax closely coincident with the successive Kunlun-Huanghe and Gonghe movements of the Tibetan uplift and the glaciation-induced climate oscillations on the plateau.

  19. Pou1f1, the key transcription factor related to somatic growth in tilapia (Orechromis niloticus), is regulated by two independent post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongfang; Qin, Jingkai; Jia, Jirong; Yan, Peipei; Li, Wensheng

    2017-01-29

    This study aims to determine the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism of the transcription factor pou1f1 (pou class 1 homeobox 1), which is the key gene for pituitary development, somatic growth in vertebrates, and transcription of several hormone genes in teleost fish. MicroRNA miR-223-3p was identified as a bona fide target of pou1f; overexpression of miR-223-3p in primary pituitary cells led to the down-regulation of pou1f1 and downstream genes, and inhibition of miR-223-3p led to the up-regulation of pou1f1 in Nile tilapia dispersed primary pituitary cells. An adenylate-uridylate-rich element (AU-Rich element) was found in the 3'UTR of pou1f1 mRNA, and deletion of the AU-Rich element led to slower mRNA decay and therefore more protein output. A potential mutual relationship between miR-223-3p and the AU-rich element was also investigated, and the results demonstrated that with or without the AU-Rich element, miR-223-3p induced the up-regulation of a reporter system under serum starvation conditions, indicating that miR-223-3p and the AU-Rich element function independent of each other. This study is the first to investigate the post-transcriptional mechanism of pou1f1, which revealed that miR-223-3p down-regulated pou1f1 and downstream gene expressions, and the AU-Rich element led to rapid decay of pou1f1 mRNA. MicroRNA miR-223-3p and the AU-Rich element co-regulated the post-transcriptional expression of pou1f1 independently in Nile tilapia, demonstrating that pou1f1 is under the control of a dual post-transcription regulation mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Combining ability studies on yield related traits in wheat under normal and water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, A.; Khan, A.S.; Khaliq, I.

    2010-01-01

    Six diverse wheat cultivars/lines viz; Baviacore, Nesser, 9247, 9252, 9258 and 9267 were crossed in a complete diallel fashion to develop 30 F1 crosses, which were tested along with their parents under normal and water stress conditions. Numerical analysis was made for spike density, number of grains per spike, 100-grain weight, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index. Significant differences among genotypic mean were observed in all of the traits under both conditions. GCA and SCA differences were significant for all the traits under study except spike density and 100-grain weight in both conditions. Wheat variety Nesser showed maximum general combining ability value for spike density under water stress conditions and maximum GCA value for biological yield and grain yield under irrigated condition. The variety Baviacore proved best general combiner for number of grains per spike and harvest index under both conditions while biological yield and grain yield under water stress condition. Variety 9252 found best general combiner for 100-grain weight under both condition. The cross 9252 x Nesser showed maximum specific combining ability value for spike density and biological yield under irrigated while for 100-grain weight under water stress condition. 9258 x 9252 exhibited maximum SCA for number of grains per spike under irrigated while 9258 x Nesser under water stress condition. 9267 x Nesser showed maximum SCA for 100-grain weight under irrigated condition while spike density under water stress condition. 9258 x 9247 was proved best combiner for grain yield and harvest index irrigated while 9267 x 9258 for biological yield, grain yield and harvest index under water stress condition. (author)

  1. 18 September 2012 - PD Dr. med. Andreas Trojan Researcher, University of Zürich and Mr Marc Forster Independant Swiss Movie Director Switzerland visiting the CMS underground area with Head of international Relations F. Pauss and CMS Collaboration Z. Szillasi.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    18 September 2012 - PD Dr. med. Andreas Trojan Researcher, University of Zürich and Mr Marc Forster Independant Swiss Movie Director Switzerland visiting the CMS underground area with Head of international Relations F. Pauss and CMS Collaboration Z. Szillasi.

  2. Geometrically motivated hyperbolic coordinate conditions for numerical relativity: Analysis, issues and implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bona, Carles; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela-Luque, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    We study the implications of adopting hyperbolic-driver coordinate conditions motivated by geometrical considerations. In particular, conditions that minimize the rate of change of the metric variables. We analyze the properties of the resulting system of equations and their effect when implementing excision techniques. We find that commonly used coordinate conditions lead to a characteristic structure at the excision surface where some modes are not of outflow type with respect to any excision boundary chosen inside the horizon. Thus, boundary conditions are required for these modes. Unfortunately, the specification of these conditions is a delicate issue as the outflow modes involve both gauge and main variables. As an alternative to these driver equations, we examine conditions derived from extremizing a scalar constructed from Killing's equation and present specific numerical examples

  3. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  4. 77 FR 24628 - World Trade Center Health Program Requirements for the Addition of New WTC-Related Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...; and a physician experienced with treating WTC-related health conditions requested that a mental... likely to be a significant factor in aggravating, contributing to, or causing the illness or condition... specified in the statute. We agree with commenters who pointed out that we neglected to specify a time frame...

  5. A study on the condition monitoring for safety-related electric cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Hwan; Ahn, S. P.; Yeo, S. M.; Kang, Y. S.; Ahn, S. M.; Kim, I. S.; Kim, D. S.; Kang, J. S. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this report, we have studied compositions and characteristics of various types of insulation material for cables in Nuclear Power Plant. We arrange relationship with condition monitoring methods. Also, we propose new condition monitoring method using third harmonic frequency. We test the proposed method with CV cables. We also describe about feature of condition monitoring such as application, theory, characteristic, thereby other engineer can confirm to advantage and disadvantage for each method, and possibly choice adequate condition monitoring method for various types of cables.

  6. Study of the relations between cloud properties and atmospheric conditions using ground-based digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, Kalinka

    The aerosol constituents of the earth atmosphere are of great significance for the radiation budget and global climate of the planet. They are the precursors of clouds that in turn play an essential role in these processes and in the hydrological cycle of the Earth. Understanding the complex aerosol-cloud interactions requires a detailed knowledge of the dynamical processes moving the water vapor through the atmosphere, and of the physical mechanisms involved in the formation and growth of cloud particles. Ground-based observations on regional and short time scale provide valuable detailed information about atmospheric dynamics and cloud properties, and are used as a complementary tool to the global satellite observations. The objective of the present paper is to study the physical properties of clouds as displayed in ground-based visible images, and juxtapose them to the specific surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions. The observations are being carried out over the urban area of the city of Sofia, Bulgaria. The data obtained from visible images of clouds enable a quantitative description of texture and morphological features of clouds such as shape, thickness, motion, etc. These characteristics are related to cloud microphysical properties. The changes of relative humidity and the horizontal visibility are considered to be representative of the variations of the type (natural/manmade) and amount of the atmospheric aerosols near the earth surface, and potentially, the cloud drop number concentration. The atmospheric dynamics is accounted for by means of the values of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind velocity, etc., observed at the earth's surface. The advantage of ground-based observations of clouds compared to satellite ones is in the high spatial and temporal resolution of the obtained data about the lowermost cloud layer, which in turn is sensitive to the meteorological regimes that determine cloud formation and evolution. It turns out

  7. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; St Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  8. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn D Rode

    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013 when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia, highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  9. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740 was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years. The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively or alcohol (moderate or high (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health.

  10. INDEPENDENSI HAKIM AD-HOC PADA LINGKUNGAN PERADILAN HUBUNGAN INDUSTRIAL / THE JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE OF AD-HOC JUDGES IN INDUSTRIAL RELATION COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishar Helmi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Undang-Undang PPHI mengatur asas penyelesaian perselisihan hubungan industrial dilakukan secara musyawarah mufakat, dengan berprinsip jika terjadi perselisihan antara pekerja/buruh dan pengusaha maka tahap pertama penyelesaian perselisihan tersebut diserahkan pada pihak yang berselisih (bipartit. Ketentuan Pasal 63 ayat (2 dan Pasal 67 ayat (1 huruf f Undang-Undang tersebut mengakibatkan hakim ad-hoc Pengadilan Hubungan Industrial, dalam menjalankan tugas dan tanggung jawabnya memeriksa dan memutus suatu perkara harus mandiri dan lepas dari segala bentuk intervensi lembaga/instansi manapun menjadi terbatasi dan tidak optimal. Hakim ad-hoc Peradilan Hubungan Industrial merupakan hakim yang diusulkan oleh serikat pekerja/serikat buruh, organisasi pengusaha, juga diberhentikan secara hormat oleh serikat pekerja/serikat buruh, organisasi pengusaha tersebut. Hal ini tentunya akan menciderai sistem peradilan yang bebas, tidak memihak dan bersih yang diimpikan karena para hakim akan dikuasai oleh para pihak yang berperkara, karena keberadaan hakim diangkat dan diberhentikan oleh pihak yang akan disidangkan di peradilan hubungan industrial tersebut. PPHI (Industrial Relations Disputes Settlement Act regulates the principle of settlement of industrial relations disputes by consensus, if there is a dispute between employee/workers and employers, the first stage of dispute settlement shall be submitted to disputing party (bipartite settlement. The provisions of Article 63 paragraph (2 and Article 67 paragraph (1 sub-paragraph f of the Act shall result in the ad-hoc judges of the Industrial Relations Court, in carrying out their duties and responsibilities to examine and decide a case shall be independent and kept away from any intervention of any institution. The ad-hoc judges of the Industrial Relations Court is a judge proposed by a trade union, employers organization, also dismissed respectfully by the trade union and the employers organization. This

  11. Sewage sludge hydrochars: properties and agronomic impact as related to different production conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Aragón, Carlos; Kern, Jürgen; Conte, Pellegrino; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The huge amount of sewage sludge (SS) generated in wastewater treatment plants all over the world represents an environmental problem. Due to the high concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen in SS as well as other macro and micro nutrients it has been considered a suitable soil amendment. However, before being applied to soil a complete sterilization and elimination of pollutants should be carried out [1]. In this context, thermal treatments appear as a convenient methodology for producing SS byproducts useful for agronomic purposes. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a kind of pyrolysis characterized by the heating of the biomass in presence of water. This process shows an advantage compared to other thermal treatments for wet residues since dryness of the biomass prior to the thermal transformation is not necessary. The solid product which results from HTC is called hydrochar and it has been suggested to increase soil productivity [2]. However, the agronomic potential of hydrochars depends on the feedstock and production conditions. Additionally, possible toxic and risks have to be carefully evaluated. Thus, SS hydrochars appear as a potential soil amendment but further scientific research is needed to find its real capacity, optimal production conditions as well as possible environmental harmful effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate which are the most suitable production conditions, to transform SS into hydrochar. An additional goal of this work was to relate the hydrochars properties to its agronomic response. Therefore, hydrochars were produced from SS collected from the Experimental Wastewater Treatment plant of CENTA (http://www.centa.es/), located in Carrion de los Cespedes (Seville), under two different temperatures (200 and 260˚C) and residence times (30 min and 1h). With the hydrochars obtained, a greenhouse pot incubation study was carried out for 80 days. The pots contained 250 g of a Calcic Cambisol (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2007) and an

  12. Promoting Independent Performance of Transition-Related Tasks Using a Palmtop PC-Based Self-Directed Visual and Auditory Prompting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Laura A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Lattimore, Jennifer; Davies, Daniel; Stock, Steven; Fisher, Sherilyn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the use of a palmtop computer running a software program by transition-age students with cognitive disabilities to increase independence on vocational and independent living tasks. The purpose of this research was to test the hypotheses that a palmtop computer utilizing a Windows CE platform with touch screen capabilities and…

  13. Emotional but not physical maltreatment is independently related to psychopathology in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety: a web-based internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffland, Benjamin; Sansen, Lisa M; Catani, Claudia; Neuner, Frank

    2012-05-25

    Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N = 995) who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.

  14. Prolonged Response and Restoration of Functional Independence with Bevacizumab plus Vinorelbine as Third-Line Treatment for Breast Cancer-Related Leptomeningeal Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Le Rhun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survival of patients with leptomeningeal metastases (LM and impaired functional status is limited to several months, and rarely does neurological function improve with treatment. Case Report: A 34-year-old female with hormone-negative and HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer was diagnosed with bulky radiographic LM 45 months after initial diagnosis. She was treated with intra-CSF trastuzumab followed by intra-CSF liposomal cytarabine; however, the cancer progressed 8 months after the diagnosis of LM. At the time of the third LM progression, the patient presented with a cauda equina syndrome and cerebellar impairment resulting in an inability to walk. She was treated with CNS-directed radiotherapy (lumbosacral and cerebellar and bevacizumab plus vinorelbine. Rapid functional improvement occurred, and the patient regained the ability to walk and independently manage her daily activities. Twelve months later, she presented with rapid progression of the LM resulting in death within several weeks. Conclusion: In radiographically defined bulky LM, the combination of systemic therapy and CNS-directed radiotherapy likely is more active than intra-CSF therapy only. In lieu of the rapid and significant improvement in neurological function combined with the prolonged response, bevacizumab alone or in combination with chemotherapy and CNS-directed radiotherapy may be considered in select patients with radiographically bulky breast cancer-related LM.

  15. Moulding Interpersonal Relations through Conditional Clauses: Consensus-Building Strategies in Written Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchal, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interpersonal potential of the conditional clause as a rhetorical device for establishing a dialogue between the author and the reader of an academic text in search for shared understanding and consensus. It presents a corpus-based analysis of functions conditional clauses play in linguistics research articles in an…

  16. Catalogue of systems for the monitoring of working conditions relating to health and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, R.; Verboon, F.

    1991-01-01

    In this Catalogue a number of systems or instruments for Monitoring Working Conditions and workers Health and Safety have been described. The general aim of the project was three-fold: - to obtain an overall assessment of the existing instruments for identifying risk factors and working conditions

  17. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schiöth, H B

    2016-11-01

    In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese and normal-weight females, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations were measured in the morning following an overnight fast in 17 obese (age: 39±11 years, body mass index (BMI): 42.3±4.8 kg m - 2 ) and 12 normal-weight females (age: 36±12 years, BMI: 22.7±1.8 kg m - 2 ), both before and 30 min after consumption of a standardized meal (~260 kcal). Compared with normal-weight controls, obese females had increased low-frequency activity in clusters located in the putamen, claustrum and insula (Pfood intake. Self-reported hunger dropped and plasma glucose concentrations increased after food intake (Pfood intake under the experimental settings applied in the current study. Future studies involving males and females, as well as utilizing repeated post-prandial resting-state fMRI scans and various types of meals are needed to further investigate how food intake alters resting-state brain activity in obese humans.

  18. Study related to the generation of the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oklah, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we will answer on the following question: Are there any conditions on the chemical potential and temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when generating the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas, and will the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas be a Gibbs-process. The study shows that there should be no conditions on the chemical potential and thermodynamical temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when we generate the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas except that the fundamental conditions, the chemical potential is negative and the inverse temperature is positive. Thus the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas may only be a Gibbs-process, in the special case when the thermodynamical temperature of the ideal BOSE gas tends to the absolute zero. (author)

  19. Climate related trends and meteorological conditions in European Arctic region - Porsanger fjord, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has significant effect on the Arctic environment, where global trends are amplified. In this study, we have focused on the Porsanger fjord, located in European Arctic in the coastal region of the Barents Sea. We have analyzed climate related trends and meteorological condititions in the area of interest. Meteorological data included wind speed and direction, air temperature (AT) and precipitation from Era-Interim reanalysis (1986-2015) and local observations (1996-2015) from Lakselv (L, fjord's head area) and Honningsvaag (H - fjord's exit area). Our results confirm that this region is undergoing climate change related warming, which is indicated by rising air temperatures. Based on long-term reanalysis data, estimated trends for air temperature (AT) in Porsanger fjord are: 0.0536 °C year-1 at fjord's exit and 0.0428 °C year-1 at fjord's head. The results show that climate change does not seem to have a significant effect on long-term changes of wind speed and precipitation in the Porsanger fjord. Statistical analysis underlined significant spatial variability of meteorological conditions inside the fjord. For example, there are large differences in the annual cycle of AT with monthly mean January and July values of -8.4 and 12.6 °C in L and -2.5 and 10.1 °C in H. Dominant wind directions in Lakselv are S and SSE, while in Honningsvaag S and SSW directions prevail. Strong wind events (above 12 m s-1) are more frequent in H than in L. Annual cycle is characterized by stronger winds in winter and seasonality of wind direction. Precipitation for a given location can change by about 50% between years and varies spatially. Synoptic scale and within day variability are extremely intense in the area of interest. Air temperature and wind speed and direction can change dramatically in hours. In addition, regular patterns of the daily cycle of AT have different intensity in L and H. It is interesting to note that in spring/summer season, the daily cycle of

  20. Sized-related changes in winter condition of male calves in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Helle

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Size-related changes in body condition of free-ranging male calves of semi-domesticated reindeer were studied in northern Finland from October 1983 to February 1984. In October-November, back fat depth or muscle fat percent correlated positively with the body size (=back length. In January, the highest means especially for muscle fat percent were found among medium-sized calves. Carcass weight and weight/back length ratio correlated positively with size, excluding February sample, where correlation for carcass weight was non-significant and for weight/back length ratio negative. Weight in the autumn correlated negatively with weight in February. Therefore, normalizing selection for body size (working against small and large phenotypes is expected to occur in late winter. Small calves may be at greater mortality risk because of lower initial body reserves. Large calves commonly disperse during the rutting season and they may suffer most from increased food competition later in winter. Using of medium-sized calves for breeding might be the safest policy on ranges characterized by short food supply and difficult snow conditions.Koon vaikutus poron urosvasojen talviseen kuntoon.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: Koon vaikutusta vapaana laiduntavien poron urosvasojen kuntoon tutkittiin Pohjois-Suomessa loka-helmikuussa talvella 1983-84. Loka-marraskuussa selkärasvan paksuus tai lihaksen rasvaprosentti riippui vasan koosta ( = selän pituus. Tammikuussa sen sijaan lihaksen rasvaprosentti oli korkein keskikokoisilla vasoilla. Ruhopaino sekä ruhopaino/selän pituus oli yleensa riippuvainen koosta. Helmikuussa ruhopainon riippuvuus koosta ei ollut enää tilastollisesti merkitsevä, ja koon ja ruhopainon/selänpituuden välinen korrelaatio oli negatiivinen. Eniten painoa menettivät (% loka-helmikuun välillä suurikokoisimmat vasat. Havainnot viittaavat siihen, että talvella esiintyvä kuolleisuus on normalisoivaa koon suhteen (karsii pieniä ja

  1. Health-related quality of life and working conditions on public transport workers in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Assunção, Ada Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Drivers and conductors working in public transport are frequently exposed to inadequate working conditions and consequently to health problems relating to their work activities. This study investigates the relationship between the working conditions of drivers and conductors in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte and their perception of health-related quality of life. Health-related quality of life was measured in a sample of 1,607 public transport workers in the city of Belo Horizonte using the SF-12 (Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey). The presence and magnitude of independent associations between the SF-12 domains and the exposure variables were determined by means of odds ratios obtained through logistic regression. After adjustments, the PCS (Physical Component Score) was found to be negatively associated with the existence of breaks during the working day and positively associated with unavailability of technical resources for meeting needs. The MCS (Mental Component Score) was positively associated with being female, having two or more medical diagnoses of illnesses, absenteeism and recent episodes of aggression or threats, and feeling vibration in the whole body. The MCS was negatively associated with the practice of physical exercise. Both components were negatively associated with older age and positively associated with having a poor self-assessment of health. Exposure to a variety of risk factors while performing work worsened health-related quality of life. The results obtained may provide support for rethinking and guiding public policies directed towards metropolitan populations.

  2. [Chronic health conditions related to quality of life for federal civil servants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Luciana Eduardo Fernandes; Medeiros, Lays Pinheiro de; Melo, Marjorie Dantas Medeiros; Tiburcio, Manuela Pinto; Costa, Isabelle Katherinne Fernandes; Torres, Gilson de Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to correlate the QOL domains of the civil servants to the type and number of chronic health conditions. A transversal, quantitative study, conducted at the Department of Civil Servant Assistance of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte with 215 civil servants, during the period from March to May 2011. Among the chronic health conditions studied, there was significant relationship between non-communicable chronic disease and QOL scores, correlating weakly (r civil servants is negatively influenced by chronic health conditions, compromising, in general, their daily work and life activities.

  3. Hyperimitation of Actions Is Related to Reduced Understanding of Others' Minds in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spengler, S.; Bird, G.; Brass, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Anecdotal evidence has noted that individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) frequently exhibit heightened spontaneous imitative behavior, with symptoms of echolalia and echopraxia. This is contrasted by empiric reports that ASC results in decreased imitation and an underlying

  4. The Relation of Theory and Analysis in Explanations of Belief Salience: Conditioning, Displacement, and Constructivist Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia, Jesse G.; O'Keefe, Daniel J.

    1977-01-01

    Advocates according a central role to context-relevant beliefs in the operation of attitudinal saliency through contrasting Delia et al's cognitive-constructivist analysis with Cronen and Conville's operant conditioning and aggression displacement accounts. (Author)

  5. Achieving compliance with environmental health-related land use planning conditions in Hong Kong: perspectives from traditional motivation theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Rita Li Yi

    2009-11-01

    Environmental health-related land use planning conditions can enhance the environment in Hong Kong. Previous research by others has shown, however, that a lack of compliance with planning conditions often occurs. And as no direct enforcement of planning conditions exists in Hong Kong, it is of interest to understand possible ways in which to increase the motivation of land developers and property owners to comply with planning conditions. The author looked at motivation from the perspective of three traditional motivation theories: Theory X, Theory Y, and incentive theory. While the majority of this article focuses on the enforcement and the legal tests in land use planning conditions, it also presents the results of the first study of the motivations behind Hong Kong land developers to comply with land use planning conditions.

  6. Boards: Independent and Committed Directors?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Volonté

    2011-01-01

    Regulators, proxy advisors and shareholders are regularly calling for independent directors. However, at the same time, independent directors commonly engage in numerous outside activities potentially reducing their time and commitment with the particular firm. Using Tobin's Q as an approximation of market valuation and controlling for endogeneity, our empirical analysis reveals that neither is independence positively related to firm performance nor are outside activities negatively related t...

  7. Physical Health Conditions Associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in U.S. Older Adults: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may increase risk for medical conditions in older adults. We present findings on past-year medical conditions associated with lifetime trauma exposure, and full and partial PTSD, in a nationally representative sample of U.S. older adults. Design, Setting, Participants, and Measurements Face-to-face diagnostic interviews were conducted with 9,463 adults aged 60 and older in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographics and psychiatric comorbidity evaluated associations between PTSD status and past-year medical disorders; linear regression models evaluated associations with past-month physical functioning. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid lifetime mood, anxiety, substance use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and personality disorders, respondents with lifetime PTSD were more likely than trauma controls to report being diagnosed by a healthcare professional with hypertension, angina pectoris, tachycardia, other heart disease, stomach ulcer, gastritis, and arthritis (odds ratios [ORs]=1.3–1.8); they also scored lower on a measure of physical functioning than controls and respondents with partial PTSD. Respondents with lifetime partial PTSD were more likely than controls to report past-year diagnoses of gastritis (OR=1.7), angina pectoris (OR=1.5), and arthritis (OR=1.4), and reported worse physical functioning. Number of lifetime traumatic event types was associated with most of the medical conditions assessed; adjustment for these events reduced the magnitudes of and rendered non-significant most associations between PTSD status and medical conditions. Conclusion Older adults with lifetime PTSD have elevated rates of several physical health conditions, many of which are chronic disorders of aging, and poorer physical functioning. Older adults with lifetime

  8. Independent technical review, handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  9. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  10. The effect of presenteeism-related health conditions on employee work engagement levels: A comparison between groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T. de Beer

    2014-10-01

    Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the differences in work engagement levels based on groups of presenteeism-related conditions in employees. Motivation for the study: Awareness of the impact of presenteeism-related conditions on work engagement levels can aid in the crafting of interventions to assist employees who suffer from these conditions, which in turn can boost work engagement levels. Research design, approach and method: Cross-sectional data was collected from an availability sample of employees in the manufacturing sector (N = 3387. Main findings: The results of the multi-group structural equation modelling revealed significant mean differences in work engagement levels between the groups. Practical significance tests revealed significant differences between all the groups. The largest difference was between the group who suffered from no presenteeism-related conditions and the group who suffered from all three conditions included in this study concurrently. Practical/managerial implications: Organisational stakeholders are encouraged to take note of the effects that presenteeism-related health conditions have on work engagement and to consider relevant strategies and interventions to address and alleviate symptoms in order to tend to employee health and obviate the effect on productivity. Contribution: This study found that there were clear practical differences between employees who suffer from the presenteeism-related conditions and those who suffer from none of the conditions. Furthermore, there was also a clear difference when comparing the ‘no condition’ group to a general random sample in which employees might experience some symptoms but not comorbidity.

  11. Body Mass Index Class Is Independently Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: An Institutional Registry-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Steinhaus, Michael E; Southren, Daniel L; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Dodwell, Emily R; Figgie, Mark P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients across World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index (BMI) classes before and after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Patients with end-stage hip osteoarthritis who received elective primary unilateral THA were identified through an institutional registry and categorized based on the World Health Organization BMI classification. Age, sex, laterality, year of surgery, and Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index were recorded. The primary outcome was the EQ-5D-3L index and visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) scores at 2 years postoperatively. Inferential statistics and regression analyses were performed to determine associations between BMI classes and HRQoL. EQ-5D-3L scores at baseline and at 2 years were statistically different across BMI classes, with higher EQ-VAS and index scores in patients with lower BMI. There was no difference observed for the 2-year change in EQ-VAS scores, but there was a statistically greater increase in index scores for more obese patients. In the regression analyses, there were statistically significant negative effect estimates for EQ-VAS and index scores associated with increasing BMI class. BMI class is independently associated with lower HRQoL scores 2 years after primary THA. While absolute scores in obese patients were lower than in nonobese patients, obese patients enjoyed more positive changes in EQ-5D index scores after THA. These results may provide the most detailed information on how BMI influences HRQoL before and after THA, and they are relevant to future economic decision analyses on the topic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein and male gender are independently related to the severity of coronary disease in patients with metabolic syndrome and an acute coronary event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.C. Monteiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with metabolic syndrome are at high-risk for development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to examine the major determinants of coronary disease severity, including those coronary risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, during the early period after an acute coronary episode. We tested the hypothesis that inflammatory markers, especially highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, are related to coronary atherosclerosis, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Subjects of both genders aged 30 to 75 years (N = 116 were prospectively included if they had suffered a recent acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris requiring hospitalization and if they had metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III. Patients were submitted to a coronary angiography and the burden of atherosclerosis was estimated by the Gensini score. The severity of coronary disease was correlated (Spearman’s or Pearson’s coefficient with gender (r = 0.291, P = 0.008, age (r = 0.218, P = 0.048, hsCRP (r = 0.256, P = 0.020, ApoB/ApoA ratio (r = 0.233, P = 0.041, and carotid intima-media thickness (r = 0.236, P = 0.041. After multiple linear regression, only male gender (P = 0.046 and hsCRP (P = 0.012 remained independently associated with the Gensini score. In this high-risk population, male gender and high levels of hsCRP, two variables that can be easily obtained, were associated with more extensive coronary disease, identifying patients with the highest potential of developing new coronary events.

  13. Event-related potential components as measures of aversive conditioning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Felix; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    For more than 60 years, the gold standard for assessing aversive conditioning in humans has been the skin conductance response (SCR), which arises from the activation of the peripheral nervous system. Although the SCR has been proven useful, it has some properties that impact the kinds of questions it can be used to answer. In particular, the SCR is slow, reaching a peak 4-5 s after stimulus onset, and it decreases in amplitude after a few trials (habituation). The present study asked whether the late positive potential (LPP) of the ERP waveform could be a useful complementary method for assessing aversive conditioning in humans. The SCR and LPP were measured in an aversive conditioning paradigm consisting of three blocks in which one color was paired with a loud noise (CS+) and other colors were not paired with the noise (CS-). Participants also reported the perceived likelihood of being exposed to the noise for each color. Both SCR and LPP were significantly larger on CS+ trials than on CS- trials. However, SCR decreased steeply after the first conditioning block, whereas LPP and self-reports were stable over blocks. These results indicate that the LPP can be used to assess aversive conditioning and has several useful properties: (a) it is a direct response of the central nervous system, (b) it is fast, with an onset latency of 300 ms, (c) it does not habituate over time. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Lessons Learned "Establishing an Electrically Safe Work Condition" Specifically related to Racking Electrical Breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Tommy Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Philbert Roland [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Samuel Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-09

    During low voltage electrical equipment maintenance, a bad breaker was identified. The breaker was racked out from the substation cubicle without following the hazardous energy control process identified in the Integrated Work Document (IWD). The IWD required the substation to be in an electrically safe work condition prior to racking the breaker. Per NFPA 70E requirements, electrical equipment shall be put into an electrically safe work condition before an employee performs work on or interacts with equipment in a manner that increases the likelihood of creating an arc flash. Racking in or out a breaker on an energized bus may increase the likelihood of creating an arc flash dependent on equipment conditions. A thorough risk assessment must be performed prior to performing such a task. The risk assessment determines the risk control measures to be put in place prior to performing the work. Electrical Safety Officers (ESO) can assist in performing risk assessments and incorporating risk control measures.

  15. Diet and condition of mesopredators on coral reefs in relation to shark abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Shanta C; Meekan, Mark G; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2017-01-01

    Reef sharks may influence the foraging behaviour of mesopredatory teleosts on coral reefs via both risk effects and competitive exclusion. We used a "natural experiment" to test the hypothesis that the loss of sharks on coral reefs can influence the diet and body condition of mesopredatory fishes by comparing two remote, atoll-like reef systems, the Rowley Shoals and the Scott Reefs, in northwestern Australia. The Rowley Shoals are a marine reserve where sharks are abundant, whereas at the Scott Reefs numbers of sharks have been reduced by centuries of targeted fishing. On reefs where sharks were rare, the gut contents of five species of mesopredatory teleosts largely contained fish while on reefs with abundant sharks, the same mesopredatory species consumed a larger proportion of benthic invertebrates. These measures of diet were correlated with changes in body condition, such that the condition of mesopredatory teleosts was significantly poorer on reefs with higher shark abundance. Condition was defined as body weight, height and width for a given length and also estimated via several indices of condition. Due to the nature of natural experiments, alternative explanations cannot be discounted. However, the results were consistent with the hypothesis that loss of sharks may influence the diet and condition of mesopredators and by association, their fecundity and trophic role. Regardless of the mechanism (risk effects, competitive release, or other), our findings suggest that overfishing of sharks has the potential to trigger trophic cascades on coral reefs and that further declines in shark populations globally should be prevented to protect ecosystem health.

  16. Diet and condition of mesopredators on coral reefs in relation to shark abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta C Barley

    Full Text Available Reef sharks may influence the foraging behaviour of mesopredatory teleosts on coral reefs via both risk effects and competitive exclusion. We used a "natural experiment" to test the hypothesis that the loss of sharks on coral reefs can influence the diet and body condition of mesopredatory fishes by comparing two remote, atoll-like reef systems, the Rowley Shoals and the Scott Reefs, in northwestern Australia. The Rowley Shoals are a marine reserve where sharks are abundant, whereas at the Scott Reefs numbers of sharks have been reduced by centuries of targeted fishing. On reefs where sharks were rare, the gut contents of five species of mesopredatory teleosts largely contained fish while on reefs with abundant sharks, the same mesopredatory species consumed a larger proportion of benthic invertebrates. These measures of diet were correlated with changes in body condition, such that the condition of mesopredatory teleosts was significantly poorer on reefs with higher shark abundance. Condition was defined as body weight, height and width for a given length and also estimated via several indices of condition. Due to the nature of natural experiments, alternative explanations cannot be discounted. However, the results were consistent with the hypothesis that loss of sharks may influence the diet and condition of mesopredators and by association, their fecundity and trophic role. Regardless of the mechanism (risk effects, competitive release, or other, our findings suggest that overfishing of sharks has the potential to trigger trophic cascades on coral reefs and that further declines in shark populations globally should be prevented to protect ecosystem health.

  17. THE TRANSFORMATION OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES IN CONDITIONS OF MARKET RELATIONS DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butenko E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Planning and distribution economy with state ownership of agricultural enterprises, which were dominant in the early 90s the economy of the country, was unable to provide normal functioning of the agricultural land use in the conditions of transition to market relations. To switch to another economic system began a gradual process of transformation of agricultural enterprises. The result of this process was the change in the structure of agrarian enterprises due to privatization and raspaevaniya land, and appearance from small-scale farms to large agricultural enterprises. Today identified market actors (enterprises in agriculture: business companies, private enterprises, production cooperatives, farmers, public enterprises, other forms of management. The most common kind of private business are farms. They are one of the most promising and effective forms of management with high agriculture, appropriate level of production organization, prudent attitude to the land and best landscaping. However, today the formation of farming in Ukraine has not yet reached the level of development, which is observed in economically developed countries. The overall economic decline and inadequate legislation has forced farmers to rely on themselves. Notes the insufficient level of their competitiveness, making it impossible to provide the expanded reproduction, determines the risk of insolvency and, as a consequence, leads to bankruptcy. Farmers receive government support, but it is weak and temporary, which greatly impedes their development. Practical state support only a few farms that can affect the distribution of funds. Agricultural cooperation is one of the effective forms of management, which aims to unite the producers in the direction of increase of efficiency of use of their resource potential. However, today there are a number of unresolved problems that hinder the effective development of agricultural cooperatives. Since 2000 years, the initiative in

  18. Site selection of a deep repository of HLRW in relation to geological conditions of Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacik, M.; Kovacikova, M.; Madaras, J.; Vandlikova, M.

    1996-01-01

    All countries which use nuclear energy to generate electricity face the problem of high level radioactive waste (HLRW) and spent fuel. Until 1987, this problem was addressed in Czechoslovakia by transferring the material to the former USSR. After the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989 and the division of Czechoslovakia into two states in 1993, Slovakia independently faced the complex problem of creating its own deep repository. Although Slovakia has begun to solve the problem of HLRW and spent fuel only recently, it can take advantage of the theoretical and practical knowledge of other countries in this field. The geological aspects of the setting of the deep repository of HLRW have been studied within the project R epositories of radioactive and hazardous wastes in geological environment. The assessment of the Slovak Republic for creating a repository of HLRW was based on the application of internationally determined and applied criteria

  19. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors--a population-based study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Berglund, Kenneth; Eriksson, Charli; Eriksson, Hans G; Lindén-Boström, Margareta; Nordström, Eva; Persson, Carina; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Starrin, Bengt; Ydreborg, Berit

    2009-08-20

    Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990 s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18-84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question). The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65-74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment), economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both among men and women. In addition, physical inactivity, underweight

  20. Java project on periodontal diseases: periodontal bone loss in relation to environmental and systemic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaliya, A.; Laine, M.L.; Delanghe, J.R.; Loos, B.G.; van Wijk, A.J.; van der Velden, U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess in a population deprived from regular dental care the relationship between alveolar bone loss (ABL) and environmental/systemic conditions. Material & Methods The study population consisted of subjects from the Purbasari tea estate on West Java, Indonesia. A full set of dental

  1. Woodland pond salamander abundance in relation to forest management and environmental conditions in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; Albert J. Beck; Dale Higgins; Dan Eklund; Susan. Reinecke

    2015-01-01

    Woodland ponds are important landscape features that help sustain populations of amphibians that require this aquatic habitat for successful reproduction. Species abundance patterns often reflect site-specific differences in hydrology, physical characteristics, and surrounding vegetation. Large-scale processes such as changing land cover and environmental conditions...

  2. Relation between motility, accelerated aging and gene expression in selected Drosophila strains under hypergravity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Javier Medina, F.; Herranz, R.

    2013-01-01

    Motility and aging in Drosophila have proven to be highly modified under altered gravity conditions (both in space and ground simulation facilities). In order to find out how closely connected they are, five strains with altered geotactic response or survival rates were selected and exposed to an

  3. Risk of early or severe pre-eclampsia related to pre-existing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catov, Janet M; Ness, Roberta B; Kip, Kevin E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE), especially severe or early PE, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among mothers and infants. We estimated the population attributable fractions of severe or early PE associated with pre-existing conditions among nulliparous and multiparous women. METHODS...

  4. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  5. Some conditions affecting the definition of design basis accidents relating to sodium/water reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The possible damaging effects of large sodium/water reactions on the steam generator, IHX and secondary circuit are considered. The conditions to be considered in defining the design basis accidents for these components are discussed, together with some of the assumptions that may be associated with design assessments of the scale of the accidents. (author)

  6. Conditions of Living: Queer Youth Suicide, Homonormative Tolerance, and Relative Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing social tolerance accorded nonheterosexual persons in many Western countries, queer youth suicide rates remain high. This opens the need to question not only how broad social conditions continue to make lives unlivable for many queer youth but whether queer community formations and representations that emerge within a…

  7. Fear less : Individual differences in fear conditioning and their relation to treatment outcome in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412437694

    2016-01-01

    Findings from animal and human experimental studies highlight the importance of fear conditioning processes in the development and treatment of anxiety disorders. The work reported in this thesis was focused on potential abnormalities in the acquisition and extinction of fear in patients with

  8. The relative impact of 13 chronic conditions across three different outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruccio, Anthony V; Power, J Denise; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2007-12-01

    Previous estimates of individual and population attributable risks for adverse outcomes due to chronic conditions have considered only a limited number of conditions and outcomes, with some studies using inappropriate formulae or methods of estimation. This study re-examines the magnitude of individual and population attributable risks for a wide range of conditions and various health outcomes. Log-Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios as an indicator of individual risk and population-associated fractions of 13 chronic conditions, examining activity limitations, self-rated health and physician visits. The effect of multimorbidity on prevalence ratios was examined. Canada, 2000-01. Nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 12+ years (n _ 130 880). At the individual level, fibromyalgia/chronic fatigue syndrome and cancer, and to a lesser extent stroke and heart disease, were associated with an increased risk of both activity limitations and a self-rated health status of fair or poor; high blood pressure was associated with four or more physician visits in the previous 12 months. In contrast, population attributable fractions were substantial for arthritis/rheumatism, heart disease, back problems and high blood pressure across all outcomes. Adjustment for multimorbidity resulted in a marked decreases in prevalence ratios. Differences in the ranking of individual risks and population attributable fractions for different diseases and outcomes are substantial. This needs to be taken into account when setting priorities, as interventions may need to be targeted to different conditions depending on which aspects of health are being considered, and whether the focus is on individuals, such as in clinical care, or improving the health of the population.

  9. [Biological contamination in office buildings related to ventilation/air conditioning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bródka, Karolina; Sowiak, Małgorzata; Kozajda, Anna; Cyprowski, Marcin; Irena, Szadkowska-Stańczyk

    2012-01-01

    Indoor air is contaminated with microorganisms coming from both the atmospheric air and sources present in premises. The aim of this study was to analyze the concentrations of biological agents in office buildings, dependending on ventilation/air conditioning system and season. The study covered office buildings (different in the system of ventila-tion/air conditioning). Air samples for assessing the levels of inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, were taken at the selected stationary points of each building during summer and winter. The air was sampled for 6 h, using portable sets consisting of the GilAir 5 pump and the head filled with a filter of fiber glass. The samples for the presence of airborne bacteria and fungi were collected twice during the day using the impaction method. Average concentrations of inhalable dust, bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in office premises were 0.09 mg/m3, 6.00 x 10(2) cfu/m3, 4.59 x 10(1) cfu/m3, 0.42 ng/m3 and 3.91 ng/m3, respectively. Higher concentrations of the investigated agents were found in summer. In premises with air conditioning concentrations of airborne fungi, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans and inhalable dust were significantly lower in winter. In summer the trend was reverse except for (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans. Concentrations of biological agents were affected by the season and the presence of air conditioning. Concentrations of inhalable dust, bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, observed inside the office buildings, were significantly higher in summer than in winter. The presence of the air conditioning system modified in various ways the levels of biological agents. Its influence was greater on the concentration of fungi and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans than on that of bacteria and endotoxins.

  10. Optimization of thorium oxalate precipitation conditions relative to thorium oxide sinterability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.D.; Bray, L.A.; Hart, P.E.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of thorium oxalate precipitation conditions on derived oxide sinterability was investigated with the objective of producing ThO 2 powder that could be sintered to high density without premilling. Precipitation conditions examined were temperature, digestion time and agitation method which were employed in a two-level factorial experimental design to delineate their effects. The two levels for each of the factors, respectively, were 10 0 C and 70 0 C, 15 min and 360 min, and mechanical stirrer and a homogenizer that imparted both mechanical and ultrasonic agitation. The ThO 2 derived from each of the precipitation trials was characterized with respect to morphology, surface area, and crystallite size as well as sinterability. Only precipitation temperature had a significant effect upon all the properties of the derived oxide powders

  11. Imagined futures in living with multiple conditions : positivity, relationality and hopelessness.

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, L.A.; Atkinson, S.

    2018-01-01

    Hope serves as an overarching concept for a range of engagements that demonstrate the benefits of a positive outlook for coping with chronic conditions of ill-health and disability. A dominant engagement through medicine has positioned hope as a desirable attribute and its opposite, hopelessness, as pathological. In this engagement hope is individual, internally located and largely cognitive and able to be learned. Attaining hope reflects a process of coming to terms with the losses associate...

  12. Forest ecosystem as a source of CO2 during growing season: relation to weather conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taufarová, Klára; Havránková, Kateřina; Dvorská, Alice; Pavelka, Marian; Urbaniak, M.; Janouš, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2014), s. 239-249 ISSN 0236-8722 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : net ecosystem production * CO2 source days * eddy covariance * weather conditions * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.117, year: 2014

  13. Relation Between Motility, Accelerated Aging and Gene Expression in Selected Drosophila Strains under Hypergravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Paloma; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Medina, F. Javier; Herranz, Raúl

    2013-02-01

    Motility and aging in Drosophila have proven to be highly modified under altered gravity conditions (both in space and ground simulation facilities). In order to find out how closely connected they are, five strains with altered geotactic response or survival rates were selected and exposed to an altered gravity environment of 2 g. By analysing the different motile and behavioural patterns and the median survival rates, we show that altered gravity leads to changes in motility, which will have a negative impact on the flies' survival. Previous results show a differential gene expression between sessile samples and adults and confirm that environmentally-conditioned behavioural patterns constrain flies' gene expression and life span. Therefore, hypergravity is considered an environmental stress factor and strains that do not respond to this new environment experience an increment in motility, which is the major cause for the observed increased mortality also under microgravity conditions. The neutral-geotaxis selected strain (strain M) showed the most severe phenotype, unable to respond to variations in the gravitational field. Alternatively, the opposite phenotype was observed in positive-geotaxis and long-life selected flies (strains B and L, respectively), suggesting that these populations are less sensitive to alterations in the gravitational load. We conclude that the behavioural response has a greater contribution to aging than the modified energy consumption in altered gravity environments.

  14. Conditional Health-Related Benefits of Higher Education: An Assessment of Compensatory versus Accumulative Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneou...

  15. Strategies to translate knowledge related to common musculoskeletal conditions into physiotherapy practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé, Marie-Ève; Poitras, Stéphane; Bastien, Marc; Laliberté, Lydie-Anne; Lacharité, Anyck; Gross, Douglas P

    2018-03-01

    Many physiotherapists underuse evidence-based practice guidelines or recommendations when treating patients with musculoskeletal disorders, yet synthesis of knowledge translation interventions used within the field of physiotherapy fails to offer clear conclusions to guide the implementation of clinical practice guidelines. To evaluate the effectiveness of various knowledge translation interventions used to implement changes in the practice of current physiotherapists treating common musculoskeletal issues. A computerized literature search of MEDLINE, CINHAL and ProQuest of systematic reviews (from inception until May 2016) and primary research studies (from January 2010 until June 2016). Eligibility criteria specified articles evaluating interventions for translating knowledge into physiotherapy practice. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, performed data extraction, and performed quality assessment. Of a total of 13014 articles located and titles and abstracts screened, 34 studies met the inclusion criteria, including three overlapping publications, resulting in 31 individual studies. Knowledge translation interventions appear to have resulted in a positive change in physiotherapist beliefs, attitudes, skills and guideline awareness. However, no consistent improvement in clinical practice, patient and economic outcomes were observed. The studies included had small sample sizes and low methodological quality. The heterogeneity of the studies was not conducive to pooling the data. The intensity and type of knowledge translation intervention seem to have an effect on practice change. More research targeting financial, organizational and regulatory knowledge translation interventions is needed. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Renormalization scheme and gauge (in)dependence of the generalized Crewther relation: what are the real grounds of the β-factorization property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkusha, A. V.; Kataev, A. L.; Molokoedov, V. S.

    2018-02-01

    The problem of scheme and gauge dependence of the factorization property of the renormalization group β-function in the SU( N c ) QCD generalized Crewther relation (GCR), which connects the flavor non-singlet contributions to the Adler and Bjorken polarized sum rule functions, is investigated at the O({a}_s^4) level of perturbation theory. It is known that in the gauge-invariant renormalization \\overline{MS} -scheme this property holds in the QCD GCR at least at this order. To study whether this factorization property is true in all gauge-invariant schemes, we consider the MS-like schemes in QCD and the QED-limit of the GCR in the \\overline{MS} -scheme and in two other gauge-independent subtraction schemes, namely in the momentum MOM and the on-shell OS schemes. In these schemes we confirm the existence of the β-function factorization in the QCD and QED variants of the GCR. The problem of the possible β-factorization in the gauge-dependent renormalization schemes in QCD is studied. To investigate this problem we consider the gauge non-invariant mMOM and MOMgggg-schemes. We demonstrate that in the mMOM scheme at the O({a}_s^3) level the β-factorization is valid for three values of the gauge parameter ξ only, namely for ξ = -3 , -1 and ξ = 0. In the O({a}_s^4) order of PT it remains valid only for case of the Landau gauge ξ = 0. The consideration of these two gauge-dependent schemes for the QCD GCR allows us to conclude that the factorization of RG β-function will always be implemented in any MOM-like renormalization schemes with linear covariant gauge at ξ = 0 and ξ = -3 at the O({a}_s^3) approximation. It is demonstrated that if factorization property for the MS-like schemes is true in all orders of PT, as theoretically indicated in the several works on the subject, then the factorization will also occur in the arbitrary MOM-like scheme in the Landau gauge in all orders of perturbation theory as well.

  17. The interdecadal worsening of weather conditions affecting aerosol pollution in the Beijing area in relation to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoye; Zhong, Junting; Wang, Jizhi; Wang, Yaqiang; Liu, Yanju

    2018-04-01

    The weather conditions affecting aerosol pollution in Beijing and its vicinity (BIV) in wintertime have worsened in recent years, particularly after 2010. The relation between interdecadal changes in weather conditions and climate warming is uncertain. Here, we analyze long-term variations of an integrated pollution-linked meteorological index (which is approximately and linearly related to aerosol pollution), the extent of changes in vertical temperature differences in the boundary layer (BL) in BIV, and northerly surface winds from Lake Baikal during wintertime to evaluate the potential contribution of climate warming to changes in meteorological conditions directly related to aerosol pollution in this area; this is accomplished using NCEP reanalysis data, surface observations, and long-term vertical balloon sounding observations since 1960. The weather conditions affecting BIV aerosol pollution are found to have worsened since the 1960s as a whole. This worsening is more significant after 2010, with PM2.5 reaching unprecedented high levels in many cities in China, particularly in BIV. The decadal worsening of meteorological conditions in BIV can partly be attributed to climate warming, which is defined by more warming in the higher layers of the boundary layer (BL) than the lower layers. This worsening can also be influenced by the accumulation of aerosol pollution, to a certain extent (particularly after 2010), because the increase in aerosol pollution from the ground leads to surface cooling by aerosol-radiation interactions, which facilitates temperature inversions, increases moisture accumulations, and results in the extra deterioration of meteorological conditions. If analyzed as a linear trend, weather conditions have worsened by ˜ 4 % each year from 2010 to 2017. Given such a deterioration rate, the worsening of weather conditions may lead to a corresponding amplitude increase in PM2.5 in BIV during wintertime in the next 5 years (i.e., 2018 to 2022

  18. Characteristics of Adults with Down Syndrome: prevalence of age-related conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo eCarfì

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the last decades, life expectancy of persons with Down syndrome (DS has dramatically increased and it is estimated that they will be living as long as the general population within a generation. Despite being included among the progeroid syndromes, because of the presence of features typically observed in older adults, DS is still regarded as a disease of pediatric interest. Because limited knowledge is available on the clinical characteristics of adults with DS, this study aimed to assess clinical and non-clinical features of this population and to describe similarities to the geriatric population. Methods. In this study, we described 60 adults with DS evaluated at the Day Hospital of the Geriatric Department of the Policlinico A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome. Individuals were assessed through a standardized protocol. Results. The mean age of study participants was 38 years (range, 18 to 58 years and 42 (70.0% were women. Geriatric conditions were highly prevalent: severe cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 39 (65.0% participants, behavioral symptoms were present in 25 (41.7% and functional impairment in 23 (38.3%. Six (10.0% participants lived in institutions and 11 (18.3% were diagnosed as obese. The mean number of drugs used was 2.4; use of psychotropic drugs was highly prevalent. The most common chronic diseases were thyroid problems (44, 73.3%, followed by mood disorders (19, 31.7%, osteoporosis (18, 30.0% and cardiac problems (10, 16.7%. Geriatric conditions and chronic diseases were more prevalent among participants aged ≥40 years. Conclusions. Several similarities between older adults and adults with DS were observed. Comorbidities, geriatric conditions, cognitive and functional deficits and social problems are highly prevalent in both populations, contributing to the high complexity of these patients’ assessment and treatment.

  19. Cluster transfer form factor and intercluster relative motion in the orthogonality-condition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, R.G.; Pal, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    The orthogonality-condition model (OCM), as an approximation method for calculating the overlap and potential overlap functions involved in the form factor of transfer reactions, is tested against microscopic cluster calculations for the 7 Li=α+t system. The OCM overlap and potential overlap turned out to depend strongly on the OCM potential although the potentials are chosen so as to produce the same asymptotic phase. Excellent approximations to microscopic overlaps and potential overlaps are, however, obtained by optimizing the OCM potential so that the OCM may reproduce the microscopic energy surface. This way the dependence on the OCM potential is traced back to the underlying nucleon-nucleon force. (author)

  20. Is preterm delivery still related to physical working conditions in pregnancy?

    OpenAIRE

    Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Subtil, D; Kaminski, M

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the relationship between working conditions during pregnancy, women's occupation, and preterm birth. DESIGN--This was a retrospective survey. SETTING--The study was carried out in four public maternity units in France in 1987 and 1988. SUBJECTS--1949 women were interviewed after the delivery during their stay in hospital. Of these, 1002 held a job during pregnancy, but this report is confined to 875 women who had a single live birth and who had worked...

  1. Adverse Events of Massage Therapy in Pain-Related Conditions: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain-related massage, important in traditional Eastern medicine, is increasingly used in the Western world. So the widening acceptance demands continual safety assessment. This review is an evaluation of the frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs reported mainly for pain-related massage between 2003 and 2013. Relevant all-languages reports in 6 databases were identified and assessed by two coauthors. During the 11-year period, 40 reports of 138 AEs were associated with massage. Author, year of publication, country of occurrence, participant related (age, sex or number of patients affected, the details of manual therapy, and clinician type were extracted. Disc herniation, soft tissue trauma, neurologic compromise, spinal cord injury, dissection of the vertebral arteries, and others were the main complications of massage. Spinal manipulation in massage has repeatedly been associated with serious AEs especially. Clearly, massage therapies are not totally devoid of risks. But the incidence of such events is low.

  2. Tolerability and Healthcare Utilization in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients Undergoing Treatment for Tuberculosis-Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadah, Abdurrahman M; Beaulieu, Lynn M; Wilson, John W; Aksamit, Timothy R; Gregoire, James R; Williams, Amy W; Dillon, John J; Albright, Robert C; Onuigbo, Macaulay; Iyer, Venkateshwaran K; Hickson, LaTonya J

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in end-stage renal disease is significantly higher than that in the general population. Among those with kidney dysfunction, anti-TB treatment is associated with increased side effects, but the effect on healthcare utilization is unknown. Methods/Aim: To assess patient-reported symptoms, adverse effects and describe changes in healthcare utilization patterns during treatment for TB, we conducted a case series (n = 12) of patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD) from Mayo Clinic Dialysis Services and concurrent drug therapy for TB from January 2002 through May 2014. Healthcare utilization (hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits independent of hospital admission) was compared before and during treatment. Patients were treated for latent (n = 7) or active (n = 5) TB. The majority of patients with latent disease were treated with isoniazid (n = 5, 71%), while active-disease patients received a 4-drug regimen. Adverse effects were reported in 83% of patients. Compared to measurements prior to drug initiation, serum albumin and dialysis weights were similar at 3 months. Commonly reported anti-TB drug toxicities were described. More than half (58%) of the patients were hospitalized at least once. No ED or hospital admissions occurred in the period prior to drug therapy, but healthcare utilization increased during treatment in the latent disease group (hospitalization rate per person-month: pre 0 vs. post 1). Among HD patients, anti-TB therapy is associated with frequently reported symptoms and increased healthcare utilization. Among this subset, patients receiving treatment for latent disease may be those with greatest increase in healthcare use. Careful monitoring and early complication detection may help optimize medication adherence and minimize hospitalizations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Canonical quantization of model Hamiltonian in gauge theory. Relation between constraints and subsidiary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, R.; Kimura, T.

    1985-01-01

    As a model of gauge theory, it is investigated a system of point particles described by a singular Lagrangian from the standpoint of our formulation of constrained dynamical systems which was developed in the series of previous papers. Canonical quantization is carried out by two methods in order to clarify the role of the secondary constraints and their conjugate gauge constraints. The first method is to find a full set of the stationary external constraints and use the Dirac bracket. The other is to fix the gauges and remove unphysical states by imposing subsidiary condition on the state vectors. It is shown that unphysical components associated with a series of primary and secondary constraints are removed by a single subsidiary condition for each gauge degree. There appear an unphysical state with negative norm and a physical state with zero norm. It implies that the appearance of states with indefinite metrics is not due to the metric structure of space-time but is ascribed to gauge properties

  4. Assessing Boundary Conditions of the Testing Effect: On the Relative Efficacy of Covert vs. Overt Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L. Sundqvist

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeated testing during learning often improves later memory, which is often referred to as the testing effect. To clarify its boundary conditions, we examined whether the testing effect was selectively affected by covert (retrieved but not articulated or overt (retrieved and articulated response format. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared immediate (5 min and delayed (1 week cued recall for paired associates following study-only, covert, and overt conditions, including two types of overt articulation (typing and writing. A clear testing effect was observed in both experiments, but with no selective effects of response format. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared covert and overt retrieval under blocked and random list orders. The effect sizes were small in both experiments, but there was a significant effect of response format, with overt retrieval showing better final recall performance than covert retrieval. There were no significant effects of blocked vs. random list orders with respect to the testing effect produced. Taken together, these findings suggest that, under specific circumstances, overt retrieval may lead to a greater testing effect than that of covert retrieval, but because of small effect sizes, it appears that the testing effect is mainly the result of retrieval processes and that articulation has fairly little to add to its magnitude in a paired-associates learning paradigm.

  5. Laboratory Eh simulations in relation to the Redox conditions in natural granitic groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikberg, P.

    1992-01-01

    Redox conditions are one of the prime parameters affecting the sorption of radionuclides released from a nuclear waste repository. The swedish granitic groundwaters are all reducing from a depth of approximately 100 m, the vast majority already from a depth of a few tens of metres. The contents of ferrous iron reaches a maximum at the same depth due to the weathering of iron rich minerals. At greater depths the iron content decreases while sulphide contents increases. The redox buffering capacity (in groundwater) lies mainly in the rock. The contents of iron, sulphide and manganese constitute the buffer in the groundwater. The redox potential (Eh) is controlled by the iron system in the groundwater and the rock. Sulphate is not involved in the groundwater redox processes. Laboratory simulations of the groundwater rock interactions with respect to the redox conditions have been realized, but there is still a difference compared to the natural system. This difference is due to the fact that traces of oxygen diffuses into the laboratory system causing a continuous oxidation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Working Condition And The Convenience Of Organization Environment Related With Performance Of Pharmacist Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kiswanto kiswanto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organization support is one of the determining factors in improving the performance of the employees. Organization support consisting of organizational factor, convenience environment, the provision of the infrastructure the selection of technology and working proviso condition. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between organization support and performance of pharmacist assistant at the pharmacies division of the district general hospital Arifin Achmad Pekanbaru of Riau province. This was an analytic quantitative study with the cross sectional design to 53 pharmacist assistants as population.  The study was used total sampling. The data were collected by using questionnaire and analyzed with univariate and bivariate. The results showed 49% pharmacist assistants having poor performance. There was a significant relationship between working condition (p-value = 0,04, the convenience of organization environment (p-value = 0,019 with the performance of pharmacist assistant. Its Expected the hospital management to improve the convenience of organization environment at the pharmacies division and also improve the health program and salvation for pharmacist assistant.

  7. Decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate in Chinese loess soil under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Wang, Fei; Martins Bento, Celia; Meng, L.; Dam, van R.C.J.; Mol, J.G.J.; Liu, Guobin; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2015-01-01

    The decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were monitored for 35 d at different slope gradients and rates of application in plots with loess soil on the Loess Plateau, China. The initial glyphosate decayed rapidly (half-life of 3.5 d)

  8. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide: A Novel Endocrine Cardioprotective "Conditioning Mimetic".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Tanuka; Przyklenk, Karin; Datta, Nabanita S

    2017-11-01

    An as-yet limited body of evidence suggests that calcium-regulating endocrine hormones-in particular, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP)-may have unappreciated cardioprotective effects. The current review focuses on the concept that PTHrP may, via modulation of classic cardioprotective signaling pathways, provide a novel strategy to attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  9. The Use of Migration-Related Competencies in Continuing Education: Individual Strategies, Social and Institutional Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjed, Ariane; Sprung, Annette; Kukovetz, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Focusing especially on biographical competencies that are gained through the experience of migration and socialisation in a certain country or cultural context, this article analyses how professionals define and deploy these "migration-related competencies" when it comes to employment in the field of adult education in Austria. By means…

  10. AD/HD and the Capture of Attention by Briefly Exposed Delay-Related Cues: Evidence from a Conditioning Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; De Houwer, Jan; De Ruiter, Karen; Ajzenstzen, Michal; Holland, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Background: The selective attention of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) to briefly exposed delay-related cues was examined in two experiments using a dot-probe conditioning paradigm. Method: Colour cues were paired with negatively (i.e., imposition of delay) and positively valenced cues (i.e., escape from or avoidance…

  11. Relating Landscape Development Intensity to Coral Reef Condition in the Watersheds of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagnosing the degree to which local landscape activities impact coral reef ecosystems and their ecological services is critically important to coastal and watershed decision-makers. We report, for the first time, a study that relates coral reef condition metrics to metrics of h...

  12. Are antimicrobial defences in bird eggs related to climatic conditions associated with risk of trans-shell microbial infection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, N.P.C.; Hine, K.; Hegemann, A.; Ndithia, H.K.; Shobrak, M.; Ostrowski, S.; Williams, J.B.; Matson, K.D.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental conditions and is higher for eggs laid in wetter environments. This might relate to

  13. Are antimicrobial defences in bird eggs related to climatic conditions associated with risk of trans-shell microbial infection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Hine, Kathryn; Hegemann, Arne; Ndithia, Henry K.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Ostrowski, Stephane; Williams, Joseph B.; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental conditions and is higher for eggs laid in wetter environments. This might relate

  14. THE EMPLOYMENT – PRODUCTIVITY – SALARY RELATION, A CONDITION FOR ACHIEVING LONG - TERM ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CHIRILA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The employment-productivity-salary correlation is essential towards setting up conditions for economic growth andlasting social stability. An influence exists from technological changes, current stage of economic development,peculiarities of labour offer, employers – trade-unions interaction, etc. The analysis covers long-term and short-termcycles. In keeping with specificity of development stages, national economy witnesses an interval of productivitygrowth facilitating maximized employment and a rise in salary too. A lower growth rate indicates difficulties inassimilating new technologies; a higher growth rate generates instability in employing labour. Thus, the exercise ofstrong pressure is shown to exist on economic and technological structures. Likewise, this is what happens whenproductivity goes ahead of the separate analyses of the correlations between employment and productivity, on theone hand, and productivity and salary, on the other.

  15. Soil Water Retention and Relative Permeability for Conditions from Oven-Dry to Full Saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.

    2011-11-04

    Common conceptual models for unsaturated flow often rely on the oversimplified representation of medium pores as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries and assume that the matric potential is attributed to the capillary force only. The adsorptive surface forces are ignored. It is often assumed that aqueous flow is negligible when a soil is near or at the residual water content. These models are successful at high and medium water contents but often give poor results at low water contents. These models do not apply to conditions at which the water content is less than the residual water content. We extend the lower bound of existing water-retention functions and conductivity models from residual water content to the oven-dry condition (i.e., zero water content) by defining a state-dependent, residual-water content for a soil drier than a critical value. Furthermore, a hydraulic conductivity model for smooth uniform spheres was modified by introducing a correction factor to describe the film flow-induced hydraulic conductivity for natural porous media. The total unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is the sum of those due to capillary and film flow. The extended retention and conductivity models were verified measurements. Results show that, when the soil is at high and intermediate water content, there is no difference between the un-extended and the extended models; when the soil is at low water content, the un-extended models overestimate the water content but underestimate the conductivity. The extended models match the retention and conductivity measurements well.

  16. The health condition of spring oilseed crops in relation to the fungi colonising their seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conduced in the years 1999-2000. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of the following spring oilseed crops: crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. cv. B o r o w s k i, false flax (Camelina sativa L. cv. B o r o w s k a, spring rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L. cv. M a r g o and oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L. cv. P e g l e t t a. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves and siliques of spring rape and oleiferous radish and on the leaves and stems of crambe. False flax proved to be weakly infected by pathogens. On its leaves gray mould (Botrytis cinerea was found in all the years of the research. The disease was found on the siliques only in 1999. In 2000 powdery mildew was found on spring rape and false flax (respectively, Erysiphe crucifearum and E.cichoracearum. The weather conditions affected the intensity of the diseases on the studied spring oilseed crops. Alernaria genus, especially A.alternata was most commonly isolated from the seeds of examined plants. It constituted from 37% (in crambe to 63,3% (in spring rape of all the isolates. Of the remaining pathogenic species, numerous fungi of the Fusarium genus (F.avenaceum, F.culmorum, F.equiseti and F.oxysporum were isolated. They constituted from 1,0% (false flax to 17,3% (crambe of the isolates.

  17. ILLEGAL ACTS - CONDITION OF LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES CAUSED IN EXERCISING LEGAL LABOR RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania-Alina Dumitrache

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to article 253 and 254 of Labor Code, both employers and employees are responsible under the rules and principles of contractual liability for damages to the other party of legal labor relationship and we emphasize that this is not purely civil liability, but a variety of it, determined by the specific peculiarities of legal labor relations. Thus, we highlight that labor law provisions which refer to liability for damages complement, unquestionably, with the common law relating to civil liability. The paper analyzes the objective basis of legal accountability, namely the illicit act causing damages committed in fulfilling labor duties or in connection tot hem, therewith the method detailed and comparative documentation of legislation in the field and relevant doctrine.

  18. Conditional health-related benefits of higher education: an assessment of compensatory versus accumulative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneous treatment effects to examine how the effect of obtaining a college degree on the self-rated health of young adults varies across the likelihood of obtaining a college degree, a summary measure of advantage/disadvantage. Results indicate that a college degree has a greater effect on self-rated health for people from advantaged backgrounds. This finding differs from two recent studies, and possible reasons for the contrasting findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Deployment-Related Primary Care Provider Assessments of PTSD and Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Eich, P., Kiss , A., & Wossmer, B. (1998). Improving communication skills--a randomized controlled behaviorally oriented intervention study for...cases this misconduct was drug-related (Highfill-McRoy, Larson, Booth - Kewley, and Garland 2010).  Both experiencing trauma (i.e. being wounded...their data (Highfill-McRoy, Larson, Booth -Kewley, and Garland 2010). o In an article that reviewed 29 other studies on PTSD found that studies with the

  20. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  1. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  2. Interdecadal changes of summer aerosol pollution in the Yangtze River Basin of China, the relative influence of meteorological conditions and the relation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Duo; Yang, Yuanqin; Zhong, Junting; Wang, Yaqiang; Che, Haochi; Che, Huizheng; Zhang, Yangmei

    2018-07-15

    Winter is a season of much concern for aerosol pollution in China, but less concern for pollution in the summertime. There are even less concern and larger uncertainty about interdecadal changes in summer aerosol pollution, relative influence of meteorological conditions, and their links to climate change. Here we try to reveal the relation among interdecadal changes in summer's most important circulation system affecting China (East Asian Summer Monsoon-EASM), an index of meteorological conditions (called PLAM, Parameter Linking Air Quality and Meteorological Elements, which is almost linearly related with aerosol pollution), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (M-LYR) in central eastern China during summertime since the 1960's. During the weak monsoon years, the aerosol pollution load was heavier in the M-LYR and opposite in the strong monsoon years mainly influenced by EASM and associated maintenance position of the anti-Hadley cell around 115°E. The interdecadal changes in meteorological conditions and their associated aerosol pollution in the context of such climate change have experienced four periods since the 1960's, which were a relatively large decreased period from 1961 to 1980, a large rise between 1980 and 1999, a period of slow rise or maintenance from 1999 to 2006, and a relatively rapid rise between 2006 and 2014. Among later three pollution increased periods, about 51%, 25% and 60% of the aerosol pollution change respectively come from the contribution of worsening weather conditions, which are found to be greatly affected by changes in EASM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypertension prevalence and living conditions related to air pollution: results of a national epidemiological study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Chahine, Mirna; Hallit, Souheil; Farah, Rita; Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Asmar, Roland; Hosseiny, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor of several diseases, linked to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries. Some studies have linked indoor and outdoor pollution exposure items to hypertension, but results were inconsistent. Our objective was to assess the association of living conditions related to air pollution to hypertension in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern country. A national cross-sectional study was conducted all over Lebanon. Blood pressure and its related medications were assessed to be able to classify participants as hypertensive or not. Moreover, in addition to living conditions related to air pollution exposure, we assessed potential predictors of hypertension, including sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health information and biological measurements. Furthermore, we assessed dose-effect relationship of air pollution items in relation with hypertension. Living conditions related to indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures were associated with hypertension, with or without taking biological values into account. Moreover, we found a dose-effect relationship of exposure with risk of disease (15% increase in risk of disease for every additional pollution exposure item), after adjustment for sociodemographics and biological characteristics (Ora = 1.15 [1.03-1.28]). Although additional studies would be necessary to confirm these findings, interventions should start to sensitize the population about the effect of air pollution on chronic diseases. The work on reducing pollution and improving air quality should be implemented to decrease the disease burden on the population and health system.

  4. A successful search for symmetry (and other derived relations) in the conditional discriminations of pigeons 1, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcuioli, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Symmetry is one of three derived relations (along with transitivity and reflexivity) that indicate that explicitly trained conditional relations are equivalence relations and that the elements of those trained relations are members of a stimulus class. Although BA symmetry is typically observed after AB conditional discrimination training in humans, it has been an elusive phenomenon in other animals until just recently. This paper describes past unsuccessful attempts to observe symmetry in non-human animals and the likely reasons for that lack of success. I then describe how methodological changes made in response to the earlier findings have now yielded robust evidence for symmetry in pigeons, and what these changes indicate about the functional matching stimuli. Finally, I describe a theory of stimulus-class formation (Urcuioli, 2008) which specifies how and why symmetry and other derived relations arise from different sets of trained relations. These derived relations are noteworthy because they demonstrate an impressive repertoire of non-similarity-based categorization effects in animals and the generative effects of reinforcement and stimulus control processes on behavior. PMID:28386579

  5. Control of systems with costs related to switching: applications to air-condition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo (Deng), Honglian; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate a low complexity method for controlling systems with binary inputs that have costs related to switching. The control objective for this type of systems is often a trade off between the deviation from the reference and the number of switches (weariness...... energy efficiency etc.). For such systems a steady state solution might never be attained, but rather the optimal behavior might be constituted by a limit cycle. In this paper we consider the problem of finding and controlling the system towards an optimal limit cycle. A low complexity approach giving...

  6. Effects of irradiation to larvae of Bombyx mori in relation to nutritional conditions and to moulting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, M.

    1976-01-01

    Silkworms (Bombyx mori) were exposed to irradiation in the 1st and 2nd larval instars. The effects, as indicated by mortality or by failure to moult, were studied in relation to a period of starvation (24 hours at 22deg). Before the initiation of feeding, in either instar, the larvae were very resistant to irradiation and fasting did not modify this resistance. Probably this was due to physiological quiescence. After the initiation of feeding, the interposition of a fast either augmented or decreased radiation tolerance, probably according to the phase of the physiological cycle involving feeding and moulting

  7. Cupping therapy versus acupuncture for pain-related conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Jing; Cao, Hui-Juan; Li, Xin-Lin; Yang, Xiao-Ying; Lai, Bao-Yong; Yang, Guo-Yang; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Both cupping therapy and acupuncture have been used in China for a long time, and their target indications are pain-related conditions. There is no systematic review comparing the effectiveness of these two therapies. To compare the beneficial effectiveness and safety between cupping therapy and acupuncture for pain-related conditions to provide evidence for clinical practice. Protocol of this review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42016050986). We conducted literature search from six electronic databases until 31st March 2017. We included randomized trials comparing cupping therapy with acupuncture on pain-related conditions. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated by risk of bias tool. Mean difference, risk ratio, risk difference and their 95% confidence interval were used to report the estimate effect of the pooled results through meta-analysis or the results from each individual study. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was applied to adjust random errors and calculate the sample size. Twenty-three randomized trials with 2845 participants were included covering 12 pain-related conditions. All included studies were of poor methodological quality. Three meta-analyses were conducted, which showed similar clinical beneficial effects of cupping therapy and acupuncture for the rate of symptom improvement in cervical spondylosis (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.26; n = 646), lateral femoral cutaneous neuritis (RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.22; n = 102) and scapulohumeral periarthritis (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.51; n = 208). Results from other outcomes (such as visual analogue and numerical rating scale) in each study also showed no statistical significant difference between these two therapies for all included pain-related conditions. The results of TSA for cervical spondylosis demonstrated that the current available data have not reached a powerful conclusion. No serious adverse events related to cupping therapy or acupuncture was found in included

  8. Relation between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Impact Factors under Severe Surface Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhuan Ao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a comprehensive analysis on the diurnal variation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL in summer of Badain Jaran Desert and discussed deeply the effect of surface thermal to ABL, including the Difference in Surface-Air Temperature (DSAT, net radiation, and sensible heat, based on limited GPS radiosonde and surface observation data during two intense observation periods of experiments. The results showed that (1 affected by topography of the Tibetan Plateau, the climate provided favorable external conditions for the development of Convective Boundary Layer (CBL, (2 deep CBL showed a diurnal variation of three- to five-layer structure in clear days and five-layer ABL structure often occurred about sunset or sunrise, (3 the diurnal variation of DSAT influenced thickness of ABL through changes of turbulent heat flux, (4 integral value of sensible heat which rapidly converted by surface net radiation had a significant influence on the growth of CBL throughout daytime. The cumulative effect of thick RML dominated the role after CBL got through SBL in the development stage, especially in late summer, and (5 the development of CBL was promoted and accelerated by the variation of wind field and distribution of warm advection in high and low altitude.

  9. Controlled by Love: The Harmful Relational Consequences of Perceived Conditional Positive Regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Roth, Guy; Assor, Avi; Raizer, Abira

    2016-08-01

    Research on conditional positive regard (CPR) has shown that this seemingly benign practice has maladaptive correlates when used by parents. However, there is no research on the correlates of this practice in romantic relationships or on the processes mediating its effects. Building on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, ), three studies tested the hypothesis that perceived CPR impairs relationship quality, partly because it undermines the fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness. Study 1 (N = 125) examined perceived CPR and relationship quality across four relationship targets: mother, father, romantic partner, and best friend. Study 2, involving romantic partners (N = 142), examined whether needs fulfillment mediated the association between perceived CPR and relationship quality. Study 3, involving romantic dyads (N = 85), also included partner reports on CPR. Across the three studies, CPR was linked with poor relationship quality between relationships, between people, and between dyadic partners. Moreover, results of Study 2 and Study 3 revealed that the inverse association between perceived CPR and relationship quality was mediated by dissatisfaction of autonomy but not relatedness. Despite its seemingly benign nature, CPR is detrimental to relationship quality, partly because it thwarts the basic need for autonomy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Alpha-amylase activity in wheat flour and breadmaking properties in relation to different climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakita Slađana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the influence of different climatic conditions on the activity of alpha-amylase in wheat samples and bread quality parameters. Three wheat varieties grown in three different localities in three years were chosen for this study. Commonly used methods for estimation of alpha-amylase activity in wheat grain were employed. The obtained results indicated that harvest year 2013, which was characterized with the excessive amount of rainfall, exhibited the highest level of alpha-amylase activity and the lowest values of the peak viscosity. The lowest alpha-amylase level and the highest peak viscosity and FN value were observed for samples harvested in 2012 which was characterized with the greatest number of days with an average daily temperature above 30 and 35°C. In addition, a decrease in Mixolab parameter torque C3 and specific bread loaf volume, as well as increase in the breakdown torque (C3-C4 of samples harvested in 2013 were observed, which could be attributed to rainy weather influencing increase in alpha-amylase activity. It is found that specific bread loaf volume of wheat samples is highest in 2012. Moreover, a negative correlation between alpha-amylase activity and specific bread volume for all the samples grown in three years was determined.

  11. Fish assemblage structure and relations with environmental conditions in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Hubert, W.A.; Isaak, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Fish and habitat were sampled from 110 reaches in the Salt River basin (Idaho and Wyoming) during 1996 and 1997 to assess patterns in fish assemblage structure across a Rocky Mountain watershed. We identified four distinct fish assemblages using cluster analysis: (1) allopatric cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)); (2) cutthroat trout - brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell, 1814)) - Paiute sculpin (Cottus beldingi Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1891); (3) cutthroat trout - brown trout (Salmo trutta L., 1758) - mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi Girard, 1850); and (4) Cyprinidae-Catostomidae. The distribution of fish assemblages was explained by thermal characteristics, stream geomorphology, and local habitat features. Reaches with allopatric cutthroat trout and the cutthroat trout - brook trout - Paiute sculpin assemblage were located in high-elevation, high-gradient streams. The other two fish assemblages were generally located in low-elevation streams. Associations between habitat gradients, locations of reaches in the watershed, and occurrence of species were further examined using canonical correspondence analysis. The results suggest that stream geomorphology, thermal conditions, and local habitat characteristics influence fish assemblage structure across a Rocky Mountain watershed, and they provide information on the ecology of individual species that can guide conservation activities. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  12. Preliminary report on longevity of montmorillonite clay under repository-related conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.

    1990-12-01

    This report summarizes current work on developing complete models for predicting the chemical stability of montmorillonitic bentonite buffer materials in HLW repositories. The major degrading mechanism is the conversion of montmorillonite to hydrous mica ('illite'), the basis of the derivation of tentative models being offered by ongoing systematic hydrothermal tests, which indicate that such conversion takes place by dissolution, yielding very mobile silica, and aluminium that tends to stay in the clay voids. The key mechanism in the transformation to hydrous mica at temperatures below about 130 degrees C is concluded to be neoformation of the latter mineral, the controlling parameter being the access to potassium. For temperatures ranging between 130 and 200 degrees C, excess silica is released by beidellitization and this yields I/S mixed layer minerals on uptake of potassium, and precipitation of cementing silica in the form of amorphous silica and cristobalite. The rate of transformation of montmorillonite to hydrous mica is still controlled by the access to potassium, i.e. by the rate at which potassium enters the clay. 10 Aa minerals that can be mistaken for hydrous mica can be formed by cementing collapsed stacks together. The models appear to give montmorillonite transformation rates that are in agreement with lab results and geological examples but further calibration, primarily by using the results of ongoing hydrothermal tests in the Stripa study, are required to make them applicable to repository conditions. (au)

  13. Monosodium glutamate-associated alterations in open field, anxiety-related and conditioned place preference behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Aremu, Olaleye Samuel; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in behaviour associated with oral monosodium glutamate (a flavouring agent), using the open field, elevated plus maze and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms, respectively. Mice were assigned to two groups for CPP [monosodium glutamate (MSG)-naïve (n = 40) and MSG-pretreated (n = 40)] and two groups for open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests [n = 40 each], respectively. Animals in respective groups were then divided into four subgroups (n = 10) (vehicle or MSG (80, 160 and 320 mg/kg)). MSG-naïve mice were observed in the CPP box in three phases (pre-conditioning, conditioning and post-conditioning). Mice were conditioned to MSG or an equivalent volume of saline. The MSG pretreatment group received vehicle or respective doses of MSG daily for 21 days, prior to conditioning. Mice in the OF or EPM groups received vehicle or doses of MSG (orally) for 21 days, at 10 ml/kg. Open field or EPM behaviours were assessed on days 1 and 21. At the end of the experiments, mice in the OF groups were sacrificed and brain homogenates used to assay glutamate and glutamine. Results showed that administration of MSG was associated with a decrease in rearing, dose-related mixed horizontal locomotor, grooming and anxiety-related response and an increase in brain glutamate/glutamine levels. Following exposure to the CPP paradigm, MSG-naïve and MSG-pretreated mice both showed 'drug-paired' chamber preference. The study concluded that MSG (at the administered doses) was associated with changes in open field activities, anxiety-related behaviours and brain glutamate/glutamine levels; its ingestion also probably leads to a stimulation of the brain reward system.

  14. Radon concentration and its relation with some environmental conditions in the northern safaga bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arabi, A.M.; Tartor, B.A.; Bashter, I.I.; El-Saman, M.I.; Maiyza, I.A.

    2005-01-01

    The coastal zone along the Red Sea at Safaga town is a site for industrial development and accepting future establishment of dense recreational resorts. It includes Safaga harbour in which international trade depends. Until now most of the coastal area at Safaga is pristine and suffering from continuous increasing population densities. There is no idea about the distribution of hydro graphic parameters or radon level in the northern Safaga bay in spite of the area famous as the treatment area for Psoriases and Rheumatoid as will as attractive area for tourism. The relative high relations exist between the radioactivity component and the ph, specific conductivity, water salinity, water density and dissolved oxygen were calculated. The concentration of 226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K in sediment samples collected from bottom of the northern Safaga Bay fluctuated between 5 to 19 Bq.kg-1, 4 to 19 Bq.kg-1 and 1545 to 6122 Bq.kg-1, respectively. Whereas the concentration of radon air varies between 2 -11 Bq.cm-3

  15. Factors That Condition the Attitude Toward Living Related Kidney Donation Among Santiago of Cuba's Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    Living kidney donation is currently the most important kidney donor source in Latin America, and it is necessary to further increase its rates. To analyze the attitude toward living kidney donation among the Santiago de Cuba's population and to determine the sociopersonal factors with which it is associated. The population over 15 years old residing in Santiago de Cuba, stratified by sex and age, was screened. The "PCID-LKD Ríos" attitude questionnaire toward living kidney donation was administered to a random selection of the people surveyed according to the stratification and the census data. The completion was anonymized and self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained. The study was completed by 445 people, of whom the 86% (n = 389) were in favor of living related kidney donation. This attitude is associated with the level of education (P donation (P = .006); attitude toward cadaveric organ donation (P donation (P = .001); religious beliefs (P = .001); and assessment of the risk of living kidney donation (P donation; (3) carrying out of prosocial activities; and (4) risk assessment of living donation. Living related donation is very well accepted among the Santiago de Cuba's population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Consent, competence, and confidentiality related to psychiatric conditions in adolescent medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Amy T

    2006-02-01

    Health care for adolescents with psychiatric conditions plays out on a complex stage with considerable state variation, based on a mix of statutory and case law. Added to this are less defined factors such as level of trust in community providers, level of cooperation between generalists and specialists, and local regulatory stances toward adolescent health care and mental health care. And, of course, there is the great diversity in diagnosis and maturity level, as well as family cohesion, from patient to patient (and even within a given patient across time). Finally, this situation resides within a larger environment of stigma vis-a-vis mental health care, most notably evident in the United States in disparate insurance coverage of mental versus physical health treatment. With so complex and varied a picture, clinicians should consult with legal counsel to understand applicable state law and local regulatory guidance (if any)and should also seek out ethical consultation when law does not apply or is not decisive, leaving ongoing concerns. And, as with clinical decision-making, in law and ethics "facts matter" [4]. A growing body of law carves out exceptions to general requirements for parental consent, including in mental health care. Ethically informed discussion around capacity determinations, the consent process, and confidentiality can help engage adolescents as "emerging adults"while remaining mindful of risky behavior and "immediate future" orientation that can be hallmarks of adolescence [30]. Respect for the adolescent, parental responsibility toward their child's best interests, and the family unit generally are paramount. Respect--coupled with caution, greater disclosure and cultural sensitivity, and a participatory approach to decision-making that seeks out the least restrictive and coercive options-can help avoid potential legal traps. How best to proceed? It truly depends-with law and ethics the start (not end) of the discussion and analysis.

  17. Convective transport in ATM simulations and its relation to the atmospheric stability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta

    2017-04-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) developed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is a global system of monitoring stations, using four complementary technologies: seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide. Data from all stations, belonging to IMS, are collected and transmitted to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria. The radionuclide network comprises 80 stations, of which more than 60 are certified. The aim of radionuclide stations is a global monitoring of radioactive aerosols and radioactive noble gases, in particular xenon isotopes, supported by the atmospheric transport modeling (ATM). One of the important noble gases, monitored on a daily basis, is radioxenon. It can be produced either during a nuclear explosion with a high fission yield, and thus be considered as an important tracer to prove the nuclear character of an explosion, or be emitted from nuclear power plants (NPPs) or from isotope production facilities (IPFs). To investigate the transport of xenon emissions, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) operates an Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) system based on the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. To address the question whether including the convective transport in ATM simulations will change the results significantly, the differences between the outputs with the convective transport turned off and turned on, were computed and further investigated taking into account the atmospheric stability conditions. For that purpose series of 14 days forward simulations, with convective transport and without it, released daily in the period January 2011 to February 2012, were analysed. The release point was at the ANSTO facility in Australia. The unique opportunity of having access to both daily emission values for ANSTO as well as measured Xe-133 activity concentration (AC) values at the IMS stations, gave a chance to validate the simulations.

  18. Reduced ability to detect surface-related biofilm bacteria after antibiotic exposure under in vitro conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Christen; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Bétrisey, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    and microcalorimetry methods. Patients and methods - Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Propionibacterium acnes were formed on porous glass beads and exposed for 24 h to antibiotic concentrations from 1 to 1,024 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin......, daptomycin, rifampin, flucloxacillin, or ciprofloxacin. The beads were then sonicated to dislodge biofilm, followed by culture and measurement of growth-related heat flow by microcalorimetry of the resulting sonication fluid. Results - Vancomycin did not inhibit the heat flow of staphylococci and P. acnes...... at concentrations ≤1,024 μg/mL, whereas flucloxacillin at >128 μg/mL inhibited S. aureus. Daptomycin inhibited heat flow of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and P. acnes at lower concentrations (32-128 times MIC, p

  19. Low back injuries related to nursing professionals working conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossmacher, Roberta; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Identify the prevalence of low back disorders and associated risks, as well as the characteristics and ergonomic factors present in the work of nursing professionals. Systematic review based on the search of terms such as low back pain, professionals, hospital ergonomics, work organization, nursing found in national and international databases. The prevalence of low back pain symptoms was between 14.7% and 72% and the main cause, that is, the transference of the patient from bed to chair, leaded to the profession abandonment as a main consequence. it was possible to conclude that the prevalence of low back injury is high among nursing professionals and its causes are related to occupational factors - physical or psychological, which are in many cases permanent and disabling.

  20. Early mammalian development under conditions of reorientation relative to the gravity vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, D. J.; Grills, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A clinostat was used to assess the effects of reorientation relative to the gravity vector on mammalian germ cells cultured in vitro. Previous studies using this system revealed an inhibition of meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. In the present study, the effects of clinostat rotation on in vitro fertilization were examined. The frequency of fertilization of experimental cultures did not vary from that of the clinostat vertical control cultures at either of the rotation rates examined. Importantly, no abnormalities of fertilization, such as parthenogenetic activation, fragmentation, or polyspermy were seen. It is concluded that the initial events of fertilization were unaffected by this treatment, although the developmental potential of these embryos remains to be assessed.

  1. Assemblage patterns of fish functional groups relative to habitat connectivity and conditions in floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, S.; Aycock, J.N.; Miranda, L.E.; Tietjen, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influences of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance patterns of fish functional groups in 17 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. The results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed that species-environmental relationships varied with the functional groups. Species richness and assemblage structure of periodic strategists showed strong and positive correlations with habitat connectivity. Densities of most equilibrium and opportunistic strategists decreased with habitat connectivity. Densities of certain equilibrium and opportunistic strategists increased with turbidity. Forested wetlands around the lakes were positively related to the densities of periodic and equilibrium strategists. These results suggest that decreases in habitat connectivity, forested wetland buffers and water quality resulting from environmental manipulations may cause local extinction of certain fish taxa and accelerate the dominance of tolerant fishes in floodplain lakes. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Correlation between Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. Productivity and Photosynthesis-related Parameters under Various Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Gil Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic parameters and fruit yields, as well as fruit phytochemical accumulation of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. that had been cultivated in a greenhouse under different combinations of light intensity and temperature. In plants grown with low light (LL photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence was found to increase as compared with those grown under high light (HL. When strawberry plants were grown with temperature higher than 5◦C in addition to LL, they showed decrease in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, photochemical quenching (qP, as well as chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (RFd when compared with other combinations of light and temperature. Moreover, fruit yield of strawberry was closely correlated with chlorophyll fluorescence-related parameters such as NPQ, qP, and RFd, but not with the maximum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm. Although plant groups grown under different combinations of light and temperature showed almost comparable levels of photosynthesis rates (Pr when irradiated with low-intensity light, they displayed clear differences when measured with higher irradiances. Plants grown under HL with temperature above 10◦C showed the highest Pr, in contrast to the plants grown under LL with temperature above 5◦C. When the stomatal conductance and the transpiration rate were measured, plants of each treatment showed clear differences even when analyzed with lower irradiances. We also found that fruit production during winter season was more strongly influenced by growth temperature than light intensity. We suggest that fruit productivity of strawberry is closely associated with chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis-related parameters during cultivation under different regimes of temperature and light.

  3. Conditional ablation of the choroideremia gene causes age-related changes in mouse retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wavre-Shapton, Silène T; Tolmachova, Tanya; Lopes da Silva, Mafalda; da Silva, Mafalda Lopes; Futter, Clare E; Seabra, Miguel C

    2013-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a pigmented monolayer of cells lying between the photoreceptors and a layer of fenestrated capillaries, the choriocapillaris. Choroideremia (CHM) is an X-linked progressive degeneration of these three layers caused by the loss of function of Rab Escort protein-1 (REP1). REP1 is involved in the prenylation of Rab proteins, key regulators of membrane trafficking. To study the pathological consequences of chronic disruption of membrane traffic in the RPE we used a cell type-specific knock-out mouse model of the disease, where the Chm/Rep1 gene is deleted only in pigmented cells (Chm(Flox), Tyr-Cre+). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to quantitate the melanosome distribution in the RPE and immunofluorescent staining of rhodopsin was used to quantitate phagocytosed rod outer segments in retinal sections. The ultrastructure of the RPE and Bruch's membrane at different ages was characterised by TEM to analyse age-related changes occurring as a result of defects in membrane traffic pathways. Chm/Rep1 gene knockout in RPE cells resulted in reduced numbers of melanosomes in the apical processes and delayed phagosome degradation. In addition, the RPE accumulated pathological changes at 5-6 months of age similar to those observed in 2-year old controls. These included the intracellular accumulation of lipofuscin-containing deposits, disorganised basal infoldings and the extracellular accumulation of basal laminar and basal linear deposits. The phenotype of the Chm(Flox), Tyr-Cre+ mice suggests that loss of the Chm/Rep1 gene causes premature accumulation of features of aging in the RPE. Furthermore, the striking similarities between the present observations and some of the phenotypes reported in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) suggest that membrane traffic defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  4. Conditional ablation of the choroideremia gene causes age-related changes in mouse retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silène T Wavre-Shapton

    Full Text Available The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is a pigmented monolayer of cells lying between the photoreceptors and a layer of fenestrated capillaries, the choriocapillaris. Choroideremia (CHM is an X-linked progressive degeneration of these three layers caused by the loss of function of Rab Escort protein-1 (REP1. REP1 is involved in the prenylation of Rab proteins, key regulators of membrane trafficking. To study the pathological consequences of chronic disruption of membrane traffic in the RPE we used a cell type-specific knock-out mouse model of the disease, where the Chm/Rep1 gene is deleted only in pigmented cells (Chm(Flox, Tyr-Cre+. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to quantitate the melanosome distribution in the RPE and immunofluorescent staining of rhodopsin was used to quantitate phagocytosed rod outer segments in retinal sections. The ultrastructure of the RPE and Bruch's membrane at different ages was characterised by TEM to analyse age-related changes occurring as a result of defects in membrane traffic pathways. Chm/Rep1 gene knockout in RPE cells resulted in reduced numbers of melanosomes in the apical processes and delayed phagosome degradation. In addition, the RPE accumulated pathological changes at 5-6 months of age similar to those observed in 2-year old controls. These included the intracellular accumulation of lipofuscin-containing deposits, disorganised basal infoldings and the extracellular accumulation of basal laminar and basal linear deposits. The phenotype of the Chm(Flox, Tyr-Cre+ mice suggests that loss of the Chm/Rep1 gene causes premature accumulation of features of aging in the RPE. Furthermore, the striking similarities between the present observations and some of the phenotypes reported in age-related macular degeneration (AMD suggest that membrane traffic defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  5. Classicality condition on a system observable in a quantum measurement and a relative-entropy conservation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Yui; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    We consider the information flow on a system observable X corresponding to a positive-operator-valued measure under a quantum measurement process Y described by a completely positive instrument from the viewpoint of the relative entropy. We establish a sufficient condition for the relative-entropy conservation law which states that the average decrease in the relative entropy of the system observable X equals the relative entropy of the measurement outcome of Y , i.e., the information gain due to measurement. This sufficient condition is interpreted as an assumption of classicality in the sense that there exists a sufficient statistic in a joint successive measurement of Y followed by X such that the probability distribution of the statistic coincides with that of a single measurement of X for the premeasurement state. We show that in the case when X is a discrete projection-valued measure and Y is discrete, the classicality condition is equivalent to the relative-entropy conservation for arbitrary states. The general theory on the relative-entropy conservation is applied to typical quantum measurement models, namely, quantum nondemolition measurement, destructive sharp measurements on two-level systems, a photon counting, a quantum counting, homodyne and heterodyne measurements. These examples except for the nondemolition and photon-counting measurements do not satisfy the known Shannon-entropy conservation law proposed by Ban [M. Ban, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 32, 1643 (1999), 10.1088/0305-4470/32/9/012], implying that our approach based on the relative entropy is applicable to a wider class of quantum measurements.

  6. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Results Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. Conclusions This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth. PMID:23915121

  7. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Serna, Javier; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Artazcoz, Lucia; Moen, Bente E; Benavides, Fernando G

    2013-08-05

    Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth.

  8. The effect of radioecological condition to earthworms and the problems of ecosystems related with them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Garibov, A.A.; Abdullayev, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The soil and fertility was evident and breathe regarding to living materials which are composed of billions of microorganisms and pedobionts also earthworms; throughout of it plants get all chemical elements. Living materials inhabit in lamella of soil, essentially within the scope of 5 to 15 cm of depth. Soil is a main source of carbon in nature. There is for about 10 times more carbone dioxide here (the breath product of soil biota) than in atmosphere. From carbonic acid of air, plants by its terrestrial part extract carbone and by the help of photosynthesis transform it to carbohydrates and tissues. Nowadays investigations about earthworms which live in strongly polluted soils has appeared that earthworms have found a way of a survival even in such extreme conditions. Earthworms have adapted to the polluted soils. However, bait attractive in appearance to dig in such places it is not necessary: in such a way the worm accumulates heavy metals in the organism. Though earthworms aren't so attractive, and for many are simply unpleasant, for an ecosystem they are invaluable. Thus even dying they don't leave after itself any traces, and digest itself by means of cages containing in them - lysis. This process is called autolysis. Thereby for investigation of strongly polluted areas of Ramana iodine plant as an ecosystem and there is significant point to determine the effect of radiation on earthworms as one of the most important chain of soil bionetwork. So, in this way it was investigated an effect of radioactive pollution to earthworms aboriginal for Absheron peninsula. By the experimentation of earthworms in contaminated soil (with 226Ra, 228Ra, U) in respectively 1 percent, 2,5 percent, 5 percent and 10 percent soil examples during a month, it was established that the earthworms so sensible to the high level of radioactive pollution. Regarding to the data received it has a point that usage of earthworms as bio indicators, in future should help people to apply this

  9. Relating N2O emissions during biological nitrogen removal with operating conditions using multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilaki, V; Volcke, E I P; Nandi, A K; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Katsou, E

    2018-04-26

    Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to investigate the dependencies and underlying patterns between N 2 O emissions and online operational variables (dissolved oxygen and nitrogen component concentrations, temperature and influent flow-rate) during biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. The system under study was a full-scale reactor, for which hourly sensor data were available. The 15-month long monitoring campaign was divided into 10 sub-periods based on the profile of N 2 O emissions, using Binary Segmentation. The dependencies between operating variables and N 2 O emissions fluctuated according to Spearman's rank correlation. The correlation between N 2 O emissions and nitrite concentrations ranged between 0.51 and 0.78. Correlation >0.7 between N 2 O emissions and nitrate concentrations was observed at sub-periods with average temperature lower than 12 °C. Hierarchical k-means clustering and principal component analysis linked N 2 O emission peaks with precipitation events and ammonium concentrations higher than 2 mg/L, especially in sub-periods characterized by low N 2 O fluxes. Additionally, the highest ranges of measured N 2 O fluxes belonged to clusters corresponding with NO 3 -N concentration less than 1 mg/L in the upstream plug-flow reactor (middle of oxic zone), indicating slow nitrification rates. The results showed that the range of N 2 O emissions partially depends on the prior behavior of the system. The principal component analysis validated the findings from the clustering analysis and showed that ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and temperature explained a considerable percentage of the variance in the system for the majority of the sub-periods. The applied statistical methods, linked the different ranges of emissions with the system variables, provided insights on the effect of operating conditions on N 2 O emissions in each sub-period and can be integrated into N 2 O emissions data processing at wastewater treatment plants

  10. The succinate receptor as a novel therapeutic target for oxidative and metabolic stress-related conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina eAriza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The succinate receptor (also known as GPR91 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is closely related to the family of P2Y purinoreceptors. It is expressed in a variety of tissues, including blood cells, adipose tissue, the liver, retina and kidney. In these tissues, this receptor and its ligand succinate have recently emerged as novel mediators in local stress situations, including ischemia, hypoxia, toxicity and hyperglycemia. Amongst others, the succinate receptor is involved in recruitment of immune cells to transplanted tissues. Moreover, it was shown to play a key role in the development of diabetic retinopathy. However, most prominently, the role of locally increased succinate levels and succinate receptor activation in the kidney, stimulating the systemic and local renin-angiotensin system, starts to unfold: The succinate receptor is a key mediator in the development of hypertension and possibly fibrosis in diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. This makes the succinate receptor a promising drug target to counteract or prevent cardiovascular and fibrotic defects in these expanding disorders. Recent development of SUCNR1-specific antagonists opens novel possibilities for research in models for these disorders and may eventually provide novel opportunities for the treatment of patients.

  11. Classification of Error Related Brain Activity in an Auditory Identification Task with Conditions of Varying Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkos, I.; Gkiatis, K.; Bromis, K.; Asvestas, P. A.; Karanasiou, I. S.; Ventouras, E. M.; Matsopoulos, G. K.

    2017-11-01

    The detection of an error is the cognitive evaluation of an action outcome that is considered undesired or mismatches an expected response. Brain activity during monitoring of correct and incorrect responses elicits Event Related Potentials (ERPs) revealing complex cerebral responses to deviant sensory stimuli. Development of accurate error detection systems is of great importance both concerning practical applications and in investigating the complex neural mechanisms of decision making. In this study, data are used from an audio identification experiment that was implemented with two levels of complexity in order to investigate neurophysiological error processing mechanisms in actors and observers. To examine and analyse the variations of the processing of erroneous sensory information for each level of complexity we employ Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers with various learning methods and kernels using characteristic ERP time-windowed features. For dimensionality reduction and to remove redundant features we implement a feature selection framework based on Sequential Forward Selection (SFS). The proposed method provided high accuracy in identifying correct and incorrect responses both for actors and for observers with mean accuracy of 93% and 91% respectively. Additionally, computational time was reduced and the effects of the nesting problem usually occurring in SFS of large feature sets were alleviated.

  12. Einstein boundary conditions in relation to constraint propagation for the initial-boundary value problem of the Einstein equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frittelli, Simonetta; Gomez, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    We show how the use of the normal projection of the Einstein tensor as a set of boundary conditions relates to the propagation of the constraints, for two representations of the Einstein equations with vanishing shift vector: the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation, which is ill posed, and the Einstein-Christoffel formulation, which is symmetric hyperbolic. Essentially, the components of the normal projection of the Einstein tensor that act as nontrivial boundary conditions are linear combinations of the evolution equations with the constraints that are not preserved at the boundary, in both cases. In the process, the relationship of the normal projection of the Einstein tensor to the recently introduced 'constraint-preserving' boundary conditions becomes apparent

  13. Common symptoms in middle aged women: their relation to employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social support in a Swedish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, G; Ostergren, P O

    2000-03-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a growing interest among researchers, in women's overall life circumstances and their relation to women's health status. For example, paid employment has been considered an important part of women's living conditions in Western societies as the number of women entering the labour market has grown constantly over the past decades. When comparing men's and women's health, one of the most consistent findings is a higher rate of symptoms among women. The most commonly reported symptoms in women are depressive symptoms, symptoms of bodily tension and chronic pain from muscles and joints. The aim of this study was to investigate whether socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social network/support are associated with middle aged women's health status in terms of common symptoms. A mailed questionnaire was used in a cross sectional design assessing socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions according to the demand/control model, social network/support and an index based on the 15 most frequent symptoms presented by middle aged women when seeking health care. A rural community with 13,200 inhabitants in the western part of Sweden. Women were randomly selected from the general population in the study area, 40 to 50 years of age. The response rate was 81.7 per cent. Women who were non-employed had a significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.82; 95% confidence intervals 1.69, 4.70), as well as women exposed to job strain (OR = 3.27; 1.92, 5.57), independently of the level of social network/support. Furthermore, exposure to low social support, low social anchorage or low social participation independently showed significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.75; 1.71, 4.42; OR = 2.91; 1.81, 4.69 and OR = 1.69; 1.10, 2.61, respectively). Work related factors, such as non-employment and job strain, and circumstances

  14. Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis Due to Melioidosis: A Potentially Devastating Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak; Lumlertgul, Nuttha; Pearson, Lachlan J; Chatsuwan, Tanittha; Pongpirul, Krit; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Thongbor, Nisa; Nuntawong, Gunticha; Praderm, Laksamon; Wechagama, Pantiwa; Narenpitak, Surapong; Wechpradit, Apinya; Punya, Worauma; Halue, Guttiga; Naka, Phetpailin; Jeenapongsa, Somboon; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei , is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Although a wide range of clinical manifestations from this organism are known, peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) has rarely been reported. ♦ PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peritoneal dialysis patients from all regions in Thailand were eligible for the study if they had peritonitis and either peritoneal fluid or effluent culture positive for B. pseudomallei . Patient data obtained included baseline characteristics, laboratory investigations, treatments, and clinical outcomes. When possible, PD fluid and removed Tenckhoff (TK) catheters were submitted for analyses of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and microbial biofilm, respectively. ♦ RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were identified who were positive for peritoneal B. pseudomallei infection. The recorded mean age was 50 ± 15 (24 - 75) years, and the majority (58%) were female. Most of the cases were farmers living in Northeastern and Northern Thailand. Almost half of the cases had diabetes. Infections were reported commonly during the monsoon season and winter. The clinical presentations of peritonitis were similar to the manifestations from other microorganisms. Nine patients (41%) died (7 from sepsis), 6 fully recovered, and 7 switched to permanent hemodialysis. The mortality was potentially associated with sepsis ( p = 0.007), infection during the monsoon season ( p = 0.017), high initial dialysate neutrophils ( p = 0.045), and high hematocrit ( p = 0.045). Although no antibiotic resistance to ceftazidime and carbapenems was detected, approximately 50% of patients died with this treatment. Microbial biofilms were identified on the luminal surface of 4 out of 5 TK catheters, but the removal of the catheter did not alter the outcomes. ♦ CONCLUSION: Peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis due to melioidosis is uncommon but highly fatal. Increased awareness

  15. Boosting orthographic learning during independent reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    2016-01-01

    . The present training study was conducted to assess experimentally whether this relation between prior orthographic knowledge and orthographic learning while reading is causal by assessing whether instruction designed to increase sublexical orthographic knowledge would facilitate orthographic learning during......Research has shown that phonological decoding is critical for orthographic learning of new words during independent reading. Moreover, correlational studies have demonstrated that the strength of orthographic learning is related to the orthographic knowledge with which readers approach a text...... independent reading. A group of Danish-speaking third graders (n = 21) was taught conditional spelling patterns conforming to the opaque Danish writing system, with emphasis on how to map the spellings onto their pronunciations. A matched control group (n = 21) received no treatment. Both groups were exposed...

  16. Vision-Related Quality of Life Associated with Unilateral and Bilateral Ocular Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Stein, Joshua D; Smiddy, William E

    2018-02-21

    To present ophthalmic patient time-tradeoff vision utilities for quantifying vision-related quality-of-life when the fellow eye still has good vision. These utilities are important for performing reliable cost-utility analyses. Consecutive time-tradeoff vision utilities were obtained from ophthalmic patients with good vision (20/20-20/25) in one eye and vision ranging from 20/20 to no light perception in the fellow eye over a 15-year period from 2000 through 2014. Five hundred eighty-six ophthalmic participant interviews from Wills Eye Hospital, New York Eye and Ear Hospital, and ophthalmology office practices in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination, after which time-tradeoff vision utilities were obtained by personal interview by the authors using a standardized, validated instrument. Time-tradeoff vision utilities. Mean time-tradeoff vision utilities were as follows in participants with good vision (20/20-20/25) in at least one eye and the following visions in the fellow eyes: no light perception, 0.79; counting fingers to light perception, 0.87; 20/200 to 20/400, 0.88; 20/60 to 20/100, 0.88; 20/30 to 20/50, 0.87; and 20/20 to 20/25, 0.94. In people with good vision (20/20-20/25) in one eye, the associated mean time-tradeoff vision utility is a remarkably consistent 0.87 to 0.88 when vision in the fellow eye ranges from 20/30 to light perception. Vision of 20/20 to 20/25 in the fellow eye results in a significantly higher associated utility of 0.94 (P vision of no light perception in the fellow eye results in a significantly lower utility of 0.079 (P < 0.01). These utilities are important for calculating reliable patient value (quality-adjusted life-year) gains in ophthalmic cost-utility analysis populations in which there is unilateral and bilateral disease involvement. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stimulus-Related Independent Component and Voxel-Wise Analysis of Human Brain Activity during Free Viewing of a Feature Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Lampinen, Jouko; Glerean, Enrico; Tikka, Pia; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how the brain processes stimuli in a rich natural environment is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. Here, we showed a feature film to 10 healthy volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of hemodynamic brain activity. We then annotated auditory and visual features of the motion picture to inform analysis of the hemodynamic data. The annotations were fitted to both voxel-wise data and brain network time courses extracted by independent component analysis (ICA). Auditory annotations correlated with two independent components (IC) disclosing two functional networks, one responding to variety of auditory stimulation and another responding preferentially to speech but parts of the network also responding to non-verbal communication. Visual feature annotations correlated with four ICs delineating visual areas according to their sensitivity to different visual stimulus features. In comparison, a separate voxel-wise general linear model based analysis disclosed brain areas preferentially responding to sound energy, speech, music, visual contrast edges, body motion and hand motion which largely overlapped the results revealed by ICA. Differences between the results of IC- and voxel-based analyses demonstrate that thorough analysis of voxel time courses is important for understanding the activity of specific sub-areas of the functional networks, while ICA is a valuable tool for revealing novel information about functional connectivity which need not be explained by the predefined model. Our results encourage the use of naturalistic stimuli and tasks in cognitive neuroimaging to study how the brain processes stimuli in rich natural environments. PMID:22496909

  18. Stimulus-related independent component and voxel-wise analysis of human brain activity during free viewing of a feature film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Lampinen, Jouko; Glerean, Enrico; Tikka, Pia; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how the brain processes stimuli in a rich natural environment is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. Here, we showed a feature film to 10 healthy volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of hemodynamic brain activity. We then annotated auditory and visual features of the motion picture to inform analysis of the hemodynamic data. The annotations were fitted to both voxel-wise data and brain network time courses extracted by independent component analysis (ICA). Auditory annotations correlated with two independent components (IC) disclosing two functional networks, one responding to variety of auditory stimulation and another responding preferentially to speech but parts of the network also responding to non-verbal communication. Visual feature annotations correlated with four ICs delineating visual areas according to their sensitivity to different visual stimulus features. In comparison, a separate voxel-wise general linear model based analysis disclosed brain areas preferentially responding to sound energy, speech, music, visual contrast edges, body motion and hand motion which largely overlapped the results revealed by ICA. Differences between the results of IC- and voxel-based analyses demonstrate that thorough analysis of voxel time courses is important for understanding the activity of specific sub-areas of the functional networks, while ICA is a valuable tool for revealing novel information about functional connectivity which need not be explained by the predefined model. Our results encourage the use of naturalistic stimuli and tasks in cognitive neuroimaging to study how the brain processes stimuli in rich natural environments.

  19. Stimulus-related independent component and voxel-wise analysis of human brain activity during free viewing of a feature film.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha M Lahnakoski

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain processes stimuli in a rich natural environment is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. Here, we showed a feature film to 10 healthy volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of hemodynamic brain activity. We then annotated auditory and visual features of the motion picture to inform analysis of the hemodynamic data. The annotations were fitted to both voxel-wise data and brain network time courses extracted by independent component analysis (ICA. Auditory annotations correlated with two independent components (IC disclosing two functional networks, one responding to variety of auditory stimulation and another responding preferentially to speech but parts of the network also responding to non-verbal communication. Visual feature annotations correlated with four ICs delineating visual areas according to their sensitivity to different visual stimulus features. In comparison, a separate voxel-wise general linear model based analysis disclosed brain areas preferentially responding to sound energy, speech, music, visual contrast edges, body motion and hand motion which largely overlapped the results revealed by ICA. Differences between the results of IC- and voxel-based analyses demonstrate that thorough analysis of voxel time courses is important for understanding the activity of specific sub-areas of the functional networks, while ICA is a valuable tool for revealing novel information about functional connectivity which need not be explained by the predefined model. Our results encourage the use of naturalistic stimuli and tasks in cognitive neuroimaging to study how the brain processes stimuli in rich natural environments.

  20. Reduction of 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmin uptake in MRP-expressing breast cancer cells under hypoxic conditions is independent of MRP function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, Seigo; Li, Xiao-Feng; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Mori, Hirofumi; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Naoto; Shuke, Noriyuki; Bunko, Hisashi

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxia reduces the uptake of technetium-99m sestamibi (MIBI) in human cancer cell lines. In the current investigation, we attempted to identify the relationship between hypoxia-induced alteration of 99m Tc-MIBI accumulation and expression of multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP) in the MCF7/WT breast cancer cell line and its subclonal cell line, MCF7/VP, which expresses high levels of MRP1. A second cationic compound, 99m Tc-tetrofosmin (TF), was also examined. Cellular uptake of 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-TF was significantly higher in parental MCF7/WT cells than in MCF7/VP cells. Hypoxic conditions generated with a mixture of 95% N 2 and 5% CO 2 reduced cellular uptake of the two tracers in both parental MCF7/WT cells and MRP1-expressing MCF7/VP cells. Cell binding assay with iodine-125-labelled anti-MRP1 antibody demonstrated its specific binding to MCF7/VP cells. Hypoxia did not affect the amount of antibody bound to MCF7/VP cells. These results indicate that hypoxia-induced reduction of tracer uptake in tumour cells is a phenomenon independent of MRP function. (orig.)

  1. MicroRNA-Related DNA Repair/Cell-Cycle Genes Independently Associated With Relapse After Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, Harriet E., E-mail: harriet.gee@sydney.edu.au [The Kinghorn Cancer Centre & Cancer Research Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia); The Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Buffa, Francesca M.; Harris, Adrian L. [Department of Medical Oncology, The University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Toohey, Joanne M.; Carroll, Susan L. [The Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Cooper, Caroline L. [Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Beith, Jane [The Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); McNeil, Catriona [The Kinghorn Cancer Centre & Cancer Research Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia); The Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Carmalt, Hugh; Mak, Cindy; Warrier, Sanjay [The Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Holliday, Anne [The Kinghorn Cancer Centre & Cancer Research Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia); Selinger, Christina; Beckers, Rhiannon [Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Kennedy, Catherine [Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Graham, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Care Centre, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW (Australia); Swarbrick, Alexander [The Kinghorn Cancer Centre & Cancer Research Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia); St Vincent' s Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of NSW, Kensington, NSW (Australia); and others

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence and distant failure after adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer remain significant clinical problems, incompletely predicted by conventional clinicopathologic markers. We had previously identified microRNA-139-5p and microRNA-1274a as key regulators of breast cancer radiation response in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate standard clinicopathologic markers of local recurrence in a contemporary series and to establish whether putative target genes of microRNAs involved in DNA repair and cell cycle control could better predict radiation therapy response in vivo. Methods and Materials: With institutional ethics board approval, local recurrence was measured in a contemporary, prospectively collected series of 458 patients treated with radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery. Additionally, independent publicly available mRNA/microRNA microarray expression datasets totaling >1000 early-stage breast cancer patients, treated with adjuvant radiation therapy, with >10 years of follow-up, were analyzed. The expression of putative microRNA target biomarkers—TOP2A, POLQ, RAD54L, SKP2, PLK2, and RAG1—were correlated with standard clinicopathologic variables using 2-sided nonparametric tests, and to local/distant relapse and survival using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. Results: We found a low rate of isolated local recurrence (1.95%) in our modern series, and that few clinicopathologic variables (such as lymphovascular invasion) were significantly predictive. In multiple independent datasets (n>1000), however, high expression of RAD54L, TOP2A, POLQ, and SKP2 significantly correlated with local recurrence, survival, or both in univariate and multivariate analyses (P<.001). Low RAG1 expression significantly correlated with local recurrence (multivariate, P=.008). Additionally, RAD54L, SKP2, and PLK2 may be predictive, being prognostic in radiation therapy–treated patients but not in untreated matched

  2. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors – a population-based study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Carina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question. The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Results About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65–74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment, economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Conclusion Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both

  3. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for individuals with self-reported chronic physical and/or mental health conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayliss, Martha; Rendas-Baum, Regina; White, Michelle K

    2012-01-01

    In the US, approximately 53% of adults have at least one chronic condition. Comorbid physical and mental health conditions often have an incremental negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Primary study objectives were to quantify the impact on HRQL of a) ≥ 1 physical condition...... , b) ≥ 1 comorbid mental health conditions added to a physical one, c) ≥ 1 mental health condition, and d) ≥ 1 comorbid physical conditions added to at least one related to mental health. Decrements were based on a "Healthy" reference group reporting no chronic conditions....

  4. A relational understanding of sibling experiences of children with rare life-limiting conditions: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Cari; Gibson, Faith; Adams, Sally; Anderson, Gillian; Forbat, Liz

    2014-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) and Batten disease are rare life-limiting conditions (LLCs) characterised by progressive and permanent physical and cognitive decline. The impact of such conditions on families, and notably on siblings, has not yet been described or documented. This paper presents data from a UK-wide study that sought to understand the family experience of supporting a child with the rare degenerative LLCs of MPS and Batten disease. The aim of this paper is to report sibling experiences related to these rare degenerative and progressive conditions, in order to inform the future development of supportive interventions. Eight siblings of children with MPS (n = 7) and Batten Disease (n = 1) participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. A card sort technique was utilised to support and engage the children. Siblings are clearly impacted emotionally, pragmatically and relationally by the ill health of another child in the family. The data indicate four key themes which demonstrate impacts on siblings: perceptions of the condition and its symptoms, impact on daily life, emotional consequences and ways of coping. Siblings often had considerable knowledge of the condition and took on important roles in symptom management. However, these experiences were in the context of managing relationships within the family (often protecting parents from an awareness of how much they knew) and relationships at school (including distraction from learning and being bullied by peers). The data highlight how sibling experiences are generated through a combination of negative disability discourses and support through peers and family members. The data indicate how these features shift as a consequence of witnessing the advancement of their brother's or sister's condition and the emotional sequelae of disease progression. Exploration of siblings' experiences of living with such rare progressive and degenerative LLCs suggest the focus of interventions to support this

  5. The development of satisfaction with service-related choices for disabled young people with degenerative conditions: evidence from parents' accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Jane; Beresford, Bryony

    2012-07-01

    Satisfaction with service-related choices has not received much research attention, especially beyond medical/health-related decisions. This paper reports findings from an analysis of parents' accounts of making service-related choices with, or on behalf of, a disabled son or daughter with a degenerative condition. It focuses particularly on factors and processes, which contribute to parents' satisfaction. This is particularly interesting given that sub-optimal outcomes or negative consequences are often experienced following a service-related choice being implemented. The data reported here were collected as part of a larger, longitudinal study (the Choice and Change project) of service users' experiences of choice-making, including the outcomes and consequences of those choices. Parents of disabled young people with degenerative conditions formed part of this sample. The accounts of 14 of these parents, collected over three interviews during a two and a half-year period, all of whom expressed satisfaction with the medium- to long-term outcomes of a service-related choice, were selected for specific analyses to understand what underlies satisfaction with service-related choices. Clarity of the desired outcome for the young person supported effective decision-making and led parents to feel confident that the best possible choice was being made. Evidence of desired outcomes being attained were used by parents to 'trade off' the negative consequences of a choice. These included the considerable demands placed on parents' personal, financial and practical resources to operationalise a choice, and the emotional impact incurred by significant changes such as the loss of the carer role. The passage of time was important in allowing evidence of positive outcomes to emerge, psychological or emotional adjustments to be made, and for parents to develop trust in new service providers. The findings suggest that practitioners can have an important role in both practical and

  6. Overweight, obesity and related conditions: a cross-sectional study of adult inpatients at a Norwegian Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity and associated conditions are major public health concerns in Norway. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the general population in Norway is increasing, but there are limited data on how the situation is in hospitals. This study aimed to find the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and explore the associations of overweight, obesity and its related medical conditions in an adult in-patient sample at specified somatic and psychiatric departments at St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim. Results A total of 497 patients participated. The mean BMI for the total sample at screening was 25.4 kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 45.1%. There was a higher association of overweight and obesity among patients aged 40–59 years (OR: 1.7) compared to those being younger. There was no significant difference between the somatic and the psychiatric samples. In the somatic sample overweight and obesity was associated with obesity-related conditions for both genders (OR: 2.0 and 2.1, respectively), when adjusted for age. Conclusion The substantial prevalence of overweight and obese patients may pose a threat to future hospital services. To further address the burden of overweight and obesity in hospitals, we need more knowledge about consequences of length of stay, use of resources and overall cost. PMID:24571809

  7. Related Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunotherapy Report Overview of FARE Research National Academies Consensus Study Research Grants FARE Clinical Network FARE Patient ... is common for patients with eczema to have false positive testing to foods so it is important ...

  8. Conditions Related to Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the entire Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving Day Walk Parkinson's Champions Create Your Own Fundraiser Advocate With Us Local Resources Find an Event My PD Story Volunteer ... Support a Moving Day Walker Support a Parkinson's Champion Bequests & Planned ...

  9. West-WRF Sensitivity to Sea Surface Temperature Boundary Condition in California Precipitation Forecasts of AR Related Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Martin, A.; Weihs, R. R.; Ralph, M.

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the merit in coastal precipitation forecasts by inclusion of high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) from blended satellite and in situ observations as a boundary condition (BC) to the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model through simple perturbation tests. Our sensitivity analyses shows that the limited improvement of watershed scale precipitation forecast is credible. When only SST BC is changed, there is an uncertainty introduced because of artificial model state equilibrium and the nonlinear nature of the WRF model system. With the change of SST on the order of a fraction of a degree centigrade, we found that the part of random perturbation forecast response is saturated after 48 hours when it reaches to the order magnitude of the linear response. It is important to update the SST at a shorter time period, so that the independent excited nonlinear modes can cancel each other. The uncertainty in our SST configuration is quantitatively equivalent to adding to a spatially uncorrelated Guasian noise of zero mean and 0.05 degree of standard deviation to the SST. At this random noise perturbation magnitude, the ensemble average behaves well within a convergent range. It is also found that the sensitivity of forecast changes in response to SST changes. This is measured by the ratio of the spatial variability of mean of the ensemble perturbations over the spatial variability of the corresponding forecast. The ratio is about 10% for surface latent heat flux, 5 % for IWV, and less than 1% for surface pressure.

  10. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaitsi, Elsa; Magan, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90) and temperature (10–25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins. PMID:29462982

  11. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO₂ Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cela, Esther; Kiaitsi, Elsa; Sulyok, Michael; Medina, Angel; Magan, Naresh

    2018-02-17

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (a w ; 0.95-0.90) and temperature (10-25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO₂ production. There was an increase in temporal CO₂ production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 a w treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO₂ in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 a w /20-25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 a w . The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95-0.93 a w and 20 °C/0.95 a w . ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  12. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90 and temperature (10–25 °C in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a respiration rate; (b dry matter losses (DML; (c ZEN production and (d relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. <1.0% DML, there was a low risk of ZEN contamination exceeding EU legislative limits, while at >1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  13. Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2β (TFAP-2β) genotype and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to symptoms of depression in two independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kent W; Sonnby, Karin; Nordquist, Niklas; Comasco, Erika; Leppert, Jerzy; Oreland, Lars; Sjöberg, Rickard L

    2014-04-01

    The Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2β (TFAP-2β) gene has been shown to influence monoaminergic neurotransmission, and several genes important for monoaminergic function have binding sites for TFAP-2β. Familial studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest a hereditary-determined subtype of ADHD with comorbid depression. We examined a functional variation of the TFAP-2β gene in the context of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression in two independent population-based samples of adolescents (Group A, n = 175 and Group B, n = 1,506) from Sweden. Results indicated 6.1 to 7.8% of adolescents screened positively for ADHD and depression symptoms. Symptoms of depression were more common among girls who screened positively for ADHD and did not carry the nine-repeat allele of the TFAP-2β intron 1 Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. The presence of the nine-repeat variant of the TFAP-2β intron 1 VNTR appears to protect girls with ADHD symptoms from the co-expression of symptoms of depression.

  14. 5-Fluorouracil-related enhancement of adenoviral infection is Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor independent and associated with morphological changes in lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrele, Chiara; Vogel, Mandy; Piso, Pompiliu; Rentsch, Markus; Schröder, Josef; Jauch, Karl W; Schlitt, Hans J; Beham, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the mechanism underlying the effects of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) on adenoviral infection. METHODS: Low and high Coxsackievirus-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) expressing human colon carcinoma cell lines were treated with 5-FU and two E1-deleted adenoviral constructs, one transferring GFP (Ad/CMV-GFP) the other bax (Ad/CEA-bax). The number of infected cells were monitored by GFP expression. To evaluate the effects of 5-FU in a receptor free system, Ad/GFP were encapsulated in liposomes and treated with 5-FU. Ad/GFP release was estimated with PCR and infection of 293 cells with the supernatant. Electron microscopy of the Ad5-GFP-liposome complex was made to investigate morphological changes of the liposomes after 5-FU. RESULTS: Infection rates of all cell lines increased from 50% to 98% with emerging 5-FU concentrations. The enhanced viral uptake was independent of the CAR expression. Additionally, 5-FU treated liposomes released 2-2.5 times more adenoviruses. Furthermore, 5-FU-treated liposomes appeared irregular and porous-like. CONCLUSION: adenoviral uptake is enhanced in the presence of 5-FU irrespective of CAR and is associated with morphological changes in membranes making the combination of both a promising option in gene therapy. PMID:16937527