WorldWideScience

Sample records for condition space quantified

  1. Quantifying the tibiofemoral joint space using x-ray tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinosky, Benjamin; Sabol, John M; Piacsek, Kelly; Heckel, Beth; Gilat Schmidt, Taly

    2011-12-01

    Digital x-ray tomosynthesis (DTS) has the potential to provide 3D information about the knee joint in a load-bearing posture, which may improve diagnosis and monitoring of knee osteoarthritis compared with projection radiography, the current standard of care. Manually quantifying and visualizing the joint space width (JSW) from 3D tomosynthesis datasets may be challenging. This work developed a semiautomated algorithm for quantifying the 3D tibiofemoral JSW from reconstructed DTS images. The algorithm was validated through anthropomorphic phantom experiments and applied to three clinical datasets. A user-selected volume of interest within the reconstructed DTS volume was enhanced with 1D multiscale gradient kernels. The edge-enhanced volumes were divided by polarity into tibial and femoral edge maps and combined across kernel scales. A 2D connected components algorithm was performed to determine candidate tibial and femoral edges. A 2D joint space width map (JSW) was constructed to represent the 3D tibiofemoral joint space. To quantify the algorithm accuracy, an adjustable knee phantom was constructed, and eleven posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral DTS scans were acquired with the medial minimum JSW of the phantom set to 0-5 mm in 0.5 mm increments (VolumeRad™, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, United Kingdom). The accuracy of the algorithm was quantified by comparing the minimum JSW in a region of interest in the medial compartment of the JSW map to the measured phantom setting for each trial. In addition, the algorithm was applied to DTS scans of a static knee phantom and the JSW map compared to values estimated from a manually segmented computed tomography (CT) dataset. The algorithm was also applied to three clinical DTS datasets of osteoarthritic patients. The algorithm segmented the JSW and generated a JSW map for all phantom and clinical datasets. For the adjustable phantom, the estimated minimum JSW values were plotted against the measured values for all

  2. Disordered crystals from first principles I: Quantifying the configuration space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Thomas D.; Prodan, Emil

    2018-04-01

    This work represents the first chapter of a project on the foundations of first-principle calculations of the electron transport in crystals at finite temperatures. We are interested in the range of temperatures, where most electronic components operate, that is, room temperature and above. The aim is a predictive first-principle formalism that combines ab-initio molecular dynamics and a finite-temperature Kubo-formula for homogeneous thermodynamic phases. The input for this formula is the ergodic dynamical system (Ω , G , dP) defining the thermodynamic crystalline phase, where Ω is the configuration space for the atomic degrees of freedom, G is the space group acting on Ω and dP is the ergodic Gibbs measure relative to the G-action. The present work develops an algorithmic method for quantifying (Ω , G , dP) from first principles. Using the silicon crystal as a working example, we find the Gibbs measure to be extremely well characterized by a multivariate normal distribution, which can be quantified using a small number of parameters. The latter are computed at various temperatures and communicated in the form of a table. Using this table, one can generate large and accurate thermally-disordered atomic configurations to serve, for example, as input for subsequent simulations of the electronic degrees of freedom.

  3. Quantifying polypeptide conformational space: sensitivity to conformation and ensemble definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, David C; Lim, Carmay

    2006-08-24

    Quantifying the density of conformations over phase space (the conformational distribution) is needed to model important macromolecular processes such as protein folding. In this work, we quantify the conformational distribution for a simple polypeptide (N-mer polyalanine) using the cumulative distribution function (CDF), which gives the probability that two randomly selected conformations are separated by less than a "conformational" distance and whose inverse gives conformation counts as a function of conformational radius. An important finding is that the conformation counts obtained by the CDF inverse depend critically on the assignment of a conformation's distance span and the ensemble (e.g., unfolded state model): varying ensemble and conformation definition (1 --> 2 A) varies the CDF-based conformation counts for Ala(50) from 10(11) to 10(69). In particular, relatively short molecular dynamics (MD) relaxation of Ala(50)'s random-walk ensemble reduces the number of conformers from 10(55) to 10(14) (using a 1 A root-mean-square-deviation radius conformation definition) pointing to potential disconnections in comparing the results from simplified models of unfolded proteins with those from all-atom MD simulations. Explicit waters are found to roughen the landscape considerably. Under some common conformation definitions, the results herein provide (i) an upper limit to the number of accessible conformations that compose unfolded states of proteins, (ii) the optimal clustering radius/conformation radius for counting conformations for a given energy and solvent model, (iii) a means of comparing various studies, and (iv) an assessment of the applicability of random search in protein folding.

  4. Quantifying uncertainty in Gulf of Mexico forecasts stemming from uncertain initial conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Iskandarani, Mohamed

    2016-06-09

    Polynomial Chaos (PC) methods are used to quantify the impacts of initial conditions uncertainties on oceanic forecasts of the Gulf of Mexico circulation. Empirical Orthogonal Functions are used as initial conditions perturbations with their modal amplitudes considered as uniformly distributed uncertain random variables. These perturbations impact primarily the Loop Current system and several frontal eddies located in its vicinity. A small ensemble is used to sample the space of the modal amplitudes and to construct a surrogate for the evolution of the model predictions via a nonintrusive Galerkin projection. The analysis of the surrogate yields verification measures for the surrogate\\'s reliability and statistical information for the model output. A variance analysis indicates that the sea surface height predictability in the vicinity of the Loop Current is limited to about 20 days. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Quantifying space, understanding minds: A visual summary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Simpson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an illustrated, validated taxonomy of research that compares spatial measures to human behavior. Spatial measures quantify the spatial characteristics of environments, such as the centrality of intersections in a street network or the accessibility of a room in a building from all the other rooms. While spatial measures have been of interest to spatial sciences, they are also of importance in the behavioral sciences for use in modeling human behavior. A high correlation between values for spatial measures and specific behaviors can provide insights into an environment's legibility, and contribute to a deeper understanding of human spatial cognition. Research in this area takes place in several domains, which makes a full understanding of existing literature difficult. To address this challenge, we adopt a visual summary approach. Literature is analyzed, and recurring topics are identified and validated with independent inter-rater agreement tasks in order to create a robust taxonomy for spatial measures and human behavior. The taxonomy is then illustrated with a visual representation that allows for at-a-glance visual access to the content of individual research papers in a corpus. A public web interface has been created that allows interested researchers to add to the database and create visual summaries for their research papers using our taxonomy.

  6. Quantifying uncertainty in Gulf of Mexico forecasts stemming from uncertain initial conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Iskandarani, Mohamed; Le Hé naff, Matthieu; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Knio, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Polynomial Chaos (PC) methods are used to quantify the impacts of initial conditions uncertainties on oceanic forecasts of the Gulf of Mexico circulation. Empirical Orthogonal Functions are used as initial conditions perturbations with their modal

  7. Quantifying Social Motivation in Mice Using Operant Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Loren; Iceberg, Erica

    2015-08-08

    In this protocol, social motivation is measured in mice through a pair of operant conditioning paradigms. To conduct the experiments, two-chambered shuttle boxes were equipped with two operant levers (left and right) and a food receptacle in one chamber, which was then divided from the second chamber by an automated guillotine door covered by a wire grid. Different stimulus mice, rotated across testing days, served as a social stimulus behind the wire grid, and were only visible following the opening of the guillotine door. Test mice were trained to lever press in order to open the door and gain access to the stimulus partner for 15 sec. The number of lever presses required to obtain the social reward progressively increased on a fixed schedule of 3. Testing sessions ended after test mice stopped lever pressing for 5 consecutive minutes. The last reinforced ratio or breakpoint can be used as a quantitative measure of social motivation. For the second paradigm, test mice were trained to discriminate between left and right lever presses in order to obtain either a food reward or the social reward. Mice were rewarded for every 3 presses of each respective lever. The number of food and social rewards can be compared as a measurement of the value placed upon each reward. The ratio of each reward type can also be compared between mouse strains and the change in this ratio can be monitored within testing sessions to measure satiation with a given reward type. Both of these operant conditioning paradigms are highly useful for the quantification of social motivation in mouse models of autism and other disorders of social behavior.

  8. Quantifying multi-dimensional functional trait spaces of trees: empirical versus theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, K.; Fell, M.; Barber, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Empirical, field studies of plant functional traits have revealed important trade-offs among pairs or triplets of traits, such as the leaf (LES) and wood (WES) economics spectra. Trade-offs include correlations between leaf longevity (LL) vs specific leaf area (SLA), LL vs mass-specific leaf respiration rate (RmL), SLA vs RmL, and resistance to breakage vs wood density. Ordination analyses (e.g., PCA) show groupings of traits that tend to align with different life-history strategies or taxonomic groups. It is unclear, however, what underlies such trade-offs and emergent spectra. Do they arise from inherent physiological constraints on growth, or are they more reflective of environmental filtering? The relative importance of these mechanisms has implications for predicting biogeochemical cycling, which is influenced by trait distributions of the plant community. We address this question using an individual-based model of tree growth (ACGCA) to quantify the theoretical trait space of trees that emerges from physiological constraints. ACGCA's inputs include 32 physiological, anatomical, and allometric traits, many of which are related to the LES and WES. We fit ACGCA to 1.6 million USFS FIA observations of tree diameters and heights to obtain vectors of trait values that produce realistic growth, and we explored the structure of this trait space. No notable correlations emerged among the 496 trait pairs, but stepwise regressions revealed complicated multi-variate structure: e.g., relationships between pairs of traits (e.g., RmL and SLA) are governed by other traits (e.g., LL, radiation-use efficiency [RUE]). We also simulated growth under various canopy gap scenarios that impose varying degrees of environmental filtering to explore the multi-dimensional trait space (hypervolume) of trees that died vs survived. The centroid and volume of the hypervolumes differed among dead and live trees, especially under gap conditions leading to low mortality. Traits most predictive

  9. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Sharmi; Barr, Yael; Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA s Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the "Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember." This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this risk. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to define the set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur during exploration space flight missions. The list was derived from the International Space Station Medical Checklist, the Shuttle Medical Checklist, in-flight occurrence data from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, and NASA subject matter experts. The list of conditions was further prioritized for eight specific design reference missions with the assistance of the ExMC Advisory Group. The purpose of the SMEMCL is to serve as an evidence-based foundation for the conditions that could affect a crewmember during flight. This information is used to ensure that the appropriate medical capabilities are available for exploration missions.

  10. Atomic collisions under extreme conditions in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    1987-01-01

    In space, atoms and molecules are often placed under the extreme conditions which are very difficult to be realized on Earth. For instance, extremely hot and dense plasmas are found in and around various stellar objects (e.g., neutron stars) on one hand and extremely cold and diffuse gases prevail in interstellar space on the other. There is so strong a magnetic field that electron clouds in atoms and molecules are distorted. The study of atomic collisions under the extreme conditions is not only helpful in understanding the astrophysical environment but also reveals new aspects of the physics of atoms and molecules. This paper is an invitation to the study. (References are not exhaustive but only provide a clue with which more details can be found.) (author)

  11. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  12. Volumes of conditioned bipartite state spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milz, Simon; Strunz, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the metric properties of conditioned quantum state spaces M η (n×m) . These spaces are the convex sets of nm×nm density matrices that, when partially traced over m degrees of freedom, respectively yield the given n × n density matrix η. For the case n = 2, the volume of M η (2×m) equipped with the Hilbert–Schmidt measure can be conjectured to be a simple polynomial of the radius of η in the Bloch-ball. Remarkably, for m=2,3 we find numerically that the probability p sep (2×m) (η) to find a separable state in M η (2×m) is independent of η (except for η pure). For m>3, the same holds for p PosPart (2×m) (η), the probability to find a state with a positive partial transpose in M η (2×m) . These results are proven analytically for the case of the family of 4 × 4 X-states, and thoroughly numerically investigated for the general case. The important implications of these findings for the clarification of open problems in quantum theory are pointed out and discussed. (paper)

  13. The Mackey convergence condition for spaces with webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Gilsdorf

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available If each sequence converging to 0 in a locally convex space is also Mackey convergent to 0, that space is said to satisfy the Mackey convergence condition. The problem of characterizing those locally convex spaces with this property is still open. In this paper, spaces with compatible webs are used to construct both a necessary and a sufficient condition for a locally convex space to satisfy the Mackey convergence condition.

  14. Quantifying uncertainty in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation - A high resolution simulation study in ICBM space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, Nicola; Keck, Martin E; Welt, Tobias; Guerrisi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation offers enormous potential for noninvasive brain stimulation. While it is known that brain tissue significantly "reshapes" induced field and charge distributions, most modeling investigations to-date have focused on single-subject data with limited generality. Further, the effects of the significant uncertainties which exist in the simulation (i.e. brain conductivity distributions) and stimulation (e.g. coil positioning and orientations) setup have not been quantified. In this study, we construct a high-resolution anisotropic head model in standard ICBM space, which can be used as a population-representative standard for bioelectromagnetic simulations. Further, we employ Monte-Carlo simulations in order to quantify how uncertainties in conductivity values propagate all the way to induced field and currents, demonstrating significant, regionally dependent dispersions in values which are commonly assumed "ground truth". This framework can be leveraged in order to quantify the effect of any type of uncertainty in noninvasive brain stimulation and bears relevance in all applications of TMS, both investigative and therapeutic.

  15. Space-based retrieval of NO2 over biomass burning regions: quantifying and reducing uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserez, N.

    2014-10-01

    The accuracy of space-based nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrievals from solar backscatter radiances critically depends on a priori knowledge of the vertical profiles of NO2 and aerosol optical properties. This information is used to calculate an air mass factor (AMF), which accounts for atmospheric scattering and is used to convert the measured line-of-sight "slant" columns into vertical columns. In this study we investigate the impact of biomass burning emissions on the AMF in order to quantify NO2 retrieval errors in the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products over these sources. Sensitivity analyses are conducted using the Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (LIDORT) model. The NO2 and aerosol profiles are obtained from a 3-D chemistry-transport model (GEOS-Chem), which uses the Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) daily biomass burning emission inventory. Aircraft in situ data collected during two field campaigns, the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) and the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment (DABEX), are used to evaluate the modeled aerosol optical properties and NO2 profiles over Canadian boreal fires and West African savanna fires, respectively. Over both domains, the effect of biomass burning emissions on the AMF through the modified NO2 shape factor can be as high as -60%. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that the effect of aerosol and shape factor perturbations on the AMF is very sensitive to surface reflectance and clouds. As an illustration, the aerosol correction can range from -20 to +100% for different surface reflectances, while the shape factor correction varies from -70 to -20%. Although previous studies have shown that in clear-sky conditions the effect of aerosols on the AMF was in part implicitly accounted for by the modified cloud parameters, here it is suggested that when clouds are present above a surface layer of scattering aerosols, an explicit

  16. Modelling of air-conditioned and heated spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehl, U

    1987-01-01

    A space represents a complex system involving numerous components, manipulated variables and disturbances which need to be described if dynamic behaviour of space air is to be determined. A justifiable amount of simulation input is determined by the application of adjusted modelling of the individual components. The determination of natural air exchange in heated spaces and of space-air flow in air-conditioned space are a primary source of uncertainties. (orig.).

  17. 'The perception of fear conditioning urban space'

    OpenAIRE

    Fani Bakratsa

    2011-01-01

    The dominant metabolic system within urban environments often involves deep socio-economic inequalities, exploitative productive practices and a persistent sense of alienation among the vast majority of the population. The city itself spawns the conditions both for the development of actual criminality and, more perniciously, for the emergence of an acute perception of fear within the polis. Over the years, this perception has affected a whole array of societal elements including, quite signi...

  18. Spaced taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    We succeeded in taste avoidance conditioning with sucrose as the conditional stimulus (CS) and an electrical stimulus (∼1000V, 80μA) as the unconditional stimulus (US). With 15 paired CS-US presentations on a single day, we were able to elicit both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) persisting for at least one week. However, while STM was elicited with 5, 8, 10, and 20 paired presentations of the CS-US on a single day, LTM was not. We found, however, that if we inserted a 3h interval between a first and a second set of CS-US pairings that both 8 and 20 paired CS-US presentations on a single day was now sufficient to cause LTM formation. Exposing snails to bryostatin before or during training enhanced LTM formation such that 8 paired presentations of the CS-US resulted in LTM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying the distribution of paste-void spacing of hardened cement paste using X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Tae Sup, E-mail: taesup@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Yeom, E-mail: kimky@kict.re.kr [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 283 Goyangdae-ro, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang, 411-712 (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Jinhyun, E-mail: jinhyun@stanford.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kang, Dong Hun, E-mail: timeriver@naver.com [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The distribution of paste-void spacing in cement-based materials is an important feature related to the freeze-thaw durability of these materials, but its reliable estimation remains an unresolved problem. Herein, we evaluate the capability of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for reliable quantification of the distribution of paste-void spacing. Using X-ray CT images of three mortar specimens having different air-entrainment characteristics, we calculate the distributions of paste-void spacing of the specimens by applying previously suggested methods for deriving the exact spacing of air-void systems. This methodology is assessed by comparing the 95th percentile of the cumulative distribution function of the paste-void spacing with spacing factors computed by applying the linear-traverse method to 3D air-void system and reconstructing equivalent air-void distribution in 3D. Results show that the distributions of equivalent void diameter and paste-void spacing follow lognormal and normal distributions, respectively, and the ratios between the 95th percentile paste-void spacing value and the spacing factors reside within the ranges reported by previous numerical studies. This experimental finding indicates that the distribution of paste-void spacing quantified using X-ray CT has the potential to be the basis for a statistical assessment of the freeze-thaw durability of cement-based materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paste-void spacing in 3D can be quantified by X-ray CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of the paste-void spacing follows normal distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spacing factor and 95th percentile of CDF of paste-void spacing are correlated.

  20. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.

  1. Quantifying Projected Heat Mortality Impacts under 21st-Century Warming Conditions for Selected European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrovski, Vladimir; Baccini, Michela; Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Wolf, Tanja; Paunovic, Elizabet; Menne, Bettina

    2017-07-05

    Under future warming conditions, high ambient temperatures will have a significant impact on population health in Europe. The aim of this paper is to quantify the possible future impact of heat on population mortality in European countries, under different climate change scenarios. We combined the heat-mortality function estimated from historical data with meteorological projections for the future time laps 2035-2064 and 2071-2099, developed under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. We calculated attributable deaths (AD) at the country level. Overall, the expected impacts will be much larger than the impacts we would observe if apparent temperatures would remain in the future at the observed historical levels. During the period 2071-2099, an overall excess of 46,690 and 117,333 AD per year is expected under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively, in addition to the 16,303 AD estimated under the historical scenario. Mediterranean and Eastern European countries will be the most affected by heat, but a non-negligible impact will be still registered in North-continental countries. Policies and plans for heat mitigation and adaptation are needed and urgent in European countries in order to prevent the expected increase of heat-related deaths in the coming decades.

  2. Collaborative Research. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks of the Terrestrial Biosphere under Thawing Permafrost Conditions in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlosser, Courtney [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Lab. (MBL), Woods Hole, MA (United States); Walter, Katey [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Our overall goal is to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically-forced climate warming, and the conditions under which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes to the landscape of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, across the Arctic. Through a suite of numerical experiments that encapsulate the fundamental processes governing methane emissions and carbon exchanges – as well as their coupling to the global climate system - we intend to test the following hypothesis in the proposed research: There exists a climate warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and stimulates large increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and poorly-drained wetland areas upon thawing permafrost along with microbial metabolic responses to higher temperatures) and increases in carbon dioxide emissions from well-drained areas. Besides changes in biogeochemistry, this threshold will also influence global energy dynamics through effects on surface albedo, evapotranspiration and water vapor. These changes would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands and higher plant photosynthesis) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  3. Conditions and constraints of food processing in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B.; Nelson, P. E.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Requirements and constraints of food processing in space include a balanced diet, food variety, stability for storage, hardware weight and volume, plant performance, build-up of microorganisms, and waste processing. Lunar, Martian, and space station environmental conditions include variations in atmosphere, day length, temperature, gravity, magnetic field, and radiation environment. Weightlessness affects fluid behavior, heat transfer, and mass transfer. Concerns about microbial behavior include survival on Martian and lunar surfaces and in enclosed environments. Many present technologies can be adapted to meet space conditions.

  4. Quantifying loss of acoustic communication space for right whales in and around a U.S. National Marine Sanctuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Leila T; Clark, Christopher W; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Frankel, Adam S; Ponirakis, Dimitri W

    2012-12-01

    The effects of chronic exposure to increasing levels of human-induced underwater noise on marine animal populations reliant on sound for communication are poorly understood. We sought to further develop methods of quantifying the effects of communication masking associated with human-induced sound on contact-calling North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in an ecologically relevant area (~10,000 km(2) ) and time period (peak feeding time). We used an array of temporary, bottom-mounted, autonomous acoustic recorders in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary to monitor ambient noise levels, measure levels of sound associated with vessels, and detect and locate calling whales. We related wind speed, as recorded by regional oceanographic buoys, to ambient noise levels. We used vessel-tracking data from the Automatic Identification System to quantify acoustic signatures of large commercial vessels. On the basis of these integrated sound fields, median signal excess (the difference between the signal-to-noise ratio and the assumed recognition differential) for contact-calling right whales was negative (-1 dB) under current ambient noise levels and was further reduced (-2 dB) by the addition of noise from ships. Compared with potential communication space available under historically lower noise conditions, calling right whales may have lost, on average, 63-67% of their communication space. One or more of the 89 calling whales in the study area was exposed to noise levels ≥120 dB re 1 μPa by ships for 20% of the month, and a maximum of 11 whales were exposed to noise at or above this level during a single 10-min period. These results highlight the limitations of exposure-threshold (i.e., dose-response) metrics for assessing chronic anthropogenic noise effects on communication opportunities. Our methods can be used to integrate chronic and wide-ranging noise effects in emerging ocean-planning forums that seek to improve management of cumulative effects

  5. Quantifying Permafrost Extent, Condition, and Degradation at Department of Defense Installations in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is planning over $500M in military construction on Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) within the next three fiscal years. This construction program will expand the footprint of facilities and change the storm water management scheme, which will have second order effects on the underlying permafrost layer. These changes in permafrost will drive engineering decision making at local and regional levels, and help shape the overall strategy for military readiness in the Arctic. Although many studies have attempted to predict climate change induced permafrost degradation, very little site-specific knowledge exists on the anthropogenic effects to permafrost at this location. In 2016, the permafrost degradation rates at Eielson AFB were modeled using the Geophysics Institute Permafrost Laboratory (GIPL) 2.1 model and limited available geotechnical and climate data. Model results indicated a degradation of the discontinuous permafrost layer at Eielson AFB of up to 7 meters in depth over the next century. To further refine an understanding of the geophysics at Eielson AFB and help engineers and commanders make more informed decisions on engineering and operations in the arctic, this project established two permafrost monitoring stations near the future construction sites. Installation of the stations occurred in July 2017. Permafrost was located and characterized using two Electrical Resistivity Tomography surveys, as well as direct frost probe measurements. Using this data, the research team optimized the placement location and depth of two long term ground temperature monitoring stations, and then installed the stations for data collection. The data set generated by these stations are the first of their kind at Eielson AFB, and represent the first systematic effort in the DoD to quantify permafrost condition before, during, and after construction and other anthropogenic activities in order to fully understand the effects of that activity in the

  6. The Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE): Quantifying the Impact of Gravity Waves on the Edge of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Forbes, J. M.; Fritts, D. C.; Eckermann, S. D.; Snively, J. B.; Liu, H.; Janches, D.; Syrstad, E. A.; Esplin, R. W.; Pautet, P. D.; Zhao, Y.; Pendleton, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    New theory and modeling now indicate that upward-propagating gravity waves (GWs) originating in the lower atmosphere have profound effects on the variability and mean state of the ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere (ITM) system. A major unknown is the spectrum of small-scale ( 30-300 km) GWs entering this system from below. Yet, this part of the spectrum contains most of the waves that will produce the greatest ITM effects. To address this knowledge gap, the Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE) plans to deploy a high-resolution imager (based on the successful Utah State University Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper) on the International Space Station (ISS) to gain a transformative set of GW-resolving temperature measurements using the OH nightglow emission (altitude 87 km). The ISS provides the ideal combination of altitude, geographic and local time coverage to accomplish our proposed science objectives, which seeks not only near-global measurements of GW characteristics in the mesopause region, but also quantification of GW momentum and energy fluxes driving the IT from below. Combined with state-of-the-art high-resolution models, the AWE mission will also assess the relative importance of sources versus propagation conditions in explaining the observed spatial and temporal variability of the GWs. The AWE mission was recently selected for a "Phase A" study as part of the NASA 2016 Heliophysics Explorers Mission of Opportunity (MO) Program. In this presentation, we describe the primary goals of this program and introduce our proposed research methods using proven IR instrument technology. AWE's exceptional capabilities are illustrated with recent discoveries in observing GWs from the ground and from aircraft during the NSF DEEPWAVE campaign, promising a major step forward in understanding how troposphere weather translates to space weather.

  7. Three-Dimensional, Transgenic Cell Models to Quantify Space Genotoxic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, S. R.; Sognier, M. A.; Wu, H.; Pingerelli, P. L.; Glickman, B. W.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The space environment contains radiation and chemical agents known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic to humans. Additionally, microgravity is a complicating factor that may modify or synergize induced genotoxic effects. Most in vitro models fail to use human cells (making risk extrapolation to humans more difficult), overlook the dynamic effect of tissue intercellular interactions on genotoxic damage, and lack the sensitivity required to measure low-dose effects. Currently a need exists for a model test system that simulates cellular interactions present in tissue, and can be used to quantify genotoxic damage induced by low levels of radiation and chemicals, and extrapolate assessed risk to humans. A state-of-the-art, three-dimensional, multicellular tissue equivalent cell culture model will be presented. It consists of mammalian cells genetically engineered to contain multiple copies of defined target genes for genotoxic assessment,. NASA-designed bioreactors were used to coculture mammalian cells into spheroids, The cells used were human mammary epithelial cells (H184135) and Stratagene's (Austin, Texas) Big Blue(TM) Rat 2 lambda fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were genetically engineered to contain -a high-density target gene for mutagenesis (60 copies of lacl/LacZ per cell). Tissue equivalent spheroids were routinely produced by inoculation of 2 to 7 X 10(exp 5) fibroblasts with Cytodex 3 beads (150 micrometers in diameter). at a 20:1 cell:bead ratio, into 50-ml HARV bioreactors (Synthecon, Inc.). Fibroblasts were cultured for 5 days, an equivalent number of epithelial cells added, and the fibroblast/epithelial cell coculture continued for 21 days. Three-dimensional spheroids with diameters ranging from 400 to 600 micrometers were obtained. Histological and immunohistochemical Characterization revealed i) both cell types present in the spheroids, with fibroblasts located primarily in the center, surrounded by epithelial cells; ii) synthesis of extracellular matrix

  8. A new system to quantify uncertainties in LEO satellite position determination due to space weather events

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new system for quantitative assessment of uncertainties in LEO satellite position caused by storm time changes in space environmental...

  9. Collaborative Research: Quantifying Climate Feedbacks of the Terrestrial Biosphere under Thawing Permafrost Conditions in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2017-12-12

    Our overall goal in this research was to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically-forced climate warming, and the conditions under which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal was motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes to the landscape of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, across the Arctic. Through a suite of numerical experiments that encapsulate the fundamental processes governing methane emissions and carbon exchanges – as well as their coupling to the global climate system - we tested the following hypothesis in the proposed research: There exists a climate warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and stimulates large increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and poorly-drained wetland areas upon thawing permafrost along with microbial metabolic responses to higher temperatures) and increases in carbon dioxide emissions from well-drained areas. Besides changes in biogeochemistry, this threshold will also influence global energy dynamics through effects on surface albedo, evapotranspiration and water vapor. These changes would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands and higher plant photosynthesis) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming. In collaboration with our Purdue and MIT colleagues, we have attempted to quantify global climate warming effects on land-atmosphere interactions, land-river network interactions, permafrost degradation, vegetation shifts, and land use influence water, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes to and from terrestrial ecosystems in the pan-arctic along with their

  10. On the Response of Halophilic Archaea to Space Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuko, Stefan; Rettberg, Petra; Pontifex, Ashleigh L.; Burns, Brendan P.

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous and can be found in almost every habitat and ecological niche on Earth. They thrive and survive in a broad spectrum of environments and adapt to rapidly changing external conditions. It is of great interest to investigate how microbes adapt to different extreme environments and with modern human space travel, we added a new extreme environment: outer space. Within the last 50 years, technology has provided tools for transporting microbial life beyond Earth’s protective shield in order to study in situ responses to selected conditions of space. This review will focus on halophilic archaea, as, due to their ability to survive in extremes, they are often considered a model group of organisms to study responses to the harsh conditions associated with space. We discuss ground-based simulations, as well as space experiments, utilizing archaea, examining responses and/or resistance to the effects of microgravity and UV in particular. Several halophilic archaea (e.g., Halorubrum chaoviator) have been exposed to simulated and actual space conditions and their survival has been determined as well as the protective effects of halite shown. Finally, the intriguing potential of archaea to survive on other planets or embedded in a meteorite is postulated. PMID:25370029

  11. On the Response of Halophilic Archaea to Space Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Leuko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are ubiquitous and can be found in almost every habitat and ecological niche on Earth. They thrive and survive in a broad spectrum of environments and adapt to rapidly changing external conditions. It is of great interest to investigate how microbes adapt to different extreme environments and with modern human space travel, we added a new extreme environment: outer space. Within the last 50 years, technology has provided tools for transporting microbial life beyond Earth’s protective shield in order to study in situ responses to selected conditions of space. This review will focus on halophilic archaea, as, due to their ability to survive in extremes, they are often considered a model group of organisms to study responses to the harsh conditions associated with space. We discuss ground-based simulations, as well as space experiments, utilizing archaea, examining responses and/or resistance to the effects of microgravity and UV in particular. Several halophilic archaea (e.g., Halorubrum chaoviator have been exposed to simulated and actual space conditions and their survival has been determined as well as the protective effects of halite shown. Finally, the intriguing potential of archaea to survive on other planets or embedded in a meteorite is postulated.

  12. Quantifying the daily economic impact of extreme space weather due to failure in electricity transmission infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Edward J.; Skelton, Andrew; Horne, Richard B.; Thomson, Alan W. P.; Gaunt, Charles T.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme space weather due to coronal mass ejections has the potential to cause considerable disruption to the global economy by damaging the transformers required to operate electricity transmission infrastructure. However, expert opinion is split between the potential outcome being one of a temporary regional blackout and of a more prolonged event. The temporary blackout scenario proposed by some is expected to last the length of the disturbance, with normal operations resuming after a couple of days. On the other hand, others have predicted widespread equipment damage with blackout scenarios lasting months. In this paper we explore the potential costs associated with failure in the electricity transmission infrastructure in the U.S. due to extreme space weather, focusing on daily economic loss. This provides insight into the direct and indirect economic consequences of how an extreme space weather event may affect domestic production, as well as other nations, via supply chain linkages. By exploring the sensitivity of the blackout zone, we show that on average the direct economic cost incurred from disruption to electricity represents only 49% of the total potential macroeconomic cost. Therefore, if indirect supply chain costs are not considered when undertaking cost-benefit analysis of space weather forecasting and mitigation investment, the total potential macroeconomic cost is not correctly represented. The paper contributes to our understanding of the economic impact of space weather, as well as making a number of key methodological contributions relevant for future work. Further economic impact assessment of this threat must consider multiday, multiregional events.

  13. Extremophiles survival to simulated space conditions: an astrobiology model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastascusa, V; Romano, I; Di Donato, P; Poli, A; Della Corte, V; Rotundi, A; Bussoletti, E; Quarto, M; Pugliese, M; Nicolaus, B

    2014-09-01

    In this work we investigated the ability of four extremophilic bacteria from Archaea and Bacteria domains to resist to space environment by exposing them to extreme conditions of temperature, UV radiation, desiccation coupled to low pressure generated in a Mars' conditions simulator. All the investigated extremophilic strains (namely Sulfolobus solfataricus, Haloterrigena hispanica, Thermotoga neapolitana and Geobacillus thermantarcticus) showed a good resistance to the simulation of the temperature variation in the space; on the other hand irradiation with UV at 254 nm affected only slightly the growth of H. hispanica, G. thermantarcticus and S. solfataricus; finally exposition to Mars simulated condition showed that H. hispanica and G. thermantarcticus were resistant to desiccation and low pressure.

  14. Power conditioning for large dc motors for space flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Martin S.; Anderson, Paul M.; Eason, Douglas J.; Landis, David M.

    1988-01-01

    The design and performance of a prototype power-conditioning system for use with large brushless dc motors on NASA space missions are discussed in detail and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, and graphs. The 5-kW 8-phase parallel module evaluated here would be suitable for use in the Space Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. A current-balancing magnetic assembly with low distributed inductance permits high-speed current switching from a low-voltage bus as well as current balancing between parallel MOSFETs.

  15. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  16. Quantifying the time scales over which exogenous and endogenous conditions affect soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how exogenous and endogenous factors and aboveground-belowground linkages modulate carbon dynamics is difficult because of influences of antecedent conditions. For example, there are variable lags between aboveground assimilation and belowground efflux, and the duration of antecedent p...

  17. Classically integrable boundary conditions for symmetric-space sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, N.J.; Young, C.A.S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate boundary conditions for the non-linear sigma model on the compact symmetric space G/H. The Poisson brackets and the classical local conserved charges necessary for integrability are preserved by boundary conditions which correspond to involutions which commute with the involution defining H. Applied to SO(3)/SO(2), the non-linear sigma model on S 2 , these yield the great circles as boundary submanifolds. Applied to GxG/G, they reproduce known results for the principal chiral model

  18. Optimizing grade-control drillhole spacing with conditional simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martínez-Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a method to determine the optimum spacing of grade-control drillholes drilled with reverse-circulation. The optimum drillhole spacing was defined as that one whose cost equals the cost of misclassifying ore and waste in selection mining units (SMU. The cost of misclassification of a given drillhole spacing is equal to the cost of processing waste misclassified as ore (Type I error plus the value of the ore misclassified as waste (Type II error. Type I and Type II errors were deduced by comparing true and estimated grades at SMUs, in relation to a cuttoff grade value and assuming free ore selection. True grades at SMUs and grades at drillhole samples were generated with conditional simulations. A set of estimated grades at SMU, one per each drillhole spacing, were generated with ordinary kriging. This method was used to determine the optimum drillhole spacing in a gold deposit. The results showed that the cost of misclassification is sensitive to extreme block values and tend to be overrepresented. Capping SMU’s lost values and implementing diggability constraints was recommended to improve calculations of total misclassification costs.

  19. Quantifying the timescales over which exogenous and endogenous conditions affect soil respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Cable, Jessica M; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Scott, Russell L; Huxman, Travis E; Jenerette, G Darrel; Ogle, Kiona

    2014-04-01

    Understanding how exogenous and endogenous factors and above-ground-below-ground linkages modulate carbon dynamics is difficult because of the influences of antecedent conditions. For example, there are variable lags between above-ground assimilation and below-ground efflux, and the duration of antecedent periods are often arbitrarily assigned. Nonetheless, developing models linking above- and below-ground processes is crucial for estimating current and future carbon dynamics. We collected data on leaf-level photosynthesis (Asat ) and soil respiration (Rsoil ) in different microhabitats (under shrubs vs under bunchgrasses) in the Sonoran Desert. We evaluated timescales over which endogenous and exogenous factors control Rsoil by analyzing data in the context of a semimechanistic temperature-response model of Rsoil that incorporated effects of antecedent exogenous (soil water) and endogenous (Asat ) conditions. For both microhabitats, antecedent soil water and Asat significantly affected Rsoil , but Rsoil under shrubs was more sensitive to Asat than that under bunchgrasses. Photosynthetic rates 1 and 3 d before the Rsoil measurement were most important in determining current-day Rsoil under bunchgrasses and shrubs, respectively, indicating a significant lag effect. Endogenous and exogenous controls are critical drivers of Rsoil , but the relative importance and the timescale over which each factor affects Rsoil depends on above-ground vegetation and ecosystem structure characteristics. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Quantifying conditional risks for water and energy systems using climate information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.

    2016-12-01

    There has been a growing recognition of the multi-scale spatio-temporal organization of climate dynamics, and its implications for predictable, structured risk exposure to populations and infrastructure systems. At the most base level is an understanding that there are some identifiable climate modes, such as ENSO, that are associated with such outcomes. This has led to the emergence of a small cottage industry of analysts who relate different "climate indices" to specific regional outcomes. Such efforts and the associated media interest in these simplified "stories" have led to an increasing appreciation of the phenomenon, and some formal and informal efforts at decision making using such information. However, as was demonstrated through the 2014-16 El Nino forecasting season, many climate scientists over-emphasized the potential risks, while others cautioned the media as to the caveats and uncertainties associated with assuming that the forecasts of ENSO and the expected teleconnections may pan out. At least in certain sectors and regions, significant efforts or expectations as to outcomes were put in place, and some were beneficial, while others failed to manifest. Climate informed predictions for water and energy systems can be thought of as efforts to infer conditional distributions of specific outcomes given information on climate state. Invariably, the climate state may be presented as a very high dimensional spatial set of variables, with limited temporal sampling, while the water and energy attributes may be regional and constitute a much smaller dimension. One may, of course, be interested in the fact that the same climate state may lead to synchronous positive and negative effects across many locations, as may be expected under mid-latitude stationary and transient wave interaction. In this talk, I will provide examples of a few modern statistical and machine learning tools that allow a decomposition of the high dimensional climate state and its relation

  1. Quantified Risk Ranking Model for Condition-Based Risk and Reliability Centered Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyaya, Pradip Kumar; Basu, Sushil Kumar; Majumdar, Manik Chandra

    2017-06-01

    In the recent past, risk and reliability centered maintenance (RRCM) framework is introduced with a shift in the methodological focus from reliability and probabilities (expected values) to reliability, uncertainty and risk. In this paper authors explain a novel methodology for risk quantification and ranking the critical items for prioritizing the maintenance actions on the basis of condition-based risk and reliability centered maintenance (CBRRCM). The critical items are identified through criticality analysis of RPN values of items of a system and the maintenance significant precipitating factors (MSPF) of items are evaluated. The criticality of risk is assessed using three risk coefficients. The likelihood risk coefficient treats the probability as a fuzzy number. The abstract risk coefficient deduces risk influenced by uncertainty, sensitivity besides other factors. The third risk coefficient is called hazardous risk coefficient, which is due to anticipated hazards which may occur in the future and the risk is deduced from criteria of consequences on safety, environment, maintenance and economic risks with corresponding cost for consequences. The characteristic values of all the three risk coefficients are obtained with a particular test. With few more tests on the system, the values may change significantly within controlling range of each coefficient, hence `random number simulation' is resorted to obtain one distinctive value for each coefficient. The risk coefficients are statistically added to obtain final risk coefficient of each critical item and then the final rankings of critical items are estimated. The prioritization in ranking of critical items using the developed mathematical model for risk assessment shall be useful in optimization of financial losses and timing of maintenance actions.

  2. Quantifying the local influence at a tall tower site in nocturnal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, David; Buckley, Robert; Zhang, Gengsheng; Kurzeja, Robert; Leclerc, Monique; Duarte, Henrique; Parker, Matthew; Watson, Thomas

    2015-10-17

    The influence of the local terrestrial environment on nocturnal atmospheric CO2 measurements at a 329-m television transmitter tower (and a component of a CO2 monitoring network) was estimated with a tracer release experiment and a subsequent simulation of the releases. This was done to characterize the vertical transport of emissions from the surface to the uppermost tower level and how it is affected by atmospheric stability. The tracer release experiment was conducted over two nights in May of 2009 near the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Tracer was released on two contrasting nights—slightly stable and moderately stable—from several upwind surface locations. Measurements at the 329-m level on both nights indicate that tracer was able to mix vertically within a relatively short (~24 km) distance, implying that nocturnal stable conditions do not necessarily prevent vertical dispersion in the boundary layer and that CO2 measurements at the tower are at least partly influenced by nearby emissions. A simulation of the tracer release is used to calculate the tower footprint on the two nights to estimate the degree to which the local domain affects the tower readings. The effect of the nocturnal boundary layer on the area sampled by the tower can be seen clearly, as the footprints were affected by changes in stability. The contribution of local sources to the measurements at the tower was minimal, however, suggesting that nocturnal concentrations at upper levels are contributed mostly by regional sources.

  3. Behavior of ionic conducting IPN actuators in simulated space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannir, Adelyne; Plesse, Cédric; Nguyen, Giao T. M.; Laurent, Elisabeth; Cadiergues, Laurent; Vidal, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    The presentation focuses on the performances of flexible all-polymer electroactive actuators under space-hazardous environmental factors in laboratory conditions. These bending actuators are based on high molecular weight nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) derivative and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene) (PEDOT). The electroactive PEDOT is embedded within the PEO/NBR membrane which is subsequently swollen with an ionic liquid as electrolyte. Actuators have been submitted to thermal cycling test between -25 to 60°C under vacuum (2.4 10-8 mbar) and to ionizing Gamma radiations at a level of 210 rad/h during 100 h. Actuators have been characterized before and after space environmental condition ageing. In particular, the viscoelasticity properties and mechanical resistance of the materials have been determined by dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests. The evolution of the actuation properties as the strain and the output force have been characterized as well. The long-term vacuuming, the freezing temperature and the Gamma radiations do not affect significantly the thermomechanical properties of conducting IPNs actuators. Only a slight decrease on actuation performances has been observed.

  4. The quantum null energy condition in curved space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zicao; Koeller, Jason; Marolf, Donald

    2017-11-01

    The quantum null energy condition (QNEC) is a conjectured bound on components (Tkk = Tab ka k^b) of the stress tensor along a null vector k a at a point p in terms of a second k-derivative of the von Neumann entropy S on one side of a null congruence N through p generated by k a . The conjecture has been established for super-renormalizeable field theories at points p that lie on a bifurcate Killing horizon with null tangent k a and for large-N holographic theories on flat space. While the Koeller-Leichenauer holographic argument clearly yields an inequality for general ( p, k^a) , more conditions are generally required for this inequality to be a useful QNEC. For d≤slant 3 , for arbitrary backgroud metric we show that the QNEC is naturally finite and independent of renormalization scheme when the expansion θ of N at the point p vanishes. This is consistent with the original QNEC conjecture which required θ and the shear σab to satisfy θ \\vert _p= \\dotθ\\vert p =0 , σab\\vert _p=0 . But for d=4, 5 more conditions than even these are required. In particular, we also require the vanishing of additional derivatives and a dominant energy condition. In the above cases the holographic argument does indeed yield a finite QNEC, though for d≥slant6 we argue these properties to fail even for weakly isolated horizons (where all derivatives of θ, σab vanish) that also satisfy a dominant energy condition. On the positive side, a corrollary to our work is that, when coupled to Einstein-Hilbert gravity, d ≤slant 3 holographic theories at large N satisfy the generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics at leading order in Newton’s constant G. This is the first GSL proof which does not require the quantum fields to be perturbations to a Killing horizon.

  5. Condition Based Maintenance of Space Exploration Vehicles Using Structural Health Monitoring, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acellent Technologies proposes to develop an autonomous and automated diagnostic system for condition based maintenance (CBM) of safety critical structures for space...

  6. Desert Cyanobacteria under simulated space and Martian conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billi, D.; Ghelardini, P.; Onofri, S.; Cockell, C. S.; Rabbow, E.; Horneck, G.

    2008-09-01

    isolated from hot desert after prolonged exposure to space and Martian conditions if shielded by few mm of rocky material. In addition, these results further corroborate evidences for the existence in Chroococcidiopsis of mechanisms to both avoid (or limit) and repair DNA damage, which must take place, not only during its prolonged dry storage - when oxidative processes continue even in absence of metabolic activity - but also when dried cells experience additional environmental stressors, including those present in space or on Mars. Indeed, unravelling the DNA repair systems in a desiccation-, radiation- tolerant desert strain of Chroococcidiopsis is the task of ongoing researches at Department of Biology, Università of Rome "Tor Vergata", carried out in the framework of the MoMa project (ASI). Hence, in order to overcome impairments due to the lack of its genome sequence, two genetic approaches were developed, which take advantage of sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. The first one aims to the screening of a prey genomic library of Chroococcidiopsis by using DNA repair baits obtained from Synechocystis PCC 6803. While the second one aims to identify DNA repair genes in the Chroococcidiopsis genome by using evolutionary PCR. Finally, in order to visualize DNA repair factories in Chroococcidiopsis, a GFP-tagging genetic system was developed (Fig. 1). These efforts will contribute to future astrobiological experiments by providing Chroococcidiopsis DNA repair mutants and by offering a real-time monitoring of DNA damaging conditions by using proper GFP fusions.

  7. Managing Groundwater Recharge and Pumping for Late Summer Streamflow Increases: Quantifying Uncertainty Using Null Space Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, D. G., III; Foglia, L.; Harter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Late summer and early fall streamflow decreases caused by climate change and agricultural pumping contribute to increased water temperatures and result in large disconnected sections during dry years in many semi-arid regions with Mediterranean climate. This negatively impacts aquatic habitat of fish species such as coho and fall-run Chinook salmon. In collaboration with local stakeholders, the Scott Valley Integrated Hydrologic Model (SVIHMv3) was developed to assess future water management scenarios with the goal of improving aquatic species habitat while maintaining agricultural production in the valley. The Null Space Monte Carlo (NSMC) method available in PEST was used to quantify the range of predicted streamflow changes for three conjunctive use scenarios: 1) managed aquifer recharge (MAR), 2) in lieu recharge (ILR, substituting surface-water irrigation for irrigation with groundwater while flows are available), and 3) MAR + ILR. Random parameter sets were generated using the calibrated covariance matrix of the model, which were then recalibrated if the sum of squared residuals was greater than 10% of the original sum of squared weighted residuals. These calibration-constrained stochastic parameter sets were then used to obtain a distribution of streamflow changes resulting from implementing the conjunctive use scenarios. Preliminary results show that while the range of streamflow increases using managed aquifer recharge is much narrower (i.e., greater degree of certainty) than in lieu recharge, there are potentially much greater benefits to streamflow by implementing in lieu recharge (although also greater costs). Combining the two scenarios provides the greatest benefit for increasing late summer and early fall streamflow, as most of the MAR streamflow increases are during the spring and early summer which ILR is able to take advantage of. Incorporation of uncertainty into model predictions is critical for establishing and maintaining stakeholder trust

  8. DOE Final Report on Collaborative Research. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks of the Terrestrial Biosphere under Thawing Permafrost Conditions in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlosser, C. Adam [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Melillo, Jerry M. [Marine Biological Lab. (MBL), Woods Hole, MA (United States); Anthony, Katey Walter [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Kicklighter, David [Marine Biological Lab. (MBL), Woods Hole, MA (United States); Gao, Xiang [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-11-03

    Our overall goal is to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically-forced climate warming, and the conditions under which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes to the landscape of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, across the Arctic. Through a suite of numerical experiments that encapsulate the fundamental processes governing methane emissions and carbon exchanges – as well as their coupling to the global climate system - we intend to test the following hypothesis in the proposed research: There exists a climate warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and stimulates large increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and poorly-drained wetland areas upon thawing permafrost along with microbial metabolic responses to higher temperatures) and increases in carbon dioxide emissions from well-drained areas. Besides changes in biogeochemistry, this threshold will also influence global energy dynamics through effects on surface albedo, evapotranspiration and water vapor. These changes would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands and higher plant photosynthesis) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  9. Culture conditions of Roseobacter strain 27-4 affect its attachment and biofilm formation as quantified by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Bagge-Ravn, D.

    2006-01-01

    The fish probiotic bacterium Roseobacter strain 27-4 grows only as rosettes and produces its antibacterial compound under static growth conditions. It forms three-dimensional biofilms when precultured under static conditions. We quantified attachment of Roseobacter strain 27-4 using a direct real...

  10. Gender and Space: Analysis of Factors Conditioning Equity in the Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Paramo Bernal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses gender research in urban public space through three different perspectives: the social representations and differentiated uses of space, the division of roles in public and private spaces, and urban planning of public space. The paper gathers and analyses some studies that complement the state of art and literature on women and space giving evidence on how women have been segregated from public space and are victim of gender inequalities. Public space does not exist absolutely nor gender; instead both are socially constructed by social order and reproduced by social practices. Finally, some suggestions for urban planning and research are given in order to respond women’s needs in public space.

  11. Power Absorption by Closely Spaced Point Absorbers in Constrained Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, G.; Vantorre, M.; Beels, C.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of an array of closely spaced point absorbers is numerically assessed in a frequency domain model Each point absorber is restricted to the heave mode and is assumed to have its own linear power take-off (PTO) system Unidirectional irregular incident waves are considered......, representing the wave climate at Westhinder on the Belgian Continental Shelf The impact of slamming, stroke and force restrictions on the power absorption is evaluated and optimal PTO parameters are determined For multiple bodies optimal control parameters (CP) are not only dependent on the incoming waves...

  12. A Conditional Fourier-Feynman Transform and Conditional Convolution Product with Change of Scales on a Function Space II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple formula for conditional expectations over continuous paths, we will evaluate conditional expectations which are types of analytic conditional Fourier-Feynman transforms and conditional convolution products of generalized cylinder functions and the functions in a Banach algebra which is the space of generalized Fourier transforms of the measures on the Borel class of L2[0,T]. We will then investigate their relationships. Particularly, we prove that the conditional transform of the conditional convolution product can be expressed by the product of the conditional transforms of each function. Finally we will establish change of scale formulas for the conditional transforms and the conditional convolution products. In these evaluation formulas and change of scale formulas, we use multivariate normal distributions so that the conditioning function does not contain present positions of the paths.

  13. Evaluation of supercapacitors for space applications under thermal vacuum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Keith C.; Green, Nelson W.; Brandon, Erik J.

    2018-03-01

    Commercially available supercapacitor cells from three separate vendors were evaluated for use in a space environment using thermal vacuum (Tvac) testing. Standard commercial cells are not hermetically sealed, but feature crimp or double seam seals between the header and the can, which may not maintain an adequate seal under vacuum. Cells were placed in a small vacuum chamber, and cycled between three separate temperature set points. Charging and discharging of cells was executed following each temperature soak, to confirm there was no significant impact on performance. A final electrical performance check, visual inspection and mass check following testing were also performed, to confirm the integrity of the cells had not been compromised during exposure to thermal cycling under vacuum. All cells tested were found to survive this testing protocol and exhibited no significant impact on electrical performance.

  14. Chaotic inflation as an attractor in initial-condition space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, J.H.; Brandenberger, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    We study the evolution of scalar field inhomogeneities in the preinflationary phase of an inflationary universe. We decompose the scalar field configuration in Fourier modes and consider initial conditions in which more than one mode is excited. We find that the long-wavelength modes are stable against perturbations due to short-wavelength excitations and that chaotic inflation results even if at the initial time the short waves contain most of the energy density

  15. Increased root production in soybeans grown under space flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.

    The GENEX ({Gen}e {Ex}pression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87) was developed to investigate whether direct and/or indirect effects of microgravity are perceived as an external stimulus for soybean seedling response. Protocols were designed to optimize root and shoot formation, gas exchange and moisture uniformity. Six surface sterilized soybean seeds (Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to each pouch (thereby initiating the process of seed germination on-orbit), and subsequently transferred them to four passive, light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight material, (2) the corresponding ground control population, plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions. No significant growth differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is open to speculation. Funded under NASA Contract NAS10-12180.

  16. Quantifying the Opportunity Space for Future Electricity Generation: An Application to Offshore Wind Energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report provides a high-level indicator of the future electricity demand for additional electric power generation that is not met by existing generation sources between 2015 and 2050. The indicator is applied to coastal regions, including the Great Lakes, to assess the regional opportunity space for offshore wind. An assessment of opportunity space can be a first step in determining the prospects and the system value of a technology. The metric provides the maximal amount of additional generation that is likely required to satisfy load in future years.

  17. Studies on gene expressions analyses for Arabidopsis thaliana plants stimulated by space flight condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Pan, Yi; Li, Huasheng

    We carried out whole-genome microarray to screen the transcript profile of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings after three treatment: space microgravity condition( Seedlings grown in microgravity state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8), 1g centrifugal force in space(Seedlings grown in 1g centrifugal force state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8) and ground control. The result of microarray analysis is as followed: There were 368 genes significantly differentially expressed in space microgravity condition compared with that in 1g centrifuge space condition. Space radiation caused 246 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in 1g centrifuge space condition and ground control. Space conditions (including microgravity and radiation) caused 621 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in space microgravity condition and ground control. Microgravity and radiation as a single factor can cause plant gene expression change, but two factors synergism can produce some new effects on plant gene expression. The function of differential expression genes were analyst by bioinformatics, and we found the expression of genes related with stress were more different, such as the dehydration of protein (dehydrin Xero2) expression is up-regulated 57 times; low-temperature-induced protein expression is up-regulated in 49 times; heat shock protein expression is up-regulated 20 times; transcription factor DREB2A expression increase 25 times; protein phosphatase 2C expression is up-regulated 14 times; transcription factor NAM-like protein expression is up-regulated 13 times; cell wall metabolism related genes (xyloglucan, endo-1, 4-beta-D-glucanase) expression is down-regulated in 15 times. The results provide scientific data for the mechanism of space mutation.

  18. Quantifying the VNIR Effects of Nanophase Iron Generated through the Space Weathering of Silicates: Reconciling Modeled Data with Laboratory Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legett, C., IV; Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weathering is a diverse set of processes that occur on the surfaces of airless bodies due to exposure to the space environment. One of the effects of space weathering is the generation of nanophase iron particles in glassy rims on mineral grains due to sputtering of iron-bearing minerals. These particles have a size-dependent effect on visible and near infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with smaller diameter particles (behavior), while larger particles (> 300 nm) darken without reddening. Between these two sizes, a gradual shift between these two behaviors occurs. In this work, we present results from the Multiple Sphere T-Matrix (MSTM) scattering model in combination with Hapke theory to explore the particle size and iron content parameter spaces with respect to VNIR (700-1700 nm) spectral slope. Previous work has shown that the MSTM-Hapke hybrid model offers improvements over Mie-Hapke models. Virtual particles are constructed out of an arbitrary number of spheres, and each sphere is assigned a refractive index and extinction coefficient for each wavelength of interest. The model then directly solves Maxwell's Equations at every wave-particle interface to predict the scattering, extinction and absorption efficiencies. These are then put into a simplified Hapke bidirectional reflectance model that yields a predicted reflectance. Preliminary results show an area of maximum slopes for iron particle diameters planned to better refine the extent of this region. Companion laboratory work using mixtures of powdered aerogel and nanophase iron particles provides a point of comparison to modeling efforts. The effects on reflectance and emissivity values due to particle size in a nearly ideal scatterer (aerogel) are also observed with comparisons to model data.

  19. Quantifiers for quantum logic

    OpenAIRE

    Heunen, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.

  20. Some common random fixed point theorems for contractive type conditions in cone random metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluja Gurucharan S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish some common random fixed point theorems for contractive type conditions in the setting of cone random metric spaces. Our results unify, extend and generalize many known results from the current existing literature.

  1. Using the Enhanced Daily Load Stimulus Model to Quantify the Mechanical Load and Bone Mineral Density Changes Experienced by Crew Members on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, K. O.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kuklis, M. M.; Maender, C. C.; Rice, A. J.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the use of exercise countermeasures during long-duration space missions, bone mineral density (BMD) and predicted bone strength of astronauts continue to show decreases in the lower extremities and spine. This site-specific bone adaptation is most likely caused by the effects of microgravity on the mechanical loading environment of the crew member. There is, therefore, a need to quantify the mechanical loading experienced on Earth and on-orbit to define the effect of a given "dose" of loading on bone homeostasis. Gene et al. recently proposed an enhanced DLS (EDLS) model that, when used with entire days of in-shoe forces, takes into account recently developed theories on the importance of factors such as saturation, recovery, and standing and their effects on the osteogenic response of bone to daily physical activity. This algorithm can also quantify the tinting and type of activity (sit/unload, stand, walk, run or other loaded activity) performed throughout the day. The purpose of the current study was to use in-shoe force measurements from entire typical work days on Earth and on-orbit in order to quantify the type and amount of loading experienced by crew members. The specific aim was to use these measurements as inputs into the EDLS model to determine activity timing/type and the mechanical "dose" imparted on the musculoskeletal system of crew members and relate this dose to changes in bone homeostasis.

  2. Estimation of absorbed dose for poor shields under conditions of near-earth space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyukov, V.V.; Krajnyukov, V.I.; Trufanov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of electron absorbed dose in materials of a space vehicle for poor shields under conditions of near-earth space flight is carried out. Impact of power and angular distribution of incidence electrons and radiation scattering processes under conditions of complex geometry and multitude of materials of flight vehicle elements and nodes is studied through simulator model by example of isolating layer of aluminium-polyethylene assembly. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  3. Quantifying the impact of chronic conditions on a diagnosis of major depressive disorder in adults: a cohort study using linked electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Euijung; Chamberlain, Alanna M; Pendegraft, Richard S; Petterson, Tanya M; Bobo, William V; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2016-04-26

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often comorbid with other chronic mental and physical health conditions. Although the literature widely acknowledges the association of many chronic conditions with the risk of MDD, the relative importance of these conditions on MDD risk in the presence of other conditions is not well investigated. In this study, we aimed to quantify the relative contribution of selected chronic conditions to identify the conditions most influential to MDD risk in adults and identify differences by age. This study used electronic health record (EHR) data on patients empanelled with primary care at Mayo Clinic in June 2013. A validated EHR-based algorithm was applied to identify newly diagnosed MDD patients between 2000 and 2013. Non-MDD controls were matched 1:1 to MDD cases on birth year (±2 years), sex, and outpatient clinic visits in the same year of MDD case diagnosis. Twenty-four chronic conditions defined by Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse were ascertained in both cases and controls using diagnosis codes within 5 years of index dates (diagnosis dates for cases, and the first clinic visit dates for matched controls). For each age group (45 years or younger, between 46 and 60, and over 60 years), conditional logistic regression models were used to test the association between each condition and subsequent MDD risk, adjusting for educational attainment and obesity. The relative influence of these conditions on the risk of MDD was quantified using gradient boosting machine models. A total of 11,375 incident MDD cases were identified between 2000 and 2013. Most chronic conditions (except for eye conditions) were associated with risk of MDD, with different association patterns observed depending on age. Among 24 chronic conditions, the greatest relative contribution was observed for diabetes mellitus for subjects aged ≤ 60 years and rheumatoid arthritis/osteoarthritis for those over 60 years. Our results suggest that specific chronic

  4. Thermal convection in a closed cavity in zero-gravity space conditions with stationary magnetic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubimova, T; Mailfert, A

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of thermo-magnetic convection in a paramagnetic liquid subjected to a non-uniform magnetic field in weightlessness conditions. Indeed, in zero-g space conditions such as realized in International Space Station (ISS), or in artificial satellite, or in free-flight space vessels, the classical thermo-gravitational convection in fluid disappears. In any cases, it may be useful to restore the convective thermal exchange inside fluids such as liquid oxygen. In this paper, the restoration of heat exchange by the way of creation of magnetic convection is numerically studied.

  5. Modern education of future teacher of physical culture in the conditions of informatization of educational space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragnev Y.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The informatization of the educational space is determined by the organizational, scientific-technical, educational processes, which update the creation of the unified information and educational space for the comprehensive use of information technologies in educational process of a future teacher of physical culture at the higher school. Stated that the integration and expansion of the educational space of the orients the higher school not only in the preparation of the literate student on the issues of information culture, but also to help the younger generation in the mastery of basic social abilities and skills in conditions of informatization of the educational space.

  6. S-Denying of the Signature Conditions Expands General Relativity's Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We apply the S-denying procedure to signature conditions in a four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian space — i. e. we change one (or even all of the conditions to be partially true and partially false. We obtain five kinds of expanded space-time for General Relativity. Kind I permits the space-time to be in collapse. Kind II permits the space-time to change its own signature. Kind III has peculiarities, linked to the third signature condition. Kind IV permits regions where the metric fully degenerates: there may be non-quantum teleportation, and a home for virtual photons. Kind V is common for kinds I, II, III, and IV.

  7. Estimation of Radiation Limit from a Huygens' Box under Non-Free-Space Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2013-01-01

    The recently studied Huygens' box method has difficulties when radiation of an electronic module is to be determined under non-free-space conditions, i.e. with an enclosure. We propose an estimate on radiation limit under such conditions based only on the Huygens' box data from free...

  8. Quantifying aggregated uncertainty in Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalence and populations at risk via efficient space-time geostatistical joint simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Hay, Simon I

    2010-04-01

    Risk maps estimating the spatial distribution of infectious diseases are required to guide public health policy from local to global scales. The advent of model-based geostatistics (MBG) has allowed these maps to be generated in a formal statistical framework, providing robust metrics of map uncertainty that enhances their utility for decision-makers. In many settings, decision-makers require spatially aggregated measures over large regions such as the mean prevalence within a country or administrative region, or national populations living under different levels of risk. Existing MBG mapping approaches provide suitable metrics of local uncertainty--the fidelity of predictions at each mapped pixel--but have not been adapted for measuring uncertainty over large areas, due largely to a series of fundamental computational constraints. Here the authors present a new efficient approximating algorithm that can generate for the first time the necessary joint simulation of prevalence values across the very large prediction spaces needed for global scale mapping. This new approach is implemented in conjunction with an established model for P. falciparum allowing robust estimates of mean prevalence at any specified level of spatial aggregation. The model is used to provide estimates of national populations at risk under three policy-relevant prevalence thresholds, along with accompanying model-based measures of uncertainty. By overcoming previously unchallenged computational barriers, this study illustrates how MBG approaches, already at the forefront of infectious disease mapping, can be extended to provide large-scale aggregate measures appropriate for decision-makers.

  9. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  10. Quantifying the Effects of Biomass Market Conditions and Policy Incentives on Economically Feasible Sites to Establish Dedicated Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Nepal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used a spatially-explicit model to identify the amount and spatial distribution of economically feasible sites for establishing dedicated energy crops under various market and policy scenarios. A sensitivity analysis was performed for a biomass market with different discount rates and biomass prices as well as policy scenarios including propriety tax exemption, carbon offset payments, and the inclusion of farmland for biomass production. The model was applied to a four-county study area in Kentucky representing conditions commonly found in the Ohio River Valley. Results showed that both biomass price and discount rate have a can strongly influence the amount of economically efficient sites. Rising the biomass price by 5 $·t−1 and lowering discount rate by 1% from the baseline scenario (40 $·t−1 and 5% resulted in an over fourteen fold increment. Property tax exemption resulted in a fourfold increase, a carbon payment on only 1 $·t−1 caused a twelve fold increase and extending the landbase from marginal land to farmland only slightly increase the economically efficient sites. These results provide an objective evaluation of market and policy scenarios in terms of their potential to increase land availability for establishing dedicated energy crops and to promote the bioenergy industry.

  11. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal, S.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  12. Common fixed point theorems in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces and L-fuzzy metric spaces with nonlinear contractive condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesic, Sinisa N.; Babacev, Natasa A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove some common fixed point theorems for a pair of R-weakly commuting mappings defined on intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces [Park JH. Intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:1039-46] and L-fuzzy metric spaces [Saadati R, Razani A, Adibi H. A common fixed point theorem in L-fuzzy metric spaces. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2006.01.023], with nonlinear contractive condition, defined with function, first observed by Boyd and Wong [Boyd DW, Wong JSW. On nonlinear contractions. Proc Am Math Soc 1969;20:458-64]. Following Pant [Pant RP. Common fixed points of noncommuting mappings. J Math Anal Appl 1994;188:436-40] we define R-weak commutativity for a pair of mappings and then prove the main results. These results generalize some known results due to Saadati et al., and Jungck [Jungck G. Commuting maps and fixed points. Am Math Mon 1976;83:261-3]. Some examples and comments according to the preceding results are given

  13. The Influence of Pre-Conditioning on Space Charge Formation in LDPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Robert J.; Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim T.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present space charge accumulation data for planar low density polyethylene samples subjected to 20 kV/mm dc fields at room temperature. The data were obtained using the laser-induced-pressure-pulse (LIPP) technique. Some of the samples were conditioned by holding them at 40oC in ......C in short-circuit at rotary pump pressure for 48 hr prior to measurement. Such conditioning had no consistent effect on the space charge. The extent of charge injection/extraction at the semicon electrodes appeared to vary considerably between samples....

  14. Evaluation of comfort conditions in urban open spaces. Application in the island of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitoura, Marianna; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Daras, Tryfon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Outdoor spaces field surveys carried out in four different urban open spaces. • A strong connection between the microclimate and the use of open space. • Human physical and psychological factors can optimize the urban space design. - Abstract: The thermal environment in outdoor public spaces and their level of use are strongly connected. The design of outdoor spaces, especially in urban areas, is very critical in Southern Europe due to their extended use during summertime where the urban heat island phenomenon deteriorates the microclimatic conditions. In this paper the main outcomes of outdoor spaces field surveys are presented, which were carried out in four different urban open spaces in Crete. On site measurements were implemented and a questionnaire was used in order to estimate the thermal comfort of visitors. Thermal indices like Predicted Mean Vote, Physiologically Equivalent Temperature, Standard Effective Temperature, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature are used to evaluate the features of urban microclimate and then are being compared in order to find the most suitable for the Mediterranean microclimate. This suggests another way of approach to the researcher and provides essential tools to the designer

  15. Experimental verification of free-space singular boundary conditions in an invisibility cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiannan; Gao, Fei; Song, Zhengyong; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    A major issue in invisibility cloaking, which caused intense mathematical discussions in the past few years but still remains physically elusive, is the plausible singular boundary conditions associated with the singular metamaterials at the inner boundary of an invisibility cloak. The perfect cloaking phenomenon, as originally proposed by Pendry et al for electromagnetic waves, cannot be treated as physical before a realistic inner boundary of a cloak is demonstrated. Although a recent demonstration has been done in a waveguide environment, the exotic singular boundary conditions should apply to a general environment as in free space. Here we fabricate a metamaterial surface that exhibits the singular boundary conditions and demonstrate its performance in free space. Particularly, the phase information of waves reflected from this metamaterial surface is explicitly measured, confirming the singular responses of boundary conditions for an invisibility cloak. (paper)

  16. Experimental verification of free-space singular boundary conditions in an invisibility cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiannan; Gao, Fei; Song, Zhengyong; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Youming; Chen, Huanyang; Zhang, Baile

    2016-04-01

    A major issue in invisibility cloaking, which caused intense mathematical discussions in the past few years but still remains physically elusive, is the plausible singular boundary conditions associated with the singular metamaterials at the inner boundary of an invisibility cloak. The perfect cloaking phenomenon, as originally proposed by Pendry et al for electromagnetic waves, cannot be treated as physical before a realistic inner boundary of a cloak is demonstrated. Although a recent demonstration has been done in a waveguide environment, the exotic singular boundary conditions should apply to a general environment as in free space. Here we fabricate a metamaterial surface that exhibits the singular boundary conditions and demonstrate its performance in free space. Particularly, the phase information of waves reflected from this metamaterial surface is explicitly measured, confirming the singular responses of boundary conditions for an invisibility cloak.

  17. Surgical Space Conditions During Low-Pressure Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy with Deep Versus Moderate Neuromuscular Blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr-Rye, Anne K; Rasmussen, Lars S.; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    : In this assessor-blinded study, 48 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were administered rocuronium for neuromuscular blockade and randomized to either deep neuromuscular blockade (rocuronium bolus plus infusion maintaining a posttetanic count 0-1) or moderate neuromuscular blockade...... (rocuronium repeat bolus only for inadequate surgical conditions with spontaneous recovery of neuromuscular function). Patients received anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil, and rocuronium. The primary outcome was the proportion of procedures with optimal surgical space conditions (assessed by the surgeon...

  18. An alternative phase-space distribution to sample initial conditions for classical dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vela, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new quantum-type phase-space distribution is proposed in order to sample initial conditions for classical trajectory simulations. The phase-space distribution is obtained as the modulus of a quantum phase-space state of the system, defined as the direct product of the coordinate and momentum representations of the quantum initial state. The distribution is tested by sampling initial conditions which reproduce the initial state of the Ar-HCl cluster prepared by ultraviolet excitation, and by simulating the photodissociation dynamics by classical trajectories. The results are compared with those of a wave packet calculation, and with a classical simulation using an initial phase-space distribution recently suggested. A better agreement is found between the classical and the quantum predictions with the present phase-space distribution, as compared with the previous one. This improvement is attributed to the fact that the phase-space distribution propagated classically in this work resembles more closely the shape of the wave packet propagated quantum mechanically

  19. A Coupled Fixed Point Theorem in Fuzzy Metric Space Satisfying ϕ-Contractive Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Pant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to prove a coupled fixed point theorem for two pairs of compatible and subsequentially continuous (alternately subcompatible and reciprocally continuous mappings, satisfying ϕ-contractive conditions in a fuzzy metric space. We also furnish some illustrative examples to support our results.

  20. On a nonlinear integrodifferential evolution inclusion with nonlocal initial conditions in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuomao Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the existence results for a class of nnlinear integrodifferential evolution inclusions with nonlocal initial conditions in Banach spaces. Our results are based on a fixed point theorem for condensing maps due to Martelli and the resolvent operators combined with approximation techniques.

  1. The Influence of Pre-conditioning on the Space Charge Formation in LDPE and XLPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim T.; Fleming, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Planar LDPE and XLPE samples were conditioned by holding in short circuit for 48 hrs. at 40oC under rotary pump pressure, and space charge accumulation in these samples under DC fields of 20 kV/mm was then compared with the corresponding accumulation in unconditioned samples.The test results were...

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN HPLC-DAD ANALYTICAL METHOD TO QUANTIFY 5-METHOXYFLAVONES IN METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF Vochysia divergens POHL CULTURED UNDER STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Pereira Pimenta

    Full Text Available Vochysia divergens Pohl, known as "Cambara" in Brazil, is an invasive species that is expanding throughout Pantanal in Brazil, to form mono-dominant communities. This expansion is affecting the agricultural areas that support the typical seasonal flood and drought conditions of this biome. This article describes the development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analytical method to quantify 5-methoxyflavones in methanolic extracts of greenhouse-grown V. divergens associated with one of two endophytic fungal species Zopfiella tetraspora (Zt or Melanconiella elegans (Me and later subjected to water stress. The developed method gave good validation parameters and was successfully applied to quantify the flavones 3',5-dimethoxy luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (1, 5-methoxy luteolin (2, and 3',5-dimethoxy luteolin (3 in the target extracts. Inoculation of the plant with Zt decreased the concentration of flavone 1 in the extract by 2.69-fold as compared to the control. Inoculation of the plant with Zt or Me did not significantly alter the contents of flavones 2 and 3 in the extracts as compared to the control. Therefore, the aerial parts of germinated V. divergens plants inoculated with either Zt or Me responded differently in terms of the production of flavones. These results can cast light on the symbiosis between fungal microorganisms and V. divergens, which most likely influences the response of V. divergens to changes in the availability of water in Pantanal.

  3. Dimension elevation in Müntz spaces: A new emergence of the Müntz condition

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2014-05-01

    We show that the limiting polygon generated by the dimension elevation algorithm with respect to the Müntz space span(1,tr1,tr2,trm,. . .), with 0 < r1 < r2 < ⋯ < r m < ⋯ and lim n →∞r n = ∞, over an interval [a, b] ⊂ ] 0, ∞ [ converges to the underlying Chebyshev-Bézier curve if and only if the Müntz condition ∑i=1∞1ri=∞ is satisfied. The surprising emergence of the Müntz condition in the problem raises the question of a possible connection between the density questions of nested Chebyshev spaces and the convergence of the corresponding dimension elevation algorithms. The question of convergence with no condition of monotonicity or positivity on the pairwise distinct real numbers r i remains an open problem. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  4. BlueHealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe's blue spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellier, James; White, Mathew P; Albin, Maria; Bell, Simon; Elliott, Lewis R; Gascón, Mireia; Gualdi, Silvio; Mancini, Laura; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sarigiannis, Denis A; van den Bosch, Matilda; Wolf, Tanja; Wuijts, Susanne; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-06-14

    Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe's coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with 'blue space' (eg, coasts, rivers, lakes) are often considered solely in terms of risk (eg, drowning, microbial pollution). Exposure to blue space can, however, promote health and well-being and prevent disease, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The BlueHealth project aims to understand the relationships between exposure to blue space and health and well-being, to map and quantify the public health impacts of changes to both natural blue spaces and associated urban infrastructure in Europe, and to provide evidence-based information to policymakers on how to maximise health benefits associated with interventions in and around aquatic environments. To achieve these aims, an evidence base will be created through systematic reviews, analyses of secondary data sets and analyses of new data collected through a bespoke international survey and a wide range of community-level interventions. We will also explore how to deliver the benefits associated with blue spaces to those without direct access through the use of virtual reality. Scenarios will be developed that allow the evaluation of health impacts in plausible future societal contexts and changing environments. BlueHealth will develop key inputs into policymaking and land/water-use planning towards more salutogenic and sustainable uses of blue space, particularly in urban areas. Throughout the BlueHealth project, ethics review and approval are obtained for all relevant aspects of the study by the local ethics committees prior to any work being initiated and an ethics expert has been appointed to the project advisory board. So far, ethical approval has been obtained for the BlueHealth International Survey and

  5. Generalized conditions for the distributional zero-mass limit of renormalized Feynman amplitudes in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukian, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Generalized conditions (rules) are set up for the existence of the distributional zero-mass limit of renormalized Feynman amplitudes in Minkowski space. These rules are generalizations of rules that have been set up earlier by us and hence are applicable to a larger class of graphs. The study is very general as the vanishing masses are led to vanish at different rates. All subtractions of renormalization are carried out directly in momentum space, about the origin, with the degree of divergence of a subtraction coinciding with the dimensionality of the corresponding subdiagram

  6. A new technique for observationally derived boundary conditions for space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Paolo; Mackay, Duncan Hendry; Yeates, Anthony Robinson

    2018-04-01

    Context. In recent years, space weather research has focused on developing modelling techniques to predict the arrival time and properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Earth. The aim of this paper is to propose a new modelling technique suitable for the next generation of Space Weather predictive tools that is both efficient and accurate. The aim of the new approach is to provide interplanetary space weather forecasting models with accurate time dependent boundary conditions of erupting magnetic flux ropes in the upper solar corona. Methods: To produce boundary conditions, we couple two different modelling techniques, MHD simulations and a quasi-static non-potential evolution model. Both are applied on a spatial domain that covers the entire solar surface, although they extend over a different radial distance. The non-potential model uses a time series of observed synoptic magnetograms to drive the non-potential quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field. This allows us to follow the formation and loss of equilibrium of magnetic flux ropes. Following this a MHD simulation captures the dynamic evolution of the erupting flux rope, when it is ejected into interplanetary space. Results.The present paper focuses on the MHD simulations that follow the ejection of magnetic flux ropes to 4 R⊙. We first propose a technique for specifying the pre-eruptive plasma properties in the corona. Next, time dependent MHD simulations describe the ejection of two magnetic flux ropes, that produce time dependent boundary conditions for the magnetic field and plasma at 4 R⊙ that in future may be applied to interplanetary space weather prediction models. Conclusions: In the present paper, we show that the dual use of quasi-static non-potential magnetic field simulations and full time dependent MHD simulations can produce realistic inhomogeneous boundary conditions for space weather forecasting tools. Before a fully operational model can be produced there are a

  7. BlueHealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe’s blue spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mathew P; Albin, Maria; Bell, Simon; Elliott, Lewis R; Gascón, Mireia; Gualdi, Silvio; Mancini, Laura; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sarigiannis, Denis A; van den Bosch, Matilda; Wolf, Tanja; Wuijts, Susanne; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe’s coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with ‘blue space’ (eg, coasts, rivers, lakes) are often considered solely in terms of risk (eg, drowning, microbial pollution). Exposure to blue space can, however, promote health and well-being and prevent disease, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Aims and methods The BlueHealth project aims to understand the relationships between exposure to blue space and health and well-being, to map and quantify the public health impacts of changes to both natural blue spaces and associated urban infrastructure in Europe, and to provide evidence-based information to policymakers on how to maximise health benefits associated with interventions in and around aquatic environments. To achieve these aims, an evidence base will be created through systematic reviews, analyses of secondary data sets and analyses of new data collected through a bespoke international survey and a wide range of community-level interventions. We will also explore how to deliver the benefits associated with blue spaces to those without direct access through the use of virtual reality. Scenarios will be developed that allow the evaluation of health impacts in plausible future societal contexts and changing environments. BlueHealth will develop key inputs into policymaking and land/water-use planning towards more salutogenic and sustainable uses of blue space, particularly in urban areas. Ethics and dissemination Throughout the BlueHealth project, ethics review and approval are obtained for all relevant aspects of the study by the local ethics committees prior to any work being initiated and an ethics expert has been appointed to the project advisory board. So far, ethical approval

  8. Approaches in the determination of plant nutrient uptake and distribution in space flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the radionuclides calcium-45 and iron-59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  9. Common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under φ-contraction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Donia, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Some common fixed point theorems for multi-valued mappings under φ-contraction condition have been studied by Rashwan [Rashwan RA, Ahmed MA. Fixed points for φ-contraction type multivalued mappings. J Indian Acad Math 1995;17(2):194-204]. Butnariu [Butnariu D. Fixed point for fuzzy mapping. Fuzzy Sets Syst 1982;7:191-207] and Helipern [Hilpern S. Fuzzy mapping and fixed point theorem. J Math Anal Appl 1981;83:566-9] also, discussed some fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in the category of metric spaces. In this paper, we discussed some common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under φ-contraction condition. Our investigation are related to the fuzzy form of Hausdorff metric which is a basic tool for computing Hausdorff dimensions. These dimensions help in understanding ε ∞ -space [El-Naschie MS. On the unification of the fundamental forces and complex time in the ε ∞ -space. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2000;11:1149-62] and are used in high energy physics [El-Naschie MS. Wild topology hyperbolic geometry and fusion algebra of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2002;13:1935-45

  10. Residual stresses relaxation in surface-hardened half-space under creep conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Radchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We developed the method for solving the problem of residual stresses relaxation in surface-hardened layer of half-space under creep conditions. At the first stage we made the reconstruction of stress-strain state in half-space after plastic surface hardening procedure based on partial information about distribution for one residual stress tensor component experimentally detected. At the second stage using a numerical method we solve the problem of relaxation of self-balanced residual stresses under creep conditions. To solve this problem we introduce the following Cartesian system: x0y plane is aligned with hardened surface of half-space and 0z axis is directed to the depth of hardened layer. We also introduce the hypotheses of plane sections parallel to x0z and y0z planes. Detailed analysis of the problem has been done. Comparison of the calculated data with the corresponding test data was made for plane specimens (rectangular parallelepipeds made of EP742 alloy during T=650°C after the ultrasonic hardening with four hardening modes. We use half-space to model these specimens because penetration's depth of residual stresses is less than specimen general size in two digit exponent. There is enough correspondence of experimental and calculated data. It is shown that there is a decay (in modulus of pressing residual stresses under creep in 1.4–1.6 times.

  11. Common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under {phi}-contraction condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Donia, H.M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)

    2007-10-15

    Some common fixed point theorems for multi-valued mappings under {phi}-contraction condition have been studied by Rashwan [Rashwan RA, Ahmed MA. Fixed points for {phi}-contraction type multivalued mappings. J Indian Acad Math 1995;17(2):194-204]. Butnariu [Butnariu D. Fixed point for fuzzy mapping. Fuzzy Sets Syst 1982;7:191-207] and Helipern [Hilpern S. Fuzzy mapping and fixed point theorem. J Math Anal Appl 1981;83:566-9] also, discussed some fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in the category of metric spaces. In this paper, we discussed some common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under {phi}-contraction condition. Our investigation are related to the fuzzy form of Hausdorff metric which is a basic tool for computing Hausdorff dimensions. These dimensions help in understanding {epsilon} {sup {infinity}}-space [El-Naschie MS. On the unification of the fundamental forces and complex time in the {epsilon} {sup {infinity}}-space. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2000;11:1149-62] and are used in high energy physics [El-Naschie MS. Wild topology hyperbolic geometry and fusion algebra of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2002;13:1935-45].

  12. Conditions for extinction events in chemical reaction networks with discrete state spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew D; Anderson, David F; Craciun, Gheorghe; Brijder, Robert

    2018-05-01

    We study chemical reaction networks with discrete state spaces and present sufficient conditions on the structure of the network that guarantee the system exhibits an extinction event. The conditions we derive involve creating a modified chemical reaction network called a domination-expanded reaction network and then checking properties of this network. Unlike previous results, our analysis allows algorithmic implementation via systems of equalities and inequalities and suggests sequences of reactions which may lead to extinction events. We apply the results to several networks including an EnvZ-OmpR signaling pathway in Escherichia coli.

  13. Quantifying Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  14. Quantifying the Interactions Between Soil Thermal Characteristics, Soil Physical Properties, Hydro-geomorphological Conditions and Vegetation Distribution in an Arctic Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Robert, Y.; Ulrich, C.; Peterson, J. E.; Soom, F.; Biraud, S.; Tran, A. P.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Improving understanding of Arctic ecosystem functioning and parameterization of process-rich hydro-biogeochemical models require advances in quantifying ecosystem properties, from the bedrock to the top of the canopy. In Arctic regions having significant subsurface heterogeneity, understanding the link between soil physical properties (incl. fraction of soil constituents, bedrock depth, permafrost characteristics), thermal behavior, hydrological conditions and landscape properties is particularly challenging yet is critical for predicting the storage and flux of carbon in a changing climate. This study takes place in Seward Peninsula Watersheds near Nome AK and Council AK, which are characterized by an elevation gradient, shallow bedrock, and discontinuous permafrost. To characterize permafrost distribution where the top of permafrost cannot be easily identified with a tile probe (due to rocky soil and/or large thaw layer thickness), we developed a novel technique using vertically resolved thermistor probes to directly sense the temperature regime at multiple depths and locations. These measurements complement electrical imaging, seismic refraction and point-scale data for identification of the various thermal behavior and soil characteristics. Also, we evaluate linkages between the soil physical-thermal properties and the surface properties (hydrological conditions, geomorphic characteristics and vegetation distribution) using UAV-based aerial imaging. Data integration and analysis is supported by numerical approaches that simulate hydrological and thermal processes. Overall, this study enables the identification of watershed structure and the links between various subsurface and landscape properties in representative Arctic watersheds. Results show very distinct trends in vertically resolved soil temperature profiles and strong lateral variations over tens of meters that are linked to zones with various hydrological conditions, soil properties and vegetation

  15. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaitsi, Elsa; Magan, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90) and temperature (10–25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins. PMID:29462982

  16. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO₂ Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cela, Esther; Kiaitsi, Elsa; Sulyok, Michael; Medina, Angel; Magan, Naresh

    2018-02-17

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (a w ; 0.95-0.90) and temperature (10-25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO₂ production. There was an increase in temporal CO₂ production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 a w treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO₂ in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 a w /20-25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 a w . The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95-0.93 a w and 20 °C/0.95 a w . ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  17. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90 and temperature (10–25 °C in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a respiration rate; (b dry matter losses (DML; (c ZEN production and (d relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. <1.0% DML, there was a low risk of ZEN contamination exceeding EU legislative limits, while at >1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  18. The effect of environmental parameters to dust concentration in air-conditioned space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. M. M.; Manssor, N. A. S.; Nalisa, A.; Yahaya, N.

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia has a wet and hot climate, therefore most of the spaces are air conditioned. The environment might affect dust concentration inside a space and affect the indoor air quality (IAQ). The main objective of this study is to study the dust concentration collected inside enclosed air-conditioned space. The measurement was done physically at four selected offices and two classrooms using a number of equipment to measure the dust concentration and environmental parameters which are temperature and relative air humidity. It was found that the highest dust concentration produced in office (temperature of 24.7°C, relative humidity of 66.5%) is 0.075 mg/m3, as compared to classroom, the highest dust concentration produced is 0.060 mg/m3 office (temperature of 25.9°C, relative humidity of 64.0%). However, both measurements show that value still within the safety level set by DOSH Malaysia (2005-2010) and ASHRAE 62.2 2016. The office contained higher dust concentration compared to classroom because of frequent movement transpires daily due to the functional of the offices.

  19. Studies on penetration of antibiotic in bacterial cells in space conditions (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Cytos 2 experiment was performed aboard Salyut 7 in order to test the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria cultivated in vitro in space. An increase of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) in the inflight cultures (i.e., an increase of the antibiotic resistance) was observed. Complementary studies of the ultrastructure showed a thickening of the cell envelope. In order to confirm the results of the Cytos 2 experiment, we performed the ANTIBIO experiment during the D1 mission to try to differentiate, by means of the 1 g centrifuge in the Biorack, between the biological effects of cosmic rays and those caused by microgravity conditions. The originality of this experiment was in the fact that it was designed to test the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria cultivated in vitro during the orbital phase of the flight. The results show an increase in resistance to Colistin in in-flight bacteria. The MIC is practically double in the in-flight cultures. A cell count of living bacteria in the cultures containing the different Colistin concentrations showed a significant difference between the cultures developed during space flight and the ground based cultures. The comparison between the 1 g and 0 g in-flight cultures show similar behavior for the two sets. Nevertheless, a small difference between the two sets of ground based control cultures was noted. The cultures developed on the ground centrifuge (1.4 g) present a slight decrease in comparison with the cultures developed in the static rack (1 g). In order to approach the mechanisms of the increase of antibiotic resistance on bacteria cultivated in vitro in space, we have proposed the study on penetration of antibiotics in bacterial cells in space conditions. This experiment was selected for the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission.

  20. Survival of pathogenic bacteria under nutrient starvation conditions. [aboard orbiting space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael; Ford, Tim; Mitchell, Ralph; Maki, James

    1990-01-01

    The survival of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms in water, under nutrient-limiting conditions, has been investigated in order to ascertain whether human pathogens can survive within a water-distribution system of the kind proposed for the NASA Space Station. Cultures of a strain of pseudomonas aeruginosa and two strains of staphylococcus aureus were incubated at 10, 25, or 37 C, and samples at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and six weeks. While neither of the staphylococcus strains tested were detected after 1 week of starvation, the pseudomonas strain can survive in deionized water at all three temperatures.

  1. Dressing method and quadratic bundles related to symmetric spaces. Vanishing boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, T. I.

    2016-02-01

    We consider quadratic bundles related to Hermitian symmetric spaces of the type SU(m + n)/S(U(m) × U(n)). The simplest representative of the corresponding integrable hierarchy is given by a multi-component Kaup-Newell derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation which serves as a motivational example for our general considerations. We extensively discuss how one can apply Zakharov-Shabat's dressing procedure to derive reflectionless potentials obeying zero boundary conditions. Those could be used for one to construct fast decaying solutions to any nonlinear equation belonging to the same hierarchy. One can distinguish between generic soliton type solutions and rational solutions.

  2. Foundations of complex analysis in non locally convex spaces function theory without convexity condition

    CERN Document Server

    Bayoumi, A

    2003-01-01

    All the existing books in Infinite Dimensional Complex Analysis focus on the problems of locally convex spaces. However, the theory without convexity condition is covered for the first time in this book. This shows that we are really working with a new, important and interesting field. Theory of functions and nonlinear analysis problems are widespread in the mathematical modeling of real world systems in a very broad range of applications. During the past three decades many new results from the author have helped to solve multiextreme problems arising from important situations, non-convex and

  3. Lunar and planetary surface conditions advances in space science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, Nicholas A

    1965-01-01

    Lunar and Planetary Surface Conditions considers the inferential knowledge concerning the surfaces of the Moon and the planetary companions in the Solar System. The information presented in this four-chapter book is based on remote observations and measurements from the vantage point of Earth and on the results obtained from accelerated space program of the United States and U.S.S.R. Chapter 1 presents the prevalent hypotheses on the origin and age of the Solar System, followed by a brief description of the methods and feasibility of information acquisition concerning lunar and planetary data,

  4. Application of Pettis integration to differential inclusions with three-point boundary conditions in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Boutana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provide some applications of Pettis integration to differential inclusions in Banach spaces with three point boundary conditions of the form $$ ddot{u}(t in F(t,u(t,dot u(t+H(t,u(t,dot u(t,quad hbox{a.e. } t in [0,1], $$ where $F$ is a convex valued multifunction upper semicontinuous on $Eimes E$ and $H$ is a lower semicontinuous multifunction. The existence of solutions is obtained under the non convexity condition for the multifunction $H$, and the assumption that $F(t,x,ysubset Gamma_{1}(t$, $H(t,x,ysubset Gamma_{2}(t$, where the multifunctions $Gamma_{1},Gamma_{2}:[0,1] ightrightarrows E$ are uniformly Pettis integrable.

  5. ''Free-space'' boundary conditions for the time-dependent wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindman, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    Boundary conditions for the discrete wave equation which act like an infinite region of free space in contact with the computational region can be constructed using projection operators. Propagating and evanescent waves coming from within the computational region generate no reflected waves as they cross the boundary. At the same time arbitrary waves may be launched into the computational region. Well known projection operators for one-dimensional waves may be used for this purpose in one dimension. Extensions of these operators to higher dimensions along with numerically efficient approximations to them are described for higher-dimensional problems. The separation of waves into ingoing and outgoing waves inherent in these boundary conditions greatly facilitates diagnostics

  6. Modelling the perception of weather conditions by users of outdoor public spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, H.; Oliveira, S.; Alcoforado, M.-J.

    2009-09-01

    Outdoor public spaces play an important role for the quality of life in urban areas. Their usage depends, among other factors, on the bioclimatic comfort of the users. Climate change can modify the uses of outdoor spaces, by changing temperature and rainfall patterns. Understanding the way people perceive the microclimatic conditions is an important tool to the design of more comfortable outdoor spaces and in anticipating future needs to cope with climate change impacts. The perception of bioclimatic comfort by users of two different outdoor spaces was studied in Lisbon. A survey of about one thousand inquires was carried out simultaneously with weather measurements (air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar and long wave radiation), during the years 2006 and 2007. The aim was to assess the relationships between weather variables, the individual characteristics of people (such as age and gender, among others) and their bioclimatic comfort. The perception of comfort was evaluated through the preference votes of the interviewees, which consisted on their answers concerning the desire to decrease, maintain or increase the values of the different weather parameters, in order to improve their comfort at the moment of the interview. The perception of the atmospheric conditions and of the bioclimatic comfort are highly influenced by subjective factors, which are difficult to integrate in a model. Nonetheless, the use of the multiple logistic regression allows the definition of patterns in the quantitative relation between preference votes and environmental and personal parameters. The thermal preference depends largely on the season and is associated with wind speed. Comfort in relation to wind depends not only on the speed but also on turbulence: a high variability in wind speed is generally perceived as uncomfortable. It was also found that the acceptability of warmer conditions is higher than for cooler conditions and the majority of people declared

  7. Dynamics and cultural specifics of information needs under conditions of long-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Elena; Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim

    Life in conditions of space flight or chamber study with prolonged isolation is associated with lack of familiar stimuli (sensory deprivation), monotony, significant limitation of communication, and deficit of information and media content (Myasnikov V.I., Stepanova S.I. et al., 2000). Fulfillment of a simulation experiment or flight schedule implies necessity of performance of sophisticated tasks and decision making with limited means of external support. On the other hand, the “stream” of information from the Mission Control (MC) and PI’s (reminders about different procedures to be performed, requests of reports, etc.) is often inadequate to communication needs of crewmembers. According to the theory of “information stress” (Khananashvili M.M., 1984), a distress condition could be formed if: a) it’s necessary to process large amounts of information and make decisions under time pressure; b) there is a prolonged deficit of necessary (e.g. for decision making) information. Thus, we suppose that one of the important goals of psychological support of space or space simulation crews should be forming of favorable conditions of information environment. For that purpose, means of crew-MC information exchange (quantitative characteristics and, if possible, content of radiograms, text and video messages, etc.) should be studied, as well as peculiarities of the crewmembers’ needs in different information and media content, and their reactions to incoming information. In the space simulation experiment with 520-day isolation, communication of international crew with external parties had been studied. Dynamics of quantitative and content characteristics of the crew’s messages was related to the experiment’s stage, presence of “key” events in the schedule (periods of high autonomy, simulated “planetary landing”, etc.), as well as to events not related to the experiment (holidays, news, etc.). It was shown that characteristics of information exchange

  8. Nonlocal beam models for buckling of nanobeams using state-space method regarding different boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahmani, S.; Ansari, R.

    2011-01-01

    Buckling analysis of nanobeams is investigated using nonlocal continuum beam models of the different classical beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT). To this end, Eringen's equations of nonlocal elasticity are incorporated into the classical beam theories for buckling of nanobeams with rectangular cross-section. In contrast to the classical theories, the nonlocal elastic beam models developed here have the capability to predict critical buckling loads that allowing for the inclusion of size effects. The values of critical buckling loads corresponding to four commonly used boundary conditions are obtained using state-space method. The results are presented for different geometric parameters, boundary conditions, and values of nonlocal parameter to show the effects of each of them in detail. Then the results are fitted with those of molecular dynamics simulations through a nonlinear least square fitting procedure to find the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter for the buckling analysis of nanobeams relevant to each type of nonlocal beam model and boundary conditions analysis

  9. Nonlocal beam models for buckling of nanobeams using state-space method regarding different boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmani, S.; Ansari, R. [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Buckling analysis of nanobeams is investigated using nonlocal continuum beam models of the different classical beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT). To this end, Eringen's equations of nonlocal elasticity are incorporated into the classical beam theories for buckling of nanobeams with rectangular cross-section. In contrast to the classical theories, the nonlocal elastic beam models developed here have the capability to predict critical buckling loads that allowing for the inclusion of size effects. The values of critical buckling loads corresponding to four commonly used boundary conditions are obtained using state-space method. The results are presented for different geometric parameters, boundary conditions, and values of nonlocal parameter to show the effects of each of them in detail. Then the results are fitted with those of molecular dynamics simulations through a nonlinear least square fitting procedure to find the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter for the buckling analysis of nanobeams relevant to each type of nonlocal beam model and boundary conditions analysis.

  10. Quantifying soil respiration at landscape scales. Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Bradford; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Soil CO2, efflux, or soil respiration, represents a substantial component of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Consequently, quantifying soil respiration over large areas and long time periods is an increasingly important goal. However, soil respiration rates vary dramatically in space and time in response to both environmental conditions...

  11. Modeling Space-Time Dependent Helium Bubble Evolution in Tungsten Armor under IFE Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiyang Hu; Shahram Sharafat; Nasr Ghoniem

    2006-01-01

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is a coordinated effort to develop Laser Inertial Fusion Energy. The implosion of the D-T target produces a spectrum of neutrons, X-rays, and charged particles, which arrive at the first wall (FW) at different times within about 2.5 μs at a frequency of 5 to 10 Hz. Helium is one of several high-energy charged particle constituents impinging on the candidate tungsten armored low activation ferritic steel First Wall. The spread of the implanted debris and burn helium energies results in a unique space-time dependent implantation profile that spans about 10 μm in tungsten. Co-implantation of X-rays and other ions results in spatially dependent damage profiles and rapid space-time dependent temperature spikes and gradients. The rate of helium transport and helium bubble formation will vary significantly throughout the implanted region. Furthermore, helium will also be transported via the migration of helium bubbles and non-equilibrium helium-vacancy clusters. The HEROS code was developed at UCLA to model the spatial and time-dependent helium bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence, and migration under transient damage rates and transient temperature gradients. The HEROS code is based on kinetic rate theory, which includes clustering of helium and vacancies, helium mobility, helium-vacancy cluster stability, cavity nucleation and growth and other microstructural features such as interstitial loop evolution, grain boundaries, and precipitates. The HEROS code is based on space-time discretization of reaction-diffusion type equations to account for migration of mobile species between neighboring bins as single atoms, clusters, or bubbles. HAPL chamber FW implantation conditions are used to model helium bubble evolution in the implanted tungsten. Helium recycling rate predictions are compared with experimental results of helium ion implantation experiments. (author)

  12. Space structures, power, and power conditioning; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 11-13, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Various papers on space structures, power, and power conditioning are presented. Among the topics discussed are: heterogeneous gas core reaction for space nuclear power, pulsed gas core reactor for burst power, fundamental considerations of gas core reactor systems, oscillating thermionic conversion for high-density space power, thermoelectromagnetic pumps for space nuclear power systems, lightweight electrochemical converter for space power applications, ballistic acceleration by superheated hydrogen, laser-induced current switching in gaseous discharge, electron-beam-controlled semiconductor switches, laser-controlled semiconductor closing and opening switch. Also addressed are: semiconductor-metal eutectic composites for high-power switching, optical probes for the characterization of surface breakdown, 40 kV/20 kA pseudospark switch for laser applications, insulation direction for high-power space systems, state space simulation of spacecraft power systems, structural vibration of space power station systems, minimum-time control of large space structures, novel fusion reaction for space power and propulsion, repetition rate system evaluations, cryogenic silicon photoconductive switches for high-power lasers, multilevel diamondlike carbon capacitor structure, surface breakdown of prestressed insulators, C-Mo and C-Zr alloys for space power systems, magnetic insulation for the space environment

  13. Regularization in Hilbert space under unbounded operators and general source conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Bernd; Mathé, Peter; Von Weizsäcker, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    The authors study ill-posed equations with unbounded operators in Hilbert space. This setup has important applications, but only a few theoretical studies are available. First, the question is addressed and answered whether every element satisfies some general source condition with respect to a given self-adjoint unbounded operator. This generalizes a previous result from Mathé and Hofmann (2008 Inverse Problems 24 015009). The analysis then proceeds to error bounds for regularization, emphasizing some specific points for regularization under unbounded operators. The study finally reviews two examples within the light of the present study, as these are fractional differentiation and some Cauchy problems for the Helmholtz equation, both studied previously and in more detail by U Tautenhahn and co-authors

  14. Quadrupole beam-transport experiment for heavy ions under extreme space charge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Hartwig, E.C.

    1983-03-01

    A Cs ion-beam-transport experiment is in progress to study beam behavior under extreme space-charge conditions. A five-lens section matches the beam into a periodic electrostatic quadrupole FODO channel and its behavior is found to agree with predictions. With the available parameters (less than or equal to 200 keV, less than or equal to 20 mA, πepsilon/sub n/ greater than or equal to 10 - 7 π rad-m, up to 41 periods) the transverse (betatron) occillation frequency (nu) can be depressed down to one-tenth of its zero current value (nu/sub 0/), where nu/sup 2/ = nu/sub 0//sup 2/ -#betta#/sub p/ 2 /2, and #betta#/sub p/ is the beam plasma frequency. The current can be controlled by adjustment of the gun and the emittance can be controlled independently by means of a set of charged grids

  15. Embryogenesis and organogenesis of Carausius morosus under space flight conditions (7-IML-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buecker, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The experiment is part of a radiobiological space research program to obtain experimental data on the biological effectiveness of the structured component of cosmic radiation during spaceflight. In this proposed experiment, Carausius morosus embryos of different ages will develop under spaceflight conditions. The experiment is designed to determine the influence of galactic heavy ions of very high energy deposition in microgravity on developmental processes of different radiation sensitivity and regenerative capacity. Layers of Carausius morosus eggs are sandwiched between different track detectors (cellulose nitrate, CR39). This method allows the localization of the trajectory of each heavy ion in the biological layer and the identification of the site of the penetration inside the egg

  16. Singular perturbations with boundary conditions and the Casimir effect in the half space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albeverio, S.; Cognola, G.; Spreafico, M.; Zerbini, S.

    2010-06-01

    We study the self-adjoint extensions of a class of nonmaximal multiplication operators with boundary conditions. We show that these extensions correspond to singular rank 1 perturbations (in the sense of Albeverio and Kurasov [Singular Perturbations of Differential Operaters (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000)]) of the Laplace operator, namely, the formal Laplacian with a singular delta potential, on the half space. This construction is the appropriate setting to describe the Casimir effect related to a massless scalar field in the flat space-time with an infinite conducting plate and in the presence of a pointlike "impurity." We use the relative zeta determinant (as defined in the works of Müller ["Relative zeta functions, relative determinants and scattering theory," Commun. Math. Phys. 192, 309 (1998)] and Spreafico and Zerbini ["Finite temperature quantum field theory on noncompact domains and application to delta interactions," Rep. Math. Phys. 63, 163 (2009)]) in order to regularize the partition function of this model. We study the analytic extension of the associated relative zeta function, and we present explicit results for the partition function and for the Casimir force.

  17. Time-Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at Wind Tunnel Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, William L.; Glass, Christopher E.; Streett, Craig L.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A transonic flow field about a Space Launch System (SLS) configuration was simulated with the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code at wind tunnel conditions. Unsteady, time-accurate computations were performed using second-order Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) for up to 1.5 physical seconds. The surface pressure time history was collected at 619 locations, 169 of which matched locations on a 2.5 percent wind tunnel model that was tested in the 11 ft. x 11 ft. test section of the NASA Ames Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed that the peak surface pressure RMS level occurs behind the forward attach hardware, and good agreement for frequency and power was obtained in this region. Computational domain, grid resolution, and time step sensitivity studies were performed. These included an investigation of pseudo-time sub-iteration convergence. Using these sensitivity studies and experimental data comparisons, a set of best practices to date have been established for FUN3D simulations for SLS launch vehicle analysis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time DDES has been used in a systematic approach and establish simulation time needed, to analyze unsteady pressure loads on a space launch vehicle such as the NASA SLS.

  18. Modular Hamiltonians for deformed half-spaces and the averaged null energy condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Thomas; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Wang, Huajia

    2016-09-01

    We study modular Hamiltonians corresponding to the vacuum state for deformed half-spaces in relativistic quantum field theories on {{R}}^{1,d-1} . We show that in addition to the usual boost generator, there is a contribution to the modular Hamiltonian at first order in the shape deformation, proportional to the integral of the null components of the stress tensor along the Rindler horizon. We use this fact along with monotonicity of relative entropy to prove the averaged null energy condition in Minkowski space-time. This subsequently gives a new proof of the Hofman-Maldacena bounds on the parameters appearing in CFT three-point functions. Our main technical advance involves adapting newly developed perturbative methods for calculating entanglement entropy to the problem at hand. These methods were recently used to prove certain results on the shape dependence of entanglement in CFTs and here we generalize these results to excited states and real time dynamics. We also discuss the AdS/CFT counterpart of this result, making connection with the recently proposed gravitational dual for modular Hamiltonians in holographic theories.

  19. Predicting temperature and moisture distributions in conditioned spaces using the zonal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, K.C. [Parana Pontifical Catholic Univ., Curitiba (Brazil); Wurtz, E.; Inard, C. [La Rochelle Univ., La Rochelle, Cedex (France). LEPTAB

    2005-07-01

    Moisture interacts with building elements in a number of different ways that impact upon building performance, causing deterioration of building materials, as well as contributing to poor indoor air quality. In humid climates, moisture represents one of the major loads in conditioned spaces. It is therefore important to understand and model moisture transport accurately. This paper discussed an intermediate zonal approach to building a library of data in order to predict whole hygrothermal behavior in conditioned rooms. The zonal library included 2 models in order to consider building envelope moisture buffering effects as well as taking into account the dynamic aspect of jet airflow in the zonal method. The zonal library was then applied to a case study to show the impact of external humidity on the whole hygrothermal performance of a room equipped with a vertical fan-coil unit. The proposed theory was structured into 3 groups representing 3 building domains: indoor air; envelope; and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The indoor air sub-model related to indoor air space, where airflow speed was considered to be low. The envelope sub-model related to the radiation exchanges between the envelope and its environment as well as to the heat and mass transfers through the envelope material. The HVAC system sub-model referred to the whole system including equipment, control and specific airflow from the equipment. All the models were coupled into SPARK, where the resulting set of non-linear equations were solved simultaneously. A case study of a large office conditioned by a vertical fan-coil unit with a rectangular air supply diffuser was presented. Details of the building's external and internal environment were provided, as well as convective heat and mass transfer coefficients and temperature distributions versus time. Results of the study indicated that understanding building material moisture buffering effects is as important as

  20. Space Shuttle Orbiter Wing-Leading-Edge Panel Thermo-Mechanical Analysis for Entry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2010-01-01

    Linear elastic, thermo-mechanical stress analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels is presented for entry heating conditions. The wing-leading-edge panels are made from reinforced carbon-carbon and serve as a part of the overall thermal protection system. Three-dimensional finite element models are described for three configurations: integrated configuration, an independent single-panel configuration, and a local lower-apex joggle segment. Entry temperature conditions are imposed and the through-the-thickness response is examined. From the integrated model, it was concluded that individual panels can be analyzed independently since minimal interaction between adjacent components occurred. From the independent single-panel model, it was concluded that increased through-the-thickness stress levels developed all along the chord of a panel s slip-side joggle region, and hence isolated local joggle sections will exhibit the same trend. From the local joggle models, it was concluded that two-dimensional plane-strain models can be used to study the influence of subsurface defects along the slip-side joggle region of these panels.

  1. NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. "Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task." Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20. During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out. Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results. Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from

  2. More space and improved living conditions in cities with autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Many people live in cities today. Many more will do so in future. This increases the demand for space and (space for) transport. Space to expand roads is usually scarce. Building tunnels or elevated bridges is very expensive. Solving one bottleneck creates another bottleneck downstream. More road

  3. More space and improved living conditions in cities with autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Many people live in cities today. Many more will do so in future. This increases the demand for space and (space for) transport. Space to expand roads is usually scarce. Building tunnels or elevated bridges is very expensive. Solving one bottleneck creates a next bottleneck downstream. More road

  4. Simulation of tree shade impacts on residential energy use for space conditioning in Sacramento

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J. R.; McPherson, E. G.

    Tree shade reduces summer air conditioning demand and increases winter heating load by intercepting solar energy that would otherwise heat the shaded structure. We evaluate the magnitude of these effects here for 254 residential properties participating in a utility sponsored tree planting program in Sacramento, California. Tree and building characteristics and typical weather data are used to model hourly shading and energy used for space conditioning for each building for a period of one year. There were an average of 3.1 program trees per property which reduced annual and peak (8 h average from 1 to 9 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time) cooling energy use 153 kWh (7.1%) and 0.08 kW (2.3%) per tree, respectively. Annual heating load increased 0.85 GJ (0.80 MBtu, 1.9%) per tree. Changes in cooling load were smaller, but percentage changes larger, for newer buildings. Averaged over all homes, annual cooling savings of 15.25 per tree were reduced by a heating penalty of 5.25 per tree, for net savings of 10.00 per tree from shade. We estimate an annual cooling penalty of 2.80 per tree and heating savings of 6.80 per tree from reduced wind speed, for a net savings of 4.00 per tree, and total annual savings of 14.00 per tree (43.00 per property). Results are found to be consistent with previous simulations and the limited measurements available.

  5. Time Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at a Wind Tunnel Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, Bil; Streett, Craig L; Glass, Christopher E.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics code, an unsteady, time-accurate flow field about a Space Launch System configuration was simulated at a transonic wind tunnel condition (Mach = 0.9). Delayed detached eddy simulation combined with Reynolds Averaged Naiver-Stokes and a Spallart-Almaras turbulence model were employed for the simulation. Second order accurate time evolution scheme was used to simulate the flow field, with a minimum of 0.2 seconds of simulated time to as much as 1.4 seconds. Data was collected at 480 pressure taps at locations, 139 of which matched a 3% wind tunnel model, tested in the Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed agreement within 5% in terms of location for peak RMS levels, and 20% for frequency and magnitude of power spectral densities. Grid resolution and time step sensitivity studies were performed to identify methods for improved accuracy comparisons to wind tunnel data. With limited computational resources, accurate trends for reduced vibratory loads on the vehicle were observed. Exploratory methods such as determining minimized computed errors based on CFL number and sub-iterations, as well as evaluating frequency content of the unsteady pressures and evaluation of oscillatory shock structures were used in this study to enhance computational efficiency and solution accuracy. These techniques enabled development of a set of best practices, for the evaluation of future flight vehicle designs in terms of vibratory loads.

  6. Temperature Condition and Spherical Shell Shape Variation of Space Gauge-Alignment Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high precision spherical shell is one of the geometrical shape embodiments of a gaugealignment spacecraft to determine and control a radar channel energy potential of the ground-based complex for the traffic control of space objects. Passive relays of signals and some types of smallsized instrumentation standard reflectors used for radar gauge and alignment have the same shape. Orbits of the considered spacecraft can be either circular with a height of about 1000 km, including those close to the polar, or elliptical with an apogee of up to 2200 km.In case there is no thermal control system in spacecrafts of these types the solar radiation is a major factor to define the thermal state of a spherical shell in the illuminated orbit area. With the shell in fixed position with respect to direction towards the Sun an arising uneven temperature distribution over its surface leads to variation of the spherically ideal shell shape, which may affect the functional characteristics of the spacecraft. The shell rotation about an axis perpendicular to the direction towards the Sun may reduce an unevenness degree of the temperature distribution.The uneven temperature distribution over the spherical shell surface in conditions of the lowEarth space and this unevenness impact on the shell shape variation against its spherical shape can be quantively estimated by the appropriate methods of mathematical modeling using modification of a previously developed mathematical model to describe steady temperature state of such shell on the low-Earth orbit. The paper considers the shell made from a polymeric composite material. Its original spherical shape is defined by rather low internal pressure. It is assumed that equipment in the shell, if any, is quite small-sized. This allows us to ignore its impact on the radiative transfer in the shell cavity. Along with defining the steady temperature distribution over the shell surface at its fixed orientation with respect to

  7. LIFE experiment: isolation of cryptoendolithic organisms from Antarctic colonized sandstone exposed to space and simulated Mars conditions on the international space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzi, Giuliano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Albertano, Patrizia; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-06-01

    Desiccated Antarctic rocks colonized by cryptoendolithic communities were exposed on the International Space Station (ISS) to space and simulated Mars conditions (LiFE-Lichens and Fungi Experiment). After 1.5 years in space samples were retrieved, rehydrated and spread on different culture media. Colonies of a green alga and a pink-coloured fungus developed on Malt-Agar medium; they were isolated from a sample exposed to simulated Mars conditions beneath a 0.1 % T Suprasil neutral density filter and from a sample exposed to space vacuum without solar radiation exposure, respectively. None of the other flight samples showed any growth after incubation. The two organisms able to grow were identified at genus level by Small SubUnit (SSU) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA sequencing as Stichococcus sp. (green alga) and Acarospora sp. (lichenized fungal genus) respectively. The data in the present study provide experimental information on the possibility of eukaryotic life transfer from one planet to another by means of rocks and of survival in Mars environment.

  8. Exergy analysis of a two-stage ground source heat pump with a vertical bore for residential space conditioning under simulated occupancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ally, Moonis R.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Van D.; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy and energy analysis of a vertical-bore ground source heat pump over a 12-month period is presented. • The ground provided more than 75% of the heating energy. • Performance metrics are presented. • Sources of systemic inefficiency are identified and prioritized using Exergy analysis. • Understanding performance metrics is vital for judicial use of renewable energy. - Abstract: This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56 W (2.16-ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m 2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kW h at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4 °C and 21.7 °C, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work, are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources

  9. Successive and discrete spaced conditioning in active avoidance learning in young and aged zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Kajiwara, Riki; Tonoki, Ayako; Itoh, Motoyuki

    2018-05-01

    We designed an automated device to study active avoidance learning abilities of zebrafish. Open source tools were used for the device control, statistical computing, and graphic outputs of data. Using the system, we developed active avoidance tests to examine the effects of trial spacing and aging on learning. Seven-month-old fish showed stronger avoidance behavior as measured by color preference index with discrete spaced training as compared to successive spaced training. Fifteen-month-old fish showed a similar trend, but with reduced cognitive abilities compared with 7-month-old fish. Further, in 7-month-old fish, an increase in learning ability during trials was observed with discrete, but not successive, spaced training. In contrast, 15-month-old fish did not show increase in learning ability during trials. Therefore, these data suggest that discrete spacing is more effective for learning than successive spacing, with the zebrafish active avoidance paradigm, and that the time course analysis of active avoidance using discrete spaced training is useful to detect age-related learning impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying human disturbance in watersheds: Variable selection and performance of a GIS-based disturbance index for predicting the biological condition of perennial streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, James A.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Weber, Lisa C.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the relative severity of human disturbance in watersheds is often part of stream assessments and is frequently done with the aid of Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived data. However, the choice of variables and how they are used to quantify disturbance are often subjective. In this study, we developed a number of disturbance indices by testing sets of variables, scoring methods, and weightings of 33 potential disturbance factors derived from readily available GIS data. The indices were calibrated using 770 watersheds located in the western United States for which the severity of disturbance had previously been classified from detailed local data by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The indices were calibrated by determining which variable or variable combinations and aggregation method best differentiated between least- and most-disturbed sites. Indices composed of several variables performed better than any individual variable, and best results came from a threshold method of scoring using six uncorrelated variables: housing unit density, road density, pesticide application, dam storage, land cover along a mainstem buffer, and distance to nearest canal/pipeline. The final index was validated with 192 withheld watersheds and correctly classified about two-thirds (68%) of least- and most-disturbed sites. These results provide information about the potential for using a disturbance index as a screening tool for a priori ranking of watersheds at a regional/national scale, and which landscape variables and methods of combination may be most helpful in doing so.

  11. On the necessary conditions of the regular minimum of the scale factor of the co-moving space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakov, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of homogeneous cosmologic model studied is the behaviour of the comoving space element volume filled with barotropous medium, deprived of energy fluxes. Presented are the necessary conditions at which a regular final minimum of the scale factor of the co-mowing space may take place. It is found that to carry out the above minimum at values of cosmological constant Λ <= 0 the presence of two from three anisotropy factors is necessary. Anisotropy of space deformation should be one of these factors. In case of Λ <= 0 the regular minimum is also possible if all three factors of anisotropy are equal to zero. However if none of the factors of Fsub(i), Asub(ik) anisotropy is equal to zero, the presence of deformation space anisotropy is necessary for final regular minimum appearance

  12. Can crawl space temperature and moisture conditions be calculated with a whole-building hygrothermal simulation tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Morelli, Martin; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2017-01-01

    of measurements was compared with simulations of temperature and moisture condition in the floor structure and crawl space. The measurements showed that the extra 50 mm insulation placed below the beams reduced moisture content in the beams below 20 weight% all year. A reasonable agreement between......The hygrothermal behaviour of an outdoor ventilated crawl space with two different designs of the floor structure was investigated. The first design had 250 mm insulation and visible wooden beams towards the crawl space. The second design had 300 mm insulation and no visible wooden beams. One year...... the measurements and simulations was found; however, the evaporation from the soil was a dominant parameter affecting the hygrothermal response in the crawl space and floor structure....

  13. Capability of space-spectral analysis used for studying underground nuclear explosions effect on ground surface condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melent'ev, M.I.; Velikanov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the results of the work of study of the influence underground nucleus blasts (UNB) on condition of the day surface of the site Balapan on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site using materials of remote space sensing. The estimation of the cosmic spectral analysis information density is given for revealing the post-explosive geo- dynamic processes. (author)

  14. GPS Users Positioning Errors during Disturbed Near-Earth Space Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Afraimovich, E. L; Demyanov, V. V; Tatarinov, P. V; Astafieva, E. I; Zhivetiev, I. V

    2006-01-01

    .... (GPS Solutions, 2003, V7, N2, 109) showed, that during geomagnetic disturbances in the near space deterioration of GNSS operation quality is appeared and, as consequence, reduction of positioning accuracy and occurrence of failures...

  15. Bidirectional reflectance and VIS-NIR spectroscopy of cometary analogues under simulated space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Bernhard; Pommerol, Antoine; Poch, Olivier; Yoldi, Zuriñe; Fornasier, Sonia; Hasselmann, Pedro Henrique; Feller, Clément; Carrasco, Nathalie; Szopa, Cyril; Thomas, Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    This work is intended to be the second publication in a series of papers reporting on the spectro-photometric properties of cometary analogues measured in the laboratory. Herein, we provide in-situ hyperspectral imaging data in the 0.40-2.35 μm range from three sublimation experiments under simulated space conditions in thermal vacuum from samples made of water ice, carbonaceous compounds and complex organic molecules. The dataset is complemented by measurements of the bidirectional reflectance in the visible (750 nm) spectral range before and after sublimation. A qualitative characterization of surface evolution processes is provided as well as a description of morphological changes during the simulation experiment. The aim of these experiments is to mimic the spectrum of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) as acquired by the Rosetta mission by applying sublimation experiments on the mixtures of water ice with a complex organic material (tholins) and carbonaceous compounds (carbon black; activated charcoal) studied in our companion publication (Jost et al., submitted). Sublimation experiments are needed to develop the particular texture (high porosity), expected on the nucleus' surface, which might have a strong influence on spectro-photometric properties. The spectrally best matching mixtures of non volatile organic molecules from Jost et al. (submitted) are mixed with fine grained water ice particles and evolved in a thermal vacuum chamber, in order to monitor the influence of the sublimation process on their spectro-photometric properties. We demonstrate that the way the water ice and the non-volatile constituents are mixed, plays a major role in the formation and evolution of a surface residue mantle as well as having influence on the consolidation processes of the underlying ice. Additionally it results in different activity patterns under simulated insolation cycles. Further we show that the phase curves of samples having a porous surface mantle layer

  16. Renewed Urban Waterfront: Spatial Conditions of a Contemporary Urban Space Typology

    OpenAIRE

    Beate Niemann; Fabian Pramel

    2017-01-01

    The formerly industrially or militarily used Urban Waterfront is a potential area for urban development. Extensive interventions in the urban space come along with the development of these previously inaccessible areas in the city. The development of the Urban Waterfront in the European City is not subject to any recognizable urban paradigm. In this study, the development of the Urban Waterfront as a new urban space typology is analyzed by case studies of Urban Waterfront developments in Euro...

  17. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  18. Space mutagenic effects on cistanche deserticola seed viability and parasitic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rong; Zhou Feng; Yu Jing; Chen Jun; Sun Suqin; Liu Yougang; Liu Tongning

    2009-01-01

    The seeds of Cistanche deserticola which from a single plant with fine properties were carried to the space by the recoverable experiment satellite 'Shijian No.8'. After space loading, the seed viability and characters of infrared spectroscopy were analyzed and then planted to observe and investigate the variation and heredity. The results showed that compared to the control group, the seed viability and germination rate increased observably after space loading. As well, the plants grew much healthier at the seedling stage. The results indicated that space loading has obvious promote effects on the seed viability, germination rate and disease resistance of Cistanche deserticola. The analysis results of infrared spectroscopy showed the contents of protein and carbohydrate were increased distinctly and the contents of oil or fat reduced somewhat in the seeds after space loading. The intensity ratio between characteristic absorption peak of protein and characteristic absorption peak of fat (I 1625 /I 1745 ) were increased from 1.07 to 1.16, which could be related to the enhancement of seed viability and the reduction of germination restraint substances. It could be concluded that microgravity and intense radiation in the space caused seed viability and material metabolism change. (authors)

  19. Decoupling dehumidification and cooling for energy saving and desirable space air conditions in hot and humid Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.L.; Chen Hua; Leung, Y.C.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The combined use of dedicated ventilation and dry cooling (DCDV) system was investigated. ► Investigations were based actual equipment performance data and realistic building and system characteristics. ► DCDV system could save 54% of the annual energy use for air-conditioning. ► DCDV system could better achieve the desired space air conditions. ► DCDV system could decouple dehumidification and cooling. - Abstract: The combined use of dedicated outdoor air ventilation (DV) and dry cooling (DC) air-conditioning system to decouple sensible and latent cooling for desirable space air conditions, better indoor air quality, and energy efficiency is proposed for hot and humid climates like Hong Kong. In this study, the performance and energy saving potential of DCDV system in comparison to conventional systems (constant air volume (CAV) system with and without reheat) for air conditioning of a typical office building in Hong Kong are evaluated. Through hour-by-hour simulations, using actual equipment performance data and realistic building and system characteristics, the cooling load profile, resultant indoor air conditions, condensation at the DC coil, and energy consumptions are calculated and analyzed. The results indicate that with the use of DCDV system, the desirable indoor conditions could be achieved and the annual energy use could be reduced by 54% over CAV system with reheat. The condensate-free characteristic at the DC coil to reduce risk of catching disease could also be realized.

  20. On Probabilistic Alpha-Fuzzy Fixed Points and Related Convergence Results in Probabilistic Metric and Menger Spaces under Some Pompeiu-Hausdorff-Like Probabilistic Contractive Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    De la Sen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of complete probabilistic metric spaces and, in particular, in probabilistic Menger spaces, this paper investigates some relevant properties of convergence of sequences to probabilistic α-fuzzy fixed points under some types of probabilistic contractive conditions.

  1. Existence Results for Differential Inclusions with Nonlinear Growth Conditions in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaoud Bounkhel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Banach space setting, the existence of viable solutions for differential inclusions with nonlinear growth; that is, ẋ(t∈F(t,x(t a.e. on I, x(t∈S, ∀t∈I, x(0=x0∈S, (*, where S is a closed subset in a Banach space , I=[0,T], (T>0, F:I×S→, is an upper semicontinuous set-valued mapping with convex values satisfying F(t,x⊂c(tx+xp, ∀(t,x∈I×S, where p∈ℝ, with p≠1, and c∈C([0,T],ℝ+. The existence of solutions for nonconvex sweeping processes with perturbations with nonlinear growth is also proved in separable Hilbert spaces.

  2. Schwarzian导数,几何条件和Qκ空间%Schwarzian derivative, geometric conditions and Qκ spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继振

    2012-01-01

    设Ψ:D→Ω是一个单叶函数,利用Schwarzian导数,本文获得了logΨ'属于Qκ空间的一个充要条件.此外,本文运用了一个几何条件来刻画Qκ空间.%For a univalent function Ψ : D → Ω, we study the membership of logψ' to the space QK in terms of the Schwarzian derivative. We also apply a geometric condition to characterize the space QK.

  3. Conditions for order and chaos in the dynamics of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in coordinate and energy space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhel, Roger R.; Sakhel, Asaad R.; Ghassib, Humam B.; Balaz, Antun

    2016-03-01

    We investigate numerically conditions for order and chaos in the dynamics of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) confined by an external trap cut off by a hard-wall box potential. The BEC is stirred by a laser to induce excitations manifesting as irregular spatial and energy oscillations of the trapped cloud. Adding laser stirring to the external trap results in an effective time-varying trapping frequency in connection with the dynamically changing combined external+laser potential trap. The resulting dynamics are analyzed by plotting their trajectories in coordinate phase space and in energy space. The Lyapunov exponents are computed to confirm the existence of chaos in the latter space. Quantum effects and trap anharmonicity are demonstrated to generate chaos in energy space, thus confirming its presence and implicating either quantum effects or trap anharmonicity as its generator. The presence of chaos in energy space does not necessarily translate into chaos in coordinate space. In general, a dynamic trapping frequency is found to promote chaos in a trapped BEC. An apparent means to suppress chaos in a trapped BEC is achieved by increasing the characteristic scale of the external trap with respect to the condensate size.

  4. Comparison of SPACE to MARS-KS under SUBO experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Gil; Lee, Wonwoong; Lee, Jeong Ik; Bang, Young Seok

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate safety of a Korean Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) MARS-KS code is being used by the Korean regulator. The governing equations of MARS-KS are based on two-phase and two-fluid model. Recently, SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis CodE for nuclear power plants) was developed by a consortium led by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP), which the code is aimed for evaluating the safety of the designed nuclear power plant. The governing equations of SPACE are based on two-phase (liquid and gas phase) three-fluid (continuous liquid, gas and droplet) model. However, MARS-KS and SPACE have different governing equations, as well as model and correlations implemented in two codes. Due to this reason, the authors are studying the difference in the analysis result of SET (Separate Effect Test) of each code.. To compare the SPACE and MARS-KS performances, the authors chose SUBO experiment as the first reference case. Input deck of each code was prepared. The results from the two codes were compared to the experimental data, but due to the lack of information on the uncertainties it is too early to conclude the code performance. However, from the obtained analysis results, some differences between MARS-KS and SPACE are observed. Especially, flow regimes at heated region are considerably different. More detailed analysis of the flow regime and its effect in MARS-KS and SPACE analysis results will be followed in the near future. The heat transfer coefficient and friction factor at the interface and at the wall will be compared with similar method used in this study

  5. The quantum oscillator on complex projective space (Lobachewski space) in a constant magnetic field and the issue of generic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Pulak Ranjan

    2007-01-01

    We perform a one-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions characterized by the parameter ω 0 . This allows us to get generic boundary conditions for the quantum oscillator on N-dimensional complex projective space (CP N ) and on its non-compact version, i.e., Lobachewski space (L N ) in the presence of a constant magnetic field. As a result, we get a family of energy spectra for the oscillator. In our formulation the already known result of this oscillator also belongs to the family. We have also obtained an energy spectrum which preserves all the symmetries (full-hidden symmetry and rotational symmetry) of the oscillator. The method of self-adjoint extensions has also been discussed for a conic oscillator in the presence of the constant magnetic field

  6. Calculation and measurement of space charge in MV-size xxtruded cables systems under load conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshuis, P.H.F.; Bodega, R.; Fabiani, D.; Montanari, G.C.; Dissado, L.A.; Smit, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A load current in dc high voltage cables results in a temperature drop across the insulation and hence a radial distribution of the insulation conductivity is found. Direct consequence is an accumulation of space charge in the bulk of the nsulation, that may significantly affect its reliability.

  7. A universal mirror wave-mode threshold condition for non-thermal space plasma environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Leubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluctuations are recognized in a large variety of space plasmas by increasingly high resolution, in situ observations as mirror wave mode structures. A typical requirement for the excitation of mirror modes is a dominant perpendicular pressure in a high-beta plasma environment. Contrary, we demonstrate from a realistic kinetic analysis how details of the velocity space distributions are of considerable significance for the instability threshold. Introducing the most common characteristics of observed ion and electron distributions by a mixed suprathermal-loss-cone, we derive a universal mirror instability criterion from an energy principle for collisionless plasmas. As a result, the transition from two temperature Maxwellians to realistic non-thermal features provides a strong source for the generation of mirror wave mode activity, reducing drastically the instability threshold. In particular, a number of space-related examples illuminate how the specific structure of the velocity space distribution dominates as a regulating excitation mechanism over the effects related to changes in the plasma parameters.

  8. A necessary flexibility condition for a nondegenerate suspension in Lobachevsky 3-space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slutskii, D A [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    We show that some combination of the lengths of all edges of the equator of a flexible suspension in Lobachevsky 3-space is equal to zero (each length is taken with a 'plus' or 'minus' sign in this combination). Bibliography: 10 titles.

  9. Dimension elevation in Müntz spaces: A new emergence of the Müntz condition

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    We show that the limiting polygon generated by the dimension elevation algorithm with respect to the Müntz space span(1,tr1,tr2,trm,. . .), with 0 < r1 < r2 < ⋯ < r m < ⋯ and lim n →∞r n = ∞, over an interval [a, b] ⊂ ] 0

  10. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  11. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  12. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  13. Exergy and energy analyses of two different types of PCM based thermal management systems for space air conditioning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, V.V.; Pandey, A.K.; Buddhi, D.; Tyagi, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Calcium chloride hexahydrate (CaCl 2 ⋅6H 2 O) as a PCM was used in this study. ► Two different capsulated system (HDPE based panel and balls) were designed. ► The results of CaCl 2 ⋅6H 2 O are very attractive for space air conditioning. ► Energy and exergy analyses for space cooling applications. - Abstract: This communication presents the experimental study of PCM based thermal management systems for space heating and cooling applications using energy and exergy analysis. Two different types of based thermal management system (TMS-I and TMS-II) using calcium chloride hexahydrate as the heat carrier has been designed, fabricated and studied for space heating and cooling applications at a typical climatic zone in India. In the first experimental arrangement the charging of PCM has been carried out with air conditioning system while discharging has been carried out using electric heater for both the thermal management systems. While in the second arrangement the charging of PCM has been carried out by solar energy and the discharging has been carried out by circulating the cooler ambient air during the night time. In the first experiment, TMS-I is found to be more effective than that of TMS-II while it was found to be reverse in the case of second experiment for both the charging and discharging processes not only for energetic but also for the exergetic performances

  14. Dynamics of Penicillium camemberti growth quantified by real-time PCR on Camembert-type cheeses under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Picque, Daniel; Martin Del Campo Barba, Sandra Teresita; Monnet, Christophe

    2013-06-01

    Penicillium camemberti plays a major role in the flavor and appearance of Camembert-type cheeses. However, little is known about its mycelium growth kinetics during ripening. We monitored the growth of P. camemberti mycelium in Camembert-type cheeses using real-time PCR in 4 ripening runs, performed at 2 temperatures (8 and 16°C) and 2 relative humidities (88 and 98%). These findings were compared with P. camemberti quantification by spore concentration. During the first phase, the mycelium grew but no spores were produced, regardless of the ripening conditions. During the second phase, which began when lactose was depleted, the concentration of spores increased, especially in the cheeses ripened at 16°C. Sporulation was associated with a large decrease in the mycelial concentration in the cheeses ripened at 16°C and 98% relative humidity. It was hypothesized that lactose is the main energy source for the growth of P. camemberti mycelium at the beginning of ripening and that its depletion would trigger stress, resulting in sporulation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Common Fixed Point Theorems in Fuzzy Metric Spaces Satisfying -Contractive Condition with Common Limit Range Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to emphasize the role of “common limit range property” to ascertain the existence of common fixed point in fuzzy metric spaces. Some illustrative examples are furnished which demonstrate the validity of the hypotheses and degree of utility of our results. We derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of self-mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any finite number of mappings. As an application to our main result, we prove an integral-type fixed point theorem in fuzzy metric space. Our results improve and extend a host of previously known results including the ones contained in Imdad et al. (2012.

  16. Anomaly matching conditions and the moduli space of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotti, G.; Manohar, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of the moduli space of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories is analyzed from an algebraic geometric viewpoint. The connection between the fundamental fields of the ultraviolet theory, and the gauge-invariant composite fields of the infrared theory is explained in detail. The results are then used to prove an anomaly matching theorem. The theorem is used to study anomaly matching for supersymmetric QCD, and can explain all the known anomaly matching results for this case. (orig.)

  17. Estimation of optical attenuation in reduced visibility conditions in different environments across free space optics link

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dev, K.; Nebuloni, R.; Capsoni, C.; Fišer, Ondřej; Brázda, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 12 (2017), s. 1708-1713 ISSN 1751-8725 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : light attenuation * optical sensors * free-space optical communication Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.187, year: 2016 http://digital-library.theiet.org/content/journals/10.1049/iet-map.2016.0872

  18. Effect of Ducted HPWH on Space-Conditioning and Water Heating Energy Use -- Central Florida Lab Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon, Carlos [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, Danny [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of ducted heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) on space conditioning and water heating energy use in residential applications. Two identical HPWHs, each of 60 gallon capacity were tested side by side at the Flexible Residential Test facility (FRTF) laboratories of the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) campus in Cocoa, Florida. The water heating experiments were run in each test house from July 2014 until February 2015.

  19. Effect of Ducted HPWH on Space-Conditioning and Water Heating Energy Use -- Central Florida Lab Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon, Carlos [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, Danny [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of ducted heat pump water heaters (HPWH's) on space conditioning and water heating energy use in residential applications. Two identical HPWH's, each of 60 gallon capacity were tested side by side at the Flexible Residential Test facility (FRTF) laboratories of the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) campus in Cocoa, Florida. The water heating experiments were run in each test house from July 2014 until February 2015.

  20. Graph-theoretic analysis of discrete-phase-space states for condition change detection and quantification of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Lee M.

    2014-09-16

    Data collected from devices and human condition may be used to forewarn of critical events such as machine/structural failure or events from brain/heart wave data stroke. By monitoring the data, and determining what values are indicative of a failure forewarning, one can provide adequate notice of the impending failure in order to take preventive measures. This disclosure teaches a computer-based method to convert dynamical numeric data representing physical objects (unstructured data) into discrete-phase-space states, and hence into a graph (structured data) for extraction of condition change.

  1. ``From seed-to-seed'' experiment with wheat plants under space-flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A.; Ivanova, I.; Derendyaeva, T.; Nechitailo, G.; Salisbury, F.

    1994-11-01

    An important goal with plant experiments in microgravity is to achieve a complete life cycle, the ``seed-to-seed experiment''. Some Soviet attempts to reach this goal are described, notably an experiment with the tiny mustard, Arabidopsis thaliana, in the Phyton 3 device on Salyut 7. Normal seeds were produced although yields were reduced and development was delayed. Several other experiments have shown abnormalities in plants grown in space. In recent work, plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were studied on the ground and then in a preliminary experiment in space. Biometric indices of vegetative space plants were 2 to 2.5 times lower than those of controls, levels of chlorophyll a and b were reduced (no change in the ratio of the two pigments), carotenoids were reduced, there was a serious imbalance in major minerals, and membrane lipids were reduced (no obvious change in lipid patterns). Following the preliminary studies, an attempt was made with the Svetoblock-M growth unit to grow a super-dwarf wheat cultivar through a life cycle. The experiment lasted 167 d on Mir. Growth halted from about day 40 to day 100, when new shoots appeared. Three heads had appeared in the boot (surrounded by leaves) when plants were returned to earth. One head was sterile, but 28 seeds matured on earth, and most of these have since produced normal plants and seeds. In principle, a seed-to-seed experiment with wheat should be successful in microgravity.

  2. Lumbar hernia: A commonly misevaluated condition of the bilateral costoiliac spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiji Suh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar hernias develop through the weakening of the posterolateral abdominal wall associated with the Petit's triangle or the Grynfeltt-Lesshaft triangle. Clinicians are generally unfamiliar with the presentation of lumbar hernias, which frequently leads to misdiagnosis and delay of treatment. Prompt failure to diagnose and surgically correct lumbar hernias have resulted in increased morbidity. This review addresses the anatomical and clinical concepts associated with the bilateral costoiliac spaces, which may be implicated in the increased prevalence of left-sided hernias. Knowledge of the contents and boundaries of this enclosure can aid the physician in diagnosis. We explore the intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal diseases that present at the lumbocostal space, including lumbar hernias, which can be classified as congenital, acquired, traumatic, or iatrogenic in origin. In an evaluation, imaging is crucial for assessing musculofascial layer disruptions and hernia contents. Open and laparoscopic surgery, as well retromuscular lumbar hernia repair, are options to explore in surgical intervention, particularly if there are challenges in preliminary pain management. Keywords: Lumbar hernia, Costoiliac spaces, Petit's triangle, Grvnfeltt-lesshaft triangle, Lumbocostovertebral syndrome

  3. The Influence of Electrodes and Conditioning on Space Charge Accumulation in XLPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, R. J.; Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    . They also developed homocharge close to the electrodes. The choice of electrode material had little effect on the heterocharge profile in unconditioned samples. Conditioning by holding at 80°C for four days, at rotary pump pressure or at atmospheric pressure, suppressed the accumulation of heterocharge....... Homocharge accumulation close to the electrodes in samples with semicon electrodes was affected little by this conditioning, but was reduced considerably in samples with gold electrodes. Conditioning by holding at room temperature for seven days at rotary pump pressure had little effect. The heterocharge...

  4. Experimental study of performance of a dry cooling and dedicated ventilation (DCDV) system under different space cooling load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jie; Lee, W.L.; Chen, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This is an experimental study of the use of DCDV system for achieving the decoupling and energy saving objectives. • The study focuses on side-by-side comparison of the DCDV and conventional systems. • DCDV system can better achieve the desired space air conditions and is more energy efficient. • A prediction model has been developed to relate the possible condensation period with different operating parameters. • The results are useful for wider application of DCDV system. - Abstract: The use of DCDV system for decoupling dehumidification from cooling to achieve energy saving objective for air-conditioning of office environments in Hong Kong was confirmed effective based on simulation studies by the authors. However, given that simulation typically assumes a perfect control and feedback system, whether or not the benefits of DCDV system can be realized in practice, in particular under various space part load ratio (PLR) and sensible heat ratio (SHR) conditions, is subject to experimental verifications. In this study, a prototype which could be switched between the proposed DCDV system mode and the conventional system mode was constructed in a test facility for laboratory experiments. Through two sets of identical experiments under various space cooling load conditions, it was found that if compared to the conventional system, DCDV system could perform slightly better in achieving the desired indoor condition and in reducing the moisture-related air quality problems, but would result in 1–3% higher in cooling output. As for the overall coefficient of performance (COP o ), the DCDV system was found performed better by 5.6–7.2%. Additional experimental analysis was conducted for the development of a prediction model to relate the possible condensation period (ψ) on the DC coil with different operating parameters

  5. Modeling of Fog and Smoke Attenuation in Free Space Optical Communications Link Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ijaz, M.; Ghassemlooy, Z.; Pešek, J.; Fišer, Ondřej; Le Minh, H.; Bentley, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2013), s. 1720-1726 ISSN 0733-8724 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/1376 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Fog attenuation * free space optics * smoke attenuation * visibility Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.862, year: 2013 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6497447&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6497447

  6. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  7. Does the air condition system in busses spread allergic fungi into driver space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiak, Małgorzata; Kozajda, Anna; Jeżak, Karolina; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether the air-conditioning system in buses constitutes an additional source of indoor air contamination with fungi, and whether or not the fungi concentration depends on the period from the last disinfection of the system, combined with replacement of the cabin dust particle filter. The air samples to fungi analysis using impact method were taken in 30 buses (20 with an air-conditioning system, ACS; 10 with a ventilation system, VS) in two series: 1 and 22 weeks after cabin filter replacement and disinfection of the air-conditioning system. During one test in each bus were taken two samples: before the air-conditioning or ventilation system switched on and 6 min after operating of these systems. The atmospheric air was the external background (EB). After 1 week of use of the system, the fungi concentrations before starting of the ACS and VS system were 527.8 and 1053.0 cfu/m 3 , respectively, and after 22 weeks the concentrations were 351.9 and 1069.6 cfu/m 3 , respectively. While in the sample after 6 min of ACS and VS system operating, the fungi concentration after 1 week of use was 127.6 and 233.7 cfu/m 3 , respectively, and after 22 weeks it was 113.3 and 324.9 cfu/m 3 , respectively. Results do not provide strong evidence that air-conditioning system is an additional source of indoor air contamination with fungi. A longer operation of the system promoted increase of fungi concentration in air-conditioned buses only.

  8. Corrections to air kerma rate measurements of 125I brachytherapy sources to free space conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, D.R.; Duane, S.

    1994-05-01

    Air kerma rate measurements have been made between 40 cm and 100 cm from one of a set of 125 I reference sources within the facilities of Amersham International plc. Monte Carlo techniques have been used to calculate the air kerma rate components over the same range of distances from this source. After comparing the calculated data with measurements, the compliance of the data with the inverse square law was investigated, and corrections were derived to obtain the air kerma rate at 1 m in free space from each source. Simulations of the experimental setup with an isotropic monoenergetic point source close to the effective energy of 125 I were found to reproduce the air kerma rate measurements reasonably accurately, and indicated that the contribution due to scattered photons was significant. The overall correction (which is defined as the product of individual corrections for chamber size effect, air attenuation and radiation scatter) required to the inverse square law to obtain the air kerma rate at 1 m in free space was found to be 0.981, 0.984 and 0.980, respectively, for air kerma rate measurements at 40 cm, 60 cm and 100 cm from the 125 I reference source. The total uncertainty in these corrections was estimated to be 0.88% at the 1σ level. (author)

  9. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and state space representation of a manipulator under viscoelastic material conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar, H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the VoigtKelvin constitutive model, nonlinear dynamic modelling and state space representation of a viscoelastic beam acting as a flexible robotic manipulator is investigated. Complete nonlinear dynamic modelling of a viscoelastic beam without premature linearisation of dynamic equations is developed. The adopted method is capable of reproducing nonlinear dynamic effects, such as beam stiffening due to centrifugal and Coriolis forces induced by rotation of the joints. Structural damping effects on the models dynamic behaviour are also shown. A reliable model for a viscoelastic beam is subsequently presented. The governing equations of motion are derived using Hamiltons principle, and using the finite difference method, nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations. For the purpose of flexible manipulator control, the standard form of state space equations for the viscoelastic link and the actuator is obtained. Simulation results indicate substantial improvements in dynamic behaviour, and a parameter sensitivity study is carried out to investigate the effect of structural damping on the vibration amplitude.

  10. Assuming it is all about conditions : Framing a simulation model for complex, adaptive urban space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamu, Claudia; de Roo, Gert; Frankhauser, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the route beyond the conventional, linear attitude within planning and its rationality debate. We combine our theoretical reasoning with a multiscale approach and with fractal-like argumentation which results in a frame of conditions which is supported by the outline of a

  11. Analysis of optical properties behaviour of CLEARCERAM, fused silica and CaF2 glasses exposed to simulated space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Alvarado, C. G.; Núñez, A.; Álvarez-Herrero, A.

    2017-11-01

    Optical instrumentation on-board satellites suffer degradation due to the hostile conditions of space environment. Space conditions produce instrumentation performances changes causing a decrease or a cancellation of their features. Particularly, space environment conditions have a significant influence on the optical properties of glasses which are part of space optical systems. Space environment characteristics which effects on the optical system have to be taken into account are: outgassing, volatile components, gas or water vapor which form part of the spacecraft materials, vacuum, microgravity, micrometeorites, space debris, thermal, mechanical and radiation environment and effects of the high atmosphere [1]. This work is focused on analyzing temperature variations and ultraviolet (UV) and gamma radiation effects on the optical properties of several glasses used on space applications. Thermal environment is composed of radiation from the Sun, the albedo and the Earth radiation and the radiation from the spacecraft to deep space. Flux and influence of temperature on satellite materials depend on factors as the period of year or the position of them on the space system. Taking into account that the transfer mechanisms of heat are limited by the conduction and the radiation, high gradients of temperature are obtained in system elements which can cause changes of their optical properties, birefringence… Also, these thermal cycles can introduce mechanical loads into material structure due to the expansion and the contraction of the material leading to mechanical performances degradation [2]. However, it is the radiation environment the main cause of damage on optical properties of materials used on space instrumentation. This environment consists of a wide range of energetic particles between keV and MeV which are trapped by the geomagnetic field or are flux of particles that cross the Earth environment from the external of the Solar System [3]. The damage

  12. Numerical simulation of the effect of wind removing the corona space charge over grounded structures under thunderstorm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Lopez, Javier; Holbøll, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    agrounded object under thunderstorm conditions. The electric fieldcreated by the charge distribution in the thundercloud above theobject, which is in first place enhanced by its geometry, leadsto the generation and secondly upward propagation of chargefrom the object. Recent investigations underline......Different types of tall structures are severely exposed to lightning discharges, including power lines, communicationtowers, buildings and wind turbines all over the world. Thepresent paper focuses on the numerical modelling and simulationof the effect of wind on the electric field developed over...... quantifies thedifference between static towers and rotating wind turbines whichare influenced by different resultant wind velocities. The voltagedistribution and ion drift velocities in the vicinity of the groundedstructures are illustrated. The results show a higher voltagegradient at the side of the object...

  13. Investigating the Effects of Simulated Space conditions on Novel Extremely Halophilic Archaea: Halovarius Luteus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshangsaz, Niloofar; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Nazmi, Kamran; Semsarha, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Studying halophiles from different environments of Earth provide new insights into our search for life in the universe. Haloarchaea show some unique characteristics and physiological adaptations like acidic proteins against harsh environments such as natural brine with salt concentration approaching saturation (5 M) and regions with low active water. These properties make haloarchaea interesting candidate for astrobiological studies. Halovarius luteus gen. nov., sp. nov. a novel extremely halophilic archaeon from Urmia salt lake, in Iran has been chosen to explore its resistance against a series of extreme conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the resistance of strain DA50T under the effects of simulated space conditions like simulated microgravity, hypergravity, and desiccation. In this paper we will discuss the results of these studies where we specifically focus on changes in carotenoid pigments production and whole cell proteome. This is the first report of very novel Iranian archaea in response to extreme space conditions. The pigments were extracted by acetone and methanol. Pigments were analyzed by scanning the absorbance spectrum in the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. And they were separated by TLC. Whole protein from cell lysate supernatant was extracted after lysis with Bacterial Protein Extraction Reagent and fractionated by RP-HPLC using C18 column. Proteome analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and MALDI-TOF. Carotenoid pigments are formed under different extreme conditions such as dry environment and gravitational changes. Also the protein composition exhibits alterations after exposure to the same conditions. Our conclusion is that pigments and proteins formation depend on the growth circumstances. Halophiles use this as an adaptation to survive under different environmental conditions.

  14. Ultrastructure of chlorella pyrenoidosa (Strain g-11-1) cell grown for a long time under conditions of space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, K.M.; Kordyum, Ye.L.; Mashins'kij, O.L.; Popova, A.F.; Grechko, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the data on the electron-microscopic analysis of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa culture (the D-11-1 strain, a pigmentary mutant) growing in the IFS-2 instruments (an organic nutrient medium, darkness) during 28 days on board the space laboratory ''Salyut-6''. The cell density in the experimental culture is 4.6 times greater than the one under control. A number of differences in the structural-functional organization of experimental and control cells is shown. The investigations performed have shown that the cosmic flight factors significantly affect the growth and vital activity of the Chlorella culture having been in a physiologically active state for a long time under conditions of space flight

  15. Quantifying energy condition violations in traversable wormholes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Short Talks Volume 63 Issue 4 October 2004 pp 859-864 ... Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India; Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, India; School of Mathematical and Computing ...

  16. Halophilic archaea on Earth and in space: growth and survival under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-13

    Salts are abundant on Mars, and any liquid water that is present or may have been present on the planet is expected to be hypersaline. Halophilic archaea (family Halobacteriaceae) are the microorganisms best adapted to life at extremes of salinity on Earth. This paper reviews the properties of the Halobacteriaceae that may make the group good candidates for life also on Mars. Many species resist high UV and gamma radiation levels; one species has survived exposure to vacuum and radiation during a space flight; and there is at least one psychrotolerant species. Halophilic archaea may survive for millions of years within brine inclusions in salt crystals. Many species have different modes of anaerobic metabolism, and some can use light as an energy source using the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. They are also highly tolerant to perchlorate, recently shown to be present in Martian soils, and some species can even use perchlorate as an electron acceptor to support anaerobic growth. The presence of characteristic carotenoid pigments (α-bacterioruberin and derivatives) makes the Halobacteriaceae easy to identify by Raman spectroscopy. Thus, if present on Mars, such organisms may be detected by Raman instrumentation planned to explore Mars during the upcoming ExoMars mission. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Crew-MC communication and characteristics of crewmembers' sleep under conditions of simulated prolonged space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim; Yusupova, Anna; Ehmann, Bea; Balazs, Laszlo; Zavalko, Irina

    Characteristics of crew-MC communication and psychophysiological state of the crewmembers were studied in simulation experiment with 520-day isolation. We used method of computerized quantitative content analysis to investigate psychologically relevant characteristics of the crew’s messages content. Content analysis is a systematic, reproducible method of reducing of a text array to a limited number of categories by means of preset scientifically substantiated rules of coding (Berelson, 1971, Krippendorff, 2004). All statements in the crew’s messages to MC were coded with certain psychologically relevant content analysis categories (e.g. ‘Needs’, ‘Negativism’, ‘Time’). We attributed to the ‘Needs’ category statements (semantic units), containing the words, related to subject’s needs and their satisfaction, e.g. ‘‘necessary, need, wish, want, demand’’. To the ‘Negativism’ category we refer critical statements, containing such words as ‘‘mistakes, faults, deficit, shortage’’. The ‘Time’ category embodies statements related to time perception, e.g. “hour, day, always, never, constantly”. Sleep study was conducted with use of EEG and actigraphy techniques to assess characteristics of the crewmembers’ night sleep, reflecting the crew’s adaptation to the experimental conditions. The overall amount of communication (quantity of messages and their length) positively correlated with sleep effectiveness (time of sleep related to time in bed) and with delta sleep latency. Occurrences of semantic units in categories ‘Time’ and ‘Negativism’ negatively correlated with sleep latency, and positively - with delta sleep latency and sleep effectiveness. Frequency of time-related semantic units’ utilization in the crew’s messages was significantly increasing during or before the key events of the experiment (beginning of high autonomy, planetary landing simulation, etc.). It is known that subjective importance of time

  18. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Boundedness of Commutators of the General Fractional Integral Operators on Weighted Morrey Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengyan Si

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that b is in Lipβ(ω if and only if the commutator [b,L-α/2] of the multiplication operator by b and the general fractional integral operator L-α/2 is bounded from the weighted Morrey space Lp,k(ω to Lq,kq/p(ω1-(1-α/nq,ω, where 0(1-k/(p/(q-k, and here rω denotes the critical index of ω for the reverse Hölder condition.

  19. Modelling of 10 Gbps Free Space Optics Communication Link Using Array of Receivers in Moderate and Harsh Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Shaina, Nagpal

    2017-08-01

    Intersymbol interference and attenuation of signal are two major parameters affecting the quality of transmission in Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication link. In this paper, the impact of these parameters on FSO communication link is analysed for delivering high-quality data transmission. The performance of the link is investigated under the influence of amplifier in the link. The performance parameters of the link like minimum bit error rate, received signal power and Quality factor are examined by employing erbium-doped fibre amplifier in the link. The effects of amplifier are visualized with the amount of received power. Further, the link is simulated for moderate weather conditions at various attenuation levels on transmitted signal. Finally, the designed link is analysed in adverse weather conditions by using high-power laser source for optimum performance.

  20. Simulation of the impact of financial incentives on solar energy utilization for space conditioning and water heating: 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H C

    1979-01-01

    Financial incentives designed to accelerate the use of solar energy for heating, cooling, and water heating of buildings have been proposed by both state and federal legislative bodies in the U.S.A. Among the most frequently mentioned incentives are sales and property tax exemptions, tax deductions and credits, rapid amortization provisions, and interest rate subsidies. At the present time there is little available information regarding the ability of such incentives to advance the rate of solar energy utilization. This paper describes the derivation and use of a computer simulation model designed to estimate solar energy use for space conditioning and water heating for given economic, climatic, and technological conditions. When applied to data from the Denver, Colorado metropolitan area, the simulation model predicts that sales tax exemptions would have little impact over the next decade, interest rate subsidies could more than double solar energy use, and the other proposed incentives would have an intermediate impact.

  1. Spectrophotometric analysis of tomato plants produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions for a long time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Yurov, S.; Cojocaru, A.; Revin, A.

    The analysis of the lycopene and other carotenoids in tomatoes produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions at the orbital station MIR for six years is presented in this work. Our previous experiments with tomato plants showed the germination of seeds to be 32%Genetic investigations revealed 18%in the experiment and 8%experiments were conducted to study the capacity of various stimulating factors to increase germination of seeds exposed for a long time to the action of space flight factors. An increase of 20%achieved but at the same time mutants having no analogues in the control variants were detected. For the present investigations of the third generation of plants produced from seeds stored for a long time under space flight conditions 80 tomatoes from forty plants were selected. The concentration of lycopene in the experimental specimens was 2.5-3 times higher than in the control variants. The spectrophotometric analysis of ripe tomatoes revealed typical three-peaked carotenoid spectra with a high maximum of lycopene (a medium maximum at 474 nm), a moderate maximum of its predecessor, phytoin, (a medium maximum at 267 nm) and a low maximum of carotenes. In green tomatoes, on the contrary, a high maximum of phytoin, a moderate maximum of lycopene and a low maximum of carotenes were observed. The results of the spectral analysis point to the retardation of biosynthesis of carotenes while the production of lycopene is increased and to the synthesis of lycopene from phytoin. Electric conduction of tomato juice in the experimental samples is increased thus suggesting higher amounts of carotenoids, including lycopene and electrolytes. The higher is the value of electric conduction of a specimen, the higher are the spectral maxima of lycopene. The hydrogen ion exponent of the juice of ripe tomatoes increases due to which the efficiency of ATP biosynthesis in cell mitochondria is likely to increase, too. The results demonstrating an increase in the content

  2. Conditional Stochastic Models in Reduced Space: Towards Efficient Simulation of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodov, B.

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic simulation of realistic and statistically robust patterns of Tropical Cyclone (TC) induced precipitation is a challenging task. It is even more challenging in a catastrophe modeling context, where tens of thousands of typhoon seasons need to be simulated in order to provide a complete view of flood risk. Ultimately, one could run a coupled global climate model and regional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, but this approach is not feasible in the catastrophe modeling context and, most importantly, may not provide TC track patterns consistent with observations. Rather, we propose to leverage NWP output for the observed TC precipitation patterns (in terms of downscaled reanalysis 1979-2015) collected on a Lagrangian frame along the historical TC tracks and reduced to the leading spatial principal components of the data. The reduced data from all TCs is then grouped according to timing, storm evolution stage (developing, mature, dissipating, ETC transitioning) and central pressure and used to build a dictionary of stationary (within a group) and non-stationary (for transitions between groups) covariance models. Provided that the stochastic storm tracks with all the parameters describing the TC evolution are already simulated, a sequence of conditional samples from the covariance models chosen according to the TC characteristics at a given moment in time are concatenated, producing a continuous non-stationary precipitation pattern in a Lagrangian framework. The simulated precipitation for each event is finally distributed along the stochastic TC track and blended with a non-TC background precipitation using a data assimilation technique. The proposed framework provides means of efficient simulation (10000 seasons simulated in a couple of days) and robust typhoon precipitation patterns consistent with observed regional climate and visually undistinguishable from high resolution NWP output. The framework is used to simulate a catalog of 10000 typhoon

  3. Online sequential condition prediction method of natural circulation systems based on EOS-ELM and phase space reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hanying; Gao, Puzhen; Tan, Sichao; Tang, Jiguo; Yuan, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An online condition prediction method for natural circulation systems in NPP was proposed based on EOS-ELM. •The proposed online prediction method was validated using experimental data. •The training speed of the proposed method is significantly fast. •The proposed method can achieve good accuracy in wide parameter range. -- Abstract: Natural circulation design is widely used in the passive safety systems of advanced nuclear power reactors. The irregular and chaotic flow oscillations are often observed in boiling natural circulation systems so it is difficult for operators to monitor and predict the condition of these systems. An online condition forecasting method for natural circulation system is proposed in this study as an assisting technique for plant operators. The proposed prediction approach was developed based on Ensemble of Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (EOS-ELM) and phase space reconstruction. Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) is an online sequential learning neural network algorithm and EOS-ELM is the ensemble method of it. The proposed condition prediction method can be initiated by a small chunk of monitoring data and it can be updated by newly arrived data at very fast speed during the online prediction. Simulation experiments were conducted on the data of two natural circulation loops to validate the performance of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the proposed predication model can successfully recognize different types of flow oscillations and accurately forecast the trend of monitored plant variables. The influence of the number of hidden nodes and neural network inputs on prediction performance was studied and the proposed model can achieve good accuracy in a wide parameter range. Moreover, the comparison results show that the proposed condition prediction method has much faster online learning speed and better prediction accuracy than conventional neural network model.

  4. Quantifying Permafrost Characteristics with DCR-ERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, W.; Trochim, E.; Munk, J.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.; Fortier, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical methods are an efficient method for quantifying permafrost characteristics for Arctic road design and engineering. In the Alaskan Arctic construction and maintenance of roads requires integration of permafrost; ground that is below 0 degrees C for two or more years. Features such as ice content and temperature are critical for understanding current and future ground conditions for planning, design and evaluation of engineering applications. This study focused on the proposed Foothills West Transportation Access project corridor where the purpose is to construct a new all-season road connecting the Dalton Highway to Umiat. Four major areas were chosen that represented a range of conditions including gravel bars, alluvial plains, tussock tundra (both unburned and burned conditions), high and low centered ice-wedge polygons and an active thermokarst feature. Direct-current resistivity using galvanic contact (DCR-ERT) was applied over transects. In conjunction complimentary site data including boreholes, active layer depths, vegetation descriptions and site photographs was obtained. The boreholes provided information on soil morphology, ice texture and gravimetric moisture content. Horizontal and vertical resolutions in the DCR-ERT were varied to determine the presence or absence of ground ice; subsurface heterogeneity; and the depth to groundwater (if present). The four main DCR-ERT methods used were: 84 electrodes with 2 m spacing; 42 electrodes with 0.5 m spacing; 42 electrodes with 2 m spacing; and 84 electrodes with 1 m spacing. In terms of identifying the ground ice characteristics the higher horizontal resolution DCR-ERT transects with either 42 or 84 electrodes and 0.5 or 1 m spacing were best able to differentiate wedge-ice. This evaluation is based on a combination of both borehole stratigraphy and surface characteristics. Simulated apparent resistivity values for permafrost areas varied from a low of 4582 Ω m to a high of 10034 Ω m. Previous

  5. Wave fields in Weyl spaces and conditions for the existence of a preferred pseudo-Riemannian structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audretsch, J.; Gaehler, F.; Straumann, N.

    1984-01-01

    Previous axiomatic approaches to general relativity which led to a Weylian structure of space-time are supplemented by a physical condition which implies the existence of a preferred pseudo-Riemannian structure. It is stipulated that the trajectories of the short wave limit of classical massive fields agree with the geodesics of the Weyl connection and it is shown that this is equivalent to the vanishing of the covariant derivative of a ''mass function'' of nontrivial Weyl type.This in turn is proven to be equivalent to the existence of a preferred metric of the conformal structure such that the Weyl connection is reducible to a connection of the bundle of orthonormal frames belonging to this distinguished metric. (orig.)

  6. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  7. Opened athletic-educational space - the condition of professional development of future teacher of physical culture is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragnev Y.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the opening of the sports and educational space is determined by the whole space, where the interaction of the activity of the pedagogical university with different educational institutions on the basis of integration, continuity of the educational process, aimed at physical education, the development of children and young people take place. It is revealed the importance of awareness of such concepts as the world educational space, the international educational space, the European higher education area, European space of higher education and educational space of the CIS countries.

  8. Quantifying the effect of nighttime interactions between roots and canopy physiology and their control of water and carbon cycling on feedbacks between soil moisture and terrestrial climatology under variable environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Palmroth, Sari [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Oren, Ram [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Swenson, Jennifer [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); King, John S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Noormets, Asko [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to characterize and quantify how the temporal variability of hydraulic redistribution (HR) and its physiological regulation in unmanaged and complex forests is affecting current water and carbon exchange and predict how future climate scenarios will affect these relationships and potentially feed back to the climate. Specifically, a detailed study of ecosystem water uptake and carbon exchange in relation to root functioning was proposed in order to quantify the mechanisms controlling temporal variability of soil moisture dynamic and HR in three active AmeriFlux sites, and to use published data of two other inactive AmeriFlux sites. Furthermore, data collected by our research group at the Duke Free Air CO2 enrichment (FACE) site was also being utilized to further improve our ability to forecast future environmental impacts of elevated CO2 concentration on soil moisture dynamic and its effect on carbon sequestration and terrestrial climatology. The overarching objective being to forecast, using a soil:plant:atmosphere model coupled with a biosphere:atmosphere model, the impact of root functioning on land surface climatology. By comparing unmanaged sites to plantations, we also proposed to determine the effect of land use change on terrestrial carbon sequestration and climatology through its effect on soil moisture dynamic and HR. Our simulations of HR by roots indicated that in some systems HR is an important mechanism that buffers soil water deficit, affects energy and carbon cycling; thus having significant implications for seasonal climate. HR maintained roots alive and below 70% loss of conductivity and our simulations also showed that the increased vapor pressure deficit at night under future conditions was sufficient to drive significant nighttime transpiration at all sites, which reduced HR. This predicted reduction in HR under future climate conditions played an important regulatory role in land atmosphere interactions

  9. SIMULATION FROM ENDPOINT-CONDITIONED, CONTINUOUS-TIME MARKOV CHAINS ON A FINITE STATE SPACE, WITH APPLICATIONS TO MOLECULAR EVOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobolth, Asger; Stone, Eric A

    2009-09-01

    Analyses of serially-sampled data often begin with the assumption that the observations represent discrete samples from a latent continuous-time stochastic process. The continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) is one such generative model whose popularity extends to a variety of disciplines ranging from computational finance to human genetics and genomics. A common theme among these diverse applications is the need to simulate sample paths of a CTMC conditional on realized data that is discretely observed. Here we present a general solution to this sampling problem when the CTMC is defined on a discrete and finite state space. Specifically, we consider the generation of sample paths, including intermediate states and times of transition, from a CTMC whose beginning and ending states are known across a time interval of length T. We first unify the literature through a discussion of the three predominant approaches: (1) modified rejection sampling, (2) direct sampling, and (3) uniformization. We then give analytical results for the complexity and efficiency of each method in terms of the instantaneous transition rate matrix Q of the CTMC, its beginning and ending states, and the length of sampling time T. In doing so, we show that no method dominates the others across all model specifications, and we give explicit proof of which method prevails for any given Q, T, and endpoints. Finally, we introduce and compare three applications of CTMCs to demonstrate the pitfalls of choosing an inefficient sampler.

  10. A Narrow-Linewidth Atomic Line Filter for Free Space Quantum Key Distribution under Daytime Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin; Woolf, David; Hensley, Joel

    2016-05-01

    Quantum key distribution can provide secure optical data links using the established BB84 protocol, though solar backgrounds severely limit the performance through free space. Several approaches to reduce the solar background include time-gating the photon signal, limiting the field of view through geometrical design of the optical system, and spectral rejection using interference filters. Despite optimization of these parameters, the solar background continues to dominate under daytime atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate an improved spectral filter by replacing the interference filter (Δν ~ 50 GHz) with an atomic line filter (Δν ~ 1 GHz) based on optical rotation of linearly polarized light through a warm Rb vapor. By controlling the magnetic field and the optical depth of the vapor, a spectrally narrow region can be transmitted between crossed polarizers. We find that the transmission is more complex than a single peak and evaluate peak transmission as well as a ratio of peak transmission to average transmission of the local spectrum. We compare filters containing a natural abundance of Rb with those containing isotopically pure 87 Rb and 85 Rb. A filter providing > 95 % transmission and Δν ~ 1.1 GHz is achieved.

  11. Is Time Predictability Quantifiable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Computer architects and researchers in the realtime domain start to investigate processors and architectures optimized for real-time systems. Optimized for real-time systems means time predictable, i.e., architectures where it is possible to statically derive a tight bound of the worst......-case execution time. To compare different approaches we would like to quantify time predictability. That means we need to measure time predictability. In this paper we discuss the different approaches for these measurements and conclude that time predictability is practically not quantifiable. We can only...... compare the worst-case execution time bounds of different architectures....

  12. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of 'cold' and 'warm' materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  13. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of ‘cold’ and ‘warm’ materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  14. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  15. The quantified relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaher, J.; Nyholm, S.R.; Earp, B.

    2018-01-01

    The growth of self-tracking and personal surveillance has given rise to the Quantified Self movement. Members of this movement seek to enhance their personal well-being, productivity, and self-actualization through the tracking and gamification of personal data. The technologies that make this

  16. Quantifying IT estimation risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Peters, R.J.; Verhoef, C.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical method is proposed for quantifying the impact of factors that influence the quality of the estimation of costs for IT-enabled business projects. We call these factors risk drivers as they influence the risk of the misestimation of project costs. The method can effortlessly be

  17. Improving the thermal integrity of new single-family detached residential buildings: Documentation for a regional database of capital costs and space conditioning load savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Wodley, C.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the costs and space-conditioning load savings from improving new single-family building shells. It relies on survey data from the National Association of Home-builders (NAHB) to assess current insulation practices for these new buildings, and NAHB cost data (aggregated to the Federal region level) to estimate the costs of improving new single-family buildings beyond current practice. Space-conditioning load savings are estimated using a database of loads for prototype buildings developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, adjusted to reflect population-weighted average weather in each of the ten federal regions and for the nation as a whole

  18. Differences between dentitions with palatally and labially located maxillary canines observed in incisor width, dental morphology and space conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, L; Larsen, H J; Sørensen, H B

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the interrelationship between incisor width, deviations in the dentition and available space in the dental arch in palatally and labially located maxillary ectopic canine cases.......To analyze the interrelationship between incisor width, deviations in the dentition and available space in the dental arch in palatally and labially located maxillary ectopic canine cases....

  19. Quantifying light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information. - Highlights: • We review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution. • These indicators are a primary step in light pollution quantification. • These indicators allow to improve light pollution mapping from a 2D to a 3D grid. • These indicators allow carrying out a tomography of light pollution. • We show an application of this technique to an Italian region

  20. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  1. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  2. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  3. Development of a bio-chip dedicated to planetary exploration. First step: resistance studies to space conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Postollec, A.; Dobrijevic, M.; Incerti, S.; Moretto, Ph.; Seznec, H.; Desorgher, L.; Santin, G.; Nieminen, P.; Dartnell, L.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Coussot, G.

    2008-02-01

    For upcoming exploration missions, space agencies advocate the development of a new promising technique to search for traces of extent or extinct life: the bio-chip use. A bio-chip is a miniaturized device composed of biological sensitive systems fixed on a solid substrate. As space is a hazardous environment, a main concern relies on the resistance of a bio-chip to a panel of harsh constraints among which the resistance to radiations. Within the framework of the BiOMAS (Bio-chip for Organic Matter Analysis in Space) project, our team is currently developing a bio-chip especially designed for planetary exploration. We present here the methodology adopted and the beginning experiments to select the best constituents, to determine resistance levels and to define well-adapted protection for the bio-chip

  4. Effect of space availability at feed bunk and rest area on metabolic conditions and productive responses in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stefanini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that dairy cows spend 3 to 5 h/d eating, consuming 9 to 14 meals per day. In addition, they ruminate 7 to 10 h/d, spend approximately 30 min/d drinking, 2 to 3 h/d being milked, and require approximately 10 h/d for lying time (Grant and Albright, 2000. Management decisions on dairy must not interfere with the cow’s ability to perform these activities which comprises her daily routines. It is well known that feed bunk space modifies eating behaviour, while the amount and characteristics of rest area modify resting activity of the cows. The traditional recommendation of 0.6 linear meter of bunk space per cow is the minimal amount of space needed for all cows to eat at one time (Grant and Albright, 2001.......

  5. Evolution of dislocation structures following a change in loading conditions studied by in situ high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian

    or to a strain of 7% at a temperature of -196 ○C, and the samples were characterized by electron microscopy and mechanical tests. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the pre-deformation produced a characteristic dislocation cell structure consisting of regions with relatively high dislocation density...... the pre-deformation axis. In the X-ray diffraction experiments a technique was employed with which it is possible to obtain high-resolution reciprocal space maps from individual bulk grains. The high-resolution reciprocal space maps contain features related to the dislocation structure in the grains......: A spread-out ‘cloud’ of low intensity caused by diffraction from the dislocation walls and a number of sharp peaks of high intensity caused by diffraction from the individual subgrains. By acquiring reciprocal space maps at a number of different strain levels the evolution of the dislocation structures can...

  6. Inter and intra row spacing effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard (sinapis alba l.) under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, M.; Shehzad, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant densities on growth and yield of white mustard during Rabi 2008-09 under rain fed conditions. Three plant spacing (5, 10 and 15 cm) and three row spacing (10, 20 and 30 cm) were applied during the course of study. Results indicated that plant density has significant effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard. Number of pods per plant (2002), number of seeds per pod (4.67), 1000 seed weight (5.02 g), oil contents (32.21 %) and fatty acids except linoleic acid significantly increased by increasing plant spacing due to less competition among plants for moisture, light and nutrients. The maximum plant height (148.9 cm) was with 10 X 20 cm spacing. Maximum seed yield (2046 kg ha/sup -1/) was recorded for row spacing 15 cm where plants were spaced 10 cm within rows. At higher plant density, the overall seed yield of white mustard increased with increasing number of pods per plant. Thus, it is concluded that white mustard should be grown at 150 cm grids for higher yield output. (author)

  7. On the Stability of Deinoxanthin Exposed to Mars Conditions during a Long-Term Space Mission and Implications for Biomarker Detection on Other Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Leuko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Outer space, the final frontier, is a hostile and unforgiving place for any form of life as we know it. The unique environment of space allows for a close simulation of Mars surface conditions that cannot be simulated as accurately on the Earth. For this experiment, we tested the resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans to survive exposure to simulated Mars-like conditions in low-Earth orbit for a prolonged period of time as part of the Biology and Mars experiment (BIOMEX project. Special focus was placed on the integrity of the carotenoid deinoxanthin, which may serve as a potential biomarker to search for remnants of life on other planets. Survival was investigated by evaluating colony forming units, damage inflicted to the 16S rRNA gene by quantitative PCR, and the integrity and detectability of deinoxanthin by Raman spectroscopy. Exposure to space conditions had a strong detrimental effect on the survival of the strains and the 16S rRNA integrity, yet results show that deinoxanthin survives exposure to conditions as they prevail on Mars. Solar radiation is not only strongly detrimental to the survival and 16S rRNA integrity but also to the Raman signal of deinoxanthin. Samples not exposed to solar radiation showed only minuscule signs of deterioration. To test whether deinoxanthin is able to withstand the tested parameters without the protection of the cell, it was extracted from cell homogenate and exposed to high/low temperatures, vacuum, germicidal UV-C radiation, and simulated solar radiation. Results obtained by Raman investigations showed a strong resistance of deinoxanthin against outer space and Mars conditions, with the only exception of the exposure to simulated solar radiation. Therefore, deinoxanthin proved to be a suitable easily detectable biomarker for the search of Earth-like organic pigment-containing life on other planets.

  8. Space and crime in Dutch built environments : Macro and micro scale spatial conditions for residential burglaries and thefts from cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, M.J.J.; Van Nes, A.

    2007-01-01

    At this moment, more knowledge is available on the physical characteristics of the built environment and their relationship to criminal opportunity rather than the spatial characteristics of potential targets and the public and private space between them. To improve this situation, a research

  9. Effects of Row Spacing and Plant Density on Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn in Climatic Conditions of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khodaeian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of row spacing and plant density on yield and yield components of sweet corn, variety KSC403, an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, in 2007, as randomized complete block design with a split-plot layout and three replications. The main plots were allocated to two row spacing (60 and 75 cm and the sub-plots accommodated four levels of plant density (50000, 70000, 90000 and 110000 plants per ha. There was significant increase in leaf area index, shoot dry weight, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield, as row width was decreased from 75 to 60 cm but the plant height was decreased. There was no significant effect of row spacing on number of rows per ear, number of grains per row and number of grains per ear. Plant height, leaf area index, shoot dry weight per m2 and number of ears per m2 were increased with an increase in plant density. The number of rows per ear, number of grains per row, number of grains per ear, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield were significantly higher under plant densities of 90000 and 110000 as compared to 50000 and 70000 plants per ha. There was significant interaction between row spacing and plant density for leaf area index, shoot dry weight, number of grains per ear, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield. Under all plant densities, the grain fresh yield was higher in 60-cm row width compared to 70-cm row width. However, the difference between these two row spacing was not significant in plant densities of 50000 and 110000 plants per ha. The highest grain fresh yield (33940 kg/ha was achieved under row spacing 60 cm and 70000 plants per ha and the least grain fresh yield (20750 kg/ha was obtained in under 75 cm row width and 110000 plants per ha. Considering the obtained results of this experiment, to have maximum grain fresh yield of sweet corn under Isfahan climate, the row spacing of 60 cm and plant density of

  10. Entropy generation method to quantify thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper presents a thermodynamic approach to assess the quality of human-thermal environment interaction and quantify thermal comfort. The approach involves development of entropy generation term by applying second law of thermodynamics to the combined human-environment system. The entropy generation term combines both human thermal physiological responses and thermal environmental variables to provide an objective measure of thermal comfort. The original concepts and definitions form the basis for establishing the mathematical relationship between thermal comfort and entropy generation term. As a result of logic and deterministic approach, an Objective Thermal Comfort Index (OTCI) is defined and established as a function of entropy generation. In order to verify the entropy-based thermal comfort model, human thermal physiological responses due to changes in ambient conditions are simulated using a well established and validated human thermal model developed at the Institute of Environmental Research of Kansas State University (KSU). The finite element based KSU human thermal computer model is being utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal responses to different environmental conditions. The output from the simulation, which include human thermal responses and input data consisting of environmental conditions are fed into the thermal comfort model. Continuous monitoring of thermal comfort in comfortable and extreme environmental conditions is demonstrated. The Objective Thermal Comfort values obtained from the entropy-based model are validated against regression based Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values. Using the corresponding air temperatures and vapor pressures that were used in the computer simulation in the regression equation generates the PMV values. The preliminary results indicate that the OTCI and PMV values correlate well under ideal conditions. However, an experimental study

  11. Social and economic well-being in the conditions of the urban space: the evolution of methodological approaches in the historical urban studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageev Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A city as a type of a human settlement is characterized by high population density, welldeveloped infrastructure, comfortable living conditions. However, a city is a source of social problems due to high population density, limited resources and conflicts between indigenous population and newcomers. The article analyzes the development of research about the city, provides an assessment of the scope of the historical urban studies in the development of solutions to contemporary problems of urban space. Methodological resource of historical urban studies allows fully exploring the city as a set of historically interconnected spaces and social processes. The analysis of the problem field of historical urban studies at various stages of its formation allowed tracing the evolution of ideas about the city as an object of scientific knowledge, to identify future prospects of research on conditions of Russian urban development, to improve the comfort of living in them.

  12. Building America Case Study: Effect of Ducted HPWH on Space Conditioning and Water Heating Energy Use - Central Florida Lab Home, Cocoa, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Colon, E. Martin, and D. Parker

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of ducted heat pump water heaters (HPWH's) on space conditioning and water heating energy use in residential applications. Two identical HPWH's, each of 60 gallon capacity were tested side by side at the Flexible Residential Test facility (FRTF) laboratories of the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) campus in Cocoa, Florida. The water heating experiments were run in each test house from July 2014 until February 2015.

  13. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  14. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stecher, Dave [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, PA. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems—a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms—were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  15. Boundary-value problems with integral conditions for a system of Lame equations in the space of almost periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr S. Il'kiv

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study a problem with integral boundary conditions in the time coordinate for a system of Lame equations of dynamic elasticity theory of an arbitrary dimension. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solution in the class of almost periodic functions in the spatial variables. To solve the problem of small denominators arising while constructing solutions, we use the metric approach.

  16. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  17. Quantifying Anthropogenic Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Pierre, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change, including local environmental disturbances, moderate rates of wind-driven soil erosion and dust emission. These human-dust cycle interactions impact ecosystems and agricultural production, air quality, human health, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. While the impacts of land use activities and land management on aeolian processes can be profound, the interactions are often complex and assessments of anthropogenic dust loads at all scales remain highly uncertain. Here, we critically review the drivers of anthropogenic dust emission and current evaluation approaches. We then identify and describe opportunities to: (1) develop new conceptual frameworks and interdisciplinary approaches that draw on ecological state-and-transition models to improve the accuracy and relevance of assessments of anthropogenic dust emissions; (2) improve model fidelity and capacity for change detection to quantify anthropogenic impacts on aeolian processes; and (3) enhance field research and monitoring networks to support dust model applications to evaluate the impacts of disturbance processes on local to global-scale wind erosion and dust emissions.

  18. Quantifying loopy network architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Katifori

    Full Text Available Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  19. Quantifying graininess of glossy food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Flemming; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    The sensory quality of yoghurt can be altered when changing the milk composition or processing conditions. Part of the sensory quality may be assessed visually. It is described how a non-contact method for quantifying surface gloss and grains in yoghurt can be made. It was found that the standard...

  20. Design of the Experimental Exposure Conditions to Simulate Ionizing Radiation Effects on Candidate Replacement Materials for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. Montgomery

    1998-09-01

    In this effort, experimental exposure times for monoenergetic electrons and protons were determined to simulate the space radiation environment effects on Teflon components of the Hubble Space Telescope. Although the energy range of the available laboratory particle accelerators was limited, optimal exposure times for 50 keV, 220 keV, 350 keV, and 500 KeV electrons were calculated that produced a dose-versus-depth profile that approximated the full spectrum profile, and were realizable with existing equipment. For the case of proton exposure, the limited energy range of the laboratory accelerator restricted simulation of the dose to a depth of .5 mil. Also, while optimal exposure times were found for 200 keV, 500 keV and 700 keV protons that simulated the full spectrum dose-versus-depth profile to this depth, they were of such short duration that the existing laboratory could not be controlled to within the required accuracy. In addition to the obvious experimental issues, other areas exist in which the analytical work could be advanced. Improved computer codes for the dose prediction- along with improved methodology for data input and output- would accelerate and make more accurate the calculational aspects. This is particularly true in the case of proton fluxes where a paucity of available predictive software appears to exist. The dated nature of many of the existing Monte Carlo particle/radiation transport codes raises the issue as to whether existing codes are sufficient for this type of analysis. Other areas that would result in greater fidelity of laboratory exposure effects to the space environment is the use of a larger number of monoenergetic particle fluxes and improved optimization algorithms to determine the weighting values.

  1. Quantifying Configuration-Sampling Error in Langevin Simulations of Complex Molecular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Fass

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While Langevin integrators are popular in the study of equilibrium properties of complex systems, it is challenging to estimate the timestep-induced discretization error: the degree to which the sampled phase-space or configuration-space probability density departs from the desired target density due to the use of a finite integration timestep. Sivak et al., introduced a convenient approach to approximating a natural measure of error between the sampled density and the target equilibrium density, the Kullback-Leibler (KL divergence, in phase space, but did not specifically address the issue of configuration-space properties, which are much more commonly of interest in molecular simulations. Here, we introduce a variant of this near-equilibrium estimator capable of measuring the error in the configuration-space marginal density, validating it against a complex but exact nested Monte Carlo estimator to show that it reproduces the KL divergence with high fidelity. To illustrate its utility, we employ this new near-equilibrium estimator to assess a claim that a recently proposed Langevin integrator introduces extremely small configuration-space density errors up to the stability limit at no extra computational expense. Finally, we show how this approach to quantifying sampling bias can be applied to a wide variety of stochastic integrators by following a straightforward procedure to compute the appropriate shadow work, and describe how it can be extended to quantify the error in arbitrary marginal or conditional distributions of interest.

  2. Cell genetic processes under space flight conditions: Analysis of two-factor crosses between spore color mutants of Sordaria macrospora. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, B.; Hahn, A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the FUNGUS experiment on S/MM05 was to examine the effects of space flight conditions on the hereditary transmission of the spore color genes. The controls consisted of one further experiment in space with a centrifuge and 1 x g acceleration, and a gravitational reference experiment. A statistical analysis revealed no significant differences attributable to the absence of gravitational effects. A significant increase however was observed in the recombination frequencies, due to the fraction of HZE particles in the cosmic radiation. Gravitational reference experiments showed a dose-dependent effect of heavy-ion particle radiation on the post-reduction frequency and thus on the calculated distances between the genes, higher radiation doses increasing the post-reduction frequency. It was possible to derive dose-response curves for comparison with X-radiation and determination of the RBE of the heavy ion radiation with respect to the calculated distances between the genes 1u and r2. The mycelium of the fungi of the space flight experiment was examined for DNA strand breaks at the molecular level by means of a single cell gel electrophoresis assay. No genetic damage could be detected in the specimens of the experiment in space. Attempts at DNA repair in S. macrospora reveal that most of the damage is healed within a few hours. It was possible to determine the maximum doses of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation up to which DNA repair is possible. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Elements of a pragmatic approach for dealing with bias and uncertainty in experiments through predictions : experiment design and data conditioning; %22real space%22 model validation and conditioning; hierarchical modeling and extrapolative prediction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente Jose

    2011-11-01

    This report explores some important considerations in devising a practical and consistent framework and methodology for utilizing experiments and experimental data to support modeling and prediction. A pragmatic and versatile 'Real Space' approach is outlined for confronting experimental and modeling bias and uncertainty to mitigate risk in modeling and prediction. The elements of experiment design and data analysis, data conditioning, model conditioning, model validation, hierarchical modeling, and extrapolative prediction under uncertainty are examined. An appreciation can be gained for the constraints and difficulties at play in devising a viable end-to-end methodology. Rationale is given for the various choices underlying the Real Space end-to-end approach. The approach adopts and refines some elements and constructs from the literature and adds pivotal new elements and constructs. Crucially, the approach reflects a pragmatism and versatility derived from working many industrial-scale problems involving complex physics and constitutive models, steady-state and time-varying nonlinear behavior and boundary conditions, and various types of uncertainty in experiments and models. The framework benefits from a broad exposure to integrated experimental and modeling activities in the areas of heat transfer, solid and structural mechanics, irradiated electronics, and combustion in fluids and solids.

  4. Experimental and theoretical investigations of Cs-Ba vapor tacitron inverter for power conditioning in space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.; Murray, C.; Wernsman, B.

    1993-01-01

    The operation characteristics of the Cs-Ba tacitron as a switch are investigated experimentally in three modes: (a) breakdown mode, (b) I-V mode, and (c) current modulation mode. The switching frequency, grid potentials for ignition and extinguishing of discharge, and the Cs pressure and emission conditions (Ba pressure and emitter temperature) for stable current modulation are determined. The experimental data is also used to determine the off-time required for successful ignition, and the effects of the aforementioned operation parameters on the ignition duty cycle threshold for stable modulation. Operation parameters measured include switching frequency up to 20 kHz, hold-off voltage up to 180 V, current densities in excess of 15 A/cm 2 , switch power density of 1 kW/cm 2 . and a switching efficiency in excess of 90% at collector C: realer than 30 V. The voltage drop strongly depends on the Cs pressure and to a lesser extent on the emission conditions. Increasing the Cs pressure and/or the emission current lowers the voltage drop, however, for the same initial Cs pressure and emission conditions, the voltage drop in the I-V mode is usually lower than that during current modulation. As long as the discharge current is kept lower that the.emission current, the voltage drop during stable current modulation could be as low as 3 V

  5. The Fallacy of Quantifying Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Defense AT&L: September–October 2012 18 The Fallacy of Quantifying Risk David E. Frick, Ph.D. Frick is a 35-year veteran of the Department of...a key to risk analysis was “choosing the right technique” of quantifying risk . The weakness in this argument stems not from the assertion that one...of information about the enemy), yet achiev- ing great outcomes. Attempts at quantifying risk are not, in and of themselves, objectionable. Prudence

  6. Revaluation of the concept of the human condition and the common heritage of mankind: Keys to the social benefits of space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocca, Aldo Armando

    Men may do many things, but they must never forget the human condition in any act or relation with a fellow human being. Space Law has vindicated the supreme value of man as a legal subject par excellence. The dignity of the human being is a value that rates above any scientific or technological advance. A benefit, by definition and derivation, is anything contributing to an improvement in a condition. Social benefits pertain only to human beings, who are their sole beneficiaries. Developing countries are young nations that through their international relations may, and indeed must, realize the benefits of space technology. The principle of the "common heritage of Mankind" was created to satisfy the aspirations of all peoples and to meet the needs of both industrialized and developing countries. Only a groundless fear and lack of vision of the future can induce governments to delay its implementation. We must not forget that the concept was transformed into a principle of international positive law by the unanimous decision of the international community, which enshrined it in the Moon Agreement. The social and individual responsibility of the scientist is becoming even more clearly defined, and scientists play an important role in the conduct of nations. Through education, including education in the humanities and a graduation pledge, the scientist has embarked on the road leading to an active presence in society, facing his responsibility. Inter-generational equity contributes to strengthening the concept of the human condition and the legal principle of the common heritage of mankind.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Target Detection with a Near-Space Vehicle-Borne Radar in Blackout Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Deng, Bin; Qin, Yuliang

    2016-01-06

    Radar is a very important sensor in surveillance applications. Near-space vehicle-borne radar (NSVBR) is a novel installation of a radar system, which offers many benefits, like being highly suited to the remote sensing of extremely large areas, having a rapidly deployable capability and having low vulnerability to electronic countermeasures. Unfortunately, a target detection challenge arises because of complicated scenarios, such as nuclear blackout, rain attenuation, etc. In these cases, extra care is needed to evaluate the detection performance in blackout situations, since this a classical problem along with the application of an NSVBR. However, the existing evaluation measures are the probability of detection and the receiver operating curve (ROC), which cannot offer detailed information in such a complicated application. This work focuses on such requirements. We first investigate the effect of blackout on an electromagnetic wave. Performance evaluation indexes are then built: three evaluation indexes on the detection capability and two evaluation indexes on the robustness of the detection process. Simulation results show that the proposed measure will offer information on the detailed performance of detection. These measures are therefore very useful in detecting the target of interest in a remote sensing system and are helpful for both the NSVBR designers and users.

  8. Estimated characteristics modification of silicon detectors due to their use at the LHC-accelerator and in AMS space conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.; Lazanu, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this talk, the phenomenological model developed by the authors in previous papers has been used to evaluate the degradation induced in high resistivity silicon detectors by pion and proton irradiation at the future accelerator facilities or by cosmic protons considering the continuous irradiation for ten years of work. The equations governing the degradation of the lattice are explicitly considered. The damage has been analysed at the microscopic level (defects production and their evolution toward equilibrium) and at the macroscopic level (only the changes in the leakage current of the p-n junction was considered). The rates of production of primary defects, as well as their evolution toward equilibrium have been evaluated considering explicitly irradiation field of the specified applications, by the type of the projectile particle and its energy. The influence of these defects on the leakage current density has been compared with experimental data from the literature, and predictions for the LHC radiation fields, as well as for space missions in the near Earth orbits have been done, in the frame of the Schokley-Read-Hall model. (authors)

  9. Demonstration of intradyne BPSK optical free-space transmission in representative atmospheric turbulence conditions for geostationary uplink channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surof, Janis; Poliak, Juraj; Calvo, Ramon Mata

    2017-06-01

    Binary phase-shift keying optical transmission in the C-band with coherent intradyne reception is demonstrated over a long-range (10.45 km) link through the atmosphere. The link emulates representative channel conditions for geostationary optical feeder uplinks in satellite communications. The digital signal processing used in recovering the transmitted data and the performed measurements are described. Finally, the bit error rate results for 10 Gbit/s, 20 Gbit/s, and 30 Gbit/s of the outdoor experiments are presented and compared with back-to-back measurements and theory.

  10. Simulation from endpoint-conditioned, continuous-time Markov chains on a finite state space, with applications to molecular evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Stone, Eric

    2009-01-01

    computational finance to human genetics and genomics. A common theme among these diverse applications is the need to simulate sample paths of a CTMC conditional on realized data that is discretely observed. Here we present a general solution to this sampling problem when the CTMC is defined on a discrete....... In doing so, we show that no method dominates the others across all model specifications, and we give explicit proof of which method prevails for any given Q, T, and endpoints. Finally, we introduce and compare three applications of CTMCs to demonstrate the pitfalls of choosing an inefficient sampler....

  11. Studies of social group dynamics under isolated conditions. Objective summary of the literature as it relates to potential problems of long duration space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Scientific literature which deals with the study of human behavior and crew interaction in situations simulating long term space flight is summarized and organized. A bibliography of all the pertinent U.S. literature available is included, along with definitions of the behavioral characteristics terms employed. The summarized studies are analyzed according to behavioral factors and environmental conditions. The analysis consist of two matrices. (1) The matrix of factors studied correlates each research study area and individual study with the behavioral factors that were investigated in the study. (2) The matrix of conclusions identifies those studies whose investigators appeared to draw specific conclusions concerning questions of importance to NASA.

  12. Quantifying the quiet epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    During the late 20th century numerical rating scales became central to the diagnosis of dementia and helped transform attitudes about its causes and prevalence. Concentrating largely on the development and use of the Blessed Dementia Scale, I argue that rating scales served professional ends during the 1960s and 1970s. They helped old age psychiatrists establish jurisdiction over conditions such as dementia and present their field as a vital component of the welfare state, where they argued that ‘reliable modes of diagnosis’ were vital to the allocation of resources. I show how these arguments appealed to politicians, funding bodies and patient groups, who agreed that dementia was a distinct disease and claimed research on its causes and prevention should be designated ‘top priority’. But I also show that worries about the replacement of clinical acumen with technical and depersonalized methods, which could conceivably be applied by anyone, led psychiatrists to stress that rating scales had their limits and could be used only by trained experts. PMID:25866448

  13. Hygrothermal conditions in cold, north facing attic spaces under the eaves with vapour-open roofing underlay in a cool, temperate climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Johnston, C.J.; Hansen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    compliance with the current Danish Building Regulations (BR10) for airtightness (moisture levels in attics with vapour-open roofing underlays. North facing cold attic spaces under the eaves constitute a worst case scenario. Following best...... to allow an influx of 3.3 l/s of conditioned indoor air 20 °C and 60% RH at a pressure difference of 50 Pa) and ventilation (singled-sided, passive ventilation) contained more moisture and had significantly higher levels of mould growth than the non-ventilated attics. Under the same physical conditions...... the ‘pressure equalized’ attic rooms were found to have moisture levels in between those observed in the ventilated and non-ventilated attic rooms. Likewise, the observed levels of mould growth were in between those observed in the cases of the ventilated and non-ventilated attic rooms. Attics with reduced...

  14. Multidominance, ellipsis, and quantifier scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, Tanja Maria Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a novel perspective on the interaction between quantifier scope and ellipsis. It presents a detailed investigation of the scopal interaction between English negative indefinites, modals, and quantified phrases in ellipsis. One of the crucial observations is that a negative

  15. Solar Air Collectors for Space Heating and Ventilation Applications—Performance and Case Studies under Romanian Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Budea

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar air collectors have various applications: on the one hand, they can be used for air heating in cold seasons; on the other hand they can be used in summer to evacuate the warm and polluted air from residential, offices, industrial, and commercial buildings. The paper presents experimental results of a solar collector air, under the climatic conditions of the Southeastern Europe. The relationships between the direct solar irradiation, the resulting heat flow, the air velocity at the outlet, the air flow rate, the nominal regime of the collector and the efficiency of conversion of solar energy into thermal energy are all highlighted. Thus, it was shown that after a maximum 50 min, solar air collectors, with baffles and double air passage can reach over 50% efficiency for solar irradiation of 900–1000 W/m2. The article also presents a mathematical model and the results of a computational program that allows sizing solar collectors for the transfer of air, with the purpose of improving the natural ventilation of buildings. The article is completed with case studies, sizing the area to be covered with solar collectors, to ensure ventilation of a house with two floors or for an office building. In addition, the ACH (air change per hour coefficient was calculated and compared.

  16. Least momentum space frustration as a condition for a ‘high Tc sweet spot’ in iron-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Hidetomo; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we describe how the band structure and the Fermi surface of iron-based superconductors vary as the Fe–As–Fe bond angle changes. We discuss how these Fermi surface configurations affect the superconductivity mediated by spin fluctuations, and show that, in several situations, frustration in the sign of the gap function arises due to the repulsive pairing interactions that requires a sign change of the order parameter. Such a frustration can result in nodes or very small gaps, and generally works destructively against superconductivity. Conversely, we propose that the optimal condition for superconductivity is realized for the Fermi surface configuration that gives the least frustration while maximizing the Fermi surface multiplicity. This is realized when there are three hole Fermi surfaces, where two of them have d XZ/YZ orbital character and one has d X 2 −Y 2 for all k z in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone. Looking at the band structures of various iron-based superconductors, the occurrence of such a ‘sweet spot’ situation is limited to a narrow window. (paper)

  17. A contribution to the thermal and aero-dynamical modelling of the urban micro-climate. Analysis of the water and vegetation impact on the comfort conditions in outdoor spaces; Contribution a la modelisation thermo-aeraulique du microclimat urbain. Caracterisation de l'impact de l'eau et de la vegetation sur les conditions de confort en espaces exterieurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinet, J.

    2000-11-01

    In summer, temperatures in cities may rise, thereby inducing the so-called 'urban heat island' and tremendous consequences on outdoor comfort, health risks, pollutant emission and energy consumption. Replacing vegetation and moist surfaces by concrete or asphalt may enhance these problems. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to quantify the impact of vegetation and water on urban micro-climate and comfort through numerical modelling; In the first part, a scientific literature review considers various topics applied to our problem such as urban micro-climate, simulations, urbanism, urban forestry and outdoor thermal comfort. This information is relevant to define and interpret further numerical modelling. Numerical simulations based on the coupling of the SOLENE. thermal program and the N3S CFD code are proposed to model wind flow, air and surface temperatures. The theoretical principles, hypothesis and coupling methodology are presented here. This set of numerical tools is combined in order to help urban or landscape planners, architects and engineers, to analyse the impacts of different projects on micro-climate and on outdoor thermal comfort, under hot summer conditions. To illustrate this approach, an open space in Montpellier (southern France) called the 'Place du Millenaire' and designed by Ricardo Bofill is studied, considering various cases (no vegetation, actual vegetation and vegetation in 30 years). The comparative results demonstrate improvements of urban form, micro-climate and outdoor thermal comfort. (author)

  18. Reducing cell-to-cell spacing for large-format lithium ion battery modules with aluminum or PCM heat sinks under failure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Brittany; Ostanek, Jason; Heinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Finite element analysis to evaluate heat sinks for large format li-ion batteries. • Solid metal heat sink and composite heat sink (metal filler and wax). • Transient simulations show response from rest to steady-state with normal load. • Transient simulations of two different failure modes were considered. • Significance of spacing, material properties, interface quality, and phase change. - Abstract: Thermal management is critical for large-scale, shipboard energy storage systems utilizing lithium-ion batteries. In recent years, there has been growing research in thermal management of lithium-ion battery modules. However, there is little information available on the minimum cell-to-cell spacing limits for indirect, liquid cooled modules when considering heat release during a single cell failure. For this purpose, a generic four-cell module was modeled using finite element analysis to determine the sensitivity of module temperatures to cell spacing. Additionally, the effects of different heat sink materials and interface qualities were investigated. Two materials were considered, a solid aluminum block and a metal/wax composite block. Simulations were run for three different transient load profiles. The first profile simulates sustained high rate operation where the system begins at rest and generates heat continuously until it reaches steady state. And, two failure mode simulations were conducted to investigate block performance during a slow and a fast exothermic reaction, respectively. Results indicate that composite materials can perform well under normal operation and provide some protection against single cell failure; although, for very compact designs, the amount of wax available to absorb heat is reduced and the effectiveness of the phase change material is diminished. The aluminum block design performed well under all conditions, and showed that heat generated during a failure is quickly dissipated to the coolant, even under the

  19. Frosting characteristics and heating performance of a direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump for space heating under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wenzhu; Ji, Jie; Xu, Ning; Li, Guiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Frosting and heating performance of DX-SAHP under frosting conditions is investigated. • The conditions when DX-SAHP frosts are studied. • The frosting process is observed during 360 min of operating. • The effect of ambient temperature, relative humidity and solar irradiation is analyzed. - Abstract: Direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump system (DX-SAHP) is promising in energy saving applications, but the performance of DX-SAHP under frosting conditions is rarely reported in the published literatures. In this paper, a DX-SAHP system with bare solar collectors for space heating is designed and experimentally investigated in the enthalpy difference lab with a solar simulator. The system is tested under a range of frosting conditions, with the ambient temperatures from 7 °C to −3 °C, the relative humidities of 50%, 70% and 90% and the solar irradiances of 0 W/m"2, 100 W/m"2, 200 W/m"2 and 300 W/m"2. The conditions when the DX-SAHP system frosts are studied. Results show that solar irradiance as low as 100 W/m"2 can totally prevent frosting when the ambient temperature is above −3 °C and the relative humidity is 70%. Besides, the frosting process is observed to be slower than that of fin-and-tube heat exchangers. The evaporator is not seriously frosted and the system performance is not significantly influenced after 360 min of continuous operating. Moreover the effects of ambient parameters, including the ambient temperature and the relative humidity, especially solar irradiation, on the system performance are studied and analyzed. Solar irradiation can effectively prevent or retard frosting, and also improve the heating performance of the DX-SAHP system. The DX-SAHP system is proved to be applicable under frosting conditions.

  20. Coherence and computational complexity of quantifier-free dependence logic formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontinen, J.; Kontinen, J.; Väänänen, J.

    2010-01-01

    We study the computational complexity of the model checking for quantifier-free dependence logic (D) formulas. We point out three thresholds in the computational complexity: logarithmic space, non- deterministic logarithmic space and non-deterministic polynomial time.

  1. Performance of broiler chickens offered nutritionally-equivalent diets based on two red grain sorghums with quantified kafirin concentrations as intact pellets or re-ground mash following steam-pelleting at 65 or 97°C conditioning temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha H. Truong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Liverpool Plains is a fertile agricultural region in New South Wales, Australia. Two sorghums from the 2009 Liverpool Plains harvest, sorghums #3 and #5, were extensively characterised which included concentrations of kafirin and phenolic compounds plus rapid visco-analysis (RVA starch pasting profiles. Diets based on these two sorghums were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic and were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chicks from 7 to 28 days post--hatch as either intact pellets or reground mash following steam-pelleting at conditioning temperatures of either 65 or 97°C. Thus the feeding study consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array of dietary treatments: two sorghum varieties, two feed forms and two conditioning temperatures. Each of the eight treatments was replicated six times with six birds per replicate cage. Assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, apparent starch and protein (N digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates from the distal jejunum and distal ileum. Intact pellets supported higher (P < 0.001 feed intakes and weight gains by 9.83 and 9.08%, respectively, than reground mash diets. Feed conversion ratios of broilers offered diets steam-conditioned at 97°C were 2.46% inferior (P < 0.001 in comparison to 65°C diets and both apparent metabolizable energy (AME and N-corrected AME (AMEn were compromised. Broilers offered sorghum #3-based diets significantly (P < 0.001 outperformed their sorghum #5 counterparts in terms of weight gain by 3.75% (1,334 versus 1,223 g/bird, FCR by 4.81% (1.524 versus 1.601, AME by 1.06 MJ (13.61 versus 12.55 MJ/kg, ME:GE ratio (ME:GE by 4.81% (0.806 versus 0.769 and AMEn by 1.03 MJ (12.38 versus 11.35 MJ/kg. The inferiority of sorghum #5 appeared to be associated with higher concentrations of kafirin (61.5 versus 50.7 g/kg and conjugated phenolic acids, including ferulic acid (31.1 versus 25.6 µg/g. There were no significant differences in

  2. Quantifiers in Russian Sign Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Paperno, D.; Keenan, E.L.

    2017-01-01

    After presenting some basic genetic, historical and typological information about Russian Sign Language, this chapter outlines the quantification patterns it expresses. It illustrates various semantic types of quantifiers, such as generalized existential, generalized universal, proportional,

  3. Quantified Self in de huisartsenpraktijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martijn; Timmers, Bart; Kooiman, Thea; van Ittersum, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Quantified Self staat voor de zelfmetende mens. Het aantal mensen dat met zelf gegeneerde gezondheidsgegevens het zorgproces binnenwandelt gaat de komende jaren groeien. Verschillende soorten activity trackers en gezondheidsapplicaties voor de smartphone maken het relatief eenvoudig om persoonlijke

  4. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - Alpine Space wind map - Modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Remund, J. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents describes the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report discusses two modelling approaches investigated for use in the definition of a wind map for the alpine area. The method chosen and its application are discussed. The various sources of information for input to the model are listed and discussed.

  5. Acoustic mode coupling induced by shallow water nonlinear internal waves: sensitivity to environmental conditions and space-time scales of internal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosi, John A

    2008-09-01

    While many results have been intuited from numerical simulation studies, the precise connections between shallow-water acoustic variability and the space-time scales of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) as well as the background environmental conditions have not been clearly established analytically. Two-dimensional coupled mode propagation through NLIWs is examined using a perturbation series solution in which each order n is associated with nth-order multiple scattering. Importantly, the perturbation solution gives resonance conditions that pick out specific NLIW scales that cause coupling, and seabed attenuation is demonstrated to broaden these resonances, fundamentally changing the coupling behavior at low frequency. Sound-speed inhomogeneities caused by internal solitary waves (ISWs) are primarily considered and the dependence of mode coupling on ISW amplitude, range width, depth structure, location relative to the source, and packet characteristics are delineated as a function of acoustic frequency. In addition, it is seen that significant energy transfer to modes with initially low or zero energy involves at least a second order scattering process. Under moderate scattering conditions, comparisons of first order, single scattering theoretical predictions to direct numerical simulation demonstrate the accuracy of the approach for acoustic frequencies upto 400 Hz and for single as well as multiple ISW wave packets.

  6. Tomosynthesis can facilitate accurate measurement of joint space width under the condition of the oblique incidence of X-rays in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yohei; Kashihara, Rina; Yasojima, Nobutoshi; Kasahara, Hideki; Shimizu, Yuka; Tamura, Kenichi; Tsutsumi, Kaori; Sutherland, Kenneth; Koike, Takao; Kamishima, Tamotsu

    2016-06-01

    Accurate evaluation of joint space width (JSW) is important in the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In clinical radiography of bilateral hands, the oblique incidence of X-rays is unavoidable, which may cause perceptional or measurement error of JSW. The objective of this study was to examine whether tomosynthesis, a recently developed modality, can facilitate a more accurate evaluation of JSW than radiography under the condition of oblique incidence of X-rays. We investigated quantitative errors derived from the oblique incidence of X-rays by imaging phantoms simulating various finger joint spaces using radiographs and tomosynthesis images. We then compared the qualitative results of the modified total Sharp score of a total of 320 joints from 20 patients with RA between these modalities. A quantitative error was prominent when the location of the phantom was shifted along the JSW direction. Modified total Sharp scores of tomosynthesis images were significantly higher than those of radiography, that is to say JSW was regarded as narrower in tomosynthesis than in radiography when finger joints were located where the oblique incidence of X-rays is expected in the JSW direction. Tomosynthesis can facilitate accurate evaluation of JSW in finger joints of patients with RA, even with oblique incidence of X-rays. Accurate evaluation of JSW is necessary for the management of patients with RA. Through phantom and clinical studies, we demonstrate that tomosynthesis may achieve more accurate evaluation of JSW.

  7. DC-bus voltage control of grid-connected voltage source converter by using space vector modulated direct power control under unbalanced network conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Lei; Huang, Shoudao; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Unbalanced grid voltage will cause large dc-bus voltage ripple and introduce high harmonic current components on the grid side. This will severely threaten the safety of the grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC) and consequently, affect the healthy operation condition of the load. In this......Unbalanced grid voltage will cause large dc-bus voltage ripple and introduce high harmonic current components on the grid side. This will severely threaten the safety of the grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC) and consequently, affect the healthy operation condition of the load....... In this study, a new proportional-integral-resonant (PI-RES) controller-based, space vector modulated direct power control topology is proposed to suppress the dc-bus voltage ripple and in the same time, controlling effectively the instantaneous power of the VSC. A special ac reactive power reference component...... is introduced in the controller, which is necessary in order to reduce the dc-bus voltage ripple and active power harmonics at the same time. The proposed control topology is implemented in the lab. Simulation and experimental results are provided to validate its performance and the analysis presented...

  8. An adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system controlled space cector pulse width modulation based HVDC light transmission system under AC fault conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay Kumar, M.; Srikanth, N. V.

    2014-03-01

    In HVDC Light transmission systems, converter control is one of the major fields of present day research works. In this paper, fuzzy logic controller is utilized for controlling both the converters of the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) based HVDC Light transmission systems. Due to its complexity in the rule base formation, an intelligent controller known as adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller is also introduced in this paper. The proposed ANFIS controller changes the PI gains automatically for different operating conditions. A hybrid learning method which combines and exploits the best features of both the back propagation algorithm and least square estimation method is used to train the 5-layer ANFIS controller. The performance of the proposed ANFIS controller is compared and validated with the fuzzy logic controller and also with the fixed gain conventional PI controller. The simulations are carried out in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The results reveal that the proposed ANFIS controller is reducing power fluctuations at both the converters. It also improves the dynamic performance of the test power system effectively when tested for various ac fault conditions.

  9. On birecurrent spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    A birecurrent space is defined with its classification and studied with involvement of Einstein, conformally flat, conformally symmetric and conformally recurrent spaces. A necessary and sufficient condition that a birecurrent space be recurrent is found. (author). 6 refs

  10. Quantifying the uncertainty in heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotte, Nicholas A; Heckerman, David; Lippert, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The use of mixed models to determine narrow-sense heritability and related quantities such as SNP heritability has received much recent attention. Less attention has been paid to the inherent variability in these estimates. One approach for quantifying variability in estimates of heritability is a frequentist approach, in which heritability is estimated using maximum likelihood and its variance is quantified through an asymptotic normal approximation. An alternative approach is to quantify the uncertainty in heritability through its Bayesian posterior distribution. In this paper, we develop the latter approach, make it computationally efficient and compare it to the frequentist approach. We show theoretically that, for a sufficiently large sample size and intermediate values of heritability, the two approaches provide similar results. Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort, we show empirically that the two approaches can give different results and that the variance/uncertainty can remain large.

  11. Conformal Einstein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)

  12. Quantifying and mapping spatial variability in simulated forest plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin R. Corral; Harold E. Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    We used computer simulations to test the efficacy of multivariate statistical methods to detect, quantify, and map spatial variability of forest stands. Simulated stands were developed of regularly-spaced plantations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We assumed no affects of competition or mortality, but random variability was added to individual tree characteristics...

  13. Survival of spores of the UV-resistant Bacillus subtilis strain MW01 after exposure to low-earth orbit and simulated martian conditions: data from the space experiment ADAPT on EXPOSE-E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Marko; Moeller, Ralf; Rabbow, Elke; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Reitz, Günther; Douki, Thierry; Cadet, Jean; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra

    2012-05-01

    In the space experiment "Molecular adaptation strategies of microorganisms to different space and planetary UV climate conditions" (ADAPT), bacterial endospores of the highly UV-resistant Bacillus subtilis strain MW01 were exposed to low-Earth orbit (LEO) and simulated martian surface conditions for 559 days on board the European Space Agency's exposure facility EXPOSE-E, mounted outside the International Space Station. The survival of B. subtilis MW01 spores from both assays (LEO and simulated martian conditions) was determined by a colony-formation assay after retrieval. It was clearly shown that solar extraterrestrial UV radiation (λ≥110 nm) as well as the martian UV spectrum (λ≥200 nm) was the most deleterious factor applied; in some samples only a few spore survivors were recovered from B. subtilis MW01 spores exposed in monolayers. However, if shielded from solar irradiation, about 8% of MW01 spores survived in LEO conditions, and 100% survived in simulated martian conditions, compared to the laboratory controls. The results demonstrate the effect of shielding against the high inactivation potential of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation, which limits the chances of survival of even the highly UV-resistant strain of B. subtilis MW01 in the harsh environments of outer space and the martian surface.

  14. Postulated Role of Vasoactive Neuropeptide-Related Immunopathology of the Blood Brain Barrier and Virchow-Robin Spaces in the Aetiology of Neurological-Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Staines

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, as well as immune and nociception modulators. They have key roles in blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS including maintaining functional integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB and blood spinal barrier (BSB. VNs are potent activators of adenylate cyclase and thus also have a key role in cyclic AMP production affecting regulatory T cell and other immune functions. Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS and contain VNs. Autoimmunity of VNs or VN receptors may affect BBB and VRS function and, therefore, may contribute to the aetiology of neurological-related conditions including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VN autoimmunity will likely affect CNS and immunological homeostasis. Various pharmacological and immunological treatments including phosphodiesterase inhibitors and plasmapheresis may be indicated.

  15. Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Paris, M G A [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); De Siena, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some non-classicality indicators in phase space, and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wavepackets. (review article)

  16. Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, A; Paris, M G A; Illuminati, F; De Siena, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some non-classicality indicators in phase space, and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wavepackets. (review article)

  17. Quantifying and simulating human sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quantifying and simulating human sensation – relating science and technology of indoor climate research Abstract In his doctoral thesis from 1970 civil engineer Povl Ole Fanger proposed that the understanding of indoor climate should focus on the comfort of the individual rather than averaged...... this understanding of human sensation was adjusted to technology. I will look into the construction of the equipment, what it measures and the relationship between theory, equipment and tradition....

  18. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  19. A possible association between space weather conditions and the risk of acute coronary syndrome in patients with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta Marija; Kiznys, Deivydas

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia negatively affects cardiovascular variables that are also adversely affected by increased geomagnetic activity. It is likely that geomagnetic storms (GS) could have a stronger negative impact on these patients. We analyzed data on 1548 randomly selected patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who were admitted inpatient treatment in Kaunas city, during 2000-2003. We evaluated the associations of GS, solar proton events (SPE), and high-speed solar wind (HSSW) (solar wind speed ≥600 km/s) with the risk of ACS in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and the metabolic syndrome (MS) by using logistic regression with categorical predictors. During days of HSSW, the risk of ACS in DM patients increased by 1.95 times (OR = 1.95, 95 % CI 1.36-2.79) as compared to days without either of these events or 2 days prior to or after them. In the multivariate model, the risk of ACS in DM patients was associated with days of HSSW and 1-2 days after (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.01-1.93), with days of GS lasting >1 day and occurring on days of HSSW or 1-2 days after (OR = 2.31, 95 % CI 1.28-4.17), and with the onset of SPE (OR = 2.72 (1.09-6.83)). The risk of ACS in MS patients was associated with days of GS and 1-2 days prior or after GS (OR = 1.31 (1.00-1.73)); an additional impact was established if these days coincided with days of HSSW or 1-2 days before (OR = 2.16 (1.39-3.35)). These findings suggest that not only GS but also HSSW and changes in space weather conditions prior to SPE affect the human cardiovascular system.

  20. Quantifying uncertainty, variability and likelihood for ordinary differential equation models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weisse, Andrea Y

    2010-10-28

    Abstract Background In many applications, ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are subject to uncertainty or variability in initial conditions and parameters. Both, uncertainty and variability can be quantified in terms of a probability density function on the state and parameter space. Results The partial differential equation that describes the evolution of this probability density function has a form that is particularly amenable to application of the well-known method of characteristics. The value of the density at some point in time is directly accessible by the solution of the original ODE extended by a single extra dimension (for the value of the density). This leads to simple methods for studying uncertainty, variability and likelihood, with significant advantages over more traditional Monte Carlo and related approaches especially when studying regions with low probability. Conclusions While such approaches based on the method of characteristics are common practice in other disciplines, their advantages for the study of biological systems have so far remained unrecognized. Several examples illustrate performance and accuracy of the approach and its limitations.

  1. New airborne pathogen transport model for upper-room UVGI spaces conditioned by chilled ceiling and mixed displacement ventilation: Enhancing air quality and energy performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaan, Mohamad; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ghali, Kamel; Araj, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of bacteria transport is developed in CC/DV conditioned spaces with UVGI. • The model identifies buoyant, partially mixed, and fully mixed transport zones. • The predicted bacteria concentration agreed well with CFD results. • The higher the supply flow rate, the more restrictive is return air mixing ratio. • Upper-room UVGI results in higher return mixing and 33% in energy savings. - Abstract: The maximum allowable return air ratio in chilled ceiling (CC) and mixed displacement ventilation (DV) system for good air quality is regulated by acceptable levels of CO 2 concentration not to exceed 700 ppm and airborne bacterial count to satisfy World Health Organization (WHO) requirement for bacterial count not to exceed 500 CFU/m 3 . Since the CC/DV system relies on buoyancy effects for driving the contaminated air upwards, infectious particles will recirculate in the upper zone allowing effective utilization of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to clean return air. The aim of this work is to develop a new airborne bacteria transport plume-multi-layer zonal model at low computational cost to predict bacteria concentration distribution in mixed CC/DV conditioned room without and with upper-room UVGI installed. The results of the simplified model were compared with layer-averaged concentration predictions of a detailed and experimentally-validated 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The comparison showed good agreement between bacteria transport model results and CFD predictions of room air bacteria concentration with maximum error of ±10.4 CFU/m 3 in exhaust air. The simplified model captured the vertical bacteria concentration distribution in room air as well as the locking effect of highest concentration happening at the stratification level. The developed bacteria transport model was used in a case study to determine the return air mixing ratio that minimizes energy consumption and maintains acceptable IAQ

  2. Effect of different plant spacing on the production of cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae var. Botrytis) under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I. Khan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb-ur-Rahman; Iqbal, Muhammad; Jilani, Muhammad Saleem; Waseem, Kashif

    2007-12-15

    A research project to evaluate the effect of different plant spacing on the production of cauliflower was conducted at Horticulture Research Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan. Six different plant spacing viz., 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55 cm were used. The results revealed significant variations in all the parameters and amongst various plant spacing, 45 cm spacing showed the best response for all the parameters. Maximum plant height (49.33 cm), curd diameter (19.13 cm), maximum curd weight (1.23 kg plant(-1)) and yield (30.77 t ha(-1)) were recorded in the plots where the plants were spaced 45 cm apart.

  3. Quantifying Quantum-Mechanical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jen-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Hsuan; Li, Che-Ming

    2017-10-19

    The act of describing how a physical process changes a system is the basis for understanding observed phenomena. For quantum-mechanical processes in particular, the affect of processes on quantum states profoundly advances our knowledge of the natural world, from understanding counter-intuitive concepts to the development of wholly quantum-mechanical technology. Here, we show that quantum-mechanical processes can be quantified using a generic classical-process model through which any classical strategies of mimicry can be ruled out. We demonstrate the success of this formalism using fundamental processes postulated in quantum mechanics, the dynamics of open quantum systems, quantum-information processing, the fusion of entangled photon pairs, and the energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex. Since our framework does not depend on any specifics of the states being processed, it reveals a new class of correlations in the hierarchy between entanglement and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and paves the way for the elaboration of a generic method for quantifying physical processes.

  4. Well posedness and regularity for heat equation with the initial condition in weighted Orlitz-Slobodetskii space subordinated to Orlicz space like lambda (log lambda0alpha and the logarithmic weight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kałamajska, A.; Krbec, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2015), s. 677-713 ISSN 1139-1138 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : evolution problems * heat equation * Orlitz-Slobodetskii spaces * Orlitz-Sobolev spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13163-014-0164-4

  5. Superlative Quantifiers as Modifiers of Meta-Speech Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Cohen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The superlative quantifiers, at least and  at most, are commonly assumed  to have the same truth-conditions as the comparative quantifiers  more than and  fewer than. However, as Geurts & Nouwen (2007  have demonstrated, this is wrong, and several theories have been proposed to account for them. In this paper we propose that superlative quantifiers are illocutionary operators; specifically, they modify meta-speech acts. Meta speech-acts are operators that do not express a speech act, but a willingness to make or refrain from making a certain speech  act. The classic example is speech act denegation, e.g. I don't promise to come, where the speaker is explicitly refraining from performing the speech act of promising What denegations do is to delimit the future development of conversation, that is, they delimit future admissible speech acts. Hence we call them meta-speech acts. They are not moves in a game, but rather commitments to behave in certain ways in the future. We formalize the notion of meta speech acts as commitment development spaces, which are rooted graphs: The root of the graph describes the commitment development up to the current point in conversation; the continuations from the  root describe the admissible future directions. We define and formalize the meta-speech act GRANT, which indicates that the speaker, while not necessarily subscribing to a proposition, refrains from asserting its negation. We propose that superlative quantifiers are quantifiers over GRANTs. Thus, Mary petted at least three rabbits means that the minimal number n such that the speaker GRANTs that Mary petted  n rabbits is n = 3. In other words, the speaker denies that Mary petted two, one, or no rabbits, but GRANTs that she petted more. We formalize this interpretation of superlative quantifiers in terms of commitment development spaces, and show how the truth conditions that are derived from it are partly entailed and partly conversationally

  6. A compact clinical instrument for quantifying suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanne M; Thompson, Benjamin; Maehara, Goro; Hess, Robert F

    2011-02-01

    We describe a compact and convenient clinical apparatus for the measurement of suppression based on a previously reported laboratory-based approach. In addition, we report and validate a novel, rapid psychophysical method for measuring suppression using this apparatus, which makes the technique more applicable to clinical practice. By using a Z800 dual pro head-mounted display driven by a MAC laptop, we provide dichoptic stimulation. Global motion stimuli composed of arrays of moving dots are presented to each eye. One set of dots move in a coherent direction (termed signal) whereas another set of dots move in a random direction (termed noise). To quantify performance, we measure the signal/noise ratio corresponding to a direction-discrimination threshold. Suppression is quantified by assessing the extent to which it matters which eye sees the signal and which eye sees the noise. A space-saving, head-mounted display using current video technology offers an ideal solution for clinical practice. In addition, our optimized psychophysical method provided results that were in agreement with those produced using the original technique. We made measures of suppression on a group of nine adult amblyopic participants using this apparatus with both the original and new psychophysical paradigms. All participants had measurable suppression ranging from mild to severe. The two different psychophysical methods gave a strong correlation for the strength of suppression (rho = -0.83, p = 0.006). Combining the new apparatus and new psychophysical method creates a convenient and rapid technique for parametric measurement of interocular suppression. In addition, this apparatus constitutes the ideal platform for suppressors to combine information between their eyes in a similar way to binocularly normal people. This provides a convenient way for clinicians to implement the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia that is based on antisuppression training.

  7. Quantifying structural states of soft mudrocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wong, R. C. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a cm model is proposed to quantify structural states of soft mudrocks, which are dependent on clay fractions and porosities. Physical properties of natural and reconstituted soft mudrock samples are used to derive two parameters in the cm model. With the cm model, a simplified homogenization approach is proposed to estimate geomechanical properties and fabric orientation distributions of soft mudrocks based on the mixture theory. Soft mudrocks are treated as a mixture of nonclay minerals and clay-water composites. Nonclay minerals have a high stiffness and serve as a structural framework of mudrocks when they have a high volume fraction. Clay-water composites occupy the void space among nonclay minerals and serve as an in-fill matrix. With the increase of volume fraction of clay-water composites, there is a transition in the structural state from the state of framework supported to the state of matrix supported. The decreases in shear strength and pore size as well as increases in compressibility and anisotropy in fabric are quantitatively related to such transition. The new homogenization approach based on the proposed cm model yields better performance evaluation than common effective medium modeling approaches because the interactions among nonclay minerals and clay-water composites are considered. With wireline logging data, the cm model is applied to quantify the structural states of Colorado shale formations at different depths in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada. Key geomechancial parameters are estimated based on the proposed homogenization approach and the critical intervals with low strength shale formations are identified.

  8. Present condition and theme of the planning standards of parks and open space planning. Koen ryokuchi keikaku gijutsu hyojun no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, M. (Kanagawa Prefectural Government, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-08-06

    With the dramatic progress of urbanization, the rapid decrease of the green area and the open space, which is basis for ensuring the safety and the comfort of city life and formation of a good city environment, lead to the worsen of city environment. For the basic purpose of achieving the harmony between development and environment by considering the preservation of the green area and the open space, the green master plan is a representative example, and was made as the constitution of from a ground plan to the various plans such as region, city and nation based on the space unit of developing the human action. One of the important planning approach for the green area plan from conception to implementation is the planning standards of park and open space planning. This paper introduced the change of the system about the planning standards of park and open space planning, and explained necessarily the present state of greens master plan about preservation of the national environment and adjustment the park and open space. 1tab.

  9. Quantifying climate risk - the starting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairweather, Helen; Luo, Qunying; Liu, De Li; Wiles, Perry

    2007-01-01

    Full text: All natural systems have evolved to their current state as a result inter alia of the climate in which they developed. Similarly, man-made systems (such as agricultural production) have developed to suit the climate experienced over the last 100 or so years. The capacity of different systems to adapt to changes in climate that are outside those that have been experienced previously is largely unknown. This results in considerable uncertainty when predicting climate change impacts. However, it is possible to quantify the relative probabilities of a range of potential impacts of climate change. Quantifying current climate risks is an effective starting point for analysing the probable impacts of future climate change and guiding the selection of appropriate adaptation strategies. For a farming system to be viable within the current climate, its profitability must be sustained and, therefore, possible adaptation strategies need to be tested for continued viability in a changed climate. The methodology outlined in this paper examines historical patterns of key climate variables (rainfall and temperature) across the season and their influence on the productivity of wheat growing in NSW. This analysis is used to identify the time of year that the system is most vulnerable to climate variation, within the constraints of the current climate. Wheat yield is used as a measure of productivity, which is also assumed to be a surrogate for profitability. A time series of wheat yields is sorted into ascending order and categorised into five percentile groupings (i.e. 20th, 40th, 60th and 80th percentiles) for each shire across NSW (-100 years). Five time series of climate data (which are aggregated daily data from the years in each percentile) are analysed to determine the period that provides the greatest climate risk to the production system. Once this period has been determined, this risk is quantified in terms of the degree of separation of the time series

  10. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  11. Quantifying sound quality in loudspeaker reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, John G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Kevin; van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    We present PREQUEL: Perceptual Reproduction Quality Evaluation for Loudspeakers. Instead of quantifying the loudspeaker system itself, PREQUEL quantifies the overall loudspeakers' perceived sound quality by assessing their acoustic output using a set of music signals. This approach introduces a

  12. Quantifier Scope in Categorical Compositional Distributional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous work with J. Hedges, we formalised a generalised quantifiers theory of natural language in categorical compositional distributional semantics with the help of bialgebras. In this paper, we show how quantifier scope ambiguity can be represented in that setting and how this representation can be generalised to branching quantifiers.

  13. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  14. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Quantify the complexity of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xingtian; Wu, Huixuan

    2017-11-01

    Many researchers have used Reynolds stress, power spectrum and Shannon entropy to characterize a turbulent flow, but few of them have measured the complexity of turbulence. Yet as this study shows, conventional turbulence statistics and Shannon entropy have limits when quantifying the flow complexity. Thus, it is necessary to introduce new complexity measures- such as topology complexity and excess information-to describe turbulence. Our test flow is a classic turbulent cylinder wake at Reynolds number 8100. Along the stream-wise direction, the flow becomes more isotropic and the magnitudes of normal Reynolds stresses decrease monotonically. These seem to indicate the flow dynamics becomes simpler downstream. However, the Shannon entropy keeps increasing along the flow direction and the dynamics seems to be more complex, because the large-scale vortices cascade to small eddies, the flow is less correlated and more unpredictable. In fact, these two contradictory observations partially describe the complexity of a turbulent wake. Our measurements (up to 40 diameters downstream the cylinder) show that the flow's degree-of-complexity actually increases firstly and then becomes a constant (or drops slightly) along the stream-wise direction. University of Kansas General Research Fund.

  16. Quantifying Cancer Risk from Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Alexander P; Richardson, David B

    2017-12-06

    Complex statistical models fitted to data from studies of atomic bomb survivors are used to estimate the human health effects of ionizing radiation exposures. We describe and illustrate an approach to estimate population risks from ionizing radiation exposure that relaxes many assumptions about radiation-related mortality. The approach draws on developments in methods for causal inference. The results offer a different way to quantify radiation's effects and show that conventional estimates of the population burden of excess cancer at high radiation doses are driven strongly by projecting outside the range of current data. Summary results obtained using the proposed approach are similar in magnitude to those obtained using conventional methods, although estimates of radiation-related excess cancers differ for many age, sex, and dose groups. At low doses relevant to typical exposures, the strength of evidence in data is surprisingly weak. Statements regarding human health effects at low doses rely strongly on the use of modeling assumptions. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Quantifying China's regional economic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced an outstanding economic expansion during the past decades, however, literature on non-monetary metrics that reveal the status of China's regional economic development are still lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by quantifying the economic complexity of China's provinces through analyzing 25 years' firm data. First, we estimate the regional economic complexity index (ECI), and show that the overall time evolution of provinces' ECI is relatively stable and slow. Then, after linking ECI to the economic development and the income inequality, we find that the explanatory power of ECI is positive for the former but negative for the latter. Next, we compare different measures of economic diversity and explore their relationships with monetary macroeconomic indicators. Results show that the ECI index and the non-linear iteration based Fitness index are comparative, and they both have stronger explanatory power than other benchmark measures. Further multivariate regressions suggest the robustness of our results after controlling other socioeconomic factors. Our work moves forward a step towards better understanding China's regional economic development and non-monetary macroeconomic indicators.

  18. Quantifying and Reducing Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Vayujeet; Caples, David; Goins, Jordan; Herdman, Ashley; Pankey, Steven; Wren, Emily

    2018-06-01

    We describe the current level of light pollution in and around Kirksville, Missouri and around Anderson Mesa near Flagstaff, Arizona. We quantify the amount of light that is projected up towards the sky, instead of the ground, using Unihedron sky quality meters installed at various locations. We also present results from DSLR photometry of several standard stars, and compare the photometric quality of the data collected at locations with varying levels of light pollution. Presently, light fixture shields and ‘warm-colored’ lights are being installed on Truman State University’s campus in order to reduce light pollution. We discuss the experimental procedure we use to test the effectiveness of the different light fixtures shields in a controlled setting inside the Del and Norma Robison Planetarium.Apart from negatively affecting the quality of the night sky for astronomers, light pollution adversely affects migratory patterns of some animals and sleep-patterns in humans, increases our carbon footprint, and wastes resources and money. This problem threatens to get particularly acute with the increasing use of outdoor LED lamps. We conclude with a call to action to all professional and amateur astronomers to act against the growing nuisance of light pollution.

  19. Quantifying meniscal kinematics in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brian H; Banks, Scott A; Pozzi, Antonio

    2017-11-06

    The dog has been used extensively as an experimental model to study meniscal treatments such as meniscectomy, meniscal repair, transplantation, and regeneration. However, there is very little information on meniscal kinematics in the dog. This study used MR imaging to quantify in vitro meniscal kinematics in loaded dog knees in four distinct poses: extension, flexion, internal, and external rotation. A new method was used to track the meniscal poses along the convex and posteriorly tilted tibial plateau. Meniscal displacements were large, displacing 13.5 and 13.7 mm posteriorly on average for the lateral and medial menisci during flexion (p = 0.90). The medial anterior horn and lateral posterior horns were the most mobile structures, showing average translations of 15.9 and 15.1 mm, respectively. Canine menisci are highly mobile and exhibit movements that correlate closely with the relative tibiofemoral positions. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.

  1. Integrated cosmological probes: concordance quantified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, Andrina; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: andrina.nicola@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    Assessing the consistency of parameter constraints derived from different cosmological probes is an important way to test the validity of the underlying cosmological model. In an earlier work [1], we computed constraints on cosmological parameters for ΛCDM from an integrated analysis of CMB temperature anisotropies and CMB lensing from Planck, galaxy clustering and weak lensing from SDSS, weak lensing from DES SV as well as Type Ia supernovae and Hubble parameter measurements. In this work, we extend this analysis and quantify the concordance between the derived constraints and those derived by the Planck Collaboration as well as WMAP9, SPT and ACT. As a measure for consistency, we use the Surprise statistic [2], which is based on the relative entropy. In the framework of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find all data sets to be consistent with one another at a level of less than 1σ. We highlight that the relative entropy is sensitive to inconsistencies in the models that are used in different parts of the analysis. In particular, inconsistent assumptions for the neutrino mass break its invariance on the parameter choice. When consistent model assumptions are used, the data sets considered in this work all agree with each other and ΛCDM, without evidence for tensions.

  2. Clinical relevance of quantified fundus autofluorescence in diabetic macular oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, S; Murakami, T; Uji, A; Unoki, N; Dodo, Y; Horii, T; Yoshimura, N

    2015-05-01

    To quantify the signal intensity of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and evaluate its association with visual function and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in diabetic macular oedema (DMO). We reviewed 103 eyes of 78 patients with DMO and 30 eyes of 22 patients without DMO. FAF images were acquired using Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2, and the signal levels of FAF in the individual subfields of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid were measured. We evaluated the association between quantified FAF and the logMAR VA and OCT findings. One hundred and three eyes with DMO had lower FAF signal intensity levels in the parafoveal subfields compared with 30 eyes without DMO. The autofluorescence intensity in the parafoveal subfields was associated negatively with logMAR VA and the retinal thickness in the corresponding subfields. The autofluorescence levels in the parafoveal subfield, except the nasal subfield, were lower in eyes with autofluorescent cystoid spaces in the corresponding subfield than in those without autofluorescent cystoid spaces. The autofluorescence level in the central subfield was related to foveal cystoid spaces but not logMAR VA or retinal thickness in the corresponding area. Quantified FAF in the parafovea has diagnostic significance and is clinically relevant in DMO.

  3. Using multiple linear regression techniques to quantify carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fallow ecosystems provide a significant carbon stock that can be quantified for inclusion in the accounts of global carbon budgets. Process and statistical models of productivity, though useful, are often technically rigid as the conditions for their application are not easy to satisfy. Multiple regression techniques have been ...

  4. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.

  5. Neural basis for generalized quantifier comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Corey T; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Devita, Christian; Grossman, Murray

    2005-01-01

    Generalized quantifiers like "all cars" are semantically well understood, yet we know little about their neural representation. Our model of quantifier processing includes a numerosity device, operations that combine number elements and working memory. Semantic theory posits two types of quantifiers: first-order quantifiers identify a number state (e.g. "at least 3") and higher-order quantifiers additionally require maintaining a number state actively in working memory for comparison with another state (e.g. "less than half"). We used BOLD fMRI to test the hypothesis that all quantifiers recruit inferior parietal cortex associated with numerosity, while only higher-order quantifiers recruit prefrontal cortex associated with executive resources like working memory. Our findings showed that first-order and higher-order quantifiers both recruit right inferior parietal cortex, suggesting that a numerosity component contributes to quantifier comprehension. Moreover, only probes of higher-order quantifiers recruited right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting involvement of executive resources like working memory. We also observed activation of thalamus and anterior cingulate that may be associated with selective attention. Our findings are consistent with a large-scale neural network centered in frontal and parietal cortex that supports comprehension of generalized quantifiers.

  6. Study of counter current flow limitation model of MARS-KS and SPACE codes under Dukler's air/water flooding test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Woong; Kim, Min Gil; Lee, Jeong Ik; Bang, Young Seok

    2015-01-01

    In particular, CCFL(the counter current flow limitation) occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus and steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to have flows in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model will be evaluated with MARS-KS based on two-phase two-field governing equations and SPACE code based on two-phase three-field governing equations. This study will be conducted by comparing MARS-KS code which is being used for evaluating the safety of a Korean Nuclear Power Plant and SPACE code which is currently under assessment for evaluating the safety of the designed nuclear power plant. In this study, comparison of the results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate from two code to the famous Dukler's CCFL experimental data are presented. This study will be helpful to understand the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations, and further improving the accuracy of system analysis codes. In the nuclear reactor system, CCFL is an important phenomenon for evaluating the safety of nuclear reactors. This is because CCFL phenomenon can limit injection of ECCS water when CCFL occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus or steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to flow in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model was evaluated with MARS-KS and SPACE codes for studying the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations. This study was conducted by comparing MARS-KS and SPACE code results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate to the famous Dukler

  7. 任意光照下人脸图像的低维光照空间表示%A Low-dimensional Illumination Space Representation of Human Faces for Arbitrary Lighting Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡元奎; 汪增福

    2007-01-01

    The proposed method for low-dimensional illumination space representation (LDISR) of human faces can not only synthesize a virtual face image when given lighting conditions but also estimate lighting conditions when given a face image. The LDISR is based on the observation that 9 basis point light sources can represent almost arbitrary lighting conditions for face recognition application and different human faces have a similar LDISR. The principal component analysis (PCA) and the nearest neighbor clustering method are adopted to obtain the 9 basis point light sources. The 9 basis images under the 9 basis point light sources are then used to construct an LDISR which can represent almost all face images under arbitrary lighting conditions.Illumination ratio image (IRI) is employed to generate virtual face images under different illuminations. The LDISR obtained from face images of one person can be used for other people. Experimental results on image reconstruction and face recognition indicate the efficiency of LDISR.

  8. Quantifying the role of noise on droplet decisions in bifurcating microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi Darabad, Masoud; Vaughn, Mark; Vanapalli, Siva

    2017-11-01

    While many aspects of path selection of droplets flowing through a bifurcating microchannel have been studied, there are still unaddressed issues in predicting and controlling droplet traffic. One of the more important is understanding origin of aperiodic patterns. As a new tool to investigate this phenomena we propose monitoring the continuous time response of pressure fluctuations at different locations. Then we use time-series analysis to investigate the dynamics of the system. We suggest that natural system noise is the cause of irregularity in the traffic patterns. Using a mathematical model, we investigate the effect of noise on droplet decisions at the junction. Noise can be derived from different sources including droplet size variation, droplet spacing, and pump induced velocity fluctuation. By analyzing different situations we explain system behavior. We also investigate the ``memory'' of a microfluidic system in terms of the resistance to perturbations that quantify the allowable deviation in operating condition before the system changes state.

  9. The television white space opportunity in Southern Africa: from field measurements to quantifying white spaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of sufficient fixed-line communication infrastructure in African rural areas has resulted in wireless communication being the only cost effective alternative solution for broadband connectivity. However, access to valuable spectrum...

  10. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  11. Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Alizadeh, Amin; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; R Moftakhari, Hamed; Mirchi, Ali; Anjileli, Hassan; Madani, Kaveh

    2017-10-10

    This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (h out ) and inflow (h in ). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to evaluate the current aquifer regime. We subsequently present two scenarios of changes in human water withdrawals and return flow to the system (individually and combined). Results show that approximately one-third of the selected aquifers in the USA, and half of the selected aquifers in Iran are dominated by human activities, while the selected aquifers in Germany are natural flow-dominated. The scenario analysis results also show that reduced human withdrawals could help with regime change in some aquifers. For instance, in two of the selected USA aquifers, a decrease in anthropogenic influences by ~20% may change the condition of depleted regime to natural flow-dominated regime. We specifically highlight a trending threat to the sustainability of groundwater in northwest Iran and California, and the need for more careful assessment and monitoring practices as well as strict regulations to mitigate the negative impacts of groundwater overexploitation.

  12. A condition for the overflow stability of second-order digital filters that is satisfied by all scaled state-space structures using saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzerfeld, J.H.F.

    1989-01-01

    A set of conditions is derived that ensures overflow stability of second-order digital filters for different classes of overflow arithmetics, involving only the elements of the state-transition matrix. The well-known arithmetic saturation, zeroing, and two's-complement lead to different stability

  13. Quantifying forecast quality of IT business value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens, J.L.; van der Pas, M.; Verhoef, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how to quantify the forecasting quality of IT business value. We address a common economic indicator often used to determine the business value of project proposals, the Net Present Value (NPV). To quantify the forecasting quality of IT business value, we develop a generalized

  14. Pitfalls in quantifying species turnover: the residency effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Chase Burns

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition of ecological communities changes continuously through time and space. Understanding this turnover in species composition is a central goal in biogeography, but quantifying species turnover can be problematic. Here, I describe an underappreciated source of bias in quantifying species turnover, namely ‘the residency effect’, which occurs when the contiguous distributions of species across sampling domains are small relative to census intervals. I present the results of a simulation model that illustrates the problem theoretically and then I demonstrate the problem empirically using a long-term dataset of plant species turnover on islands. Results from both exercises indicate that empirical estimates of species turnover may be susceptible to significant observer bias, which may potentially cloud a better understanding of how the composition of ecological communities changes through time.

  15. Analyzing the non-stationary space relationship of a city's degree of vegetation and social economic conditions in Shanghai, China using OLS and GWR models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejing; Zhang, Yuan; An, Youzhi; Jing, Zhuoxin; Wang, Chao

    2013-09-01

    With the fast urbanization process, how does the vegetation environment change in one of the most economically developed metropolis, Shanghai in East China? To answer this question, there is a pressing demand to explore the non-stationary relationship between socio-economic conditions and vegetation across Shanghai. In this study, environmental data on vegetation cover, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODIS imagery in 2003 were integrated with socio-economic data to reflect the city's vegetative conditions at the census block group level. To explore regional variations in the relationship of vegetation and socio-economic conditions, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were applied to characterize mean NDVI against three independent socio-economic variables, an urban land use ratio, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and population density. The study results show that a considerable distinctive spatial variation exists in the relationship for each model. The GWR model has superior effects and higher precision than the OLS model at the census block group scale. So, it is more suitable to account for local effects and geographical variations. This study also indicates that unreasonable excessive urbanization, together with non-sustainable economic development, has a negative influence of vegetation vigor for some neighborhoods in Shanghai.

  16. Base pressure and heat transfer tests of the 0.0225-scale space shuttle plume simulation model (19-OTS) in yawed flight conditions in the NASA-Lewis 10x10-foot supersonic wind tunnel (test IH83)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed to determine pressures, heat transfer rates, and gas recovery temperatures in the base region of a rocket firing model of the space shuttle integrated vehicle during simulated yawed flight conditions. First and second stage flight of the space shuttle were simulated by firing the main engines in conjunction with the SRB rocket motors or only the SSME's into the continuous tunnel airstream. For the correct rocket plume environment, the simulated altitude pressures were halved to maintain the rocket chamber/altitude pressure ratio. Tunnel freestream Mach numbers from 2.2 to 3.5 were simulated over an altitude range of 60 to 130 thousand feet with varying angle of attack, yaw angle, nozzle gimbal angle and SRB chamber pressure. Gas recovery temperature data derived from nine gas temperature probe runs are presented. The model configuration, instrumentation, test procedures, and data reduction are described.

  17. Quantifying and modeling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, A. K.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion is a power process that continuously alters the Earth's landscape. Human activities, such as construction and agricultural practices, and natural events, such as forest fires and landslides, disturb the landscape and intensify erosion processes leading to sudden increases in runoff sediment concentrations and degraded stream water quality. Understanding soil erosion and sediment transport processes is of great importance to researchers and practicing engineers, who routinely use models to predict soil erosion and sediment movement for varied land use and climate change scenarios. However, existing erosion models are limited in their applicability to constructions sites which have highly variable soil conditions (density, moisture, surface roughness, and best management practices) that change often in both space and time. The goal of this research is to improve the understanding, predictive capabilities and integration of treatment methodologies for controlling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites. This research combines modeling with field monitoring and laboratory experiments to quantify: (a) spatial and temporal distribution of soil conditions on construction sites, (b) soil erosion due to event rainfall, and (c) potential offsite discharge of sediment with and without treatment practices. Field sites in southern California were selected to monitor the effects of common construction activities (ex., cut/fill, grading, foundations, roads) on soil conditions and sediment discharge. Laboratory experiments were performed in the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL), part of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University, to quantify the impact of individual factors leading to sediment export. SERL experiments utilize a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 m, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). Preliminary modeling, field and laboratory

  18. Continuous laser irradiation under ambient conditions: A simple way for the space-selective growth of gold nanoparticles inside a silica monolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Bernard, Remy; Chahadih, Abdallah; Chassagneux, Fernand; Bois, Laurence; Capoen, Bruno; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Visible continuous laser direct-write gold nanoparticles inside a silica monolith. → The presence of the additive (Na 2 CO 3 ) is not necessary to the growth of gold nanoparticles. → A simple heat treatment leads to precipitation of gold nanoparticles inside the silica matrices with, or without, the additive. → The local precipitation of gold nanoparticles by continuous photo-irradiation occurs following a photo-thermal activated mechanism. -- Abstract: Thanks to the potential and various applications of metal-dielectric nanocomposites, their syntheses constitute an interesting subject in material research. In this work, we demonstrate the achievement of gold nanocrystals growth through a visible and continuous laser irradiation. The in situ and direct space-selective generation of metallic nanoparticles is localized under the surface within transparent silica monoliths. For that purpose, the porous silica monoliths are prepared using a sol-gel route and post-doped with gold precursors before the irradiation. The presence of Au nanoparticles inside the irradiated areas was evidenced using absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The comparison between the results obtained after a laser irradiation and by a simple heat-treatment reveals that the local precipitation of gold nanoparticles by continuous photo-irradiation occurs following a photo-thermal activated mechanism.

  19. Bare quantifier fronting as contrastive topicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue that indefinites (in particular bare quantifiers such as ‘something’, ‘somebody’, etc. which are neither existentially presupposed nor in the restriction of a quantifier over situations, can undergo topicalization in a number of Romance languages (Catalan, Italian, Romanian, Spanish, but only if the sentence contains “verum” focus, i.e. focus on a high degree of certainty of the sentence. I analyze these indefinites as contrastive topics, using Büring’s (1999 theory (where the term ‘S-topic’ is used for what I call ‘contrastive topic’. I propose that the topic is evaluated in relation to a scalar set including generalized quantifiers such as {lP $x P(x, lP MANYx P(x, lP MOSTx P(x, lP “xP(x} or {lP $xP(x, lP P(a, lP P(b …}, and that the contrastive topic is the weakest generalized quantifier in this set. The verum focus, which is part of the “comment” that co-occurs with the “Topic”, introduces a set of alternatives including degrees of certainty of the assertion. The speaker asserts that his claim is certainly true or highly probable, contrasting it with stronger claims for which the degree of probability is unknown. This explains the observation that in downward entailing contexts, the fronted quantified DPs are headed by ‘all’ or ‘many’, whereas ‘some’, small numbers or ‘at least n’ appear in upward entailing contexts. Unlike other cases of non-specific topics, which are property topics, these are quantifier topics: the topic part is a generalized quantifier, the comment is a property of generalized quantifiers. This explains the narrow scope of the fronted quantified DP.

  20. Quantifying uncertainties in the structural response of SSME blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Vinod K.

    1987-01-01

    To quantify the uncertainties associated with the geometry and material properties of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump blade, a computer code known as STAEBL was used. A finite element model of the blade used 80 triangular shell elements with 55 nodes and five degrees of freedom per node. The whole study was simulated on the computer and no real experiments were conducted. The structural response has been evaluated in terms of three variables which are natural frequencies, root (maximum) stress, and blade tip displacements. The results of the study indicate that only the geometric uncertainties have significant effects on the response. Uncertainties in material properties have insignificant effects.

  1. Compositional Solution Space Quantification for Probabilistic Software Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mateus; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Filieri, Antonio; d'Amorim, Marcelo; Visser, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic software analysis aims at quantifying how likely a target event is to occur during program execution. Current approaches rely on symbolic execution to identify the conditions to reach the target event and try to quantify the fraction of the input domain satisfying these conditions. Precise quantification is usually limited to linear constraints, while only approximate solutions can be provided in general through statistical approaches. However, statistical approaches may fail to converge to an acceptable accuracy within a reasonable time. We present a compositional statistical approach for the efficient quantification of solution spaces for arbitrarily complex constraints over bounded floating-point domains. The approach leverages interval constraint propagation to improve the accuracy of the estimation by focusing the sampling on the regions of the input domain containing the sought solutions. Preliminary experiments show significant improvement on previous approaches both in results accuracy and analysis time.

  2. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  3. Lever conditioned stimulus-directed autoshaping induced by saccharin-ethanol unconditioned stimulus solution: effects of ethanol concentration and trial spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Festa, Eugene D; Sparta, Dennis R; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2003-05-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate whether brief access to a saccharin-ethanol solution would function as an effective unconditioned stimulus (US) in Pavlovian-autoshaping procedures. In these experiments, the insertion of a lever conditioned stimulus (CS) was followed by the brief presentation of a sipper tube containing saccharin-ethanol US solution. Experience with this Pavlovian-autoshaping procedure engendered lever CS-directed autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) in all rats. In Experiment 1, the concentration of ethanol [0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, or 8% (vol./vol.)] in 0.1% saccharin was systematically increased within subjects across autoshaping sessions to evaluate the relation between a rat's drinking and lever pressing. In Experiment 2, the mean intertrial interval (ITI) duration (60, 90, 120 s) was systematically increased within subjects across autoshaping sessions to evaluate the effect of ITI duration on drinking and lever pressing. A pseudoconditioning control group received lever CS randomly with respect to the saccharin-ethanol US solution. In Experiment 1, lever-press autoshaping CRs developed in all rats, and the tendency of a rat to drink an ethanol concentration was predictive of the performance of lever-press autoshaping CRs. In Experiment 2, longer ITIs induced more lever CS-directed responding, and CS-US paired procedures yielded more lever CS-directed responding than that observed in CS-US random procedures. Saccharin-ethanol is an effective US in Pavlovian-autoshaping procedures, inducing more CS-directed responding than in pseudoconditioning controls receiving CS-US random procedures. More lever CS-directed responding was observed when there was more drinking of the saccharin-ethanol US solution (Experiment 1); when the CS and US were paired, rather than random (Experiment 2); and with longer mean ITI durations (Experiment 2). This pattern of results is consistent with the hypothesis that lever CS-directed responding reflects performance

  4. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  5. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  6. Quantify Risk to Manage Cost and Schedule

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymond, Fred

    1999-01-01

    Too many projects suffer from unachievable budget and schedule goals, caused by unrealistic estimates and the failure to quantify and communicate the uncertainty of these estimates to managers and sponsoring executives...

  7. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS

  8. New frontiers of quantified self 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Amon; Cena, Federica; Kay, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Quantified Self (QS) field needs to start thinking of how situated needs may affect the use of self-tracking technologies. In this workshop we will focus on the idiosyncrasies of specific categories of users....

  9. Seasonal behavior and long-term trends of tropospheric ozone, its precursors and chemical conditions over Iran: A view from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunsoo; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-04-01

    annual TCO (∼0.59 ± 0.56 DU yr-1) but decreases in minimum annual TCO (∼-0.42 ± 0.60 DU yr-1) caused by an increase in NO2 species and annual CO (∼-0.95 ± 0.41 × 1016 molec./cm2 yr-1) partly resulting from the transport of reduced CO. The time series of the HCHO/NO2 column ratio (a proxy for the chemical conditions) indicated that during the last decade, the cities of Tehran, Ahvaz, and Isfahan exhibited steady chemical conditions while Tabriz and Mashhad exhibited a change from NOx-saturated/mixed to more NOx-sensitive chemical conditions.

  10. Development of a Rational Design Space for Optimizing Mixing Conditions for Formation of Adhesive Mixtures for Dry-Powder Inhaler Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saurabh; Minatovicz, Bruna; Thalberg, Kyrre; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop guidance toward rational choice of blenders and processing conditions to make robust and high performing adhesive mixtures for dry-powder inhalers and to develop quantitative experimental approaches for optimizing the process. Mixing behavior of carrier (LH100) and AstraZeneca fine lactose in high-shear and low-shear double cone blenders was systematically investigated. Process variables impacting the mixing performance were evaluated for both blenders. The performance of the blenders with respect to the mixing time, press-on forces, static charging, and abrasion of carrier fines was monitored, and for some of the parameters, distinct differences could be detected. A comparison table is presented, which can be used as a guidance to enable rational choice of blender and process parameters based on the user requirements. Segregation of adhesive mixtures during hopper discharge was also investigated. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Styrene-spaced copolymers including anthraquinone and β-O-4 lignin model units: synthesis, characterization and reactivity under alkaline pulping conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megiatto, Jackson D; Cazeils, Emmanuel; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Grelier, Stéphane; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain

    2012-05-14

    A series of random copoly(styrene)s has been synthesized via radical polymerization of functionalized anthraquinone (AQ) and β-O-4 lignin model monomers. The copolymers were designed to have a different number of styrene spacer groups between the AQ and β-O-4 lignin side chains aiming at investigating the distance effects on AQ/β-O-4 electron transfer mechanisms. A detailed molecular characterization, including techniques such as size exclusion chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and (1)H, (13)C, (31)P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, afforded quantitative information about the composition of the copolymers as well as the average distribution of the AQ and β-O-4 groups in the macromolecular structures. TGA and DSC thermal analysis have indicated that the copolymers were thermally stable under regular pulping conditions, revealing the inertness of the styrene polymer backbone in the investigation of electron transfer mechanisms. Alkaline pulping experiments showed that close contact between the redox active side chains in the copolymers was fundamental for an efficient degradation of the β-O-4 lignin model units, highlighting the importance of electron transfer reactions in the lignin degradation mechanisms catalyzed by AQ. In the absence of glucose, AQ units oxidized phenolic β-O-4 lignin model parts, mainly by electron transfer leading to vanillin as major product. By contrast, in presence of glucose, anthrahydroquinone units (formed by reduction of AQ) reduced the quinone-methide units (issued by dehydration of phenolic β-O-4 lignin model part) mainly by electron transfer leading to guaiacol as major product. Both processes were distance dependent.

  12. Analysis of the unstressed lattice spacing, d0, for the determination of the residual stress in a friction stir welded plate of an age-hardenable aluminum alloy – Use of equilibrium conditions and a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioffi, F.; Hidalgo, J.I.; Fernández, R.; Pirling, T.; Fernández, B.; Gesto, D.; Puente Orench, I.; Rey, P.; González-Doncel, G.

    2014-01-01

    Procedures based on equilibrium conditions (stress and bending moment) have been used to obtain an unstressed lattice spacing, d 0 , as a crucial requirement for calculating the residual stress (RS) profile across a joint conducted on a 10 mm thick plate of age-hardenable AA2024 alloy by friction stir welding (FSW). Two procedures have been used that take advantage of neutron diffraction measurements. First, equilibrium conditions were imposed on sections parallel to the weld so that a constant d 0 value corresponding to the base material region could be calculated analytically. Second, balance conditions were imposed on a section transverse to the weld. Then, using the data and a genetic algorithm, suitable d 0 values for the different regions of the weld have been found. For several reasons, the comb method has proved to be inappropriate for RS determination in the case of age-hardenable alloys. However, the equilibrium conditions, together with the genetic algorithm, has been shown to be very suitable for determining RS profiles in FSW joints of these alloys, where inherent microstructural variations of d 0 across the weld are expected

  13. Space nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, D.; Temme, M.; Brown, N.

    1990-01-01

    Definition of safety requirements and design features of the SP-100 space reactor power system has been guided by a mission risk analysis. The analysis quantifies risk from accidental radiological consequences for a reference mission. Results show that the radiological risk from a space reactor can be made very low. The total mission risk from radiological consequences for a shuttle-launched, earth orbit SP-100 mission is estimated to be 0.05 Person-REM (expected values) based on a 1 mREM/yr de Minimus dose. Results are given for each mission phase. The safety benefits of specific design features are evaluated through risk sensitivity analyses

  14. Quantifying Factors Affecting Optical Turbulence Propagation Using a Controlled Towed Vehicle From an Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    the optical system design and/or to predict their operational conditions. The main objective of this study is to quantify optical turbulence in the...design and/or to predict their operational conditions. The main objective of this study is to quantify optical turbulence in the marine atmospheric...Research Facility Pier, Duck , North Carolina. Source: Field Research Facility (1992). ..........................18 Figure 6. Data Collection

  15. Quantifying the clear-sky bias of satellite-derived infrared LST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermida, S. L.; Trigo, I. F.; DaCamara, C.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most relevant parameters when addressing the physical processes that take place at the surface of the Earth. Satellite data are particularly appropriate for measuring LST over the globe with high temporal resolution. Remote-sensed LST estimation from space-borne sensors has been systematically performed over the Globe for nearly 3 decades and geostationary LST climate data records are now available. The retrieval of LST from satellite observations generally relies on measurements in the thermal infrared (IR) window. Although there is a large number of IR sensors on-board geostationary satellites and polar orbiters suitable for LST retrievals with different temporal and spatial resolutions, the use of IR observations limits LST estimates to clear sky conditions. As a consequence, climate studies based on IR LST are likely to be affected by the restriction of LST data to cloudless conditions. However, such "clear sky bias" has never been quantified and, therefore, the actual impact of relying only on clear sky data is still to be determined. On the other hand, an "all-weather" global LST database may be set up based on passive microwave (MW) measurements which are much less affected by clouds. An 8-year record of all-weather MW LST is here used to quantify the clear-sky bias of IR LST at global scale based on MW observations performed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. Selection of clear-sky and cloudy pixels is based on information derived from measurements performed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board the same satellite.

  16. Radio-contaminant behaviour in the cover-gas space and the containment building of a sodium-cooled fast reactor in accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathe, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    experiments chosen in the literature. The mass of oxide aerosols produced by a sodium spray fire can involve more than 60% of the ejected sodium. Then, we develop the numerical simulation STARK based on the Cooper model that model the physico-chemical transformations of the aerosols. However, this model has never been validated and the literature does not permit to do so. In these conditions, we designed and performed our own experiment to obtain the missing values of parameters that govern the Cooper model. The Cooper model has been improved with the results of this experimental study, ESSTIA, and we present a modified Cooper model that improves the accuracy of Cooper model to investigate the transformation of the sodium aerosols. The last part of the manuscript deals with the interaction between sodium aerosols (hydroxide) and a key fission product (iodine). We use density functional theory numerical simulation (the VASP code) to discover the affinities that can be identified. The results will facilitate simulation of the source term evolution because the sodium aerosols will interact with this FP. All the data and numerical simulations presented here will contribute to implementation of models in the future SFR SA numerical simulation of the IRSN, ASTEC-Na. (author)

  17. Quantifying the 'naturalness' of the curvaton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, Rose N.; Melville, Scott

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the probability of obtaining an observable curvature perturbation, using as an example the minimal curvaton-Higgs (MCH) model. We determine 'probably observable' and 'probably excluded' regions of parameter space assuming generic initial conditions and applying a stochastic approach for the curvaton's evolution during inflation. Inflation is assumed to last longer than the N obs ≅55 observable e-folds, and the total number of e-folds of inflation determines the particular ranges of parameters that are probable. For the MCH model, these 'probably observable' regions always lie within the range 8 x 10 4 GeV≤m σ ≤2 x 10 7 GeV, where m σ is the curvaton mass, and the Hubble scale at horizon exit is chosen as H * =10 10 GeV. Because the 'probably observable' region depends on the total duration of inflation, information on parameters in the Lagrangian from particle physics and from precision CMB observables can therefore provide information about the total duration of inflation, not just the last N obs e-folds. This method could also be applied to any model that contains additional scalar fields to determine the probability that these scalar fields contribute to the curvature perturbation.

  18. Resolving and quantifying overlapped chromatographic bands by transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski

    2000-09-15

    A new chemometric technique called "transmutation" is developed for the purpose of sharpening overlapped chromatographic bands in order to quantify the components. The "transmutation function" is created from the chromatogram of the pure component of interest, obtained from the same instrument, operating under the same experimental conditions used to record the unresolved chromatogram of the sample mixture. The method is used to quantify mixtures containing toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, naphthalene, and biphenyl from unresolved chromatograms previously reported. The results are compared to those obtained using window factor analysis, rank annihilation factor analysis, and matrix regression analysis. Unlike the latter methods, the transmutation method is not restricted to two-dimensional arrays of data, such as those obtained from HPLC/DAD, but is also applicable to chromatograms obtained from single detector experiments. Limitations of the method are discussed.

  19. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - GIS analysis Franches Montagnes, Switzerland - Documentation of GIS concepts, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, F.; Schaffner, B. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents part of the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report documents the use of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methodology for the 'Franches Montagnes' Region in Switzerland, whereby the most significant of the model's layers was found to be the wind velocity layer.

  20. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - Digital relief analysis - Abstract of work package 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Cattin, R. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents an abstract of the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report presents an abstract of the work done as part of the Work Package 7 of the Alpine Windharvest project.

  1. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - CFD modelling evaluation - Summary of WindSim CFD modelling procedure and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Cattin, R. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The report describes the development of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. The report deals with the use of computational fluid dynamics and wind simulation modelling techniques and their validation. Recommendations on the use of the results are made.

  2. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - GIS analysis methodology - Workbook and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, F.; Schaffner, B. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The report describes the development of basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. The report deals with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methodology, which includes three steps: the identification of limiting factors for wind power production, the compilation of a GIS layer for each of these factors and, thirdly, their aggregation into a result layer. The methodology was implemented for four case studies in Austria, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland.

  3. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vernooij, H.; Mevius, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From

  4. QS Spiral: Visualizing Periodic Quantified Self Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an interactive visualization technique QS Spiral that aims to capture the periodic properties of quantified self data and let the user explore those recurring patterns. The approach is based on time-series data visualized as a spiral structure. The interactivity includes ...

  5. Quantifying recontamination through factory environments - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt-den Aantrekker, van E.D.; Boom, R.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Schothorst, van M.

    2003-01-01

    Recontamination of food products can be the origin of foodborne illnesses and should therefore be included in quantitative microbial risk assessment (MRA) studies. In order to do this, recontamination should be quantified using predictive models. This paper gives an overview of the relevant

  6. Quantifying quantum coherence with quantum Fisher information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X N; Wei, L F

    2017-11-14

    Quantum coherence is one of the old but always important concepts in quantum mechanics, and now it has been regarded as a necessary resource for quantum information processing and quantum metrology. However, the question of how to quantify the quantum coherence has just been paid the attention recently (see, e.g., Baumgratz et al. PRL, 113. 140401 (2014)). In this paper we verify that the well-known quantum Fisher information (QFI) can be utilized to quantify the quantum coherence, as it satisfies the monotonicity under the typical incoherent operations and the convexity under the mixing of the quantum states. Differing from most of the pure axiomatic methods, quantifying quantum coherence by QFI could be experimentally testable, as the bound of the QFI is practically measurable. The validity of our proposal is specifically demonstrated with the typical phase-damping and depolarizing evolution processes of a generic single-qubit state, and also by comparing it with the other quantifying methods proposed previously.

  7. Interbank exposures: quantifying the risk of contagion

    OpenAIRE

    C. H. Furfine

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the likelihood that failure of one bank would cause the subsequent collapse of a large number of other banks. Using unique data on interbank payment flows, the magnitude of bilateral federal funds exposures is quantified. These exposures are used to simulate the impact of various failure scenarios, and the risk of contagion is found to be economically small.

  8. Quantifying Productivity Gains from Foreign Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fons-Rosen (Christian); S. Kalemli-Ozcan (Sebnem); B.E. Sorensen (Bent); C. Villegas-Sanchez (Carolina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe quantify the causal effect of foreign investment on total factor productivity (TFP) using a new global firm-level database. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the difference in the amount of foreign investment by financial and industrial investors and simultaneously

  9. Power Curve Measurements, quantify the production increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based...

  10. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting...

  11. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    . nordenskjoeldii. Mutual coagulation between Skeletonema costatum and the non-sticky cel:ls of Ditylum brightwellii also proceeded with hall the efficiency of S. costatum alone. The latex beads were suitable to be used as 'standard particles' to quantify the ability of phytoplankton to prime aggregation...

  12. New frontiers of quantified self 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Amon; Cena, Federica; Kay, Judy

    2016-01-01

    While the Quantified Self (QS) community is described in terms of "self-knowledge through numbers" people are increasingly demanding value and meaning. In this workshop we aim at refocusing the QS debate on the value of data for providing new services....

  13. Quantifying temporal ventriloquism in audiovisual synchrony perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuling, I.A.; Kohlrausch, A.G.; Juola, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain works properly only if the components are perceived in close temporal proximity. In the present study, we quantified cross-modal interactions in the human brain for audiovisual stimuli with temporal asynchronies, using a paradigm from

  14. Reliability-How to Quantify and Improve?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Reliability - How to Quantify and Improve? - Improving the Health of Products. N K Srinivasan. General Article Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  16. Using nitrate to quantify quick flow in a karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Garner, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    In karst aquifers, contaminated recharge can degrade spring water quality, but quantifying the rapid recharge (quick flow) component of spring flow is challenging because of its temporal variability. Here, we investigate the use of nitrate in a two-endmember mixing model to quantify quick flow in Barton Springs, Austin, Texas. Historical nitrate data from recharging creeks and Barton Springs were evaluated to determine a representative nitrate concentration for the aquifer water endmember (1.5 mg/L) and the quick flow endmember (0.17 mg/L for nonstormflow conditions and 0.25 mg/L for stormflow conditions). Under nonstormflow conditions for 1990 to 2005, model results indicated that quick flow contributed from 0% to 55% of spring flow. The nitrate-based two-endmember model was applied to the response of Barton Springs to a storm and results compared to those produced using the same model with ??18O and specific conductance (SC) as tracers. Additionally, the mixing model was modified to allow endmember quick flow values to vary over time. Of the three tracers, nitrate appears to be the most advantageous because it is conservative and because the difference between the concentrations in the two endmembers is large relative to their variance. The ??18O- based model was very sensitive to variability within the quick flow endmember, and SC was not conservative over the timescale of the storm response. We conclude that a nitrate-based two-endmember mixing model might provide a useful approach for quantifying the temporally variable quick flow component of spring flow in some karst systems. ?? 2008 National Ground Water Association.

  17. Cell genetic processes under space flight conditions: Analysis of two-factor crosses between spore color mutants of Sordaria macrospora. Final report; Zellgenetische Prozesse unter Weltraumbedingungen: Analyse von Zweifaktorenkreuzungen zwischen Sporenfarbenmutanten von Sordaria macrospora. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hock, B.; Hahn, A.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the FUNGUS experiment on S/MM05 was to examine the effects of space flight conditions on the hereditary transmission of the spore color genes. The controls consisted of one further experiment in space with a centrifuge and 1 x g acceleration, and a gravitational reference experiment. A statistical analysis revealed no significant differences attributable to the absence of gravitational effects. A significant increase however was observed in the recombination frequencies, due to the fraction of HZE particles in the cosmic radiation. Gravitational reference experiments showed a dose-dependent effect of heavy-ion particle radiation on the post-reduction frequency and thus on the calculated distances between the genes, higher radiation doses increasing the post-reduction frequency. It was possible to derive dose-response curves for comparison with X-radiation and determination of the RBE of the heavy ion radiation with respect to the calculated distances between the genes 1u and r2. The mycelium of the fungi of the space flight experiment was examined for DNA strand breaks at the molecular level by means of a single cell gel electrophoresis assay. No genetic damage could be detected in the specimens of the experiment in space. Attempts at DNA repair in S. macrospora reveal that most of the damage is healed within a few hours. It was possible to determine the maximum doses of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation up to which DNA repair is possible. (orig./CB) [German] Der Versuch FUNGUS auf S/MM05 hatte zum Ziel, die Auswirkungen der Weltraumbedingungen auf die Vererbung der Farbsporgene zu beobachten. Als Kontrollen dienten eine Zentrifuge, die im Weltraum 1 x g Beschleunigung erzeugte, und ein Bodenreferenzexperiment. Eine statistische Auswertung ergab keine signifikanten Unterschiede, die durch die fehlende Schwerkraft bedingt waren. Eine signifikante Erhoehung der Rekombinationsfrequenzen wird jedoch durch den HZE-Partikelanteil der Weltraumstrahlung

  18. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - Digital relief analysis - Abstract of work package 7; Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - Digitale Relief-Analyse - Zusammenfassung von Arbeitspaket 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Cattin, R. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report describes the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report presents a summary of work done on the digital relief analysis used in various stages of the project, its validation and use.

  19. Barrelled locally convex spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Carreras, P

    1987-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of barrelled spaces, and of structures in which barrelledness conditions are significant. It is a fairly self-contained study of the structural theory of those spaces, concentrating on the basic phenomena in the theory, and presenting a variety of functional-analytic techniques.Beginning with some basic and important results in different branches of Analysis, the volume deals with Baire spaces, presents a variety of techniques, and gives the necessary definitions, exploring conditions on discs to ensure that they are absorbed by the barrels of the sp

  20. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  1. A trouser bag experiment that quantify by-catch species escaping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sea fishing trials were conducted to quantify by-catch species escaping from a modified shrimp trawl codend and retained in a trouser bag. Modification was by inserting a rectangular aluminum frame excluder device with bar spacing of 20mm at the anterior bunt. Thirty replicate landings showed that; Drepane africana have ...

  2. Quantifying Stock Return Distributions in Financial Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Federico; Moat, Helen Susannah; Stanley, H Eugene; Preis, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Being able to quantify the probability of large price changes in stock markets is of crucial importance in understanding financial crises that affect the lives of people worldwide. Large changes in stock market prices can arise abruptly, within a matter of minutes, or develop across much longer time scales. Here, we analyze a dataset comprising the stocks forming the Dow Jones Industrial Average at a second by second resolution in the period from January 2008 to July 2010 in order to quantify the distribution of changes in market prices at a range of time scales. We find that the tails of the distributions of logarithmic price changes, or returns, exhibit power law decays for time scales ranging from 300 seconds to 3600 seconds. For larger time scales, we find that the distributions tails exhibit exponential decay. Our findings may inform the development of models of market behavior across varying time scales.

  3. A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches

    OpenAIRE

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...

  4. How are the catastrophical risks quantifiable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.

    1985-01-01

    For the assessment and evaluation of industrial risks the question must be asked how are the catastrophical risks quantifiable. Typical real catastrophical risks and risk assessment based on modelling assumptions have been placed against each other in order to put the risks into proper perspective. However, the society is risk averse when there is a catastrophic potential of severe accidents in a large scale industrial facility even though there is extremely low probability of occurence. (orig.) [de

  5. Quantifying Distributional Model Risk via Optimal Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet, Jose; Murthy, Karthyek R. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of quantifying the impact of model misspecification when computing general expected values of interest. The methodology that we propose is applicable in great generality, in particular, we provide examples involving path dependent expectations of stochastic processes. Our approach consists in computing bounds for the expectation of interest regardless of the probability measure used, as long as the measure lies within a prescribed tolerance measured in terms ...

  6. Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Alizadeh, Amin; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; R. Moftakhari, Hamed; Mirchi, Ali; Anjileli, Hassan; Madani, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (hout) and inflow (hin). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to e...

  7. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  8. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  9. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  10. Quantifying uncertainty in observational rainfall datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Chris; Dosio, Alessandro; Nikulin, Grigory; Pinto, Izidine; Seid, Hussen

    2015-04-01

    The CO-ordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) has to date seen the publication of at least ten journal papers that examine the African domain during 2012 and 2013. Five of these papers consider Africa generally (Nikulin et al. 2012, Kim et al. 2013, Hernandes-Dias et al. 2013, Laprise et al. 2013, Panitz et al. 2013) and five have regional foci: Tramblay et al. (2013) on Northern Africa, Mariotti et al. (2014) and Gbobaniyi el al. (2013) on West Africa, Endris et al. (2013) on East Africa and Kalagnoumou et al. (2013) on southern Africa. There also are a further three papers that the authors know about under review. These papers all use an observed rainfall and/or temperature data to evaluate/validate the regional model output and often proceed to assess projected changes in these variables due to climate change in the context of these observations. The most popular reference rainfall data used are the CRU, GPCP, GPCC, TRMM and UDEL datasets. However, as Kalagnoumou et al. (2013) point out there are many other rainfall datasets available for consideration, for example, CMORPH, FEWS, TAMSAT & RIANNAA, TAMORA and the WATCH & WATCH-DEI data. They, with others (Nikulin et al. 2012, Sylla et al. 2012) show that the observed datasets can have a very wide spread at a particular space-time coordinate. As more ground, space and reanalysis-based rainfall products become available, all which use different methods to produce precipitation data, the selection of reference data is becoming an important factor in model evaluation. A number of factors can contribute to a uncertainty in terms of the reliability and validity of the datasets such as radiance conversion algorithims, the quantity and quality of available station data, interpolation techniques and blending methods used to combine satellite and guage based products. However, to date no comprehensive study has been performed to evaluate the uncertainty in these observational datasets. We assess 18 gridded

  11. Quantifying in-stream nitrate reaction rates using continuously-collected water quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Miller; Anthony Tesoriero; Paul Capel

    2016-01-01

    High frequency in situ nitrate data from three streams of varying hydrologic condition, land use, and watershed size were used to quantify the mass loading of nitrate to streams from two sources – groundwater discharge and event flow – at a daily time step for one year. These estimated loadings were used to quantify temporally-variable in-stream nitrate processing ...

  12. Quantification of the Impact of Roadway Conditions on Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The scope of this project involved developing a methodology to quantify the impact of roads condition on emissions and providing guidance to assist TxDOT in improving maintenance strategies to reduce gas emissions. The research quantified vehicle ...

  13. Quantifying tasks and roles in insect societies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-15

    May 15, 1991 ... ergonomic selection, and was associated with the evolution of increasing behavioural ... The sequence in which tasks are perfonned by workers, .... space, providing a pictorial representation of the association between the ...

  14. Quantifying the emissions reduction effectiveness and costs of oxygenated gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    During the fall, winter, and spring of 1991-1992, a measurement program was conducted in Denver, Colorado to quantify the technical and economic effectiveness of oxygenated gasoline in reducing automobile carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Emissions from 80,000 vehicles under a variety of operating conditions were measured before, during, and after the seasonal introduction of oxygenated gasoline into the region. Gasoline samples were taken from several hundred vehicles to confirm the actual oxygen content of the fuel in use. Vehicle operating conditions, such as cold starts and warm operations, and ambient conditions were characterized. The variations in emissions attributable to fuel type and to operating conditions were then quantified. This paper describes the measurement program and its results. The 1991-1992 Colorado oxygenated gasoline program contributed to a reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles. The measurement program demonstrated that most of the reduction is concentrated in a small percentage of the vehicles that use oxygenated gasoline. The remainder experience little or not reduction in emissions. The oxygenated gasoline program outlays are approximately $25 to $30 million per year in Colorado. These are directly measurable costs, incurred through increased government expenditures, higher costs to private industry, and losses in fuel economy. The measurement program determined the total costs of oxygenated gasoline as an air pollution control strategy for the region. Costs measured included government administration and enforcement, industry production and distribution, and consumer and other user costs. This paper describes the ability of the oxygenated gasoline program to reduce pollution; the overall cost of the program to government, industry, and consumers; and the effectiveness of the program in reducing pollution compared to its costs

  15. Classification and valuation of urban green spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panduro, Toke Emil; Veie, Kathrine Lausted

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a categorization of green space into eight different types and quantify their impact on housing prices in the city of Aalborg using the hedonic house price method. The categorization was made manually according to an idealized description of the eight types of green space...

  16. Metric space construction for the boundary of space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A distance function between points in space-time is defined and used to consider the manifold as a topological metric space. The properties of the distance function are investigated: conditions under which the metric and manifold topologies agree, the relationship with the causal structure of the space-time and with the maximum lifetime function of Wald and Yip, and in terms of the space of causal curves. The space-time is then completed as a topological metric space; the resultant boundary is compared with the causal boundary and is also calculated for some pertinent examples

  17. Quantifier spreading: children misled by ostensive cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin É. Kiss

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper calls attention to a methodological problem of acquisition experiments. It shows that the economy of the stimulus employed in child language experiments may lend an increased ostensive effect to the message communicated to the child. Thus, when the visual stimulus in a sentence-picture matching task is a minimal model abstracting away from the details of the situation, children often regard all the elements of the stimulus as ostensive clues to be represented in the corresponding sentence. The use of such minimal stimuli is mistaken when the experiment aims to test whether or not a certain element of the stimulus is relevant for the linguistic representation or interpretation. The paper illustrates this point by an experiment involving quantifier spreading. It is claimed that children find a universally quantified sentence like 'Every girl is riding a bicycle 'to be a false description of a picture showing three girls riding bicycles and a solo bicycle because they are misled to believe that all the elements in the visual stimulus are relevant, hence all of them are to be represented by the corresponding linguistic description. When the iconic drawings were replaced by photos taken in a natural environment rich in accidental details, the occurrence of quantifier spreading was radically reduced. It is shown that an extra object in the visual stimulus can lead to the rejection of the sentence also in the case of sentences involving no quantification, which gives further support to the claim that the source of the problem is not (or not only the grammatical or cognitive difficulty of quantification but the unintended ostensive effect of the extra object.  This article is part of the special collection: Acquisition of Quantification

  18. Quantifying information leakage of randomized protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Malacaria, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of information leakage provides a quantitative evaluation of the security of a system. We propose the usage of Markovian processes to model deterministic and probabilistic systems. By using a methodology generalizing the lattice of information approach we model refined attackers...... capable to observe the internal behavior of the system, and quantify the information leakage of such systems. We also use our method to obtain an algorithm for the computation of channel capacity from our Markovian models. Finally, we show how to use the method to analyze timed and non-timed attacks...

  19. Characterization of autoregressive processes using entropic quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversaro, Francisco; Redelico, Francisco O.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the contribution is to introduce a novel information plane, the causal-amplitude informational plane. As previous works seems to indicate, Bandt and Pompe methodology for estimating entropy does not allow to distinguish between probability distributions which could be fundamental for simulation or for probability analysis purposes. Once a time series is identified as stochastic by the causal complexity-entropy informational plane, the novel causal-amplitude gives a deeper understanding of the time series, quantifying both, the autocorrelation strength and the probability distribution of the data extracted from the generating processes. Two examples are presented, one from climate change model and the other from financial markets.

  20. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  1. An index for quantifying flocking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quera, Vicenç; Herrando, Salvador; Beltran, Francesc S; Salas, Laura; Miñano, Meritxell

    2007-12-01

    One of the classic research topics in adaptive behavior is the collective displacement of groups of organisms such as flocks of birds, schools of fish, herds of mammals, and crowds of people. However, most agent-based simulations of group behavior do not provide a quantitative index for determining the point at which the flock emerges. An index was developed of the aggregation of moving individuals in a flock and an example was provided of how it can be used to quantify the degree to which a group of moving individuals actually forms a flock.

  2. QUANTIFYING KINEMATIC SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE MILKY WAY'S STELLAR HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Xiangxiang; Zhao Gang; Luo Ali; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Kang, Xi; Liu, Chao; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Bullock, James S.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Morrison, Heather; Rockosi, Constance; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2011-01-01

    We present and analyze the positions, distances, and radial velocities for over 4000 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the Milky Way's halo, drawn from SDSS DR8. We search for position-velocity substructure in these data, a signature of the hierarchical assembly of the stellar halo. Using a cumulative 'close pair distribution' as a statistic in the four-dimensional space of sky position, distance, and velocity, we quantify the presence of position-velocity substructure at high statistical significance among the BHB stars: pairs of BHB stars that are close in position on the sky tend to have more similar distances and radial velocities compared to a random sampling of these overall distributions. We make analogous mock observations of 11 numerical halo formation simulations, in which the stellar halo is entirely composed of disrupted satellite debris, and find a level of substructure comparable to that seen in the actually observed BHB star sample. This result quantitatively confirms the hierarchical build-up of the stellar halo through a signature in phase (position-velocity) space. In detail, the structure present in the BHB stars is somewhat less prominent than that seen in most simulated halos, quite possibly because BHB stars represent an older sub-population. BHB stars located beyond 20 kpc from the Galactic center exhibit stronger substructure than at r gc < 20 kpc.

  3. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  4. Pressure cylinders under fire condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pressure cylinders under fire conditions significantly increases the risk rate for the intervening persons. It is considerably problematic to predict the pressure cylinders behaviour during heat exposition, its destruction progress and possible following explosion of the produced air–gas mixture because pressure cylinders and its environment generate a highly complicated dynamic system during an uncontrolled destruction. The large scale tests carried out by the Pilsen Fire and Rescue Department and the Rapid Response Unit of the Czech Republic Police in October 2012 and in May 2014 in the Military area Brdy and in the area of the former Lachema factory in Kaznějov had several objectives, namely, to record, qualify and quantify some of the aspects of an uncontrolled heat destruction procedure of an exposed pressure cylinder in an enclosed space and to qualify and describe the process of a controlled destruction of a pressure cylinder by shooting through it including basic tactical concepts. The article describes the experiments that were carried out.

  5. Transition to Sustainability: Science Support Through Characterizing and Quantifying Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Hans-Peter; Jules-Plag, Shelley

    2013-04-01

    , impediments, and interconnections of conditions and processes (such as the food-water-energy nexus). Who are the stakeholders that need sustainability knowledge for policy and decision making and how can we ensure (e.g., through co-design and co-creation of knowledge) that research is providing what these stakeholders need? What are the 'frontlines' of the sustainability crisis (e.g., the coastal zones; urban sprawl; global interdependency of the economic system; disasters)? What metrics do we have to measure sustainability in s2e? We could agree on a minimal set of sustainability characteristics and aim to quantify these, including disaster risk, resilience, adaptive capabilities, and livelihood. We have many data sets but discoverability, accessibility, interoperability are often low and data sharing remains an issue. Consequently, we have very few s2e sustainability indicators, and unlike in the cockpit of an airplane, the knowledge of what the 'red lights' are is limited. Nevertheless, on a reengineered planet, for which the past is a poor analogue for the future and predictability of planetary trajectories is limited, we are rapidly transforming social and economic conditions and are creating interdependencies that reduce resilience and increase the probability of disasters, including those with the characteristics of "Black Swans." How can science support planning for sustainability in the s2e context? We have to ask whether we know the s2e system well enough to decide on the nature of the support. We need to know the global and local boundaries of our "safe operational space," but this is not enough. If the s2e system is in "mediocristan" deterministic prediction-based planning makes sense and science can focus on predictions. However, if the s2e system is in "extremistan," adaptive, proactive, risk- and evidence-based governance is required. In this case, science support has to explore the range of possible system trajectories, provide hazard probabilities and

  6. Ion accelerators for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodrian, R.J.; Potvin, L.

    1991-01-01

    The main purpose of the accelerators is to allow ion implantation in space stations and their neighborhoods. There are several applications of interest immediately useful in such environment: as ion engines and thrusters, as implanters for material science and for hardening of surfaces (relevant to improve resistance to micrometeorite bombardment of exposed external components), production of man made alloys, etc. The microgravity environment of space stations allows the production of substances (crystalline and amorphous) under conditions unknown on earth, leading to special materials. Ion implantation in situ of those materials would thus lead uninterruptedly to new substances. Accelerators for space require special design. On the one hand it is possible to forego vacuum systems simplifying the design and operation but, on the other hand, it is necessary to pay special attention to heat dissipation. Hence it is necessary to construct a simulator in vacuum to properly test prototypes under conditions prevailing in space

  7. A Generalizable Methodology for Quantifying User Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Te-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Huang, Polly; Lei, Chin-Laung

    Quantifying user satisfaction is essential, because the results can help service providers deliver better services. In this work, we propose a generalizable methodology, based on survival analysis, to quantify user satisfaction in terms of session times, i. e., the length of time users stay with an application. Unlike subjective human surveys, our methodology is based solely on passive measurement, which is more cost-efficient and better able to capture subconscious reactions. Furthermore, by using session times, rather than a specific performance indicator, such as the level of distortion of voice signals, the effects of other factors like loudness and sidetone, can also be captured by the developed models. Like survival analysis, our methodology is characterized by low complexity and a simple model-developing process. The feasibility of our methodology is demonstrated through case studies of ShenZhou Online, a commercial MMORPG in Taiwan, and the most prevalent VoIP application in the world, namely Skype. Through the model development process, we can also identify the most significant performance factors and their impacts on user satisfaction and discuss how they can be exploited to improve user experience and optimize resource allocation.

  8. Quantifying the efficiency of river regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rödel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dam-affected hydrologic time series give rise to uncertainties when they are used for calibrating large-scale hydrologic models or for analysing runoff records. It is therefore necessary to identify and to quantify the impact of impoundments on runoff time series. Two different approaches were employed. The first, classic approach compares the volume of the dams that are located upstream from a station with the annual discharge. The catchment areas of the stations are calculated and then related to geo-referenced dam attributes. The paper introduces a data set of geo-referenced dams linked with 677 gauging stations in Europe. Second, the intensity of the impoundment impact on runoff times series can be quantified more exactly and directly when long-term runoff records are available. Dams cause a change in the variability of flow regimes. This effect can be measured using the model of linear single storage. The dam-caused storage change ΔS can be assessed through the volume of the emptying process between two flow regimes. As an example, the storage change ΔS is calculated for regulated long-term series of the Luleälven in northern Sweden.

  9. Quantifying meta-correlations in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Preis, Tobias; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2012-08-01

    Financial markets are modular multi-level systems, in which the relationships between the individual components are not constant in time. Sudden changes in these relationships significantly affect the stability of the entire system, and vice versa. Our analysis is based on historical daily closing prices of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) from March 15th, 1939 until December 31st, 2010. We quantify the correlation among these components by determining Pearson correlation coefficients, to investigate whether mean correlation of the entire portfolio can be used as a precursor for changes in the index return. To this end, we quantify the meta-correlation - the correlation of mean correlation and index return. We find that changes in index returns are significantly correlated with changes in mean correlation. Furthermore, we study the relationship between the index return and correlation volatility - the standard deviation of correlations for a given time interval. This parameter provides further evidence of the effect of the index on market correlations and their fluctuations. Our empirical findings provide new information and quantification of the index leverage effect, and have implications to risk management, portfolio optimization, and to the increased stability of financial markets.

  10. Strategy and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    in different periods and how these strategies can be related to the general conditions of the corporation. The strategic uncertainty of the corporation is investigated as a main determining factor for changes in space strategy based on theories of the relations between strategy and place. These theories......The article is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been implemented...... include that corporations follows one of the three generic space strategies: Incrementalism, standardization, and value-based strategy. Among the conclusion are, that the space strategies mostly changes between incremental and value-based strategies, but one period of standardization was identified...

  11. Certain Verbs Are Syntactically Explicit Quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szabolcsi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantification over individuals, times, and worlds can in principle be made explicit in the syntax of the object language, or left to the semantics and spelled out in the meta-language. The traditional view is that quantification over individuals is syntactically explicit, whereas quantification over times and worlds is not. But a growing body of literature proposes a uniform treatment. This paper examines the scopal interaction of aspectual raising verbs (begin, modals (can, and intensional raising verbs (threaten with quantificational subjects in Shupamem, Dutch, and English. It appears that aspectual raising verbs and at least modals may undergo the same kind of overt or covert scope-changing operations as nominal quantifiers; the case of intensional raising verbs is less clear. Scope interaction is thus shown to be a new potential diagnostic of object-linguistic quantification, and the similarity in the scope behavior of nominal and verbal quantifiers supports the grammatical plausibility of ontological symmetry, explored in Schlenker (2006.ReferencesBen-Shalom, D. 1996. Semantic Trees. Ph.D. thesis, UCLA.Bittner, M. 1993. Case, Scope, and Binding. Dordrecht: Reidel.Cresswell, M. 1990. Entities and Indices. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Cresti, D. 1995. ‘Extraction and reconstruction’. Natural Language Semantics 3: 79–122.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01252885Curry, B. H. & Feys, R. 1958. Combinatory Logic I. Dordrecht: North-Holland.Dowty, D. R. 1988. ‘Type raising, functional composition, and non-constituent conjunction’. In Richard T. Oehrle, Emmon W. Bach & Deirdre Wheeler (eds. ‘Categorial Grammars and Natural Language Structures’, 153–197. Dordrecht: Reidel.Fox, D. 2002. ‘TOn Logical Form’. In Randall Hendrick (ed. ‘Minimalist Syntax’, 82–124. Oxford: Blackwell.Gallin, D. 1975. Intensional and higher-order modal logic: with applications to Montague semantics. North Holland Pub. Co.; American Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam

  12. Quantifying multiscale porosity and fracture aperture distribution in granite cores using computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Quinn; Madonna, Claudio; Joss, Lisa; Pini, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of porosity and fracture (aperture) distribution is key towards a sound description of fluid transport in low-permeability rocks. In the context of geothermal energy development, the ability to quantify the transport properties of fractures is needed to in turn quantify the rate of heat transfer, and, accordingly, to optimize the engineering design of the operation. In this context, core-flooding experiments coupled with non-invasive imaging techniques (e.g., X-Ray Computed Tomography - X-Ray CT) represent a powerful tool for making direct observations of these properties under representative geologic conditions. This study focuses on quantifying porosity and fracture aperture distribution in a fractured westerly granite core by using two recently developed experimental protocols. The latter include the use of a highly attenuating gas [Vega et al., 2014] and the application of the so-called missing CT attenuation method [Huo et al., 2016] to produce multidimensional maps of the pore space and of the fractures. Prior to the imaging experiments, the westerly granite core (diameter: 5 cm, length: 10 cm) was thermally shocked to induce micro-fractured pore space; this was followed by the application of the so-called Brazilian method to induce a macroscopic fracture along the length of the core. The sample was then mounted in a high-pressure aluminum core-holder, exposed to a confining pressure and placed inside a medical CT scanner for imaging. An initial compressive pressure cycle was performed to remove weak asperities and reduce the hysteretic behavior of the fracture with respect to effective pressure. The CT scans were acquired at room temperature and 0.5, 5, 7, and 10 MPa effective pressure under loading and unloading conditions. During scanning the pore fluid pressure was undrained and constant, and the confining pressure was regulated at the desired pressure with a high precision pump. Highly transmissible krypton and helium gases were used as

  13. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  14. Wireless Heart Patients and the Quantified Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grew, Julie Christina; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2017-01-01

    Remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients links patients wirelessly to the clinic via a box in their bedroom. The box transmits data from the ICD to a remote database accessible to clinicians without patient involvement. Data travel across time and space; clinicia...

  15. Features of Duration and Borders of the Bedding of Snow Cover in the Conditions of Climatic Changes in the Territory of Northern Kazakhstan According to Land and Space Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikov, Vitaliy; Turulina, Galina; Polyakova, Svetlana; Muratova, Nadiya; Kauazov, Azamat; Abugalieva, Aigul; Tazhibayeva, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Precipitation and air temperature datasets from 34 meteorological stations were analyzed to reveal the regional climate changes at the territory in North Kazakhstan over the last 58 years (i.e., 1950-2008). Peculiarities and conditions of snow cover formation and melting have been analyzed at territory of Northern Kazakhstan using surface and space monitoring data. Methods of both the geo-informational processing of remote probing data and statistical processing of databases on snow cover, air temperature and precipitations have been used. Analysis of snow cover observations data for territory of Northern Kazakhstan has shown that the stable snow cover might be observed since the middle of November till the beginning of April. In a few last decades the tendency is observed for longevity decrease of snow cover bedding that appears to be on the background air temperature increase and insignificant increase of cold period precipitations due to the later bedding of the snow cover and its earlier destruction. Peculiarities of atmospheric circulation in Atlantic-Eurasian sector of Northern Semi sphere and their influence of formation of snow cover at territory of Northern Kazakhstan. The higher longevity of the snow cover bedding is defined by the predominance of E form circulation and lower longevity - by the predominance of W+C circulation form. Analysis conducted of the highest height of snow cover bedding has shown that for period of 1936-2012 in the most cases the statistically reliable decreasing trends are observed with the linear trend coefficients of 0,50 - 0,60 cm/year. The method is offered for determination of probable characteristics of the snow cover decade height. Using data of space monitoring are allocated the frontiers of snow cover bedding for the period of snow melting 1982-2008 and the snow cover melting maps are developed. The results further confirm the proposition that snow cover availability is an important and limiting factor in the generation

  16. Quantifying potential recharge in mantled sinkholes using ERT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin F; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2009-01-01

    Potential recharge through thick soils in mantled sinkholes was quantified using differential electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Conversion of time series two-dimensional (2D) ERT profiles into 2D volumetric water content profiles using a numerically optimized form of Archie's law allowed us to monitor temporal changes in water content in soil profiles up to 9 m in depth. Combining Penman-Monteith daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) and daily precipitation data with potential recharge calculations for three sinkhole transects indicates that potential recharge occurred only during brief intervals over the study period and ranged from 19% to 31% of cumulative precipitation. Spatial analysis of ERT-derived water content showed that infiltration occurred both on sinkhole flanks and in sinkhole bottoms. Results also demonstrate that mantled sinkholes can act as regions of both rapid and slow recharge. Rapid recharge is likely the result of flow through macropores (such as root casts and thin gravel layers), while slow recharge is the result of unsaturated flow through fine-grained sediments. In addition to developing a new method for quantifying potential recharge at the field scale in unsaturated conditions, we show that mantled sinkholes are an important component of storage in a karst system.

  17. Quantifying facial paralysis using the Kinect v2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Amira; Taher, Mona F; Wahed, Manal Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of facial paralysis (FP) and quantitative grading of facial asymmetry are essential in order to quantify the extent of the condition as well as to follow its improvement or progression. As such, there is a need for an accurate quantitative grading system that is easy to use, inexpensive and has minimal inter-observer variability. A comprehensive automated system to quantify and grade FP is the main objective of this work. An initial prototype has been presented by the authors. The present research aims to enhance the accuracy and robustness of one of this system's modules: the resting symmetry module. This is achieved by including several modifications to the computation method of the symmetry index (SI) for the eyebrows, eyes and mouth. These modifications are the gamma correction technique, the area of the eyes, and the slope of the mouth. The system was tested on normal subjects and showed promising results. The mean SI of the eyebrows decreased slightly from 98.42% to 98.04% using the modified method while the mean SI for the eyes and mouth increased from 96.93% to 99.63% and from 95.6% to 98.11% respectively while using the modified method. The system is easy to use, inexpensive, automated and fast, has no inter-observer variability and is thus well suited for clinical use.

  18. A kernel plus method for quantifying wind turbine performance upgrades

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2014-04-21

    Power curves are commonly estimated using the binning method recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, which primarily incorporates wind speed information. When such power curves are used to quantify a turbine\\'s upgrade, the results may not be accurate because many other environmental factors in addition to wind speed, such as temperature, air pressure, turbulence intensity, wind shear and humidity, all potentially affect the turbine\\'s power output. Wind industry practitioners are aware of the need to filter out effects from environmental conditions. Toward that objective, we developed a kernel plus method that allows incorporation of multivariate environmental factors in a power curve model, thereby controlling the effects from environmental factors while comparing power outputs. We demonstrate that the kernel plus method can serve as a useful tool for quantifying a turbine\\'s upgrade because it is sensitive to small and moderate changes caused by certain turbine upgrades. Although we demonstrate the utility of the kernel plus method in this specific application, the resulting method is a general, multivariate model that can connect other physical factors, as long as their measurements are available, with a turbine\\'s power output, which may allow us to explore new physical properties associated with wind turbine performance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  20. Quantifying Construction Site Sediment Discharge Risk and Treatment Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, L.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Dealing with soil erosion and sediment transport can be a significant challenge during the construction process due to the potentially large spatial and temporal extent and conditions of bare soils. Best Management Practices (BMP) are commonly used to eliminate or reduce offsite discharge of sediment. However, few efforts have investigated the time varying risk of sediment discharge from construction sites, which often have dynamic soil conditions and the potential for less than optimal BMP installations. The goal of this research is to improve the design, implementation and effectiveness of sediment and erosion control at construction sites using site specific, temporal distributions of sediment discharge risk. Sediment risk is determined from individual factors leading to sediment expert, such as rainfall frequency, the adequacy of BMP installations, and the extent and duration of bare soil conditions. This research specifically focuses on quantifying: (a) the effectiveness of temporary sediment and control erosion control BMPs in preventing, containing, and/or treating construction site sediment discharge at varying levels of "proper" installation, and (b) sediment discharge potential from construction sites during different phases of construction, (ex., disturbed earth operations). BMPs are evaluated at selected construction sites in southern California and at the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL) in the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University. SERL experiments are performed on a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 meter, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). BMP performance is assessed based on experiments where BMPs are installed per manufacture specifications, potential less than optimal installations, and no treatment conditions. Soil conditions are also varied to represent site conditions during different phases of construction (i.e., loose lifts

  1. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  2. Towards Quantifying a Wider Reality: Shannon Exonerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Ulanowicz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1872 Ludwig von Boltzmann derived a statistical formula to represent the entropy (an apophasis of a highly simplistic system. In 1948 Claude Shannon independently formulated the same expression to capture the positivist essence of information. Such contradictory thrusts engendered decades of ambiguity concerning exactly what is conveyed by the expression. Resolution of widespread confusion is possible by invoking the third law of thermodynamics, which requires that entropy be treated in a relativistic fashion. Doing so parses the Boltzmann expression into separate terms that segregate apophatic entropy from positivist information. Possibly more importantly, the decomposition itself portrays a dialectic-like agonism between constraint and disorder that may provide a more appropriate description of the behavior of living systems than is possible using conventional dynamics. By quantifying the apophatic side of evolution, the Shannon approach to information achieves what no other treatment of the subject affords: It opens the window on a more encompassing perception of reality.

  3. Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers

  4. Crowdsourcing for quantifying transcripts: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Harman, Elena

    2016-02-01

    This exploratory study attempts to demonstrate the potential utility of crowdsourcing as a supplemental technique for quantifying transcribed interviews. Crowdsourcing is the harnessing of the abilities of many people to complete a specific task or a set of tasks. In this study multiple samples of crowdsourced individuals were asked to rate and select supporting quotes from two different transcripts. The findings indicate that the different crowdsourced samples produced nearly identical ratings of the transcripts, and were able to consistently select the same supporting text from the transcripts. These findings suggest that crowdsourcing, with further development, can potentially be used as a mixed method tool to offer a supplemental perspective on transcribed interviews. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Animal biometrics: quantifying and detecting phenotypic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Burghardt, Tilo

    2013-07-01

    Animal biometrics is an emerging field that develops quantified approaches for representing and detecting the phenotypic appearance of species, individuals, behaviors, and morphological traits. It operates at the intersection between pattern recognition, ecology, and information sciences, producing computerized systems for phenotypic measurement and interpretation. Animal biometrics can benefit a wide range of disciplines, including biogeography, population ecology, and behavioral research. Currently, real-world applications are gaining momentum, augmenting the quantity and quality of ecological data collection and processing. However, to advance animal biometrics will require integration of methodologies among the scientific disciplines involved. Such efforts will be worthwhile because the great potential of this approach rests with the formal abstraction of phenomics, to create tractable interfaces between different organizational levels of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Riber, C.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    material used amounting to 19,000–26,000tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000MWh. In terms of the environmental burden...... that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted.......Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main...

  7. Pendulum Underwater - An Approach for Quantifying Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, José Costa; Oliveira, Agostinho

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the experiment presented in this paper is to quantify the viscosity of a liquid. Viscous effects are important in the flow of fluids in pipes, in the bloodstream, in the lubrication of engine parts, and in many other situations. In the present paper, the authors explore the oscillations of a physical pendulum in the form of a long and lightweight wire that carries a ball at its lower end, which is totally immersed in water, so as to determine the water viscosity. The system used represents a viscous damped pendulum and we tried different theoretical models to describe it. The experimental part of the present paper is based on a very simple and low-cost image capturing apparatus that can easily be replicated in a physics classroom. Data on the pendulum's amplitude as a function of time were acquired using digital video analysis with the open source software Tracker.

  8. Quantifying gait patterns in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mónica; Atehortúa, Angélica; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is constituted by a set of motor symptoms, namely tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, which are usually described but not quantified. This work proposes an objective characterization of PD gait patterns by approximating the single stance phase a single grounded pendulum. This model estimates the force generated by the gait during the single support from gait data. This force describes the motion pattern for different stages of the disease. The model was validated using recorded videos of 8 young control subjects, 10 old control subjects and 10 subjects with Parkinson's disease in different stages. The estimated force showed differences among stages of Parkinson disease, observing a decrease of the estimated force for the advanced stages of this illness.

  9. Quantifying brain microstructure with diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Dmitry S.; Jespersen, Sune N.; Kiselev, Valerij G.

    2016-01-01

    the potential to quantify the relevant length scales for neuronal tissue, such as the packing correlation length for neuronal fibers, the degree of neuronal beading, and compartment sizes. The second avenue corresponds to the long-time limit, when the observed signal can be approximated as a sum of multiple non......-exchanging anisotropic Gaussian components. Here the challenge lies in parameter estimation and in resolving its hidden degeneracies. The third avenue employs multiple diffusion encoding techniques, able to access information not contained in the conventional diffusion propagator. We conclude with our outlook...... on the future research directions which can open exciting possibilities for developing markers of pathology and development based on methods of studying mesoscopic transport in disordered systems....

  10. Quantifying Temporal Genomic Erosion in Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Del-Molino, David; Sánchez-Barreiro, Fatima; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Dalén, Love

    2018-03-01

    Many species have undergone dramatic population size declines over the past centuries. Although stochastic genetic processes during and after such declines are thought to elevate the risk of extinction, comparative analyses of genomic data from several endangered species suggest little concordance between genome-wide diversity and current population sizes. This is likely because species-specific life-history traits and ancient bottlenecks overshadow the genetic effect of recent demographic declines. Therefore, we advocate that temporal sampling of genomic data provides a more accurate approach to quantify genetic threats in endangered species. Specifically, genomic data from predecline museum specimens will provide valuable baseline data that enable accurate estimation of recent decreases in genome-wide diversity, increases in inbreeding levels, and accumulation of deleterious genetic variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extraction of quantifiable information from complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dahmen, Wolfgang; Griebel, Michael; Hackbusch, Wolfgang; Ritter, Klaus; Schneider, Reinhold; Schwab, Christoph; Yserentant, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In April 2007, the  Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) approved the  Priority Program 1324 “Mathematical Methods for Extracting Quantifiable Information from Complex Systems.” This volume presents a comprehensive overview of the most important results obtained over the course of the program.   Mathematical models of complex systems provide the foundation for further technological developments in science, engineering and computational finance.  Motivated by the trend toward steadily increasing computer power, ever more realistic models have been developed in recent years. These models have also become increasingly complex, and their numerical treatment poses serious challenges.   Recent developments in mathematics suggest that, in the long run, much more powerful numerical solution strategies could be derived if the interconnections between the different fields of research were systematically exploited at a conceptual level. Accordingly, a deeper understanding of the mathematical foundations as w...

  12. Quantifying the evolution of individual scientific impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Roberta; Wang, Dashun; Deville, Pierre; Song, Chaoming; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-11-04

    Despite the frequent use of numerous quantitative indicators to gauge the professional impact of a scientist, little is known about how scientific impact emerges and evolves in time. Here, we quantify the changes in impact and productivity throughout a career in science, finding that impact, as measured by influential publications, is distributed randomly within a scientist's sequence of publications. This random-impact rule allows us to formulate a stochastic model that uncouples the effects of productivity, individual ability, and luck and unveils the existence of universal patterns governing the emergence of scientific success. The model assigns a unique individual parameter Q to each scientist, which is stable during a career, and it accurately predicts the evolution of a scientist's impact, from the h-index to cumulative citations, and independent recognitions, such as prizes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Quantifying creativity: can measures span the spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-03-01

    Because the cognitive neuroscientists have become increasingly interested in the phenomenon of creativity, the issue arises of how creativity is to be optimally measured. Unlike intelligence, which can be assessed across the full range of intellectual ability creativity measures tend to concentrate on different sections of the overall spectrum. After first defining creativity in terms of the three criteria of novelty, usefulness, and surprise, this article provides an overview of the available measures. Not only do these instruments vary according to whether they focus on the creative process, person, or product, but they differ regarding whether they tap into "little-c" versus "Big-C" creativity; only productivity and eminence measures reach into genius-level manifestations of the phenomenon. The article closes by discussing whether various alternative assessment techniques can be integrated into a single measure that quantifies creativity across the full spectrum.

  14. Socio-Economic Impacts of Space Weather and User Needs for Space Weather Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worman, S. L.; Taylor, S. M.; Onsager, T. G.; Adkins, J. E.; Baker, D. N.; Forbes, K. F.

    2017-12-01

    The 2015 National Space Weather Strategy and Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) details the activities, outcomes, and timelines to build a "Space Weather Ready Nation." NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and Abt Associates are working together on two SWAP initiatives: (1) identifying, describing, and quantifying the socio-economic impacts of moderate and severe space weather; and (2) outreach to engineers and operators to better understand user requirements for space weather products and services. Both studies cover four technological sectors (electric power, commercial aviation, satellites, and GNSS users) and rely heavily on industry input. Findings from both studies are essential for decreasing vulnerabilities and enhancing preparedness.

  15. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogaard, L.K.; Riber, C.; Christensen, T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Materials and energy used for the construction of waste incinerators were quantified. • The data was collected from five incineration plants in Scandinavia. • Included were six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. • The capital goods contributed 2–3% compared to the direct emissions impact on GW. - Abstract: Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000–26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14 kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted

  16. Otimização das condições de pré-redução do As(V em extratos do método BCR para quantificação de arsênio por HG-AAS Optimization of pre-reduction conditions of as(V in BCR extracts to quantify arsenic by HG-AAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vinícius Vieira Varejão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A determinação de As por espectrometria de absorção atômica com geração de hidretos (HG-AAS constitui um método simples, sensível, preciso e de baixo custo. Entretanto, essa técnica requer a pré-redução das espécies de As(V, o que se obtém através do uso de agentes redutores como o KI. Em extratos contendo agentes oxidantes, a pré-redução do As é comprometida, como acontece em extratos obtidos pela aplicação do método BCR (acrônimo francês para Community Bureau of Reference para a extração sequencial de As em sedimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as condições de redução do As(V a As(III, de modo a permitir o uso da HG-AAS para a quantificação do arsênio em extratos obtidos a partir do método BCR. Foram avaliadas condições reacionais utilizando KI, L-cisteína e ácido ascórbico. Para cada uma das etapas de extração do método BCR, diferentes condições de pré-redução possibilitaram a detecção quantitativa do As presente. O uso do método BCR para a extração de arsênio em amostras de sedimentos contaminadas e a aplicação das condições de pré-redução do As(V selecionadas, seguida pela detecção por HG-AAS, forneceram percentagens de recuperação entre 91 e 99 %.The determination of As by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy (HG-AAS is a simple, sensitive, precise and low-cost method. However, this technique requires the pre-reduction of the existing As(V species, which is obtained by the use of reducing agents such as KI. In extracts containing oxidizing agents, the pre-reduction of As is impaired, as it occurs in extracts obtained by the BCR (French acronym for Community Bureau of Reference method for the sequential extraction of As in sediments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the conditions for the reduction of As(V to As(III in a way that allows the use of HG-AAS for the quantification of arsenic in extracts obtained using the BCR method. Reaction

  17. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared – Part 3: Quantification of the mid- and near-infrared water vapor continuum in the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range under atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Reichert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a first quantification of the near-infrared (NIR water vapor continuum absorption from an atmospheric radiative closure experiment carried out at the Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E; 2964 m a.s.l.. Continuum quantification is achieved via radiative closure using radiometrically calibrated solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR absorption spectra covering the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range. The dry atmospheric conditions at the Zugspitze site (IWV 1.4 to 3.3 mm enable continuum quantification even within water vapor absorption bands, while upper limits for continuum absorption can be provided in the centers of window regions. Throughout 75 % of the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range, the Zugspitze results agree within our estimated uncertainty with the widely used MT_CKD 2.5.2 model (Mlawer et al., 2012. In the wings of water vapor absorption bands, our measurements indicate about 2–5 times stronger continuum absorption than MT_CKD, namely in the 2800 to 3000 cm−1 and 4100 to 4200 cm−1 spectral ranges. The measurements are consistent with the laboratory measurements of Mondelain et al. (2015, which rely on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CDRS, and the calorimetric–interferometric measurements of Bicknell et al. (2006. Compared to the recent FTIR laboratory studies of Ptashnik et al. (2012, 2013, our measurements are consistent within the estimated errors throughout most of the spectral range. However, in the wings of water vapor absorption bands our measurements indicate typically 2–3 times weaker continuum absorption under atmospheric conditions, namely in the 3200 to 3400, 4050 to 4200, and 6950 to 7050 cm−1 spectral regions.

  18. Origen de los Espacios Públicos en Valparaíso: el discurso higienista y las condiciones ambientales en el siglo XIX. / Origin of Valparaiso Public Spaces: Discourse hygienist and environmental conditions in the nineteenth century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez A., Luis

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Los Espacios Públicos en Valparaíso son producto de una domesticación paulatina del medio natural, dando origen a la habitabilidad de fines del s. XVI, las reservas de agua dulce y la explotación de la vegetación para obtener leña como energía, lo que determina la adecuación del paisaje original al menos durante dos siglos. El aumento de la población, y sus actividades, demandaron mayores volúmenes de recursos (agua y energía, obligando el desplazamiento y posterior degradación del espacio natural circundante. Este abandono, asociado a las condiciones de insalubridad fuertemente documentadas a fines del siglo XVIII, como plagas de parásitos, y las epidemias recurrentes a mediados del s. XIX, deterioró gravemente el ambiente./The public spaces in Valparaíso are a result of a gradual taming of the natural environment, giving rise to habitability towards the end of the 16th century, freshwater reserves and the exploitation of vegetation for firewood, thus determining the adaptation of the landscape during at least two centuries. The growth in population and activity demanded greater quantities of resources (water and energy, obliging the displacement and posterior degradation of the surrounding natural areas. This abandonment, associated with the well – documented unhealthy conditions such as plagues of parasites in the latter part of the 18th and the recurring epidemics of the middle of the 19th century, seriously deteriorated the environment.

  19. The Dependence of Cirrus Gamma Size Distributions Expressed as Volumes in N(sub 0)-Lambda-Mu Phase Space and Bulk Cloud Properties on Environmental Conditions: Results from the Small Ice Particles in Cirrus Experiment (SPARTICUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert C.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The variability of cirrus ice microphysical properties is investigated using observations obtained during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) campaign. An existing approach that represents a size distribution (SD) as a single gamma function using an ellipsoid of equally realizable solutions in (N(sub 0), lambda, mu) phase space is modified to automatically identify multiple modes in SDs and characterize each mode by such an ellipsoid. The modified approach is applied to ice crystals with maximum dimension D greater than15 micrometers collected by the 2-D stereo and 2-D precipitation probes on the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet. The dependencies of N(sub 0), mu, and lambda from each mode, total number concentration, bulk extinction, ice water content (IWC), and mass median maximum dimension D(sub mm) as a function of temperature T and cirrus type are then analyzed. The changes in the observed codependencies between N(sub 0), mu, and lambda, bulk extinction, IWC, and D(sub mm) with environmental conditions indicate that particles were larger at higher T during SPARTICUS. At most two modes were observed in any SD during SPARTICUS, with the average boundary between them at 115 micrometers, similar to past studies not using probes with shatter mitigating tips and artifact removal algorithms. The bimodality of the SDs increased with T. This and the differences in N(sub 0), mu, and lambda between the modes suggest that particles with smaller D nucleated more recently than particles with larger D, which grew via vapor deposition and aggregation. Because smaller crystals, whose concentrations are uncertain, make marginal contributions to higher order moments, the use of higher moments for evaluating model fields is suggested.

  20. Quantifying intrinsic quality of commercial varieties of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, M.A.; Salim, M.; Siddiqui, H.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve quality-trait of five commercial varieties of Basmati rice viz: Basmati 370, Basmati 385, Basmati 198, Basmati 6129 and Super Basmati, were determined according to standard methods. Under existing conditions, it is very difficult to assess overall quality of Basmati rice-varieties, because if a variety is superior in one quality trait, it is inferior in another quality trait, to some other Basmati rice variety, which creates confusion. In order to determine the overall quality-status, we have made an effort to quantify the various quality-traits. Each quality-trait has been allotted a score, in terms of its importance, and the overall status of each variety is computed. Based on our estimation, Super Basmati is of highest quality (98.21%), followed by Basmati 6129 (96.46%), Basmati 370 (95.59%), Basmati 385 (95.26%) and Basmati 198 (92.95%). (author)

  1. Quantified risk assessment for hazardous industry: The Australian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the key conceptual and methodological aspects of Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) and Hazard Analysis techniques as applied in the process industry, mostly in New South Wales, Australia. Variations in the range of applications of the techniques between the nuclear and non-nuclear industries are highlighted. The opportunity is taken to discuss cur-rent and future issues and trends concerning QRA, including: uncertainties and limitations; acceptability of risk criteria; toxicity and chronic health effects; new technology; modelling topics; and, environmental risk. The paper concludes by indicating that the next generation QRA, as applicable to Australian conditions in particular, will benefit from are think in two areas: a multi-level approach to QRA, and a range of not fully explored applications

  2. Quantified risk assessment for hazardous industry: the Australian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the key conceptual and methodological aspects of Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) and Hazard Analysis techniques as applied in the process industry, mostly in New South Wales, Australia. Variations in the range of applications of the techniques between the nuclear and non-nuclear industries are highlighted. The opportunity is taken to discuss current and future issues and trends concerning QRA, including: uncertainties and limitations; acceptability of risk criteria; toxicity and chronic health effects; new technology; modelling topics; and environmental risk. The paper concludes by indicating that the next generation QRA, as applicable to Australian conditions in particular, will benefit from a rethink in two areas: a multi-level approach to QRA, and a range of not fully explored applications. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Quantifying population genetic differentiation from next-generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand

    2013-01-01

    method for quantifying population genetic differentiation from next-generation sequencing data. In addition, we present a strategy to investigate population structure via Principal Components Analysis. Through extensive simulations, we compare the new method herein proposed to approaches based...... on genotype calling and demonstrate a marked improvement in estimation accuracy for a wide range of conditions. We apply the method to a large-scale genomic data set of domesticated and wild silkworms sequenced at low coverage. We find that we can infer the fine-scale genetic structure of the sampled......Over the last few years, new high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically increased speed and reduced sequencing costs. However, the use of these sequencing technologies is often challenged by errors and biases associated with the bioinformatical methods used for analyzing the data...

  4. Landsat 8 and ICESat-2: Performance and potential synergies for quantifying dryland ecosystem vegetation cover and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nancy F.; Neuenschwander, Amy; Vierling, Lee A.; Spaete, Lucas; Li, Aihua; Shinneman, Douglas; Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert; McIlroy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The Landsat 8 mission provides new opportunities for quantifying the distribution of above-ground carbon at moderate spatial resolution across the globe, and in particular drylands. Furthermore, coupled with structural information from space-based and airborne laser altimetry, Landsat 8 provides powerful capabilities for large-area, long-term studies that quantify temporal and spatial changes in above-ground biomass and cover. With the planned launch of ICESat-2 in 2017 and thus the potential to couple Landsat 8 and ICESat-2 data, we have unprecedented opportunities to address key challenges in drylands, including quantifying fuel loads, habitat quality, biodiversity, carbon cycling, and desertification.

  5. Using nonlocal coherence to quantify quantum correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Pei; Wang, Wei; Li, Chong; Song, He-Shan

    2010-01-01

    We reexamine quantum correlation from the fundamental perspective of its consanguineous quantum property, the coherence. We emphasize the importance of specifying the tensor product structure of the total state space before discussing quantum correlation. A measure of quantum correlation for arbitrary dimension bipartite states using nonlocal coherence is proposed, and it can be easily generalized to the multipartite case. The quantification of non-entangled component within quantum correlati...

  6. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  7. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  8. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  9. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  10. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  11. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  12. Medical Optimization Network for Space Telemedicine Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. V.; Mulcahy, R.; Rubin, D.; Antonsen, E. L.; Kerstman, E. L.; Reyes, D.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long-duration missions beyond low Earth orbit introduce new constraints to the space medical system such as the inability to evacuate to Earth, communication delays, and limitations in clinical skillsets. NASA recognizes the need to improve capabilities for autonomous care on such missions. As the medical system is developed, it is important to have an ability to evaluate the trade space of what resources will be most important. The Medical Optimization Network for Space Telemedicine Resources was developed for this reason, and is now a system to gauge the relative importance of medical resources in addressing medical conditions. METHODS: A list of medical conditions of potential concern for an exploration mission was referenced from the Integrated Medical Model, a probabilistic model designed to quantify in-flight medical risk. The diagnostic and treatment modalities required to address best and worst-case scenarios of each medical condition, at the terrestrial standard of care, were entered into a database. This list included tangible assets (e.g. medications) and intangible assets (e.g. clinical skills to perform a procedure). A team of physicians working within the Exploration Medical Capability Element of NASA's Human Research Program ranked each of the items listed according to its criticality. Data was then obtained from the IMM for the probability of occurrence of the medical conditions, including a breakdown of best case and worst case, during a Mars reference mission. The probability of occurrence information and criticality for each resource were taken into account during analytics performed using Tableau software. RESULTS: A database and weighting system to evaluate all the diagnostic and treatment modalities was created by combining the probability of condition occurrence data with the criticalities assigned by the physician team. DISCUSSION: Exploration Medical Capabilities research at NASA is focused on providing a medical system to

  13. Quantifying uncertainty in nuclear analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of international consensus on the expression of uncertainty in measurements was recognised by the late 1970s and led, after the issuance of a series of rather generic recommendations, to the publication of a general publication, known as GUM, the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. This publication, issued in 1993, was based on co-operation over several years by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the International Electrotechnical Commission, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the Organisation internationale de metrologie legale. The purpose was to promote full information on how uncertainty statements are arrived at and to provide a basis for harmonized reporting and the international comparison of measurement results. The need to provide more specific guidance to different measurement disciplines was soon recognized and the field of analytical chemistry was addressed by EURACHEM in 1995 in the first edition of a guidance report on Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurements, produced by a group of experts from the field. That publication translated the general concepts of the GUM into specific applications for analytical laboratories and illustrated the principles with a series of selected examples as a didactic tool. Based on feedback from the actual practice, the EURACHEM publication was extensively reviewed in 1997-1999 under the auspices of the Co-operation on International Traceability in Analytical Chemistry (CITAC), and a second edition was published in 2000. Still, except for a single example on the measurement of radioactivity in GUM, the field of nuclear and radiochemical measurements was not covered. The explicit requirement of ISO standard 17025:1999, General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration

  14. Quantifying Urban Groundwater in Environmental Field Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Belt, K.; Smith, J. A.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Ryan, R. J.; Yeskis, D.; McGuire, M. P.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the growing footprint of urban landscapes and their impacts on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, comprehensive field studies of urban water budgets are few. The cumulative effects of urban infrastructure (buildings, roads, culverts, storm drains, detention ponds, leaking water supply and wastewater pipe networks) on temporal and spatial patterns of groundwater stores, fluxes, and flowpaths are poorly understood. The goal of this project is to develop expertise and analytical tools for urban groundwater systems that will inform future environmental observatory planning and that can be shared with research teams working in urban environments elsewhere. The work plan for this project draws on a robust set of information resources in Maryland provided by ongoing monitoring efforts of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), USGS, and the U.S. Forest Service working together with university scientists and engineers from multiple institutions. A key concern is to bridge the gap between small-scale intensive field studies and larger-scale and longer-term hydrologic patterns using synoptic field surveys, remote sensing, numerical modeling, data mining and visualization tools. Using the urban water budget as a unifying theme, we are working toward estimating the various elements of the budget in order to quantify the influence of urban infrastructure on groundwater. Efforts include: (1) comparison of base flow behavior from stream gauges in a nested set of watersheds at four different spatial scales from 0.8 to 171 km2, with diverse patterns of impervious cover and urban infrastructure; (2) synoptic survey of well water levels to characterize the regional water table; (3) use of airborne thermal infrared imagery to identify locations of groundwater seepage into streams across a range of urban development patterns; (4) use of seepage transects and tracer tests to quantify the spatial pattern of groundwater fluxes to the drainage network in selected subwatersheds; (5

  15. Integrability and symmetric spaces. II- The coset spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    It shown that a sufficient condition for a model describing the motion of a particle on a coset space to possess a fundamental Poisson bracket relation, and consequently charges involution, is that it must be a symmetric space. The conditions a hamiltonian, or any function of the canonical variables, has to satisfy in order to commute with these charges are studied. It is shown that, for the case of non compact symmetric space, these conditions lead to an algebraic structure which plays an important role in the construction of conserved quantities. (author) [pt

  16. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  17. Quantifying the costs and benefits of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1975-06-01

    A number of principles which have been developed for cost-benefit assessments in the radiation field are applied to the more general cost-benefit assessment of energy production. Sources of energy may be assessed in relation to a reference practice. If this is done for one and the same electricity production, the main objective is to assess detriments in comparable terms. Detriment rates may be integrated in space and time and might also be expressed in equivalent monetary units. Although there are several practical limitations to any theoretical treatment of the problem, the basic principles may form a useful background to more realistic although more complicated approaches to the task. (author)

  18. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  19. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  20. QUANTIFYING LIFE STYLE IMPACT ON LIFESPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Lorenzini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A healthy diet, physical activity and avoiding dangerous habits such as smoking are effective ways of increasing health and lifespan. Although a significant portion of the world's population still suffers from malnutrition, especially children, the most common cause of death in the world today is non-communicable diseases. Overweight and obesity significantly increase the relative risk for the most relevant non communicable diseases: cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and some cancers. Childhood overweight also seems to increase the likelihood of disease in adulthood through epigenetic mechanisms. This worrisome trend now termed "globesity" will deeply impact society unless preventive strategies are put into effect. Researchers of the basic biology of aging have clearly established that animals with short lifespans live longer when their diet is calorie restricted. Although similar experiments carried on rhesus monkeys, a longer-lived species more closely related to humans, yielded mixed results, overall the available scientific data suggest keeping the body mass index in the "normal" range increases the chances of living a longer, healthier life. This can be successfully achieved both by maintaining a healthy diet and by engaging in physical activity. In this review we will try to quantify the relative impact of life style choices on lifespan.

  1. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidig, Mathias; Teeuw, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI). The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this 'proof of concept' study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

  2. Stimfit: quantifying electrophysiological data with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Jose Guzman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular electrophysiological recordings provide crucial insights into elementary neuronal signals such as action potentials and synaptic currents. Analyzing and interpreting these signals is essential for a quantitative understanding of neuronal information processing, and requires both fast data visualization and ready access to complex analysis routines. To achieve this goal, we have developed Stimfit, a free software package for cellular neurophysiology with a Python scripting interface and a built-in Python shell. The program supports most standard file formats for cellular neurophysiology and other biomedical signals through the Biosig library. To quantify and interpret the activity of single neurons and communication between neurons, the program includes algorithms to characterize the kinetics of presynaptic action potentials and postsynaptic currents, estimate latencies between pre- and postsynaptic events, and detect spontaneously occurring events. We validate and benchmark these algorithms, give estimation errors, and provide sample use cases, showing that Stimfit represents an efficient, accessible and extensible way to accurately analyze and interpret neuronal signals.

  3. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluorescence imaging to quantify crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Crop residues, the portion of the crop left in the field after harvest, can be an important management factor in controlling soil erosion. Methods to quantify residue cover are needed that are rapid, accurate, and objective. Scenes with known amounts of crop residue were illuminated with long wave ultraviolet (UV) radiation and fluorescence images were recorded with an intensified video camera fitted with a 453 to 488 nm band pass filter. A light colored soil and a dark colored soil were used as background for the weathered soybean stems. Residue cover was determined by counting the proportion of the pixels in the image with fluorescence values greater than a threshold. Soil pixels had the lowest gray levels in the images. The values of the soybean residue pixels spanned nearly the full range of the 8-bit video data. Classification accuracies typically were within 3(absolute units) of measured cover values. Video imaging can provide an intuitive understanding of the fraction of the soil covered by residue.

  5. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Laboratory; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Laboratory; Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Laboratory; Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Laboratory; Roni, MD S [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  6. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.

    2015-07-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  7. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Leidig

    Full Text Available Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI. The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this 'proof of concept' study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

  8. Data Used in Quantified Reliability Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Kleinhammer, Roger K.; Kahn, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Data is the crux to developing quantitative risk and reliability models, without the data there is no quantification. The means to find and identify reliability data or failure numbers to quantify fault tree models during conceptual and design phases is often the quagmire that precludes early decision makers consideration of potential risk drivers that will influence design. The analyst tasked with addressing a system or product reliability depends on the availability of data. But, where is does that data come from and what does it really apply to? Commercial industries, government agencies, and other international sources might have available data similar to what you are looking for. In general, internal and external technical reports and data based on similar and dissimilar equipment is often the first and only place checked. A common philosophy is "I have a number - that is good enough". But, is it? Have you ever considered the difference in reported data from various federal datasets and technical reports when compared to similar sources from national and/or international datasets? Just how well does your data compare? Understanding how the reported data was derived, and interpreting the information and details associated with the data is as important as the data itself.

  9. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  10. A stochastic approach for quantifying immigrant integration: the Spanish test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Richard; Vernia, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    We apply stochastic process theory to the analysis of immigrant integration. Using a unique and detailed data set from Spain, we study the relationship between local immigrant density and two social and two economic immigration quantifiers for the period 1999-2010. As opposed to the classic time-series approach, by letting immigrant density play the role of ‘time’ and the quantifier the role of ‘space,’ it becomes possible to analyse the behavior of the quantifiers by means of continuous time random walks. Two classes of results are then obtained. First, we show that social integration quantifiers evolve following diffusion law, while the evolution of economic quantifiers exhibits ballistic dynamics. Second, we make predictions of best- and worst-case scenarios taking into account large local fluctuations. Our stochastic process approach to integration lends itself to interesting forecasting scenarios which, in the hands of policy makers, have the potential to improve political responses to integration problems. For instance, estimating the standard first-passage time and maximum-span walk reveals local differences in integration performance for different immigration scenarios. Thus, by recognizing the importance of local fluctuations around national means, this research constitutes an important tool to assess the impact of immigration phenomena on municipal budgets and to set up solid multi-ethnic plans at the municipal level as immigration pressures build.

  11. A stochastic approach for quantifying immigrant integration: the Spanish test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Richard; Vernia, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    We apply stochastic process theory to the analysis of immigrant integration. Using a unique and detailed data set from Spain, we study the relationship between local immigrant density and two social and two economic immigration quantifiers for the period 1999–2010. As opposed to the classic time-series approach, by letting immigrant density play the role of ‘time’ and the quantifier the role of ‘space,’ it becomes possible to analyse the behavior of the quantifiers by means of continuous time random walks. Two classes of results are then obtained. First, we show that social integration quantifiers evolve following diffusion law, while the evolution of economic quantifiers exhibits ballistic dynamics. Second, we make predictions of best- and worst-case scenarios taking into account large local fluctuations. Our stochastic process approach to integration lends itself to interesting forecasting scenarios which, in the hands of policy makers, have the potential to improve political responses to integration problems. For instance, estimating the standard first-passage time and maximum-span walk reveals local differences in integration performance for different immigration scenarios. Thus, by recognizing the importance of local fluctuations around national means, this research constitutes an important tool to assess the impact of immigration phenomena on municipal budgets and to set up solid multi-ethnic plans at the municipal level as immigration pressures build. (paper)

  12. Parking Space Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg Peter Jensen, Troels; Thomsen Schmidt, Helge; Dyremose Bodin, Niels

    2018-01-01

    system, based on a Convolutional Neural Network, that is capable of determining if a parking space is occupied or not. A benchmark database consisting of images captured from different parking areas, under different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to train and test the system...

  13. A note on totally normal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zougdani, H.K.

    1990-10-01

    In this note we give the necessary and sufficient condition for a topological space X such that the product space X x Y is totally normal for any (non discrete) metric space Y, and we show that a totally normal p-space need not be a perfectly normal in general, which makes Theorem 2 doubtful. (author). 6 refs

  14. 14 CFR 380.14 - Unused space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unused space. 380.14 Section 380.14 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 380.14 Unused space. Noting contained in this part...

  15. Quantifying design trade-offs of beryllium targets on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Kline, J. L.; Loomis, E. N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Shah, R. C.; Perry, T. S.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Batha, S. H.; MacLaren, S. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Masse, L. P.; Salmonson, J. D.; Tipton, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    An important determinant of target performance is implosion kinetic energy, which scales with the capsule size. The maximum achievable performance for a given laser is thus related to the largest capsule that can be imploded symmetrically, constrained by drive uniformity. A limiting factor for symmetric radiation drive is the ratio of hohlraum to capsule radii, or case-to-capsule ratio (CCR). For a fixed laser energy, a larger hohlraum allows for driving bigger capsules symmetrically at the cost of reduced peak radiation temperature (Tr). Beryllium ablators may thus allow for unique target design trade-offs due to their higher ablation efficiency at lower Tr. By utilizing larger hohlraum sizes than most modern NIF designs, beryllium capsules thus have the potential to operate in unique regions of the target design parameter space. We present design simulations of beryllium targets with a large CCR = 4.3 3.7 . These are scaled surrogates of large hohlraum low Tr beryllium targets, with the goal of quantifying symmetry tunability as a function of CCR. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52- 06NA25396, and by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Space dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical methods for Space Dynamics of fission reactors, are presented. It is shown how a few sample problems in space dynamics can be solved, within the one and two group diffusion model, by purely analytical tools, essentially based on Laplace transform and complex Green function techniques. A quite suggestive generalization of this approach, applicable to the fluid core reactors, whose fuel is undergoing a violent mixing, is reported and briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Energetic arousal and language: predictions from the computational theory of quantifiers processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajenkowski, Marcin

    2013-10-01

    The author examines the relationship between energetic arousal (EA) and the processing of sentences containing natural-language quantifiers. Previous studies and theories have shown that energy may differentially affect various cognitive functions. Recent investigations devoted to quantifiers strongly support the theory that various types of quantifiers involve different cognitive functions in the sentence-picture verification task. In the present study, 201 students were presented with a sentence-picture verification task consisting of simple propositions containing a quantifier that referred to the color of a car on display. Color pictures of cars accompanied the propositions. In addition, the level of participants' EA was measured before and after the verification task. It was found that EA and performance on proportional quantifiers (e.g., "More than half of the cars are red") are in an inverted U-shaped relationship. This result may be explained by the fact that proportional sentences engage working memory to a high degree, and previous models of EA-cognition associations have been based on the assumption that tasks that require parallel attentional and memory processes are best performed when energy is moderate. The research described in the present article has several applications, as it shows the optimal human conditions for verbal comprehension. For instance, it may be important in workplace design to control the level of arousal experienced by office staff when work is mostly related to the processing of complex texts. Energy level may be influenced by many factors, such as noise, time of day, or thermal conditions.

  18. Quantifying Riverscape Connectivity with Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, P.; Milledge, D.; Sinha, R.; Tandon, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Fluvial catchments convey fluxes of water, sediment, nutrients and aquatic biota. At continental scales, crustal topography defines the overall path of channels whilst at local scales depositional and/or erosional features generally determine the exact path of a channel. Furthermore, constructions such as dams, for either water abstraction or hydropower, often have a significant impact on channel networks.The concept of ';connectivity' is commonly invoked when conceptualising the structure of a river network.This concept is easy to grasp but there have been uneven efforts across the environmental sciences to actually quantify connectivity. Currently there have only been a few studies reporting quantitative indices of connectivity in river sciences, notably, in the study of avulsion processes. However, the majority of current work describing some form of environmental connectivity in a quantitative manner is in the field of landscape ecology. Driven by the need to quantify habitat fragmentation, landscape ecologists have returned to graph theory. Within this formal setting, landscape ecologists have successfully developed a range of indices which can model connectivity loss. Such formal connectivity metrics are currently needed for a range of applications in fluvial sciences. One of the most urgent needs relates to dam construction. In the developed world, hydropower development has generally slowed and in many countries, dams are actually being removed. However, this is not the case in the developing world where hydropower is seen as a key element to low-emissions power-security. For example, several dam projects are envisaged in Himalayan catchments in the next 2 decades. This region is already under severe pressure from climate change and urbanisation, and a better understanding of the network fragmentation which can be expected in this system is urgently needed. In this paper, we apply and adapt connectivity metrics from landscape ecology. We then examine the

  19. Quantifying human vitamin kinetics using AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillegonds, D; Dueker, S; Ognibene, T; Buchholz, B; Lin, Y; Vogel, J; Clifford, A

    2004-02-19

    Tracing vitamin kinetics at physiologic concentrations has been hampered by a lack of quantitative sensitivity for chemically equivalent tracers that could be used safely in healthy people. Instead, elderly or ill volunteers were sought for studies involving pharmacologic doses with radioisotopic labels. These studies fail to be relevant in two ways: vitamins are inherently micronutrients, whose biochemical paths are saturated and distorted by pharmacological doses; and while vitamins remain important for health in the elderly or ill, their greatest effects may be in preventing slow and cumulative diseases by proper consumption throughout youth and adulthood. Neither the target dose nor the target population are available for nutrient metabolic studies through decay counting of radioisotopes at high levels. Stable isotopic labels are quantified by isotope ratio mass spectrometry at levels that trace physiologic vitamin doses, but the natural background of stable isotopes severely limits the time span over which the tracer is distinguishable. Indeed, study periods seldom ranged over a single biological mean life of the labeled nutrients, failing to provide data on the important final elimination phase of the compound. Kinetic data for the absorption phase is similarly rare in micronutrient research because the phase is rapid, requiring many consecutive plasma samples for accurate representation. However, repeated blood samples of sufficient volume for precise stable or radio-isotope quantitations consume an indefensible amount of the volunteer's blood over a short period. Thus, vitamin pharmacokinetics in humans has often relied on compartmental modeling based upon assumptions and tested only for the short period of maximal blood circulation, a period that poorly reflects absorption or final elimination kinetics except for the most simple models.

  20. Quantifying Sentiment and Influence in Blogspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Peter SY; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2010-07-25

    The weblog, or blog, has become a popular form of social media, through which authors can write posts, which can in turn generate feedback in the form of user comments. When considered in totality, a collection of blogs can thus be viewed as a sort of informal collection of mass sentiment and opinion. An obvious topic of interest might be to mine this collection to obtain some gauge of public sentiment over the wide variety of topics contained therein. However, the sheer size of the so-called blogosphere, combined with the fact that the subjects of posts can vary over a practically limitless number of topics poses some serious challenges when any meaningful analysis is attempted. Namely, the fact that largely anyone with access to the Internet can author their own blog, raises the serious issue of credibility— should some blogs be considered to be more influential than others, and consequently, when gauging sentiment with respect to a topic, should some blogs be weighted more heavily than others? In addition, as new posts and comments can be made on almost a constant basis, any blog analysis algorithm must be able to handle such updates efficiently. In this paper, we give a formalization of the blog model. We give formal methods of quantifying sentiment and influence with respect to a hierarchy of topics, with the specific aim of facilitating the computation of a per-topic, influence-weighted sentiment measure. Finally, as efficiency is a specific endgoal, we give upper bounds on the time required to update these values with new posts, showing that our analysis and algorithms are scalable.

  1. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Bosman

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p ≤ 0.05. Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which

  2. Quantifying seasonal velocity at Khumbu Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, E.; Quincey, D. J.; Miles, K.; Hubbard, B. P.; Rowan, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    While the low-gradient debris-covered tongues of many Himalayan glaciers exhibit low surface velocities, quantifying ice flow and its variation through time remains a key challenge for studies aimed at determining the long-term evolution of these glaciers. Recent work has suggested that glaciers in the Everest region of Nepal may show seasonal variability in surface velocity, with ice flow peaking during the summer as monsoon precipitation provides hydrological inputs and thus drives changes in subglacial drainage efficiency. However, satellite and aerial observations of glacier velocity during the monsoon are greatly limited due to cloud cover. Those that do exist do not span the period over which the most dynamic changes occur, and consequently short-term (i.e. daily) changes in flow, as well as the evolution of ice dynamics through the monsoon period, remain poorly understood. In this study, we combine field and remote (satellite image) observations to create a multi-temporal, 3D synthesis of ice deformation rates at Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, focused on the 2017 monsoon period. We first determine net annual and seasonal surface displacements for the whole glacier based on Landsat-8 (OLI) panchromatic data (15m) processed with ImGRAFT. We integrate inclinometer observations from three boreholes drilled by the EverDrill project to determine cumulative deformation at depth, providing a 3D perspective and enabling us to assess the role of basal sliding at each site. We additionally analyze high-frequency on-glacier L1 GNSS data from three sites to characterize variability within surface deformation at sub-seasonal timescales. Finally, each dataset is validated against repeat-dGPS observations at gridded points in the vicinity of the boreholes and GNSS dataloggers. These datasets complement one another to infer thermal regime across the debris-covered ablation area of the glacier, and emphasize the seasonal and spatial variability of ice deformation for glaciers in High

  3. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Sasahara

    Full Text Available Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era.

  4. Quantifying motion for pancreatic radiotherapy margin calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, Gillian; Jain, Pooja; Green, Melanie; Watkins, Gillian; Henry, Ann; Stratford, Julie; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Thomas; Moore, Christopher; Price, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Pancreatic radiotherapy (RT) is limited by uncertain target motion. We quantified 3D patient/organ motion during pancreatic RT and calculated required treatment margins. Materials and methods: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and orthogonal fluoroscopy images were acquired post-RT delivery from 13 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Bony setup errors were calculated from CBCT. Inter- and intra-fraction fiducial (clip/seed/stent) motion was determined from CBCT projections and orthogonal fluoroscopy. Results: Using an off-line CBCT correction protocol, systematic (random) setup errors were 2.4 (3.2), 2.0 (1.7) and 3.2 (3.6) mm laterally (left–right), vertically (anterior–posterior) and longitudinally (cranio-caudal), respectively. Fiducial motion varied substantially. Random inter-fractional changes in mean fiducial position were 2.0, 1.6 and 2.6 mm; 95% of intra-fractional peak-to-peak fiducial motion was up to 6.7, 10.1 and 20.6 mm, respectively. Calculated clinical to planning target volume (CTV–PTV) margins were 1.4 cm laterally, 1.4 cm vertically and 3.0 cm longitudinally for 3D conformal RT, reduced to 0.9, 1.0 and 1.8 cm, respectively, if using 4D planning and online setup correction. Conclusions: Commonly used CTV–PTV margins may inadequately account for target motion during pancreatic RT. Our results indicate better immobilisation, individualised allowance for respiratory motion, online setup error correction and 4D planning would improve targeting.

  5. A New Framework for Quantifying Lidar Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer, F.; Clifton, Andrew; Bonin, Timothy A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2017-03-24

    As wind turbine sizes increase and wind energy expands to more complex and remote sites, remote sensing devices such as lidars are expected to play a key role in wind resource assessment and power performance testing. The switch to remote sensing devices represents a paradigm shift in the way the wind industry typically obtains and interprets measurement data for wind energy. For example, the measurement techniques and sources of uncertainty for a remote sensing device are vastly different from those associated with a cup anemometer on a meteorological tower. Current IEC standards discuss uncertainty due to mounting, calibration, and classification of the remote sensing device, among other parameters. Values of the uncertainty are typically given as a function of the mean wind speed measured by a reference device. However, real-world experience has shown that lidar performance is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions, such as wind shear, turbulence, and aerosol content. At present, these conditions are not directly incorporated into the estimated uncertainty of a lidar device. In this presentation, we propose the development of a new lidar uncertainty framework that adapts to current flow conditions and more accurately represents the actual uncertainty inherent in lidar measurements under different conditions. In this new framework, sources of uncertainty are identified for estimation of the line-of-sight wind speed and reconstruction of the three-dimensional wind field. These sources are then related to physical processes caused by the atmosphere and lidar operating conditions. The framework is applied to lidar data from an operational wind farm to assess the ability of the framework to predict errors in lidar-measured wind speed.

  6. Current challenges in quantifying preferential flow through the vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, John; Larsbo, Mats; Jarvis, Nick

    2017-04-01

    In this presentation, we give an overview of current challenges in quantifying preferential flow through the vadose zone. A review of the literature suggests that current generation models do not fully reflect the present state of process understanding and empirical knowledge of preferential flow. We believe that the development of improved models will be stimulated by the increasingly widespread application of novel imaging technologies as well as future advances in computational power and numerical techniques. One of the main challenges in this respect is to bridge the large gap between the scales at which preferential flow occurs (pore to Darcy scales) and the scale of interest for management (fields, catchments, regions). Studies at the pore scale are being supported by the development of 3-D non-invasive imaging and numerical simulation techniques. These studies are leading to a better understanding of how macropore network topology and initial/boundary conditions control key state variables like matric potential and thus the strength of preferential flow. Extrapolation of this knowledge to larger scales would require support from theoretical frameworks such as key concepts from percolation and network theory, since we lack measurement technologies to quantify macropore networks at these large scales. Linked hydro-geophysical measurement techniques that produce highly spatially and temporally resolved data enable investigation of the larger-scale heterogeneities that can generate preferential flow patterns at pedon, hillslope and field scales. At larger regional and global scales, improved methods of data-mining and analyses of large datasets (machine learning) may help in parameterizing models as well as lead to new insights into the relationships between soil susceptibility to preferential flow and site attributes (climate, land uses, soil types).

  7. Quantifying induced effects of subsurface renewable energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof; Pfeiffer, Tilmann; Boockmeyer, Anke; Popp, Steffi; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Wang, Bo; Li, Dedong; Dethlefsen, Frank; Dahmke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    New methods and technologies for energy storage are required for the transition to renewable energy sources. Subsurface energy storage systems such as salt caverns or porous formations offer the possibility of hosting large amounts of energy or substance. When employing these systems, an adequate system and process understanding is required in order to assess the feasibility of the individual storage option at the respective site and to predict the complex and interacting effects induced. This understanding is the basis for assessing the potential as well as the risks connected with a sustainable usage of these storage options, especially when considering possible mutual influences. For achieving this aim, in this work synthetic scenarios for the use of the geological underground as an energy storage system are developed and parameterized. The scenarios are designed to represent typical conditions in North Germany. The types of subsurface use investigated here include gas storage and heat storage in porous formations. The scenarios are numerically simulated and interpreted with regard to risk analysis and effect forecasting. For this, the numerical simulators Eclipse and OpenGeoSys are used. The latter is enhanced to include the required coupled hydraulic, thermal, geomechanical and geochemical processes. Using the simulated and interpreted scenarios, the induced effects are quantified individually and monitoring concepts for observing these effects are derived. This presentation will detail the general investigation concept used and analyze the parameter availability for this type of model applications. Then the process implementation and numerical methods required and applied for simulating the induced effects of subsurface storage are detailed and explained. Application examples show the developed methods and quantify induced effects and storage sizes for the typical settings parameterized. This work is part of the ANGUS+ project, funded by the German Ministry

  8. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  9. Space Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  10. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  11. Defining process design space for monoclonal antibody cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Absi, Susan Fugett; Yang, LiYing; Thompson, Patrick; Jiang, Canping; Kandula, Sunitha; Schilling, Bernhard; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2010-08-15

    The concept of design space has been taking root as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. During mapping of the process design space, the multidimensional combination of operational variables is studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of productivity and product quality. An efficient methodology to map the design space for a monoclonal antibody cell culture process is described. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was used as the basis for the process characterization exercise. This was followed by an integrated study of the inoculum stage of the process which includes progressive shake flask and seed bioreactor steps. The operating conditions for the seed bioreactor were studied in an integrated fashion with the production bioreactor using a two stage design of experiments (DOE) methodology to enable optimization of operating conditions. A two level Resolution IV design was followed by a central composite design (CCD). These experiments enabled identification of the edge of failure and classification of the operational parameters as non-key, key or critical. In addition, the models generated from the data provide further insight into balancing productivity of the cell culture process with product quality considerations. Finally, process and product-related impurity clearance was evaluated by studies linking the upstream process with downstream purification. Production bioreactor parameters that directly influence antibody charge variants and glycosylation in CHO systems were identified.

  12. Weak isometries of Hamming spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Bruner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Consider any permutation of the elements of a (finite metric space that preserves a specific distancep. When is such a permutation automatically an isometry of the metric space? In this note we studythis problem for the Hamming spaces H(n,q both from a linear algebraic and combinatorial pointof view. We obtain some sufficient conditions for the question to have an affirmative answer, as wellas pose some interesting open problems.

  13. Chromosomal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Chromosomal conditions Chromosomal conditions ... Disorders See also: Genetic counseling , Your family health history Last reviewed: February, 2013 ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & ...

  14. Personalized State-space Modeling of Glucose Dynamics for Type 1 Diabetes Using Continuously Monitored Glucose, Insulin Dose, and Meal Intake: An Extended Kalman Filter Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Molenaar, Peter; Harsh, Saurabh; Freeman, Kenneth; Xie, Jinyu; Gold, Carol; Rovine, Mike; Ulbrecht, Jan

    2014-01-01

    An essential component of any artificial pancreas is on the prediction of blood glucose levels as a function of exogenous and endogenous perturbations such as insulin dose, meal intake, and physical activity and emotional tone under natural living conditions. In this article, we present a new data-driven state-space dynamic model with time-varying coefficients that are used to explicitly quantify the time-varying patient-specific effects of insulin dose and meal intake on blood glucose fluctu...

  15. A Methodological Approach to Quantifying Plyometric Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Mark M; Graham-Smith, Phil; Comfort, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Jarvis, MM, Graham-Smith, P, and Comfort, P. A Methodological approach to quantifying plyometric intensity. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2522-2532, 2016-In contrast to other methods of training, the quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a range of neuromuscular and mechanical variables to describe the intensity of plyometric exercises. Seven male recreationally active subjects performed a series of 7 plyometric exercises. Neuromuscular activity was measured using surface electromyography (SEMG) at vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF). Surface electromyography data were divided into concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) phases of movement. Mechanical output was measured by ground reaction forces and processed to provide peak impact ground reaction force (PF), peak eccentric power (PEP), and impulse (IMP). Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the reliability intraclass correlation coefficient and sensitivity smallest detectable difference of all variables. Mean values of SEMG demonstrate high reliability (r ≥ 0.82), excluding ECC VL during a 40-cm drop jump (r = 0.74). PF, PEP, and IMP demonstrated high reliability (r ≥ 0.85). Statistical power for force variables was excellent (power = 1.0), and good for SEMG (power ≥0.86) excluding CON BF (power = 0.57). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in CON SEMG between exercises. Eccentric phase SEMG only distinguished between exercises involving a landing and those that did not (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction [%MVIC] = no landing -65 ± 5, landing -140 ± 8). Peak eccentric power, PF, and IMP all distinguished between exercises. In conclusion, CON neuromuscular activity does not appear to vary when intent is maximal, whereas ECC activity is dependent on the presence of a landing. Force characteristics provide a reliable and sensitive measure enabling precise description of intensity

  16. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Bennett R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1 the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP and (2 a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas. Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage

  17. Quantifying emission reduction contributions by emerging economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moltmann, Sara; Hagemann, Markus; Eisbrenner, Katja; Hoehne, Niklas [Ecofys GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Sterk, Wolfgang; Mersmann, Florian; Ott, Hermann E.; Watanabe, Rie [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Further action is needed that goes far beyond what has been agreed so far under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol to 'prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system', the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC. It is out of question that developed countries (Annex I countries) will have to take a leading role. They will have to commit to substantial emission reductions and financing commitments due to their historical responsibility and their financial capability. However, the stabilisation of the climate system will require global emissions to peak within the next decade and decline well below half of current levels by the middle of the century. It is hence a global issue and, thus, depends on the participation of as many countries as possible. This report provides a comparative analysis of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including their national climate plans, of the major emitting developing countries Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa and South Korea. It includes an overview of emissions and economic development, existing national climate change strategies, uses a consistent methodology for estimating emission reduction potential, costs of mitigation options, provides an estimate of the reductions to be achieved through the national climate plans and finally provides a comparison of the results to the allocation of emission rights according to different global effort-sharing approaches. In addition, the report discusses possible nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) the six countries could take based on the analysis of mitigation options. This report is an output of the project 'Proposals for quantifying emission reduction contributions by emerging economies' by Ecofys and the Wuppertal Institute for the Federal Environment Agency in Dessau. It builds upon earlier joint work ''Proposals for contributions of emerging economies to the climate

  18. Quantifying the impacts of global disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. M.; Ross, S.; Wilson, R. I.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Hansen, R. A.; Johnson, L. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Thio, H. K.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, California Geological Survey, and other entities are developing a Tsunami Scenario, depicting a realistic outcome of a hypothetical but plausible large tsunami originating in the eastern Aleutian Arc, affecting the west coast of the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. The scenario includes earth-science effects, damage and restoration of the built environment, and social and economic impacts. Like the earlier ShakeOut and ARkStorm disaster scenarios, the purpose of the Tsunami Scenario is to apply science to quantify the impacts of natural disasters in a way that can be used by decision makers in the affected sectors to reduce the potential for loss. Most natural disasters are local. A major hurricane can destroy a city or damage a long swath of coastline while mostly sparing inland areas. The largest earthquake on record caused strong shaking along 1500 km of Chile, but left the capital relatively unscathed. Previous scenarios have used the local nature of disasters to focus interaction with the user community. However, the capacity for global disasters is growing with the interdependency of the global economy. Earthquakes have disrupted global computer chip manufacturing and caused stock market downturns. Tsunamis, however, can be global in their extent and direct impact. Moreover, the vulnerability of seaports to tsunami damage can increase the global consequences. The Tsunami Scenario is trying to capture the widespread effects while maintaining the close interaction with users that has been one of the most successful features of the previous scenarios. The scenario tsunami occurs in the eastern Aleutians with a source similar to the 2011 Tohoku event. Geologic similarities support the argument that a Tohoku-like source is plausible in Alaska. It creates a major nearfield tsunami in the Aleutian arc and peninsula, a moderate tsunami in the US Pacific Northwest, large but not the

  19. Analysis of the influence of well spacing on the injection rate behaviour for water injection under fracturing conditions; Analise da influencia do espacamento de pocos na determinacao da vazao de injecao para o processo de injecao com pressao cima da pressao de fratura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Mazo, Eduin Orlando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudo do Petroleo. Lab. de Simulacao de Fluxo em Meios Porosos (UNISIM); Costa, Odair Jose; Schiozer, Denis Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Water injection under fracturing conditions is a proved manner of overcoming injectivity loss in reservoirs affected by formation damage. Nevertheless, as shown by Munoz Mazo et al. (2006), there is the possibility of the generated and propagated fractures intercept the producer wells making that the injected water shall be re-circulated into the reservoir instead of its main function which is to drive the oil contained in the reservoir pore space. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of well spacing on the determination of the water injection rate under fracturing conditions, aiming to study its effects on the production performance and the sweep efficiency. To accomplish the work, an analytical model for representing the absolute permeability reduction near the wellbore and a model which reproduces the fracture propagation in a coupled manner are used. In this way the model sensitivity to several well spacing and the injection rate effects are analyzed using the Net Present Value and the sweep efficiency is evaluated as a function of the Recovery Factor. The results show that the water injection under fracturing conditions is an effective way of overcoming the injectivity loss problem and evidence its sensitivity to different spacing between the injector and the producer wells. (author)

  20. Harmonic analysis on triple spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Thomas Hjortgaard

    In this thesis we study examples of triple spaces, both their structure theory, their invariant differential operators as well as analysis on them. The first major results provide us with some examples of triple spaces which are strongly spherical, i.e. satisfy some conditions reminiscent...

  1. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  2. Tsirelson's space

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph provides a structure theory for the increasingly important Banach space discovered by B.S. Tsirelson. The basic construction should be accessible to graduate students of functional analysis with a knowledge of the theory of Schauder bases, while topics of a more advanced nature are presented for the specialist. Bounded linear operators are studied through the use of finite-dimensional decompositions, and complemented subspaces are studied at length. A myriad of variant constructions are presented and explored, while open questions are broached in almost every chapter. Two appendices are attached: one dealing with a computer program which computes norms of finitely-supported vectors, while the other surveys recent work on weak Hilbert spaces (where a Tsirelson-type space provides an example).

  3. Space botanic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, K.M.; Kordyum, Se.L.

    1980-01-01

    The basic results of investigations in the field of space botanics are considered, starting with the effect of cosmic radiation on quiet spores and seeds and ending with the modern stage of complex study of lower plants, growing and developing within various periods of time under conditions of a real space flight in special chambers and growing systems. The possibility of using different investigation methods such as luminooptic, electronomicroscopic, biochemical, biophysical, physiological and others to estimate the effect of factors of an orbital flight on plants, are discussed [ru

  4. Uniformizable Cauchy spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lowen-Colebunders

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A family C of filters on a set X is uniformizable if there is a uniformity on X such that C is its collection of Cauchy filters. Using the theory of completions and Cauchy continuous maps for Cauchy spaces, we obtain characterizations of uniformizable Cauchy spaces. In particular, given a Cauchy structure C on X we investigate under what conditions the filter u(C=⋂F∈CF×F is a uniformity and C is its collection of Cauchy filters. This problem is treated using Cauchy covering systems.

  5. Reconnection in space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in space physics is to understand the physical mechanism which governs energy conversion process from magnetic to particle energies, a typical one being the reconnection mechanism. As a possible candidate process of the magnetic reconnection in space, tearing mode instability has been considered. In this paper are discussed selected topics related to the understanding of the tearing mode instability; the effect of the boundary condition, the resonant particle and current filamentation effects, vorticity excitation, and the Hall current effect. 31 refs, 12 figs

  6. Coherent Structures and Spectral Energy Transfer in Turbulent Plasma: A Space-Filter Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Califano, F.; Retinò, A.

    2018-03-01

    Plasma turbulence at scales of the order of the ion inertial length is mediated by several mechanisms, including linear wave damping, magnetic reconnection, the formation and dissipation of thin current sheets, and stochastic heating. It is now understood that the presence of localized coherent structures enhances the dissipation channels and the kinetic features of the plasma. However, no formal way of quantifying the relationship between scale-to-scale energy transfer and the presence of spatial structures has been presented so far. In the Letter we quantify such a relationship analyzing the results of a two-dimensional high-resolution Hall magnetohydrodynamic simulation. In particular, we employ the technique of space filtering to derive a spectral energy flux term which defines, in any point of the computational domain, the signed flux of spectral energy across a given wave number. The characterization of coherent structures is performed by means of a traditional two-dimensional wavelet transformation. By studying the correlation between the spectral energy flux and the wavelet amplitude, we demonstrate the strong relationship between scale-to-scale transfer and coherent structures. Furthermore, by conditioning one quantity with respect to the other, we are able for the first time to quantify the inhomogeneity of the turbulence cascade induced by topological structures in the magnetic field. Taking into account the low space-filling factor of coherent structures (i.e., they cover a small portion of space), it emerges that 80% of the spectral energy transfer (both in the direct and inverse cascade directions) is localized in about 50% of space, and 50% of the energy transfer is localized in only 25% of space.

  7. Quantifier spreading in child eye movements: A case of the Russian quantifier kazhdyj ‘every'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Sekerina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cross-linguistic work has documented that children up to the age of 9–10 make errors when performing a sentence-picture verification task that pairs spoken sentences with the universal quantifier 'every 'and pictures with entities in partial one-to-one correspondence. These errors stem from children’s difficulties in restricting the domain of a universal quantifier to the appropriate noun phrase and are referred in the literature as 'quantifier-spreading '('q'-spreading. We adapted the task to be performed in conjunction with eye-movement recordings using the Visual World Paradigm. Russian-speaking 5-to-6-year-old children ('N '= 31 listened to sentences like 'Kazhdyj alligator lezhit v vanne '‘Every alligator is lying in a bathtub’ and viewed pictures with three alligators, each in a bathtub, and two extra empty bathtubs. Non-spreader children ('N '= 12 were adult-like in their accuracy whereas 'q'-spreading ones ('N '= 19 were only 43% correct in interpreting such sentences compared to the control sentences. Eye movements of 'q'-spreading children revealed that more looks to the extra containers (two empty bathtubs correlated with higher error rates reflecting the processing pattern of 'q'-spreading. In contrast, more looks to the distractors in control sentences did not lead to errors in interpretation. We argue that 'q'-spreading errors are caused by interference from the extra entities in the visual context, and our results support the processing difficulty account of acquisition of quantification. Interference results in cognitive overload as children have to integrate multiple sources of information, i.e., visual context with salient extra entities and the spoken sentence in which these entities are mentioned in real-time processing.   This article is part of the special collection: Acquisition of Quantification

  8. Space doubt

    OpenAIRE

    Rega, Joseph Mark

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. The recent surge in cyberspace science fiction follows previous trends within the genre, i.e. those connected with future city-space and outer space, and is an inevitable result of economic forces. There has always been a close relationship between capitalism and spatial expansion, compelled by technological innovations that ha...

  9. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  10. Time travel in Goedel's space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfarr, J.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the motion of test particles in Goedel's universe. Both geodesical and nongeodesical motions are considered; the accelerations for nongeodesical motions are given. Examples for closed timelike world lines are shown and the dynamical conditions for time travel in Goedel's space-time are discussed. It is shown that these conditions alone do not suffice to exclude time travel in Goedel's space-time. (author)

  11. A wavenumber approach to quantifying the isotropy of the sound field in reverberant spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Melanie; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Brunskog, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes an experimental method for evaluating isotropy in enclosures, based on an analysis of the wavenumber spectrum in the spherical harmonics domain. The wavenumber spectrum, which results from expanding an arbitrary sound field into a plane-wave basis, is used to characterize the ...

  12. Experiments to quantify airborne release from packages with dispersible radioactive materials under accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, R.; Lange, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Koch, W.; Nolte, O. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Str.1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    For transport or handling accidents involving packages with radioactive materials and the assessment of potential radiological consequences, for the review of current requirements of the IAEA Transport Regulations, and for their possible further development reliable release data following mechanical impact are required. Within this context a research project was carried out which extends the basis for a well-founded examination of the contemporary system of requirements of 'Low Specific Activity' (LSA)-type materials and allows for its further development where appropriate. This project comprises a prior system-analytical examination and an experimental programme aiming at improving the general physical understanding of the release process as well as the quantity and the characteristics of airborne released material for non-fixed dispersible LSA-II material upon mechanical impact. Impaction experiments applying small, medium and real sized specimens of different dispersible materials revealed that the release behaviour of dispersible powders strongly depends upon material properties, e.g. particle size distribution and cohesion forces. The highest experimentally determined release fraction of respirable mass (AED < 10 {mu}m) amounted to about 2 % and was obtained for 2 kg of un-contained easily dispersible pulverized fly ash (PFA). For larger un-contained PFA specimen the release fraction decreases. However, packaging containing powdery material substantially reduces the airborne release fraction. The measured airborne release fractions for a 200 l drum with Type A certificate containing PFA were about a factor of 50 to 100 lower than for un-contained material. For a drop height of 9 m the airborne release fraction amounted to about 4 x 10{sup -5}. This value should be applicable for most of transport and handling accidents with mechanical impact. For a metal container of Type IP-2 or better which contains powder masses of 100 kg or more this release fraction may be adopted after a 9 m drop. Based on these experimentally determined release fractions for packages containing LSA-II material in powder form it can be concluded that the resulting inhalation dose of an individual in the vicinity of the accident location lies by more than one order of magnitude below the effective dose limit of 50 mSv. Thus, the limits specified in the Transport Regulations of the mass-related activity concentrations for LSA-II of 10{sup -4} A{sub 2}/g were confirmed as being conservative also for powdery, easily dispersible materials. (authors)

  13. Develop Accurate Methods for Characterizing and Quantifying Cohesive Sediment Erosion Under Combined Current-Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    majority of contaminated sediments are a mixture of sand, silt, and clay . These sediments are often referred to as cohesive because, unlike pure sand...number:  2 18 p p c ρ d Sk f μ (2) where ρp is the particle density, dp is the particle diameter, µ is the dynamic viscosity , and fc is a...using the viscous timescale, 2τν ut =+ , where uτ is the friction velocity, and ν the kinematic viscosity , as t+ provides an estimate of the strain

  14. Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas

    2012-12-01

    The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

  15. Using sediment profile imagery to quantify water quality and benthic condition relationships in Pensacola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present results from a monthly study in the Pensacola Bay estuary (FL) designed to evaluate the response and recovery in benthic habitats to intermittent, seasonal hypoxia (DO < 2 mg L-1). Samples were collected monthly from June 2015 through October 2017 at seven to nine s...

  16. On the contrast between Germanic and Romance negated quantifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Cirillo

    2009-01-01

    Universal quantifiers can be stranded in the manner described by Sportiche (1988), Giusti (1990) and Shlonsky (1991) in both the Romance and Germanic languages, but a negated universal quantifier can only be stranded in the Germanic languages. The goal of this paper is to show that this contrast between the Romance and the Germanic languages can be explained if one adapts the theory of sentential negation in Zeijlstra (2004) to constituent (quantifier) negation. According to Zeijlstra’s theor...

  17. Countable Fuzzy Topological Space and Countable Fuzzy Topological Vector Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apu Kumar Saha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with countable fuzzy topological spaces, a generalization of the notion of fuzzy topological spaces. A collection of fuzzy sets F on a universe X forms a countable fuzzy topology if in the definition of a fuzzy topology, the condition of arbitrary supremum is relaxed to countable supremum. In this generalized fuzzy structure, the continuity of fuzzy functions and some other related properties are studied. Also the class of countable fuzzy topological vector spaces as a generalization of the class of fuzzy topological vector spaces has been introduced and investigated.

  18. Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China plans to launch an unmanned space module,Tiangong 1,in 2011,said Qi Faren,the chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft,at the sidelines of the annual plenary session of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),the country's top political advisory body,on March 3.

  19. Training Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  20. Space Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  1. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  2. Space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelmayer, A.

    2000-01-01

    Space research in Austria began since 1969 and has its roots in Graz. An overview of the projects performed by Austrian organizations such as local network interconnection via satellites systems, MIGMAS (Microanalysis station), ALP-SAT (Autonomous Libration Point-Satellite), MIDAS (Micro-imaging dust analysis system), among others are described. (nevyjel)

  3. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  4. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    : In this technique we will use the nano tubes. We will create a mesh that will act as a touch panel of the touch screen cell phone. When any small or tiny particle will come on this mesh and touch it then the mesh will act as a touch panel and so that the corresponding processor or sensor will come to know the co-ordinates of it then further by using Destructive laser beam we can destroy that particle. B. Use of the Nano tubes and Nano Bots for the collection of the Space Debris: In this method also we will use a nano mesh which is made up of the nano tubes and the corresponding arrangement will be done so that that mesh will act as a touch panel same as that of the touch screen phones. So when tiny particles will dash on the nano mesh then the Nano Bots which will be at the specific co-ordinates collect the particles and store them into the garbage storage. C. Further the space Debris can be use for the other purposes too:- As we know that the space debris can be any tiny particle in the space. So instead of decomposing that particles or destroying it we can use those particles for the purpose of energy production by using the fuel cells, but for this the one condition is that the particle material should be capable of forming the ionize liquid or solution which can be successfully use in the fuel cell for energy production. But this is useful for only the big projects where in smallest amount of energy has also the great demand or value. D. RECYCLING OF SPACE DEBRIS The general idea of making space structures by recycling space debris is to capture the aluminum of the upper stages, melt it, and form it into new aluminum structures, perhaps by coating the inside of inflatable balloons, to make very large structures of thin aluminum shells. CONCLUSION Space debris has become the topic of great concern in recent years. Space debris creation can't be stopped completely but it can be minimized by adopting some measures. Many methods of space debris mitigation have been

  5. Physical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Appleby, M.C.; Waran, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    The physical environment of an animal is sometimes altered if it is found to cause problems for animal welfare. These changes are commonly quite specific (making changes to space, food, water, aspects of housing design such as flooring, or to other environmental factors such as air quality) and may...

  6. Quantifying uncertainties in wind energy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlakas, Platon; Galanis, George; Kallos, George

    2015-04-01

    The constant rise of wind energy production and the subsequent penetration in global energy markets during the last decades resulted in new sites selection with various types of problems. Such problems arise due to the variability and the uncertainty of wind speed. The study of the wind speed distribution lower and upper tail may support the quantification of these uncertainties. Such approaches focused on extreme wind conditions or periods below the energy production threshold are necessary for a better management of operations. Towards this direction, different methodologies are presented for the credible evaluation of potential non-frequent/extreme values for these environmental conditions. The approaches used, take into consideration the structural design of the wind turbines according to their lifespan, the turbine failures, the time needed for repairing as well as the energy production distribution. In this work, a multi-parametric approach for studying extreme wind speed values will be discussed based on tools of Extreme Value Theory. In particular, the study is focused on extreme wind speed return periods and the persistence of no energy production based on a weather modeling system/hind cast/10-year dataset. More specifically, two methods (Annual Maxima and Peaks Over Threshold) were used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds and their recurrence intervals. Additionally, two different methodologies (intensity given duration and duration given intensity, both based on Annual Maxima method) were implied to calculate the extreme events duration, combined with their intensity as well as the event frequency. The obtained results prove that the proposed approaches converge, at least on the main findings, for each case. It is also remarkable that, despite the moderate wind speed climate of the area, several consequent days of no energy production are observed.

  7. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  8. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  9. New media sociofugal spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a classic piece, Sommer (1967: 654 once defined sociofugal space as ‘a place where people typically try to avoid one another’. And the point is that – because of environmental spatial characteristics – people cannot successfully avoid each other, or can do so only to a limited extent. Typically, we are dealing with open public places, where the first come cannot prevent others from arriving afterwards. Under these conditions, space is often unwillingly shared. Consequently, every new arrival raises the thorny issue of the ‘critical distance’ between two or more co-specific socii (members of the same species, together with the question of how each socius is going to make space for himself or herself inside the shifting geometry that each new socius introduces in a context of inter-visibility (or, more precisely, in the element of visible.

  10. Probabilistic Physics-Based Risk Tools Used to Analyze the International Space Station Electrical Power System Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhogila M.; Hoge, Peter A.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods employed to apply probabilistic modeling techniques to the International Space Station (ISS) power system. These techniques were used to quantify the probabilistic variation in the power output, also called the response variable, due to variations (uncertainties) associated with knowledge of the influencing factors called the random variables. These uncertainties can be due to unknown environmental conditions, variation in the performance of electrical power system components or sensor tolerances. Uncertainties in these variables, cause corresponding variations in the power output, but the magnitude of that effect varies with the ISS operating conditions, e.g. whether or not the solar panels are actively tracking the sun. Therefore, it is important to quantify the influence of these uncertainties on the power output for optimizing the power available for experiments.

  11. Quantum computers in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miquel, Cesar; Paz, Juan Pablo; Saraceno, Marcos

    2002-01-01

    We represent both the states and the evolution of a quantum computer in phase space using the discrete Wigner function. We study properties of the phase space representation of quantum algorithms: apart from analyzing important examples, such as the Fourier transform and Grover's search, we examine the conditions for the existence of a direct correspondence between quantum and classical evolutions in phase space. Finally, we describe how to measure directly the Wigner function in a given phase-space point by means of a tomographic method that, itself, can be interpreted as a simple quantum algorithm

  12. Pattern detection in stream networks: Quantifying spatialvariability in fish distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Bateman, Douglas S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological and physical properties of rivers and streams are inherently difficult to sample and visualize at the resolution and extent necessary to detect fine-scale distributional patterns over large areas. Satellite imagery and broad-scale fish survey methods are effective for quantifying spatial variability in biological and physical variables over a range of scales in marine environments but are often too coarse in resolution to address conservation needs in inland fisheries management. We present methods for sampling and analyzing multiscale, spatially continuous patterns of stream fishes and physical habitat in small- to medium-size watersheds (500–1000 hectares). Geospatial tools, including geographic information system (GIS) software such as ArcInfo dynamic segmentation and ArcScene 3D analyst modules, were used to display complex biological and physical datasets. These tools also provided spatial referencing information (e.g. Cartesian and route-measure coordinates) necessary for conducting geostatistical analyses of spatial patterns (empirical semivariograms and wavelet analysis) in linear stream networks. Graphical depiction of fish distribution along a one-dimensional longitudinal profile and throughout the stream network (superimposed on a 10-metre digital elevation model) provided the spatial context necessary for describing and interpreting the relationship between landscape pattern and the distribution of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) in western Oregon, U.S.A. The distribution of coastal cutthroat trout was highly autocorrelated and exhibited a spherical semivariogram with a defined nugget, sill, and range. Wavelet analysis of the main-stem longitudinal profile revealed periodicity in trout distribution at three nested spatial scales corresponding ostensibly to landscape disturbances and the spacing of tributary junctions.

  13. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the

  14. Miscellaneous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Hoffman, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on numerous conditions (systemic diseases, metabolic diseases, etc.) that may also affect the foot and ankle. In many cases, imaging of the foot and ankle is not performed for primary diagnostic purposes. However, radiographic changes do occur with these conditions. Therefore, it is important to be aware of radiographic abnormalities that these diseases may cause in the foot and ankle

  15. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  16. Quantifying the dilution effect for models in ecological epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M G; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2018-03-01

    The dilution effect , where an increase in biodiversity results in a reduction in the prevalence of an infectious disease, has been the subject of speculation and controversy. Conversely, an amplification effect occurs when increased biodiversity is related to an increase in prevalence. We explore the conditions under which these effects arise, using multi species compartmental models that integrate ecological and epidemiological interactions. We introduce three potential metrics for quantifying dilution and amplification, one based on infection prevalence in a focal host species, one based on the size of the infected subpopulation of that species and one based on the basic reproduction number. We introduce our approach in the simplest epidemiological setting with two species, and show that the existence and strength of a dilution effect is influenced strongly by the choices made to describe the system and the metric used to gauge the effect. We show that our method can be generalized to any number of species and to more complicated ecological and epidemiological dynamics. Our method allows a rigorous analysis of ecological systems where dilution effects have been postulated, and contributes to future progress in understanding the phenomenon of dilution in the context of infectious disease dynamics and infection risk. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Quantifying soil moisture impacts on light use efficiency across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin D; Zscheischler, Jakob; Keenan, Trevor F; Prentice, I Colin; Peñuelas, Josep; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2018-06-01

    Terrestrial primary productivity and carbon cycle impacts of droughts are commonly quantified using vapour pressure deficit (VPD) data and remotely sensed greenness, without accounting for soil moisture. However, soil moisture limitation is known to strongly affect plant physiology. Here, we investigate light use efficiency, the ratio of gross primary productivity (GPP) to absorbed light. We derive its fractional reduction due to soil moisture (fLUE), separated from VPD and greenness changes, using artificial neural networks trained on eddy covariance data, multiple soil moisture datasets and remotely sensed greenness. This reveals substantial impacts of soil moisture alone that reduce GPP by up to 40% at sites located in sub-humid, semi-arid or arid regions. For sites in relatively moist climates, we find, paradoxically, a muted fLUE response to drying soil, but reduced fLUE under wet conditions. fLUE identifies substantial drought impacts that are not captured when relying solely on VPD and greenness changes and, when seasonally recurring, are missed by traditional, anomaly-based drought indices. Counter to common assumptions, fLUE reductions are largest in drought-deciduous vegetation, including grasslands. Our results highlight the necessity to account for soil moisture limitation in terrestrial primary productivity data products, especially for drought-related assessments. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jonathan A; Santos, Maria J; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Vanderbilt, Vern C; Ustin, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range.

  19. Parkinson's Law quantified: three investigations on bureaucratic inefficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    We formulate three famous, descriptive essays of Parkinson on bureaucratic inefficiency in a quantifiable and dynamical socio-physical framework. In the first model we show how the use of recent opinion formation models for small groups can be used to understand Parkinson's observation that decision-making bodies such as cabinets or boards become highly inefficient once their size exceeds a critical 'Coefficient of Inefficiency', typically around 20. A second observation of Parkinson—which is sometimes referred to as Parkinson's Law—is that the growth of bureaucratic or administrative bodies usually goes hand in hand with a drastic decrease of its overall efficiency. In our second model we view a bureaucratic body as a system of a flow of workers, who enter, become promoted to various internal levels within the system over time, and leave the system after having served for a certain time. Promotion usually is associated with an increase of subordinates. Within the proposed model it becomes possible to work out the phase diagram under which conditions of bureaucratic growth can be confined. In our last model we assign individual efficiency curves to workers throughout their life in administration, and compute the optimum time to give them the old age pension, in order to ensure a maximum of efficiency within the body—in Parkinson's words we compute the 'Pension Point'.

  20. A new approach to quantify safety benefits of disaster robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inn Seock Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote response technology has advanced to the extent that a robot system, if properly designed and deployed, may greatly help respond to beyond-design-basis accidents at nuclear power plants. Particularly in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident, there is increasing interest in developing disaster robots that can be deployed in lieu of a human operator to the field to perform mitigating actions in the harsh environment caused by extreme natural hazards. The nuclear robotics team of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI is also endeavoring to construct disaster robots and, first of all, is interested in finding out to what extent safety benefits can be achieved by such a disaster robotic system. This paper discusses a new approach based on the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA technique, which can be used to quantify safety benefits associated with disaster robots, along with a case study for seismic-induced station blackout condition. The results indicate that to avoid core damage in this special case a robot system with reliability > 0.65 is needed because otherwise core damage is inevitable. Therefore, considerable efforts are needed to improve the reliability of disaster robots, because without assurance of high reliability, remote response techniques will not be practically used.