WorldWideScience

Sample records for condensed matter systems

  1. Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2016-12-01

    The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum chiral anomaly [S. L. Adler. Axial-vector vertex in spinor electrodynamics. Physical Review, 177, 2426 (1969), J. S. Bell and R. Jackiw. A PCAC puzzle: π 0 γγin the σ-model. Il Nuovo Cimento A, 60, 47-61 (1969)] in systems possessing charged chiral fermions. In quark-gluon plasma containing nearly massless quarks, the chirality imbalance is sourced by the topological transitions. In condensed matter systems, the chiral quasiparticles emerge in gapless semiconductors with two energy bands having pointlike degeneracies opening the path to the study of chiral anomaly [H. B. Nielsen and M. Ninomiya. The Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly and Weyl fermions in a crystal. Physics Letters B, 130, 389-396 (1983)]. Recently, these novel materials - so-called Dirac and Weyl semimetals have been discovered experimentally, are suitable for the investigation of the CME in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first experimental observation of the CME in a 3D Dirac semimetal ZrTe5 [Q. Li, D. E. Kharzeev, C. Zhang, Y. Huang, I. Pletikosić, A. V. Fedorov, R. D. Zhong, J. A. Schneeloch, G. D. Gu, and T. Valla. Chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe5. Nature Physics (2016) doi:10.1038/nphys3648].

  2. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  3. Condensed-Matter Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jorge E.; Scalapino, Douglas J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses ways computers are being used in condensed-matter physics by experimenters and theorists. Experimenters use them to control experiments and to gather and analyze data. Theorists use them for detailed predictions based on realistic models and for studies on systems not realizable in practice. (JN)

  4. Fröhlich Condensate: Emergence of Synergetic Dissipative Structures in Information Processing Biological and Condensed Matter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Luzzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the case of a peculiar complex behavior in open boson systems sufficiently away from equilibrium, having relevance in the functioning of information-processing biological and condensed matter systems. This is the so-called Fröhlich–Bose–Einstein condensation, a self-organizing-synergetic dissipative structure, a phenomenon apparently working in biological processes and present in several cases of systems of boson-like quasi-particles in condensed inorganic matter. Emphasis is centered on the quantum-mechanical-statistical irreversible thermodynamics of these open systems, and the informational characteristics of the phenomena.

  5. Non-Abelian gauge theories : analogies in condensed matter systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, Bart W.A.

    2007-01-01

    The work in this thesis is written with the following question in mind: does the physics investigated in colliders like the one at CERN have its counterpart in phenomena like superfluidity and superconductivity? More precisely, this thesis focuses on the condensed matter parallel of non-Abelian

  6. Topology in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, M I

    2006-01-01

    This book reports new results in condensed matter physics for which topological methods and ideas are important. It considers, on the one hand, recently discovered systems such as carbon nanocrystals and, on the other hand, new topological methods used to describe more traditional systems such as the Fermi surfaces of normal metals, liquid crystals and quasicrystals. The authors of the book are renowned specialists in their fields and present the results of ongoing research, some of it obtained only very recently and not yet published in monograph form.

  7. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  8. Condensed Matter Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altland, Alexander; Simons, Ben

    2006-06-01

    Over the past few decades, in concert with ground-breaking experimental advances, condensed matter theory has drawn increasingly from the language of low-energy quantum field theory. This primer is aimed at elevating graduate students of condensed matter theory to a level where they can engage in independent research. It emphasizes the development of modern methods of classical and quantum field theory with applications oriented around condensed matter physics. Topics covered include second quantization, path and functional field integration, mean-field theory and collective phenomena, the renormalization group, and topology. Conceptual aspects and formal methodology are emphasized, but the discussion is rooted firmly in practical experimental application. As well as routine exercises, the text includes extended and challenging problems, with fully worked solutions, designed to provide a bridge between formal manipulations and research-oriented thinking. This book will complement graduate level courses on theoretical quantum condensed matter physics. Spans the field of modern condensed matter theory focusing on field theory techniques Written to facilitate learning, with numerous challenging exercises, with fully worked solutions, aimed at physicists starting graduate-level courses The theoretical methods are firmly set in concrete experimental applications

  9. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  10. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    entire liquid or solid. The variety of electronic behaviour which ... sity of electronic behaviour in condensed matter, ego ferro- ..... a big dog? We do not know the reasons yet. As it turns out for many fundamentally interesting phenomena, colossal magneto- resistance may also find applications, this time in magnetic recording.

  11. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Electrons in Condensed Matter. T V Ramakrishnan. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 17-32. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/12/0017-0032 ...

  12. Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    A modern, unified treatment of condensed matter physics This new work presents for the first time in decades a sweeping review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching "not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, electron interference in nanometer-sized channels, and the quantum Hall effect." Six major areas are covered---atomic structure, electronic structure, mechanical properties, electron transport, optical properties, and magnetism. But rather than defining the field in terms of particular materials, the author focuses on the way condensed matter physicists approach physical problems, combining phenomenology and microscopic arguments with information from experiments. For graduate students and professionals, researchers and engineers, applied mathematicians and materials scientists, Condensed Matter Physics provides: * An exciting collection of new topics from the past two decades. * A thorough treatment of classic topics, including band theory, transport theory, and semiconductor physics. * Over 300 figures, incorporating many images from experiments. * Frequent comparison of theory and experiment, both when they agree and when problems are still unsolved. * More than 50 tables of data and a detailed index. * Ample end-of-chapter problems, including computational exercises. * Over 1000 references, both recent and historically significant.

  13. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  14. Topological phases in condensed matter systems: A study of symmetries, quasiparticles and phase transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaker, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on topological phases in condensed matter systems. It can be roughly divided into two parts. In the first part noninteracting systems are studied. The symmetry algebra of a charged spin-1/2 particle coupled to a non-Abelian magnetic field is determined,

  15. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  16. Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Martin Matthias

    2010-07-07

    DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further

  17. Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Ipsen, J. H.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution biomolecular systems are analyzed in a framework of differential geometry in order to derive important condensed matter physics information. In the first section lipid bi-layer membranes are examined with respect to statistical properties and topology, e.g. a relation between...

  18. Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, H.; Ipsen, John Hjort; Markvorsen, S

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution biomolecular systems are analyzed in a framework of differential geometry in order to derive important condensed matter physics information. In the first section lipid bi-layer membranes axe examined with respect to statistical properties and topology, e.g. a relation between...

  19. Soft Condensed Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Richard A L

    2002-11-20

    The author states in the preface of the book that the aim is '...to give a unified overview of the various aspects of the physics of soft condensed matter'. The book succeeds in fulfilling this aim in many respects. The style is fluent and concise and gives the necessary explanations to make its content understandable to people with some knowledge of the basic principles of physics. The content of the book is complete enough to give a panoramic view of the landscape of soft condensed matter. The first two chapters give, respectively, a short introduction and a presentation of forces, energies and timescales, giving a general overview and pointing out the particular importance of different aspects such as timescales, which are much more important in soft condensed matter than in traditional or 'hard' condensed matter. The next chapter, devoted to phase transition, recalls that the equilibrium between two phases is controlled by free energy considerations. Spinodal decomposition is presented as a counterpart of nucleation and growth. Again, characteristic length scales are considered and applied to a phase separation mixture of polymers in a common solvent. The following three chapters are devoted respectively to specific topics: colloidal dispersion, polymers and gelation. The stability and phase behaviour of colloids are related to the interaction between colloidal particles. Properties of colloidal crystals as well as colloidal dispersion are depicted in terms of stabilization of crystalline colloids. The flow properties of colloidal dispersion are presented in terms of free energy minimization and the structure of the dispersion. After a brief introduction to polymer chemistry and architecture, the coil-globule transition is discussed. Viscoelasticity of polymers is described and discussed by introducing the notion of entanglement. This leads to the introduction of the tube model and the theory of reptation. The sol-gel transition is presented

  20. Doped semiconductors and semiconductor devices as model systems for fundamental condensed matter physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, K.-F.

    1983-02-01

    Doped semiconductors and semiconductor devices are discussed with emphasis on fundamental physical phenomena. It is argued that such systems are ideal model systems for condensed matter physics in general. This view point is illustrated by a few examples such as the amorphous antiferromagnetism associated with non-metallic Si:P and effects of weak localization in metallic Si:P and a GaAs field effect transistor.

  1. Why more is different philosophical issues in condensed matter physics and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The physics of condensed matter, in contrast to quantum physics or cosmology, is not traditionally associated with deep philosophical questions. However, as science - largely thanks to more powerful computers - becomes capable of analysing and modelling ever more complex many-body systems, basic questions of philosophical relevance arise. Questions about the emergence of structure, the nature of cooperative behaviour, the implications of the second law,  the quantum-classical transition and many other issues. This book is a collection of essays by leading physicists and philosophers. Each investigates one or more of these issues, making use of examples from modern condensed matter research.  Physicists and philosophers alike will find surprising and stimulating ideas in these pages.

  2. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  3. Quantum entanglement based on surface phonon polaritons in condensed matter systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ming

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface phonon polariton (SPhP is a special propagation mode in condensed matter systems. We present an investigation on the entanglement of SPhP modes. The entangled SPhP pairs are generated through launching entangled photons onto the grating coupling systems. The interaction Hamiltonian for the coupling process between entangled photons and entangled LRSPhPs is derived. State vector of the entangled LRSPhPs is obtained through the perturbation theory. The origin of LRSPhP entanglement is revealed. Wave mechanics approach is taken to describe the coupling process as an alteration. To present the nonlocality, the second-order correlation function is studied.

  4. Topological states of condensed matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Topological states of quantum matter have been investigated intensively in recent years in materials science and condensed matter physics. The field developed explosively largely because of the precise theoretical predictions, well-controlled materials processing, and novel characterization techniques. In this Perspective, we review recent progress in topological insulators, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, chiral topological superconductors, helical topological superconductors and Weyl semimetals.

  5. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  6. Muonic Chemistry in Condensed Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    When polarized muons (@m|+) stop in condensed matter, muonic atoms are formed in the final part of their range, and direct measurements of the @m|+-spin polarization are possible via the asymmetric decay into positrons. The hyperfine interaction determines the characteristic precession frequencies of the @m|+ spin in muonium, @w(Mu). Such frequencies can be altered by the interactions of the muonium's electron spin with the surrounding medium. The measurement of @w(Mu) in a condensed system is known often to provide unique information regarding the system. \\\\ \\\\ In particular, the use of muonium atoms as a light isotope of the simple reactive radical H|0 allows the investigation of fast reactions of radicals over a typical time scale 10|-|9~@$<$~t~@$<$~10|-|5~sec, which is determined by the instrumental resolution at one end and by the @m|+ lifetime at the other. \\\\ \\\\ In biological macromolecules transient radicals, such as the constituents of DNA itself, exist on a time scale of sub-microseconds, acco...

  7. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding

  8. Field theories of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fradkin, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Presenting the physics of the most challenging problems in condensed matter using the conceptual framework of quantum field theory, this book is of great interest to physicists in condensed matter and high energy and string theorists, as well as mathematicians. Revised and updated, this second edition features new chapters on the renormalization group, the Luttinger liquid, gauge theory, topological fluids, topological insulators and quantum entanglement. The book begins with the basic concepts and tools, developing them gradually to bring readers to the issues currently faced at the frontiers of research, such as topological phases of matter, quantum and classical critical phenomena, quantum Hall effects and superconductors. Other topics covered include one-dimensional strongly correlated systems, quantum ordered and disordered phases, topological structures in condensed matter and in field theory and fractional statistics.

  9. Condensed Matter Theories - Volume 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Röpke, Gerd; de Llano, Manuel

    2007-09-01

    pke -- pt. H. Biophysics. Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework / H. Bohr, J.I. Ipsen and S. Markvorsen. The brain's view of the natural world in motion: computing structure from function using directional Fourier transformations / B.K. Dellen, J.W. Clark and R. Wessel -- pt. I. Quantum information. Control and error prevention in condensed matter quantum computing devices / M.S. Byrd and L.A. Wu. Maxent approaches to qubits / C.M. Sarris, A.N. Proto and F B. Malik -- pt. J. New formalisms. Thermal coherent states, a broader class of mixed coherent states, and generalized thermo-field dynamics / R.F. Bishop and A. Vourdas. Ergodic condition and magnetic models / M. Howard Lee. From thermodynamics to Maxent / A. Plastino and E. M.F. Curado. Recent progress in the density-matrix renormalization group / U. Schollwöck.

  10. TEN YEARS OF "CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS"

    OpenAIRE

    Editors

    2003-01-01

    This year the journal "Condensed Matter Physics" celebrates its tenth anniversary. It was founded in 1993 by the Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for the purpose of publishing the regular and review papers in the field of statistical mechanics and condensed matter theory.

  11. Skyrmions in condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jung Hoon

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes some of the most exciting theoretical developments in the topological phenomena of skyrmions in noncentrosymmetric magnetic systems over recent decades. After presenting pedagogical backgrounds to the Berry phase and homotopy theory, the author systematically discusses skyrmions in the order of their development, from the Ginzburg-Landau theory, CP1 theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert theory, and Monte Carlo numerical approaches. Modern topics, such as the skyrmion-electron interaction, skyrmion-magnon interaction, and various generation mechanisms of the skyrmion are examined with a focus on their general theoretical aspects. The book concludes with a chapter on the skyrmion phenomena in the cold atom context. The topics are presented at a level accessible to beginning graduate students without a substantial background in field theory. The book can also be used as a text for those who wish to engage in the physics of skyrmions in magnetic systems, or as an introduction to the various theoret...

  12. Advances in condensed matter optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Liangyao; Jiang, Xunya; Jin, Kuijuan; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    This book describes some of the more recent progresses and developmentsin the study of condensed matter optics in both theoretic and experimental fields.It will help readers, especially graduate students and scientists who are studying and working in the nano-photonic field, to understand more deeply the characteristics of light waves propagated in nano-structure-based materials with potential applications in the future.

  13. Realization of Massive Relativistic Spin- 3 / 2 Rarita-Schwinger Quasiparticle in Condensed Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng; Luo, Xi; Du, Yongping; Yu, Yue; Wan, Xiangang

    Very recently, there has been significant progress in realizing high-energy particles in condensed matter system (CMS) such as the Dirac, Weyl and Majorana fermions. Besides the spin-1/2 particles, the spin-3/2 elementary particle, known as the Rarita-Schwinger (RS) fermion, has not been observed or simulated in the laboratory. The main obstacle of realizing RS fermion in CMS lies in the nontrivial constraints that eliminate the redundant degrees of freedom in its representation of the Poincaré group. In this Letter, we propose a generic method that automatically contains the constraints in the Hamiltonian and prove the RS modes always exist and can be separated from the other non-RS bands. Through symmetry considerations, we show that the two dimensional (2D) massive RS (M-RS) quasiparticle can emerge in several trigonal and hexagonal lattices. Based on ab initio calculations, we predict that the thin film of CaLiX (X=Ge and Si) may host 2D M-RS excitations near the Fermi level. and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing 210093, China.

  14. Stellar matter with pseudoscalar condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, A.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICCUB), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Andrianov, V.A.; Kolevatov, S.S. [Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Espriu, D. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICCUB), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    In this work we consider how the appearance of gradients of pseudoscalar condensates in dense systems may possibly influence the transport properties of photons in such a medium as well as other thermodynamic characteristics. We adopt the hypothesis that in regions where the pseudoscalar density gradient is large the properties of photons and fermions are governed by the usual lagrangian extended with a Chern-Simons interaction for photons and a constant axial field for fermions. We find that these new pieces in the lagrangian produce non-trivial reflection coefficients both for photons and fermions when entering or leaving a region where the pseudoscalar has a non-zero gradient. A varying pseudoscalar density may also lead to instability of some fermion and boson modes and modify some properties of the Fermi sea. We speculate that some of these modifications could influence the cooling rate of stellar matter (for instance in compact stars) and have other observable consequences. While quantitative results may depend on the precise astrophysical details most of the consequences are quite universal and consideration should be given to this possibility. (orig.)

  15. Holography, Gravity and Condensed Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartnoll, Sean [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-12-20

    Over the five years of funding from this grant, I produced 26 publications. These include a book-long monograph on "Holographic Quantum Matter" that is currently in press with MIT press. The remainder were mostly published in Physical Review Letters, the Journal of High Energy Physics, Nature Physics, Classical and Quantum Gravity and Physical Review B. Over this period, the field of holography applied to condensed matter physics developed from a promising theoretical approach to a mature conceptual and practical edifice, whose ideas were realized in experiments. My own work played a central role in this development. In particular, in the final year of this grant, I co-authored two experimental papers in which ideas that I had developed in earlier years were shown to usefully describe transport in strongly correlated materials — these papers were published in Science and in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (obviously my contribution to these papers was theoretical). My theoretical work in this period developed several new directions of research that have proven to be influential. These include (i) The construction of highly inhomogeneous black hole event horizons, realizing disordered fixed points and describing new regimes of classical gravity, (ii) The conjecture of a bound on diffusivities that could underpin transport in strongly interacting media — an idea which may be proven in the near future and has turned out to be intimately connected to studies of quantum chaos in black holes and strongly correlated media, (iii) The characterization of new forms of hydrodynamic transport, e.g. with phase-disordered order parameters. These studies pertain to key open questions in our understanding of how non-quasiparticle, intrinsically strongly interacting systems can behave. In addition to the interface between holography and strongly interacting condensed matter systems, I made several advances on understanding the role of entanglement in quantum

  16. Condensed Matter Theories: Volume 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeña, Eduardo V.; Bishop, Raymond F.; Iza, Peter

    2011-03-01

    pt. A. Fermi and Bose fluids, exotic systems. Reemergence of the collective mode in [symbol]He and electron layers / H. M. Bohm ... [et al.]. Dissecting and testing collective and topological scenarios for the quantum critical point / J. W. Clark, V. A. Khodel and M. V. Zverev. Helium on nanopatterned surfaces at finite temperature / E. S. Hernandez ... [et al.]. Towards DFT calculations of metal clusters in quantum fluid matrices / S. A. Chin ... [et al.]. Acoustic band gap formation in metamaterials / D. P. Elford ... [et al.]. Dissipative processes in low density strongly interacting 2D electron systems / D. Neilson. Dynamical spatially resolved response function of finite 1-D nano plasmas / T. Raitza, H. Reinholz and G. Ropke. Renormalized bosons and fermions / K. A. Gernoth and M. L. Ristig. Light clusters in nuclear matter / G. Ropke -- pt. B. Quantum magnets, quantum dynamics and phase transitions. Magnetic ordering of antiferromagnets on a spatially anisotropic triangular lattice / R. F. Bishop ... [et al.]. Thermodynamic detection of quantum phase transitions / M. K. G. Kruse ... [et al.]. The SU(2) semi quantum systems dynamics and thermodynamics / C. M. Sarris and A. N. Proto -- pt. C. Physics of nanosystems and nanotechnology. Quasi-one dimensional fluids that exhibit higher dimensional behavior / S. M. Gatica ... [et al.]. Spectral properties of molecular oligomers. A non-Markovian quantum state diffusion approach / J. Roden, W. T. Strunz and A. Eisfeld. Quantum properties in transport through nanoscopic rings: Charge-spin separation and interference effects / K. Hallberg, J. Rincon and S. Ramasesha. Cooperative localization-delocalization in the high T[symbol] cuprates / J. Ranninger. Thermodynamically stable vortex states in superconducting nanowires / W. M. Wu, M. B. Sobnack and F. V. Kusmartsev.pt. D. Quantum information. Quantum information in optical lattices / A. M. Guzman and M. A. Duenas E. -- pt. E. Theory and applications of molecular

  17. Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    The 1970's and 1980's can be considered the third stage in the explosive development of condensed matter physics. After the very intensive research of the 1930's and 1940's, which followed the formulation of quantum mechanics, and the path-breaking activity of the 1950's and 1960's, the problems being faced now are much more complex and not always susceptible to simple modelling. The (subjectively) open problems discussed here are: high temperature superconductivity, its properties and the possible new mechanisms which lead to it; the integral and fractional quantum Hall effects; new forms of order in condensed-matter systems; the physics of disorder, especially the problem of spin glasses; the physics of complex anisotropic systems; the theoretical prediction of stable and metastable states of matter; the physics of highly correlated states (heavy fermions); the physics of artificially made structures, in particular heterostructures and highly metastable states of matter; the determination of the microscopic structure of surfaces; and chaos and highly nonlinear phnomena. 82 refs.

  18. Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    . This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...

  19. Topology and condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mj, Mahan; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces aspects of topology and applications to problems in condensed matter physics. Basic topics in mathematics have been introduced in a form accessible to physicists, and the use of topology in quantum, statistical and solid state physics has been developed with an emphasis on pedagogy. The aim is to bridge the language barrier between physics and mathematics, as well as the different specializations in physics. Pitched at the level of a graduate student of physics, this book does not assume any additional knowledge of mathematics or physics. It is therefore suited for advanced postgraduate students as well. A collection of selected problems will help the reader learn the topics on one's own, and the broad range of topics covered will make the text a valuable resource for practising researchers in the field.  The book consists of two parts: one corresponds to developing the necessary mathematics and the other discusses applications to physical problems. The section on mathematics is a qui...

  20. Stimulated emission of dark matter axion from condensed matter excitations

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoi, Naoto; Saitoh, Eiji

    2018-01-01

    We discuss a possible principle for detecting dark matter axions in galactic halos. If axions constitute a condensate in the Milky Way, stimulated emissions of the axions from a type of excitation in condensed matter can be detectable. We provide general mechanism for the dark matter emission, and, as a concrete example, an emission of dark matter axions from magnetic vortex strings in a type II superconductor is investigated along with possible experimental signatures.

  1. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some "the elementary particles of arithmetic" as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called "the elementary particles of physics" too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles/spheres in 2D/3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable number in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This "number/physical" stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger stable prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show convincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that of the masses of

  2. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some “the elementary particles of arithmetic” as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called “the elementary particles of physics” too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles / spheres in 2D / 3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable num- ber in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This “number / physical” stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger sta- ble prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show con- vincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that

  3. Essay: fifty years of condensed matter physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2008-12-19

    Since the birth of Physical Review Letters fifty years ago, condensed matter physics has seen considerable growth, and both the journal and the field have flourished during this period. In this essay, I begin with some general comments about condensed matter physics and then give some personal views on the conceptual development of the field and list some highlights. The focus is mostly on theoretical developments.

  4. Condensed matter applied atomic collision physics, v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Datz, Sheldon

    1983-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 4: Condensed Matter deals with the fundamental knowledge of collision processes in condensed media.The book focuses on the range of applications of atomic collisions in condensed matter, extending from effects on biological systems to the characterization and modification of solids. This volume begins with the description of some aspects of the physics involved in the production of ion beams. The radiation effects in biological and chemical systems, ion scattering and atomic diffraction, x-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron and Auger spectrosc

  5. Spatially inhomogeneous condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedrakian, A

    We study the isospin singlet pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter with nonzero total momentum of the condensate Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum is fourfold split compared to the usual BCS spectrum of the symmetric, homogeneous matter. A twofold splitting of the spectrum into

  6. Order and chaos in soft condensed matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 67; Issue 1. Order and chaos in soft condensed matter. A K Sood Rajesh Ganapathy. Volume 67 Issue ... Soft matter, like colloidal suspensions and surfactant gels, exhibit strong response to modest external perturbations. This paper reviews our recent experiments on ...

  7. Majorana fermions in condensed matter: An outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning

    2017-05-01

    The Majorana fermions (MFs) were firstly envisioned by Majorana in 1937 as fundamental constituents of nature, whereas experimentally thus far unobserved in the realm of fundamental particles. More recent studies have revealed that the MFs could occur in condensed matter physics as emergent quasiparticle excitations in effectively spinless p-wave topological superconductors (TS). They are shown to behave as effectively fractionalized anyons following non-Abelian braiding statistics rather than the usual Fermi or Bose exchange statistics. This extraordinary property would directly lead to a perpetually coherent and fault tolerant topological quantum computation in 2D systems. Currently the experiments searching for MFs on much more special systems are ongoing and the investigations of MFs' behavior in TS-coupled systems are also been actively pursued, with the goal of deeply understanding the fundamental physics of fractional statistics in nature, and further paving more feasible ways toward a working universal topological quantum computer.

  8. Complex Langevin simulation in condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2015-01-01

    The complex Langevin method is one hopeful candidate to tackle the sign problem. This method is applicable not only to QCD but also to nonrelativistic field theory, such as condensed matter physics. We present the simulation results of a rotating Bose gas and an imbalanced Fermi-Hubbard model.

  9. Fundamentals of neutron scattering by condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherm, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this introductory lecture is to give the basic facts about the scattering of neutrons by condensed matter. This lecture is restricted to nuclear scattering, whereas magnetic scattering will be dealt with in an other course. Most of the formalism, however, can also be easily extended to magnetic scattering. (author) 17 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  10. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES WITH INTERACTION AND THE CLUSTER FORMATION IN CONDENSED MATTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Krasnoholovets

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the behaviour of a system of particles with the different character of interaction. The approach makes it possible to describe systems of interacting particles by statistical methods taking into account a spatial nonhomogeneous distribution of particles, i.e. cluster formation. For these clusters are evaluated: their size, the number of particles in a cluster, and the temperature of phase transition to the cluster state. Three systems are under consideration: electrons on the liquid helium surface, particles interacting by the shielding Coulomb potential, which are found under the effect of an elastic field (e.g. nucleons in a nucleus, and gravitating masses with the Hubble expansion.

  11. Condensation of galactic cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visinelli, Luca [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-07-07

    We consider the steady-state regime describing the density profile of a dark matter halo, if dark matter is treated as a Bose-Einstein condensate. We first solve the fluid equation for “canonical” cold dark matter, obtaining a class of density profiles which includes the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, and which diverge at the halo core. We then solve numerically the equation obtained when an additional “quantum pressure” term is included in the computation of the density profile. The solution to this latter case is finite at the halo core, possibly avoiding the “cuspy halo problem” present in some cold dark matter theories. Within the model proposed, we predict the mass of the cold dark matter particle to be of the order of M{sub χ}c{sup 2}≈10{sup −24} eV, which is of the same order of magnitude as that predicted in ultra-light scalar cold dark matter models. Finally, we derive the differential equation describing perturbations in the density and the pressure of the dark matter fluid.

  12. Condensation of galactic cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visinelli, Luca

    2016-07-01

    We consider the steady-state regime describing the density profile of a dark matter halo, if dark matter is treated as a Bose-Einstein condensate. We first solve the fluid equation for ``canonical'' cold dark matter, obtaining a class of density profiles which includes the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, and which diverge at the halo core. We then solve numerically the equation obtained when an additional ``quantum pressure'' term is included in the computation of the density profile. The solution to this latter case is finite at the halo core, possibly avoiding the ``cuspy halo problem'' present in some cold dark matter theories. Within the model proposed, we predict the mass of the cold dark matter particle to be of the order of Mχ c2 ≈ 10-24 eV, which is of the same order of magnitude as that predicted in ultra-light scalar cold dark matter models. Finally, we derive the differential equation describing perturbations in the density and the pressure of the dark matter fluid.

  13. Holographic duality in condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaanen, Jan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Schalm, Koenraad

    2015-01-01

    A pioneering treatise presenting how the new mathematical techniques of holographic duality unify seemingly unrelated fields of physics. This innovative development morphs quantum field theory, general relativity and the renormalisation group into a single computational framework and this book is the first to bring together a wide range of research in this rapidly developing field. Set within the context of condensed matter physics and using boxes highlighting the specific techniques required, it examines the holographic description of thermal properties of matter, Fermi liquids and superconductors, and hitherto unknown forms of macroscopically entangled quantum matter in terms of general relativity, stars and black holes. Showing that holographic duality can succeed where classic mathematical approaches fail, this text provides a thorough overview of this major breakthrough at the heart of modern physics. The inclusion of extensive introductory material using non-technical language and online Mathematica not...

  14. Diffusion in condensed matter methods, materials, models

    CERN Document Server

    Kärger, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement is a phenomenon of crucial relevance for a large variety of processes and materials. This comprehensive, handbook- style survey of diffusion in condensed matter gives detailed insight into diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement. Leading experts in the field describe in 23 chapters the different aspects of diffusion, covering microscopic and macroscopic experimental techniques and exemplary results for various classes of solids, liquids and interfaces as well as several theoretical concepts and models. Students and scientists in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology will benefit from this detailed compilation.

  15. Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2004-01-01

    From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.

  16. Attosecond science in atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Stephen R; Neumark, Daniel M

    2016-12-16

    Attosecond science represents a new frontier in atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics, enabling one to probe the exceedingly fast dynamics associated with purely electronic dynamics in a wide range of systems. This paper presents a brief discussion of the technology required to generate attosecond light pulses and gives representative examples of attosecond science carried out in several laboratories. Attosecond transient absorption, a very powerful method in attosecond science, is then reviewed and several examples of gas phase and condensed phase experiments that have been carried out in the Leone/Neumark laboratories are described.

  17. The Solar Photosphere: Evidence for Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P. M.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The stellar equations of state treat the Sun much like an ideal gas, wherein the photosphere is viewed as a sparse gaseous plasma. The temperatures inferred in the solar interior give some credence to these models, especially since it is counterintuitive that an object with internal temperatures in excess of 1 MK could be existing in the liquid state. Nonetheless, extreme temperatures, by themselves, are insufficient evidence for the states of matter. The presence of magnetic fields and gravity also impact the expected phase. In the end, it is the physical expression of a state that is required in establishing the proper phase of an object. The photosphere does not lend itself easily to treatment as a gaseous plasma. The physical evidence can be more simply reconciled with a solar body and a photosphere in the condensed state. A discussion of each physical feature follows: (1 the thermal spectrum, (2 limb darkening, (3 solar collapse, (4 the solar density, (5 seismic activity, (6 mass displacement, (7 the chromosphere and critical opalescence, (8 shape, (9 surface activity, (10 photospheric/coronal flows, (11 photospheric imaging, (12 the solar dynamo, and (13 the presence of Sun spots. The explanation of these findings by the gaseous models often requires an improbable combination of events, such as found in the stellar opacity problem. In sharp contrast, each can be explained with simplicity by the condensed state. This work is an invitation to reconsider the phase of the Sun.

  18. Statistical mechanics and applications in condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Castro, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This innovative and modular textbook combines classical topics in thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and many-body theory with the latest developments in condensed matter physics research. Written by internationally renowned experts and logically structured to cater for undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers, it covers the underlying theoretical principles and includes numerous problems and worked examples to put this knowledge into practice. Three main streams provide a framework for the book; beginning with thermodynamics and classical statistical mechanics, including mean field approximation, fluctuations and the renormalization group approach to critical phenomena. The authors then examine quantum statistical mechanics, covering key topics such as normal Fermi and Luttinger liquids, superfluidity and superconductivity. Finally, they explore classical and quantum kinetics, Anderson localization and quantum interference, and disordered Fermi liquids. Unique in providing a bridge between ...

  19. Yield stress materials in soft condensed matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Daniel; Denn, Morton M.; Berthier, Ludovic; Divoux, Thibaut; Manneville, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear flow behavior in response to external mechanical forces due to the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur: the yield stress. Both the physical origin and rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior are discussed and an overview is given of experimental techniques available to measure the yield stress. Recent progress is discussed concerning a microscopic theoretical description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing, in particular, the role played by relaxation time scales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and nonlocal effects in confined geometries.

  20. Aperiodic structures in condensed matter fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Macia Barber, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    One of the Top Selling Physics Books according to YBP Library ServicesOrder can be found in all the structures unfolding around us at different scales, including in the arrangements of matter and in energy flow patterns. Aperiodic Structures in Condensed Matter: Fundamentals and Applications focuses on a special kind of order referred to as aperiodic order.The book covers several topics dealing with the role of aperiodic order in numerous domains of the physical sciences and technology. It first presents the most characteristic features of various aperiodic systems. The author then describes t

  1. Order and chaos in soft condensed matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pensions, surfactant gels and polymeric systems are just a few examples [1]. Soft matter is middle ground between two extremes: the fluid state, where thermal fluctuations are very important, and the solid state. However diverse these sys- tems are, they share certain common features: (i) The constituents that make up soft ...

  2. Physics through the 1990s: Condensed-matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents the current status of condensed-matter physics from developments since the 1970s to opportunities in the 1990s. Topics include electronic structure, vibrational properties, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetism, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, surfaces and interfaces, low-temperature physics, liquid-state physics, polymers, nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and chaos. Appendices cover the connections between condensed-matter physics and applications of national interest, new experimental techniques and materials, laser spectroscopy, and national facilities for condensed-matter physics research. The needs of the research community regarding support for individual researchers and for national facilities are presented, as are recommendations for improved government-academic-industrial relations.

  3. Shock wave compression of condensed matter a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Jerry W

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces the core concepts of the shock wave physics of condensed matter, taking a continuum mechanics approach to examine liquids and isotropic solids. The text primarily focuses on one-dimensional uniaxial compression in order to show the key features of condensed matter’s response to shock wave loading. The first four chapters are specifically designed to quickly familiarize physical scientists and engineers with how shock waves interact with other shock waves or material boundaries, as well as to allow readers to better understand shock wave literature, use basic data analysis techniques, and design simple 1-D shock wave experiments. This is achieved by first presenting the steady one-dimensional strain conservation laws using shock wave impedance matching, which insures conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Here, the initial emphasis is on the meaning of shock wave and mass velocities in a laboratory coordinate system. An overview of basic experimental techniques for measuring pressure...

  4. Quantum phase slips: from condensed matter to ultracold quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, C.; Abbate, S. Scaffidi; Modugno, G.

    2017-10-01

    Quantum phase slips (QPS) are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures. They have been well characterized in most condensed-matter systems, and signatures of their existence have been recently observed in superfluids based on quantum gases too. In this review, we briefly summarize the main results obtained on the investigation of phase slips from superconductors to quantum gases. In particular, we focus our attention on recent experimental results of the dissipation in one-dimensional Bose superfluids flowing along a shallow periodic potential, which show signatures of QPS. This article is part of the themed issue 'Breakdown of ergodicity in quantum systems: from solids to synthetic matter'.

  5. Shattered glass seeking the densest matter: the color glass condensate

    CERN Multimedia

    Appell, D

    2004-01-01

    "Physicists investigating heavy-particle collisions believe they are on the track of a universal form of matter, one common to very high energy particles ranging from protons to heavy nuclei such as uranium. Some think that this matter, called a color glass condensate, may explain new nuclear properties and the process of particle formation during collisions. Experimentalists have recently reported intriguing data that suggest a color glass condensate has actually formed in past work" (1 page)

  6. Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2017-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.

  7. Condensate of massive graviton and dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Katsuki; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2018-01-01

    We study coherently oscillating massive gravitons in the ghost-free bigravity theory. This coherent field can be interpreted as a condensate of the massive gravitons. We first define the effective energy-momentum tensor of the coherent massive gravitons in a curved spacetime. We then study the background dynamics of the universe and the cosmic structure formation including the effects of the coherent massive gravitons. We find that the condensate of the massive graviton behaves as a dark matt...

  8. Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia is in its forties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Physics in Colombia started to develop in the 70's as a research part of basic sciences with the acquisition, at that time, of large research equipments such as x-rays and EPR. Experimental work was soon supplemented by theoretical investigations, which led to the formation of research groups in condensed matter. In the early 80's existed such groups in five universities. In this report we present, after a short history of the main steps that guided the initial research subjects, the major areas already developed and the minor research groups that are in the stage of consolidation. Currently this type of work is done at least in 20 universities. We also show the actual numbers of researchers, publications, PhD students and laboratories discriminated in gender to complete an overview of Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia. Finally, we present a short review of the main theoretical issues that have been worked in the last decade focusing on low dimensional systems, their structural and optical properties

  9. Diagrammatics lectures on selected problems in condensed matter theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of quantum field theory methods has led to a kind of "revolution" in condensed matter theory. This resulted in the increased importance of Feynman diagrams or diagram technique. It has now become imperative for professionals in condensed matter theory to have a thorough knowledge of this method.There are many good books that cover the general aspects of diagrammatic methods. At the same time, there has been a rising need for books that describe calculations and methodical "know how" of specific problems for beginners in graduate and postgraduate courses. This unique collection

  10. Basic concept for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be used as a long-pulse neutron source for Condensed Matter research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivanco, R., E-mail: raul.vivanco.sanchez@gmail.com [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Ghiglino, A.; Vicente, J.P. de; Sordo, F.; Terrón, S.; Magán, M. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Bermejo, F.J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-11

    A model for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be operated as a source of cold neutrons for Condensed Matter research is developed at the conceptual level. Its baseline layout relies upon proven accelerator, spalattion target and fuel array technologies, and consists in a proton accelerator able to deliver some 67.5 mA of proton beam with kinetic energy 0.6 GeV, a pulse length of 2.86 ms, and repetition rate of 14 Hz. The particle beam hits a target of conventional design that is surrounded by a multiplicative core made of fissile/fertile material, composed by a subcritical array of fuel bars made of aluminium Cermet cooled by light water poisoned with boric acid. Relatively low enriched uranium is chosen as fissile material. An optimisation of several parameters is carried out, using as components of the objective function several characteristics pertaining the cold neutron pulse. The results show that the optimal device will deliver up to 80% of the cold neutron flux expected for some of the ongoing projects using a significantly lower proton beam power than that managed in such projects. The total power developed within the core rises up to 22.8 MW, and the criticality range shifts to a final k{sub eff} value of around 0.9 after the 50 days cycle.

  11. Particle Physics and Condensed Matter: The Saga Continues

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ideas from quantum field theory and topology have proved remarkably fertile in suggesting new phenomena in the quantum physics of condensed matter. Here I'll supply some broad, unifying context, both conceptual and historical, for the abundance of results reported at the Nobel Symposium on "New Forms of Matter, Topological Insulators and Superconductors". Since they distill some most basic ideas in their simplest forms, these concluding remarks might also serve, for non-specialists, as an introduction.

  12. SHM of Galaxies Embedded within Condensed Neutrino Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    We re-examine the question of condensed neutrino objects (de- generate neutrino matter) based on new calculations. The potential show-stopper issue of free-streaming light neutrinos inhibiting galaxy formation is addressed. We compute the period associated with sim- ple harmonic motion (SHM) of galaxies embedded within condensed neutrino objects. For observational consequences, we examine the ro- tational velocities of embedded galaxies using Hickson 88A (N6978) as the prototype. Finally, we point out that degenerate neutrino objects repel each other in overlap and we compute directly the repulsive force between two interesting and relevant con?gurations. An outstanding issue is whether the accompanying tidal forces generated by condensed neutrino matter on embedded galaxies give rise to galactic bulges and halos.

  13. All basic condensed matter physics phenomena and notions mirror ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A few billion years of evolutionary time and the complex process of 'selection' has given biology an opportunity to explore a variety of condensed matter phenomena and situations, some of which have been discovered by humans in the laboratory, that too only in extreme non-biological conditions such as low temperatures, ...

  14. Excitation energy transfer processes in condensed matter theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jai

    1994-01-01

    Applying a unified quantum approach, contributors offer fresh insights into the theoretical developments in the excitation energy transfer processes in condensed matter This comprehensive volume examines Frenkel and Wannier excitonic processes; rates of excitonic processes; theory of laser sputter and polymer ablation; and polarons, excitonic polarons and self-trapping

  15. Soft condensed matter: Polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D.

    1995-10-01

    Historians often characterize epochs through their dominant materials, clay, bronze, iron, and steel. From this perspective, the modern era is certainly the age of plastics. The progression from hard to soft materials suggests that the emerging era will be the age of {open_quotes}soft condensed matter.{close_quotes}

  16. The dielectric function of condensed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Keldysh, LV; Kirzhnitz, DA

    1989-01-01

    Much progress has been made in the understanding of the general properties of the dielectric function and in the calculation of this quantity for many classes of media. This volume gathers together the considerable information available and presents a detailed overview of the present status of the theory of electromagnetic response functions, whilst simultaneously covering a wide range of problems in its application to condensed matter physics.The following subjects are covered:- the dielectric function of the homogeneous electron gas, of crystalline systems, and of inh

  17. The geometric phase in quantum systems foundations, mathematical concepts, and applications in molecular and condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, Arno; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Niu, Qian; Zwanziger, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Aimed at graduate physics and chemistry students, this is the first comprehensive monograph covering the concept of the geometric phase in quantum physics from its mathematical foundations to its physical applications and experimental manifestations It contains all the premises of the adiabatic Berry phase as well as the exact Anandan-Aharonov phase It discusses quantum systems in a classical time-independent environment (time dependent Hamiltonians) and quantum systems in a changing environment (gauge theory of molecular physics) The mathematical methods used are a combination of differential geometry and the theory of linear operators in Hilbert Space As a result, the monograph demonstrates how non-trivial gauge theories naturally arise and how the consequences can be experimentally observed Readers benefit by gaining a deep understanding of the long-ignored gauge theoretic effects of quantum mechanics and how to measure them

  18. FOREWORD: International Scientific Seminars on "Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Stanislav; Ryzhii, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics'' were held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) in May - June 2014. The idea of the Seminars was to organize a series of meetings between young scientists and discuss actual problems and the latest results in Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics. There were eight Sessions: Modern Problems of Condensed Matter Physics; Laser Physics; Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter; Terahertz Optical Technology; Optical Signals Processing; Physics of Optical Strong Correlated Systems; Complex Dusty Plasma Physics; Biomediacal Applications of Photonics. Seminars were organized by the young group of scientists and students from Research and Educational Center ''Photonics and Infrared Technology'' at BMSTU. It brought a significant contribution to the development of youth science in the field of Physics and Photonics in Russia. More than 100 young scientists and students participated in the Seminars in spring - summer 2014. The International Scientific Seminars were supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant # 14-08-06030-g). This volume contains proceedings of the International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics''. Stanislav Yurchenko and Viktor Ryzhii Bauman Moscow State Technical University

  19. Statistical physics including applications to condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies -- as e.g. semiconductors or lasers -- are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  20. Equilibrium spin currents: non-Abelian gauge invariance and color diamagnetism in condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokatly, I V

    2008-09-05

    The spin-orbit (SO) interaction acts on electrons in condensed matter as an effective non-Abelian field. I show that a magnetic component of this field inevitably generates diamagnetic color currents which are just the equilibrium spin currents discussed in a condensed matter context. Since the non-Abelian magnetic field generated by SO coupling is generically nonzero, the equilibrium spin currents are universally present in any physical system, e.g., in molecules or solids with SO interaction. These universal spin currents provide an explicit realization of a non-Abelian Landau diamagnetism.

  1. Eighteenth Workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, David P; Schüttler, Heinz-Bernd; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVIII

    2006-01-01

    This volume represents a "status report" emanating from presentations made during the 18th Annual Workshop on Computer Simulations Studies in Condensed Matter Physics at the Center for Simulational Physics at the University of Georgia in March 2005. It provides a broad overview of the most recent advances in the field, spanning the range from statistical physics to soft condensed matter and biological systems. Results on nanostructures and materials are included as are several descriptions of advances in quantum simulations and quantum computing as well as.methodological advances.

  2. BES-HEP Connections: Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics, Round Table Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, Eduardo [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Maldacena, Juan [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chatterjee, Lali [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of High Energy Physics; Davenport, James W [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2015-02-02

    On February 2, 2015 the Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Basic Energy Sciences (BES) convened a Round Table discussion among a group of physicists on ‘Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics’. This was motivated by the realization that both fields deal with quantum many body problems, share many of the same challenges, use quantum field theoretical approaches and have productively interacted in the past. The meeting brought together physicists with intersecting interests to explore recent developments and identify possible areas of collaboration.... Several topics were identified as offering great opportunity for discovery and advancement in both condensed matter physics and particle physics research. These included topological phases of matter, the use of entanglement as a tool to study nontrivial quantum systems in condensed matter and gravity, the gauge-gravity duality, non-Fermi liquids, the interplay of transport and anomalies, and strongly interacting disordered systems. Many of the condensed matter problems are realizable in laboratory experiments, where new methods beyond the usual quasi-particle approximation are needed to explain the observed exotic and anomalous results. Tools and techniques such as lattice gauge theories, numerical simulations of many-body systems, and tensor networks are seen as valuable to both communities and will likely benefit from collaborative development.

  3. Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data

    CERN Document Server

    Martienssen, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Condensed Matter and Materials Science are two of the most active fields of applied physics, with a stream of discoveries in areas from superconductivity and magnetism to the optical, electronic and mechanical properties of materials. While a huge amount of data has been compiled and spread over numerous reference works, no single volume compiles the most used information. Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data provides a concise compilation of data and functional relationships from the fields of solid-state physics and materials in this 1200-page volume. The data, encapsulated in over 750 tables and 1025 illustrations, have been selected and extracted primarily from the extensive high-quality data collection Landolt-Börnstein and also from other systematic data sources and recent publications of physical and technical property data. Many chapters are authored by Landolt-Börnstein editors, including the editors of this Springer Handbook. Key Topics Fundamental Constants The International S...

  4. Fundamentals of charged particle transport in gases and condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Robson, Robert E; Hildebrandt, Malte

    2018-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive and cohesive overview of transport processes associated with all kinds of charged particles, including electrons, ions, positrons, and muons, in both gases and condensed matter. The emphasis is on fundamental physics, linking experiment, theory and applications. In particular, the authors discuss: The kinetic theory of gases, from the traditional Boltzmann equation to modern generalizations A complementary approach: Maxwell’s equations of change and fluid modeling Calculation of ion-atom scattering cross sections Extension to soft condensed matter, amorphous materials Applications: drift tube experiments, including the Franck-Hertz experiment, modeling plasma processing devices, muon catalysed fusion, positron emission tomography, gaseous radiation detectors Straightforward, physically-based arguments are used wherever possible to complement mathematical rigor.

  5. A Scientific Cloud Computing Platform for Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorissen, K.; Johnson, W.; Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Scientific Cloud Computing (SCC) makes possible calculations with high performance computational tools, without the need to purchase or maintain sophisticated hardware and software. We have recently developed an interface dubbed SC2IT that controls on-demand virtual Linux clusters within the Amazon EC2 cloud platform. Using this interface we have developed a more advanced, user-friendly SCC Platform configured especially for condensed matter calculations. This platform contains a GUI, based on a new Java version of SC2IT, that permits calculations of various materials properties. The cloud platform includes Virtual Machines preconfigured for parallel calculations and several precompiled and optimized materials science codes for electronic structure and x-ray and electron spectroscopy. Consequently this SCC makes state-of-the-art condensed matter calculations easy to access for general users. Proof-of-principle performance benchmarks show excellent parallelization and communication performance. Supported by NSF grant OCI-1048052

  6. 10th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kalia, Rajiv; Bishop, R

    1987-01-01

    The second volume of Condensed Matter Theories contains the proceedings of the 10th International Workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, U.S.A. during the week of July 21, 1986. The workshop was attended by high-energy, nuclear and condensed-matter physicists as well as materials scientists. This diverse blend of participants was in keeping with the flavor of the previous workshops. This annual series of international workshops was"started in 1977 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Subsequent'workshops were held in Trieste (Italy), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Caracas (Venezuela), Altenberg (West Germany), Granada (Spain), and San Francisco (U.S.A.). What began as a meeting of the physicists from the Western Hemisphere has expanded in the last three years into an international conference of scientists with diverse interests and backgrounds. This diversity has promoted a healthy exchange of ideas from different branches of physics and also fruitful interactions among the participants. The present volume is...

  7. Topological Insulators Dirac Equation in Condensed Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, Topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological in...

  8. An inverse problem from condensed matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ru-Yu; Shankar, Ravi; Spirn, Daniel; Uhlmann, Gunther

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing the features of a weak anisotropic background potential by the trajectories of vortex dipoles in a nonlinear Gross–Pitaevskii equation. At leading order, the dynamics of vortex dipoles are given by a Hamiltonian system. If the background potential is sufficiently smooth and flat, the background can be reconstructed using ideas from the boundary and the lens rigidity problems. We prove that reconstructions are unique, derive an approximate reconstruction formula, and present numerical examples.

  9. Statistical Mechanics and Applications in Condensed Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Castro, Carlo; Raimondi, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Preface; 1. Thermodynamics: a brief overview; 2. Kinetics; 3. From Boltzmann to Gibbs; 4. More ensembles; 5. The thermodynamic limit and its thermodynamic stability; 6. Density matrix and quantum statistical mechanics; 7. The quantum gases; 8. Mean-field theories and critical phenomena; 9. Second quantization and Hartree-Fock approximation; 10. Linear response and fluctuation-dissipation theorem in quantum systems: equilibrium and small deviations; 11. Brownian motion and transport in disordered systems; 12. Fermi liquids; 13. The Landau theory of the second order phase transitions; 14. The Landau-Wilson model for critical phenomena; 15. Superfluidity and superconductivity; 16. The scaling theory; 17. The renormalization group approach; 18. Thermal Green functions; 19. The microscopic foundations of Fermi liquids; 20. The Luttinger liquid; 21. Quantum interference effects in disordered electron systems; Appendix A. The central limit theorem; Appendix B. Some useful properties of the Euler Gamma function; Appendix C. Proof of the second theorem of Yang and Lee; Appendix D. The most probable distribution for the quantum gases; Appendix E. Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integrals; Appendix F. The Fermi gas in a uniform magnetic field: Landau diamagnetism; Appendix G. Ising and gas-lattice models; Appendix H. Sum over discrete Matsubara frequencies; Appendix I. Hydrodynamics of the two-fluid model of superfluidity; Appendix J. The Cooper problem in the theory of superconductivity; Appendix K. Superconductive fluctuations phenomena; Appendix L. Diagrammatic aspects of the exact solution of the Tomonaga Luttinger model; Appendix M. Details on the theory of the disordered Fermi liquid; References; Author index; Index.

  10. Topological insulators Dirac equation in condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2017-01-01

    This new edition presents a unified description of these insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. It derives a series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary, and describes the current status of these solutions. Readers are introduced to topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetylene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids, and topological Weyl semimetals, helping them to better understand this fascinating field. To reflect research advances in topological insulators, several parts of the book have been updated for the second edition, including: Spin-Triplet Superconductors, Superconductivity in Doped Topological Insulators, Detection of Majorana Fermions and so on. In particular, the book features a new chapter on Weyl semimetals, a topic that has attracted considerable attention and has already b...

  11. Condensed matter applications of AdS/CFT (I)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    These lectures will discuss the application of ads/cft techniques to condensed matter systems. After motivating this endeavor, I will review the basic features of the ads/cft correspondence that will be used. I will review the physics of spectral functions and how they can be computed via AdS/CFT. Holographic superconductors will be discussed. The lectures will conclude with a discussion of open questions and future directions. References: - Holographic Superconductors. Sean A. Hartnoll, Christopher P. Herzog, Gary T. Horowitz, JHEP 0812:015,2008, arXiv:0810.1563 [hep-th] - Ohm's Law at strong coupling: S duality and the cyclotron resonance, Sean A. Hartnoll, Christopher P. Herzog,  Phys.Rev.D76:106012,2007, arXiv:0706.3228 [hep-th] - Gravity duals for non-relativistic CFTs. Koushik Balasubramanian, John McGreevy,  Phys.Rev.Lett.101:061601,2008, arXiv:0804.4053 [hep-th] - Toward an AdS/cold atoms correspondence: A Geometric realization of the Schrodinger symmetry. D.T. Son, Phys.Rev.D78:0...

  12. 13th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This volume gathers the invited talks of the XIII International Work­ shop on Condensed Matter Theories which took place in Campos do Jordao near Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 6-12, 1989. It contains contributions in a wide variety of fields including neutral quantum and classical fluids, electronic systems, composite materials, plasmas, atoms, molecules and nuclei, and as this year's workshop reflected the natural preoccupation in materials science with its spectacular prospect for mankind, room tempera­ ture super-conductivity. All topics are treated from a common viewpoint: that of many-body physics, whether theoretical or simu1ational. Since the very first workshop, held at the prestigious Instituto de Fisica Teorica in Sao Paulo, and organized by the same organizer of the 1989 workshop, Professor Valdir Casaca Aguilera-Navarro, the meeting has taken place annually six times in Latin America, four in Europe and three in the United States. Its principal objective has been to innitiate and nurture collaborati...

  13. Three principles of quantum gravity in the condensed matter approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Research on quantum gravity (QG) has historically relied on appeals to guiding principles. This essay frames three such principles within the context of the condensed matter approach to QG. I first identify two distinct versions of this approach, and then consider the extent to which the principles of asymptotic safety, relative locality, and holography are supported by these versions. The general hope is that a focus on distinct versions of a single approach may provide insight into the conceptual and foundational significance of these principles.

  14. Nanophenomena at surfaces fundamentals of exotic condensed matter phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Michailov, Michail

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in nanoscale surface physics. It outlines contemporary trends in the field covering a wide range of topical areas: atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces, molecular films and polymer adsorption, biologically inspired nanophysics, surface design and pattern formation, and computer modeling of interfacial phenomena. Bridging 'classical' and 'nano' concepts, the present volume brings attention to the physical background of exotic condensed-matter properties. The book is devoted to Iwan Stranski and Rostislaw Kaischew, remarkable scientists, who played

  15. Pulsed-neutron techniques for condensed-matter research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Jorgensen, J.D.; Price, D.L.; Kamitakahara, W.

    1981-01-01

    Pulsed spallation sources are reviewed in a historical content as the latest generation of neutron sources in a line that started with the discovery of the neutron in 1932 and proceeded through research-reactor and accelerator-driven sources. The characteristics of the spallation sources are discussed in relation to their capabilities for structural and dynamical studies of condensed matter with slow neutrons and radiation effects research with fast neutrons. The new scientific opportunities opened up in these fields by the unique features of the sources are briefly reviewed, with some examples of completed work and experiments being planned.

  16. Non-Commutative Mechanics in Mathematical & in Condensed Matter Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Horváthy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-commutative structures were introduced, independently and around the same time, in mathematical and in condensed matter physics (see Table 1. Souriau's construction applied to the two-parameter central extension of the planar Galilei group leads to the ''exotic'' particle, which has non-commuting position coordinates. A Berry-phase argument applied to the Bloch electron yields in turn a semiclassical model that has been used to explain the anomalous/spin/optical Hall effects. The non-commutative parameter is momentum-dependent in this case, and can take the form of a monopole in momentum space.

  17. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condensate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-29

    Preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Condensate System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides a collection point for condensate generated by the W-030 primary vent offgas cooling system serving tanks AYIOI, AY102, AZIOI, AZI02. The system is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell and consists of a condensate seal pot, sampling features, a drain line to existing Catch Tank 241-AZ-151, and a cell sump jet pump. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  18. Removal of particle matter from dust-vapor-gas mixture in condenser with inclined tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, L. V.; Gogonin, I. I.

    2012-03-01

    The article presents results of the research of particulate matter and droplets removal on inclined tubes of the flue gas cleaning condenser in the process of vapor condensation of vapor-and-gas emissions from kraft pulp production.

  19. All basic condensed matter physics phenomena and notions mirror ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tached to it in our education. In particular the phenomenon of quantum antiferromagnetism is a genuine Bose condensation of magnons and also illustrates some of the subtleties of spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum systems in a powerful fashion. Biology manages to 'grow' monodomain magnetic single crystals, ...

  20. International Workshop on Current Problems in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Current Problems in Condensed Matter

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the International Workshop on the Cur­ rent Problems in Condensed Matter: Theory and Experiment, held at Cocoyoc, More­ los, Mexico, during January 5-9, 1997. The participants had come from Argentina, Austria, Chile, England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Switzerland, and the USA. The presentations at the Workshop provided state-of-art reviews of many of the most important problems, currently under study, in condensed matter. Equally important to all the participants in the workshop was the fact that we had come to honor a friend, Karl Heinz Bennemann, on his sixty-fifth birthday. This Festschrift is just a small measure of recognition of the intellectualleadership of Professor Bennemann in the field and equally important, as a sincere tribute to his qualities as an exceptional friend, college and mentor. Those who have had the privilege to work closely with Karl have been deeply touched by Karl's inquisitive scientific mind as well as by bis k...

  1. Use of ultracold neutrons for condensed-matter studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaudon, A.

    1997-05-01

    Ultracold neutrons have such low velocities that they are reflected by most materials at all incident angles and can be stored in material bottles for long periods of time during which their intrinsic properties can be studied in great detail. These features have been mainly used for fundamental-physics studies including the detection of a possible neutron electric dipole moment and the precise determination of neutron-decay properties. Ultracold neutrons can also play a role in condensed-matter studies with the help of high-resolution spectrometers that use gravity as a strongly dispersive medium for low-velocity neutrons. Such studies have so far been limited by the low intensity of existing ultracold-neutron sources but could be reconsidered with more intense sources, which are now envisaged. This report provides a broad survey of the properties of ultracold neutrons (including their reflectivity by different types of samples), of ultracold-neutron spectrometers that are compared with other high-resolution instruments, of results obtained in the field of condensed matter with these instruments, and of neutron microscopes. All these subjects are illustrated by numerous examples.

  2. International Symposium on Dynamics of Ordering Processes in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, H

    1988-01-01

    The International Symposium on Dynamics of Ordering Processes in Condensed Matter was held at the Kansai Seminar House, Kyoto, for four days, from 27 to 30 August 1987, under the auspices of the Physical Soci­ ety of Japan. The symposium was financially supported by the four orga­ nizations and 45 companies listed on other pages in this volume. We are very grateful to all of them and particularly to the greatest sponsor, the Commemorative Association for the Japan World Exposition 1970. A total Df 22 invited lectures and 48 poster presentations were given and 110 participants attended from seven nations. An objective of the Symposium was to review and extend our present understanding of the dynamics of ordering processes in condensed matters, (for example, alloys, polymers and fluids), that are brought to an un­ stable state by sudden change of such external parameters as temperature and pressure. A second objective, no less important, was to identify new fields of science that might be investigated by sim...

  3. Energy condensed packaged systems. Composition, production, properties

    OpenAIRE

    Igor L. Kovalenko; Vitaliy P. Kuprin; Dmytro V. Kiyaschenko

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it is presented the substantiation of choice of fuel phase composition and optimal technology of emulsion production on the basis of binary solution of ammonium and calcium nitrates, which provide the obtaining of energy condensed packaged systems with specified properties. The thermal decomposition of energy condensed systems on the basis of ammonium nitrate is investigated. It is shown that the fuel phase of emulsion systems should be based on esters of polyunsaturated acids o...

  4. Experimental Observation of Modulation Instability and Optical Spatial Soliton Arrays in Soft Condensed Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Reece, P. J.; Wright, E. M.; Dholakia, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter we report observations of optically induced self-organization of colloidal arrays in the presence of un-patterned counter-propagating evanescent waves. The colloidal arrays formed along the laser propagation-axis are shown to be linked to the break-up of the incident field into optical spatial solitons, the lateral spacing of the arrays being related to modulation instability of the soft condensed matter system.

  5. Experimental observation of modulation instability and optical spatial soliton arrays in soft condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, P J; Wright, E M; Dholakia, K

    2007-05-18

    In this Letter we report observations of optically induced self-organization of colloidal arrays in the presence of unpatterned counterpropagating evanescent waves. The colloidal arrays formed along the laser propagation axis are shown to be linked to the breakup of the incident field into optical spatial solitons, the lateral spacing of the arrays being related to modulation instability of the soft condensed matter system.

  6. Collective emission of matter-wave jets from driven Bose-Einstein condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Logan W; Gaj, Anita; Feng, Lei; Chin, Cheng

    2017-11-16

    Scattering is used to probe matter and its interactions in all areas of physics. In ultracold atomic gases, control over pairwise interactions enables us to investigate scattering in quantum many-body systems. Previous experiments on colliding Bose-Einstein condensates have revealed matter-wave interference, haloes of scattered atoms, four-wave mixing and correlations between counter-propagating pairs. However, a regime with strong stimulation of spontaneous collisions analogous to superradiance has proved elusive. In this regime, the collisions rapidly produce highly correlated states with macroscopic population. Here we find that runaway stimulated collisions in Bose-Einstein condensates with periodically modulated interaction strength cause the collective emission of matter-wave jets that resemble fireworks. Jets appear only above a threshold modulation amplitude and their correlations are invariant even when the number of ejected atoms grows exponentially. Hence, we show that the structures and atom occupancies of the jets stem from the quantum fluctuations of the condensate. Our findings demonstrate the conditions required for runaway stimulated collisions and reveal the quantum nature of matter-wave emission.

  7. Quantum simulations with photons and polaritons merging quantum optics with condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book reviews progress towards quantum simulators based on photonic and hybrid light-matter systems, covering theoretical proposals and recent experimental work. Quantum simulators are specially designed quantum computers. Their main aim is to simulate and understand complex and inaccessible quantum many-body phenomena found or predicted in condensed matter physics, materials science and exotic quantum field theories. Applications will include the engineering of smart materials, robust optical or electronic circuits, deciphering quantum chemistry and even the design of drugs. Technological developments in the fields of interfacing light and matter, especially in many-body quantum optics, have motivated recent proposals for quantum simulators based on strongly correlated photons and polaritons generated in hybrid light-matter systems. The latter have complementary strengths to cold atom and ion based simulators and they can probe for example out of equilibrium phenomena in a natural driven-dissipative sett...

  8. The Sun is Condensed Matter and has a Real Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    The idea that the Sun was a gaseous in nature was born from 1858-65. At that time, a group of men, including Herbert Spencer, Father Angelo Secchi, Warren de la Rue, Balfour Stewart, and Benjamin Loewy, advanced that the Sun was a ball of gas. In 1865, Hervé Faye was the first to argue that the solar surface was merely an illusion. Dismissing all signs to the contrary, solar physics has promoted this idea to the present day, as manifested by the Standard Solar Model. In this work, overwhelming observational evidence will be presented that the Sun does indeed possess a distinct surface (see P.M. Robitaille, Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter -- The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block, Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 4, 90-143). Our telescopes and satellites are sampling real structures on the surface of the Sun.

  9. 11th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, R; Manninen, Matti; Condensed Matter Theories : Volume 3

    1988-01-01

    This book is the third volume in an approximately annual series which comprises the proceedings of the International Workshops on Condensed Matter Theories. The first of these meetings took place in 1977 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and successive workshops have been held in Trieste, Italy (1978), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1979), Caracas, Venezuela (1980), Mexico City, Mexico (1981), St. Louis, USA (1982), Altenberg, Federal Republic of Germany (1983), Granada, Spain (1984), San Francisco, USA (1985), and Argonne, USA (1986). The present volume contains the proceedings of the Eleventh Workshop which took place in Qulu, Finland during the period 27 July - 1 August, 1987. The original motivation and the historical evolution of the series of Workshops have been amply described in the preface to the first volume in the present series. An important objective throughout has been to work against the ever-present trend for physics to fragment into increasingly narrow fields of specialisation, between which communication is d...

  10. [Sensitivity of the diamagnetic condensed matter to weak magnetic fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Iu A; Popov, I V

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that, under the influence of magnetic field, rotational moments of the same direction appear for all charged particles having the same sign of their charge and freely moving in a thermal fluctuational electromagnetic field in a diamagnetic condensed matter. The magnitude of this rotational moment is proportional to the thermal energy kT and can be substantially increased when the conditions for cyclotron resonance are satisfied. The moments of positively charged particles are directed oppositely to the vector of the magnetic field induction. The so-called "kT problem" has been solved. The evidence for magnetosensitivity is the appearance of rotational moments acting on the particles from the thermal field in the presence of an external magnetic field as a small factor.

  11. Condensed matter physics of planets - Puzzles, progress and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to some of the major unresolved issues concerned with the physics of planetary interiors. The important advances in observations, and experimental and theoretical investigations are briefly reviewed, and some areas for further study are identified, including: the characteristics of atomic and electronic degrees of freedom at the high pressures and temperatures typical of a condensed planetary core; the behavior of water at megabar pressures; and the nature of the core-alloy in the earth and in the core mantle phase boundary. Consideration is also given to the behavior of carbon at high pressures and temperatures in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen; the behavior of the volatile ice assemblage in Titan at pressures of 2-40 kbar; and the electrical conductivities of matter under planetary core conditions.

  12. Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates: Exact Representation and Topological Classification of Coherent Matter Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the bifurcation theory of dynamical systems, we present the exact representation and topological classification of coherent matter waves in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs, such as solitary waves and modulate amplitude waves (MAWs. The existence and multiplicity of such waves are determined by the parameter regions selected. The results show that the characteristic of coherent matter waves can be determined by the “angular momentum” in attractive BECs while for repulsive BECs; the waves of the coherent form are all MAWs. All exact explicit parametric representations of the above waves are exhibited and numerical simulations support the result.

  13. CAREER opportunities at the Condensed Matter Physics Program, NSF/DMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakiewicz, Tomasz

    The Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program is a Foundation-wide activity, offering prestigious awards in support of junior faculty. Awards are expected to build the careers of teacher-scholars through outstanding research, excellent education and the integration of education and research. Condensed Matter Physics Program receives between 35 and 45 CAREER proposals each year, in areas related to fundamental research of phenomena exhibited by condensed matter systems. Proposal processing, merit review process, funding levels and success rates will be discussed in the presentation. NSF encourages submission of CAREER proposals from junior faculty members from CAREER-eligible organizations and encourages women, members of underrepresented minority groups, and persons with disabilities to apply. NSF/DMR/CMP homepage: https://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=5666

  14. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Bucher-Zimmermann, Claudia [eds.

    1999-09-01

    As a consequence of a major reorganisation at PSI, a new department has been formed with the groups focussing on research of condensed matter. The activities of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zuerich), the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, are described in this annual report figs., tabs., refs.

  15. Energy condensed packaged systems. Composition, production, properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kovalenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the substantiation of choice of fuel phase composition and optimal technology of emulsion production on the basis of binary solution of ammonium and calcium nitrates, which provide the obtaining of energy condensed packaged systems with specified properties. The thermal decomposition of energy condensed systems on the basis of ammonium nitrate is investigated. It is shown that the fuel phase of emulsion systems should be based on esters of polyunsaturated acids or on combinations thereof with petroleum products. And ceresin or petroleum wax can be used as the structuring additive. The influence of the technology of energy condensed systems production on the physicochemical and detonation parameters of emulsion explosives is considered. It is shown the possibility of obtaining of emulsion systems with dispersion of 1.3...1.8 microns and viscosity higher than 103 Pa∙s in the apparatus of original design. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated paraffin CP-470 on the thermolysis of energy condensed emulsion system is shown. The composition and production technology of energy condensed packaged emulsion systems of mark Ukrainit-P for underground mining in mines not dangerous on gas and dust are developed.

  16. Dark matter as the Bose-Einstein condensation in loop quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atazadeh, K.; Mousavi, M. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darabi, F. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    We consider the FLRW universe in a loop quantum cosmological model filled with radiation, baryonic matter (with negligible pressure), dark energy, and dark matter. The dark matter sector is supposed to be of Bose-Einstein condensate type. The Bose-Einstein condensation process in a cosmological context by supposing it as an approximate first-order phase transition, has already been studied in the literature. Here, we study the evolution of the physical quantities related to the early universe description such as the energy density, temperature, and scale factor of the universe, before, during, and after the condensation process. We also consider in detail the evolution era of the universe in a mixed normal-condensate dark matter phase. The behavior and time evolution of the condensate dark matter fraction is also analyzed. (orig.)

  17. Collective emission of matter-wave jets from driven Bose–Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Logan W.; Gaj, Anita; Feng, Lei; Chin, Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Scattering is used to probe matter and its interactions in all areas of physics. In ultracold atomic gases, control over pairwise interactions enables us to investigate scattering in quantum many-body systems. Previous experiments on colliding Bose–Einstein condensates have revealed matter–wave interference, haloes of scattered atoms, four-wave mixing and correlations between counter-propagating pairs. However, a regime with strong stimulation of spontaneous collisions analogous to superradiance has proved elusive. In this regime, the collisions rapidly produce highly correlated states with macroscopic population. Here we find that runaway stimulated collisions in Bose–Einstein condensates with periodically modulated interaction strength cause the collective emission of matter-wave jets that resemble fireworks. Jets appear only above a threshold modulation amplitude and their correlations are invariant even when the number of ejected atoms grows exponentially. Hence, we show that the structures and atom occupancies of the jets stem from the quantum fluctuations of the condensate. Our findings demonstrate the conditions required for runaway stimulated collisions and reveal the quantum nature of matter-wave emission.

  18. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  19. Testing the Bose-Einstein Condensate dark matter model at galactic cluster scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Liang, Pengxiang; Liang, Shi-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Material and Technology, and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Display Material and Technology, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Mocanu, Gabriela, E-mail: t.harko@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: lpengx@mail2.sysu.edu.cn2, E-mail: stslsd@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: gabriela.mocanu@ubbcluj.ro [Astronomical Institute, Astronomical Observatory Cluj-Napoca, Romanian Academy, 15 Cire\\csilor Street, 400487 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-11-01

    The possibility that dark matter may be in the form of a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) has been extensively explored at galactic scale. In particular, good fits for the galactic rotations curves have been obtained, and upper limits for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length have been estimated. In the present paper we extend the investigation of the properties of the BEC dark matter to the galactic cluster scale, involving dark matter dominated astrophysical systems formed of thousands of galaxies each. By considering that one of the major components of a galactic cluster, the intra-cluster hot gas, is described by King's β-model, and that both intra-cluster gas and dark matter are in hydrostatic equilibrium, bound by the same total mass profile, we derive the mass and density profiles of the BEC dark matter. In our analysis we consider several theoretical models, corresponding to isothermal hot gas and zero temperature BEC dark matter, non-isothermal gas and zero temperature dark matter, and isothermal gas and finite temperature BEC, respectively. The properties of the finite temperature BEC dark matter cluster are investigated in detail numerically. We compare our theoretical results with the observational data of 106 galactic clusters. Using a least-squares fitting, as well as the observational results for the dark matter self-interaction cross section, we obtain some upper bounds for the mass and scattering length of the dark matter particle. Our results suggest that the mass of the dark matter particle is of the order of μ eV, while the scattering length has values in the range of 10{sup −7} fm.

  20. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  1. A short guide to topological terms in the effective theories of condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihiro; Takayoshi, Shintaro

    2015-02-01

    This article is meant as a gentle introduction to the topological terms that often play a decisive role in effective theories describing topological quantum effects in condensed matter systems. We first take up several prominent examples, mainly from the area of quantum magnetism and superfluids/superconductors. We then briefly discuss how these ideas are now finding incarnations in the studies of symmetry-protected topological phases, which are in a sense a generalization of the concept of topological insulators to a wider range of materials, including magnets and cold atoms.

  2. Condenser assembly system for an appliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litch, Andrew David

    2017-10-17

    An appliance includes a compact condenser assembly formed with at least two separately and independently produced wire on tube condensers. Each of the at least two wire on tube condensers has a condenser inlet and a condenser outlet. The at least two wire on tube condensers are at least substantially locked and positioned in a matingly engaged configuration forming a compact condenser assembly. The at least two wire on tube condensers are configured to be operationally connected in at least one of a parallel configuration, a series configuration, a selectable configuration, and a bypass configuration.

  3. System Study: Isolation Condenser 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the isolation condenser (ISO) system at four U.S. boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified. A statistically significant decreasing trend was identified for ISO unreliability. The magnitude of the trend indicated a 1.5 percent decrease in system unreliability over the last 10 years.

  4. Condensed-matter physics: Quantum mechanics in a spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balents, Leon

    2016-12-01

    Quantum spin liquids are exotic states of matter first predicted more than 40 years ago. An inorganic material has properties consistent with these predictions, revealing details about the nature of quantum matter. See Letter p.559

  5. Composition of Nuclear Matter with Light Clusters and Bose-Einstein Condensation of alpha α Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Hui; Wang, Si-Bo; Sedrakian, Armen; Röpke, Gerd

    2017-11-01

    The Bose-Einstein condensation of α particles in the multicomponent environment of dilute, warm nuclear matter is studied. We consider the cases of matter composed of light clusters with mass numbers A≤ 4 and matter that in addition to these clusters contains {}^{56}{Fe} nuclei. We apply the quasiparticle gas model which treats clusters as bound states with infinite lifetime and binding energies independent of temperature and density. We show that the α particles can form a condensate at low temperature T≤ 2 MeV in such matter in the first case. When the {}^{56}{Fe} nucleus is added to the composition, the cluster abundances are strongly modified at low temperatures, with an important implication that the α condensation at these temperatures is suppressed.

  6. System Study: Isolation Condenser 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the isolation condenser (ISO) system at four U.S. boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the ISO results.

  7. Soft condensed matter approach to cooking of meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have viewed cooking meat from the perspective of soft condensed physics and posed that the moisture transport during cooking can be described by Flory-Rehner theory of swelling/shrinking polymer gels. This theory contains the essential physics to describe the transport of liquid moisture due to

  8. Understanding soft condensed matter via modeling and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, An-Chang

    2011-01-01

    All living organisms consist of soft matter. For this reason alone, it is important to be able to understand and predict the structural and dynamical properties of soft materials such as polymers, surfactants, colloids, granular matter and liquids crystals. To achieve a better understanding of soft matter, three different approaches have to be integrated: experiment, theory and simulation. This book focuses on the third approach - but always in the context of the other two.

  9. Spin-polarized versus chiral condensate in quark matter at finite temperature and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providencia, Joao

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low-energy ef......It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low......-energy effective model that the chiral symmetry is broken again by the spin-polarized condensate on increasing the quark number density, while chiral symmetry restoration occurs, in which the chiral condensate disappears at a certain density....

  10. Correlations in condensed matter under extreme conditions a tribute to Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses a wide range of topics relating to the properties and behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions such as intense magnetic and electric fields, high pressures, heat and cold, and mechanical stresses. It is divided into four sections devoted to condensed matter theory, molecular chemistry, theoretical physics, and the philosophy and history of science. The main themes include electronic correlations in material systems under extreme pressure and temperature conditions, surface physics, the transport properties of low-dimensional electronic systems, applications of the density functional theory in molecular systems, and graphene. The book is the outcome of a workshop held at the University of Catania, Italy, in honor of Professor Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It includes selected invited contributions from collaborators and co-authors of Professor Pucci during his long and successful career, as well as from other distinguished guest authors.

  11. Zoology of condensed matter: framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Piazza, Federico [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Paris Center for Cosmological Physics and Laboratoire APC,Université Paris 7, 75205 Paris (France); CPT, Aix Marseille Université,UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques,EPFL Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-06-23

    We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincaré-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern — the framid — does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries — and possibly rotational ones — and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and — if they exist — supersolids. A third, “extra-ordinary”, possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries that do not commute with the Poincaré group, for instance the galileon symmetry, supersymmetry or gauge symmetries. Among these options, we pick the systems based on the galileon symmetry, the “galileids”, for a more detailed study. Despite some similarity, all different patterns produce truly distinct physical systems with different observable properties. For instance, the low-energy 2→2 scattering amplitudes for the Goldstone excitations in the cases of framids, solids and galileids scale respectively as E{sup 2}, E{sup 4}, and E{sup 6}. Similarly the energy momentum tensor in the ground state is “trivial' for framids (ρ+p=0), normal for solids (ρ+p>0) and even inhomogenous for galileids.

  12. Zoology of condensed matter: framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo; Piazza, Federico; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincaré-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern — the framid — does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries — and possibly rotational ones — and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and — if they exist — supersolids. A third, "extra-ordinary", possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries that do not commute with the Poincaré group, for instance the galileon symmetry, supersymmetry or gauge symmetries. Among these options, we pick the systems based on the galileon symmetry, the " galileids", for a more detailed study. Despite some similarity, all different patterns produce truly distinct physical systems with different observable properties. For instance, the low-energy 2 → 2 scattering amplitudes for the Goldstone excitations in the cases of framids, solids and galileids scale respectively as E 2, E 4, and E 6. Similarly the energy momentum tensor in the ground state is "trivial" for framids ( ρ + p = 0), normal for solids ( ρ + p > 0) and even inhomogenous for galileids.

  13. The influence of antikaon condensations on nucleon 1S0 superfluidity in neutron star matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Huang, Xiu Lin; Zhang, Xiao Jun; Yu, Zi; Fan, Cun Bo; Ding, Wen Bo; Liu, Cheng Zhi

    2018-03-01

    The properties of neutron and proton 1S0 superfluidity are studied within the relativistic mean field and the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theories by taking the effects of K- and \\bar{K}0 condensations into account in neutron star matter without the hyperon degrees of freedom. It is found that antikaon condensations change the Fermi momenta, the effective masses and the single particle energies of nucleons in neutron star matter. These changes lead to a strong suppression of the neutron 1S0 superfluidity and an obvious enhancement of the proton 1S0 superfluidity in neutron star matter, respectively. In particular, the neutron and proton 1S0 pairing gaps are gradually shrinking with the optical potential of antikaons from -80 to -130 MeV. And antikaon condensations have little influence on the neutron 1S0 superfluid range, however, they have been markedly downsized the proton 1S0 superfluid range as the deepening of the optical potential of antikaons in neutron star matter. We also found that the nucleon 1S0 superfluidity and K- condensations within the scope of above optical potential of antikaons can occur in the core of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432 at the same time. Whereas \\bar{K}0 condensations only occur in the two pulsars when the range of optical potential of antikaons is from -100 to -130 MeV.

  14. New constraints for low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter: fundamental consequences from classical and quantum dielectric theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, C T; Bourke, J D

    2015-11-18

    We present new constraints for the transportation behaviour of low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter systems, and demonstrate that these have both a fundamental physical interpretation and a significant impact on the description of low-energy inelastic electron scattering. The dispersion behaviour and characteristic lifetime properties of plasmon and single-electron excitations are investigated using popular classical, semi-classical and quantum dielectric models. We find that, irrespective of constrained agreement to the well known high-momentum and high-energy Bethe ridge limit, standard descriptions of low-momentum electron excitations are inconsistent and unphysical. These observations have direct impact on calculations of transport properties such as inelastic mean free paths, stopping powers and escape depths of charged particles in condensed matter systems.

  15. Bose–Einstein condensation and liquid–gas phase transition in strongly interacting matter composed of α particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarov, L. M.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Motornenko, A.; Vovchenko, V.; Mishustin, I. N.; Stoecker, H.

    2017-12-01

    Systems of Bose particles with both repulsive and attractive interactions are studied using the Skyrme-like mean-field model. The phase diagram of such systems exhibits two special lines in the chemical potential-temperature plane: one line which represents the first-order liquid–gas phase transition with the critical end point, and another line which represents the onset of Bose–Einstein condensation. The calculations are made for strongly interacting matter composed of α particles. The phase diagram of this matter is qualitatively similar to that observed for the atomic 4He liquid. The sensitivity of the results to the model parameters is studied. For weak interaction coupling, the critical point is located at the Bose-condensation line.

  16. Seventeenth Workshop on Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, David P; Schütler, Heinz-Bernd; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVI

    2006-01-01

    This status report features the most recent developments in the field, spanning a wide range of topical areas in the computer simulation of condensed matter/materials physics. Both established and new topics are included, ranging from the statistical mechanics of classical magnetic spin models to electronic structure calculations, quantum simulations, and simulations of soft condensed matter. The book presents new physical results as well as novel methods of simulation and data analysis. Highlights of this volume include various aspects of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, studies of properties of real materials using both classical model simulations and electronic structure calculations, and the use of computer simulations in teaching.

  17. Measurement of liquid-liquid equilibria for condensate + glycol and condensate + glycol + water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Today's oil and gas production requires the application of various chemicals in large amounts. To evaluate the effects of those chemicals on the environment, it is of crucial importance to know how much of the chemicals are discharged via produced water and how much is dissolved in the crude oil....... The ultimate objective of this work is to develop a predictive thermodynamic model for the mutual solubility of oil, water, and polar chemicals. But for the development and validation of the model, experimental data are required. This work presents new experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for 1......,2-ethanediol (MEG) + condensate and MEG + water + condensate systems at temperatures from (275 to 323) K at atmospheric pressure. The condensate used in this work is a stabilized natural gas condensate from an offshore field in the North Sea. Compositional analysis of the natural gas condensate was carried out...

  18. Parametric amplification of matter waves in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuretzbacher, F.; Gebreyesus, G.; Topic, O.

    2010-01-01

    Spin-changing collisions may lead under proper conditions to the parametric amplification of matter waves in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, although typically very weak in alkali-metal atoms, are shown to play a very relevant role in the amplification process...

  19. The toroidal moment in condensed-matter physics and its relation to the magnetoelectric effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaldin, Nicola A.; Fiebig, Manfred; Mostovoy, Maxim

    2008-01-01

    The concept of toroidal moments in condensed-matter physics and their long-range ordering in a so-called ferrotoroidic state is reviewed. We show that ferrotoroidicity as a form of primary ferroic order can be understood both from microscopic (multipole expansion) and macroscopic (symmetry-based

  20. ICTP Summer Course on Low-Dimensional Quantum Field Theories for Condensed Matter Physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Morandi, G; Lu, Y

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains a set of pedagogical reviews covering the most recent applications of low-dimensional quantum field theory in condensed matter physics, written by experts who have made major contributions to this rapidly developing field of research. The main purpose is to introduce active young researchers to new ideas and new techniques which are not covered by the standard textbooks.

  1. Walter Kohn and the Rise of Condensed Matter Physics T V ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramakrishnan T V

    Prehistory and History. Solid State Physics: Crystal Structure ( > 1911, von Laue and Bragg ). Specific Heat of Solids ( Einstein,1907; Debye,1912). Paramagnetism of Metals (Pauli, 1926). Squalid State Physics ( Pauli, ~1930). In 1951 or so, Niels Bohr had not heard of the phrase 'solid state physics'. Condensed Matter ...

  2. Matter Tracking Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Matter Tracking Information System (MTIS) principle function is to streamline and integrate the workload and work activity generated or addressed by our 300 plus...

  3. Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics Marvin L. Cohen and Steven G. Louie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ram

    2017-06-01

    discusses electrical and thermal transport in materials. Part IV takes the reader further into many body effects, superconductivity, and nanoscale materials. The authors introduce Feynman diagrams and many-body perturbation theory in Chapter 13, theories of superconductivity in Chapter 14, magnetism in Chapter 15, and low dimensional systems in Chapter 16. The first two parts are required reading for the beginner planning to perform DFT calculations. The advanced student interested in conducting research in condensed matter physics will benefit from continuing on to the last two parts. There is a set of problems at the end of each part. The narrative is aided by equations and detailed figures. References at the end of the book direct the reader to relevant books and review articles for each chapter. The inside covers include a periodic table and a useful list of fundamental physical constants. The authors present the underlying mathematics elegantly, which makes the textbook quite readable for those with a good mathematical background. Students lacking a firm footing in math will find the terrain rough after Chapter 1. This field has seen many good undergraduate textbooks including those by Kittel and by Ashcroft and Mermin. This volume fills the need for a rigorous graduate level textbook, and is a required addition to the bookshelf of every condensed matter physicist. Cohen and Louie have brought refreshing clarity to a challenging subject and made it eminently accessible to the motivated student.

  4. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit [eds.

    2001-07-01

    This year started with a highlight for the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source SINQ located at PSI: The thermal neutron flux exceeded the value of 10{sup 14} n cm{sup -2} s{sup 1} which may be considered as the critical limit for an advanced medium-flux neutron source. The excellent performance attracted a large number of external users to participate at the neutron scattering programme. The major part of this annual report gives an overview on the scientific activities of the staff members of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich). The research topics covered diverse areas such as strongly correlated electron systems including high-temperature superconductors, low-dimensional and quantum magnetism, materials research on soft and hard matter including multilayers. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  5. Next generation interatomic potentials for condensed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Christopher Michael; Behler, Jörg

    2014-07-01

    The computer simulation of condensed systems is a challenging task. While electronic structure methods like density-functional theory (DFT) usually provide a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency, they are computationally very demanding and thus applicable only to systems containing up to a few hundred atoms. Unfortunately, many interesting problems require simulations to be performed on much larger systems involving thousands of atoms or more. Consequently, more efficient methods are urgently needed, and a lot of effort has been spent on the development of a large variety of potentials enabling simulations with significantly extended time and length scales. Most commonly, these potentials are based on physically motivated functional forms and thus perform very well for the applications they have been designed for. On the other hand, they are often highly system-specific and thus cannot easily be transferred from one system to another. Moreover, their numerical accuracy is restricted by the intrinsic limitations of the imposed functional forms. In recent years, several novel types of potentials have emerged, which are not based on physical considerations. Instead, they aim to reproduce a set of reference electronic structure data as accurately as possible by using very general and flexible functional forms. In this review we will survey a number of these methods. While they differ in the choice of the employed mathematical functions, they all have in common that they provide high-quality potential-energy surfaces, while the efficiency is comparable to conventional empirical potentials. It has been demonstrated that in many cases these potentials now offer a very interesting new approach to study complex systems with hitherto unreached accuracy.

  6. Graphene a new paradigm in condensed matter and device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, E L

    2014-01-01

    The book is an introduction to the science and possible applications of Graphene, the first one-atom-thick crystalline form of matter. Discovered in 2004 by now Nobelists Geim and Novoselov, the single layer of graphite, a hexagonal network of carbon atoms, has astonishing electrical and mechanical properties. It supports the highest electrical current density of any material, far exceeding metals copper and silver. Its absolute minimum thickness, 0.34 nanometers, provides an inherent advantage in possible forms of digital electronics past the era of Moore's Law. The book describes the unusual physics of the material, that it offers linear rather than parabolic energy bands. The Dirac-like electron energy bands lead to high constant carrier speed, similar to light photons. The lattice symmetry further implies a two-component wave-function, which has a practical effect of cancelling direct backscattering of carriers. The resulting high carrier mobility allows observation of the Quantum Hall Effect at room temp...

  7. Effect of light assisted collisions on matter wave coherence in superradiant Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampel, Nir Shlomo; Griesmaier, Axel Rudolf; Steenstrup, Mads Peter Hornbak

    2012-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the effects of light assisted collisions on the coherence between momentum states in Bose-Einstein condensates. The onset of superradiant Rayleigh scattering serves as a sensitive monitor for matter-wave coherence. A subtle interplay of binary and collective effects...... leads to a profound asymmetry between the two sides of the atomic resonance and provides far bigger coherence loss rates for a condensate bathed in blue detuned light than previously estimated. We present a simplified quantitative model containing the essential physics to explain our experimental data...

  8. Optical nanoscopy of transient states in condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschewski, F; Kehr, S C; Green, B; Bauer, Ch; Gensch, M; Eng, L M

    2015-07-28

    Recently, the fundamental and nanoscale understanding of complex phenomena in materials research and the life sciences, witnessed considerable progress. However, elucidating the underlying mechanisms, governed by entangled degrees of freedom such as lattice, spin, orbit, and charge for solids or conformation, electric potentials, and ligands for proteins, has remained challenging. Techniques that allow for distinguishing between different contributions to these processes are hence urgently required. In this paper we demonstrate the application of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) as a novel type of nano-probe for tracking transient states of matter. We introduce a sideband-demodulation technique that allows for probing exclusively the stimuli-induced change of near-field optical properties. We exemplify this development by inspecting the decay of an electron-hole plasma generated in SiGe thin films through near-infrared laser pulses. Our approach can universally be applied to optically track ultrafast/-slow processes over the whole spectral range from UV to THz frequencies.

  9. Topics and methods in condensed matter theory from basic quantum mechanics to the frontiers of research

    CERN Document Server

    Cini, M

    2007-01-01

    This book provides material for courses in theoretical physics for undergraduate and graduate students specializing in condensed matter, including experimentalists who want a thorough theoretical background; the advanced part should be of interest to research workers too. A good first course in quantum mechanics is assumed. Here a variety of many-body phenomena in condensed matter are discussed, with special attention paid to the understanding of strong correlation effects. This requires a variety of theoretical tools (diagram expansions, groups, recursion methods and more). The text, which arose naturally from teaching, is eminently readable and the mathematical treatments are explained in enough detail to be followed easily. Proofs of all the relevant theorems are provided, but the main emphasis is always on the physical meaning or applicability of the results. Many examples are provided for illustration and also serve as worked problems.

  10. Raman-induced temporal condensed matter physics in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Armaroli, Andrea; Tran, Truong X; Marini, Andrea; Belli, Federico; Abdolvand, Amir; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-05-04

    Raman effect in gases can generate an extremely long-living wave of coherence that can lead to the establishment of an almost perfect temporal periodic variation of the medium refractive index. We show theoretically and numerically that the equations, regulate the pulse propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled by Raman-active gas, are exactly identical to a classical problem in quantum condensed matter physics - but with the role of space and time reversed - namely an electron in a periodic potential subject to a constant electric field. We are therefore able to infer the existence of Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch oscillations, and Zener tunneling, phenomena that are normally associated with condensed matter physics, using purely optical means.

  11. Large-Scale Condensed Matter DFT Simulations: Performance and Capabilities of the CRYSTAL Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, A; Baima, J; Bush, I; Orlando, R; Dovesi, R

    2017-10-10

    Nowadays, the efficient exploitation of high-performance computing resources is crucial to extend the applicability of first-principles theoretical methods to the description of large, progressively more realistic molecular and condensed matter systems. This can be achieved only by devising effective parallelization strategies for the most time-consuming steps of a calculation, which requires some effort given the usual complexity of quantum-mechanical algorithms, particularly so if parallelization is to be extended to all properties and not just to the basic functionalities of the code. In this Article, the performance and capabilities of the massively parallel version of the Crystal17 package for first-principles calculations on solids are discussed. In particular, we present: (i) recent developments allowing for a further improvement of the code scalability (up to 32 768 cores); (ii) a quantitative analysis of the scaling and memory requirements of the code when running calculations with several thousands (up to about 14 000) of atoms per cell; (iii) a documentation of the high numerical size consistency of the code; and (iv) an overview of recent ab initio studies of several physical properties (structural, energetic, electronic, vibrational, spectroscopic, thermodynamic, elastic, piezoelectric, topological) of large systems investigated with the code.

  12. Time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy in condensed matter: A road map to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell’Angela, Martina [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Parmigiani, Fulvio [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Institute of Physics II, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Malvestuto, Marco, E-mail: marco.malvestuto@elettra.eu [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We provide perspectives in the field Time resolved XAS in condensed matter. • A look at the new technological innovations that are shaping the field of pulsed X-ray sources are introduced. • New experimental schemes for tr-XAS are illustrated. - Abstract: Nowadays cutting edge femtosecond EUV and soft X-rays radiation sources are the driving force of groundbreaking time resolved X-ray spectroscopies. These new light sources are allowing pioneering experiments in the field of ultrafast phenomena and disclosing new insights about the physics of the out-of-equilibrium matter. Here we report an introductory and concise outlook about some possible perspectives in this field.

  13. A class of solvable models in condensed matter physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Mancini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that there is a large class of fermionic systems for which it is possible to find, for any dimension, a finite closed set of eigenoperators and eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian. Then, the hierarchy of the equations of motion closes and analytical expressions for the Green's functions are obtained in terms of a finite number of parameters, to be self-consistently determined. Several examples are given. In particular, for these examples it is shown that in the one-dimensional case it is possible to derive by means of algebraic constraints a set of equations which allow us to determine the self-consistent parameters and to obtain a complete exact solution.

  14. Femtosecond X-ray scattering in condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korff Schmising, Clemens von

    2008-11-24

    This thesis investigates the manifold couplings between electronic and structural properties in crystalline Perovskite oxides and a polar molecular crystal. Ultrashort optical excitation changes the electronic structure and the dynamics of the connected reversible lattice rearrangement is imaged in real time by femtosecond X-ray scattering experiments. An epitaxially grown superlattice consisting of alternating nanolayers of metallic and ferromagnetic strontium ruthenate (SRO) and dielectric strontium titanate serves as a model system to study optically generated stress. In the ferromagnetic phase, phonon-mediated and magnetostrictive stress in SRO display similar sub-picosecond dynamics, similar strengths but opposite sign and different excitation spectra. The amplitude of the magnetic component follows the temperature dependent magnetization square, whereas the strength of phononic stress is determined by the amount of deposited energy only. The ultrafast, phonon-mediated stress in SRO compresses ferroelectric nanolayers of lead zirconate titanate in a further superlattice system. This change of tetragonal distortion of the ferroelectric layer reaches up to 2 percent within 1.5 picoseconds and couples to the ferroelectric soft mode, or ion displacement within the unit cell. As a result, the macroscopic polarization is reduced by up to 100 percent with a 500 femtosecond delay that is due to final elongation time of the two anharmonically coupled modes. Femtosecond photoexcitation of organic chromophores in a molecular, polar crystal induces strong changes of the electronic dipole moment via intramolecular charge transfer. Ultrafast changes of transmitted X-ray intensity evidence an angular rotation of molecules around excited dipoles following the 10 picosecond kinetics of the charge transfer reaction. Transient X-ray scattering is governed by solvation, masking changes of the chromophore's molecular structure. (orig.)

  15. Opportunities for Condensed Matter Research at the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (http://www.nnin.org)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2004-03-01

    A major challenge in science and engineering research at the nano-scale, and particularly for condensed matter, is the availability of infrastructure that can allow easy and quick implementation of structures, devices, or more complex systems necessary for making rigorous measurements or for other exploratory directions of interest. The experiments connect across length scales - nanometer and up, employ a variety of materials and techniques of assembly and patterning, and require a complex knowledge-mix derived from other research areas and tools that require skill and are hard to access. The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN; www.nnin.org) is an NSF-funded infrastructure of open shared facilities across the country that enables the national community to pursue research and technology development that can benefit from nanotechnology. The NNIN provides easy hands-on access to external users, remote usage, staff support, low cost usage, knowledge infrastructure, and brings together an extensive coordinated array of instruments for fabrication, synthesis, and characterization together with other infrastructure. Particularly relevant to condensed matter physics (e.g., in experiments involving single-electron transistor or its use in ultra-sensitive measurements, or measurements across a single nano-scale structure such as a molecule or a nanocrystal, development of new apparatus that allows X-ray measurements of soft materials, etc.) is the ability to integrate the small length scale through synthesis and electron-beam lithography, growth and deposition of a variety materials with controlled properties, patterning of complex shapes in the three-dimensions, connecting such structures, characterization, and the ability to achieve this quickly and at low cost. NNIN tool resources that span focused-ion beam, electron microscopy, spectroscopic techniques, etc. for characterization; synthesis, growth, deposition, etc. for assembling; lithography, etching

  16. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This year was a period of consolidation of the operation at the spallation source of PSI and its scientific exploitation at an increasing number of instruments. The major part of this annual report gives an overview of the research activities in the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich) of our department, mainly emphasizing highly correlated electron systems and the investigation of magnetism. The activities on multilayers and surfaces, a basic research object by itself, is however also to a large extent motivated by the development of optical components for neutron- and X-ray instrumentation. While most of the solid-state work has been done with neutrons, some contributions deal with other probes, like muons and synchrotron light, exploiting the unique possibilities at PSI, to take advantage of the complementary nature of the different probes. Progress in 1999 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 1999 is also provided.

  17. A firmware-defined digital direct-sampling NMR spectrometer for condensed matter physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, M; Shiroka, T; Ott, H-R; Mesot, J

    2014-09-01

    We report on the design and implementation of a new digital, broad-band nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for probing condensed matter. The spectrometer uses direct sampling in both transmission and reception. It relies on a single, commercially-available signal processing device with a user-accessible field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Its functions are defined exclusively by the FPGA firmware and the application software. Besides allowing for fast replication, flexibility, and extensibility, our software-based solution preserves the option to reuse the components for other projects. The device operates up to 400 MHz without, and up to 800 MHz with undersampling, respectively. Digital down-conversion with ±10 MHz passband is provided on the receiver side. The system supports high repetition rates and has virtually no intrinsic dead time. We describe briefly how the spectrometer integrates into the experimental setup and present test data which demonstrates that its performance is competitive with that of conventional designs.

  18. Watching ultrafast responses of structure and magnetism in condensed matter with momentum-resolved probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a non-comprehensive review of some representative experimental studies in crystalline condensed matter systems where the effects of intense ultrashort light pulses are probed using x-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy. On an ultrafast (sub-picosecond time scale, conventional concepts derived from the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium must often be modified in order to adequately describe the time-dependent changes in material properties. There are several commonly adopted approaches to this modification, appropriate in different experimental circumstances. One approach is to treat the material as a collection of quasi-thermal subsystems in thermal contact with each other in the so-called “N-temperature” models. On the other extreme, one can also treat the time-dependent changes as fully coherent dynamics of a sometimes complex network of excitations. Here, we present examples of experiments that fall into each of these categories, as well as experiments that partake of both models. We conclude with a discussion of the limitations and future potential of these concepts.

  19. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  20. Polariton Bose condensate in an open system: Ab initio approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elistratov, A. A.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of path-integral formalism and Keldysh technique for a nonequilibrium system we explore the kinetics of the polariton condensate in a quantum well embedded in an optical microcavity. We take into account pumping and leakage of excitons and photons. We make an ab initio derivation of the equations governing the dynamics of the condensates and reservoirs and show that the real open polariton system has a non-Markovian character at times comparable to the Rabi oscillation period.

  1. Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    1986-01-01

    The Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter was held in Spokane, Washington, July 22-25, 1985. Two hundred and fifty scientists and engineers representing thirteen countries registered at the conference. The countries represented included the United States of America, Australia, Canada, The People's Repub­ lic of China, France, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of China (Taiwan), United Kingdom, U. S. S. R, Switzerland and West Germany. One hundred and sixty-two technical papers, cov­ ering recent developments in shock wave and high pressure physics, were presented. All of the abstracts have been published in the September 1985 issue of the Bulletin of the American Physical Society. The topical conferences, held every two years since 1979, have become the principal forum for shock wave studies in condensed materials. Both formal and informal technical discussions regarding recent developments conveyed a sense of excitement. Consistent with the past conferences, th...

  2. Half-Century of Chinese Condensed Matter Physics-from humble beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu

    2014-03-01

    Half-century ago, modern condensed matter physics was almost non-existing in China. During the past 30 years, especially since the beginning of the 21 century, the situation has changed drammatically. A number of outstanding young physicists from China, with cutting edge research output, appeared on the World arena. How did this quantal transition occur? From a personal perspective, I will discuss some early attempts to build-up research capacities, interruptions during the ``cultural revolution,'' survival of scientific work, opening-up to the World and revival of research. The transition from total isolation to close international exchange and collaboration is a crucial factor contributing to this success.

  3. Physics in the Andean Countries: A Perspective from Condensed Matter, Novel Materials and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, P.

    2009-05-01

    We will discuss the current state of R&D in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology in the Andean nations. We will initially consider Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to then visualize individual developments, as well as those for the region as a whole in these fields of knowledge in each of the nations constituting the Andean Region (Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, and Colombia). Based on Science & Technology watch exercises in the countries involved, along with the Iberian American and Inter-American Science & Technology Network of Indicators (Red de indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (RICYT) iberoamericana e interamericana)1, we will reveal statistical data that will shed light on the development in the fields mentioned. As will be noted, total R&D investment in Latin American and Caribbean countries remained constant since 1997. In spite of having reached a general increase in publications without international collaboration in LAC nations, the countries with greatest research productivity in Latin America (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, and Chile) have strengthened their international collaboration with the United States, France, Germany, and Italy through close links associated with the formation processes of their researchers. Academic and research integration is evaluated through joint authorship of scientific articles, evidencing close collaboration in fields of research. This principle has been used in the creation of cooperation networks among participating nations. As far as networks of research on condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology, the Andean nations have not consolidated a regional network allowing permanent and effective cooperation in research and technological development; as would be expected, given their idiomatic and cultural similarities, their historical background, and geographical proximity, which have been integrating factors in other research areas or socio-economic aspects. This

  4. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures.The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small...

  5. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small...

  6. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  7. The wisdom of crowds: regulating cell function through condensed states of living matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Our understanding of cells has progressed rapidly in recent years, mainly because of technological advances. Modern technology now allows us to observe molecular processes in living cells with high spatial and temporal resolution. At the same time, we are beginning to compile the molecular parts list of cells. However, how all these parts work together to yield complex cellular behavior is still unclear. In addition, the established paradigm of molecular biology, which sees proteins as well-folded enzymes that undergo specific lock-and-key type interactions, is increasingly being challenged. In fact, it is now becoming clear that many proteins do not fold into three-dimensional structures and additionally show highly promiscuous binding behavior. Furthermore, proteins function in collectives and form condensed phases with different material properties, such as liquids, gels, glasses or filaments. Here, I examine emerging evidence that the formation of macromolecular condensates is a fundamental principle in cell biology. I further discuss how different condensed states of living matter regulate cellular functions and decision-making and ensure adaptive behavior and survival in times of cellular crisis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Towards a realization of the condensed-matter-gravity correspondence in string theory via consistent Abelian truncation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Asadig; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu

    2012-11-02

    We present an embedding of the three-dimensional relativistic Landau-Ginzburg model for condensed matter systems in an N = 6, U(N) × U(N) Chern-Simons-matter theory [the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model] by consistently truncating the latter to an Abelian effective field theory encoding the collective dynamics of O(N) of the O(N(2)) modes. In fact, depending on the vacuum expectation value on one of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena scalars, a mass deformation parameter μ and the Chern-Simons level number k, our Abelianization prescription allows us to interpolate between the Abelian Higgs model with its usual multivortex solutions and a Ø(4) theory. We sketch a simple condensed matter model that reproduces all the salient features of the Abelianization. In this context, the Abelianization can be interpreted as giving a dimensional reduction from four dimensions.

  9. PREFACE: 10th Summer School on Theoretical Physics 'Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulek, Tadeusz; Wal, Andrzej; Lulek, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Tenth Summer School on Theoretical Physics under the banner title 'Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter' (SSPCM 2009). The School was organized by Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland, in cooperation with AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland, and took place on 2-9 September 2009 in Myczkowce, Poland. With this meeting we have reached the round number ten of the series of biannual SSPCM schools, which started in 1990 and were focused on some advanced mathematical methods of condensed matter physics. The first five meetings were held in Zajaczkowo near Poznan, under the auspices of The Institute of Physics of Adam Mickiewicz University, and the last five in Myczkowce near Rzeszów, in the south-eastern part of Poland. Within these two decades several young workers who started at kindergarten lectures at SSPCM, have now reached their PhD degrees, professorships and authority. Proceedings of the first seven SSPCM meetings were published as separate volumes by World Scientific, and the last two as volumes 30 and 104 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The present meeting is also the third of the last schools which put the emphasis on quantum informatics. The main topics of our jubilee SSPCM'09 are the following: Information processing, entanglement, and tensor calculus, Integrable models and unitary symmetry, Finite systems and nanophysics. The Proceedings are divided into three parts accordingly. The school gathered together 55 participants from seven countries and several scientific centers in Poland, accommodating again advanced research with young collaborators and students. Acknowledgements The Organizing Committee would like to express its gratitude to all participants for their many activities during the School and for creating a friendly and inspiring atmosphere within our SSPCM society. Special thanks are due to all lecturers for preparing and presenting their talks and

  10. Condensation for non-relativistic matter in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Jing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study condensation for non-relativistic matter in a Hořava–Lifshitz black hole without the condition of the detailed balance. We show that, for the fixed non-relativistic parameter α2 (or the detailed balance parameter ϵ, it is easier for the scalar hair to form as the parameter ϵ (or α2 becomes larger, but the condensation is not affected by the non-relativistic parameter β2. We also find that the ratio of the gap frequency in conductivity to the critical temperature decreases with the increase of ϵ and α2, but increases with the increase of β2. The ratio can reduce to the Horowitz–Roberts relation ωg/Tc≈8 obtained in the Einstein gravity and Cai's result ωg/Tc≈13 found in a Hořava–Lifshitz gravity with the condition of the detailed balance for the relativistic matter. Especially, we note that the ratio can arrive at the value of the BCS theory ωg/Tc≈3.5 by taking proper values of the parameters.

  11. Condensing Heat Exchanger Concept Developed for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Nayagam, Vedha

    2005-01-01

    The current system for moisture removal and humidity control for the space shuttles and the International Space Station uses a two-stage process. Water first condenses onto fins and is pulled through "slurper bars." These bars take in a two-phase mixture of air and water that is then separated by the rotary separator. A more efficient design would remove the water directly from the air without the need of an additional water separator downstream. For the Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems (CHESS) project, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center in collaboration with NASA Johnson Space Center are designing a condensing heat exchanger that utilizes capillary forces to collect and remove water and that can operate in varying gravitational conditions including microgravity, lunar gravity, and Martian gravity.

  12. Characteristic size and mass of galaxies in the Bose–Einstein condensate dark matter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Weon Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the characteristic length scale of galactic halos in the Bose–Einstein condensate (or scalar field dark matter model. Considering the evolution of the density perturbation we show that the average background matter density determines the quantum Jeans mass and hence the spatial size of galaxies at a given epoch. In this model the minimum size of galaxies increases while the minimum mass of the galaxies decreases as the universe expands. The observed values of the mass and the size of the dwarf galaxies are successfully reproduced with the dark matter particle mass m≃5×10−22 eV. The minimum size is about 6×10−3m/Hλc and the typical rotation velocity of the dwarf galaxies is O(H/m c, where H is the Hubble parameter and λc is the Compton wave length of the particle. We also suggest that ultra compact dwarf galaxies are the remnants of the dwarf galaxies formed in the early universe.

  13. Defect evolution in cosmology and condensed matter quantitative analysis with the velocity-dependent one-scale model

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P

    2016-01-01

    This book sheds new light on topological defects in widely differing systems, using the Velocity-Dependent One-Scale Model to better understand their evolution. Topological defects – cosmic strings, monopoles, domain walls or others - necessarily form at cosmological (and condensed matter) phase transitions. If they are stable and long-lived they will be fossil relics of higher-energy physics. Understanding their behaviour and consequences is a key part of any serious attempt to understand the universe, and this requires modelling their evolution. The velocity-dependent one-scale model is the only fully quantitative model of defect network evolution, and the canonical model in the field. This book provides a review of the model, explaining its physical content and describing its broad range of applicability.

  14. Solid-density plasma nanochannel generated by a fast single ion in condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankin, A V; Morozov, I V; Norman, G E; Pikuz, S A; Skobelev, I Yu

    2009-03-01

    A plasma model of relaxation of a medium in heavy-ion tracks in condensed matter is proposed. The model is based on three assumptions: the Maxwell distribution of plasma electrons, localization of plasma inside the track nanochannel, and constant values of the plasma electron density and temperature during the x-ray irradiation. The model of multiple ionization of target atoms by a fast projectile ion is used to determine the initial conditions. An analysis of the results of the calculations performed makes it possible to define when the atomic relaxation model is a very rough approximation and the plasma relaxation model must be used. It is demonstrated that the plasma relaxation model adequately describes the x-ray spectra observed upon interaction of a fast ion with condensed target. The comparison with the experimental data justifies the reliability of the plasma relaxation model. Preassumptions of plasma relaxation model are validated by the molecular-dynamics simulation. An x-ray spectral method based on the plasma relaxation model is proposed for diagnostics of the plasma in fast ion tracks. The results obtained can be useful in examining the initial stage of defect formation in solids under irradiation with single fast heavy ions.

  15. Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics : Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School : Session CIII

    CERN Document Server

    Chamon, Claudio; Goerbig, Mark O; Moessner, Roderich; Cugliandolo, Leticia F

    2017-01-01

    Topological condensed matter physics is a recent arrival among the disciplines of modern physics of a distinctive and substantive nature. Its roots reach far back, but much of its current importance derives from exciting developments in the last half-century. The field is advancing rapidly, growing explosively, and diversifying greatly. There is now a zoo of topological phenomena–the quantum spin Hall effect, topological insulators, Coulomb spin liquids, non-Abelian anyonic statistics and their potential application in topological quantum computing, to name but a few–as well as an increasingly sophisticated set of concepts and methods underpinning their understanding. The aim of this Les Houches Summer School was to present an overview of this field, along with a sense of its origins and its place on the map of advances in fundamental physics. The school comprised a set of basic lectures (Part I) aimed at a pedagogical introduction to the fundamental concepts, which was accompanied by more advanced lectur...

  16. Gravitational waves as a new probe of Bose–Einstein condensate Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Bhupal Dev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There exists a class of ultralight Dark Matter (DM models which could give rise to a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC in the early universe and behave as a single coherent wave instead of individual particles in galaxies. We show that a generic BEC-DM halo intervening along the line of sight of a gravitational wave (GW signal could induce an observable change in the speed of GWs, with the effective refractive index depending only on the mass and self-interaction of the constituent DM particles and the GW frequency. Hence, we propose to use the deviation in the speed of GWs as a new probe of the BEC-DM parameter space. With a multi-messenger approach to GW astronomy and/or with extended sensitivity to lower GW frequencies, the entire BEC-DM parameter space can be effectively probed by our new method in the near future.

  17. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebech, B. [ed.

    2001-03-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  18. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebech, B. [ed.

    2000-02-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scalestructures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  19. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans`l, R.; Johannsen, I. [eds.

    1998-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au). 129 ills., 213 refs.

  20. Measurement of Viscoelastic Properties of Condensed Matter using Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwel, Marco L. H.; Latta, Peter; Matwiy, Brendon; Sboto-Frankenstein, Uta; Gervai, Patricia; Tomanek, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a phase contrast technique that provides a non-invasive means of evaluating the viscoelastic properties of soft condensed matter. This has a profound bio-medical significance as it allows for the virtual palpation of areas of the body usually not accessible to the hands of a medical practitioner, such as the brain. Applications of MRE are not restricted to bio-medical applications, however, the viscoelastic properties of prepackaged food products can also non-invasively be determined. Here we describe the design and use of a modular MRE acoustic actuator that can be used for experiments ranging from the human brain to pre-packaged food products. The unique feature of the used actuator design is its simplicity and flexibility, which allows easy reconfiguration.

  1. Piezoresistive Soft Condensed Matter Sensor for Body-Mounted Vital Function Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Melnykowycz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A soft condensed matter sensor (SCMS designed to measure strains on the human body is presented. The hybrid material based on carbon black (CB and a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE was bonded to a textile elastic band and used as a sensor on the human wrist to measure hand motion by detecting the movement of tendons in the wrist. Additionally it was able to track the blood pulse wave of a person, allowing for the determination of pulse wave peaks corresponding to the systole and diastole blood pressures in order to calculate the heart rate. Sensor characterization was done using mechanical cycle testing, and the band sensor achieved a gauge factor of 4–6.3 while displaying low signal relaxation when held at a strain levels. Near-linear signal performance was displayed when loading to successively higher strain levels up to 50% strain.

  2. Gravitational waves as a new probe of Bose-Einstein condensate Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Lindner, Manfred; Ohmer, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    There exists a class of ultralight Dark Matter (DM) models which could give rise to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the early universe and behave as a single coherent wave instead of individual particles in galaxies. We show that a generic BEC-DM halo intervening along the line of sight of a gravitational wave (GW) signal could induce an observable change in the speed of GWs, with the effective refractive index depending only on the mass and self-interaction of the constituent DM particles and the GW frequency. Hence, we propose to use the deviation in the speed of GWs as a new probe of the BEC-DM parameter space. With a multi-messenger approach to GW astronomy and/or with extended sensitivity to lower GW frequencies, the entire BEC-DM parameter space can be effectively probed by our new method in the near future.

  3. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans`l, R.; Johannsen, I. [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 2 tabs., 142 ills., 169 refs.

  4. PREFACE: 13th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H.; Klein, R.; Schwoerer, M.

    1993-01-01

    The 13th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society was held in conjunction with the Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Festkörperphysik der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft from March 29 till April 2, 1993, in Regensburg. The programme comprised 3,134 contributions : 8 Plenary Talks, 171 Invited Talks, 1,480 Contributed Talks, 1,441 Poster Presentations, 1 Public Evening Talk and 33 Exhibitors Reports. The abstracts have been published as Europhysics Conference Abstracts, Volume 17A/Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft 5/1993. The table (see PDF file) shows the distribution of the Plenary and Invited Speakers as well as of the participants according to countries within and outside of Europe. The conference was the largest meeting of physicists held in Germany to date. It was a manifestation of the enormous scientific activity in both basic and applied research in the fields of Condensed Matter Physics in Europe. Most of the research work, which was presented at the conference, was done by young physicists. They represent a large human capital in Europe. Most of the senior physicists and many of our young colleagues maintain scientific cooperations, and also personal friendships, which are and which have been almost independent of national barriers over the past three decades. The latter is to a large extent due to the European Physical Society which always cultivated these contacts, especially between the eastern and western parts of Europe. We would like to express our sincere thanks to the members of the Programme Committee. By their intensive work, which was free from national interests, a scientific programme was prepared, which covered the entire field of Condensed Matter Physics. About 70% of the Plenary and Invited Speakers came from 20 different foreign countries and about 30% from Germany. The meeting therefore has been a truly European Conference. For the young physicists, the number of

  5. Performance of mechanical systems for condenser cleaning: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, A.F.; Rosen, M.D.; Sopocy, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    On-line mechanical condenser cleaning systems have been installed by a number of utilities to control fouling and improve cycle efficiency. Approximately 20% of all generating units in the United States larger than 100 MW currently utilize mechanical cleaning systems. There are many installations where either mechanical cleaning and/or chemical treatment could be utilized to control condenser fouling. Selection of the proper alternative(s) should be based on economics, ability to control the particular foulants in the cooling water system, and any environmental regulations that may restrict chemical usage. The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of on-line cleaning system performance and economics. The assessment of performance is based largely on a telephone survey of 120 North American power plants with condenser cleaning systems. The economics, which were developed specifically for this study, cover both sponge ball and brush systems, in new and retrofit installations, and include comparisons with off-line cleaning and chlorination/dechlorination. In addition to the assessment of performance and economics, recommendations for future cleaning system research are provided which would benefit utilities considering installation of these systems.

  6. Wick wetting for water condensation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Susanne Vera; Spielman, Steven Russel; Lewis, Gregory Stephen; Kreisberg, Nathan Michael

    2017-04-04

    A system and method for particle enlargement with continuously wetted wicks includes a container into which a flow of particle-laden air is introduced in a laminar manner through an inlet and to an outlet. The container has a first section, a second section and a third section though which the particle-laden air flows between the inlet and the outlet. The temperature of the second section is warmer than that of the first section at the inlet and the third section at the outlet. In one embodiment, a continuous wick spanning an interior wall of the first second, second section and third section, said wick being capable of internally transporting liquid water along its length is provided.

  7. A novel artificial condensed matter lattice and a new platform for one-dimensional topological phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belopolski, Ilya; Xu, Su-Yang; Koirala, Nikesh; Liu, Chang; Bian, Guang; Strocov, Vladimir N; Chang, Guoqing; Neupane, Madhab; Alidoust, Nasser; Sanchez, Daniel; Zheng, Hao; Brahlek, Matthew; Rogalev, Victor; Kim, Timur; Plumb, Nicholas C; Chen, Chaoyu; Bertran, François; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Asensio, Maria-Carmen; Shi, Ming; Lin, Hsin; Hoesch, Moritz; Oh, Seongshik; Hasan, M Zahid

    2017-03-01

    Engineered lattices in condensed matter physics, such as cold-atom optical lattices or photonic crystals, can have properties that are fundamentally different from those of naturally occurring electronic crystals. We report a novel type of artificial quantum matter lattice. Our lattice is a multilayer heterostructure built from alternating thin films of topological and trivial insulators. Each interface within the heterostructure hosts a set of topologically protected interface states, and by making the layers sufficiently thin, we demonstrate for the first time a hybridization of interface states across layers. In this way, our heterostructure forms an emergent atomic chain, where the interfaces act as lattice sites and the interface states act as atomic orbitals, as seen from our measurements by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. By changing the composition of the heterostructure, we can directly control hopping between lattice sites. We realize a topological and a trivial phase in our superlattice band structure. We argue that the superlattice may be characterized in a significant way by a one-dimensional topological invariant, closely related to the invariant of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Our topological insulator heterostructure demonstrates a novel experimental platform where we can engineer band structures by directly controlling how electrons hop between lattice sites.

  8. Cavity QED with hybrid nanocircuits: from atomic-like physics to condensed matter phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Audrey; Dartiailh, Matthieu C; Desjardins, Matthieu M; Cubaynes, Tino; Contamin, Lauriane C; Delbecq, Matthieu; Viennot, Jérémie J; Bruhat, Laure E; Douçot, Benoit; Kontos, Takis

    2017-11-01

    Circuit QED techniques have been instrumental in manipulating and probing with exquisite sensitivity the quantum state of superconducting quantum bits coupled to microwave cavities. Recently, it has become possible to fabricate new devices in which the superconducting quantum bits are replaced by hybrid mesoscopic circuits combining nanoconductors and metallic reservoirs. This mesoscopic QED provides a new experimental playground to study the light-matter interaction in electronic circuits. Here, we present the experimental state of the art of mesoscopic QED and its theoretical description. A first class of experiments focuses on the artificial atom limit, where some quasiparticles are trapped in nanocircuit bound states. In this limit, the circuit QED techniques can be used to manipulate and probe electronic degrees of freedom such as confined charges, spins, or Andreev pairs. A second class of experiments uses cavity photons to reveal the dynamics of electron tunneling between a nanoconductor and fermionic reservoirs. For instance, the Kondo effect, the charge relaxation caused by grounded metallic contacts, and the photo-emission caused by voltage-biased reservoirs have been studied. The tunnel coupling between nanoconductors and fermionic reservoirs also enable one to obtain split Cooper pairs, or Majorana bound states. Cavity photons represent a qualitatively new tool to study these exotic condensed matter states.

  9. Cavity QED with hybrid nanocircuits: from atomic-like physics to condensed matter phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Audrey; Dartiailh, Matthieu C.; Desjardins, Matthieu M.; Cubaynes, Tino; Contamin, Lauriane C.; Delbecq, Matthieu; Viennot, Jérémie J.; Bruhat, Laure E.; Douçot, Benoit; Kontos, Takis

    2017-11-01

    Circuit QED techniques have been instrumental in manipulating and probing with exquisite sensitivity the quantum state of superconducting quantum bits coupled to microwave cavities. Recently, it has become possible to fabricate new devices in which the superconducting quantum bits are replaced by hybrid mesoscopic circuits combining nanoconductors and metallic reservoirs. This mesoscopic QED provides a new experimental playground to study the light–matter interaction in electronic circuits. Here, we present the experimental state of the art of mesoscopic QED and its theoretical description. A first class of experiments focuses on the artificial atom limit, where some quasiparticles are trapped in nanocircuit bound states. In this limit, the circuit QED techniques can be used to manipulate and probe electronic degrees of freedom such as confined charges, spins, or Andreev pairs. A second class of experiments uses cavity photons to reveal the dynamics of electron tunneling between a nanoconductor and fermionic reservoirs. For instance, the Kondo effect, the charge relaxation caused by grounded metallic contacts, and the photo-emission caused by voltage-biased reservoirs have been studied. The tunnel coupling between nanoconductors and fermionic reservoirs also enable one to obtain split Cooper pairs, or Majorana bound states. Cavity photons represent a qualitatively new tool to study these exotic condensed matter states.

  10. Bose-Einstein Condensate Dark Matter Halos Confronted with Galactic Rotation Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dwornik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative confrontation of both the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC and the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW dark halo models with galactic rotation curves. We employ 6 High Surface Brightness (HSB, 6 Low Surface Brightness (LSB, and 7 dwarf galaxies with rotation curves falling into two classes. In the first class rotational velocities increase with radius over the observed range. The BEC and NFW models give comparable fits for HSB and LSB galaxies of this type, while for dwarf galaxies the fit is significantly better with the BEC model. In the second class the rotational velocity of HSB and LSB galaxies exhibits long flat plateaus, resulting in better fit with the NFW model for HSB galaxies and comparable fits for LSB galaxies. We conclude that due to its central density cusp avoidance the BEC model fits better dwarf galaxy dark matter distribution. Nevertheless it suffers from sharp cutoff in larger galaxies, where the NFW model performs better. The investigated galaxy sample obeys the Tully-Fisher relation, including the particular characteristics exhibited by dwarf galaxies. In both models the fitting enforces a relation between dark matter parameters: the characteristic density and the corresponding characteristic distance scale with an inverse power.

  11. Single molecule experimentation in biological physics: exploring the living component of soft condensed matter one molecule at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, O L J; Leake, M C

    2011-12-21

    The soft matter of biological systems consists of mesoscopic length scale building blocks, composed of a variety of different types of biological molecules. Most single biological molecules are so small that 1 billion would fit on the full-stop at the end of this sentence, but collectively they carry out the vital activities in living cells whose length scale is at least three orders of magnitude greater. Typically, the number of molecules involved in any given cellular process at any one time is relatively small, and so real physiological events may often be dominated by stochastics and fluctuation behaviour at levels comparable to thermal noise, and are generally heterogeneous in nature. This challenging combination of heterogeneity and stochasticity is best investigated experimentally at the level of single molecules, as opposed to more conventional bulk ensemble-average techniques. In recent years, the use of such molecular experimental approaches has become significantly more widespread in research laboratories around the world. In this review we discuss recent experimental approaches in biological physics which can be applied to investigate the living component of soft condensed matter to a precision of a single molecule. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK & the USA

  12. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is the study? This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays. Why was it done? No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  13. Refrigerant pressurization system with a two-phase condensing ejector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergander, Mark [Madison, CT

    2009-07-14

    A refrigerant pressurization system including an ejector having a first conduit for flowing a liquid refrigerant therethrough and a nozzle for accelerating a vapor refrigerant therethrough. The first conduit is positioned such that the liquid refrigerant is discharged from the first conduit into the nozzle. The ejector includes a mixing chamber for condensing the vapor refrigerant. The mixing chamber comprises at least a portion of the nozzle and transitions into a second conduit having a substantially constant cross sectional area. The condensation of the vapor refrigerant in the mixing chamber causes the refrigerant mixture in at least a portion of the mixing chamber to be at a pressure greater than that of the refrigerant entering the nozzle and greater than that entering the first conduit.

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics—An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, D. E.

    2005-02-01

    This is undoubtedly an ambitious book. It aims to provide a wide ranging, yet self-contained and pedagogical introduction to techniques of quantum many-body theory in condensed matter physics, without losing mathematical `rigor' (which I hope means rigour), and with an eye on physical insight, motivation and application. The authors certainly bring plenty of experience to the task, the book having grown out of their graduate lectures at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen over a five year period, with the feedback and refinement this presumably brings. The book is also of course ambitious in another sense, for it competes in the tight market of general graduate/advanced undergraduate texts on many-particle physics. Prospective punters will thus want reasons to prefer it to, or at least give it space beside, well established texts in the field. Subject-wise, the book is a good mix of the ancient and modern, the standard and less so. Obligatory chapters deal with the formal cornerstones of many-body theory, from second quantization, time-dependence in quantum mechanics and linear response theory, to Green's function and Feynman diagrams. Traditional topics are well covered, including two chapters on the electron gas, chapters on phonons and electron phonon coupling, and a concise account of superconductivity (confined, no doubt judiciously, to the conventional BCS case). Less mandatory, albeit conceptually vital, subjects are also aired. These include a chapter on Fermi liquid theory, from both semi-classical and microscopic perspectives, and a freestanding account of one-dimensional electron gases and Luttinger liquids which, given the enormity of the topic, is about as concise as it could be without sacrificing clarity. Quite naturally, the authors' own interests also influence the choice of material covered. A persistent theme, which brings a healthy topicality to the book, is the area of transport in mesoscopic systems or nanostructures. Two chapters, some

  15. EDITORIAL: Richard Palmer: celebrating 37 years with Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter Richard Palmer: celebrating 37 years with Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, David

    2009-01-01

    It is with a great deal of both happiness and sadness that I have to announce that we are losing one of the real strengths of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JPCM). Dr Richard Palmer, our Senior Publisher, announced his retirement, and this issue marks the first without his involvement. Of course, we are happy that he will get to enjoy his retirement, but we are sad to lose such a valuable member of our team. Richard first started work at IOP Publishing in March 1971 as an Editorial Assistant with Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics. After a few months, he transferred to Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics. During his first year, he was sent on a residential publishing training course and asked to sign an undertaking to stay at IOP Publishing for at least two years. Although Richard refused to sign, as he did not want to commit himself, he has remained with the journal since then. The following year, the Assistant Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Malcolm Haines, walked out without notice in order to work on his family vineyard in France, and Richard stepped into the breach. In those days, external editors had a much more hands-on role in IOP Publishing and he had to travel to Harwell to be interviewed by Alan Lidiard, the Honorary Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, before being given the job of Assistant Editor permanently. I am told that in those days the job consisted mainly of editing and proofreading and peer review. There was no journal development work. At some point in the early 1980s, production and peer review were split into separate departments and Richard then headed a group of journals consisting of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics and Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics, Semiconductor Science and Technology, Superconductor Science and Technology, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, and later Nanotechnology and Modelling and Simulation

  16. Three-component Gross-Pitaevskii equations in the spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate: Spin-rotation symmetry, matter-wave solutions, and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zichao; Yan, Zhenya

    2017-03-01

    We report new matter-wave solutions of the one-dimensional spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate system by combining global spin-rotation states and similarity transformation. Dynamical behaviors of non-stationary global spin-rotation states derived from the SU(2) spin-rotation symmetry are discussed, which exhibit temporal periodicity. We derive generalized bright-dark mixed solitons and new rogue wave solutions and reveal the relations between Euler angles in spin-rotation symmetry and parameters in ferromagnetic and polar solitons. In the modulated spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate system, new solutions are derived and graphically illustrated for different types of modulations. Moreover, numerical simulations are performed to investigate the stability of some obtained solutions for chosen parameters.

  17. Antwerp Advanced Study Institute on Electronic Structure, Dynamics and Quantum Structural Properties of Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Camp, Piet

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 Advanced Study Institute on "Electronic Structure, Dynamics and Quantum Structural Properties of Condensed Matter" took place at the Corsendonk Conference Center, close to the City of Antwerpen, from July 16 till 27, 1984. This NATO Advanced Study Institute was motivated by the research in my Institute, where, in 1971, a project was started on "ab-initio" phonon calculations in Silicon. I~ is my pleasure to thank several instances and people who made this ASI possible. First of all, the sponsor of the Institute, the NATO Scientific Committee. Next, the co-sponsors: Agfa-Gevaert, Bell Telephone Mfg. Co. N.V., C & A, Esso Belgium·, CDC Belgium, Janssens Pharmaceutica, Kredietbank and the Scientific Office of the U.S. Army. Special thanks are due to Dr. P. Van Camp and Drs. H. Nachtegaele, who, over several months, prepared the practical aspects of the ASI with the secretarial help of Mrs. R.-M. Vandekerkhof. I also like to. thank Mrs. M. Cuyvers who prepared and organized the subject and material ...

  18. The Art of the Motorcycle and the History of Art (and Condensed Matter Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles

    Many topics in physics are such that they are difficult to present in ways that the general public finds engaging. In this talk I will discuss two topics I have worked on, directly related to my research in optical and condensed matter physics, that continue to have widespread appeal. In 1871 Louis Guillaume Perreaux installed a compact steam engine in a commercial bicycle and thus produced the world's first motorcycle. The 145 years since the Michaux-Perreaux have resulted in standard production motorcycles incorporating such materials as carbon-fiber composites, maraging steels, and ''exotic'' alloys of magnesium, titanium and aluminum that can exceed 190 mph straight from the show room floor. As a result of 'The Art of the Motorcycle' exhibition I co-curated at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum the public has learned the evolution of motorcycles is interwoven with developments in materials physics. In a second topic, discoveries I made with the renowned artist David Hockney convincingly demonstrated optical instruments were in use - by artists, not scientists - nearly 200 years earlier than commonly thought possible, and for the first time account for the remarkable transformation in the reality of portraits that occurred early in the 15th century. By learning a few principles of geometrical optics the public gains insight into the working process of artists such as van Eyck, Bellini and Caravaggio. Acknowledgement: Portions of this work done in collaboration with David Hockney.

  19. Cytotoxicity of eight cigarette smoke condensates in three test systems: comparisons between assays and condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia A; Li, Albert P; Polzin, Gregory; Roy, Shambhu K

    2010-12-01

    Cytotoxic properties of tobacco smoke are associated with chronic tobacco-related diseases. The cytotoxicity of tobacco smoke can be tested with short-term predictive assays. In this study, we compare eight mainstream cigarette smoke condensates (CSCs) from commercial and experimental cigarettes in three different cytotoxicity assays with unique and overlapping endpoints. The CSCs demonstrated cytotoxicity in all assays. In the multiple cytotoxicity endpoint (MCE) assay with TK-6 cells, the cigarette varieties that had the highest EC50s for reduced cell growth also showed a positive dose-response relationship for necrotic cells. In the IdMOC multiple cell-type co-culture (MCTCC) system, all CSCs reduced the viability of the cells. Low concentrations of some CSCs had a stimulatory effect in lung microvascular endothelial cells and small airway epithelial cells. In the neutral dye assay (NDA), except for a 100% flue-cured tobacco CSC, there was little consistency between CSCs producing morphological evidence of moderate or greater toxicity and the CSCs with the lowest EC50s in the MCE or MCTCC assays. Overall, cigarettes made with flue-cured tobacco were the most cytotoxic across the assays. When results were expressed on a per-mg of nicotine basis, lower tar cigarettes were the most cytotoxic in primary human respiratory cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  1. Invited article: High-pressure techniques for condensed matter physics at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yejun; Jaramillo, R; Wang, Jiyang; Ren, Yang; Rosenbaum, T F

    2010-04-01

    Condensed matter experiments at high pressure accentuate the need for accurate pressure scales over a broad range of temperatures, as well as placing a premium on a homogeneous pressure environment. However, challenges remain in diamond anvil cell technology, including both the quality of various pressure transmitting media and the accuracy of secondary pressure scales at low temperature. We directly calibrate the ruby fluorescence R1 line shift with pressure at T=4.5 K using high-resolution x-ray powder diffraction measurements of the silver lattice constant and its known equation of state up to P=16 GPa. Our results reveal a ruby pressure scale at low temperatures that differs by 6% from the best available ruby scale at room T. We also use ruby fluorescence to characterize the pressure inhomogeneity and anisotropy in two representative and commonly used pressure media, helium and methanol:ethanol 4:1, under the same preparation conditions for pressures up to 20 GPa at T=5 K. Contrary to the accepted wisdom, both media show equal levels of pressure inhomogeneity measured over the same area, with a consistent DeltaP/P per unit area of +/-1.8 %/(10(4) microm(2)) from 0 to 20 GPa. The helium medium shows an essentially constant deviatoric stress of 0.021+/-0.011 GPa up to 16 GPa, while the methanol:ethanol mixture shows a similar level of anisotropy up to 10 GPa, above which the anisotropy increases. The quality of both pressure media is further examined under the more stringent requirements of single crystal x-ray diffraction at cryogenic temperature. For such experiments we conclude that the ratio of sample-to-pressure chamber volume is a critical parameter in maintaining sample quality at high pressure, and may affect the choice of pressure medium.

  2. PREFACE: REXS 2013 - Workshop on Resonant Elastic X-ray Scattering in Condensed Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutier, G.; Mazzoli, C.; Yakhou, F.; Brown, S. D.; Bombardi, A.; Collins, S. P.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this workshop was to bring together experts in experimental and theoretical aspects of resonant elastic x-ray scattering, along with researchers who are new to the field, to discuss important recent results and the fundamentals of the technique. The meeting was a great success, with the first day dedicated to students and new researchers in the field, who received introductory lectures and tutorials. All conference delegates were invited either to make an oral presentation or to present a poster, accompanied by a short talk. The first two papers selected for the REXS13 proceedings (Grenier & Joly and Helliwell) give a basic background to the theory of REXS and applications across a wide range of scientific areas. The remainder of the papers report on some of the latest scientific results obtained by applying the REXS technique to contemporary problems in condensed matter, materials and x-ray physics. It is hoped that these proceedings provide a snapshot of the current status of a vibrant and diverse scientific technique that will be of value not just to those who attended the workshop but also to any other reader with an interest in the subject. Local Scientific Committee REXS13 International Scientific Advisory Committee M Altarelli, European XFEL, Germany F de Bergevin, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France J Garcia-Ruiz, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain A I Goldman, Iowa State University, USA M Goldmann, Institut Nanosciences, France T Schulli, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France C R Natoli, Laboratori Nazionali de Frascati, Italy G Materlik, Diamond Light Source, UK L Paolasini, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France U Staub, Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland K Finkelstein, Cornell University, USA Y Murakami, Photon Factory, Japan REXS13 Local Scientific Committee G Beutier, CNRS Grenoble, France C Mazzoli, Politecnico di Milano, Italy F Yakhou, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France S D Brown, XMaS UK CRG

  3. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS AMONG ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), is genotoxic in many short-term in vitro tests and carcinogenic in rodents. However, no study has evaluatedd a set of CSCs prepared from a diverse set of cigarettes in a variety of short-term genotoxic...

  4. Frequency Stability Improvement of Low Inertia Systems Using Synchronous Condensers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Ha Thi; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the energy demand and at the same time to achieve sustainable development objectives on a global scale, the Danish government has set a long-term strategy of fossil fuel free country by the year 2050. However, the decline of conventional power generation units and a rising amount...... turbine penetration, governor responsibility of synchronous generators, and disturbance are simulated to examine the impact of highlevel renewable energy integration on the system frequency characteristics. The effect of synchronous condensers for the frequency stability enhancement is investigated...... of converter interfaced components (wind turbine, HVDC, and Photovoltaic) may have negative effects on the stability of the power system. These components do not have enough inertia response to control frequency excursion, so the power grid can depend on few synchronous machines for frequency regulation...

  5. Scalar quanta in Fermi liquids: Zero sounds, instabilities, Bose condensation, and a metastable state in dilute nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomeitsev, E.E. [Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Voskresensky, D.N. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The spectrum of bosonic scalar-mode excitations in a normal Fermi liquid with local scalar interaction is investigated for various values and momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter f{sub 0} in the particle-hole channel. For f{sub 0} > 0 the conditions are found when the phase velocity on the spectrum of zero sound acquires a minimum at non-zero momentum. For -1 < f{sub 0} < 0 there are only damped excitations, and for f{sub 0} < -1 the spectrum becomes unstable against the growth of scalar-mode excitations. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar excitation modes is derived after performing a bosonization procedure. We demonstrate that the instability may be tamed by the formation of a static Bose condensate of the scalar modes. The condensation may occur in a homogeneous or inhomogeneous state relying on the momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter. We show that in the isospin-symmetric nuclear matter there may appear a metastable state at subsaturation nuclear density owing to the condensate. Then we consider a possibility of the condensation of the zero-sound-like excitations in a state with a non-zero momentum in Fermi liquids moving with overcritical velocities, provided an appropriate momentum dependence of the Landau parameter f{sub 0}(k) > 0. We also argue that in peripheral heavy-ion collisions the Pomeranchuk instability may occur already for f{sub 0} > -1. (orig.)

  6. Workhorse semilocal density functional for condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdew, John P; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Csonka, Gábor I; Constantin, Lucian A; Sun, Jianwei

    2009-07-10

    Semilocal density functionals for the exchange-correlation energy are needed for large electronic systems. The Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) is semilocal and usefully accurate, but predicts too-long lattice constants. Recent "GGA's for solids" yield good lattice constants but poor atomization energies of molecules. We show that the construction principle for one of them (restoring the density gradient expansion for exchange over a wide range of densities) can be used to construct a "revised TPSS" meta-GGA with accurate lattice constants, surface energies, and atomization energies for ordinary matter.

  7. Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter — The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our Sun has confronted humanity with overwhelming evidence that it is comprised of condensed matter. Dismissing this reality, the standard solar models continue to be anchored on the gaseous plasma. In large measure, the endurance of these theories can be attributed to 1 the mathematical elegance of the equations for the gaseous state, 2 the apparent success of the mass-luminosity relationship, and 3 the long-lasting influence of leading proponents of these models. Unfortunately, no direct physical finding supports the notion that the solar body is gaseous. Without exception, all observations are most easily explained by recognizing that the Sun is primarily comprised of condensed matter. However, when a physical characteristic points to condensed matter, a postori arguments are invoked to account for the behavior using the gaseous state. In isolation, many of these treatments appear plausible. As a result, the gaseous models continue to be accepted. There seems to be an overarching belief in solar science that the problems with the gaseous models are few and inconsequential. In reality, they are numerous and, while often subtle, they are sometimes daunting. The gaseous equations of state have introduced far more dilemmas than they have solved. Many of the conclusions derived from these approaches are likely to have led solar physics down unproductive avenues, as deductions have been accepted which bear little or no relationship to the actual nature of the Sun. It could be argued that, for more than 100 years, the gaseous models have prevented mankind from making real progress relative to understanding the Sun and the universe. Hence, the Sun is now placed on trial. Forty lines of evidence will be presentedbthat the solar body is comprised of, and surrounded by, condensed matter. These ‘proofs’ can be divided into seven broad categories: 1 Planckian, 2 spectroscopic, 3 structural, 4 dynamic, 5 helioseismic, 6 elemental, and 7 earthly

  8. Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component test report for the ground demonstration system jet condenser orifice performance. 77-KIPS-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, E.L.

    1977-11-08

    The purpose of these tests was to determine which orifice elements achieved satisfactory hydraulic and thermal performance prior to their incorporation into the Jet Condenser Assembly. Requirements were as set forth within the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Component Test Procedure number 414 for the Jet Condenser Orifice Performance testing. The results of the performance testing conducted on the Jet Condenser Orifices are presented. Part Number 720841 Jet Condenser Orifice Nozzle successfully completed the orifice screening tests.

  9. Quantum Mechanics of Computing in Condensed Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    R. R. Gerhardts and K. von Klitzing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2563 (1990). [38] K. Wald, L. P. Kouwenhoven, P. L. McEuen, N. C. Van der Vaart and C. T...and G. Weimann, Europhys. Lett. 8, 179 (1989). [50] R. R. Gerhardts , D. Weiss and K. von Klitzing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1174 (1989). [51] Yu. A

  10. P Systems with Anti-Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Freund, Rudolf; Paun, Gheorghe

    2014-01-01

    After a short introduction to the area of membrane computing (a branch of natural computing), we introduce the concept of anti-matter in membrane computing. First we consider spiking neural P systems with anti-spikes, and then we show the power of anti-matter in cell-like P systems. As expected, the use of anti-matter objects and especially of matter/anti-matter annihilation rules, turns out to be rather powerful: computational completeness of P systems with anti-matter is obta...

  11. Many-body effects in coupled light-matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordyuh, Mykola

    Interaction between light and matter is one of the most basic processes in nature and represents a cornerstone in our understanding of a broad range of physical phenom- ena. The increasing level of control over light-matter interactions with atomic and solid-state systems has brought forth a new class of quantum many-body systems realized on photon lattices where light and matter play equally important roles in emergent phenomena. Systems of strongly interacting atoms and photons, that can be realized by wiring up individual cavity QED systems into lattices, are perceived as a new platform for engineering synthetic hybrid light-matter systems. While sharing important properties with other systems of interacting quantum particles, here we argue that the nature of light-matter interaction gives rise to unique features with no analogs in condensed matter or atomic physics setups. The central topic of the thesis is a lattice of cavity QED systems described by the Rabi-Hubbard model. We de- scribe the most prominent features of the model associated with quantum criticality. We consider a realistic case of the system open to the environment and investigate thermal radiation from a lattice of cavity QED systems. Next, we demonstrate that the output radiation displays unique features associated with collective excitations of light and matter. Further, we consider a non-equilibrium lattice of cavity QED systems and demonstrate exotic attractors in the phase diagram, associated with the action of the environment, not present in the equilibrium analogs. We conclude the discussions with a theory of measurement applied to the non-equilibrium Dicke model and compare our findings to a recent experiment.

  12. Relativistic Bose-Einstein Condensation Model for Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, T.; Morikawa, M.

    We propose a cosmological model in which Bose-Einstein condensation works as Dark Energy. We obtain a novel mechanism of inflation, very early formation of highly non-linear objects, and log-z periodicity in the BEC collapsing time.

  13. The Mott localization and magnetic properties in condensed fermions systems; Lokalizacja Motta i wlasnosci magnetyczne skondensowanych ukladow fermionowych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, W. [Politechnika Krakowska, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the present thesis the Mott localization and magnetic properties in condensed fermions system are considered. The Hubbard model has been used to strongly correlated electron systems and the Skyrme potential to a dense neutron matter with small concentration of protons. A variational approach to the metal-insulator transition is proposed which combines the Mott and Gutzwiller-Brinkman-Rice aspects of the localization. Magnetic properties of strongly correlated electrons are analyzed within the modified spin-rotation-invariant approach in the slow-boson representation. The theoretical prediction for considered systems are presented. 112 refs, 39 figs.

  14. Many-body quantum electrodynamics networks: Non-equilibrium condensed matter physics with light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hur, Karyn; Henriet, Loïc; Petrescu, Alexandru; Plekhanov, Kirill; Roux, Guillaume; Schiró, Marco

    2016-10-01

    We review recent developments regarding the quantum dynamics and many-body physics with light, in superconducting circuits and Josephson analogues, by analogy with atomic physics. We start with quantum impurity models addressing dissipative and driven systems. Both theorists and experimentalists are making efforts towards the characterization of these non-equilibrium quantum systems. We show how Josephson junction systems can implement the equivalent of the Kondo effect with microwave photons. The Kondo effect can be characterized by a renormalized light frequency and a peak in the Rayleigh elastic transmission of a photon. We also address the physics of hybrid systems comprising mesoscopic quantum dot devices coupled with an electromagnetic resonator. Then, we discuss extensions to Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) Networks allowing one to engineer the Jaynes-Cummings lattice and Rabi lattice models through the presence of superconducting qubits in the cavities. This opens the door to novel many-body physics with light out of equilibrium, in relation with the Mott-superfluid transition observed with ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices. Then, we summarize recent theoretical predictions for realizing topological phases with light. Synthetic gauge fields and spin-orbit couplings have been successfully implemented in quantum materials and with ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices - using time-dependent Floquet perturbations periodic in time, for example - as well as in photonic lattice systems. Finally, we discuss the Josephson effect related to Bose-Hubbard models in ladder and two-dimensional geometries, producing phase coherence and Meissner currents. The Bose-Hubbard model is related to the Jaynes-Cummings lattice model in the large detuning limit between light and matter (the superconducting qubits). In the presence of synthetic gauge fields, we show that Meissner currents subsist in an insulating Mott phase. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Assemblage of Presolar Materials and Early Solar System Condensates in Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Kloeck, W.

    2015-01-01

    Anhydrous chondritic porous inter-planetary dust particles (CP IDPs) contain an assortment of highly primitive solar system components, molecular cloud matter, and presolar grains. These IDPs have largely escaped parent body processing that has affected meteorites, advocating cometary origins. Though the stardust abundance in CP IDPs is generally greater than in primitive meteorites, it can vary widely among individual CP IDPs. The average abundance of silicate stardust among isotopically primitive IDPs is approx. 375 ppm while some have extreme abundances up to approx. 1.5%. H and N isotopic anomalies are common in CP IDPs and the carrier of these anomalies has been traced to organic matter that has experienced chemical reactions in cold molecular clouds or the outer protosolar disk. Significant variations in these anomalies may reflect different degrees of nebular processing. Refractory inclusions are commonly observed in carbonaceous chondrites. These inclusions are among the first solar system condensates and display 16O-rich isotopic compositions. Refractory grains have also been observed in the comet 81P/Wild-2 samples re-turned from the Stardust Mission and in CP IDPs, but they occur with much less frequency. Here we conduct coordinated mineralogical and isotopic analyses of CP IDPs that were characterized for their bulk chemistry by to study the distribution of primitive components and the degree of nebular alteration incurred.

  16. Forces, Growth and Form in Soft Condensed Matter: At the Interface between Physics and Biology NATO Advanced Study Institute, Geilo, Norway, 24 March - 3 April 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helgesen, G. ed.

    2003-05-01

    The goal of this ASI was to bring together a group of disparate sciences to discuss areas of research related to competition between interactions of different ranges, for it is this that creates local structure on which complexity depends in soft condensed matter, biological systems and their synthetic models. The starting point, and the underlying theme throughout the ASI, was thus a thorough discussion of the relative role of the various fundamental interactions in such systems (electrostatic, hydrophobic, steric, conformational, van der Waals, etc.). The next focus was on how these competing interactions influence the form and topology of soft and biological matter, like polymers and proteins, leading to hierarchical structures in self-assembling systems and folding patterns sometimes described in terms of chirality, braids and knots. Finally, focus was on how the competing interactions influence various bio processes like genetic regulation and biological evolution taking place in systems like biopolymers, macromolecules and cell membranes. The report includes the abstracts of the posters presented, two of which are given in this database: (1) Precise characterisation of nano channels in track etched membranes by SAXS and SANS, and (2) Cisplatin binding to DNA: Structure, bonding and NMR properties from CarParrinello/Classical MD simulations.

  17. Matter rogue waves for the three-component Gross-Pitaevskii equations in the spinor Bose-Einstein condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    To show the existence and properties of matter rogue waves in an F =1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), we work on the three-component Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations. Via the Darboux-dressing transformation, we obtain a family of rational solutions describing the extreme events, i.e. rogue waves. This family of solutions includes bright-dark-bright and bright-bright-bright rogue waves. The algebraic construction depends on Lax matrices and their Jordan form. The conditions for the existence of rogue wave solutions in an F =1 spinor BEC are discussed. For the three-component GP equations, if there is modulation instability, it is of baseband type only, confirming our analytic conditions. The energy transfers between the waves are discussed.

  18. Matter rogue waves for the three-component Gross–Pitaevskii equations in the spinor Bose–Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    To show the existence and properties of matter rogue waves in an F=1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), we work on the three-component Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations. Via the Darboux-dressing transformation, we obtain a family of rational solutions describing the extreme events, i.e. rogue waves. This family of solutions includes bright-dark-bright and bright-bright-bright rogue waves. The algebraic construction depends on Lax matrices and their Jordan form. The conditions for the existence of rogue wave solutions in an F=1 spinor BEC are discussed. For the three-component GP equations, if there is modulation instability, it is of baseband type only, confirming our analytic conditions. The energy transfers between the waves are discussed.

  19. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  20. Thermal analysis of parallel flow multi pass channel condenser for automotive air conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanaye, S.; Dehghandokht, M. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems Improvement Lab; Beigi, H.M.; Bahrami, S. [Sardsaz Khodro Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Research and Development Div.

    2010-07-01

    The problem of ozone depletion was partly solved by replacing CFC refrigerant with HFC refrigerants. Since the risk of refrigerant leak in automotive air conditioning systems is much greater than that of common air conditioning systems and refrigerators, there is a need to develop new automotive air conditioning systems that consume less power and require less refrigerant. This paper presented and validated the thermal performance of a parallel flow multi-channel condenser developed by Sardsaz Khodro Company. The condenser is a brazed aluminium one with air in cross-flow; the refrigerant circulates inside multi-channel flat tubes composed of 7 parallel ports. The condenser is composed of 4 refrigerant passes and several small channel tubes. The air follows a single cross flow path across louvered fins. A computer program for performance analysis of parallel flow condensers widely used in mobile air conditioning systems, using an empirical equation for the heat transfer coefficient, was developed on the basis of pressure drop. The model was based on an effectiveness-NTU method. The simulated performance results for the condenser heat capacity, refrigerant pressure drop, subcooling at the outlet of condenser and condenser outlet air temperature were close to experimental data results from calorimeter tests. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Conceptual Design of a Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems Using Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Khan, Lutful I.; Nayagam, Vedha; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy

    2006-01-01

    Condensing heat exchangers are used in many space applications in the thermal and humidity control systems. In the International Space Station (ISS), humidity control is achieved by using a water cooled fin surface over which the moist air condenses, followed by "slurper bars" that take in both the condensate and air into a rotary separator and separates the water from air. The use of a cooled porous substrate as the condensing surface provides and attractive alternative that combines both heat removal as well as liquid/gas separation into a single unit. By selecting the pore sizes of the porous substrate a gravity independent operation may also be possible with this concept. Condensation of vapor into and on the porous surface from the flowing air and the removal of condensate from the porous substrate are the critical processes involved in the proposed concept. This paper describes some preliminary results of the proposed condensate withdrawal process and discusses the on-going design and development work of a porous media based condensing heat exchanger at the NASA Glenn Research Center in collaboration with NASA Johnson Space Center.

  2. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere I. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Chromosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous spectrum of the solar photosphere stands as the paramount observation with regard to the condensed nature of the solar body. Studies relative to Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission (e.g. Robitaille P.-M. Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission: 150 years. Progr. Phys., 2009, v. 4, 3–13. and a detailed analysis of the stellar opacity problem (Robitaille P.M. Stellar opacity: The Achilles’ heel of the gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 93–99 have revealed that gaseous models remain unable to properly account for the generation of this spectrum. Therefore, it can be stated with certainty that the photosphere is comprised of condensed matter. Beyond the solar surface, the chromospheric layer of the Sun also generates a weak continuous spectrum in the visible region. This emission exposes the presence of material in the condensed state. As a result, above the level of the photosphere, matter exists in both gaseous and condensed forms, much like within the atmosphere of the Earth. The continuous visible spectrum associated with the chromosphere provides the twenty-sixth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.

  3. Wireless sensor network-based greenhouse environment monitoring and automatic control system for dew condensation prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop's surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control.

  4. Excitonic condensation in quasi-two-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisan, M. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Cluj, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)]. E-mail: mcrisan@phys.ubbcluj.ro; Tifrea, I. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Cluj, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2005-10-17

    We present a low energy model for the Bose-Einstein condensation in a quasi-two-dimensional excitonic gas. Using the flow equations of the renormalization group and a {phi}{sup 4} model with the dynamical critical exponent z=2 we calculate the temperature dependence of the critical density, coherence length, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat. The model can be relevant for the macroscopic coherence observed in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum wells.

  5. Coupled exciton-photon Bose condensate: Non-Markovian character of the open system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elistratov, A. A.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2017-09-01

    For an nonequilibrium system, in the framework of the Keldysh formalism we explore the kinetics of the polariton condensate in a quantum well embedded in an optical microcavity taking into account pumping and leakage of excitons and photons. We make ab initio derivation of the quantum kinetic equations for the condensates and for reservoirs. We show that the real open polariton system has the non-Markovian character at times comparable to the Rabi oscillation period.

  6. Role of single-particle and pair condensates in Bose systems with arbitrary intensity of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Peletminskii

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study a superfluid Bose system with single-particle and pair condensates on the basis of a half-phenomenological theory of a Bose liquid not involving the weakness of interparticle interaction. The coupled equations describing the equilibrium state of such system are derived from the variational principle for entropy. These equations are analyzed at zero temperature both analytically and numerically. It is shown that the fraction of particles in the single-particle and pair condensates essentially depends on the total density of the system. At densities attainable in condensates of alkali-metal atoms, almost all particles are in the single-particle condensate. The pair condensate fraction grows with increasing total density and becomes dominant. It is shown that at density of liquid helium, the single-particle condensate fraction is less than 10% that agrees with experimental data on inelastic neutron scattering, Monte Carlo calculations and other theoretical predictions. The ground state energy, pressure, and compressibility are found for the system under consideration. The spectrum of single-particle excitations is also analyzed.

  7. Waste heat recovery system including a mechanism for collection, detection and removal of non-condensable gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-06-20

    The disclosure describes a non-condensable gas collection, detection, and removal system for a WHR system that helps to maintain cycle efficiency of the WHR system across the life of an engine system associated with the WHR system. A storage volume is configured to collect non-condensable gas received from the working fluid circuit, and a release valve is configured to selectively release non-condensable gas contained within the storage volume.

  8. Improved Apparatus to Study Matter-Wave Quantum Optics in a Sodium Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shan; Bhagat, Anita; Zhang, Qimin; Schwettmann, Arne

    2017-04-01

    We present and characterize our recently improved experimental apparatus for studying matter-wave quantum optics in spin space in ultracold sodium gases. Improvements include our recent addition of a 3D-printed Helmholtz coil frame for field stabilization and a crossed optical dipole trap. Spin-exchange collisions in the F = 1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate can be precisely controlled by microwave dressing, and generate pairs of entangled atoms with magnetic quantum numbers mF = + 1 and mF = - 1 from pairs of mF = 0 atoms. Spin squeezing generated by the collisions can reduce the noise of population measurements below the shot noise limit. Versatile microwave pulse sequences will be used to implement an interferometer, a phase-sensitive amplifier and other devices with sub-shot noise performance. With an added ion detector to detect Rydberg atoms via pulse-field ionization, we later plan to study the effect of Rydberg excitations on the spin evolution of the ultracold gas.

  9. Ferroelectric hybrid fibers to develop flexible sensors for shape sensing of smart textiles and soft condensed matter bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Tutu; Lusiola, Tony; Clemens, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Piezoelectric fibers are widely used in composites for actuator and sensor applications due to its ability to convert electrical pulses into mechanical vibrations and transform the returned mechanical vibrations back into electrical signal. They are beneficial for the fabrication of composites especially 1-3 composites, active fiber composites (unidirectional axially aligned PZT fibers sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes and embedded in a polymer matrix) etc, with potential applications in medical imaging, structural health monitoring, energy harvesting, vibration and noise control. However, due to the brittle nature of PZT fibers, maximum strain is limited to 0.2% and cannot be integrated into flexible sensor applications. In this contribution, a new approach to develop flexible ferroelectric hybrid fibers for soft body shape sensing is investigated. Piezoelectric particles incorporated in a polymer matrix and extruded as fiber, 0-3 composite in fibrous form is studied. Commercially obtained calcined PZT and calcined BaTiO3 powders were used in the unsintered form to obtain flexible soft condensed matter ferroelectric hybrid fibers. The extruded fibers were subjected to investigation for their electromechanical behavior as a function of electric field. The hybrid fibers reached 10% of the maximum polarization of their sintered counterpart.

  10. Solar system-sized condensations in the Orion Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchwell, E.; Wood, D.O.S.; Felli, M.; Massi, M

    1987-10-01

    New observations of 22 ultracompact radio sources toward the Trapezium cluster and toward the core of the Kleinmann-Low nebula are reported. The diameters of the sources range from less than 3.7 x 10 to the 14th cm to about 3.4 x 10 to the 15th cm. Their emission measures are typically greater than 10 to the 8th pc/cm exp 6, their electron densities are greater than or equal to 10 to the 6th/cu cm, and most are optically thin at 2 cm. Fifteen are associated with stars. Two interpretations for the optically visible nebular condensations are discussed. They may be dense, molecular globules embedded in the diffuse H II region with envelopes ionized by the Trapezium stars, or they may be low-mass, premain-sequence stars whose accretion disks are slowly being evaporated by the Trapezium stars. Properties and mass-loss rates are derived for the objects not associated with visible stars. 39 references.

  11. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-07-08

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to : 1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, 2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and 3) develop mathematical model and ehat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal- hydraulic codes assessment.

  12. Allocation of synchronous condensers for restoration of system short-circuit power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrazi, Emanuel; Yang, Guangya; Weinreich-Jensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    in the grid, in order to provide sufficient short-circuit power. This results in the increase of the short-circuit ratio (SCR) at transmission system bus-bars serving as points of interconnection (POI) to renewable generation. Evaluation of the required capacity and grid-location of the synchronous condensers...... by renewable generation. Total cost of synchronous condenser installations in the system is minimized and the SCRs at the POIs of central renewable power plants are strengthened. The method has potential for application on larger grids, aiding grid-integration of RES.......Modern power systems, employing an increasing number of converter-based renewable energy sources (RES) and decreasing the usage of conventional power plants, are leading to lower levels of short-circuit power and rotational inertia. A solution to this is the employment of synchronous condensers...

  13. Communication: Thermodynamics of condensed matter with strong pressure-energy correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Bøhling, Lasse; Schrøder, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in the phase diagram of invariant structure and dynamics) are described by h(ρ)/T = Const., (2) the density-scaling exponent is a function of density only, and (3) a Grüneisen-type equation of state applies for the configurational degrees of freedom. For strongly correlating atomic systems one has h(ρ) = ∑n...

  14. Failure-cause analysis: condenser and associated systems. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.J.; Impagliazzo, A.M.; Mussalli, Y.G.

    1982-06-01

    Steam surface condensers and their associated systems are a frequent cause of generating losses resulting from outages, load reductions, and poor performance. This study, presented in two volumes, was initiated to determine the effects of condenser and associated system problems on power plant availability and performance. Data were received from 415 power plant units, and visits were made to selected utilities. The most significant problems were in the areas of tube and tubesheet fouling, intake blockage, tube failures, traveling water screens, heater drain pumps, condensate pumps, feedwater heater tube failures, vacuum priming systems, and circulating water pumps. Fouling is the most outstanding reason for lost generating capacity, either through availability or performance loss. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that there is a need for definitive industry guidelines for condensers and intakes. Developmental work should be carried out on intake designs and intake retrofits, which will help to mitigate the effects of macrofouling and possibly to assist in microfouling control at the same time. New concepts, such as greater modularization and replaceable tube bundles, should be considered for increasing condenser reliability.

  15. Failure-cause analysis: condenser and associated systems. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.J.; Impagliazzo, A.M.; Mussalli, Y.G.

    1982-06-01

    Steam surface condensers and their associated systems are a frequent cause of generating losses resulting from outages, load reductions, and poor performance. This study, presented in two volumes, was initiated to determine the effects of condenser and associated system problems on power plant availability and performance. Data were received from 415 power plant units, and visits were made to selected utilities. The most significant problems were in the areas of tube and tubesheet fouling, intake blockage, tube failures, traveling water screens, heater drain pumps, condensate pumps, feedwater heater tube failures, vacuum priming systems, and circulating water pumps. Fouling is the most outstanding reason for lost generating capacity, either through availability or performance loss. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that there is a need for definitive industry guidelines for condensers and intakes. Developmental work should be carried out on intake designs and intake retrofits, which will help to mitigate the effects of macrofouling and possibly to assist in microfouling control at the same time. New concepts, such as greater modularization and replaceable tube bundles, should be considered for increasing condenser reliability. Volume 2 consists mostly of data.

  16. Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize: Emergent gravity from interacting Majorana modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaev, Alexei

    I will describe a concrete many-body Hamiltonian that exhibits some features of a quantum black hole. The Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model is a system of N >> 1 Majorana modes that are all coupled by random 4-th order terms. The problem admits an approximate dynamic mean field solution. At low temperatures, there is a fluctuating collective mode that corresponds to reparametrization of time. The effective action for this mode is equivalent to dilaton gravity in two space-time dimensions. Some important questions are how to quantize the reparametrization mode in Lorentzian time, include dissipative effects, and understand this system from the quantum information perspective. Supported by the Simons Foundation, Award Number 376205.

  17. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere II. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The K-corona, a significant portion of the solar atmosphere, displays a continuous spectrum which closely parallels photospheric emission, though without the presence of overlying Fraunhofer lines. The E-corona exists in the same region and is characterized by weak emission lines from highly ionized atoms. For instance, the famous green emission line from coronium (FeXIV is part of the E-corona. The F-corona exists beyond the K/E-corona and, like the photospheric spectrum, is characterized by Fraunhofer lines. The F-corona represents photospheric light scattered by dust particles in the interplanetary medium. Within the gaseous models of the Sun, the K-corona is viewed as photospheric radiation which has been scattered by relativistic electrons. This scattering is thought to broaden the Fraunhofer lines of the solar spectrum such that they can no longer be detected in the K-corona. Thus, the gaseous models of the Sun account for the appearance of the K-corona by distorting photospheric light, since they are unable to have recourse to condensed matter to directly produce such radiation. Conversely, it is now advanced that the continuous emission of the K-corona and associated emission lines from the E-corona must be interpreted as manifestations of the same phenomenon: condensed matter exists in the corona. It is well-known that the Sun expels large amounts of material from its surface in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. Given a liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, it is logical to assume that such matter, which exists in the condensed state on the solar surface, continues to manifest its nature once expelled into the corona. Therefore, the continuous spectrum of the K-corona provides the twenty-seventh line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.

  18. Accurate Semilocal Density Functional for Condensed-Matter Physics and Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianmin; Mo, Yuxiang

    2016-08-12

    Most density functionals have been developed by imposing the known exact constraints on the exchange-correlation energy, or by a fit to a set of properties of selected systems, or by both. However, accurate modeling of the conventional exchange hole presents a great challenge, due to the delocalization of the hole. Making use of the property that the hole can be made localized under a general coordinate transformation, here we derive an exchange hole from the density matrix expansion, while the correlation part is obtained by imposing the low-density limit constraint. From the hole, a semilocal exchange-correlation functional is calculated. Our comprehensive test shows that this functional can achieve remarkable accuracy for diverse properties of molecules, solids, and solid surfaces, substantially improving upon the nonempirical functionals proposed in recent years. Accurate semilocal functionals based on their associated holes are physically appealing and practically useful for developing nonlocal functionals.

  19. Torsion effects on condensed matter: like a magnetic field but not so much

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Anderson A.; Filgueiras, Cleverson; Moraes, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we study the effects of torsion due to a uniform distribution of topological defects (screw dislocations) on free spin/carrier dynamics in elastic solids. When a particle moves in such a medium, the effect of the torsion associated to the defect distribution is analogous to that of an applied magnetic field but with subtle differences. Analogue Landau levels are present in this system but they cannot be confined to two dimensions. In the case of spinless carriers, zero modes, which do not appear in the magnetic Landau levels, show up for quantized values of the linear momentum projected on the defects axis. Particles with spin are subjected to a Zeeman-like coupling between spin and torsion, which is insensitive to charge. This suggests the possibility of spin resonance experiments without a magnetic field for charged carriers or quasiparticles without electrical charge, like triplet excitons, for instance.

  20. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, J.; Castellazzi, D.; Shea-Braun, M. (eds.)

    2002-03-01

    The SINQ-facility stopped operation at the end of the year 2001 for the scheduled shut down. By that time the spallation target of the 'Cannelloni'-type (D{sub 2}O-cooled steel pins filled with lead) had received a total charge of more then 10 Ah at an average proton current higher than 1 mA. Thereby nearly 4 mols of neutrons had been released from this target. The two operational years with this target delivered the neutrons for about 300 experiments. During this operational period not one single interrupt caused by the spallation target has been recorded -indeed a convincing evidence for the reliability of this system. The probes inserted into the target and some of its parts will now soon be available to the materials scientists for careful investigation. SINQ as a continuous spallation neutron source was considered to be a 'high risk' project. Furthermore it was often accompanied with the suspicion to represent the 'worst of two worlds' - meaning that this facility would suffer from the disadvantages but not benefit from the advantage of a spallation neutron source - the pulse structure. According to our operational experience these fears are not justified provided the various concerns have been properly taken into consideration during design and construction. This report testifies what can be achieved at a continuous spallation neutron source. We believe that these research activities compare well with those from a beam-tube reactor of medium flux. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  1. An experimental station for advanced research on condensed matter under extreme conditions at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - BM29 beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipponi, Adriano; Borowski, Michael; Bowron, Daniel T.; Ansell, Stuart; Di Cicco, Andrea; De Panfilis, Simone; Itiè, Jean-Paul

    2000-06-01

    We describe state-of-the-art experimental techniques using the beamline BM29 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). This station exploits the unique characteristics of an ESRF bending magnet source to provide a tunable, collimated, x-ray beam to perform high quality x-ray absorption spectroscopy within the energy range of E=5-75 keV using Si(111), Si(311), and Si(511) crystal pairs. Energy scans can be performed over this wide energy range with excellent reproducibility, stability and resolution, usually better than ΔE/E≃5×10-5. The experimental setup has been exploited to study condensed matter under extreme conditions. We describe here two sample environment devices; the L' Aquila-Camerino oven for high-temperature studies up to 3000 K in high vacuum and the Paris-Edinburgh press suitable for high-pressure high-temperature studies in the range 0.1-7 GPa and temperatures up to 1500 K. These devices can be integrated in an experimental setup which combines various control and detection systems suitable to perform x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray absorption temperature scans, and energy scanning x-ray diffraction (ESXD). The ESXD setup is based on a scintillator detector behind a fixed angle collimator aligned to the sample. The combination of these three measurements, which can be performed in rapid sequence on the sample during the experiment, provides an essential tool for structural investigations and in situ sample characterization.

  2. Recursive Solution Procedures for Flexible Multibody Systems: Comparing Condensation and Transfer Matrix Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, Jurnan; Ellenbroek, Marcel; de Boer, Andre

    2017-01-01

    In this work two different recursive solution procedures for flexible multibody systems are considered: the condensation method and the transfer matrix method. A comparison between these methods is made based on the equation of motion of an arbitrary 3D linear elastic body, in which the absolute

  3. Isotopes in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    G Plekhanov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to the newly created sub-discipline of solid state physics isotopetronics. The role of isotopes in materials and their properties are describe  in this book. The problem of the enigma of the atomic mass in microphysics is briefly discussed.  The range of the applications of isotopes is wide: from biochemical process in living organisms to modern technical applications in quantum information. Isotopetronics promises to improve nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. With numerous illustrations this book is useful to researchers, engineers and graduate students.

  4. Plant systems biology: network matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Mikaël; Laplaze, Laurent; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2011-04-01

    Systems biology is all about networks. A recent trend has been to associate systems biology exclusively with the study of gene regulatory or protein-interaction networks. However, systems biology approaches can be applied at many other scales, from the subatomic to the ecosystem scales. In this review, we describe studies at the sub-cellular, tissue, whole plant and crop scales and highlight how these studies can be related to systems biology. We discuss the properties of system approaches at each scale as well as their current limits, and pinpoint in each case advances unique to the considered scale but representing potential for the other scales. We conclude by examining plant models bridging different scales and considering the future prospects of plant systems biology. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Phase diagrams of a condensed decane-eicosane-cyclododecane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkushin, I. K.; Kolyado, A. V.; Shamitov, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    An n-eicosane-cyclododecane- n-decane system related to eutectic-type systems is investigated by means of differential thermal analysis. The eutectic alloy with melting point of-33.8°C contains 2.8 wt % of n-eicosane, 89.2 wt % of n-decane, and 8.0 wt % of cyclododecane.

  6. Universal Themes of Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proukakis, Nick P.; Snoke, David W.; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2017-04-01

    Foreword; List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Universality and Bose-Einstein condensation: perspectives on recent work D. W. Snoke, N. P. Proukakis, T. Giamarchi and P. B. Littlewood; 2. A history of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen T. Greytak and D. Kleppner; 3. Twenty years of atomic quantum gases: 1995-2015 W. Ketterle; 4. Introduction to polariton condensation P. B. Littlewood and A. Edelman; Part II. General Topics: Editorial notes; 5. The question of spontaneous symmetry breaking in condensates D. W. Snoke and A. J. Daley; 6. Effects of interactions on Bose-Einstein condensation R. P. Smith; 7. Formation of Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Davis, T. M. Wright, T. Gasenzer, S. A. Gardiner and N. P. Proukakis; 8. Quenches, relaxation and pre-thermalization in an isolated quantum system T. Langen and J. Schmiedmayer; 9. Ultracold gases with intrinsic scale invariance C. Chin; 10. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase of a driven-dissipative condensate N. Y. Kim, W. H. Nitsche and Y. Yamamoto; 11. Superfluidity and phase correlations of driven dissipative condensates J. Keeling, L. M. Sieberer, E. Altman, L. Chen, S. Diehl and J. Toner; 12. BEC to BCS crossover from superconductors to polaritons A. Edelman and P. B. Littlewood; Part III. Condensates in Atomic Physics: Editorial notes; 13. Probing and controlling strongly correlated quantum many-body systems using ultracold quantum gases I. Bloch; 14. Preparing and probing chern bands with cold atoms N. Goldman, N. R. Cooper and J. Dalibard; 15. Bose-Einstein condensates in artificial gauge fields L. J. LeBlanc and I. B. Spielman; 16. Second sound in ultracold atomic gases L. Pitaevskii and S. Stringari; 17. Quantum turbulence in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates N. G. Parker, A. J. Allen, C. F. Barenghi and N. P. Proukakis; 18. Spinor-dipolar aspects of Bose-Einstein condensation M. Ueda; Part IV. Condensates in Condensed Matter Physics: Editorial notes; 19. Bose

  7. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

  8. Molecular view modeling of atmospheric organic particulate matter: Incorporating molecular structure and co-condensation of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F.; Marks, Marguerite C.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Mahmud, Abdullah; Asher, William E.; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Most urban and regional models used to predict levels of organic particulate matter (OPM) are based on fundamental equations for gas/particle partitioning, but make the highly simplifying, anonymized-view (AV) assumptions that OPM levels are not affected by either: a) the molecular characteristics of the condensing organic compounds (other than simple volatility); or b) co-condensation of water as driven by non-zero relative humidity (RH) values. The simplifying assumptions have allowed parameterized chamber results for formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g., ;two-product; (2p) coefficients) to be incorporated in chemical transport models. However, a return towards a less simplistic (and more computationally demanding) molecular view (MV) is needed that acknowledges that atmospheric OPM is a mixture of organic compounds with differing polarities, water, and in some cases dissolved salts. The higher computational cost of MV modeling results from a need for iterative calculations of the composition-dependent gas/particle partition coefficient values. MV modeling of OPM that considered water uptake (but not dissolved salts) was carried out for the southeast United States for the period August 29 through September 7, 2006. Three model variants were used at three universities: CMAQ-RH-2p (at PSU), UCD/CIT-RH-2p (at UCD), and CMAQ-RH-MCM (at TAMU). With the first two, MV structural characteristics (carbon number and numbers of functional groups) were assigned to each of the 2p products used in CMAQv.4.7.1 such that resulting predicted Kp,i values matched those in CMAQv.4.7.1. When water uptake was allowed, most runs assumed that uptake occurred only into the SOA portion, and imposed immiscibility of SOA with primary organic aerosol (POA). (POA is often viewed as rather non-polar, while SOA is commonly viewed as moderately-to-rather polar. Some runs with UCD/CIT-RH-2p were used to investigate the effects of POA/SOA miscibility.) CMAQ-RH-MCM used MCM to

  9. Prediction of Interfacial Tensions of Reservoir Crude Oil and Gas Condensate Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the linear gradient theory (LGT) model, the simplified linear gradient theory (SLGT) model, the corresponding-states (CS) correlation, and the parachor method developed by the authors were extended to calculate interfacial tensions (IFT's) of crude oil and gas condensate systems...... model and the parachor model. For gas condensate systems, the predictions by use of the SLGT model are in good agreement with the measured IFT data. In the near-critical region, a correlation was proposed for estimations of IFT’s for CO2/oil systems, and satisfactory correlated results were obtained....... the CS correlation were in good agreement with the measured IFT data for several crude oil and CO2/oil systems. The SLGT model and the parachor model perform better than the LGT model and the CS correlation. For N 2 volatile oil systems, the performance of the LGT model is better than that of the SLGT...

  10. Development of an Exhaled Breath Monitoring System with Semiconductive Gas Sensors, a Gas Condenser Unit, and Gas Chromatograph Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshio; Miwa, Toshio; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck; Park, Jangchul; Hida, Toyoaki; Eda, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-10

    Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath exhaled by patients with lung cancer, healthy controls, and patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery for resection of cancer were analyzed by gas condenser-equipped gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for development of an exhaled breath monitoring prototype system involving metal oxide gas sensors, a gas condenser, and gas chromatography columns. The gas condenser-GC/MS analysis identified concentrations of 56 VOCs in the breath exhaled by the test population of 136 volunteers (107 patients with lung cancer and 29 controls), and selected four target VOCs, nonanal, acetoin, acetic acid, and propanoic acid, for use with the condenser, GC, and sensor-type prototype system. The prototype system analyzed exhaled breath samples from 101 volunteers (74 patients with lung cancer and 27 controls). The prototype system exhibited a level of performance similar to that of the gas condenser-GC/MS system for breath analysis.

  11. Confined Phase Envelope of Gas-Condensate Systems in Shale Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Stanislaw; Siemek, Jakub

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas from shales (NGS) and from tight rocks are one of the most important fossil energy resource in this and next decade. Significant increase in gas consumption, in all world regions, will be marked in the energy sector. The exploration of unconventional natural gas & oil reservoirs has been discussed recently in many conferences. This paper describes the complex phenomena related to the impact of adsorption and capillary condensation of gas-condensate systems in nanopores. New two phase saturation model and new algorithm for search capillary condensation area is discussed. The algorithm is based on the Modified Tangent Plane Criterion for Capillary Condensation (MTPCCC) is presented. The examples of shift of phase envelopes are presented for selected composition of gas-condensate systems. Gaz ziemny z łupków (NGS) oraz z ze złóż niskoprzepuszczalnych (typu `tight') staje się jednym z najważniejszych zasobów paliw kopalnych, w tym i następnym dziesięcioleciu. Znaczący wzrost zużycia gazu we wszystkich regionach świata zaznacza się głównie w sektorze energetycznym. Rozpoznawanie niekonwencjonalnych złóż gazu ziemnego i ropy naftowej w ostatnim czasie jest omawiane w wielu konferencjach. Niniejszy artykuł opisuje złożone zjawiska związane z wpływem adsorpcji i kapilarnej kondensacji w nanoporach w złożach gazowo-kondensatowych. Pokazano nowy dwufazowy model równowagowy dwufazowy i nowy algorytm wyznaczania krzywej nasycenia w obszarze kondensacji kapilarnej. Algorytm bazuje na kryterium zmodyfikowanym płaszczyzny stycznej dla kapilarnej kondensacji (MTPCCC). Przykłady zmiany krzywych nasycenia są przedstawiane w wybranym składzie systemów gazowo- kondensatowych

  12. Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation through a Bose-Einstein condensate cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamide Kazemi, S.; Ghanbari, S.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of a probe laser field in a cavity optomechanical system with a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied. The transmission properties of the system are investigated and it is shown that the group velocity of the probe pulse field can be controlled by Rabi frequency of the pump laser field. The effect of the decay rate of the cavity photons on the group velocity is studied and it is demonstrated that for small values of the decay rates, the light propagation switches from subluminal to superluminal just by changing the Rabi frequency of the pump field. Then, the gain-assisted superluminal light propagation due to the cross-Kerr nonlinearity is established in cavity optomechanical system with a Bose-Einstein condensate. Such behavior can not appear in the pump-probe two-level atomic systems in the normal phase. We also find that the amplification is achieved without inversion in the population of the quantum energy levels.

  13. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  14. Symmetry-enriched Bose-Einstein condensates in a spin-orbit-coupled bilayer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jia-Ming; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Gong, Ming

    2018-01-01

    We consider the fate of Bose-Einstein condensation with time-reversal symmetry and inversion symmetry in a spin-orbit-coupled bilayer system. When these two symmetry operators commute, all the single-particle bands are exactly twofold degenerate in the momentum space. The scattering in the twofold-degenerate rings can relax the spin-momentum locking effect from spin-orbit-coupling interaction and thus can realize the spin-polarized plane-wave phase even when the interparticle interaction dominates. When these two operators anticommute, the lowest two bands may have the same minimal energy, but with totally different spin structures. As a result, the competition between different condensates in these two energetically degenerate rings can give rise to different stripe phases with atoms condensed at two or four collinear momenta. We find that the crossover between these two cases is accompanied by the excited band condensation when the interference energy can overcome the increased single-particle energy in the excited band. This effect is not based on strong interaction and thus can be realized even with moderate interaction strength.

  15. Improving Breast Ultrasound Interpretation in Uganda Using a Condensed Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, John R; Peacock, Sue; Orem, Jackson; Bugeza, Samuel; Muyinda, Zeridah; Porter, Peggy L; Wood, William C; Comis, Robert L; Lehman, Constance D

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a 2-day educational course using a condensed Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (condensed BI-RADS) improved the accuracy of Ugandan healthcare workers interpreting breast ultrasound. The target audience of this intervention was Ugandan healthcare workers involved in performing, interpreting, or acting on the results of breast ultrasound. The educational course consisted of a pretest knowledge assessment, a series of lectures on breast imaging interpretation and standardized reporting using a condensed BI-RADS, and a posttest knowledge assessment. Participants interpreted 53 different ultrasound test cases by selecting the finding type, descriptors for masses, and recommendations. We compared the percent correct on the pretest and posttest based on occupation and training level. Sixty-one Ugandan healthcare workers participated in this study, including 13 radiologists, 13 other physicians, 12 technologists, and 23 midlevel providers. Most groups improved in identifying the finding type (P breast ultrasound education using a condensed BI-RADS improved the interpretive performance of healthcare workers and was particularly successful in reducing the frequency of unnecessary biopsies for normal and benign findings. Multimodal educational efforts to improve accuracy and management of breast ultrasound findings may augment breast cancer early detection efforts in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative analysis of an evaporative condenser using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metin Ertunc, H. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kocaeli University, Umuttepe, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Hosoz, Murat [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, Umuttepe, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    This study deals with predicting the performance of an evaporative condenser using both artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) techniques. For this aim, an experimental evaporative condenser consisting of a copper tube condensing coil along with air and water circuit elements was developed and equipped with instruments used for temperature, pressure and flow rate measurements. After the condenser was connected to an R134a vapour-compression refrigeration circuit, it was operated at steady state conditions, while varying both dry and wet bulb temperatures of the air stream entering the condenser, air and water flow rates as well as pressure, temperature and flow rate of the entering refrigerant. Using some of the experimental data for training, ANN and ANFIS models for the evaporative condenser were developed. These models were used for predicting the condenser heat rejection rate, refrigerant temperature leaving the condenser along with dry and wet bulb temperatures of the leaving air stream. Although it was observed that both ANN and ANFIS models yielded a good statistical prediction performance in terms of correlation coefficient, mean relative error, root mean square error and absolute fraction of variance, the accuracies of ANFIS predictions were usually slightly better than those of ANN predictions. This study reveals that, having an extended prediction capability compared to ANN, the ANFIS technique can also be used for predicting the performance of evaporative condensers. (author)

  17. Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

  18. Dark matter, neutrinos, and our solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Nirmala

    2013-01-01

    Dark Matter, Neutrinos, and Our Solar System is a unique enterprise that should be viewed as an important contribution to our understanding of dark matter, neutrinos and the solar system. It describes these issues in terms of links, between cosmology, particle and nuclear physics, as well as between cosmology, atmospheric and terrestrial physics. It studies the constituents of dark matter (classified as hot warm and cold) first in terms of their individual structures (baryonic and non-baryonic, massive and non-massive, interacting and non-interacting) and second, in terms of facilities available to detect these structures (large and small). Neutrinos (an important component of dark matter) are treated as a separate entity. A detailed study of these elusive (sub-atomic) particles is done, from the year 1913 when they were found as byproducts of beta decay -- until the discovery in 2007 which confirmed that neutrino flavors were not more than three (as speculated by some). The last chapter of the book details t...

  19. Expert Meeting: Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  20. Expert Meeting. Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  1. Experimental determination of critical parameters for gas-condensate-oil systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanova, Z.E.; Yagubov, A.S.; Razamat, M.S.; Babaev, R.D.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of crude oil quantity and quality on changes of critical parameters in gas-condensate-oil systems. Experiments were performed at 40/sup 0/, 100/sup 0/, and 140/sup 0/C, and pressures up to 1,000 kg/sq cm. The 3 components of the system were gas, condensate, and crude oil. Isotherms of condensation were determined to the left and right of the critical point, reaching one-phase zones for liquid and gas. Experimental values of critical parameters varied widely from calculated values. Even insignificant changes in composition caused sharp changes in the critical parameters. For example by changing the weight fraction of crude oil from 0.499 to 0.503, critical temperature changed from 40/sup 0/ to 140/sup 0/C and critical pressure from 640 to 780 kg/sq cm. This type of occurrence must be kept in mind when exploiting gas-oil reservoirs near the critical range.

  2. A Compact, Transportable, Microchip-Based System for High Repetition Rate Production of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Daniel M; Salim, Evan A; Segal, Stephen R; Squires, Matthew B; Anderson, Dana Z

    2009-01-01

    We present a compact, transportable system that produces Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) near the surface of an integrated atom microchip. The system occupies a volume of 0.4 m^3 and operates at a repetition rate as high as 0.3 Hz. Evaporative cooling in a chip trap with trap frequencies of several kHz leads to nearly pure condensates containing 1.9x10^4 87Rb atoms. Partial condensates are observed at a temperature of 1.58(8) \\mu K, close to the theoretical transition temperature of 1.1 \\mu K.

  3. Heat transfer in an evaporation-condensation system in simulated weightlessness conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologa, M. K.; Grosu, F. P.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Motorin, O. V.; Polikarpov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The process of heat transfer in an evaporation-condensation system (ECS) at circulation of dielectric liquid in a closed thermoelectrohydrodynamic (TEHD) loop consisting of an evaporator, a condenser and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pump for pumping of heat carrier, is considered. Previously, the authors studied the dependence of heat transfer on the angle of rotation of TEHD loop in a vertical plane. The report contains the results of studies of heat transfer at electrohydrodynamic pumping of the heat carrier (8% solution of acetone in Freon 113) in the condenser area by means of EHD pump of “cone-cone” type. All elements of the ECS are arranged in a horizontal plane and the heat transfer from the heater to the condenser without EHD pumping is impossible. A pulsating heat carrier flow mode, depending on the heat input and the voltage applied to the pump, takes place at EHD pumping. As the input power is decreasing the frequency of the coolant pulsations as well as the departure diameter and number of vapour bubbles are also decreasing. At some critical heat input the pulsations disappear and the transition from turbulent mode to the laminar one takes place causing the decrease of the heat transfer coefficient. The increase of the pumping flow rate by raising the voltage applied to the EHD pump, results in a partial suppression of boiling. The maximum intensification of heat transfer is reached at pulsation frequency of 1.25 Hz. The maximum heat flow from the heater was 4.2·104 W/m2. Graphical representation and the physical interpretation of the results, which reflect the essence of the process, are given.

  4. Condensation Polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chain polyester by a process termed as polycondensation – 'poly' implying that several such events occur, and 'condensation' im- plies that there is a condensate that is formed. The condensate formed in this case, as you would have guessed, is H2O. Such re- actions would be classified as AA + BB type condensation, anal ...

  5. System monitoring feedback in cinemas and harvesting energy of the air conditioning condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Barz, C.; Latinovic, T.; Chiver, O.

    2017-05-01

    Our article monitors the degree of emotional involvement of the audience in the action film in theaters by measuring the concentration of CO2. The software performs data processing obtained dispersion sensors and displays data during the film. The software will also trigger the start of the air conditioning condenser where we can get harvesting energy by installing a piezoelectric device. Useful energy can be recovered from various waste produced in cinema. The time lag between actions and changes in environmental systems determines that decisions made now will affect subsequent generations and the future of our environment.

  6. An assessment of the use of direct contact condensers with wet cooling systems for utility steam power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.; Hoo, E. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); D' Errico, P. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Potential use of a direct contact condenser for steam recovery at the turbine exhaust of a utility power plant using a wet cooling system is investigated. To maintain condensate separate from the cooling water, a bank of plate heat exchangers is used. In a case study for a nominal 130-MW steam power plant, two heat rejection systems, one using a conventional surface condenser and another using a direct contact condenser together with a set of plate heat exchangers are compared on the basis of their performance, operation and maintenance, and system economics. Despite a higher initial cost for the direct contact system, the advantages it offers suggests that this system is viable both technically and economically. Key to the improvements the direct contact system offers is a higher equivalent availability for the power system. Reduction of dissolved oxygen and other metallic ions in the condensate, reduced use of chemical scavengers and polishers, and potential elimination of a plant floor are also major benefits of this system. Drawbacks include added plant components and higher initial cost. The potential for long-term cost reduction for the direct contact system is also identified.

  7. Modeling of a New Structure of Precision Air Conditioning System Using Secondary Condenser for Rh Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Subiantoro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic mathematical model for a new structure of precision air conditioning (PAC has been developed. The proposed PAC uses an additional secondary condenser for relative humidity regulation compared to a basic refrigeration system. The work mechanism for this system and a vapour-compression cycle process of the system are illustrated using psychrometric chart and pressure-enthalpy diagram. A non-linear system model is derived based on the conservation of mass and energy balance principles and then linearized at steady state operating point for developing a 8th-order state space model suited for multivariable controller design. The quality of linearized model is analyzed in terms of transient response, controllability, observability, and interaction between input-output variables. The developed model is verified through simulation showing its ability for imitating the nonlinear behavior and the interaction of input-output variables.

  8. International Conference on Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Gravitational Waves, Condensation of Atoms and Monopoles, Light-cone Quantization : Orbis Scientiae '96

    CERN Document Server

    Mintz, Stephan; Perlmutter, Arnold; Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Gravitational Waves, Condensation of Atoms and Monopoles, Light-cone Quantization : Orbis Scientiae '96

    1996-01-01

    The International Conference, Orbis Scientiae 1996, focused on the topics: The Neutrino Mass, Light Cone Quantization, Monopole Condensation, Dark Matter, and Gravitational Waves which we have adopted as the title of these proceedings. Was there any exciting news at the conference? Maybe, it depends on who answers the question. There was an almost unanimous agreement on the overall success of the conference as was evidenced by the fact that in the after-dinner remarks by one of us (BNK) the suggestion of organizing the conference on a biannual basis was presented but not accepted: the participants wanted the continuation of the tradition to convene annually. We shall, of course, comply. The expected observation of gravitational waves will constitute the most exciting vindication of Einstein's general relativity. This subject is attracting the attention of the experimentalists and theorists alike. We hope that by the first decade of the third millennium or earlier, gravitational waves will be detected,...

  9. Beyond condensed matter physics on the nanoscale: the role of ionic and electrochemical phenomena in the physical functionalities of oxide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Borisevich, Albina; Fong, Dillon

    2012-12-21

    Novel physical functionality enabled by nanoscale control of materials has been the target of intense scientific exploration and interest for the last two decades, leading directly to the explosive growth of nanoscience and nanotechnology. However, this transition to nanometer scales also blurs the boundary between classical physical and electrochemical phenomena, due to smaller transport lengths, larger chemical and electrostatic potential gradients, and higher surface/volume ratios. While well-recognized for many decades in areas such as ferroelectricity, these phenomena remained largely outside the realm of condensed matter physics studies. Here, we offer a perspective on the role of electrochemical phenomena in the nanoscale physics of correlated oxides and summarize the challenges for local characterization of these behaviors.

  10. TECHNOLGIES AND SYSTEMS FOR WATER MANAGEMENT AND CONDENSATES IN THE SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar factories do achieve an efficient use of process water, but this process should be self-sufficient for consumption because these sugar factories have the special characteristic of having as its main raw material, sugar cane, which consists in approximately 70% of water Those condensed recovered will be the first option to recover process water and are aimed to the feeding of boilers. The quantities of the condensate types are dependent of the evaporator’s configuration, also the grade in that show up the vapor extractions. In this paper the fundamental aspects are described as for the use and handling of water in the process of sugar production. Also, important considerations are shown on the treatment systems of residual that are generated in these factories. The evaporation system is shown as the most important area for the handling of water in the process, in it, vegetable vapor takes place and it is used in other technological equipment. A major surplus of steam will be produced in this area if the process is more energetically efficient. It is shown through a balance of water that the process is self-sufficient for water consumption.

  11. Comment on: Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation through a Bose-Einstein condensate cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Bruno; Ségard, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    In a recent theoretical article [S.H. Kazemi, S. Ghanbari, M. Mahmoudi, Eur. Phys. J. D 70, 1 (2016)], Kazemi et al. claim to have demonstrated superluminal light transmission in an optomechanical system where a Bose-Einstein condensate serves as the mechanical oscillator. In fact the superluminal propagation is only inferred from the existence of a minimum of transmission of the system at the probe frequency. This condition is not sufficient and we show that, in all the cases where superluminal propagation is claimed by Kazemi et al., the propagation is in reality subluminal. Moreover, we point out that the system under consideration is not minimum-phase-shift. The Kramers-Kronig relations then only fix a lower limit to the group delay and we show that these two quantities have sometimes opposite signs.

  12. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  13. Quantum tunnelling in condensed media

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yu

    1992-01-01

    The essays in this book deal with of the problem of quantum tunnelling and related behavior of a microscopic or macroscopic system, which interacts strongly with an ""environment"" - this being some form of condensed matter. The ""system"" in question need not be physically distinct from its environment, but could, for example, be one particular degree of freedom on which attention is focussed, as in the case of the Josephson junction studied in several of the papers. This general problem has been studied in many hundreds, if not thousands, of articles in the literature, in contexts as diverse

  14. Bose–Einstein condensation of anti-kaons and neutron star twins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the role of Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) of anti-kaons on the equation of state (EoS) and other properties of compact stars. In the framework of relativistic mean field model we determine the EoS for -stable hyperon matter and compare it to the situation when anti-kaons condense in the system.

  15. HYDRONIC BASEBOARD THERMAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WITH OUTDOOR RESET CONTROL TO ENABLE THE USE OF A CONDENSING BOILER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    2004-10-01

    Use of condensing boilers in residential heating systems offers the potential for significant improvements in efficiency. For these to operate in a condensing mode the return water temperature needs to be about 10 degrees below the saturation temperature for the flue gas water vapor. This saturation temperature depends on fuel type and excess air and ranges from about 110 F to 135 F. Conventional baseboard hydronic distribution systems are most common and these are designed for water temperatures in the 180 F range, well above the saturation temperature. Operating strategies which may allow these systems to operate in a condensing mode have been considered in the past. In this study an approach to achieving this for a significant part of the heating season has been tested in an instrumented home. The approach involves use of an outdoor reset control which reduces the temperature of the water circulating in the hydronic loop when the outdoor temperature is higher than the design point for the region. Results showed that this strategy allows the boiler to operate in the condensing region for 80% of the winter heating season with oil, 90% with propane, and 95% with gas, based on cumulative degree days. The heating system as tested combines space heating and domestic hot water loads using an indirect, 40 gallon tank with an internal heat exchanger. Tests conducted during the summer months showed that the return water temperature from the domestic hot water tank heat exchanger is always below a temperature which will provide condensing operation of the boiler. In the field tests both the condensing boiler and the conventional, non-condensing boiler were in the test home and each was operated periodically to provide a direct performance comparison.

  16. Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on first experimental observations of nuclear fermionic and bosonic components displaying different behaviours in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4π detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. By means of quantum-fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and local partial densities of bosons and fermions could be correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed systems of bosons and fermions, where bosons experience higher phase-space and energy density as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall phenomena observed in the study of Bose condensates and Fermi gases in atomic traps despite the different scales.

  17. Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, P., E-mail: marini@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Zheng, H. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX-77843 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, via Santa Sofia, 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Boisjoli, M. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire, Université Laval, Québec, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Verde, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); INFN – Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia, 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Chbihi, A. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Napolitani, P.; Ademard, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Augey, L. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Bhattacharya, C. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India); Borderie, B. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); and others

    2016-05-10

    We report on first experimental observations of nuclear fermionic and bosonic components displaying different behaviours in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4π detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. By means of quantum-fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and local partial densities of bosons and fermions could be correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed systems of bosons and fermions, where bosons experience higher phase-space and energy density as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall phenomena observed in the study of Bose condensates and Fermi gases in atomic traps despite the different scales.

  18. Semi-classical description of matter wave interferometers and hybrid quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Mathias

    2015-02-16

    This work considers the semi-classical description of two applications involving cold atoms. This is, on one hand, the behavior of a BOSE-EINSTEIN condensate in hybrid systems, i.e. in contact with a microscopic object (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, etc.). On the other, the evolution of phase space distributions in matter wave interferometers utilizing ray tracing methods was discussed. For describing condensates in hybrid systems, one can map the GROSS-PITAEVSKII equation, a differential equation in the complex-valued macroscopic wave function, onto a system of two differential equations in density and phase. Neglecting quantum dispersion, one obtains a semiclassical description which is easily modified to incorporate interactions between condensate and microscopical object. In our model, these interactions comprise attractive forces (CASIMIR-POLDER forces) and loss of condensed atoms due to inelastic collisions at the surface of the object. Our model exhibited the excitation of sound waves that are triggered by the object's rapid immersion, and spread across the condensate thereafter. Moreover, local particle loss leads to a shrinking of the bulk condensate. We showed that the total number of condensed particles is decreasing potentially in the beginning (large condensate, strong mean field interaction), while it decays exponentially in the long-time limit (small condensate, mean field inetraction negligible). For representing the physics of matter wave interferometers in phase space, we utilized the WIGNER function. In semi-classical approximation, which again consists in ignoring the quantum dispersion, this representation is subject to the same equation of motion as classical phase space distributions, i.e. the LIOUVILLE equation. This implies that time evolution of theWIGNER function follows a phase space flow that consists of classical trajectories (classical transport). This means, for calculating a time-evolved distribution, one has know the initial

  19. Supercritical entanglement in local systems: Counterexample to the area law for quantum matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Ramis; Shor, Peter W

    2016-11-22

    Quantum entanglement is the most surprising feature of quantum mechanics. Entanglement is simultaneously responsible for the difficulty of simulating quantum matter on a classical computer and the exponential speedups afforded by quantum computers. Ground states of quantum many-body systems typically satisfy an "area law": The amount of entanglement between a subsystem and the rest of the system is proportional to the area of the boundary. A system that obeys an area law has less entanglement and can be simulated more efficiently than a generic quantum state whose entanglement could be proportional to the total system's size. Moreover, an area law provides useful information about the low-energy physics of the system. It is widely believed that for physically reasonable quantum systems, the area law cannot be violated by more than a logarithmic factor in the system's size. We introduce a class of exactly solvable one-dimensional physical models which we can prove have exponentially more entanglement than suggested by the area law, and violate the area law by a square-root factor. This work suggests that simple quantum matter is richer and can provide much more quantum resources (i.e., entanglement) than expected. In addition to using recent advances in quantum information and condensed matter theory, we have drawn upon various branches of mathematics such as combinatorics of random walks, Brownian excursions, and fractional matching theory. We hope that the techniques developed herein may be useful for other problems in physics as well.

  20. Organic matter mineralization in marine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Vlug, T.; Van der Nat, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the reactions and biogeochemical processes that occur in the marine environment are related directly or indirectly to the mineralization of organic matter. Decomposition of organic matter is responsible for the recycling of essential nutrients, for the oxygen balance of the ocean and its

  1. Analytical expressions for optimum flow rates in evaporators and condensers of heat pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granryd, E. [Dept. of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The flow velocities on the air or liquid side of evaporators and condensers in refrigerating or heat pump systems affect the system performance considerably. Furthermore the velocity can often be chosen rather freely without obvious first cost implications. The purpose of the paper is to show analytical relations indicating possible optimum operating conditions. Considering a base case where the design data are known, simple analytical relations are deduced for optimum flow rates that will result in highest overall COP of the system when energy demand for the compressor as well as pumps or fans are included. This optimum is equivalent to the solution for minimum total energy demand of the system for a given cooling load. It is also shown that a different (and higher) flow rate will result in maximum net cooling capacity for a refrigerating system with fixed compressor speed. The expressions can be used for design purposes as well as for checking suitable flow velocities in existing plants. The relations may also be incorporated in algorithms for optimal operation of systems with variable speed compressors. (author)

  2. A Novel Modelling Approach for Condensing Boilers Based on Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, H.; Baldi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Condensing boilers use waste heat from flue gases to pre-heat cold water entering the boiler. Flue gases are condensed into liquid form, thus recovering their latent heat of vaporization, which results in as much as 10%–12% increase in efficiency. Modeling these heat transfer phenomena is crucial to

  3. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  4. Real-time locating systems (RTLS in healthcare: a condensed primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Boulos Maged N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Real-time locating systems (RTLS, also known as real-time location systems have become an important component of many existing ubiquitous location aware systems. While GPS (global positioning system has been quite successful as an outdoor real-time locating solution, it fails to repeat this success indoors. A number of RTLS technologies have been used to solve indoor tracking problems. The ability to accurately track the location of assets and individuals indoors has many applications in healthcare. This paper provides a condensed primer of RTLS in healthcare, briefly covering the many options and technologies that are involved, as well as the various possible applications of RTLS in healthcare facilities and their potential benefits, including capital expenditure reduction and workflow and patient throughput improvements. The key to a successful RTLS deployment lies in picking the right RTLS option(s and solution(s for the application(s or problem(s at hand. Where this application-technology match has not been carefully thought of, any technology will be doomed to failure or to achieving less than optimal results.

  5. Heat transfer during condensation of steam from steam-gas mixtures in the passive safety systems of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnova, N. M.; Smirnov, Yu B.

    2017-11-01

    A theoretical model for calculation of heat transfer during condensation of multicomponent vapor-gas mixtures on vertical surfaces, based on film theory and heat and mass transfer analogy is proposed. Calculations were performed for the conditions implemented in experimental studies of heat transfer during condensation of steam-gas mixtures in the passive safety systems of PWR-type reactors of different designs. Calculated values of heat transfer coefficients for condensation of steam-air, steam-air-helium and steam-air-hydrogen mixtures at pressures of 0.2 to 0.6 MPa and of steam-nitrogen mixture at the pressures of 0.4 to 2.6 MPa were obtained. The composition of mixtures and vapor-to-surface temperature difference were varied within wide limits. Tube length ranged from 0.65 to 9.79m. The condensation of all steam-gas mixtures took place in a laminar-wave flow mode of condensate film and turbulent free convection in the diffusion boundary layer. The heat transfer coefficients obtained by calculation using the proposed model are in good agreement with the considered experimental data for both the binary and ternary mixtures.

  6. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity in manned modules. Condensing surfaces...

  7. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity. Condensing surfaces must be...

  8. CONDENSATION CAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, E.T. Jr.; Pontius, R.B.; Jacobsohn, B.A.; Slade, C.B.

    1962-03-01

    An apparatus is designed for condensing a vapor to a solid at relatively low back pressures. The apparatus comprises a closed condensing chamber, a vapor inlet tube extending to the central region of the chamber, a co-axial tubular shield surrounding the inlet tube, means for heating the inlet tube at a point outside the condensing chamber, and means for refrigeratirg the said chamber. (AEC)

  9. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  10. An overview of Experimental Condensed Matter Physics in Argentina by 2014, and Oxides for Non Volatile Memory Devices: The MeMOSat Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    In the first part of my talk, I will describe the status of the experimental research in Condensed Matter Physics in Argentina, biased towards developments related to micro and nanotechnology. In the second part, I will describe the MeMOSat Project, a consortium aimed at producing non-volatile memory devices to work in aggressive environments, like those found in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Our devices rely on the Resistive Switching mechanism, which produces a permanent but reversible change in the electrical resistance across a metal-insulator-metal structure by means of a pulsed protocol of electrical stimuli. Our project is devoted to the study of Memory Mechanisms in Oxides (MeMO) in order to establish a technological platform that tests the Resistive RAM (ReRAM) technology for aerospace applications. A review of MeMOSat's activities is presented, covering the initial Proof of Concept in ceramic millimeter sized samples; the study of different oxide-metal couples including (LaPr)2/3Ca1/3MnO, La2/3Ca1/3MnO3, YBa2Cu3O7, TiO2, HfO2, MgO and CuO; and recent miniaturized arrays of micrometer sized devices controlled by in-house designed electronics, which were launched with the BugSat01 satellite in June2014 by the argentinian company Satellogic.

  11. Decay of Ultralight Axion Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eby, Joshua; Ma, Michael; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C.R.

    2017-05-15

    Axion particles can form macroscopic condensates, whose size can be galactic in scale for models with very small axion masses $m\\sim10^{-22}$ eV, and which are sometimes referred to under the name of Fuzzy Dark Matter. Many analyses of these condensates are done in the non-interacting limit, due to the weakness of the self-interaction coupling of axions. We investigate here how certain results change upon inclusion of these interactions, finding a decreased maximum mass and a modified mass-radius relationship. Further, these condensates are, in general, unstable to decay through number-changing interactions. We analyze the stability of galaxy-sized condensates of axion-like particles, and sketch the parameter space of stable configurations as a function of a binding energy parameter. We find a strong lower bound on the size of Fuzzy Dark Matter condensates which are stable to decay, with lifetimes longer than the age of the universe.

  12. Effect of sodium chloride on the glass transition of condensed starch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the structural properties of condensed potato starch-sodium chloride systems undergoing a thermally induced glass transition. Sample preparation included hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min to produce extensive starch gelatinisation. Materials covered a range of moisture contents from 3.6% to 18.8%, which corresponded to relative humidity values of 11% and 75%. Salt addition was up to 6.0% in formulations. Instrumental work was carried out with dynamic mechanical analysis in tension, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Experimental conditions ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of sodium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Sodium ions interact with chemical moieties of the polysaccharide chain to alter considerably structural properties, as compared to the starch-water matrix. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. OPTIMAL SYSNTHESIS PROCESSES OF LOW-TEMPERATURE CONDENSATION ASSOCIATED OIL GAS PLANT REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ostapenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of modern high-efficient systems is a key priority for the Energy Sector of Ukraine. The cooling technological streams of gas and oil refineries, including air coolers, water cooling and refrigeration systems for specific refrigerants are the objectives of the present study. Improvement of the refrigeration unit with refrigerant separation into fractions is mandatory in order to increase cooling capacity, lowering the boiling point of coolant and increasing the coefficient of target hydrocarbons extraction from the associated gas flow. In this paper it is shown that cooling temperature plays significant role in low-temperature condensation process. Two operation modes for refrigeration unit were proposed: permanent, in which the concentration of the refrigerant mixture does not change and dynamic, in which the concentration of refrigerant mixtures depends on the ambient temperature. Based on the analysis of exergy losses the optimal concentration of refrigerant mixtures propane/ethane for both modes of operation of the refrigeration unit has been determined. On the basis of the conducted pinch-analysis the modification of refrigeration unit with refrigerant separation into fractions was developed. Additional recuperative heat exchangers for utilization heat were added to the scheme. Several important measures to increase the mass flow rate of refrigerant through the second section of the refrigeration centrifugal compressor from 22.5 to 25 kg/s without violating the agreed operational mode of the compressor sections were implemented.

  14. Experimental Investigation and Flow Process Computer Simulation of the Single Mini Channel Condenser for Vapor Compression Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabilona, L. L.; Villanueva, E. P.

    2015-09-01

    This study is a computer simulation of the temperature profiles and experimental investigation of three 100 mm x 50 mm x 18 mm single mini channel condensers with hydraulic diameters of 3 mm, 2 mm, and 1mm. The mini channels which were made of copper were designed, fabricated and tested. Each unit was connected in a vapor compression cycle with R-134a as the refrigerant. The average refrigerant mass flow rates were varied from 1.296 - 69.471 g/s, and the average inlet and outlet condenser pressure variations were 102.5 - 121.8 kPa and 101.74 -121.23 kPa, respectively. Each condenser was placed inside a mini wind tunnel system where forced draft air was introduced to initiate convective heat transfer. Each condenser was tested and data were gathered every five minute interval for one hour using a Lab View Software. Computer simulations on the flow process were conducted using Solid Works software. The experimental results presented the inlet and outlet condenser pressures, and pressure drops. The experimental heat transfer coefficients were calculated at different mass fluxes during condensation. The values ranged from 3900 to 5200 W/m2-°K for the 3 mm, 2600 to 9000 W/m2-°K for the 2 mm, and 13 to 98 W/m2-°K for the 1 mm. The heat transfer coefficients calculated from experiments were then compared with the computed values using the correlations developed by Dittus-Boelter and Lee-Son. The results showed increasing deviation as the diameter decreased. The discrepancies could be attributed to the appropriateness of the Dittus-Boelter and Lee-Son correlations in small diameter channels, complexities in the flow process which involved two phase flow heat transfer in very small tubes, and the difficulties in attaining very accurate measurements in small channels.

  15. Condensation Polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Condensation polymerizations, as thename suggests, utilizes bond-forming reactions that generatea small molecule condensate, which often needs to be continuouslyremoved to facilitate the formation of the polymer. Inthis article, I shall describe some of the essential principles ofcondensation polymerizations or more ...

  16. A Novel Modelling Approach for Condensing Boilers Based on Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Satyavada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Condensing boilers use waste heat from flue gases to pre-heat cold water entering the boiler. Flue gases are condensed into liquid form, thus recovering their latent heat of vaporization, which results in as much as 10%–12% increase in efficiency. Modeling these heat transfer phenomena is crucial to control this equipment. Despite the many approaches to the condensing boiler modeling, the following shortcomings are still not addressed: thermal dynamics are oversimplified with a nonlinear efficiency curve (which is calculated at steady-state; the dry/wet heat exchange is modeled in a fixed proportion. In this work we cover these shortcomings by developing a novel hybrid dynamic model which avoids the static nonlinear efficiency curve and accounts for a time-varying proportion of dry/wet heat exchange. The procedure for deriving the model is described and the efficiency of the resulting condensing boiler is shown.

  17. Use of condensing gas boilers in central block heating systems results in greater energy efficiency. Kondenserende gaskedler til blokvarmecentrale kan give hoejere energiudnyttelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, B.Aa. (Rendamax Danmark A/S (DK))

    1991-01-01

    The principles of a new Danish commerically produced condenser cooling system for boilers used in central heating systems are explained and illustrated by diagrams. The system, it is claimed, contributes significantly to a higher standard of energy efficiency. (AB).

  18. A superheated Bose-condensed gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Alexander L.; Fletcher, Richard J.; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2013-05-01

    Our understanding of various states of matter usually relies on the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. However, the transitions between different phases of matter can be strongly affected by non-equilibrium phenomena. Here we demonstrate and explain an example of non-equilibrium stalling of a continuous, second-order phase transition. We create a superheated atomic Bose gas, in which a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) persists above the equilibrium critical temperature, Tc, if its coupling to the surrounding thermal bath is reduced by tuning interatomic interactions. For vanishing interactions the BEC persists in the superheated regime for a minute. However, if strong interactions are suddenly turned on, it rapidly boils away. Our observations can be understood within a two-fluid picture, treating the condensed and thermal components of the gas as separate equilibrium systems with a tunable inter-component coupling. We experimentally reconstruct a non-equilibrium phase diagram of our gas, and theoretically reproduce its main features.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES Electronic Transport Calculations Using Maximally-Localized Wannier Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Neng-Ping

    2011-01-01

    I present a method to calculate the ballistic transport properties of atomic-scale structures under bias. The electronic structure of the system is calculated using the Kohn-Sham scheme of density functional theory (DFT). The DFT eigenvectors are then transformed into a set of maximally localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) [N. Marzari and D. Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. B 56 (1997) 12847]. The MLWFs are used as a minimal basis set to obtain the Hamitonian matrices of the scattering region and the adjacent leads, which are needed for transport calculation using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. The coupling of the scattering region to the semi-infinite leads is described by the self-energies of the leads. Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, one calculates self-consistently the charge distribution of the system under bias and evaluates the transmission and current through the system. To solve the Poisson equation within the scheme of MLWFs I introduce a computationally efficient method. The method is applied to a molecular hydrogen contact in two transition metal monatomic wires (Cu and Pt). It is found that for Pt the I-V characteristics is approximately linear dependence, however, for Cu the I-V characteristics manifests a linear dependence at low bias voltages and exhibits apparent nonlinearity at higher bias voltages. I have also calculated the transmission in the zero bias voltage limit for a single CO molecule adsorbed on Cu and Pt monatomic wires. While a chemical scissor effect occurs for the Cu monatomic wire with an adsorbed CO molecule, it is absent for the Pt monatomic wire due to the contribution of d-orbitals at the Fermi energy.

  20. The Physics of Data: Can your degree in condensed matter theory get you a job at Google?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Jeff M.

    2015-03-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the sensing of such weak fields (25-65 microtesla) are scarce and in recent years just two proposals have emerged as frontrunners. One involves biogenic iron-containing nanoparticles; the other relies on the magnetic sensitivity of short-lived photochemical intermediates known as radical pairs. The latter began to attract attention following the proposal 15 years ago that the necessary physics and chemistry could take place in the bird's retina in specialised photoactive proteins called cryptochromes. The coherent dynamics of the electron-nuclear spin systems of pairs of photo-induced radicals is conjectured to form the basis of the sensing mechanism even though the interaction of an electron spin with the geomagnetic field is six orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal energy. The possibility that slowing decohering, entangled electron spins could form the basis of an important sensory mechanism has qualified radical pair magnetoreception for a place under the umbrella of ``Quantum Biology.'' In this talk, I will introduce the radical pair mechanism, comment on the roles of entanglement and quantum coherence, outline some of the experimental evidence for the cryptochrome hypothesis, and summarize what still needs to be done to determine whether birds (and maybe other animals) really do use a chemical compass to find their way around.

  1. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce losses in the cooling source (condenser and to increase effectiveness of fuel-and-power resources utilization, the authors present a modern automatic ball-cleaning system for the pipes of condenser 180-KTsS-1 of turbine unit Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ of Gomel CHP-2. The article examines exploitation challenges of the steam turbine condensers and methods of clearing them from sedimentations. Depending on the sedimentation character and composition, and the quality of cooling water at the power plant, they apply various methods of the condenser tubes clearing: heat drying, vacuum dehydration, acid-washing, pipes-shooting with water and water-air pistols, ablution with high-pressure water jet etc. All the applied cleaning methods are the periodical means to fight the sedimentations and require the turbine halting or unloading, predetermine the equipment operating between clearings with constantly smearing cooling surfaces of the condensers, i.e. with reduced efficiency of equipment operation.The installation of the ball-cleaning system practically excludes defects of the chemical and mechanical cleaning methods, which leads to the condenser pipes life-in-service increase, the full-flow condensate quality improvement, reliability and efficient performance enhancement of the steam turbines equipment. The authors consider developed algorithms of data processing and designed system control of the condenser cleaning that allowed realizing its operation in automatic mode.

  2. Quantum Simulations of Condensed Matter Systems Using Ultra-Cold Atomic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Mechanism    of    Collisional    Spin    Relaxation...Journal  of  Statistical     Mechanics  P11022  (2010).       124. S.  Trotzky,  L.  Pollet,  F.  Gerbier,  U...Sachdev,  “Spectral  Functions  of  the   Higgs  Mode  near  Two-­‐dimensional  Quantum   Critical  Points”,

  3. Condensed matter physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellis, W.J.

    1995-10-01

    The proposed Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) upgrade is ideally suited for science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) because LANSCE is a highly-intensity pulsed neutron source located at a nuclear weapons design laboratory. The attributes of a high-intensity pulsed source are essential for performing experiments on Pu and other materials important for SBSS. Neutrons can accurately probe thick bulk specimens, probe thin layers both freestanding and embedded in thicker specimens, and provide time-resolution for some phenomena. Both ordered structures and disorder in solids, liquids, and amorphous materials can be characterized, as well as phase transition. Because LANSCE is at a nuclear design laboratory, specimens important for SBSS issues are available. Los Alamos National Laboratory is an appropriate place to develop the requisite hardware to accommodate SBSS specimens, such as Pu.

  4. Bose-Einstein Condensation of Atoms in a Uniform Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Alexander L.; Schmidutz, Tobias F.; Gotlibovych, Igor; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2013-05-01

    We have observed the Bose-Einstein condensation of an atomic gas in the (quasi)uniform three-dimensional potential of an optical box trap. Condensation is seen in the bimodal momentum distribution and the anisotropic time-of-flight expansion of the condensate. The critical temperature agrees with the theoretical prediction for a uniform Bose gas. The momentum distribution of a noncondensed quantum-degenerate gas is also clearly distinct from the conventional case of a harmonically trapped sample and close to the expected distribution in a uniform system. We confirm the coherence of our condensate in a matter-wave interference experiment. Our experiments open many new possibilities for fundamental studies of many-body physics.

  5. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  6. ESPResSo++: A modern multiscale simulation package for soft matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Jonathan D.; Brandes, Thomas; Lenz, Olaf; Arnold, Axel; Bevc, Staš; Starchenko, Vitaliy; Kremer, Kurt; Stuehn, Torsten; Reith, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    The redesigned Extensible Simulation Package for Research on Soft matter systems (ESPResSo++) is a free, open-source, parallelized, object-oriented simulation package designed to perform many-particle simulations, principally molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo, of condensed soft matter systems. In addition to the standard simulation methods found in well-established packages, ESPResSo++ provides the ability to perform Adaptive Resolution Scheme (AdResS) simulations which are multiscale simulations of molecular systems where the level of resolution of each molecule can change on-the-fly. With the main design objective being extensibility, the software features a highly modular C++ kernel that is coupled to a Python user interface. This makes it easy to add new algorithms, setup a simulation, perform online analysis, use complex workflows and steer a simulation. The extreme flexibility of the software allows for the study of a wide range of systems. The modular structure enables scientists to use ESPResSo++ as a research platform for their own methodological developments, which at the same time allows the software to grow and acquire the most modern methods. ESPResSo++ is targeted for a broad range of architectures and is licensed under the GNU General Public License.

  7. Parametric Amplification of Vacuum Fluctuations in a Spinor Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klempt, C.; Topic, O.; Gebreyesus, G.

    2010-01-01

    Parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations is crucial in modern quantum optics, enabling the creation of squeezing and entanglement. We demonstrate the parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations for matter waves using a spinor F=2 87Rb condensate. Interatomic interactions lead...... to correlated pair creation in the mF=±1 states from an initial mF=0 condensate, which acts as a vacuum for mF≠0. Although this pair creation from a pure mF=0 condensate is ideally triggered by vacuum fluctuations, unavoidable spurious initial mF=±1 atoms induce a classical seed which may become the dominant...... triggering mechanism. We show that pair creation is insensitive to a classical seed for sufficiently large magnetic fields, demonstrating the dominant role of vacuum fluctuations. The presented system thus provides a direct path towards the generation of nonclassical states of matter....

  8. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors elaborate the economical efficiency evaluation technique that could be universal and applied for technical-and-economic feasibility study of the ball-cleaning system installation on the steam turbines of the electric power plants. Besides the effect from reducing the exhaust steam pressure in the condenser by means of the ball-cleaning system implementation, this technique also accounts for the effect of lowering the condenser hydraulic pressure.The article refers to the practical results of the ball-cleaning system introduction on the steam turbines of Gomel CHP-2. As a result of regular application of the ball-cleaning system the temperature difference of the condensers of all blocks Т-180/210-130-1 confined into the regulatory values and the cleanness coefficient of all three turbine units reached 0,85. The authors consider the working results, implementation experience of the ball-cleaning system at Gomel CHP-2 and its efficiency evaluation technique to be worth disseminating when introducing the analogous systems at the plants of Belarusian power network.The authors suggest measures on the condenser automatic-cleaning system improvement with the turbine mathematical-simulation model employment that will make it possible to optimize the condenser cleaning regimes and to increase the ball-cleaning system effectiveness with the condenser cleanness coefficient growing up to 0,90–0,92.

  9. Relativistic Quantum Field Theory for Condensed -

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUURA, HIROYUKI

    We proposed Atomic Schwinger Dyson method (ASD method) in this paper, which was the nonperturbative and finite relativistic quantum field theory, and we treat many electron system and electronic matter. The ASD formalism consists of coupled Dyson equations of electrons and photons. Since, it includes self-energies in a nonperturbative way, higher-order correlations beyond Hartee Fock approximation are taken into account. Some important differences between the ASD formalism for the system of finite electron density and SD formalism of zero electron density are shown. The main difference is due to the existence of condensed photon field, symmetry breaking, and what we call, Coulomb's potential. By paying special attention to the treatment of the condensed photon fields, the coupled Dyson equations of electron and photon are derived based on functional propagator method. It is shown that this treatment of the condensed fields naturally leads to tadpole energy, which cancels the Hartree energy. By using these photon propagators, explicit expression of ASD coupled equations and the energy density of matters are derived for numerical calculations in a subsequent paper. Similarities and differences between ASD and traditional methods such as the mean field theory or the Hartree Fock method are discussed; it is shown that these traditional methods were included in our ASD formalism.

  10. Condensing of steam in flue gas using a heat pump system in relation to a wood chip fired boiler. Roeggaskondensering med varmepumpe paa flisfyrede kedelanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, B.; Evald, A.; Vogel, G.; Bisgaard, C.

    1989-10-15

    The aim of this report is to describe existing methods for condensing steam water in flue gas in relation to combustion of forest biomas, and to describe the implementation of a plant for condensing of water in flue gas on an existing installation for combustion of wood chips. Condensing of water in flue gas, is specially interesting, because of the high content of water in forest biomas. The actual installation for the condensing of water is special, because it include a heat pump system. In this system the inlet air is humidified and heated in a heat exchanger by the flue gas. This system makes it possible to condense approximately all the water in the flue gas. It is shown, that an installation for condensing of steam water in flue gas is an advantage from an economic point of view; the pay back period for the investment will be about three years. Measurements on the installation has shown that the implementation of a plant for condensing the water in the flue gas reduces the pollution from the flue gas of approximately 85% for the emission of particles and approximately 25% for the emission of Co{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. (author).

  11. Burning Efficiency of Liquid Fuel in Heating System with Condensing Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bancea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study concerning the efficiency of a heating installation with a condensing boiler using liquid fuel, equipped with an accumulator and burnt gases separator. The given up heat in the gas separator is taken over and accumulated through a heat pump. The energetic efficiency of the primary heating functioning regime was established at 94% after the measurements and at 95.8% through calculus.

  12. Energy analysis of a central domestic hot water heating system equipped with condensing boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Caliari, R. (Servizio Energia, Provincia Autonoma di Trento (IT))

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out on a central plant for the heating of domestic hot water for a block of 143 flats and 15 offices. The behaviour of the condensing boilers serving the plant was examined and the energy costs of recirculation and distribution were analysed. Since the losses due to recirculation are of the same order as the useful energy, the influence of the various parameters on the losses has been studied, and some methods of lowering them are proposed. (author).

  13. Benzoin Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ART

    Roots of cassava (tapioca), an important food crop in many countries of the world, including India, contain acetone cyanohy- drin glucoside called linamarin. ..... The replacement of cyanide by the harmless thiazolium salts as catalysts for benzoin condensation is one of the finest examples of Green Chemistry in action. S. N.

  14. Condensates in quantum chromodynamics and the cosmological constant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanley J. Brodsky; Robert Shrock; Roger D. Blandford

    2011-01-01

    ...) are associated with the internal dynamics of hadrons. We discuss condensates using condensed matter analogues, the Anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, and the Bethe—Salpeter—Dyson...

  15. Preliminary Design of Compact Condenser in an Organic Rankine Cycle System for the Low Grade Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a thermodynamic cycle for the production of electrical power in the 2–5 kW range, suitable for all types of thermally propelled vehicles. The sensible heat recovered from the exhaust gases feeds the energy recovery system, which is able to produce sufficient power to sustain the air conditioning system or other auxiliaries. The working fluids R134a and R245fa have been used in the ORC system, and the systems are simulated by CAMEL-ProTM software. The cycles are generated starting from the same heat source: the exhaust gas of a typical 2.0 L Diesel engine (or from a small size turbine engine. The design of the condenser has been performed to obtain a very compact component, evaluating the heat exchanger tube and fins type design. Through empirical formulas, the area of heat exchange, the heat required to exchange and the pressure drop in the element have been calculated. A commercial software package is used to build the model of the condenser, then a thermal and mechanical analysis and a CFD analysis are realized to estimate the heat exchange. Finally the evaluations, the possible future studies and possible improvements of the system are shown.

  16. Circadian systems biology: When time matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Fuhr

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript we review the combination of experimental methodologies, bioinformatics and theoretical models that have been essential to explore this remarkable timing-system. Such an integrative and interdisciplinary approach may provide new strategies with regard to chronotherapeutic treatment and new insights concerning the restoration of the circadian timing in clock-associated diseases.

  17. Influence of dark matter on light propagation in solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakida, Hideyoshi

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the influence of dark matter on light propagation in the solar system. We assumed the spherical symmetry of spacetime and derived the approximate solution of the Einstein equation, which consists of the gravitational attractions caused by the central celestial body, i.e. the Sun, and the dark matter surrounding it. We expressed the dark matter density in the solar system in the following simple power-law form, ϱ(t,r)=ρ(t)(ℓ/r)k, where t is the coordinate time; r, the radius from the central body; ℓ, the normalizing factor; k, the exponent characterizing r-dependence of dark matter density; and ρ(t), the arbitrary function of time t. On the basis of the derived approximate solution, we focused on light propagation and obtained the additional corrections of the gravitational time delay and the relative frequency shift caused by the dark matter. As an application of our results, we considered the secular increase in the astronomical unit reported by Krasinsky and Brumberg (2004) and found that it was difficult to provide an explanation for the observed dAU/dt = 15 ± 4 m/century.

  18. Gas Condensates onto a LHC Type Cryogenic Vacuum System Subjected to Electron Cloud

    CERN Multimedia

    Baglin, V

    2004-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the gas desorbed via photon stimulated molecular desorption or electron stimulated molecular desorption will be physisorbed onto the beam screen held between 5 and 20 K. Studies of the effects of the electron cloud onto a LHC type cryogenic vacuum chamber have been done with the cold bore experiment (COLDEX) installed in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Experiments performed with gas condensates such as H2, H2O, CO and CO2 are described. Implications for the LHC design and operation are discussed.

  19. Project for a beam line consecrated to soft condensed matter, common heterogeneous materials and non-crystalline materials on soleil; Proposition pour une ligne dediee a la matiere molle, aux materiaux de grande diffusion et aux materiaux non-cristallises sur soleil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ne, F.; Zemb, T. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Recherche sur l`Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules; Diat, O. [ESRF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1998-12-31

    This project is a part of the `SOLEIL` synchrotron project. The camera proposed is optimized for small angle x-ray scattering in the domain of soft condensed matter, common heterogeneous materials such as wood, cements, glass, and more generally non-crystalline materials. The beam line is designed to allow a quick succession of different users without time consuming adjustments. Therefore, optical settings are minimized, taking into account the pluri-disciplinary nature of the analysis possibilities. To this end, the technical requirements are as follows. First and essentially, the wave-length has to be fixed and set around 12 keV. Focusing mirrors, optics to sample and sample to detector distances, and the size of the detector allow for a wide range of wave vector to be used. Rejection rate will be lower, and angular dynamical range will be larger than any of the current synchrotron lines. We want this line to be, and to stay, complementary to more specific systems, such as reflectivity experiments or grazing angle scattering experiments. However, we are thinking of an adaptation to ultra small angle scattering mode, based on the Bonse and Hart camera. Such equipment, actually a kind of `Instamatic` of the reciprocal space, will fulfill to the need of chemical engineers, biophysicists or material scientists interested in hard as well as soft condensed matter. It will allow a large amount of experiments per time unit. (author)

  20. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  1. Design and development of low pressure evaporator/condenser unit for water-based adsorption type climate control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramanan, Arjun; Rios Perez, Carlos A.; Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    2016-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are the future of clean transportation and driving range is one of the important parameters which dictates its marketability. In order to increase driving range, electrical battery energy consumption should be minimized. Vapor-compression refrigeration systems currently employed in EVs for climate control consume a significant fraction of the battery charge. Thus, by replacing this traditional heating ventilation and air-conditioning system with an adsorption based climate control system one can have the capability of increasing the drive range of EVs.The Advanced Thermo-adsorptive Battery (ATB) for climate control is a water-based adsorption type refrigeration cycle. An essential component of the ATB is a low pressure evaporator/condenser unit (ECU) which facilitates both the evaporation and condensation processes. The thermal design of the ECU relies predominantly on the accurate prediction of evaporation/boiling heat transfer coefficients since the standard correlations for predicting boiling heat transfer coefficients have large uncertainty at the low operating pressures of the ATB. This work describes the design and development of a low pressure ECU as well as the thermal performance of the actual ECU prototype.

  2. Interacting multiple zero mode formulation and its application to a system consisting of a dark soliton in a condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2015-08-01

    To formulate the zero modes in a finite-size system with spontaneous breakdown of symmetries in quantum field theory is not trivial, for in the naive Bogoliubov theory, one encounters difficulties such as phase diffusion, the absence of a definite criterion for determining the ground state, and infrared divergences. An interacting zero mode formulation that has been proposed for systems with a single zero mode to avoid these difficulties is extended to general systems with multiple zero modes. It naturally and definitely gives the interactions among the quantized zero modes, the consequences of which can be observed experimentally. In this paper, as a typical example, we consider an atomic Bose-Einstein condensed system with a dark soliton that contains two zero modes corresponding to the spontaneous breakdown of the U(1) gauge and translational symmetries. Then we evaluate the standard deviations of the zero mode operators and see how the mutual interaction between the two zero modes affects them.

  3. Identification and Characterization of Early Solar system Organic Matter Preserved in Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, George; Wirick, Sue; Keller, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    alternate model where carbon-bearing ices condense on the surfaces of grains, the ices are irradiated by ionizing radiation, and subsequent heating removes the ices leaving more refractory organic matter on the grain surfaces, as described by Bernstein et al. [4]. In one case we obtained C-, N-, and O-XANES spectra on the rim material. The O-XANES confirmed the presence of C=O. We found high N:C and O:C ratios that plot on the extension of the N:C vs. O:C correlation line, found in analysis of meteoritic organic matter [5], towards even more primitive organic matter than found in any meteorite. The organic rims are too thin for μ-FTIR spectroscopy, which is diffraction limited to about the wavelength/2, or ~2 μm for the aliphatic C-H stretching features. However, mid-infrared spectra obtained on CP IDPs show the presence of aliphatic C-H, C=O, C-C, and O-H, as well as crystalline and amorphous silicates [6]. Aromatic C-H is rarely detected in CP IDPs. Neither the organic rims nor the bulk organic matter in CP IDPs show the graphite exciton feature, whose strength in meteorite organic matter correlates with increasing parent body thermal metamorphism [7], indicating the organic matter in CP IDPs experienced minimal metamorphism after it formed. The spectra show variation in the aliphatic -C-H2- to -C-H3 and C=O to aliphatic C-H ratios from spot to spot on the same particle. C-XANES of ultramicrotome sections of CP IDPs also show significant variability, particularly in the C=O to C=C ratio. Variability in the C-XANES and the mid-infrared spectra indicates the organic matter in primitive CP IDPs consists of several compositionally distinct components. Our C-XANES and μ-FTIR results indicate the organic matter in CP IDPs is extremely primitive and that much of the pre-biotic organic matter of our Solar System formed early in the evolution of the Solar Nebula, by a process that preceded parent body aqueous processing. References: [1] Ishii, H. A. et al. (2008) Science, 319

  4. Relaxation dynamics of a driven two-level system coupled to a Bose–Einstein condensate: application to quantum dot-dipolar exciton gas hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vadim M.; Tse, Wang-Kong

    2017-11-01

    We develop a microscopic theory for the relaxation dynamics of an optically pumped two-level system (TLS) coupled to a bath of weakly interacting Bose gas. Using Keldysh formalism and diagrammatic perturbation theory, expressions for the relaxation times of the TLS Rabi oscillations are derived when the boson bath is in the normal state and the Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) state. We apply our general theory to consider an irradiated quantum dot coupled with a boson bath consisting of a two-dimensional dipolar exciton gas. When the bath is in the BEC regime, relaxation of the Rabi oscillations is due to both condensate and non-condensate fractions of the bath bosons for weak TLS-light coupling and pre dominantly due to the non-condensate fraction for strong TLS-light coupling. Our theory also shows that a phase transition of the bath from the normal to the BEC state strongly influences the relaxation rate of the TLS Rabi oscillations. The TLS relaxation rate is approximately independent of the pump field frequency and monotonically dependent on the field strength when the bath is in the low-temperature regime of the normal phase. Phase transition of the dipolar exciton gas leads to a non-monotonic dependence of the TLS relaxation rate on both the pump field frequency and field strength, providing a characteristic signature for the detection of BEC phase transition of the coupled dipolar exciton gas.

  5. Comparison of Heat Transfer Coefficients of Silver Coated and Chromium Coated Copper Tubes of Condenser in Dropwise Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Shivesh Kumar; Dr. Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Since centuries steam is being used in power generating system. The steam leaving the power unit is reconverted into water in a condenser designed to transfer heat from the steam to the cooling water as rapidly and as efficiently as possible. The efficiency of condenser depends on rate of condensation and mode of condensation of steam in the condenser. The increase in efficiency of the condenser enhances the heat transfer co-efficient which in turn results in economic design of condenser and ...

  6. Battery condenser system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the 2006 EPA implementation of a more stringent standard for particulate matter less than or equal to 2....

  7. Battery condenser system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  8. Condensation versus long-range interaction: Competing quantum phases in bosonic optical lattice systems at near-resonant Rydberg dressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Andreas; Vasić, Ivana; Hofstetter, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Recent experiments have shown that (quasi)crystalline phases of Rydberg-dressed quantum many-body systems in optical lattices (OL) are within reach. Rydberg systems naturally possess strong long-range interactions due to the large polarizability of Rydberg atoms. Thus a wide range of quantum phases has been predicted, such as a devil's staircase of lattice-incommensurate density wave phases as well as the more exotic lattice supersolid order for bosonic systems, as considered in our work. Guided by results in the "frozen"-gas limit, we study the ground-state phase diagram at finite hopping amplitudes and in the vicinity of resonant Rydberg driving while fully including the long-range tail of the van der Waals interaction. Simulations within real-space bosonic dynamical mean-field theory yield an extension of the devil's staircase into the supersolid regime where the competition of condensation and interaction leads to a sequence of crystalline phases.

  9. Functional renormalization group approach to neutron matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Drews

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The chiral nucleon-meson model, previously applied to systems with equal number of neutrons and protons, is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter. Fluctuations are included in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The equation of state for pure neutron matter is studied and compared to recent advanced many-body calculations. The chiral condensate in neutron matter is computed as a function of baryon density. It is found that, once fluctuations are incorporated, the chiral restoration transition for pure neutron matter is shifted to high densities, much beyond three times the density of normal nuclear matter.

  10. Interstellar and Solar System Organic Matter Preserved in Interplanetary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth's stratosphere derive from collisions among asteroids and by the disruption and outgassing of short-period comets. Chondritic porous (CP) IDPs are among the most primitive Solar System materials. CP-IDPs have been linked to cometary parent bodies by their mineralogy, textures, C-content, and dynamical histories. CP-IDPs are fragile, fine-grained (less than um) assemblages of anhydrous amorphous and crystalline silicates, oxides and sulfides bound together by abundant carbonaceous material. Ancient silicate, oxide, and SiC stardust grains exhibiting highly anomalous isotopic compositions are abundant in CP-IDPs, constituting 0.01 - 1 % of the mass of the particles. The organic matter in CP-IDPs is isotopically anomalous, with enrichments in D/H reaching 50x the terrestrial SMOW value and 15N/14N ratios up to 3x terrestrial standard compositions. These anomalies are indicative of low T (10-100 K) mass fractionation in cold molecular cloud or the outermost reaches of the protosolar disk. The organic matter shows distinct morphologies, including sub-um globules, bubbly textures, featureless, and with mineral inclusions. Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies of organic matter in IDPs reveals diverse species including aliphatic and aromatic compounds. The organic matter with the highest isotopic anomalies appears to be richer in aliphatic compounds. These materials also bear similarities and differences with primitive, isotopically anomalous organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The diversity of the organic chemistry, morphology, and isotopic properties in IDPs and meteorites reflects variable preservation of interstellar/primordial components and Solar System processing. One unifying feature is the presence of sub-um isotopically anomalous organic globules among all primitive materials, including IDPs, meteorites, and comet Wild-2 samples returned by the Stardust mission.

  11. The MEDIDO Survey: Dark Matter in Low Dispersion Stellar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Eva; Bustamante, Maria Jose

    2017-06-01

    We will present preliminary results of the Medido Survey. The Survey focuses on dwarf galaxies of various types, as well as Milky Way globular clusters. We have been gathering data at the McDonald Observatory using the VIRUS-W spectrograph, which is capable of resolving velocity dispersions slightly above 10 km/s. For the galaxies, our focus is to improve kinematics in the central regions in order to tackle the cusp/core discrepancy between observations and models. In the case of the globular clusters, we map kinematics out to about 2 half-light radii with the goal of testing if any dark matter content can be detected or if dark matter can be confidently ruled out for these systems.

  12. Search for Primitive Matter in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libourel, G.; Michel, P.; Delbo, M.; Ganino, C.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Zolensky, M. E.; Krot, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    Recent astronomical observations and theoretical modeling led to a consensus regarding the global scenario of the formation of young stellar objects (YSO) from a cold molecular cloud of interstellar dust (organics and minerals) and gas that, in some cases, leads to the formation of a planetary system. In the case of our Solar System, which has already evolved for approximately 4567 Ma, the quest is to access, through the investigation of planets, moons, cometary and asteroidal bodies, meteorites, micrometeorites, and interplanetary dust particles, the primitive material that contains the key information about the early Solar System processes and its evolution. However, laboratory analyses of extraterrestrial samples, astronomical observations and dynamical models of the Solar System evolution have not brought yet any conclusive evidence on the nature and location of primitive matter in the Solar System, preventing a clear understanding of its early stages.

  13. THE DETECTION OF THE NECESSARY CONDITIONS OF EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF THE BALL CLEANING SYSTEM OF THE TUBES OF STEAM TURBINE CONDENSERS. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gerasimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of an increase of the power of turbine by improving heat transfer in condensers of steam turbines is considered in the article as a topical one. The analysis of contamination of the internal surfaces of cooling tubes and of the influence of pollution on the process of heat transfer in turbine condensers has been fulfilled. The existing method of cleaning of condenser tubes with the use of porous elastic balls of sponge rubber that is implemented on a number of large thermal power plants and state region power plants of the Republic of Belarus is examined. In the operation of the ball cleaning system a significant drawback has been revealed, viz. a low efficiency of this method due to the failure to comply with preparation the system of circulating water for operation. Also, a certain imperfection of ball cleaning system technology has been determined. One of the prerequisites for the effective functioning of the ball cleaning system is a certain degree of purity of the pipe system of the condenser, characterized by the coefficient of purity. To determine the effectiveness of ball cleaning system a series of experiments on the launching of porous rubber balls in the pipe system of the main and the embedded bunches of the T-250/300-240 UTMZ turbine has been produced. Immediately before the experiments hydraulic cleaning of the tubes of the condenser by a high-pressure installation were carried out. During the experiments, records of the number of downloaded porous rubber balls, of the number of rubber balls captured in a loading chamber, and of the number of rubber balls that remained in a calibration device were kept. A large proportion of default of the balls caused by the presence of residues of the carbonate sediments, that obstruct the movement of porous rubber balls in the tubes of the condenser, was determined. The presence of carbonate deposits in the tubes of the condenser indicates a lack of effectiveness of antiscale treatment

  14. The quark condensate in a nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, W. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Theoretical Physics

    1995-12-31

    A summary and survey on the change of the chiral condensate in dense (and hot) matter is presented. Implications for nuclear physics and relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, such as the strong Dirac scalar mean field that results from the density dependence of , and possible consequences for decreasing hadron masses in matter. (author). 22 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  16. Multilfiltration Bed Replacement (MFBR) System for the International Space Station using Aquaporin Membranes and Humidity Condensate Ersatz Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Howard, Kevin; Flynn, Michael T.; Beeler, David; Kawashima, Brian; Andersen, Thomas A. E.; Kleinschmidt, Kim; Vogel, Jorg; Parodi, Jurek

    2017-01-01

    The Multifiltration Bed system in the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) needs to be improved by reducing or eliminating the usage rate of expendable media, removing dimethylsilanediol (DMSD), and reducing the overall system mass. The WPA contains two multifiltration beds, each with a mass of approximately 50 kg. Reducing the mass of the WPA is an important part of evolving the ISS system for future exploration missions. The Multifiltration Bed Replacement (MFBR) technology is based on biomimetic membranes, which derive their unique characteristics from aquaporins, or water channel proteins. Aquaporin membranes were commercialized by the company Aquaporin AS. Tests were conducted using the Aquaporin Inside Hollow Fiber Module to determine the maximum water recovery ratio and membrane life. Samples were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), DMSD, acetate, ions, and volatiles such as ethanol and acetone. The results indicate that at a 97.498.1 water recovery ratio, the membrane module can reject approximately 50 of the TOC and specific conductance using the simulated ISS MSFC humidity condensate ersatz. Additionally, the life of the membrane was determined to be a minimum of 7103 hours.

  17. Quantum spin models with mesoscopic Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallemí, A.; Queraltó, G.; Guilleumas, M.; Mayol, R.; Sanpera, A.

    2016-12-01

    Ultracold gases in the strongly correlated regime have been proven to simulate quantum magnetic models under certain conditions: the mapping of the double-well system onto the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick spin model is a paradigmatic case. A suitable definition of the length in the Hilbert space of the system leads to the concept of a correlation length, whose divergence is a characteristic property of continuous quantum phase transitions. We calculate the finite-size scaling of some observables like the magnetization or the population imbalance, as well as of the Schmidt gap, obtaining in this way the critical exponents associated with such transitions. The systematic definition of the Schmidt gap in extended Hamiltonians provides a good tool to analyze the set of critical exponents associated with transitions in systems formed by a larger number of traps. This demonstrates, thus, the potential use of mesoscopic Bose-Einstein condensates as quantum simulators of condensed matter systems.

  18. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  19. Microcavity quantum-dot systems for non-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, I M; Ediger, M; Wilson, A M; Wu, Y; Phillips, R T [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Eastham, P R [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Hugues, M; Hopkinson, M, E-mail: imp24@cam.ac.u [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    We review the practical conditions required to achieve a non-equilibrium BEC driven by quantum dynamics in a system comprising a microcavity field mode and a distribution of localised two-level systems driven to a step-like population inversion profile. A candidate system based on eight 3.8nm layers of In{sub 0.23}Ga{sub 0.77}As in GaAs shows promising characteristics with regard to the total dipole strength which can be coupled to the field mode.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Behaviors in Window Systems by Monitoring of Surface Condensation Using Full-Scale Measurements and Simulation Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goopyo Hong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal performance of window systems using full-scale measurements and simulation tools. A chamber was installed on the balcony of an apartment to control the temperatures which can create condensation on the interior surfaces of window systems. The condensation process on the window was carefully scrutinized when outdoor and indoor temperature and indoor relative humidity ranged from −15 °C to −20 °C, 23 °C to 24 °C, and 50% to 65%, respectively. The results of these investigations were analyzed to determine how the moisture is influenced by changing temperatures. It appears that the glass-edge was highly susceptible to the temperature variations and the lowest temperature on the glass edge was caused by the heat transfer through the spacer, between the two glass panels of the window. The results from the simulation used in this study confirm that the thermal performance of window systems can be improved the use of super insulated or thermally broken spacers. If the values of the indoor humidity and temperature are given, then the outdoor temperature when condensation forms can be obtained by using Temperature Difference Ratio (TDR. This methodology can be employed to predict the possible occurrence of condensation.

  1. Troubleshooting vacuum systems steam turbine surface condensers and refinery vacuum towers

    CERN Document Server

    Lieberman, Norman P

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum systems are in wide spread use in the petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries and power generation plants. The existing texts on this subject are theoretical in nature and only deal with how the equipment functions when in good mechanical conditions, from the viewpoint of the equipment vendor.  In this much-anticipated volume, one of the most well-respected and prolific process engineers in the world takes on troubleshooting vacuum systems, and especially steam ejectors, an extremely complex and difficult subject that greatly effects the profitability of the majority of the world'

  2. Finite-momentum condensate of magnetic excitons in a bilayer quantum Hall system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doretto, R.L.; de Morais Smith, C.; Caldeira, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    We study the bilayer quantum Hall system at total filling factor νT=1 within a bosonization formalism which allows us to approximately treat the magnetic exciton as a boson. We show that in the region where the distance between the two layers is comparable to the magnetic length, the ground state of

  3. First Principles Neural Network Potentials for Reactive Simulations of Large Molecular and Condensed Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behler, Jörg

    2017-10-09

    Modern simulation techniques have reached a level of maturity which allows a wide range of problems in chemistry and materials science to be addressed. Unfortunately, the application of first principles methods with predictive power is still limited to rather small systems, and despite the rapid evolution of computer hardware no fundamental change in this situation can be expected. Consequently, the development of more efficient but equally reliable atomistic potentials to reach an atomic level understanding of complex systems has received considerable attention in recent years. A promising new development has been the introduction of machine learning (ML) methods to describe the atomic interactions. Once trained with electronic structure data, ML potentials can accelerate computer simulations by several orders of magnitude, while preserving quantum mechanical accuracy. This Review considers the methodology of an important class of ML potentials that employs artificial neural networks. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A Condensed Introduction to the Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Mwaniki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in wind power penetration, at 456 GW as of June 2016, has resulted in more stringent grid codes which specify that the wind energy conversion systems (WECS must remain connected to the system during and after a grid fault and, furthermore, must offer grid support by providing reactive currents. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG WECS is a well-proven technology, having been in use in wind power generation for many years and having a large world market share due to its many merits. Newer technologies such as the direct drive gearless permanent magnet synchronous generator have come up to challenge its market share, but the large number of installed machines ensures that it remains of interest in the wind industry. This paper presents a concise introduction of the DFIG WECS covering its construction, operation, merits, demerits, modelling, control types, levels and strategies, faults and their proposed solutions, and, finally, simulation. Qualities for the optimal control strategy are then proposed. The paper is intended to cover major issues related to the DFIG WECS that are a must for an overview of the system and hence serve as an introduction especially for new entrants into this area of study.

  5. Steam condenser developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, H. V.

    Factors determining condenser size and tube arrangement are reviewed, including steam side pressure drop; incondensible blanketing; effect of incondensibles on heat transfer; vent requirements; deaeration; condensate depression; cooling water velocity; tube material and diameter selection; fouling; and enhanced heat transfer tubes. Tube nest shapes and condenser concepts are described. Thermal design, and condenser acceptance testing are treated; field test results on "Church Window'' condensers are reported.

  6. Quantum Entanglement of Matter and Geometry in Large Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    2014-12-04

    Standard quantum mechanics and gravity are used to estimate the mass and size of idealized gravitating systems where position states of matter and geometry become indeterminate. It is proposed that well-known inconsistencies of standard quantum field theory with general relativity on macroscopic scales can be reconciled by nonstandard, nonlocal entanglement of field states with quantum states of geometry. Wave functions of particle world lines are used to estimate scales of geometrical entanglement and emergent locality. Simple models of entanglement predict coherent fluctuations in position of massive bodies, of Planck scale origin, measurable on a laboratory scale, and may account for the fact that the information density of long lived position states in Standard Model fields, which is determined by the strong interactions, is the same as that determined holographically by the cosmological constant.

  7. Bose-Einstein-condensed scalar field dark matter and the gravitational wave background from inflation: New cosmological constraints and its detectability by LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bohua; Shapiro, Paul R.; Rindler-Daller, Tanja

    2017-09-01

    We consider an alternative to weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) cold dark matter (CDM)—ultralight bosonic dark matter (m ≳10-22 eV /c2) described by a complex scalar field (SFDM) with a global U (1 ) symmetry—for which the comoving particle number density or charge density is conserved after particle production during standard reheating. We allow for a repulsive self-interaction. In a Λ SFDM universe, SFDM starts out relativistic, evolving from stiff (w =1 ) to radiation-like (w =1 /3 ), before becoming nonrelativistic at late times (w =0 ). Thus, before the familiar radiation-dominated era, there is an earlier era of stiff-SFDM domination. During both the stiff-SFDM-dominated and radiation-dominated eras, the expansion rate is higher than in Λ CDM . The SFDM particle mass m and quartic self-interaction coupling strength λ are therefore constrained by cosmological observables, particularly Neff, the effective number of neutrino species during big bang nucleosynthesis, and zeq, the redshift of matter-radiation equality. Furthermore, since the stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) from inflation is amplified during the stiff-SFDM-dominated era, it can contribute a radiation-like component large enough to affect these observables by further boosting the expansion rate after the stiff era ends. Remarkably, this same amplification makes detection of the SGWB possible at high frequencies by current laser interferometer experiments, e.g., aLIGO/Virgo and LISA. For SFDM particle parameters that satisfy these cosmological constraints, the amplified SGWB is detectable by LIGO for a broad range of reheat temperatures Treheat, for values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r currently allowed by cosmic microwave background polarization measurements. For a given r and λ /(m c2)2, the marginally allowed Λ SFDM model for each Treheat has the smallest m that satisfies the cosmological constraints, and maximizes the present SGWB energy density for that

  8. Born-Kothari Condensation for Fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Ghosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of Bose–Einstein condensation, we present a detailed account of the statistical description of the condensation phenomena for a Fermi–Dirac gas following the works of Born and Kothari. For bosons, while the condensed phase below a certain critical temperature, permits macroscopic occupation at the lowest energy single particle state, for fermions, due to Pauli exclusion principle, the condensed phase occurs only in the form of a single occupancy dense modes at the highest energy state. In spite of these rudimentary differences, our recent findings [Ghosh and Ray, 2017] identify the foregoing phenomenon as condensation-like coherence among fermions in an analogous way to Bose–Einstein condensate which is collectively described by a coherent matter wave. To reach the above conclusion, we employ the close relationship between the statistical methods of bosonic and fermionic fields pioneered by Cahill and Glauber. In addition to our previous results, we described in this mini-review that the highest momentum (energy for individual fermions, prerequisite for the condensation process, can be specified in terms of the natural length and energy scales of the problem. The existence of such condensed phases, which are of obvious significance in the context of elementary particles, have also been scrutinized.

  9. 76 FR 45859 - In the Matter of Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products... analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of infringement of... after importation of certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products...

  10. The Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma: Two Lectures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran,L.

    2007-08-29

    These two lectures concern the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma. These are forms of matter which might be studied in high energy hadronic collisions. The Color Glass Condensate is high energy density gluonic matter. It constitutes the part of a hadron wave function important for high energy processes. The Glasma is matter produced from the Color Glass Condensate in the first instants after a collision of two high energy hadrons. Both types of matter are associated with coherent fields. The Color Glass Condensate is static and related to a hadron wavefunction, where the Glasma is transient and evolves quickly after a collision. I present the properties of such matter, and some aspects of what is known of their properties.

  11. Dissolved Organic Matter: Linking Soils and Aquatic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.; Kalbitz, K.; McDowell, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The guest editors introduce the contributions to the special section, Dissolved Organic Matter in Soil, with a focus on the three main directions in this complex and growing research effort. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a crucial role in many important processes that take place in

  12. Condensed-phase relaxation of multilevel quantum systems. II. Comparison of path integral calculations and second-order relaxation theory for a nondegenerate three-level system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Simone; Evans, Deborah G; Coalson, Rob D

    2006-09-28

    An exactly solvable model of multisite condensed-phase vibrational relaxation was studied in Paper I (Peter, S.; Evans, D. G.; Coalson, R. D. J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 18758.), where it was shown that long-time steady-state site populations of a degenerate N-level system are not equal (hence, they are non-Boltzmann) and depend on the initial preparation of the system and the number of sites that it comprises. Here we consider a generalization of the model to the case of a nondegenerate three-level system coupled to a high-dimensional bath: such a model system has direct relevance to a large class of donor-bridge-acceptor electron transfer processes. Because the quantum dynamics of this system cannot be computed analytically, we compare numerically exact path integral calculations to the predictions of second-order time-local relaxation theory. For modest system-bath coupling strengths, the two sets of results are in excellent agreement. They show that non-Boltzmann long-time steady-state site populations are obtained when the level splitting is small but nonzero, whereas at larger values of the system bias (asymmetry) these populations become Boltzmann distributed.

  13. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  14. New State of Matter: Heavy Fermion Systems, Quantum Spin Liquids, Quasicrystals, Cold Gases, and High-Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaginyan, V. R.; Stephanovich, V. A.; Msezane, A. Z.; Schuck, P.; Clark, J. W.; Amusia, M. Ya.; Japaridze, G. S.; Popov, K. G.; Kirichenko, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a new state of matter manifested by strongly correlated Fermi systems including various heavy fermion (HF) metals, two-dimensional quantum liquids such as ^3He films, certain quasicrystals, and systems behaving as quantum spin liquids. Generically, these systems can be viewed as HF systems or HF compounds, in that they exhibit typical behavior of HF metals. At zero temperature, such systems can experience a so-called fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). Combining analytical considerations with arguments based entirely on experimental grounds, we argue and demonstrate that the class of HF systems is characterized by universal scaling behavior of their thermodynamic, transport, and relaxation properties. That is, the quantum physics of different HF compounds is found to be universal, emerging irrespective of the individual details of their symmetries, interactions, and microscopic structure. This observed universal behavior reveals the existence of a new state of matter manifest in HF compounds. We propose a simple, realistic model to study the appearance of flat bands in two-dimensional ensembles of ultracold fermionic atoms, interacting with coherent resonant light. It is shown that signatures of these flat bands may be found in peculiarities in their thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties. We also show that the FCQPT, in generating flat bands and altering Fermi surface topology, is an essential progenitor of the exotic behavior of the overdoped high-temperature superconductors represented by La_{2-x}SrxxCuO_4, whose superconductivity differs from that predicted by the classical Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory. The theoretical results presented are in good agreement with recent experimental observations, closing the colossal gap between these empirical findings and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-like theories.

  15. New State of Matter: Heavy Fermion Systems, Quantum Spin Liquids, Quasicrystals, Cold Gases, and High-Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaginyan, V. R.; Stephanovich, V. A.; Msezane, A. Z.; Schuck, P.; Clark, J. W.; Amusia, M. Ya.; Japaridze, G. S.; Popov, K. G.; Kirichenko, E. V.

    2017-08-01

    We report on a new state of matter manifested by strongly correlated Fermi systems including various heavy fermion (HF) metals, two-dimensional quantum liquids such as ^3 He films, certain quasicrystals, and systems behaving as quantum spin liquids. Generically, these systems can be viewed as HF systems or HF compounds, in that they exhibit typical behavior of HF metals. At zero temperature, such systems can experience a so-called fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). Combining analytical considerations with arguments based entirely on experimental grounds, we argue and demonstrate that the class of HF systems is characterized by universal scaling behavior of their thermodynamic, transport, and relaxation properties. That is, the quantum physics of different HF compounds is found to be universal, emerging irrespective of the individual details of their symmetries, interactions, and microscopic structure. This observed universal behavior reveals the existence of a new state of matter manifest in HF compounds. We propose a simple, realistic model to study the appearance of flat bands in two-dimensional ensembles of ultracold fermionic atoms, interacting with coherent resonant light. It is shown that signatures of these flat bands may be found in peculiarities in their thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties. We also show that the FCQPT, in generating flat bands and altering Fermi surface topology, is an essential progenitor of the exotic behavior of the overdoped high-temperature superconductors represented by La_{2-x}SrxxCuO_4 , whose superconductivity differs from that predicted by the classical Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory. The theoretical results presented are in good agreement with recent experimental observations, closing the colossal gap between these empirical findings and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-like theories.

  16. Quantum depletion of a soliton condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoxiang; Deng, L.; Yan, Jiaren; Hu, Bambi

    2006-09-01

    We present rigorous results on the diagonalization of Bogoliubov Hamiltonian for a soliton condensate. Using the complete and orthonormalized set of eigenfunction for the Bogoliubov de Gennes equations, we calculate exactly the quantum depletion of the condensate and show that two degenerate zero-modes, which originate from a U(1) gauge- and a translational-symmetry breaking of the system, induce the quantum diffusion and transverse instability of the soliton condensate.

  17. Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J

    2010-06-18

    Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter.

  18. Quantum Hysteresis in Coupled Light–Matter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. Gómez-Ruiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the non-equilibrium quantum dynamics of a canonical light–matter system—namely, the Dicke model—when the light–matter interaction is ramped up and down through a cycle across the quantum phase transition. Our calculations reveal a rich set of dynamical behaviors determined by the cycle times, ranging from the slow, near adiabatic regime through to the fast, sudden quench regime. As the cycle time decreases, we uncover a crossover from an oscillatory exchange of quantum information between light and matter that approaches a reversible adiabatic process, to a dispersive regime that generates large values of light–matter entanglement. The phenomena uncovered in this work have implications in quantum control, quantum interferometry, as well as in quantum information theory.

  19. Condensation in insulated homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, R A

    1978-05-28

    A research proposal on condensation in insulated homes is presented. Information is provided on: justification for condensation control; previous work and present outlook (good vapor barrier, condensation and retrofit insulation, vapor barrier decreases condensation, brick-veneer walls, condensation in stress-skin panels, air-conditioned buildings, retrofitting for conservation, study on mobile homes, high indoor relative humidity, report on various homes); and procedure (after funding has been secured). Measures are briefly described on opening walls, testing measures, and retrofitting procedures. An extensive bibliography and additional informative citations are included. (MCW)

  20. Solar house heating system using reflective pyramid optical condensing system. Evaluation of performance, June 1, 1975--December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The prototype system, previously built on Westover Road, Stamford, Connecticut, was upgraded, instrumented, and evaluated. It was found to perform essentially as expected, but the open construction was found to have problems. A fully enclosed model Pyramidal Optics house was built by Better Homes of Delaware near Rehoboth, Delaware. After a number of significant improvements were made in the optical concentrating system and the flat plate receiver assembly, the system was monitored throughout the winter of 1976/1977 and found to perform very well. The solar contribution to heating amounted to 70 percent during the severe winter months and is expected to exceed 80 percent throughout the year. The Pyramidal Optics system has been found to have a number of economic and operational advantages. It is planned to evaluate additional systems in other locations and different climatic conditions.

  1. Diminished white matter integrity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that changes in regional white matter integrity, in terms of a decrease in FA, are present not only in NPSLE patients, but also in non-NPSLE patients, though to a lesser degree. We also demonstrate that the way statistical maps are corrected for multiple comparisons has a profound influence on whether alterations in white matter integrity in non-NPSLE patients are deemed significant.

  2. Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin M; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Dailey, Conner; Murphy, Mac; Pospelov, Maxim; Rollings, Alex; Sherman, Jeff; Williams, Wyatt; Derevianko, Andrei

    2017-10-30

    Cosmological observations indicate that dark matter makes up 85% of all matter in the universe yet its microscopic composition remains a mystery. Dark matter could arise from ultralight quantum fields that form macroscopic objects. Here we use the global positioning system as a ~ 50,000 km aperture dark matter detector to search for such objects in the form of domain walls. Global positioning system navigation relies on precision timing signals furnished by atomic clocks. As the Earth moves through the galactic dark matter halo, interactions with domain walls could cause a sequence of atomic clock perturbations that propagate through the satellite constellation at galactic velocities ~ 300 km s -1 . Mining 16 years of archival data, we find no evidence for domain walls at our current sensitivity level. This improves the limits on certain quadratic scalar couplings of domain wall dark matter to standard model particles by several orders of magnitude.

  3. From the pion cloud of Tomonaga to the electron pairs of Schrieffer: many body wave functions from nuclear physics to condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Palumbo, Fabrizio; Bianconi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that diverse pieces of models and physical ideas coming from different areas of physics converged in the BCS theory of superconductivity. On the contrary it is little known that the formalism developed in the Tomonaga quantum field theory of the pion-nucleon system was an important ingredient for the development of BCS theory. We discuss the evolution of these ideas in quantum field theory providing an unconventional historical perspective.

  4. The physics of exciton-polariton condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Lagoudakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 researchers created the first polariton Bose-Einstein condensate at 19K in the solid state. Being inherently open quantum systems, polariton condensates open a window into the unpredictable world of physics beyond the “fifth state of matter”: the limited lifetime of polaritons renders polariton condensates out-of-equilibrium and provides a fertile test-bed for non-equilibrium physics. This book presents an experimental investigation into exciting features arising from this non-equilibrium behavior. Through careful experimentation, the author demonstrates the ability of polaritons to synchronize and create a single energy delocalized condensate. Under certain disorder and excitation conditions the complete opposite case of coexisting spatially overlapping condensates may be observed. The author provides the first demonstration of quantized vortices in polariton condensates and the first observation of fractional vortices with full phase and amplitude characterization. Finally, this book investigate...

  5. 75 FR 4418 - In the Matter of: Certain Course Management System Software Products; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Course Management System Software Products; Notice of Commission... importation of certain course management system software products that infringe certain claims of United...

  6. 76 FR 55944 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... importation of certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated... having graphics processing units (``GPUs'') supplied by NVIDIA Corporation (``NVIDIA'') infringe any...

  7. Research progress of control of condensate depression for condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liang, Run; Li, Fengyu

    2017-08-01

    It is introduced that significance and structure of the condensate depression control system. In accordance with controller devised procedure, we analyze and elaborate how to construct the lumped parameter and dynamic mathematical model which possesses distinct physics significance. Neural network model being called black-box model is also introduced. We analyze and contrast the control technique of condensate depression as conventional PI control, fuzzy PI control and fuzzy control. It is indicated that if the controller of condensate depression were devised inappropriate, while the steam discharged of turbine varying by a large margin, would result in the rotation rate of cooling water circulating pump accelerating at a great lick even to trigger the galloping danger which is less impressive for the units operating safely.

  8. Using Surface Tension Gradients to Reduce Condensate Retention and Improve Heat Exchanger Performance in Air Conditioning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brest, Tyler J.; Eid, Khalid F.; Sommers, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for patterning metal fin surfaces used in HVAC&R applications to mitigate problems associated with condensate retention. In this work, metallic surfaces are patterned to promote water droplet migration towards a specified region acting as a central drainage conduit. The surfaces were fabricated using photolithography, physical vapor deposition, and a surface-specific chemical coating and then characterized using spray (fine mist) testing and small droplet (2...

  9. Capillary Condensation in 8 nm Deep Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Junjie; Riordon, Jason; Zandavi, Seyed Hadi; Xu, Yi; Persad, Aaron H; Mostowfi, Farshid; Sinton, David

    2018-02-01

    Condensation on the nanoscale is essential to understand many natural and synthetic systems relevant to water, air, and energy. Despite its importance, the underlying physics of condensation initiation and propagation remain largely unknown at sub-10 nm, mainly due to the challenges of controlling and probing such small systems. Here we study the condensation of n-propane down to 8 nm confinement in a nanofluidic system, distinct from previous studies at ∼100 nm. The condensation initiates significantly earlier in the 8 nm channels, and it initiates from the entrance, in contrast to channels just 10 times larger. The condensate propagation is observed to be governed by two liquid-vapor interfaces with an interplay between film and bridging effects. We model the experimental results using classical theories and find good agreement, demonstrating that this 8 nm nonpolar fluid system can be treated as a continuum from a thermodynamic perspective, despite having only 10-20 molecular layers.

  10. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  11. Connections between quantum chromodynamics and condensed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently some of the analyses that originated in condensed matter physics have found applications in QCD. Using examples we discuss some of the connections between the two fields and show how progress can be made by exploiting this connection. Some of the challenges that remain in the two fields are quite similar.

  12. Vast Antimatter Regions and Scalar Condensate Baryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kirilova, D.; Panayotova, M.; Valchanov, T

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of natural and abundant creation of antimatter in the Universe in a SUSY-baryogenesis model with a scalar field condensate is described. This scenario predicts vast quantities of antimatter, corresponding to galaxy and galaxy cluster scales today, separated from the matter ones by baryonically empty voids. Theoretical and observational constraints on such antimatter regions are discussed.

  13. Dark Matter Equilibria in Galaxies and Galaxy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Cavaliere, A.

    2009-02-01

    In the dark matter (DM) halos embedding galaxies and galaxy systems the "entropy" K ≡ σ2/ρ2/3 (a quantity that combines the radial velocity dispersion σ with the density ρ) is found from intensive N-body simulations to follow a power-law run K vprop r α throughout the halos' bulk, with α around 1.25. Taking up from phenomenology just that α≈ const. applies, we cut through the rich analytic contents of the Jeans equation describing the self-gravitating equilibria of the DM; we specifically focus on computing and discussing a set of novel physical solutions that we name α-profiles, marked by the entropy slope α itself, and by the maximal gravitational pull κcrit(α) required for a viable equilibrium to hold. We then use an advanced semianalytic description for the cosmological buildup of halos to constrain the values of α to within the narrow range 1.25-1.29 from galaxies to galaxy systems; these correspond to halos' current masses in the range 1011-1015 M sun. Our range of α applies since the transition time that—both in our semianalytic description and in state-of-the-art numerical simulations—separates two development stages: an early violent collapse that comprises a few major mergers and enforces dynamical mixing, followed by smoother mass addition through slow accretion. In our range of α we provide a close fit for the relation κcrit(α), and discuss a related physical interpretation in terms of incomplete randomization of the infall kinetic energy through dynamical mixing. We also give an accurate analytic representation of the α-profiles with parameters derived from the Jeans equation; this provides straightforward precision fits to recent detailed data from gravitational lensing in and around massive galaxy clusters, and thus replaces the empirical Navarro-Frenk-White formula relieving the related problems of high concentration and old age. We finally stress how our findings and predictions as to α and κcrit contribute to

  14. Decondensation in Nonequilibrium Photonic Condensates: When Less Is More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesten, Henry J.; Nyman, Robert A.; Mintert, Florian

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the steady state of a system of photons in a pumped dye-filled microcavity. By varying pump and thermalization the system can be tuned between Bose-Einstein condensation, multimode condensation, and lasing. We present a rich nonequilibrium phase diagram which exhibits transitions between these phases, including decondensation of individual modes under conditions that would typically favor condensation.

  15. The butane condensed matter conformational problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, A.C.J.; de Lange, C.A.; Meerts, W.L.; Burnell, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    From the dipolar couplings of orientationally ordered n-butane obtained by NMR spectroscopy we have calculated conformer probabilities using the modified Chord (Cd) and Size-and-Shape (CI) models to estimate the conformational dependence of the order matrix. All calculation methods make use of

  16. XX International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Rojo5, M.A. Solis6 and A.A. Valladares4 1 Institute de Fisica Teorica -UNESP, 01405 Säo Paulo, BRAZIL and Departamento de Fisica , Universidade...Estadual de Londrina Londrina, PR, BRAZIL 2Departament de Fisica , Universität de les Hies Balears 07071 Palma de Mallorca, SPAIN department of Physics...Mexico DF, MEXICO 6 Instituto de Fisica , UNAM, 01000 Mexico DF, MEXICO Abstract Though never proved in detail, the superconducting phase is widely

  17. Latest trends in condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Singhal, R K

    2011-01-01

    This special issue of ""Solid State Phenomena"" documents some novel experimental and theoretical approaches applied to fascinating materials. Motivated by the increasing need to synthesize and understand the properties of technologically important materials, this issue represents an important step forward in improving our understanding of how modern materials can be optimised for technology and industry. The issue comprises 9 original review papers covering experimental approaches and theoretical modeling. The contributions will be very useful to researchers working in various areas of CMP an

  18. Condensed matter optical spectroscopy an illustrated introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, Iulian

    2014-01-01

    Molecular Symmetry and the Symmetry GroupsSymmetry Elements and Symmetry OperationsPoint Groups and Molecular SymmetrySymmetry Classification of MoleculesMatrix Representation of Symmetry TransformationGroup RepresentationsProperties of Irreducible RepresentationsTables of CharactersSymmetry of Crystals and Space GroupsRotation Groups and OperatorsExamples of SymmetryStudy QuestionsReferencesCrystal Field TheoryStates and Energies of Free Atoms and IonsOptical Spectra of Ionic CrystalsImpurities in Crystal Lattice: Splitting of Levels and Terms in Lattice SymmetryWeak Crystalline Field of Octahedral SymmetryEffect of a Weak Crystalline Field of Lower SymmetriesSplitting of Multielectron dn Configurations in the Crystalline FieldJahn-Teller EffectConstruction of Energy-Level DiagramsTanabe-Sugano DiagramsExample of the Co IonLimitations of the Crystal Field TheoryStudy QuestionsReferencesSymmetry and Molecular Orbitals TheoryMolecular OrbitalsHybridization Scheme for σ OrbitalsHybridization Scheme for π Orbi...

  19. Condensed-matter physics: Magnetism in flatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarth, Nitin

    2017-06-01

    A pair of two-dimensional materials have been shown to exhibit ferromagnetism -- the familiar type of magnetism found in iron bar magnets. Such materials could have applications from sensing to data storage. See Letters p.265 & p.270

  20. Modeling of Kerena Emergency Condenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryk Rafał

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available KERENA is an innovative boiling water reactor concept equipped with several passive safety systems. For the experimental verification of performance of the systems and for codes validation, the Integral Test Stand Karlstein (INKA was built in Karlstein, Germany. The emergency condenser (EC system transfers heat from the reactor pressure vessel (RPV to the core flooding pool in case of water level decrease in the RPV. EC is composed of a large number of slightly inclined tubes. During accident conditions, steam enters into the tubes and condenses due to the contact of the tubes with cold water at the secondary side. The condensed water flows then back to the RPV due to gravity. In this paper two approaches for modeling of condensation in slightly inclined tubes are compared and verified against experiments. The first approach is based on the flow regime map. Depending on the regime, heat transfer coefficient is calculated according to specific semi-empirical correlation. The second approach uses a general, fully-empirical correlation. The models are developed with utilization of the object-oriented Modelica language and the open-source OpenModelica environment. The results are compared with data obtained during a large scale integral test, simulating loss of coolant accident performed at Integral Test Stand Karlstein (INKA. The comparison shows a good agreement.Due to the modularity of models, both of them may be used in the future in systems incorporating condensation in horizontal or slightly inclined tubes. Depending on his preferences, the modeller may choose one-equation based approach or more sophisticated model composed of several exchangeable semi-empirical correlations.

  1. Modeling of Kerena Emergency Condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Rafał; Schmidt, Holger; Mull, Thomas; Wagner, Thomas; Ganzmann, Ingo; Herbst, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    KERENA is an innovative boiling water reactor concept equipped with several passive safety systems. For the experimental verification of performance of the systems and for codes validation, the Integral Test Stand Karlstein (INKA) was built in Karlstein, Germany. The emergency condenser (EC) system transfers heat from the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) to the core flooding pool in case of water level decrease in the RPV. EC is composed of a large number of slightly inclined tubes. During accident conditions, steam enters into the tubes and condenses due to the contact of the tubes with cold water at the secondary side. The condensed water flows then back to the RPV due to gravity. In this paper two approaches for modeling of condensation in slightly inclined tubes are compared and verified against experiments. The first approach is based on the flow regime map. Depending on the regime, heat transfer coefficient is calculated according to specific semi-empirical correlation. The second approach uses a general, fully-empirical correlation. The models are developed with utilization of the object-oriented Modelica language and the open-source OpenModelica environment. The results are compared with data obtained during a large scale integral test, simulating loss of coolant accident performed at Integral Test Stand Karlstein (INKA). The comparison shows a good agreement.Due to the modularity of models, both of them may be used in the future in systems incorporating condensation in horizontal or slightly inclined tubes. Depending on his preferences, the modeller may choose one-equation based approach or more sophisticated model composed of several exchangeable semi-empirical correlations.

  2. Grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Zhenchang; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhaohui; Yan, Fei; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown brain reorganizations after early deprivation of auditory sensory. However, changes of grey matter connectivity have not been investigated in prelingually deaf adolescents yet. In the present study, we aimed to investigate changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents and 16 age-and gender-matched normal controls, and extracted the grey matter volume as the structural characteristic from 14 regions of interest involved in auditory, language or visual processing to investigate the changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems. Sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) was utilized to construct grey matter connectivity between these brain regions. The results show that prelingually deaf adolescents present weaker grey matter connectivity within auditory and visual systems, and connectivity between language and visual systems declined. Notably, significantly increased brain connectivity was found between auditory and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Our results indicate "cross-modal" plasticity after deprivation of the auditory input in prelingually deaf adolescents, especially between auditory and visual systems. Besides, auditory deprivation and visual deficits might affect the connectivity pattern within language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents.

  3. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  4. Polariton condensation in a disordered potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antón, C.; Tosi, G.; Lingg, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    We study polariton condensation under OPO (Optical Parametric Oscillator) out-of-equilibrium conditions [1] in the presence of linear and point defects. Because of the simultaneous presence of pump, signal and idler emitting at different wave vectors, as well as of photonic disorder, the system....... Furthermore, a detailed study of the condensate phase demonstrates that the map of the supercurrents is unambiguously determined by the different defect geometries. We have studied two similar λ/2 GaAs-based microcavities, differing mainly by the thickness of the cavity and of the quantum well placed...... of a surrounding 2D OPO condensate. A spectral analysis of the real space emission (Fig. 1 (b)) resolves the 2D emission (1.5505 eV) and that of the 1D condensate (1.5500 eV). The linear defect separates the 2D condensate in two parts, each one of them having a different finite momentum pointing towards the low...

  5. Freeze-Tolerant Condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

  6. Internal mechanical stresses and the thermodynamic and adhesion parameters of the metal condensate-single-crystal silicon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, B. P.; Juzevych, V. N.

    2012-07-01

    The kinetics of generation of internal mechanical stresses σ( d) in chromium, copper, gold, and aluminum thin films on single-crystal silicon substrates at different deposition rates has been experimentally investigated using the cantilever method. A two-step character of the variations in internal tensile stresses has been revealed. The regularities of the formation of the maximum level of mechanical stresses in the condensates under investigation have been established. The energy and adhesion parameters of chromium, copper, gold, and aluminum nanolayers on silicon, germanium, and nickel substrates have been studied using the macroscopic methods of surface physics. The interfacial energy, interfacial tension, work of adhesion, interfacial charge, and a new energy characteristic of the interfacial layer, namely, the energy of adhesive bonds, which exceeds the interfacial energy, have been determined.

  7. Condensation of water vapour on moss-dominated biological soil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 2 ... Condensation; water vapour; desert ecosystem; moss; biological soil crust. Abstract. Characteristics of water vapour condensation, including the onset, duration, and amount of water vapour condensation on moss-dominated biological soil crust ...

  8. Monitoring and diagnosis of condensation systems in thermoelectric power stations: behavior indicators; Monitoreo y diagnostico de sistemas de condensacion en centrales termoelectricas: indicadores de comportamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Martinez, Hugo; Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this article are described the basic characteristics, capacities and benefits of a computer system for the monitoring and operation diagnosis of the main equipment of a condensation system of thermoelectric power plants. The system monitors the process variables in real time and, with base in these variables, it can realize a diagnosis of the cooling tower, the condenser, the circulation water and the circulating water pumps, deducting the possible problems (deficiency causes) and raising alternatives to improve the system performance or to solve the problem. It is important to mention that with base in the raised alternatives, the user can take decisions to diminish or eliminate the problem. The essential content of the article focuses in the description of the basic procedures for the calculation of the performance and diagnosis indicators of the condensation system of the equipment. The equipment evaluation is carried out by means of the comparison between the indicators values and the expected ones, whereas the diagnosis is realized by means of an expert system. [Spanish] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas principales, capacidades y beneficios de un sistema computacional para el monitoreo y diagnostico del funcionamiento de los equipos principales de un sistema de condensacion de plantas termoelectricas. El sistema monitorea las variables del proceso en tiempo real y, con base en dichas variables, puede realizar un diagnostico de la torre de enfriamiento, el condensador y las bombas de agua de circulacion, deduciendo los posibles problemas (causas de las deficiencias) y planteando alternativas para mejorar el desempeno del sistema o solucionar el problema. Es importante mencionar que con base en las alternativas planteadas, el usuario puede tomar decisiones para reducir o eliminar el problema. El contenido esencial del articulo se enfoca en la descripcion de los procedimientos basicos para el calculo de los indicadores de desempeno y

  9. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment Cryogenic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Hannah; ADMX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) searches for dark matter axions by looking for their resonant conversion to photons in a microwave cavity in a high magnetic field. The mass of the axion (unknown) determines the frequency at which the axion couples to the magnetic field, so the cavity is tuned through a wide range of frequencies while measuring the power deposited in it with ultra-sensitive quantum electronics. The dominant systematic noise is from the noise temperature of the electronics; during the last data run they were cooled to 1.5K with a pumped He-4 refrigerator. Currently, we are installing a large dilution refrigerator, which will cool the cavity and first stage amplifiers to ~100 mK. I will discuss our progress, describe some of the challenges we have faced and how we have overcome them, and describe our plans for operation. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-97ER41029, DE-FG02-96ER40956, DE- AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC03-76SF00098, and the Livermore LDRD program.

  10. Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, G.

    1997-09-22

    This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.

  11. Tools for system validation. Dynamic modelling of the direct condenser at Sandvik II in Vaexjoe; Hjaelpmedel foer systemvalidering. Dynamisk modellering av direktkondensorn paa Sandvik II i Vaexjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaberg, Martin [Dynasim AB, Lund (Sweden); Tuszynski, Jan [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The project reported here aimed to test the suitability of existing computer tools for modelling of energy processes. The suggested use for the models are at the early tests and validations of new, refurbished or modernised thermal plants. The technique presented in this report should be applicable for clarification of the scope of delivery and testing for both the process and tile control system. The validation process can thus be simplified, allowing risk reduction and predictability of the commissioning. The main delays and economical misfortune often occurs during commissioning. This report should prove the feasibility of the purchase routines where purchaser, vendor and quality inspection will use a common model of the process to validate system requirements and specifications. Later on it is used to validate structure and predefine testing. Thanks to agreement on the common model, early tests can be conducted on complex systems, minimizing the investment risks. The modelling reported here concerns the direct condenser at Sandvik 11, power and heating plant owned by Vaexjoe Energi AB in Sweden. We have chosen the direct condenser because it is an existing, well-documented and well-defined subsystem of high complexity in both structure and operation. Heavy transients made commissioning and test runs of similar condensers throughout Sweden costly and troublesome. The work resulted in an open, general, and physically correct model. The model can easily be re-dimensioned through physical parameters of common use. The control system modelled corresponds to the actual control system at the Sandvik II plant. Any improvement or deep validation of the controllers was not included in this work. The suitability is shown through four simulation cases. Three cases are based on a registered plant operation during a turbine trip. The first test case uses present plant data, the second an old steam valve actuator and the third uses the old actuator and an error in level

  12. Enhancement of dark matter capture by neutron stars in binary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayeur, Lionel; Tinyakov, Peter

    2012-08-10

    We study the capture of dark matter particles by neutron stars in close binary systems. By performing a direct numerical simulation, we find that there is a sizable amplification of the rate of dark matter capture by each of the companions. In the case of the binary pulsar PSR J1906+0746 with the orbital period of 4 hours the amplification factor is approximately equal to 3.5. This amplification can be attributed to the energy loss by dark matter particles resulting from their gravitational scattering off moving companions.

  13. 75 FR 68379 - In the Matter of: Certain Video Game Systems and Controllers; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Video Game Systems and Controllers; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain video game systems and... after importation of certain video game systems and controllers that infringe one or more of claims 16...

  14. 75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications system... importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices or battery...

  15. Controlling particle properties in {{YBa}}_{2}{{Cu}}_{3}{{\\rm{O}}}_{7-\\delta } nanocomposites by combining PLD with an inert gas condensation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparing, M.; Reich, E.; Hänisch, J.; Gottschall, T.; Hühne, R.; Fähler, S.; Rellinghaus, B.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.

    2017-10-01

    The critical current density {J}{{c}} in {{YBa}}2{{Cu}}3{{{O}}}7-δ thin films, which limits their application in external magnetic fields, can be enhanced by the introduction of artificial pinning centers such as non-superconducting nanoparticles inducing additional defects and local strain in the superconducting matrix. To understand the correlation between superconductivity, defect structures and particles, a controlled integration of particles with adjustable properties is essential. A powerful technique for the growth of isolated nanoparticles in the range of 10 nm is dc-magnetron sputtering in an inert gas flow. The inert gas condensation (IGC) of particles allows for an independent control of both the particle diameter distribution and the areal density. We report on the integration of such gas-phase-condensed {{HfO}}2 nanoparticles into pulsed laser deposited (PLD) {{YBa}}2{{Cu}}3{{{O}}}7-δ thin film multilayers with a combined PLD-IGC system. The particles and the structure of the multilayers are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy on cross-sectional FIB lamellae. As a result of the IGC particle implementation, randomly as well as biaxially oriented {{BaHfO}}3 precipitates are formed in the {{YBa}}2{{Cu}}3{{{O}}}7-δ thin films. With as few as three interlayers of nanoparticles, the pinning force density is enhanced in the low-field region.

  16. Bose-Einstein condensation in nonuniform media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-Yakanit, Virulh; Yarunin, Vladimir; Nisamaneephong, Pornther

    1998-02-01

    The Bogoliubov model of a nonideal gas is developed for Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in media with broken translational symmetry. A decrease of the transition temperature Tλ is found as a function of the ratio {F 1}/{g 0}, where g0 is the interaction between the atoms of the condensate and F1 is the condensate-noncondensate interaction, generated by the nonhomogeneous property of the matter. The shift of Tλ in porous media experimentally found by Wong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65 (1990) 2410] is applied to estimate the ratio {F 1}/{g 0}, which is found to be equal to 0.1, and may be considered as a measure of the influence of the porosity on the interaction between the atoms.

  17. White matter abnormalities and working memory impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozora, Elizabeth; Arciniegas, David B; Duggan, Emily; West, Sterling; Brown, Mark S; Filley, Christopher M

    2013-06-01

    Many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have working memory deficits. Few studies have evaluated working memory performance and neurometabolite profile using magnetic resonance spectroscopy in SLE. We gave the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), a measure of working memory, to 73 patients with SLE. We calculated total score, dyads, chunking, and cognitive fatigue. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we determined the ratio of choline to creatine (Ch/Cr) in normal-looking right and left frontal lobe white matter. Twenty-nine percent of patients showed impaired working memory on the PASAT. Total PASAT score inversely correlated with right and left frontal white matter Ch/Cr. Left frontal white matter Ch/Cr correlated with percent chunking and inversely correlated with total and percent dyads. Right frontal white matter Ch/Cr correlated with percent chunking and inversely correlated with total and percent dyads. There was no relationship between cognitive fatigue and either left or right frontal white matter Ch/Cr. Longer disease duration was associated with higher left frontal white matter Ch/Cr. Correlations remained significant when we considered disease duration and left frontal white matter Ch/Cr against total PASAT score and total dyads. Patients with SLE were impaired on the PASAT. Lower total PASAT score and fewer dyads correlated with higher left frontal microstructural white matter damage, while cognitive fatigue did not. This pattern suggests that early white matter damage interferes with working memory in SLE and provides further insight into the neurobiological basis of mild cognitive dysfunction related to microstructural white matter injury.

  18. Effects of modal truncation and condensation methods on the Frequency Response Function of a stage reducer connected by rigid coupling to a planetary gear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslema, Marwa; Frikha, Ahmed; Abdennadhar, Moez; Fakhfakh, Tahar; Nasri, Rachid; Haddar, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    The present paper is aimed at the application of a substructure methodology, based on the Frequency Response Function (FRF) simulation technique, to analyze the vibration of a stage reducer connected by a rigid coupling to a planetary gear system. The computation of the vibration response was achieved using the FRF-based substructuring method. First of all, the two subsystems were analyzed separately and their FRF were obtained. Then the coupled model was analyzed indirectly using the substructuring technique. A comparison between the full system response and the coupled model response using the FRF substructuring was investigated to validate the coupling method. Furthermore, a parametric study of the effect of the shaft coupling stiffness on the FRF was discussed and the effects of modal truncation and condensation methods on the FRF of subsystems were analyzed.

  19. Grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in?prelingually deaf adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Zhenchang; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhaohui; Yan, Fei; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Previous studies have shown brain reorganizations after early deprivation of auditory sensory. However, changes of grey matter connectivity have not been investigated in prelingually deaf adolescents yet. In the present study, we aimed to investigate changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Methods: We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents and 16 age-and gender-matched normal controls,...

  20. Condensate of excitations in moving superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomeitsev, E E

    2016-01-01

    A possibility of the condensation of excitations with a non-zero momentum in rectilinearly moving and rotating superfluid bosonic and fermionic (with Cooper pairing) media is considered in terms of a phenomenological order-parameter functional at zero and non-zero temperature. The results might be applicable to the description of bosonic systems like superfluid $^4$He, ultracold atomic Bose gases, charged pion and kaon condensates in rotating neutron stars, and various superconducting fermionic systems with pairing, like proton and color-superconducting components in compact stars, metallic superconductors, and neutral fermionic systems with pairing, like the neutron component in compact stars and ultracold atomic Fermi gases. Order parameters of the "mother" condensate in the superfluid and the new condensate of excitations, corresponding energy gains, critical temperatures and critical velocities are found.

  1. Chromatin as active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I.

    2017-01-01

    Active matter models describe a number of biophysical phenomena at the cell and tissue scale. Such models explore the macroscopic consequences of driving specific soft condensed matter systems of biological relevance out of equilibrium through ‘active’ processes. Here, we describe how active matter models can be used to study the large-scale properties of chromosomes contained within the nuclei of human cells in interphase. We show that polymer models for chromosomes that incorporate inhomogeneous activity reproduce many general, yet little understood, features of large-scale nuclear architecture. These include: (i) the spatial separation of gene-rich, low-density euchromatin, predominantly found towards the centre of the nucleus, vis a vis. gene-poor, denser heterochromatin, typically enriched in proximity to the nuclear periphery, (ii) the differential positioning of individual gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomes, (iii) the formation of chromosome territories, as well as (iv), the weak size-dependence of the positions of individual chromosome centres-of-mass relative to the nuclear centre that is seen in some cell types. Such structuring is induced purely by the combination of activity and confinement and is absent in thermal equilibrium. We systematically explore active matter models for chromosomes, discussing how our model can be generalized to study variations in chromosome positioning across different cell types. The approach and model we outline here represent a preliminary attempt towards a quantitative, first-principles description of the large-scale architecture of the cell nucleus.

  2. Furnace Brazing Parameters Optimized by Taguchi Method and Corrosion Behavior of Tube-Fin System of Automotive Condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guía-Tello, J. C.; Pech-Canul, M. A.; Trujillo-Vázquez, E.; Pech-Canul, M. I.

    2017-08-01

    Controlled atmosphere brazing has a widespread industrial use in the production of aluminum automotive heat exchangers. Good-quality joints between the components depend on the initial condition of materials as well as on the brazing process parameters. In this work, the Taguchi method was used to optimize the brazing parameters with respect to corrosion performance for tube-fin mini-assemblies of an automotive condenser. The experimental design consisted of five factors (micro-channel tube type, flux type, peak temperature, heating rate and dwell time), with two levels each. The corrosion behavior in acidified seawater solution pH 2.8 was evaluated through potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to analyze the microstructural features in the joint zone. The results showed that the parameters that most significantly affect the corrosion rate are the type of flux and the peak temperature. The optimal conditions were: micro-channel tube with 4.2 g/m2 of zinc coating, standard flux, 610 °C peak temperature, 5 °C/min heating rate and 4 min dwell time. The corrosion current density value of the confirmation experiment is in excellent agreement with the predicted value. The electrochemical characterization for selected samples gave indication that the brazing conditions had a more significant effect on the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction than on the kinetics of the metal dissolution reaction.

  3. Hunting for dark matter with ultra-stable fibre as frequency delay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanpeng; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Shuangyou; Zhao, Jianye

    2015-07-10

    Many cosmological observations point towards the existence of dark-matter(DM) particles and consider them as the main component of the matter content of the universe. The goal of revealing the nature of dark-matter has triggered the development of new, extremely sensitive detectors. It has been demonstrated that the frequencies and phases of optical clock have a transient shift during the DMs' arrival due to the DM-SM(Standard Model) coupling. A simple, reliable and feasible experimental scheme is firstly proposed in this paper, based on "frequency-delay system" to search dark-matter by "self-frequency comparison" of an optical clock. During the arrival of a dark-matter, frequency discrepancy is expected between two signals with a short time difference(~ms) of the same optical clock to exhibit the interaction between atoms and dark-matter. Furthermore, this process can determine the exact position of dark-matter when it is crossing the optical clocks, therefore a network of detecting stations located in different places is recommended to reduce the misjudgment risk to an acceptable level.

  4. Bimodal condensation silicone elastomers as dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    unimodal refers to that there is one polymer only in the system. As an alternative to unimodal networks there are the bimodal networks where two polymers with significantly different molecular weights are mixed with one crosslinker. [2]Silicone rubber can be divided into condensation type and addition type...... according to the curing reaction. The advantages of condensation silicones compared to addition are the relatively low cost, the curing rate largely being independent of temperature, the excellent adhesion, and the catalyst being nontoxic. [3]In this work, a series of bimodal condensation silicone...

  5. Condenser retubing-criteria manual. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impagliazzo, A.M.; Bell, R.J.; Curlett, P.L.; Gordon, H.L.

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this document is to provide engineering assistance to utilities involved in retubing steam surface condensers with corrosion-resistant materials, such as titanium, and the recently developed high alloy pit-resistant steels. Field tests and recent operating experience have shown titanium and at least one of the high alloy pit-resistant steels to be virtually immune to the usual forms of corrosion occurring in steam surface condensers. This, together with the trend toward elimination of copper alloys in the circulating water system, has caused many utilities to retube their condensers with these materials.

  6. Regional gray matter volume of dopaminergic system associate with creativity: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-06-01

    Creativity has been essential to the development of human civilization and plays a crucial role in cultural life. However, despite a number of functional imaging studies on creativity, the relationship between regional gray matter morphology and creativity has never been investigated in subcortical regions. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the gray matter correlates of individual creativity as measured by the divergent thinking test. We found positive correlations between regional gray matter volume and individual creativity in several regions such as the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral striata and in an anatomical cluster which included areas such as the substantia nigra, tegmental ventral area and periaqueductal gray. These findings suggest that individual creativity, as measured by the divergent thinking test, is mainly related to the regional gray matter of brain regions known to be associated with the dopaminergic system, congruent with the idea that dopaminergic physiological mechanisms are associated with individual creativity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  8. The Effect of Condensate Inundation on Condensation Heat Transfer in Tube Bundles of Marine Condensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    provides additional protection from contamination. After the strainer, the steam proceeds through a 31.75 mm. diameter line which provides for two...the system was tested for air-tightness and found to be secure. In addition , it was believed that the velocity of steam passing through the test...REFERENCES 1. Standards for Steam Surface Condensers, 6th ed., Heat Exchange Institue, 1970. 2. Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manifacturers Association

  9. 75 FR 36678 - In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain authentication systems, including software and handheld electronic devices, by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7...

  10. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated software that... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices with image...

  11. 78 FR 28002 - In the Matter of South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources, Inc... Approving Conforming Amendment I South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources, Inc...-holders of Facility Operating License No. NPF-29. South Mississippi Electric Power Association and SERI...

  12. 75 FR 43206 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices... for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices and battery packs by reason of infringement of...

  13. 76 FR 33363 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communication devices... importation of certain wireless communication devices and systems, components thereof, and products containing...

  14. Random-lattice models and simulation algorithms for the phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles with coupled internal and translational degrees of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Miao, Ling; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1996-01-01

    In this work we concentrate on phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles where both translational and internal degrees of freedom are present and coupled through microscopic interactions, with a focus on the manner of the macroscopic coupling between the two types...... where the spin degrees of freedom are slaved by the translational degrees of freedom and develop a first-order singularity in the order-disorder transition that accompanies the lattice-melting transition. The internal degeneracy of the spin states in model III implies that the spin order...... transitional properties for model III are discussed in relation to experiments on planar bilayers of lipid-chain molecules whose properties are determined by a subtle coupling between the translational variables and the intrachain conformational states....

  15. Solar system tests for realistic f( T) models with non-minimal torsion-matter coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rui-Hui; Zhai, Xiang-Hua; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2017-08-01

    In the previous paper, we have constructed two f( T) models with non-minimal torsion-matter coupling extension, which are successful in describing the evolution history of the Universe including the radiation-dominated era, the matter-dominated era, and the present accelerating expansion. Meantime, the significant advantage of these models is that they could avoid the cosmological constant problem of Λ CDM. However, the non-minimal coupling between matter and torsion will affect the tests of the Solar system. In this paper, we study the effects of the Solar system in these models, including the gravitation redshift, geodetic effect and perihelion precession. We find that Model I can pass all three of the Solar system tests. For Model II, the parameter is constrained by the uncertainties of the planets' estimated perihelion precessions.

  16. Solar system tests for realistic $f(T)$ models with nonminimal torsion-matter coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Rui-Hui; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In the previous paper, we have constructed two $f(T)$ models with nonminimal torsion-matter coupling extension, which are successful in describing the evolution history of the Universe including the radiation-dominated era, the matter-dominated era, and the present accelerating expansion. Meantime, the significant advantage of these models is that they could avoid the cosmological constant problem of $\\Lambda$CDM. However, the nonminimal coupling between matter and torsion will affect the tests of Solar system. In this paper, we study the effects of Solar system in these models, including the gravitation redshift, geodetic effect and perihelion preccesion. We find that Model I can pass all three of the Solar system tests. For Model II, the parameter is constrained by the measure of the perihelion precession of Mercury.

  17. The process matters: cyber security in industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziosmanovic, D.

    2014-01-01

    An industrial control system (ICS) is a computer system that controls industrial processes such as power plants, water and gas distribution, food production, etc. Since cyber-attacks on an ICS may have devastating consequences on human lives and safety in general, the security of ICS is important.

  18. Phases of dense matter with non-spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pethick, C.J. [NORDITA, Copenhagen (Denmark)]|[Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Ravenhall, D.G. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1998-06-01

    A brief review is given of some of the important physics related to phases with non-spherical nuclei that can exist in neutron stars and in matter in stellar collapse at densities just below the saturation density of nuclear matter. Comparisons are made with other systems that exhibit similar liquid-crystal-like phases, both in nuclear physics and in condensed matter physics. A short account is given of recent work on the elastic properties of these phases, and their vibration spectrum, as well as on neutron superfluid gaps. (orig.)

  19. Why institutional environments for agroforestry seed system matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; Harwood, C.; Derero, Abayneh

    2017-01-01

    Rethinking the logic of institutional environments aiming to facilitate agroforestry smallholders in economic development, this paper compares smallholder input supply systems for crop and tree seeds in Sub-Saharan Africa and reflects on two basic challenges: (i) how to develop a large number of ......-seedling systems. Biophysical differences have practical implications for how the logic of the ‘African green revolution’ would be translated into a corresponding revolution for agroforestry....

  20. Knowledge management systems success in healthcare: Leadership matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nor'ashikin; Tretiakov, Alexei; Whiddett, Dick; Hunter, Inga

    2017-01-01

    To deliver high-quality healthcare doctors need to access, interpret, and share appropriate and localised medical knowledge. Information technology is widely used to facilitate the management of this knowledge in healthcare organisations. The purpose of this study is to develop a knowledge management systems success model for healthcare organisations. A model was formulated by extending an existing generic knowledge management systems success model by including organisational and system factors relevant to healthcare. It was tested by using data obtained from 263 doctors working within two district health boards in New Zealand. Of the system factors, knowledge content quality was found to be particularly important for knowledge management systems success. Of the organisational factors, leadership was the most important, and more important than incentives. Leadership promoted knowledge management systems success primarily by positively affecting knowledge content quality. Leadership also promoted knowledge management use for retrieval, which should lead to the use of that better quality knowledge by the doctors, ultimately resulting in better outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Theory of laminar film condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Tetsu

    1991-01-01

    Since the petroleum crisis in the 1970s, a lot of effort to save energy was made in industry, and remarkable achievements have been made. In the research and development concerning thermal energy, however, it was clar­ ified that one of the most important problems was manufacturing con­ densing systems with smaller size and higher performance. To solve this problem we need a method which synthesizes selections_ of the type of con­ denser, cooling tube and its arrangement, assessment of fouling on the cooling surfaces, consideration of transient characteristics of a condenser, etc. The majority of effort, however, has been to devise a surface element which enhances the heat transfer coefficient in condensation of a single or multicomponent vapor. Condensation phenomena are complexly affected by a lot of physical property values, and accordingly the results of theo­ retical research are expressed with several dimensionless parameters. On the other hand, the experimental research is limited to those with som...

  2. Quantum Rabi model in a superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, S.; Romero, G.; Solano, E.; Sabín, C.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi model in an atomic quantum dot, which is a single atom in a tight optical trap coupled to the quasiparticle modes of a superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate. This widely tunable setup allows us to simulate the ultrastrong coupling regime of light-matter interaction in a system which enjoys an amenable characteristic time scale, paving the way for an experimental analysis of the transition between the Jaynes-Cummings and the quantum Rabi dynamics using cold-atom systems. Our scheme can be naturally extended to simulate multiqubit quantum Rabi models. In particular, we discuss the appearance of effective two-qubit interactions due to phononic exchange, among other features.

  3. Why institutional environments for agroforestry seed system matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; Harwood, C.; Derero, Abayneh

    2018-01-01

    Rethinking the logic of institutional environments aiming to facilitate agroforestry smallholders in economic development, this paper compares smallholder input supply systems for crop and tree seeds in Sub-Saharan Africa and reflects on two basic challenges: (i) how to develop a large number...

  4. Dynamics of entanglement and the Schmidt gap in a driven light–matter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ruiz, F. J.; Mendoza-Arenas, J. J.; Acevedo, O. L.; Rodríguez, F. J.; Quiroga, L.; Johnson, N. F.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to modify light‑matter coupling in time (e.g. using external pulses) opens up the exciting possibility of generating and probing new aspects of quantum correlations in many-body light–matter systems. Here we study the impact of such a pulsed coupling on the light–matter entanglement in the Dicke model as well as the respective subsystem quantum dynamics. Our dynamical many-body analysis exploits the natural partition between the radiation and matter degrees of freedom, allowing us to explore time-dependent intra-subsystem quantum correlations by means of squeezing parameters, and the inter-subsystem Schmidt gap for different pulse duration (i.e. ramping velocity) regimes—from the near adiabatic to the sudden quench limits. Our results reveal that both types of quantities indicate the emergence of the superradiant phase when crossing the quantum critical point. In addition, at the end of the pulse light and matter remain entangled even though they become uncoupled, which could be exploited to generate entangled states in non-interacting systems.

  5. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  6. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  7. Intranuclear DNA density affects chromosome condensation in metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuki; Iwabuchi, Mari; Ohsumi, Keita; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2013-08-01

    Chromosome condensation is critical for accurate inheritance of genetic information. The degree of condensation, which is reflected in the size of the condensed chromosomes during mitosis, is not constant. It is differentially regulated in embryonic and somatic cells. In addition to the developmentally programmed regulation of chromosome condensation, there may be adaptive regulation based on spatial parameters such as genomic length or cell size. We propose that chromosome condensation is affected by a spatial parameter called the chromosome amount per nuclear space, or "intranuclear DNA density." Using Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we show that condensed chromosome sizes vary during early embryogenesis. Of importance, changing DNA content to haploid or polyploid changes the condensed chromosome size, even at the same developmental stage. Condensed chromosome size correlates with interphase nuclear size. Finally, a reduction in nuclear size in a cell-free system from Xenopus laevis eggs resulted in reduced condensed chromosome sizes. These data support the hypothesis that intranuclear DNA density regulates chromosome condensation. This suggests an adaptive mode of chromosome condensation regulation in metazoans.

  8. 76 FR 38417 - In the Matter of Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... 6,122,592 (``the '592 patent''). The complaint named Garmin International, Inc. of Olathe, Kansas... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof...

  9. 75 FR 13614 - In the Matter of Talisman Enterprises, Inc., Tangent Solutions, Inc., Telepanel Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Talisman Enterprises, Inc., Tangent Solutions, Inc., Telepanel Systems, Inc... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Talisman Enterprises...

  10. Enhancing organic matter removal in desalination pretreatment systems by application of dissolved air flotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shutova, Yulia; Karna, Barun Lal; Hambly, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis (RO) systems caused by organic matter (OM) remains a significant operational issue during desalination. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) has recently received attention as a pre-treatment option for seawater OM removal; however, only a limited number of studies have...

  11. Particulate matter emission from livestock houses: measurement methods, emission levels and abatement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Animal houses are extremely dusty environments. Airborne particulate matter (PM) poses a health threat not only to the farmer and the animals, but, as a result of emissions from ventilation systems, also to residents living in livestock farming areas. In relation to this problem, the objectives of

  12. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  13. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...

  14. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis: Does the immune system matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Aline Silva; Zhang, Cun-Jin; Katsumoto, Atsuko; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2017-01-15

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis involves proliferation, survival, differentiation and integration of newborn neurons into pre-existing neuronal networks. Although its functional significance in the central nervous system (CNS) has not comprehensively elucidated, adult neurogenesis has been attributed a role in cognition, learning and memory. There is a growing body of evidence that CNS resident as well as peripheral immune cells participate in regulating hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Microglial cells are closely associated with neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) in the neurogenic niche engaged in a bidirectional communication with neurons, which may be important for adult neurogenesis. Microglial and neuronal crosstalk is mediated in part by CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling and a disruption in this pathway has been associated with impaired neurogenesis. It has been also reported that microglial neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects in adult neurogenesis occur in a context-dependent manner. Apart from microglia other brain resident and peripheral immune cells including pericytes, perivascular macrophages, mast cells and T-cells also modulate this phenomenon. It is worth mentioning that under some physiological circumstances such as normal aging there is a significant decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis. A role for innate and adaptive immune system in adult neurogenesis has been also reported during aging. Here, we review the current evidence regarding neuro-immune interactions in the regulation of neurogenesis under distinct conditions, including aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 3D CFD simulations to study the effect of inclination of condenser tube on natural convection and thermal stratification in a passive decay heat removal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minocha, Nitin [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B., E-mail: jbjoshi@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Nayak, Arun K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Vijayan, Pallippattu K., E-mail: vijayanp@barc.gov.in [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Investigation of three-dimensional natural convection and thermal stratification inside large water pool. • Effect of inclination (α) of condenser tube on fluid flow and heat transfer. • The heat transfer was found to be maximum for α = 90° and minimum for α = 15°. • Laminar-turbulent natural convection and heat transfer in the presence of longitudinal vortices. - Abstract: Many advanced nuclear reactors adopt methodologies of passive safety systems based on natural forces such as gravity. In one of such system, the decay heat generated from a reactor is removed by isolation condenser (ICs) submerged in a large water pool called the Gravity Driven Water Pool (GDWP). The objective of the present study was to design an IC for the passive decay heat removal system (PDHRS) for advanced nuclear reactor. First, the effect of inclination of IC tube on three dimensional temperature and flow fields was investigated inside a pilot scale (10 L) GDWP. Further, the knowledge of these fields has been used for the quantification of heat transfer and thermal stratification phenomenon. In a next step, the knowledge gained from the pilot scale GDWP has been extended to design an IC for real size GDWP (∼10,000 m{sup 3}). Single phase CFD simulation using open source CFD code [OpenFOAM-2.2] was performed for different tube inclination angles (α) (w.r.t. to vertical direction) in the range 0° ⩽ α ⩽ 90°. The results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient increases with increase in tube inclination angle. The heat transfer was found to be maximum for α = 90° and minimum for α = 15°. This behavior is due to the interaction between the primary flow (due to pressure gradient) and secondary flow (due to buoyancy force). The primary flow enhanced the fluid sliding motion at the tube top whereas the secondary flow resulted in enhancement in fluid motion along the circumference of tube. As the angle of inclination (α) of the tube was increased, the

  16. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  17. Evolutionary systems biology: what it is and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Orkun S; O'Malley, Maureen A

    2013-08-01

    Evolutionary systems biology (ESB) is a rapidly growing integrative approach that has the core aim of generating mechanistic and evolutionary understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships at multiple levels. ESB's more specific objectives include extending knowledge gained from model organisms to non-model organisms, predicting the effects of mutations, and defining the core network structures and dynamics that have evolved to cause particular intracellular and intercellular responses. By combining mathematical, molecular, and cellular approaches to evolution, ESB adds new insights and methods to the modern evolutionary synthesis, and offers ways in which to enhance its explanatory and predictive capacities. This combination of prediction and explanation marks ESB out as a research manifesto that goes further than its two contributing fields. Here, we summarize ESB via an analysis of characteristic research examples and exploratory questions, while also making a case for why these integrative efforts are worth pursuing. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Coping with System Failure: Why Connectivity Matters to Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot

    2015-01-01

    it to reach its climate goals for 2020. The chapter’s research strategy stresses the importance of relations rather than the determinism of technology or ideas. As a result, the chapter’s structural analysis shows how firms in the modern European economy work, on a collective level, from within the political...... system to create new institutional structures in the economy. A major social network analysis examines how connectivity in two specific European ‘technology’ platforms’ networks has changed and evolved in relation to researching the solutions to solving major societal problems, and therefore has also...... driven innovation towards new business opportunities. The analysis shows how connectivity and network relations play an important role in innovation, as opposed to arm-length anonymous interactions as presumed in mainstream economic thinking....

  19. Formation of matter-wave soliton trains by modulational instability

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Jason H. V.; Luo MR; Hulet, Randall G.

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear systems can exhibit a rich set of dynamics that are inherently sensitive to their initial conditions. One such example is modulational instability, which is believed to be one of the most prevalent instabilities in nature. By exploiting a shallow zero-crossing of a Feshbach resonance, we characterize modulational instability and its role in the formation of matter-wave soliton trains from a Bose-Einstein condensate. We examine the universal scaling laws exhibited by the system, and ...

  20. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Bose–Einstein Condensation - Birds of a Feather Flock Together. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 46-51. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gas of photons which explained Planck's law for thermal radiation at one ... their first application. Seventy years later they are being used in atomic physics laboratories all over the world. Everybody is talking about Bose-Einstein condensation. This ... distribution of the position of any particle in the gas is a constant function ...

  2. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Bose-Einstein Condensation - Birds of a Feather Flock Together. Rajaram Nityananda. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 142-147. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Modular invariant gaugino condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1991-05-09

    The construction of effective supergravity lagrangians for gaugino condensation is reviewed and recent results are presented that are consistent with modular invariance and yield a positive definite potential of the noscale type. Possible implications for phenomenology are briefly discussed. 29 refs.

  4. Numerical simulation of condensation on structured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowu; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2014-11-25

    Condensation of liquid droplets on solid surfaces happens widely in nature and industrial processes. This phase-change phenomenon has great effect on the performance of some microfluidic devices. On the basis of micro- and nanotechnology, superhydrophobic structured surfaces can be well-fabricated. In this work, the nucleating and growth of droplets on different structured surfaces are investigated numerically. The dynamic behavior of droplets during the condensation is simulated by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which has the ability to incorporate the microscopic interactions, including fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-surface interaction. The results by the LBM show that, besides the chemical properties of surfaces, the topography of structures on solid surfaces influences the condensation process. For superhydrophobic surfaces, the spacing and height of microridges have significant influence on the nucleation sites. This mechanism provides an effective way for prevention of wetting on surfaces in engineering applications. Moreover, it suggests a way to prevent ice formation on surfaces caused by the condensation of subcooled water. For hydrophilic surfaces, however, microstructures may be submerged by the liquid films adhering to the surfaces. In this case, microstructures will fail to control the condensation process. Our research provides an optimized way for designing surfaces for condensation in engineering systems.

  5. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  6. What Matters Most for Education Management Information Systems : A Framework Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Hamid, Husein

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to outline what matters most for an effective education management information system (EMIS). It presents the conceptual background and operational tools for the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-EMIS domain. These tools are intended for use by government education policy makers to assess policy areas of relevance to a country s EMIS against international best practices. This paper begins with an introduction of the domain and the ration...

  7. Forces and stress in second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for condensed phase systems within the resolution-of-identity Gaussian and plane waves approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-09-14

    The forces acting on the atoms as well as the stress tensor are crucial ingredients for calculating the structural and dynamical properties of systems in the condensed phase. Here, these derivatives of the total energy are evaluated for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation energy (MP2) in the framework of the resolution of identity Gaussian and plane waves method, in a way that is fully consistent with how the total energy is computed. This consistency is non-trivial, given the different ways employed to compute Coulomb, exchange, and canonical four center integrals, and allows, for example, for energy conserving dynamics in various ensembles. Based on this formalism, a massively parallel algorithm has been developed for finite and extended system. The designed parallel algorithm displays, with respect to the system size, cubic, quartic, and quintic requirements, respectively, for the memory, communication, and computation. All these requirements are reduced with an increasing number of processes, and the measured performance shows excellent parallel scalability and efficiency up to thousands of nodes. Additionally, the computationally more demanding quintic scaling steps can be accelerated by employing graphics processing units (GPU's) showing, for large systems, a gain of almost a factor two compared to the standard central processing unit-only case. In this way, the evaluation of the derivatives of the RI-MP2 energy can be performed within a few minutes for systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions. With good time to solution, the implementation thus opens the possibility to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in various ensembles (microcanonical ensemble and isobaric-isothermal ensemble) at the MP2 level of theory. Geometry optimization, full cell relaxation, and energy conserving MD simulations have been performed for a variety of molecular crystals including NH3, CO2, formic acid, and benzene.

  8. Simulations of curved assemblies in soft matter and biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Cong

    regularly packed regions with local hexagonal order and vacancies. A similar lattice structure has been observed in experiments in which mutually attractive colloidal particles pack on the surface of a spherical droplet (G. Meng, J. Paulose, D. R. Nelson, and V. N. Manoharan, ''Elastic instability of a crystal growing on a curved surface'', Science 343, 634-637 (2014).), suggesting that the two systems experience a similar form of geometric frustration. We therefore study the adsorption and packing of spherical particles on a spherical template, as a function of the strength and range of interparticle attractions, as well as the radius of the spherical template. We observe that the adsorbed particles form two different classes of packing arrangements, one with icosahedrally ordered topological defects, and the other with highly disordered defects and vacancies. The latter regime is consistent with experiments on colloidal packing on spherical droplets and the immature HIV lattice. Our results suggest that the transition between these regimes is controlled by the range of the interparticle attractions. In the last chapter, we study a model for the assembly and budding of a capsid on a membrane, such as occurs during the exit of the immature HIV virus from a cell. We use a coarse-grained subunit model to represent the capsid proteins, and a fluid membrane model to represent the cell membrane. We find that the size and structure of the assembled capsid depends sensitively on the timescale of budding.

  9. Performance of a passive emergency heat removal system of advanced reactors in two-phase flow and with high concentration of non-condensable; Atuacao de um sistema passivo de remocao de calor de emergencia de reatores avancados em escoamento bifasico e com alta concentracao de nao-condensaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Luiz Alberto

    2008-07-01

    The research and the development of passive emergency cooling systems are necessary for the new generation of thermo-nuclear systems. Some basic information on the operation of these systems require the research of some relative processes to the natural circulation, mainly in conditions of two-phase flow involving processes of condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases, because many found situations are new. The experimental facility called Bancada de Circulacao Natural (BCN) was used for the realization of tests with diverse concentrations of non-condensable and power levels. The non-condensable gas present in the circuit decreases the rate of heat transfer for the secondary of the heat exchanger, determining low efficiency of the heat exchanger. High concentration of non-condensable in the vapor condensation, determines negative pressure, and cause the inversion of the flow in the circuit. The initial concentration of non-condensable and the geometry of the circuit, in the inlet of the heat exchanger, determines the establishment of transitory with two-phase flow. The BCN was performed with the computational code of Analysis of Accidents and Thermal-Hydraulics RELAP5/MOD 3.3 and, the calculated values had been compared with the experimental data, presenting good agreement for small non-condensable concentrations. The values calculated for high concentrations of non-condensable had been satisfactory after the circuit to have reached the temperature of saturation in the electric heater. (author)

  10. Kaon Condensation and Lambda-Nucleon Loop in the Relativistic Mean-Field Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyuki Maruyama; Takumi Muto; Toshitaka Tatsumi; Kazuo Tsushima; Anthony W. Thomas

    2005-02-24

    The possibility of kaon condensation in high-density symmetric nuclear matter is investigated including both s- and p-wave kaon-baryon interactions within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory. Above a certain density, we have a collective K{sub s} state carrying the same quantum numbers as the antikaon. The appearance of the K{sub s} state is caused by the time component of the axial-vector interaction between kaons and baryons. It is shown that the system becomes unstable with respect to condensation of K-Kbar{sub s} pairs. We consider how the effective baryon masses affect the kaon self-energy coming from the time component of the axial-vector interaction. Also, the role of the spatial component of the axial-vector interaction on the possible existence of the collective kaonic states is discussed in connection with Lambda-mixing effects in the ground state of high-density matter. Implications of K-Kbar{sub s} condensation for high-energy heavy-ion collisions are briefly mentioned.

  11. Recovery of condensate water quality in power generator's surface condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Lilik Adib

    2017-03-01

    In PT Badak NGL Plant, steam turbines are used to drive major power generators, compressors, and pumps. Steam exiting the turbines is condensed in surface condensers to be returned to boilers. Therefore, surface condenser performance and quality of condensate water are very important. One of the recent problem was caused by the leak of a surface condenser of Steam Turbine Power Generator. Thesteam turbine was overhauled, leaving the surface condenser idle and exposed to air for more than 1.5 years. Sea water ingress due to tube leaks worsens the corrosionof the condenser shell. The combination of mineral scale and corrosion product resulting high conductivity condensate at outlet condenser when we restarted up, beyond the acceptable limit. After assessing several options, chemical cleaning was the best way to overcome the problem according to condenser configuration. An 8 hour circulation of 5%wt citric acid had succeed reducing water conductivity from 50 μmhos/cm to below 5 μmhos/cm. The condensate water, then meets the required quality, i.e. pH 8.3 - 9.0; conductivity ≤ 5 μmhos/cm, therefore the power generator can be operated normally without any concern until now.

  12. Polymorphism of Lysozyme Condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad S; Byington, Michael C; Conrad, Jacinta C; Vekilov, Peter G

    2017-10-05

    Protein condensates play essential roles in physiological processes and pathological conditions. Recently discovered mesoscopic protein-rich clusters may act as crucial precursors for the nucleation of ordered protein solids, such as crystals, sickle hemoglobin polymers, and amyloid fibrils. These clusters challenge settled paradigms of protein condensation as the constituent protein molecules present features characteristic of both partially misfolded and native proteins. Here we employ the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme and examine the similarities between mesoscopic clusters, amyloid structures, and disordered aggregates consisting of chemically modified protein. We show that the mesoscopic clusters are distinct from the other two classes of aggregates. Whereas cluster formation and amyloid oligomerization are both reversible, aggregation triggered by reduction of the intramolecular S-S bonds is permanent. In contrast to the amyloid structures, protein molecules in the clusters retain their enzymatic activity. Furthermore, an essential feature of the mesoscopic clusters is their constant radius of less than 50 nm. The amyloid and disordered aggregates are significantly larger and rapidly grow. These findings demonstrate that the clusters are a product of limited protein structural flexibility. In view of the role of the clusters in the nucleation of ordered protein solids, our results suggest that fine-tuning the degree of protein conformational stability is a powerful tool to control and direct the pathways of protein condensation.

  13. Increasing the efficiency of the condensing boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, ON; Lapina, EA

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of existing designs of boilers with low power consumption showed that the low efficiency of the latter is due to the fact that they work in most cases when the heating period in the power range is significantly less than the nominal power. At the same time, condensing boilers do not work in the most optimal mode (in condensing mode) in the central part of Russia, a significant part of their total operating time during the heating season. This is due to existing methods of equipment selection and joint operation with heating systems with quantitative control of the coolant. It was also revealed that for the efficient operation of the heating system, it is necessary to reduce the inertia of the heat generating equipment. Theoretical patterns of thermal processes in the furnace during combustion gas at different radiating surfaces location schemes considering the influence of the very furnace configuration, characterized in that to reduce the work condensing boiler in conventional gas boiler operation is necessary to maintain a higher temperature in the furnace (in the part where spiral heat exchangers are disposed), which is possible when redistributing heat flow - increase the proportion of radiant heat from the secondary burner emitter allow Perey For the operation of the condensing boiler in the design (condensation) mode practically the entire heating period.

  14. Soft matter's charismatic pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Tom

    2012-11-01

    This summer I took a break from lecturing at a graduate training school in Boulder, Colorado, to attend a talk by the soft-condensed-matter physicist David Weitz. His lecture was about colloids, and in the middle of it, he began to reminisce about the field's early days.

  15. 50 years of the Condensed Matter Physics Research Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 November 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) commemorating the 50th anniversary of the RAS Scientific Council on Physics of Condensed Media took place on 9 November 2011 at the conference hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute of the RAS.The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Kveder V V (Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "50th anniversary of the RAS Scientific Council on Physics of Condensed Media"; (2) Vul' A Ya (A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, RAS, St.Petersburg) "Carbon nanostructures: from fullerenes to graphene. Achievements and unsolved problems"; (3) Glezer A M (Bardin Central Research Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, Moscow) "Development of new-generation multifunctional structural materials: guiding principles"; (4) Pyatakov A P (M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow; A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Magnetoelectric phenomena and micromagnetism".The paper that follows is based on the oral report 3. The contents of report 4 are presented in expanded form in the review by A P Pyatakov and A K Zvezdin, "Magnetoelectric and multiferroic materials", which will be published in one of the later issues of Physics-Uspekhi. • Creation principles of new-generation multifunctional structural materials, A M Glezer Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 5, Pages 522-529

  16. Neutral Kaon System in Dense Matter and Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, G; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Kapusta, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Above a critical matter density the propagating modes of the neutral kaon system are essentially eigenstates of strangeness, but below it they are almost complete eigenstates of CP. We estimate the real and imaginary parts of the energies of these modes and their mixing at all densities up to nuclear matter density $2\\times 10^{14}$ g/cm$^3$. In a heavy ion collision the strong interactions create eigenstates of strangeness, and these propagate adiabatically until the density has fallen to the critical value, whereupon the system undergoes a sudden transition to (near) eigenstates of CP. We estimate the critical density to be 20 g/cm$^3$, and that this density will be reached about $2\\times 10^5$ fm/c after the end of the collision.

  17. Quantum physics of light and matter photons, atoms, and strongly correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salasnich, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This compact but exhaustive textbook, now in its significantly revised and expanded second edition, provides an essential introduction to the field quantization of light and matter with applications to atomic physics and strongly correlated systems. Following an initial review of the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics, individual chapters are devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field and the consequences of light field quantization for the description of electromagnetic transitions. The spin of the electron is then analyzed, with particular attention to its derivation from the Dirac equation. Subsequent topics include the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra and the properties of systems composed of many interacting identical particles. The book also provides a detailed explanation of the second quantization of the non-relativistic matter field, i.e., the Schrödinger field, which offers a powerful tool for the investigation of many-body...

  18. Organic matter and heavy metals content modeling in sewage sludge treated with reed bed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruszko, Dariusz; Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Malinowski, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    The long process of sludge stabilization (7-15 years) remarkably reduces the organic matter content and causes the process of sludge humifaction. This paper presents the results of using low-cost methods of sludge treatment in the wastewater treatment plant located in Zambrow, Podlaskie Province. The results of studies on the organic matter and heavy metals content in sewage sludge after treatment in a reed bed system are presented. The aim of the research was to evaluate and model organic matter and heavy metals concentrations during sewage stabilization in reed bed lagoons. The lowest concentration, below 1.3 mg/kg DM of the examined seven heavy metals was mercury (Hg). The highest concentration, exceeding 1300 mg/kg DM was zinc (Zn). The obtained results for the heavy metals in sewage sludge from the reed bed lagoons in Zambrow show that the average content of the analyzed heavy metals is approximately 1620 mg/kg DM. The results of the study demonstrate a high efficiency of low-cost methods used in Zambrów WWTP in terms of the quality of the processed sludge. Sewage sludge from the lowest layer of the reed lagoon (12-14 years of dewatering and transformation) is characterized by the lowest organic matter and heavy metals content. The higher a sediment layer lies, i.e. the shorter the time of processing, the higher is the heavy metals content. This indicates a great role of reeds in the accumulation of these compounds.

  19. Enhanced tubes for steam condensers. Volume 1, Summary of condensation and fouling; Volume 2, Detailed study of steam condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, R.L.; Chamra, L.; Jaber, H.

    1992-02-01

    Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This ``enhanced`` tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to the test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes.

  20. f(R) theories of gravity with coupling between matter and geometry in autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Gui, Ruoyu; Qiu, Wenjun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a general approach has been introduced to investigate f(R) theories of gravity with coupling between matter and geometry via autonomous system, where there is no need to specify the arbitrary function of the scalar curvature. By this way, we find the general condition for the cosmic accelerated expansion. Moreover, in order to exemplify how to use our method to study specific cases, we applied it to three different models.

  1. Self-Gravitating Bose-Einstein Condensates and the Thomas-Fermi Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor T. Toth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC have been proposed in various astrophysical contexts, including Bose-stars and BEC dark matter halos. These systems are described by a combination of the Gross-Pitaevskii and Poisson equations (the GPP system. In the analysis of these hypothetical objects, the Thomas-Fermi (TF approximation is widely used. This approximation is based on the assumption that in the presence of a large number of particles, the kinetic term in the Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional can be neglected, yet it is well known that this assumption is violated near the condensate surface. We also show that the total energy of the self-gravitating condensate in the TF-approximation is positive. The stability of a self-gravitating system is dependent on the total energy being negative. Therefore, the TF-approximation is ill suited to formulate initial conditions in numerical simulations. As an alternative, we offer an approximate solution of the full GPP system.

  2. Explorations of Magnetic Phases in F = 1 Rubidium-87 Spinor Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Jennie Sara

    Spinor Bose Einstein condensates have widely been sought after as perfect emulators of condensed matter phenomena, providing widely tunable and highly controlled systems. Utilizing a novel spin sensitive phase contrast imaging technique, the vector magnetization is measured in-situ with high spatial and temporal resolution and applied to a number of experiments. Using optically trapped F = 1 87Rb spinor condensates, the equilibrium phase diagram of a spin-1 Bose gas is quantitatively explored by observing the evolution of unmagnetized spin textures and their thermal equilibrium properties. Spin domain coarsening and a strong dependence of the spin configuration on the quadratic Zeeman shift is observed, supporting the predicted mean-field equilibrium phase diagram for small values of the quadratic shift. Additionally, spinor Bose gases are demonstrated to be an effective tool in calibrating and characterizing experimental imaging systems. Sinusoidal test patterns of varying pitch are created and used to extract the modulation transfer function and quantify optical aberrations which are of immense importance in systems which claim to have high spatial resolution. Lastly we realize an optical kagome geometry in a two-dimensional optical superlattice with a scalar Bose gases. The optical superlattice can be tuned between various geometries, including kagome, one-dimensional stripe, and decorated triangular lattice. Using atom optics we characterize the various geometries and demonstrate the versatility of this optical superlattice. The kagome geometry presents a new experimental arena for studies of geometrically frustrated systems.

  3. Vortex reconnections in atomic condensates at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A. J.; Zuccher, S.; Caliari, M.; Proukakis, N. P.; Parker, N. G.; Barenghi, C. F.

    2014-07-01

    The study of vortex reconnections is an essential ingredient of understanding superfluid turbulence, a phenomenon recently also reported in trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. In this work we show that, despite the established dependence of vortex motion on temperature in such systems, vortex reconnections are actually temperature independent on the typical length and time scales of atomic condensates. Our work is based on a dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate, coupled to a semiclassical Boltzmann equation for the thermal cloud (the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin formalism). Comparison to vortex reconnections in homogeneous condensates further shows reconnections to be insensitive to the inhomogeneity in the background density.

  4. Bose-Einstein condensation as an alternative to inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Saurya

    2015-01-01

    It was recently shown that gravitons with a very small mass should have formed a Bose-Einstein condensate in the very early Universe, whose density and quantum potential can account for the dark matter and dark energy in the Universe respectively. Here we show that the condensation can also naturally explain the observed large scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe. Furthermore gravitons continue to fall into their ground state within the condensate at every epoch, accounting for the observed flatness of space at cosmological distances scales. Finally, we argue that the density perturbations due to quantum fluctuations within the condensate give rise to a scale invariant spectrum. This therefore provides a viable alternative to inflation, which is not associated with the well-known problems associated with the latter.

  5. Gravitino Condensates in the Early Universe and Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the formation of gravitino condensates via the super-Higgs effect in the early Universe. This is a scenario for both inflating the early universe and breaking local supersymmetry (supergravity), entirely independent of any coupling to external matter. The goldstino mode associated with the breaking of (global) supersymmetry is "eaten" by the gravitino field, which becomes massive (via its own vacuum condensation) and breaks the local supersymmetry (supergravity) dynamically. The most natural association of gravitino condensates with inflation proceeds in an indirect way, via a Starobinsky-inflation-type phase. The higher-order curvature corrections of the (quantum) effective action of gravitino condensates induced by integrating out massive gravitino degrees of freedom in a curved space-time background, in the broken-supergravity phase, are responsible for inducing a scalar mode which inflates the Universe. The scenario is in agreement with Planck data phenomenology in a natural and phenomen...

  6. Brief History of Ultra-light Scalar Dark Matter Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Weon

    2018-01-01

    dark matter, BEC dark matter, wave dark matter, or ultra-light axion. In this model ultra-light scalar dark matter particles with mass m = O(10-22eV condense in a single Bose-Einstein condensate state and behave collectively like a classical wave. Galactic dark matter halos can be described as a self-gravitating coherent scalar field configuration called boson stars. At the scale larger than galaxies the dark matter acts like cold dark matter, while below the scale quantum pressure from the uncertainty principle suppresses the smaller structure formation so that it can resolve the small scale crisis of the conventional cold dark matter model.

  7. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  8. Bose–Einstein condensation: Where many become one and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Bose–Einstein condensation and superfluidity are well known to occur in the dilute gaseous as well as in the dense liquid state of matter having a fixed number of. Bose particles. Very recently, experimental evidence has been obtained for the probable realization of BEC and superfluidity in 4He in the solid state ...

  9. Bose–Einstein condensation: Where many become one and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bose–Einstein condensation and superfluidity are well known to occur in the dilute gaseous as well as in the dense liquid state of matter having a fixed number of Bose particles. Very recently, experimental evidence has been obtained for the probable realization of BEC and superfluidity in 4He in the solid state too, ...

  10. Coherence vs. decoherence in (some) problems of condensed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present an `overview' of coherence-to-decoherence transition in certain selected problems of condensed matter physics. Our treatment is based on a subsystem-plus-environment approach. All the examples chosen in this paper have one thing in common – the environmental degrees of freedom are taken to be bosonic ...

  11. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering study of dynamics in condensed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2017 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.

  12. DNA condensation in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardatscher, Günther; Bracha, Dan; Daube, Shirley S; Vonshak, Ohad; Simmel, Friedrich C; Bar-Ziv, Roy H

    2016-12-01

    DNA can be programmed to assemble into a variety of shapes and patterns on the nanoscale and can act as a template for hybrid nanostructures such as conducting wires, protein arrays and field-effect transistors. Current DNA nanostructures are typically in the sub-micrometre range, limited by the sequence space and length of the assembled strands. Here we show that on a patterned biochip, DNA chains collapse into one-dimensional (1D) fibres that are 20 nm wide and around 70 µm long, each comprising approximately 35 co-aligned chains at its cross-section. Electron beam writing on a photocleavable monolayer was used to immobilize and pattern the DNA molecules, which condense into 1D bundles in the presence of spermidine. DNA condensation can propagate and split at junctions, cross gaps and create domain walls between counterpropagating fronts. This system is inherently adept at solving probabilistic problems and was used to find the possible paths through a maze and to evaluate stochastic switching circuits. This technique could be used to propagate biological or ionic signals in combination with sequence-specific DNA nanotechnology or for gene expression in cell-free DNA compartments.

  13. Structure of vacuum Cu-Ta condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, A. I.; Zubarev, E. N.; Sobol', O. V.; Hlushchenko, M. A.; Lutsenko, E. V.

    2017-02-01

    The structure of vacuum condensate foils (separated from substrates) of the binary Cu-Ta system has been investigated both in the initial condensed state and after annealings at temperatures of up to 1000°C. It has been shown that the alloying of a vapor flow of the matrix metal (copper) with tantalum to 0.5 at % makes it possible to reduce the grain size from 3 μm to 50 nm. Depending on the tantalum concentration, condensates exhibit a broad spectrum of structural states, i.e., single- and two-phase, a supersaturated solution of tantalum in the fcc lattice of copper, etc. The structure of the objects possesses a high thermal stability. The temperature of the start of grain growth in the copper matrix depends on the tantalum content and can reach 900°C. The dispersion of the structure of copper condensates and its thermal stability is due to the formation of segregates of tantalum atoms at the boundaries of grains of the copper matrix both in the process of condensation and upon subsequent annealing.

  14. The Impacts of Agricultural Land Use on Dissolved Organic Matter in a Dryland River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Van Horn, D. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, expanding agriculture is significantly impacting aquatic nutrient cycles. In mesic systems, agriculture is a source of nitrogen and phosphorus and increases concentrations of structurally simple dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, recent studies suggest in dryland systems, where wastewater effluent is a primary nutrient source, agriculture is a nutrient sink—retaining nitrogen and phosphorous. Importantly, very little, is known about the influence of agriculture on DOC dynamics in dryland systems. To address this gap we used synoptic sampling, UV-absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy to elucidate source, character, and concentration of riverine and runoff DOC in a dryland agricultural system. Samples were collected along a 25 km stretch of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico (USA). The Rio Grande is an impoundment/irrigation-withdrawal controlled river that receives water from snowmelt, monsoonal storms, and wastewater effluent. During irrigation approximately 80% of the river's water is diverted into a manmade network where it waters crops and percolates through the soil before it enters a series of drains that return water to the river. Our preliminary characterization of the DOC reentering the river (DOCmean=3.23 mg/L, sd=0.81; SUVAmean=4.05, sd=1.37) indicates the agricultural pool is similar in concentration and aromaticity to riverine DOC (DOCmean= 3.10 mg/L, sd=1.17; SUVAmean= 4.64, sd=1.12). However, riverine organic matter is more terrestrially derived (FImean=1.68, sd=0.17) than organic matter in the drains (FImean=1.9, sd=0.24). Additionally, drains directly adjacent to actively irrigated fields show high concentrations (DOCmean=58.35; sd=0.91) of low aromaticity organic matter (SUVAmean=0.33; sd=0.11). We are continuing analysis throughout the irrigation season to further explore organic matter quality (traits such as bioavailability and freshness) and identify locations and processes of DOC transformation within the system

  15. Formation Time of a Fermion Pair Condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Zwierlein, M. W.; Schunck, C. H.; Stan, C. A.; Raupach, S. M. F.; Ketterle, W.

    2004-01-01

    The formation time of a condensate of fermionic atom pairs close to a Feshbach resonance was studied. This was done using a phase-shift method in which the delayed response of the many-body system to a modulation of the interaction strength was recorded. The observable was the fraction of condensed molecules in the cloud after a rapid magnetic field ramp across the Feshbach resonance. The measured response time was slow compared to the rapid ramp, which provides final proof that the molecular...

  16. Myelin peroxisomes - essential organelles for the maintenance of white matter in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassmann, Celia M

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisomes are cellular compartments primarily associated with lipid metabolism. Most cell types, including nervous system cells, harbor several hundred of these organelles. The importance of peroxisomes for central nervous system white matter is evidenced by a variety of human peroxisomal disorders with neurological impairment frequently involving the white matter. Moreover, the most frequent childhood white matter disease, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, is a peroxisomal disorder. During the past decade advances in imaging techniques have enabled the identification of peroxisomes within the myelin sheath, especially close to nodes of Ranvier. Although the function of myelin peroxisomes is not solved yet on molecular level, recently acquired knowledge suggests a central role for these organelles in axo-glial metabolism. This review focuses on the biology of myelin peroxisomes as well as on the pathology of myelin and myelinated axons that is observed as a consequence of partial or complete peroxisomal dysfunction in the brain. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  17. Confinement Contains Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  18. Nanocarbon condensation in detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastea, Sorin

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the definition of the Gibbs free energy of a nanoparticle in a reactive fluid environment, and propose an approach for predicting the size of carbon nanoparticles produced by the detonation of carbon-rich explosives that regards their condensation as a nucleation process and takes into account absolute entropy effects of the cluster population. The results are consistent with experimental observations and indicate that such entropy considerations are important for determining chemical equilibrium states in energetic materials that contain an excess of carbon. The analysis may be useful for other applications that deal with the nucleation of nanoparticles under reactive conditions.

  19. Prognostic Role of Exhaled Breath Condensate pH and Fraction Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Systemic Sclerosis Related Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen-Del Castillo, Alfredo; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Simeón-Aznar, Carmen P; Cruz, María J; Fonollosa-Pla, Vicente; Muñoz, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the major causes of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This study investigated exhaled breath (EB) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) biomarkers in patients with SSc and analyzed their role as a prognostic tool in SSc-related ILD. Fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) measured in EB, together with pH, nitrite, nitrate and interleukin-6 levels measured in EBC were prospectively analyzed in 35 patients with SSc. Twelve patients had established ILD by chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and 23 patients showed no evidence of ILD. EB and EBC biomarkers were determined at inclusion, and pulmonary function tests were annually performed during 4 years of follow-up. No differences at baseline biomarkers levels were found between groups. In all patients studied, low EBC pH levels were associated with a decreased diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) during follow-up. Low FeNO levels were correlated with lower forced vital capacity (FVC) at baseline, 4years of follow-up and with a decrease in FVC and DLCO during monitoring. Among ILD patients, high eCO levels were correlated with lower baseline FVC. In the global cohort, a worse progression-free survival was identified in patients with EBC pH values lower than 7.88 and FeNO levels lower than 10.75ppb (Log Rank P=.03 and P<.01, respectively). EB and EBC could help to detect patients likely to present a deterioration on lung function during follow up. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Heterogeneity of organic matter distribution in relation to a transgressive systems tract: Kimmeridge Clay (Jurassic), England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbin, J.P.; Muller, C. (Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)); Geyssant, J.; Melieres, F.; Penn, I.

    1991-03-01

    The Kimmeridge clay has been drilled in four continuously cored boreholes put down to sample the organic carbon content of the formation. Three of them sited in the Cleveland basin (Yorkshire) prove over 200 m of strata ranging from Mutabilis to Pectinatus zones; the fourth, completing a 35 km transect, proves the lower part of the Kimmeridge clay of the thinner Eastern England shelf. The results show the total organic carbon content (TOC) increasing by 50% when traced from shelf into the basin where deeper bathymetry and more rapid sedimentation have favored preservation of organic matter. The study of stratigraphical variation of % TOC enables evaluation of fundamental problems of these cycles in which organic matter is one of the major constituents. Such cycles exist throughout the Jurassic and Lower-Middle Cretaceous sequences but a transgressive systems tract such as that of the Kimmeridgian Stage enables the phenomenon to be studied in detail.

  1. Creating, imaging, and exploiting collective excitations of a multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olf, Ryan Ewy

    Ultracold atomic gas systems provide a remarkably versatile platform for studying a wide range of physical phenomena, from analogue particle physics and gravity, to the emergence of subtle and profound order in many body and condensed matter systems. In addition, ultracold atomic gas systems can be used to perform a range of precision measurements, from time keeping to variations in the fine structure constant. In this dissertation, I describe our efforts to build a new apparatus capable testing a range of techniques for performing precision measurements in a magnetic storage ring for cold, possibly Bose-condensed, lithium and rubidium atoms. Next, I briefly touch upon our explorations of spin vortices in a ferromagnetic rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate before presenting an exhaustive account of our work using free-particle-like magnon excitations of the ferromagnetic gas to cool it and measure its temperature in a never-before-seen regime of low entropy. Using magnons as a thermometer, we measure temperatures as low as one nanokelvin in gases with an entropy per particle of about one thousandth of the Boltzmann constant, 0.001 kB. I conclude by presenting the details of our procedure for calculating the entropy of our coldest, lowest entropy gases in the regime where the local density approximation does not apply.

  2. CFD simulation on condensation inside a Hybrid SIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byong Guk; Ryu, Sung Uk; Kim, Seok; Euh, Dong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The concept of Hybrid Safety Injection Tank system (Hybrid SIT) was proposed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) aiming at Advanced Power Reactor Plus. The main advantage of the system is the ready injection of coolant into the reactor coolant system at high pressure. In this paper, a CFD simulation is conducted as a preliminary study. In Hybrid SITs, condensation inside the tank affects its pressure rise and injection time. In an attempt to explore the condensation in detail, we manufactured a dedicated experimental facility for visualization of condensation-induced thermal mixing and conducted a preliminary CFD simulation. Its condensation models were validated first and then computational domain was constructed. The water region was modeled as a solid for stable calculation. The CFD results gave less condensation and excessive pressurization because of lack of steam penetration into the water. In the future, the water region will be modeled as liquid using a VOF model.

  3. Exciton condensation in strongly correlated electron bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, Louk; van den Brink, J.; Zaanen, Jan; Hilgenkamp, H.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the possibility of exciton condensation in Mott insulating bilayers. In these strongly correlated systems, an exciton is the bound state of a double occupied and empty site. In the strong coupling limit, the exciton acts as a hard-core boson. Its physics is captured by the exciton t -J

  4. Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleo, Giuseppe; Tarzia, Marco; Zamponi, Francesco

    2009-11-20

    The role of geometrical frustration in strongly interacting bosonic systems is studied with a combined numerical and analytical approach. We demonstrate the existence of a novel quantum phase featuring both Bose-Einstein condensation and spin-glass behavior. The differences between such a phase and the otherwise insulating "Bose glasses" are elucidated.

  5. rotor of the SC rotating condenser

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The rotor of the rotating condenser was installed instead of the tuning fork as the modulating element of the radiofrequency system, when the SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements between 1973 to 1975 (see object AC-025). The SC was the first accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990.

  6. Temporal dynamics of Bose-condensed gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Martinez, Mauricio

    2014-03-19

    We perform a detailed quantum dynamical study of non-equilibrium trapped, interacting Bose-condensed gases. We investigate Josephson oscillations between interacting Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a finite size double-well trap and the non-trivial time evolution of a coherent state placed at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice. For the Josephson oscillations three time scales appear. We find that Josephson junction can sustain multiple undamped oscillations up to a characteristic time scale τ{sub c} without exciting atoms out of the condensates. Beyond the characteristic time scale τ{sub c} the dynamics of the junction are governed by fast, non-condensed particles assisted Josephson tunnelling as well as the collisions between non-condensed particles. In the non-condensed particles dominated regime we observe strong damping of the oscillations due to inelastic collisions, equilibrating the system leading to an effective loss of details of the initial conditions. In addition, we predict that an initially self-trapped BEC state will be destroyed by these fast dynamics. The time evolution of a coherent state released at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice shows a ballistic expansion with a decreasing expansion velocity for increasing two-body interactions strength and particle number. Additionally, we predict that if the two-body interactions strength exceeds a certain value, a forerunner splits up from the expanding coherent state. We also observe that this system, which is prepared far from equilibrium, can evolve to a quasistationary non-equilibrium state.

  7. Cytoskeletal Reorganization Drives Mesenchymal Condensation and Regulates Downstream Molecular Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Poulomi; Chapman, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal condensation occurs when specified mesenchyme cells self-organize over several days to form a distinctive cartilage template. Here, we determine how and when specified mesenchyme cells integrate mechanical and molecular information from their environment, forming cartilage condensations in the pharyngeal arches of chick embryos. By disrupting cytoskeletal reorganization, we demonstrate that dynamic cell shape changes drive condensation and modulate the response of the condensing cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways. Rho Kinase (ROCK)-driven actomyosin contractions and Myosin II-generated differential cell cortex tension regulate these cell shape changes. Disruption of the condensation process inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme cells into chondrocytes, demonstrating that condensation regulates the fate of the mesenchyme cells. We also find that dorsal and ventral condensations undergo distinct cell shape changes. BMP signaling is instructive for dorsal condensation-specific cell shape changes. Moreover, condensations exhibit ventral characteristics in the absence of BMP signaling, suggesting that in the pharyngeal arches ventral morphology is the ground pattern. Overall, this study characterizes the interplay between cytoskeletal dynamics and molecular signaling in a self-organizing system during tissue morphogenesis.

  8. Cytoskeletal Reorganization Drives Mesenchymal Condensation and Regulates Downstream Molecular Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulomi Ray

    Full Text Available Skeletal condensation occurs when specified mesenchyme cells self-organize over several days to form a distinctive cartilage template. Here, we determine how and when specified mesenchyme cells integrate mechanical and molecular information from their environment, forming cartilage condensations in the pharyngeal arches of chick embryos. By disrupting cytoskeletal reorganization, we demonstrate that dynamic cell shape changes drive condensation and modulate the response of the condensing cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β signaling pathways. Rho Kinase (ROCK-driven actomyosin contractions and Myosin II-generated differential cell cortex tension regulate these cell shape changes. Disruption of the condensation process inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme cells into chondrocytes, demonstrating that condensation regulates the fate of the mesenchyme cells. We also find that dorsal and ventral condensations undergo distinct cell shape changes. BMP signaling is instructive for dorsal condensation-specific cell shape changes. Moreover, condensations exhibit ventral characteristics in the absence of BMP signaling, suggesting that in the pharyngeal arches ventral morphology is the ground pattern. Overall, this study characterizes the interplay between cytoskeletal dynamics and molecular signaling in a self-organizing system during tissue morphogenesis.

  9. Observation of Half-Quantum Vortices in an Exciton-Polariton Condensate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K. G. Lagoudakis; T. Ostatnický; A. V. Kavokin; Y. G. Rubo; R. André; B. Deveaud-Plédran

    2009-01-01

    Singly quantized vortices have already been observed in many systems, including the superfluid helium, Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases, and condensates of exciton-polaritons in the solid state...

  10. Direct and indirect effects of particulate matter on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Timothy D; Joseph, Allan M; Gorr, Matthew W; Wold, Loren E

    2012-02-05

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peculiarities of structure state and mechanical characteristics in ion-plasma condensates of quasibinary system borides W2B5-TiB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobol O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to create high-durable, wear-resistant materials for a wide range of functional applications, comparative investigations of the structure and mechanical characteristics of ion-plasma Ti-W-B nano-crystalline condensates were carried out. The range of condensation rates 0.11÷0.25nm/s was found to be critical for the coatings obtained from the target with 80 vol% W2B5-20 vol% TiB2. Below this, a phase with a cubic lattice (W,TiB0.7…1.2(O,N,C0.3…0.2 formed, while over this range, a solid solution (W,TiB2 with a hexagonal lattice and element composition close to the sputtered target was observed. The structure state of the material changed from cluster-crystalline (under low sputter potentials U=0.6…1.0 kV to textured- crystalline (under U>2.2 kV. Structure perfection improvement with U increase results in higher hardness and elastic modulus of condensates. The conditions of cluster component formation and its effect on hardness and elastic modulus of condensates are discussed. .

  12. Modification of ruminal fermentation and methane production by adding legumes containing condensed tannins to an orchardgrass diet in continuous culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condensed tannins (CT) can alter ruminal fermentation and enteric methane (CH4) production in ruminants; however, research is lacking on how increased CT levels affect nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, bacterial protein synthesis, fatty acid (FA) profiles, protozoal popul...

  13. Grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Zhenchang; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhaohui; Yan, Fei; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Previous studies have shown brain reorganizations after early deprivation of auditory sensory. However, changes of grey matter connectivity have not been investigated in prelingually deaf adolescents yet. In the present study, we aimed to investigate changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Methods: We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents and 16 age-and gender-matched normal controls, and extracted the grey matter volume as the structural characteristic from 14 regions of interest involved in auditory, language or visual processing to investigate the changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems. Sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) was utilized to construct grey matter connectivity between these brain regions. Results: The results show that prelingually deaf adolescents present weaker grey matter connectivity within auditory and visual systems, and connectivity between language and visual systems declined. Notably, significantly increased brain connectivity was found between auditory and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Conclusions: Our results indicate “cross-modal” plasticity after deprivation of the auditory input in prelingually deaf adolescents, especially between auditory and visual systems. Besides, auditory deprivation and visual deficits might affect the connectivity pattern within language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. PMID:25698109

  14. Loss of superhydrophobicity of hydrophobic micro/nano structures during condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, HangJin; Hwang, Kyung Won; Kim, DongHyun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan; Ahn, Ho Seon

    2015-04-23

    Condensed liquid behavior on hydrophobic micro/nano-structured surfaces is a subject with multiple practical applications, but remains poorly understood. In particular, the loss of superhydrophobicity of hydrophobic micro/nanostructures during condensation, even when the same surface shows water-repellant characteristics when exposed to air, requires intensive investigation to improve and apply our understanding of the fundamental physics of condensation. Here, we postulate the criterion required for condensation to form from inside the surface structures by examining the grand potentials of a condensation system, including the properties of the condensed liquid and the conditions required for condensation. The results imply that the same hydrophobic micro/nano-structured surface could exhibit different liquid droplet behavior depending on the conditions. Our findings are supported by the observed phenomena: the initiation of a condensed droplet from inside a hydrophobic cavity, the apparent wetted state changes, and the presence of sticky condensed droplets on the hydrophobic micro/nano-structured surface.

  15. Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from saline wastewater in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2013-01-01

    A new bioelectrochemical system is proposed for simultaneous removal of salinity and organic matter. In this process, exoelectrogenic microorganisms oxidize organic matter and transfer electrons to the anode, hydrogen is evolved at the cathode by supplying additional voltage, and salt is removed from the wastewater due to the electric potential generated and the use of two ion-exchange membranes. Salinity removal (initial conductivity ~40mS/cm) increased from 21 to 84% by increasing the substrate (sodium acetate) from 2 to 8g/L. A total of 72-94% of the chemical oxygen demand was degraded in the anode and cathode chambers, with 1-4% left in the anode chamber and the balance lost through the anion-exchange membrane into the concentrate waste chamber. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 3.6m3-H2/m3-electrolyte per day at an applied potential of 1.2V. The Coulombic efficiency was ~100%, while the cathode recovery varied from 57 to 100%, depending on the extent of methanogenesis. Exoelectrogenic microbes generated high current densities (7.8mA/cm2) at ≤36g/L of total dissolved solids, but >41g/L eliminated current. These results provide a new method for achieving simultaneous removal of salinity and organic matter from a saline wastewater with H2 production. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Charged ρ Meson Condensate in Neutron Stars within RMF Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Maslov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the equation of state (EoS of cold and dense baryonic matter is essential for the description of properties of neutron stars (NSs. With an increase of the density, new baryon species can appear in NS matter, as well as various meson condensates. In previous works, we developed relativistic mean-field (RMF models with hyperons and Δ -isobars, which passed the majority of known experimental constraints, including the existence of a 2 M ⊙ neutron star. In this contribution, we present results of the inclusion of ρ − -meson condensation into these models. We have shown that, in one class of the models (so-called KVOR-based models, in which the additional stiffening procedure is introduced in the isoscalar sector, the condensation gives only a small contribution to the EoS. In another class of the models (MKVOR-based models with additional stiffening in isovector sector, the condensation can lead to a first-order phase transition and a substantial decrease of the NS mass. Nevertheless, in all resulting models, the condensation does not spoil the description of the experimental constraints.

  17. Dry matter intake, performance and carcass characteristics of hair sheep reared under different grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues Ventolin dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different grazing systems: isolated, alternate and simultaneous, on feed intake, performance and carcass characteristics of sheep. About 5.2 ha area of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cultivate Tanzania was divided into 13 paddocks. This area was used as a stocking rate of two animal units (AU per ha for 7 days’ occupation and 21 days rest. A total number of 58 animals were used consisting of 12 heifers and 30 Santa Ines lambs with the addition of 16 adult ewes that were used to stabilize grazing pressure in the isolated system. The sheep were fed on 200 g per head per day of concentrate and cattle 2 kg per head per day. The parameters determined were the following: weekly weight (WW, total live weight gain (LWG and mean daily weight gain (MDW. Also dry matter intake was estimated 84 days after the start of the experiment using external indicators (Purified and Enriched Lignin in addition to carcass traits and composition which were also estimated. The result obtained for carcass composition revealed that the muscle:bone ratio and bone percentage were better in the alternate system. Moreover, the simultaneous and isolated systems showed higher lamb performance than the alternate system, while there was no effect on dry matter intake. Furthermore, there was no difference of the different systems on carcass traits and feed intake of sheep. Nevertheless, the simultaneous grazing system showed better sheep performance than the alternate grazing system.

  18. CALIS - a CALibration Insertion System for the DarkSide-50 dark matter search experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2012-12-28

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, commissioning and use of a CALibration source Insertion System (CALIS) in the DarkSide-50 direct dark matter search experiment. CALIS deploys radioactive sources into the liquid scintillator veto to characterize the detector response and detection efficiency of the DarkSide-50 Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber, and the surrounding 30 t organic liquid scintillator neutron veto. It was commissioned in September 2014 and has been used successfully in several gamma and neutron source campaigns since then. A description of the hardware and an excerpt of calibration analysis results are given below.

  19. Granulometric and oxidizable carbon fractions of soil organic matter in crop-livestock integration systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wanderlei Bieluczyk; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Roni Fernandes Guareschi; João Andrade Bonetti; Vanessa Aparecida Freó; Eduardo Carvalho Silva Neto

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the labile and recalcitrant forms of soil organic matter (SOM) allows to rapidly define, or even predict if the management used favors increments or losses of carbon in the soil. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the effects of different grazing intensities and soybean crops on the oxidizable and granulometric fractions of the SOM in a crop-livestock integration combined with no-tillage system (CLI-NTS), established in 2009 in the Goiás Federal University. T...

  20. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.