WorldWideScience

Sample records for condensed matter systems

  1. Quasiparticles in condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfle, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Quasiparticles are a powerful concept of condensed matter quantum theory. In this review, the appearence and the properties of quasiparticles are presented in a unifying perspective. The principles behind the existence of quasiparticle excitations in both quantum disordered and ordered phases of fermionic and bosonic systems are discussed. The lifetime of quasiparticles is considered in particular near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, when the nature of quasiparticles on both sides of a transition into an ordered state changes. A new concept of critical quasiparticles near a quantum critical point is introduced, and applied to quantum phase transitions in heavy fermion metals. Fractional quasiparticles in systems of restricted dimensionality are reviewed. Dirac quasiparticles emerging in so-called Dirac materials are discussed. The more recent discoveries of topologically protected chiral quasiparticles in topological matter and Majorana quasiparticles in topological superconductors are briefly reviewed.

  2. Holographic techniques for condensed matter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Chistopher

    2009-01-01

    Full text. Gauge/gravity duality, a concept which emerged from string theory, holds promise for revealing the secrets of certain strongly interacting real world condensed matter systems. Historically, string theorists presented their subject as a promising framework for a quantum theory of gravity. More recently, the AdS/CFT correspondence and gauge/gravity dualities have emerged as powerful tools for using what we already know about gravity to investigate the properties of strongly interacting field theories. In this colloquium, I will survey recent developments where black holes are used to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of quantum critical systems, superconductors, superfluids, and fermions at unitarity. (author)

  3. A duality web in condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen-Te

    2018-03-01

    We study various dualities in condensed matter systems. The dualities in three dimensions can be derived from a conjecture of a duality between a Dirac fermion theory and an interacting scalar field theory at a Wilson-Fisher fixed point and zero temperature in three dimensions. We show that the dualities are not affected by non-trivial holonomy, use a mean-field method to study the dualities, and discuss the dualities at a finite temperature. Finally, we combine a bulk theory, which is an Abelian p-form theory with a theta term in 2 p + 2 dimensions, and a boundary theory, which is a 2 p + 1 dimensional theory, to discuss constraints and difficulties of a 2 p + 1 dimensional duality web.

  4. Quantum simulation of strongly correlated condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, W.; Qin, T.

    2018-04-01

    We review recent experimental and theoretical progress in realizing and simulating many-body phases of ultracold atoms in optical lattices, which gives access to analog quantum simulations of fundamental model Hamiltonians for strongly correlated condensed matter systems, such as the Hubbard model. After a general introduction to quantum gases in optical lattices, their preparation and cooling, and measurement techniques for relevant observables, we focus on several examples, where quantum simulations of this type have been performed successfully during the past years: Mott-insulator states, itinerant quantum magnetism, disorder-induced localization and its interplay with interactions, and topological quantum states in synthetic gauge fields.

  5. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  6. Condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The condensed matter physics research in the Physics Department of Risoe National Laboratory is predominantly experimental utilising diffraction of neutrons and x-rays. The research topics range from studies of structure, excitations and phase transitions in model systems to studies of ion transport, texture and recrystallization kinetics with a more applied nature. (author)

  7. Topology in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, M I

    2006-01-01

    This book reports new results in condensed matter physics for which topological methods and ideas are important. It considers, on the one hand, recently discovered systems such as carbon nanocrystals and, on the other hand, new topological methods used to describe more traditional systems such as the Fermi surfaces of normal metals, liquid crystals and quasicrystals. The authors of the book are renowned specialists in their fields and present the results of ongoing research, some of it obtained only very recently and not yet published in monograph form.

  8. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  9. Condensed elementary particle matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajantie, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)

  10. The condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapoval, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory of the Condensed Matter Physics (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities are related to the physics of semiconductors and disordered phases. The electrical and optical properties of the semiconductors, mixed conductor, superionic conductors and ceramics, are studied. Moreover, the interfaces of those systems and the sol-gel inorganic polymerization phenomena, are investigated. The most important results obtained, concern the following investigations: the electrochemical field effect transistor, the cathodoluminescence, the low energy secondary electrons emission, the fluctuations of a two-dimensional diffused junction and the aerogels [fr

  11. One dimensional Bosons: From Condensed Matter Systems to Ultracold Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Cazalilla, M. A.; Citro, R.; Giamarchi, T.; Orignac, E.; Rigol, M.

    2011-01-01

    The physics of one-dimensional interacting bosonic systems is reviewed. Beginning with results from exactly solvable models and computational approaches, the concept of bosonic Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids relevant for one-dimensional Bose fluids is introduced, and compared with Bose-Einstein condensates existing in dimensions higher than one. The effects of various perturbations on the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid state are discussed as well as extensions to multicomponent and out of equilibrium ...

  12. Coherence and chaos in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: nonlinearity in condensed matter; coherence and chaos in spatially extended condensed matter systems; nonlinearity and magnetism; and solitons and conducting polymers. 52 refs., 7 figs

  13. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  14. Condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a summary of condensed matter physics in Brazil. It discusses as well, the perspectives and financing evolved in this research area for the next decade. It is specially concerned with semiconductors, magnetic materials, superconductivity, polymers, glasses, crystals ceramics, statistical physics, magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (A.C.A.S.)

  15. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  16. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  17. Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, Martin Matthias

    2010-01-01

    DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further

  18. Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Martin Matthias

    2010-07-07

    DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further

  19. Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Ipsen, J. H.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution biomolecular systems are analyzed in a framework of differential geometry in order to derive important condensed matter physics information. In the first section lipid bi-layer membranes are examined with respect to statistical properties and topology, e.g. a relation between...... vesicle formation and the proliferation of genus number. In the second section differential geometric methods are used for analyzing the surface structure of proteins and thereby understanding catalytic properties of larger proteins....

  20. Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, H.; Ipsen, John Hjort; Markvorsen, S

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution biomolecular systems are analyzed in a framework of differential geometry in order to derive important condensed matter physics information. In the first section lipid bi-layer membranes axe examined with respect to statistical properties and topology, e.g. a relation between...... vesicle formation and the proliferation of genus number. In the second section differential geometric methods are used for analyzing the surface structure of proteins and thereby understanding catalytic properties of larger proteins....

  1. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  2. Condensed matter physics in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornyshev, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Some topics in electrochemistry are considered from the condensed matter physics viewpoint in relation to the problems discussed in this book. Examples of the successful application of condensed matter physics to electrochemistry are discussed together with prospective problems and pressing questions. (author). 127 refs, 4 figs

  3. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  4. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  5. Muonic Chemistry in Condensed Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    When polarized muons (@m|+) stop in condensed matter, muonic atoms are formed in the final part of their range, and direct measurements of the @m|+-spin polarization are possible via the asymmetric decay into positrons. The hyperfine interaction determines the characteristic precession frequencies of the @m|+ spin in muonium, @w(Mu). Such frequencies can be altered by the interactions of the muonium's electron spin with the surrounding medium. The measurement of @w(Mu) in a condensed system is known often to provide unique information regarding the system. \\\\ \\\\ In particular, the use of muonium atoms as a light isotope of the simple reactive radical H|0 allows the investigation of fast reactions of radicals over a typical time scale 10|-|9~@$<$~t~@$<$~10|-|5~sec, which is determined by the instrumental resolution at one end and by the @m|+ lifetime at the other. \\\\ \\\\ In biological macromolecules transient radicals, such as the constituents of DNA itself, exist on a time scale of sub-microseconds, acco...

  6. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding

  7. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding has

  8. Confinement of quasi-particles in a condensed matter system: an inelastic neutron scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The confinement of quasi particles, a well-known phenomenon in particle physics, can also be realized in a condensed matter system. In particle physics, baryons and mesons are produced by the confinement of quarks, where quarks are bound together by a strong interaction (gauge field) that grows stronger with increasing distance and, therefore, the quarks never exist as individual particles. The condensed matter analogue, confinement of magnetic quasiparticles (spinons) can be illustrated in quasi-one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains. We demonstrate experimentally such spinon confinement in the weakly coupled spin-1/2 XXZ antiferromagnetic chain compound SrCo_2V_2O_8 by single crystal inelastic neutron scattering. The compound SrCo_2V_2O_8 belongs to the general family SrM_2V_2O_8 (M = Ni, Co and Mn), having four-fold screw chains of edge sharing MO_6 octahedra along the crystallographic c axis. In the pure 1D magnetic state of SrCo_2V_2O_8 (above the 3D magnetic ordering temperature T_N =5 K) two spinons (excitations of individual chains) are created by a spin flip, and those spinons propagate independently by subsequent spin flips without any cost of energy. However, below the T_N, two spinons are bound together by weak interchain interactions since the separation between them frustrates the interchain interactions. The interchain interactions play the role of an attractive potential (equivalent to the gauge field), proportional to the distance between spinons, and result in confinement of spinons into bound pairs. (author)

  9. Skyrmions in condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jung Hoon

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes some of the most exciting theoretical developments in the topological phenomena of skyrmions in noncentrosymmetric magnetic systems over recent decades. After presenting pedagogical backgrounds to the Berry phase and homotopy theory, the author systematically discusses skyrmions in the order of their development, from the Ginzburg-Landau theory, CP1 theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert theory, and Monte Carlo numerical approaches. Modern topics, such as the skyrmion-electron interaction, skyrmion-magnon interaction, and various generation mechanisms of the skyrmion are examined with a focus on their general theoretical aspects. The book concludes with a chapter on the skyrmion phenomena in the cold atom context. The topics are presented at a level accessible to beginning graduate students without a substantial background in field theory. The book can also be used as a text for those who wish to engage in the physics of skyrmions in magnetic systems, or as an introduction to the various theoret...

  10. Advances in condensed matter optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Liangyao; Jiang, Xunya; Jin, Kuijuan; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    This book describes some of the more recent progresses and developmentsin the study of condensed matter optics in both theoretic and experimental fields.It will help readers, especially graduate students and scientists who are studying and working in the nano-photonic field, to understand more deeply the characteristics of light waves propagated in nano-structure-based materials with potential applications in the future.

  11. Accelerators for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for high energy, high luminosity beams has stimulated the science and engineering of accelerators to a point where they open up opportunities for new areas of scientific application to benefit from the advances driven by particle physics. One area of great importance is the use of electron or positron storage rings as a source of intense VUV or X-ray synchrotron radiation. An accelerator application that has grown in prominence over the last 10 years has been spallation neutron sources. Neutrons offer an advantage over X-rays as a condensed matter probe because the neutron energy is usually of the same order as the room temperature thermal energy fluctuations in the sample being studied. Another area in which accelerators are playing an increasingly important role in condensed matter research concerns the use of Mu mesons, Muons, as a probe. This paper also presents a description of the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. The design and status of the facility are described, and examples are given of its application to the study of condensed matter. (N.K.)

  12. First-principles Theory of Magnetic Multipoles in Condensed Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Michi-To; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Oppeneer, Peter M.

    2018-04-01

    The multipole concept, which characterizes the spacial distribution of scalar and vector objects by their angular dependence, has already become widely used in various areas of physics. In recent years it has become employed to systematically classify the anisotropic distribution of electrons and magnetization around atoms in solid state materials. This has been fuelled by the discovery of several physical phenomena that exhibit unusual higher rank multipole moments, beyond that of the conventional degrees of freedom as charge and magnetic dipole moment. Moreover, the higher rank electric/magnetic multipole moments have been suggested as promising order parameters in exotic hidden order phases. While the experimental investigations of such anomalous phases have provided encouraging observations of multipolar order, theoretical approaches have developed at a slower pace. In particular, a materials' specific theory has been missing. The multipole concept has furthermore been recognized as the key quantity which characterizes the resultant configuration of magnetic moments in a cluster of atomic moments. This cluster multipole moment has then been introduced as macroscopic order parameter for a noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure in crystals that can explain unusual physical phenomena whose appearance is determined by the magnetic point group symmetry. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the recent developments in the first-principles theory investigating multipolar degrees of freedom in condensed matter systems. These recent developments exemplify that ab initio electronic structure calculations can unveil detailed insight in the mechanism of physical phenomena caused by the unconventional, multipole degree of freedom.

  13. Realization of Massive Relativistic Spin- 3 / 2 Rarita-Schwinger Quasiparticle in Condensed Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng; Luo, Xi; Du, Yongping; Yu, Yue; Wan, Xiangang

    Very recently, there has been significant progress in realizing high-energy particles in condensed matter system (CMS) such as the Dirac, Weyl and Majorana fermions. Besides the spin-1/2 particles, the spin-3/2 elementary particle, known as the Rarita-Schwinger (RS) fermion, has not been observed or simulated in the laboratory. The main obstacle of realizing RS fermion in CMS lies in the nontrivial constraints that eliminate the redundant degrees of freedom in its representation of the Poincaré group. In this Letter, we propose a generic method that automatically contains the constraints in the Hamiltonian and prove the RS modes always exist and can be separated from the other non-RS bands. Through symmetry considerations, we show that the two dimensional (2D) massive RS (M-RS) quasiparticle can emerge in several trigonal and hexagonal lattices. Based on ab initio calculations, we predict that the thin film of CaLiX (X=Ge and Si) may host 2D M-RS excitations near the Fermi level. and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing 210093, China.

  14. Holography, Gravity and Condensed Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartnoll, Sean [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-12-20

    Over the five years of funding from this grant, I produced 26 publications. These include a book-long monograph on "Holographic Quantum Matter" that is currently in press with MIT press. The remainder were mostly published in Physical Review Letters, the Journal of High Energy Physics, Nature Physics, Classical and Quantum Gravity and Physical Review B. Over this period, the field of holography applied to condensed matter physics developed from a promising theoretical approach to a mature conceptual and practical edifice, whose ideas were realized in experiments. My own work played a central role in this development. In particular, in the final year of this grant, I co-authored two experimental papers in which ideas that I had developed in earlier years were shown to usefully describe transport in strongly correlated materials — these papers were published in Science and in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (obviously my contribution to these papers was theoretical). My theoretical work in this period developed several new directions of research that have proven to be influential. These include (i) The construction of highly inhomogeneous black hole event horizons, realizing disordered fixed points and describing new regimes of classical gravity, (ii) The conjecture of a bound on diffusivities that could underpin transport in strongly interacting media — an idea which may be proven in the near future and has turned out to be intimately connected to studies of quantum chaos in black holes and strongly correlated media, (iii) The characterization of new forms of hydrodynamic transport, e.g. with phase-disordered order parameters. These studies pertain to key open questions in our understanding of how non-quasiparticle, intrinsically strongly interacting systems can behave. In addition to the interface between holography and strongly interacting condensed matter systems, I made several advances on understanding the role of entanglement in quantum

  15. Condensed Matter Theories: Volume 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeña, Eduardo V.; Bishop, Raymond F.; Iza, Peter

    2011-03-01

    pt. A. Fermi and Bose fluids, exotic systems. Reemergence of the collective mode in [symbol]He and electron layers / H. M. Bohm ... [et al.]. Dissecting and testing collective and topological scenarios for the quantum critical point / J. W. Clark, V. A. Khodel and M. V. Zverev. Helium on nanopatterned surfaces at finite temperature / E. S. Hernandez ... [et al.]. Towards DFT calculations of metal clusters in quantum fluid matrices / S. A. Chin ... [et al.]. Acoustic band gap formation in metamaterials / D. P. Elford ... [et al.]. Dissipative processes in low density strongly interacting 2D electron systems / D. Neilson. Dynamical spatially resolved response function of finite 1-D nano plasmas / T. Raitza, H. Reinholz and G. Ropke. Renormalized bosons and fermions / K. A. Gernoth and M. L. Ristig. Light clusters in nuclear matter / G. Ropke -- pt. B. Quantum magnets, quantum dynamics and phase transitions. Magnetic ordering of antiferromagnets on a spatially anisotropic triangular lattice / R. F. Bishop ... [et al.]. Thermodynamic detection of quantum phase transitions / M. K. G. Kruse ... [et al.]. The SU(2) semi quantum systems dynamics and thermodynamics / C. M. Sarris and A. N. Proto -- pt. C. Physics of nanosystems and nanotechnology. Quasi-one dimensional fluids that exhibit higher dimensional behavior / S. M. Gatica ... [et al.]. Spectral properties of molecular oligomers. A non-Markovian quantum state diffusion approach / J. Roden, W. T. Strunz and A. Eisfeld. Quantum properties in transport through nanoscopic rings: Charge-spin separation and interference effects / K. Hallberg, J. Rincon and S. Ramasesha. Cooperative localization-delocalization in the high T[symbol] cuprates / J. Ranninger. Thermodynamically stable vortex states in superconducting nanowires / W. M. Wu, M. B. Sobnack and F. V. Kusmartsev.pt. D. Quantum information. Quantum information in optical lattices / A. M. Guzman and M. A. Duenas E. -- pt. E. Theory and applications of molecular

  16. Collision of Bose Condensate Dark Matter structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, F. S.

    2008-01-01

    The status of the scalar field or Bose condensate dark matter model is presented. Results about the solitonic behavior in collision of structures is presented as a possible explanation to the recent-possibly-solitonic behavior in the bullet cluster merger. Some estimates about the possibility to simulate the bullet cluster under the Bose Condensate dark matter model are indicated.

  17. Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    The 1970's and 1980's can be considered the third stage in the explosive development of condensed matter physics. After the very intensive research of the 1930's and 1940's, which followed the formulation of quantum mechanics, and the path-breaking activity of the 1950's and 1960's, the problems being faced now are much more complex and not always susceptible to simple modelling. The (subjectively) open problems discussed here are: high temperature superconductivity, its properties and the possible new mechanisms which lead to it; the integral and fractional quantum Hall effects; new forms of order in condensed-matter systems; the physics of disorder, especially the problem of spin glasses; the physics of complex anisotropic systems; the theoretical prediction of stable and metastable states of matter; the physics of highly correlated states (heavy fermions); the physics of artificially made structures, in particular heterostructures and highly metastable states of matter; the determination of the microscopic structure of surfaces; and chaos and highly nonlinear phnomena. 82 refs

  18. Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    . This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...

  19. Topology and condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mj, Mahan; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces aspects of topology and applications to problems in condensed matter physics. Basic topics in mathematics have been introduced in a form accessible to physicists, and the use of topology in quantum, statistical and solid state physics has been developed with an emphasis on pedagogy. The aim is to bridge the language barrier between physics and mathematics, as well as the different specializations in physics. Pitched at the level of a graduate student of physics, this book does not assume any additional knowledge of mathematics or physics. It is therefore suited for advanced postgraduate students as well. A collection of selected problems will help the reader learn the topics on one's own, and the broad range of topics covered will make the text a valuable resource for practising researchers in the field.  The book consists of two parts: one corresponds to developing the necessary mathematics and the other discusses applications to physical problems. The section on mathematics is a qui...

  20. Vortices in a rotating dark matter condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Rotha P; Morgan, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    We examine vortices in a self-gravitating dark matter Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), consisting of ultra-low mass scalar bosons that arise during a late-time cosmological phase transition. Rotation of the dark matter BEC imprints a background phase gradient on the condensate, which establishes a harmonic trap potential for vortices. A numerical simulation of vortex dynamics shows that the vortex number density, n v ∝ r -1 , resulting in a flat velocity profile for the dark matter condensate. (letter to the editor)

  1. Condensed matter view of giant resonance phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangwill, A.

    1987-01-01

    The intent of this article is to present a view of giant resonance phenomena (an essentially atomic phenomenon) from the perspective of a condensed matter physicist with an interest in the optical properties of matter. As we shall see, this amounts to a particular prejudice about how one should think about many-body effects in a system of interacting electrons. Some of these effects are special to condensed matter systems and will be dealt with in the second half of this paper. However, it turns out that the authors view of the main ingredient to a giant resonance differs significantly from that normally taken by scientists trained in the traditional methods of atomic physics. Therefore, in the first section the author will take advantage of the fact that his contribution to this volume was composed and delivered to the publishers somewhat after the conclusion of the School (rather than before as requested by the organizers) and try to clearly distinguish the differences of opinion presented by the lecturers from the unalterable experimental facts. 46 references, 9 figures

  2. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some "the elementary particles of arithmetic" as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called "the elementary particles of physics" too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles/spheres in 2D/3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable number in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This "number/physical" stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger stable prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show convincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that of the masses of

  3. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some “the elementary particles of arithmetic” as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called “the elementary particles of physics” too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles / spheres in 2D / 3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable num- ber in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This “number / physical” stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger sta- ble prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show con- vincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that

  4. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L.M.

    1987-09-01

    Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)xSU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction. (author). 20 refs

  5. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)×SU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenom is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction.

  6. Quark Condensate in the Strange Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chang-Fang; LU" Xiao-Fu

    2003-01-01

    In a nonlinear chiral SU(3) framework, we investigate the quark condensate in the strange matter including N, Σ, Ξ, and Λ, making use of chiral symmetry spontaneous breaking Lagrangian and mean-field approximation. The results show that the chiral symmetry is restored partially when the strange matter density increases and that 〈π→2〉 plays a very important role in the strange matter which may approach the constituents of the neutron stars. In addition, we can find that the strange matter density where the π-condensate emerges leads to the ratio of the nucleon number to baryon number.

  7. Analysis of condensed matter physics records in databases. Science and technology indicators in condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, C.D.

    1999-05-01

    An analysis of the literature on Condensed Matter Physics, with particular emphasis on High Temperature Superconductors, was performed on the contents of the bibliographic database International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Quantitative data were obtained on various characteristics of the relevant INIS records such as subject categories, language and country of publication, publication types, etc. The analysis opens up the possibility for further studies, e.g. on international research co-operation and on publication patterns. (author)

  8. Condensate cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi; Oosumi, Katsumi; Takashima, Yoshie; Mitani, Shinji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the frequency for the backwash and regeneration operations due to the increase in the differential pressure resulted from claddings captured in a mixed floor type desalter, and decrease the amount of radioactive liquid wastes of claddings from the condensate systems by removing claddings with electromagnetic filters. Constitution: In an existent plant, a valves is disposed between a condensate pump and a mixed floor type desalter. A pipeway is branched from a condensate pipe between the condensate pipe and the valve, through which condensates are transferred by a pump to an electromagnetic filter such as of a high gradient type electromagntic filter to remove claddings, then returned to a condensate pipe between the valve and the mixed floor type desalter and, thereafter, are removed with ionic components in the mixed floor type desalter and fed to the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  9. Condensed matter applied atomic collision physics, v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Datz, Sheldon

    1983-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 4: Condensed Matter deals with the fundamental knowledge of collision processes in condensed media.The book focuses on the range of applications of atomic collisions in condensed matter, extending from effects on biological systems to the characterization and modification of solids. This volume begins with the description of some aspects of the physics involved in the production of ion beams. The radiation effects in biological and chemical systems, ion scattering and atomic diffraction, x-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron and Auger spectrosc

  10. New analytic and computational techniques for finite temperature condensed matter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    By employing a special summation technique we find that the breakdown of the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect in the three dimensional Bose gas as the applied field passes;through its critical value is an entropy driven weakly first order transition, rather than the second order transition usually ascribed to the system. The transition is second order at the usual Bose condensation temperature T c as well as at T = O, with a line o first order transition connecting these critical points. The first order transitions make the Bose gas resemble familiar superconductors, and a Landau-Ginzburg analysis indicates that the Bose gas is always a type I superconductor. We employ the recently introduce conjugate-gradient methods for minimization of the electronic energy functional to perform an extensive ab initio study of the Σ = 5 tilt [310] grain boundary in germanium. We find that the boundary reliably reconstructs to the tetrahedrally bonded network observed in HREM experiments without the proliferation of false local minima observed in similar twist boundaries. The reduced density of bonds crossing the grain boundary plan leads us to conjecture that the boundary may be a preferred fracture interface. We then combine these conjugate-gradient methods with a new technique for generating trail wavefunctions to produce an efficient ab initio molecular dynamics scheme that is that is at least two orders of magnitude more accurate than previous schemes and thus allows accurate calculation of dynamic correlation functions while maintaining tolerable energy conservation for microcanonical averages of those correlation function over picosecond time scales. We present two advances which greatly enhance the efficiency of our new ab initio molecular dynamics technique. We introduce a class of generalizations of traditional Fermionic energy functionals which allow us to lift the orthonormality constraints on the single particle orbitals and thus speed convergence

  11. Novel Quantum Condensates in Excitonic Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Keeling, J. M. J.; Simons, B. D.; Eastham, P. R.; Marchetti, F. M.; Szymanska, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    These lectures interleave discussion of a novel physical problem of a new kind of condensate with teaching of the fundamental theoretical tools of quantum condensed matter field theory. Polaritons and excitons are light mass composite bosons that can be made inside solids in a number of different ways. As bosonic particles, they are liable to make a phase coherent ground state - generically called a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) - and these lectures present some models to describe that problem, as well as general approaches to the theory. The focus is very much to explain how mean-field-like approximations that are often presented heuristically can be derived in a systematic fashion by path integral methods. Going beyond the mean field theory then produces a systematic approach to calculation of the excitation energies, and the derivation of effective low energy theories that can be generalised to more complex dynamical and spatial situations than is practicable for the full theory, as well as to study statistical properties beyond the semi-classical regime. in particular, for the polariton problem, it allows one to connect the regimes of equilibrium BEC and non-equilibrium laser. The lectures are self-sufficient, but not highly detailed. The methodological aspects are covered in standard quantum field theory texts and the presentation here is deliberately cursory: the approach will be closest to the book of Altland and Simons. Since these lectures concern a particular type of condensate, reference should also be made to texts on BEC, for example by Pitaevskii and Stringari. A recent theoretically focussed review of polariton systems covers many of the technical issues associated with the polariton problem in greater depth and provides many further references.

  12. Condensed matter physics with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the present uses of radioactive ion beams from ISOLDE for condensed matter research is presented. As simple examples of such work, tracer studies of diffusion processes with radioisotopes and blocking/channeling measurements of emitted particles for lattice location are discussed. Especially the application of nuclear hyperfine interaction techniques such as PAC or Moessbauer spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to study local electronic and structural properties at impurities. Recently, interesting information on impurity properties in semiconductors has been obtained using all these methods. The extreme sensitivity of nuclear techniques makes them also well suited for investigations of surfaces, interfaces, and biomolecules. Some ideas for future uses of high energy radioactive ion beams beyond the scope of the present projects are outlined: the study of diffusion in highly immiscible systems by deep implantation, nuclear polarization with the tilted-foil technique, and transmutation doping of wide-bandgap semiconductors. (orig.)

  13. Implanted muon studies in condensed matter science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.

    1986-12-01

    The paper reviews the broad range of applications of implanted muons in condensed matter. Muon spin rotation is discussed, along with the studies in magnetism, muonion, metals and organic radicals. A description of muon spin relaxation is also given, as well as techniques and applications appropriate to pulsed muon sources. (UK)

  14. Condensed matter studies by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Tomala, K.

    1988-01-01

    The separate abstract was prepared for 1 of the papers in this volume. The remaining 13 papers dealing with the use but not with advances in the use of nuclear methods in studies of condensed matter, were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (M.F.W.)

  15. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  16. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsunnahar, T.; Saha, S.; Kabir, K.; Nath, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter using a model of pion-nucleon interaction based essentially on chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry. We have found that pion condensation is not possible for any finite value of the density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is likely to be seen in pion-nucleus scattering nor is it likely to be possible to explain the EMC effect in terms of an increased number of pions in the nucleus. (author)

  17. String Theory Methods for Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastase, Horatiu

    2017-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction; Part I. Condensed Matter Models and Problems: 1. Lightning review of statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, phases and phase transitions; 2. Magnetism in solids; 3. Electrons in solids: Fermi gas vs. Fermi liquid; 4. Bosonic quasi-particles: phonons and plasmons; 5. Spin-charge separation in 1+1 dimensional solids: spinons and holons; 6. The Ising model and the Heisenberg spin chain; 7. Spin chains and integrable systems; 8. The thermodynamic Bethe ansatz; 9. Conformal field theories and quantum phase transitions; 10. Classical vs. quantum Hall effect; 11. Superconductivity: Landau-Ginzburg, London and BCS; 12. Topology and statistics: Berry and Chern-Simons, anyons and nonabelions; 13. Insulators; 14. The Kondo effect and the Kondo problem; 15. Hydrodynamics and transport properties: from Boltzmann to Navier-Stokes; Part II. Elements of General Relativity and String Theory: 16. The Einstein equation and the Schwarzschild solution; 17. The Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr-Newman solutions and thermodynamic properties of black holes; 18. Extra dimensions and Kaluza-Klein; 19. Electromagnetism and gravity in various dimensions. Consistent truncations; 20. Gravity plus matter: black holes and p-branes in various dimensions; 21. Weak/strong coupling dualities in 1+1, 2+1, 3+1 and d+1 dimensions; 22. The relativistic point particle and the relativistic string; 23. Lightcone strings and quantization; 24. D-branes and gauge fields; 25. Electromagnetic fields on D-branes. Supersymmetry and N = 4 SYM. T-duality of closed strings; 26. Dualities and M theory; 27. The AdS/CFT correspondence: definition and motivation; Part III. Applying String Theory to Condensed Matter Problems: 28. The pp wave correspondence: string Hamiltonian from N = 4 SYM; 29. Spin chains from N = 4 SYM; 30. The Bethe ansatz: Bethe strings from classical strings in AdS; 31. Integrability and AdS/CFT; 32. AdS/CFT phenomenology: Lifshitz, Galilean and Schrodinger

  18. Frontiers in condensed matter theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lax, M.; Gor'kov, L.P.; Birman, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: superconductivity; transport, quantum hall effect, localization, and scattering in random systems; high-tc superconductivity; antiferromagnetism and superconductivity; nonradiative transport and energy transport; self-similarity and chaos; superfluids; dielectrics and semiconductors; two dimensional transport and the quantum hall effect; and localization effects

  19. Condensate cosmology: Dark energy from dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.; Parkinson, David; Kunz, Martin; Ungarelli, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Imagine a scenario in which the dark energy forms via the condensation of dark matter at some low redshift. The Compton wavelength therefore changes from small to very large at the transition, unlike quintessence or metamorphosis. We study cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure, supernova and radio galaxy constraints on condensation by performing a four parameter likelihood analysis over the Hubble constant and the three parameters associated with Q, the condensate field: Ω Q , w f and z t (energy density and equation of state today, and redshift of transition). Condensation roughly interpolates between ΛCDM (for large z t ) and SCDM (low z t ) and provides a slightly better fit to the data than ΛCDM. We confirm that there is no degeneracy in the CMB between H and z t and discuss the implications of late-time transitions for the Lyman-α forest. Finally we discuss the nonlinear phase of both condensation and metamorphosis, which is much more interesting than in standard quintessence models

  20. Investigation of condensed matter fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.; Berrondo, M.; Czirr, J.B.; Decker, D.L.; Harrison, K.; Jensen, G.L.; Palmer, E.P.; Rees, L.B.; Taylor, S.; Vanfleet, H.B.; Wang, J.C.; Bennion, D.N.; Harb, J.N.; Pitt, W.G.; Thorne, J.M.; Anderson, A.N.; McMurtry, G.; Murphy, N.; Goff, F.E.

    1990-12-01

    Work on muon-catalyzed fusion led to research on a possible new type of fusion occurring in hydrogen isotopes embedded in metal lattices. While the nuclear-product yields observed to date are so small as to require careful further checking, rates observed over short times appear sufficiently large to suggest that significant neutrons and triton yields could be realized -- if the process could be understood and controlled. During 1990, we have developed two charged-particle detection systems and three new neutron detectors. A segmented, high-efficiency neutron counter was taken into 600 m underground in a mine in Colorado for studies out of the cosmic-ray background. Significant neutron emissions were observed in this environment in both deuterium-gas-loaded metals and in electrolytic cells, confirming our earlier observations

  1. Field theories in condensed matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Andres

    In this thesis, field theory is applied to different problems in the context of condensed matter physics. In the first part of this work, a classical problem in which an elastic instability appears is studied. By taking advantage of the symmetries of the system, it is shown that when a soft substrate has a stiff crust and the whole system is forced to reduce its volume, the stiff crust rearranges in a way that will break the initial rotational symmetry, producing a periodic pattern that can be manipulated at our will by suitable changes of the external parameters. It is shown that elastic interactions in this type of systems can be mapped into non-local effective potentials. The possible application of these instabilities is also discussed. In the second part of this work, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is analyzed as an emergent theory that allows us to describe the low energy excitations in two-dimensional nodal systems. In particular, the ballistic electronic transport in graphene-like systems is analyzed. We propose a novel way to control massless Dirac fermions in graphene and systems alike by controlling the group velocity through the sample. We have analyzed this problem by computing transport properties using the transmission matrix formalism and, remarkably, it is found that a behavior conforming with a Snell's-like law emerges in this system: the basic ingredient needed to produce electronic wave guides. Finally, an anisotropic and strongly interacting version of QED 3 is applied to explain the non-universal emergence of antiferromagnetic order in cuprate superconductors. It is pointed out that the dynamics of interacting vortex anti-vortex fluctuations play a crucial role in defining the strength of interactions in this system. As a consequence, we find that different phases (confined and deconfined) are possible as a function of the relative velocity of the photons with respect to the Fermi and gap velocities for low energy excitation in cuprates.

  2. Simulation of charge transfer and orbital rehybridization in molecular and condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Razvan A.

    The mixing and shifting of electronic orbitals in molecules, or between atoms in bulk systems, is crucially important to the overall structure and physical properties of materials. Understanding and accurately modeling these orbital interactions is of both scientific and industrial relevance. Electronic orbitals can be perturbed in several ways. Doping, adding or removing electrons from systems, can change the bond-order and the physical properties of certain materials. Orbital rehybridization, driven by either thermal or pressure excitation, alters the short-range structure of materials and changes their long-range transport properties. Macroscopically, during bond formation, the shifting of electronic orbitals can be interpreted as a charge transfer phenomenon, as electron density may pile up around, and hence, alter the effective charge of, a given atom in the changing chemical environment. Several levels of theory exist to elucidate the mechanisms behind these orbital interactions. Electronic structure calculations solve the time-independent Schrodinger equation to high chemical accuracy, but are computationally expensive and limited to small system sizes and simulation times. Less fundamental atomistic calculations use simpler parameterized functional expressions called force-fields to model atomic interactions. Atomistic simulations can describe systems and time-scales larger and longer than electronic-structure methods, but at the cost of chemical accuracy. In this thesis, both first-principles and phenomenological methods are addressed in the study of several encompassing problems dealing with charge transfer and orbital rehybridization. Firstly, a new charge-equilibration method is developed that improves upon existing models to allow next-generation force-fields to describe the electrostatics of changing chemical environments. Secondly, electronic structure calculations are used to investigate the doping dependent energy landscapes of several high

  3. Simplicity of condensed matter at its core: generic definition of a Roskilde-simple system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2014-11-28

    The isomorph theory is reformulated by defining Roskilde-simple systems by the property that the order of the potential energies of configurations at one density is maintained when these are scaled uniformly to a different density. If the potential energy as a function of all particle coordinates is denoted by U(R), this requirement translates into U(Ra) < U(Rb) ⇒ U(λRa) < U(λRb). Isomorphs remain curves in the thermodynamic phase diagram along which structure, dynamics, and excess entropy are invariant, implying that the phase diagram is effectively one-dimensional with respect to many reduced-unit properties. In contrast to the original formulation of the isomorph theory, however, the density-scaling exponent is not exclusively a function of density and the isochoric heat capacity is not an exact isomorph invariant. A prediction is given for the latter quantity's variation along the isomorphs. Molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones and Lennard-Jones Gaussian systems validate the new approach.

  4. Condensation of galactic cold dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visinelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We consider the steady-state regime describing the density profile of a dark matter halo, if dark matter is treated as a Bose-Einstein condensate. We first solve the fluid equation for “canonical” cold dark matter, obtaining a class of density profiles which includes the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, and which diverge at the halo core. We then solve numerically the equation obtained when an additional “quantum pressure” term is included in the computation of the density profile. The solution to this latter case is finite at the halo core, possibly avoiding the “cuspy halo problem” present in some cold dark matter theories. Within the model proposed, we predict the mass of the cold dark matter particle to be of the order of M_χc"2≈10"−"2"4 eV, which is of the same order of magnitude as that predicted in ultra-light scalar cold dark matter models. Finally, we derive the differential equation describing perturbations in the density and the pressure of the dark matter fluid.

  5. Holographic duality in condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaanen, Jan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Schalm, Koenraad

    2015-01-01

    A pioneering treatise presenting how the new mathematical techniques of holographic duality unify seemingly unrelated fields of physics. This innovative development morphs quantum field theory, general relativity and the renormalisation group into a single computational framework and this book is the first to bring together a wide range of research in this rapidly developing field. Set within the context of condensed matter physics and using boxes highlighting the specific techniques required, it examines the holographic description of thermal properties of matter, Fermi liquids and superconductors, and hitherto unknown forms of macroscopically entangled quantum matter in terms of general relativity, stars and black holes. Showing that holographic duality can succeed where classic mathematical approaches fail, this text provides a thorough overview of this major breakthrough at the heart of modern physics. The inclusion of extensive introductory material using non-technical language and online Mathematica not...

  6. Proton mixing in -condensed phase of neutron star matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    1984-08-01

    The mixing of protons in neutron star matter under the occurrence of condensation is studied in the framework of the ALS (Alternating Layer Spin) model and with the effective interaction approach. It is found that protons are likely to mix under the situation and cause a remarkable energy gain from neutron matter as the density increases. The extent of proton mixing becomes larger by about a factor (1.5-2.5) according to the density rho asymptotically equals (2-5)rho0, rho0 being the nuclear density, as compared with that for the case without pion condensation. The reason can be attributed to the two-dimensional nature of the Fermi gas state characteristic of the nucleon system under condensation.

  7. Diffusion in condensed matter methods, materials, models

    CERN Document Server

    Kärger, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement is a phenomenon of crucial relevance for a large variety of processes and materials. This comprehensive, handbook- style survey of diffusion in condensed matter gives detailed insight into diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement. Leading experts in the field describe in 23 chapters the different aspects of diffusion, covering microscopic and macroscopic experimental techniques and exemplary results for various classes of solids, liquids and interfaces as well as several theoretical concepts and models. Students and scientists in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology will benefit from this detailed compilation.

  8. STRANGE BARYONIC MATTER AND KAON CONDENSATION

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gazda, Daniel; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, 3-4 (2011), s. 567-569 ISSN 0217-751X. [11th International Workshop on Meson Production, Properties and Interaction. Krakow, 10.06.2010-15.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1441 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : (K)over-bar-nuclear bound states * strange baryonic matter * kaon condensation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2011

  9. Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2004-01-01

    From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.

  10. Low dimensional field theories and condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Yosuke

    1992-01-01

    This issue is devoted to the Proceedings of the Fourth Yukawa International Seminar (YKIS '91) on Low Dimensional Field Theories and Condensed Matter Physics, which was held on July 28 to August 3 in Kyoto. In recent years there have been great experimental discoveries in the field of condensed matter physics: the quantum Hall effect and the high temperature superconductivity. Theoretical effort to clarify mechanisms of these phenomena revealed that they are deeply related to the basic problem of many-body systems with strong correlation. On the other hand, there have been important developments in field theory in low dimensions: the conformal field theory, the Chern-Simons gauge theory, etc. It was found that these theories work as a powerful method of approach to the problems in condensed matter physics. YKIS '91 was devoted to the study of common problems in low dimensional field theories and condensed matter physics. The 17 of the presented papers are collected in this issue. (J.P.N.)

  11. Condensate and feedwater systems, pumps, and water chemistry. Volume seven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes condensate and feedwater systems (general features of condensate and feedwater systems, condenser hotwell level control, condensate flow, feedwater flow), pumps (principles of fluid flow, types of pumps, centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, jet pumps, pump operating characteristics) and water chemistry (water chemistry fundamentals, corrosion, scaling, radiochemistry, water chemistry control processes, water pretreatment, PWR water chemistry, BWR water chemistry, condenser circulating water chemistry

  12. Experimental and Computational Techniques in Soft Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Jeffrey

    2010-09-01

    1. Microscopy of soft materials Eric R. Weeks; 2. Computational methods to study jammed Systems Carl F. Schrek and Corey S. O'Hern; 3. Soft random solids: particulate gels, compressed emulsions and hybrid materials Anthony D. Dinsmore; 4. Langmuir monolayers Michael Dennin; 5. Computer modeling of granular rheology Leonardo E. Silbert; 6. Rheological and microrheological measurements of soft condensed matter John R. de Bruyn and Felix K. Oppong; 7. Particle-based measurement techniques for soft matter Nicholas T. Ouellette; 8. Cellular automata models of granular flow G. William Baxter; 9. Photoelastic materials Brian Utter; 10. Image acquisition and analysis in soft condensed matter Jeffrey S. Olafsen; 11. Structure and patterns in bacterial colonies Nicholas C. Darnton.

  13. Collaboration in Australian condensed matter physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushion, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This year marks the 'coming of age' of the annual Condensed Matter Physics Meetings which has constituted possibly the most successful physics series which has been run in Australia and New Zealand. The conferences have become colloquially known as the 'Wagga conferences' to the community, leading to such strange but interpretable phrases as 'Wagga is in New Zealand this year'. It seems an appropriate time to take stock of some of the changes which have taken place in Australian condensed matter physics research over the past 21 years. Statistics will be presented on some of the trends over this time, using the Wagga abstract books as the data source. Particular emphasis will be placed on the increase in collaborative research which has occurred, fuelled by a combination of government policies, reduction in resources and increasing complexity of some of the research projects. Collaborative papers now frequently include authors from more than one university as well as from CSIRO, ANSTO/AINSE, other government and semi-government laboratories and private industry. None of these occurred in the 'early days' but most would agree that the health of the discipline has been improved by the change. It is also appropriate to point out the role of the Wagga conferences in fostering these collaborations by bringing together the groups so that they could meet, interact and discover which people had the missing expertise to make a particular project viable

  14. Equation of state of warm condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T.W., III; Young, D.A.; Rogers, F.J.

    1998-03-01

    Recent advances in computational condensed matter theory have yielded accurate calculations of properties of materials. These calculations have, for the most part, focused on the low temperature (T=0) limit. An accurate determination of the equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature also requires knowledge of the behavior of the electron and ion thermal pressure as a function of T. Current approaches often interpolate between calculated T=0 results and approximations valid in the high T limit. Plasma physics-based approaches are accurate in the high temperature limit, but lose accuracy below T{approximately}T{sub Fermi}. We seek to ``connect up`` these two regimes by using ab initio finite temperature methods (including linear-response[1] based phonon calculations) to derive an equation of state of condensed matter for T{<=}T{sub Fermi}. We will present theoretical results for the principal Hugoniot of shocked materials, including carbon and aluminum, up to pressures P>100 GPa and temperatures T>10{sup 4}K, and compare our results with available experimental data.

  15. Condensed matter physics aspects of electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.; Kornyshev, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    This volume collects the proceedings of the Working Party on ''Electrochemistry: Condensed Matter, Atomic and Molecular Physics Aspects'', held for two weeks in the summer of 1990 at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste. The goal of the meeting was to discuss those areas of electrochemistry that are accessible to the modern methods of theoretical condensed matter, atomic and molecular physics, in order to stimulate insight and deeper involvement by theoretical physicists into the field. The core of the ICTP Working Party was a set of topically grouped plenary lectures, accompanied by contributed seminars and by the formulation of joint research projects. In the tradition of the ICTP, it was not a meeting of pure theoreticians: about half of the lecturers were professional experimentalists - experts in electrochemistry, physical chemistry, surface science, technical applications. A set of topics was chosen for discussion at the meeting: Liquids, solvation, solutions; The interface (structure, characterization, electric properties, adsorption); Electrodynamics, optics, photo-emission; Charge transfer kinetics (homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions and processes); Superconducting electrodes; Fractal electrodes; Applied research (energy conversion and power sources, electrocatalysis, electroanalysis of turbulent flows). Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Applications of holography to condensed matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Simon F.

    2012-10-01

    Holography is one of the key insights to emerge from string theory. It connects quantum gravity to field theory, and thereby provides a non-perturbative formulation of string theory. This has enabled progress on a range of theoretical issues, from the quantum description of spacetime to the calculation of scattering amplitudes in supersymmetric field theories. There have been important insights into both the field theories and the spacetime picture. More recently, applied holography has been the subject of intense and rapid development. The idea here is to use the spacetime description to address questions about strongly coupled field theory relevant to application areas such as finite-temperature QCD and condensed matter physics; the focus in this special issue is on the latter. This involves the study of field theory at finite temperature and with chemical potentials for appropriate charges, described in spacetime by charged black hole solutions. The use of holography to study these systems requires a significant extrapolation, from the field theories where classical gravitational calculations in the bulk are a useful approximation to the experimentally relevant theories. Nonetheless, the approach has had some striking qualitative successes, including the construction of holographic versions of superconducting or superfluid phase transitions, the identification of Fermi liquids with a variety of thermal behaviours, and the construction of a map between a class of gravity solutions and the hydrodynamic regime in the field theory. The use of holography provides a qualitatively new perspective on these aspects of strong coupling dynamics. In addition to insight into the behaviour of the strongly coupled field theories, this work has led to new insights into the bulk dynamics and a deeper understanding of holography. The purpose of this focus issue is to strengthen the connections between this direction and other gravitational research and to make the gravity

  17. The Solar Photosphere: Evidence for Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P. M.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The stellar equations of state treat the Sun much like an ideal gas, wherein the photosphere is viewed as a sparse gaseous plasma. The temperatures inferred in the solar interior give some credence to these models, especially since it is counterintuitive that an object with internal temperatures in excess of 1 MK could be existing in the liquid state. Nonetheless, extreme temperatures, by themselves, are insufficient evidence for the states of matter. The presence of magnetic fields and gravity also impact the expected phase. In the end, it is the physical expression of a state that is required in establishing the proper phase of an object. The photosphere does not lend itself easily to treatment as a gaseous plasma. The physical evidence can be more simply reconciled with a solar body and a photosphere in the condensed state. A discussion of each physical feature follows: (1 the thermal spectrum, (2 limb darkening, (3 solar collapse, (4 the solar density, (5 seismic activity, (6 mass displacement, (7 the chromosphere and critical opalescence, (8 shape, (9 surface activity, (10 photospheric/coronal flows, (11 photospheric imaging, (12 the solar dynamo, and (13 the presence of Sun spots. The explanation of these findings by the gaseous models often requires an improbable combination of events, such as found in the stellar opacity problem. In sharp contrast, each can be explained with simplicity by the condensed state. This work is an invitation to reconsider the phase of the Sun.

  18. Many body quantum physics at the condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano, M. de

    1981-01-01

    The non-relativistic, continuous (as opposed to spin) many-body problem as it relates to condensed matter at absolute zero temperature is reviewed in simple, non-technical terms, mainly from the standpoint of infinite order perturbation theory, for physical systems where all the particles have the same mass but which otherwise interact with arbitrary short- or long-ranged two-body forces. (author)

  19. Statistical mechanics and applications in condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Castro, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This innovative and modular textbook combines classical topics in thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and many-body theory with the latest developments in condensed matter physics research. Written by internationally renowned experts and logically structured to cater for undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers, it covers the underlying theoretical principles and includes numerous problems and worked examples to put this knowledge into practice. Three main streams provide a framework for the book; beginning with thermodynamics and classical statistical mechanics, including mean field approximation, fluctuations and the renormalization group approach to critical phenomena. The authors then examine quantum statistical mechanics, covering key topics such as normal Fermi and Luttinger liquids, superfluidity and superconductivity. Finally, they explore classical and quantum kinetics, Anderson localization and quantum interference, and disordered Fermi liquids. Unique in providing a bridge between ...

  20. Frustration in Condensed Matter and Protein Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Tanner, S.; Conroy, B.; Owens, F.; Tran, M. M.; Boekema, C.

    2014-03-01

    By means of computer modeling, we are studying frustration in condensed matter and protein folding, including the influence of temperature and Thomson-figure formation. Frustration is due to competing interactions in a disordered state. The key issue is how the particles interact to reach the lowest frustration. The relaxation for frustration is mostly a power function (randomly assigned pattern) or an exponential function (regular patterns like Thomson figures). For the atomic Thomson model, frustration is predicted to decrease with the formation of Thomson figures at zero kelvin. We attempt to apply our frustration modeling to protein folding and dynamics. We investigate the homogeneous protein frustration that would cause the speed of the protein folding to increase. Increase of protein frustration (where frustration and hydrophobicity interplay with protein folding) may lead to a protein mutation. Research is supported by WiSE@SJSU and AFC San Jose.

  1. Condensed matter research using pulsed neutron sources: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildner, D.F.R.; Stirling, G.C.

    1976-05-01

    This report is an updated revision of RL-75-095 'Condensed Matter Research Using Pulsed Neutron Sources: A Bibliography'. As before, the survey lists published papers concerning (a) the production of high intensity neutron pulses suitable for thermal neutron scattering research, (b) moderating systems for neutron thermalization and pulse shaping, (c) techniques and instrumentation for diffraction and inelastic scattering at pulsed sources, and (d) their application to research problems concerning the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matter. Papers which deal with the white beam time-of-flight technique at steady state reactors have also been included. A number of scientists have brought to the author's attention papers which have been published since the previous edition. They are thanked and encouraged to continue the cooperation so that the bibliography may be updated periodically. (author)

  2. Gravitational effects of condensate dark matter on compact stellar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Y.; Wang, F.Y.; Cheng, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    We study the gravitational effect of non-self-annihilating dark matter on compact stellar objects. The self-interaction of condensate dark matter can give high accretion rate of dark matter onto stars. Phase transition to condensation state takes place when the dark matter density exceeds the critical value. A compact degenerate dark matter core is developed and alter the structure and stability of the stellar objects. Condensate dark matter admixed neutron stars is studied through the two-fluid TOV equation. The existence of condensate dark matter deforms the mass-radius relation of neutron stars and lower their maximum baryonic masses and radii. The possible effects on the Gamma-ray Burst rate in high redshift are discussed

  3. Physics through the 1990s: condensed-matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents the current status of condensed-matter physics from developments since the 1970s to opportunities in the 1990s. Topics include electronic structure, vibrational properties, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetism, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, surfaces and interfaces, low-temperature physics, liquid-state physics, polymers, nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and chaos. Appendices cover the connections between condensed-matter physics and applications of national interest, new experimental techniques and materials, laser spectroscopy, and national facilities for condensed-matter physics research. The needs of the research community regarding support for individual researchers and for national facilities are presented, as are recommendations for improved government-academic-industrial relations

  4. Bose-Einstein condensate & degenerate Fermi cored dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, W.-J.; Nelson, L. A.

    2018-06-01

    There has been considerable interest in the last several years in support of the idea that galaxies and clusters could have highly condensed cores of dark matter (DM) within their central regions. In particular, it has been suggested that dark matter could form Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) or degenerate Fermi cores. We examine these possibilities under the assumption that the core consists of highly condensed DM (either bosons or fermions) that is embedded in a diffuse envelope (e.g., isothermal sphere). The novelty of our approach is that we invoke composite polytropes to model spherical collisionless structures in a way that is physically intuitive and can be generalized to include other equations of state (EOSs). Our model is very amenable to the analysis of BEC cores (composed of ultra-light bosons) that have been proposed to resolve small-scale CDM anomalies. We show that the analysis can readily be applied to bosons with or without small repulsive self-interactions. With respect to degenerate Fermi cores, we confirm that fermionic particle masses between 1—1000 keV are not excluded by the observations. Finally, we note that this approach can be extended to include a wide range of EOSs in addition to multi-component collisionless systems.

  5. Diffusive instability of a kaon condensate in neutron star matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    The beta equilibrated dense matter with kaon condensate is analyzed with respect to extended stability conditions, including charge fluctuations. This kind of the diffusive instability appeared to be common property in the kaon condensation case. Results for three different nuclear models are presented

  6. Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2017-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.

  7. Shattered glass seeking the densest matter: the color glass condensate

    CERN Multimedia

    Appell, D

    2004-01-01

    "Physicists investigating heavy-particle collisions believe they are on the track of a universal form of matter, one common to very high energy particles ranging from protons to heavy nuclei such as uranium. Some think that this matter, called a color glass condensate, may explain new nuclear properties and the process of particle formation during collisions. Experimentalists have recently reported intriguing data that suggest a color glass condensate has actually formed in past work" (1 page)

  8. Pion condensation in cold dense matter and neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, P.; Proszynski, M.

    1982-01-01

    We study possible influence, on the neutron star structure, of a pion condensation occurring in cold dense matter. Several equations of state with pion-condensed phase are considered. The models of neutron stars are calculated and confronted with existing observational data on pulsars. Such a confrontation appears to rule out the models of dense matter with an abnormal self-bound state, and therefore it seems to exclude the possibility of the existence of abnormal superheavy neutron nuclei and abnormal neutron stars with a liquid pion-condensed surface

  9. All basic condensed matter physics phenomena and notions mirror ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biology an opportunity to explore a variety of condensed matter phenomena and situations, some of which have ... The biological matter such as the tiniest of life, an amoeba, is alive ..... and black-holes, nature fascinates physicists. It is the ...

  10. Proceedings of the 9. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The 9. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics presents works developed in the following fields: amorphous materials, atomic and molecular physics, biophysics, crystallography, defects, growth and critical phenomena, instrumentation, liquid crystals, magnetism, matter science/mechanical properties, metals and alloys, optic, magnetic resonance and semiconductors. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. Proceedings of the international symposium on atomic, molecular, and condensed matter theory and computational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewdin, Per-Olov; Oehrn, N.Y.; Sabin, J.R.; Zerner, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    After an introduction and a personal (World War II and postwar) retrospective by C.C.J. Roothaan, 69 papers are presented in fields of quantum biology, quantum chemistry, and condensed matter physics; topics covered include advanced scientific computing, interaction of photons and matter, quantum molecular dynamics, electronic structure methods, polymeric systems, and quantum chemical methods for extended systems. An author index is included

  12. Condensed Matter NMR under Extreme Conditions: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arneil

    2006-11-01

    Advances in resistive magnet and power supply technology have made available extremely high magnetic fields suitable for condensed matter broadline NMR experiments. This capability expands the available phase space for investigating a wide variety of materials using magnetic resonance; utilizing the strength of the field to expose or induce new physical phenomena resulting in better understanding of the physics. Continuous fields up to 45T in NHMFL Hybrid magnet have brought new challenges in designing NMR instrumentation. Field strengths and sample space limitations put constraints on RF pulse power, tuning range, bandwidth, and temperature control. The inclusion of other capabilities, including high pressure, optics, and sample rotation requires intricate probe design and construction, while extremely low milliKelvin temperatures are desired in order to explore energy scales where thermal fluctuations are suppressed. Optimization of these devices has been of paramount consideration in NHMFL Condensed Matter NMR user program. Science achieved at high fields, the new initiatives to develop resistively-detected NMR in 2D electron gas and similar systems, and the current new generation Series-Connected Hybrid magnets for NMR work will be discussed. The NHMFL is supported by the National Science Foundation and the State of Florida.

  13. Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia is in its forties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Physics in Colombia started to develop in the 70's as a research part of basic sciences with the acquisition, at that time, of large research equipments such as x-rays and EPR. Experimental work was soon supplemented by theoretical investigations, which led to the formation of research groups in condensed matter. In the early 80's existed such groups in five universities. In this report we present, after a short history of the main steps that guided the initial research subjects, the major areas already developed and the minor research groups that are in the stage of consolidation. Currently this type of work is done at least in 20 universities. We also show the actual numbers of researchers, publications, PhD students and laboratories discriminated in gender to complete an overview of Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia. Finally, we present a short review of the main theoretical issues that have been worked in the last decade focusing on low dimensional systems, their structural and optical properties

  14. Physics through the 1990s: Condensed-matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In this survey of condensed-matter physics we describe the current status of the field, present some of the significant discoveries and developments in it since the early 1970s, and indicate some areas in which we expect that important discoveries will be made in the next decade. We also describe the resources that will be required to produce these discoveries. This volume is organized as follows. The first part is devoted to a discussion of the importance of condensed-matter physics; to brief descriptions of several of the most significant discoveries and advances in condensed-matter physics made in the 1970s and early 1980s, and of areas that appear to provide particularly exciting research opportunities in the next decade; and to a presentation of the support needs of condensed-matter physicists in the next decade and of recommendations aimed at their provision. Next, the subfields of condensed-matter physics are reviewed in detail. The volume concludes with several appendixes in which new materials, new experimental techniques, and the National Facilities are reviewed

  15. Interplay between kaon condensation and hyperons in highly dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Takumi

    2008-01-01

    The possible coexistence and/or competition of kaon condensation with hyperons are investigated in hyperonic matter, where hyperons are mixed in the ground state of neutron-star matter. The formulation is based on the effective chiral Lagrangian for the kaon-baryon interaction and the nonrelativistic baryon-baryon interaction model. First, the onset condition of the s-wave kaon condensation realized from hyperonic matter is reexamined. It is shown that the usual assumption of the continuous phase transition is not always kept valid in the presence of the negatively charged hyperons (Σ - ). Second, the equation of state (EOS) of the kaon-condensed phase in hyperonic matter is discussed. In the case of the stronger kaon-baryon attractive interaction, it is shown that a local energy minimum with respect to the baryon number density appears as a result of considerable softening of the EOS due to both kaon condensation and hyperon mixing and recovering of the stiffness of the EOS at very high densities. This result implies a possible existence of self-bound objects with kaon condensates on any scale from an atomic nucleus to a neutron star

  16. Long range correlations in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Off diagonal long range order (ODLRO) correlations are strongly related with the generalized Bose-Einstein condensation. Under certain boundary conditions, one implies the other. These phenomena are of great importance in the description of quantum situations with a macroscopic manifestation (superfluidity, superconductivity, etc.). Since ion pairs are not bosons, the definition of ODLRO is modified. The information contained with the 2-particle propagator (electron pairs) and the consequences that lead to pairs statistics are shown in this presentation. The analogy between long range correlations and fluids is also analyzed. (Author). 17 refs

  17. 24th Condensed Matter Days National Conference (CMDAYS2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The 24 th edition of Condensed Matter Days (CMDAYS) 2016, a National Conference had been decided to be held at Physics Department, Mizoram University, Aizwal, Mizoram, India during 29-31 August 2016. This decision was taken by the General Body meeting of the CMDAYS on 28 August 2015 at Viswa Bharati, Shanti Niketan, West Bengal, India and Prof. R.K. Thapa was proposed as the Convener of CMDAYS-2016. Initiated by the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, Odisa. The CMDAYS conference is held annually in the last week of August. The main objective of the conference was to bring all the researchers/scientists working in the field of Condensed Matter Physics, or related topics, together on a single platform. In this way, they can present, share and discuss their research findings and further plan collaborative works in future. The conference topics were on the theory and experimental research works done on Strongly correlated systems, Soft condensed matter, Magnetism and Magnetic materials, Disordered systems, Phase transition, Materials for energy harvesting, Nanomaterials and applications, Dielectrics and Ferroelectrics, Optoelectronics and devices, Semiconductors and devices, Biophysics, Biomaterials and composites, Superconductivity, Thin films and devices. It was open to all researchers from the research institutes, universities and colleges. Until the last date 1 st June 2016, we have received 1 plenary lecture, 3 Keynote lectures, 8 invited talks and 55 oral contributed papers. In total, there were 10 technical sessions to complete all the contributed papers along with the invited talks. Sessions were very interesting with the young participants interacting extensively with the senior scientists and everybody enjoyed the conference period with two cultural programmes. On the last day after the closing function, a local tour programme was arranged for all the outside participants. We are grateful to Prof. R. Lalthantluanga, Vice Cahncellor, Mizoram University, Aizawl

  18. Diagrammatics lectures on selected problems in condensed matter theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of quantum field theory methods has led to a kind of "revolution" in condensed matter theory. This resulted in the increased importance of Feynman diagrams or diagram technique. It has now become imperative for professionals in condensed matter theory to have a thorough knowledge of this method.There are many good books that cover the general aspects of diagrammatic methods. At the same time, there has been a rising need for books that describe calculations and methodical "know how" of specific problems for beginners in graduate and postgraduate courses. This unique collection

  19. Stabilization of matter wave solitons in weakly coupled atomic condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, R.; Vinayagam, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a weakly coupled two component Bose–Einstein condensate and generate bright soliton solutions. We observe that when the bright solitons evolve in time, the density of the condensates shoots up suddenly by virtue of weak coupling indicating the onset of instability in the dynamical system. However, this instability can be overcome either through Feshbach resonance by tuning the temporal scattering length or by suitably changing the time dependent coupling coefficient, thereby extending the lifetime of the condensates.

  20. Neutrino emission in inhomogeneous pion condensed quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xuguang; Wang, Qun; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that quark matter can exist in neutron star interior if the baryon density is high enough. When there is a large isospin density, quark matter could be in a pion condensed phase. We compute neutrino emission from direct Urca processes in such a phase, particularly in the inhomogeneous Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell (LOFF) states. The neutrino emissivity and specific heat are obtained, from which the cooling rate is estimated. (author)

  1. Integrating Condensed Matter Physics into a Liberal Arts Physics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Jeffrey

    2008-03-01

    The emergence of nanoscale science into the popular consciousness presents an opportunity to attract and retain future condensed matter scientists. We inject nanoscale physics into recruiting activities and into the introductory and the core portions of the curriculum. Laboratory involvement and research opportunity play important roles in maintaining student engagement. We use inexpensive scanning tunneling (STM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes to introduce students to nanoscale structure early in their college careers. Although the physics of tip-surface interactions is sophisticated, the resulting images can be interpreted intuitively. We use the STM in introductory modern physics to explore quantum tunneling and the properties of electrons at surfaces. An interdisciplinary course in nanoscience and nanotechnology course team-taught with chemists looks at nanoscale phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology. Core quantum and statistical physics courses look at effects of quantum mechanics and quantum statistics in degenerate systems. An upper level solid-state physics course takes up traditional condensed matter topics from a structural perspective by beginning with a study of both elastic and inelastic scattering of x-rays from crystalline solids and liquid crystals. Students encounter reciprocal space concepts through the analysis of laboratory scattering data and by the development of the scattering theory. The course then examines the importance of scattering processes in band structure and in electrical and thermal conduction. A segment of the course is devoted to surface physics and nanostructures where we explore the effects of restricting particles to two-dimensional surfaces, one-dimensional wires, and zero-dimensional quantum dots.

  2. Soft condensed matter: Polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    Historians often characterize epochs through their dominant materials, clay, bronze, iron, and steel. From this perspective, the modern era is certainly the age of plastics. The progression from hard to soft materials suggests that the emerging era will be the age of open-quotes soft condensed matter.close quotes

  3. Physics in Brazil in the next decade: condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This book gives a general overview of the present situation in Brazil, concerning research in the different areas of condensed matter physics. The main areas discussed here are: semiconductors, magnetism and magnetic materials, superconductivity liquid crystals and polymers, ceramics, glasses and crystals, statistical physics and solid state physics, crystallography, magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy, among others. (A.C.A.S.)

  4. The coupling of condensed matter excitations to electron probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Aspects of coupling of a classical electron with bulk and surface excitations in condensed matter have been sketched. Some considerations of a self-energy approach to the complete quantal treatment of this coupling have been given. 19 refs., 3 figs

  5. Proceedings of the 12. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The XII National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics presented works in the areas: atomic and molecular physics; biophysics; crystallography; defects growth and characterization of crystals; instrumentation; liquid crystals; magnetism; science of materials, metals and alloys; magnetic resonance; semiconductors; superconductivity and; surfaces and thin films. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. The geometric phase in quantum systems foundations, mathematical concepts, and applications in molecular and condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, Arno; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Niu, Qian; Zwanziger, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Aimed at graduate physics and chemistry students, this is the first comprehensive monograph covering the concept of the geometric phase in quantum physics from its mathematical foundations to its physical applications and experimental manifestations It contains all the premises of the adiabatic Berry phase as well as the exact Anandan-Aharonov phase It discusses quantum systems in a classical time-independent environment (time dependent Hamiltonians) and quantum systems in a changing environment (gauge theory of molecular physics) The mathematical methods used are a combination of differential geometry and the theory of linear operators in Hilbert Space As a result, the monograph demonstrates how non-trivial gauge theories naturally arise and how the consequences can be experimentally observed Readers benefit by gaining a deep understanding of the long-ignored gauge theoretic effects of quantum mechanics and how to measure them

  7. Physics of condensed matter at extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1988-01-01

    The study of matter under extreme conditions is a highly interdisciplinary subject with broad applications to materials science, geophysics and astrophysics. High-pressure properties are studied in the laboratory using static and dynamic techniques. The two differ drastically in the methods of generating and measuring pressure and in the fundamentally different nature of the final compressed state. This article covers a very broad range of conditions, intended to present an overview of important recent developments and to emphasize the behavior of materials and the kinds of properties now being studied

  8. No pion condensate in nuclear matter due to fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.

    1981-01-01

    We show that if pion condensation occurs in a mean-field theory of infinite nuclear matter, fluctuations completely prevent the formation of a condensate as well as of the associated Goldstone mode. Thus if an increase of opalescence should ever be observed experimentally, it is these fluctuations which are measured rather than the scattering on the Goldstone modes. They preserve isotopic symmetry and increase very smoothly as the density passes the formerly critical density. There are no discontinuities in any thermodynamic quantitiy. (orig.)

  9. Walter Kohn and the Rise of Condensed Matter Physics T V ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramakrishnan T V

    Condensed Matter Physics: ( Physics of condensed matter, which is mostly solid, ... The nature and description of electronic states in solids. ( also with coulomb ... materials, molecular complexes, etc.. (Chemistry, biology, materials science….).

  10. Universal properties of relaxation and diffusion in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngai K L

    2017-01-01

    By and large the research communities today are not fully aware of the remarkable universality in the dynamic properties of many-body relaxation/diffusion processes manifested in experiments and simulations on condensed matter with diverse chemical compositions and physical structures. I shall demonstrate the universality first from the dynamic processes in glass-forming systems. This is reinforced by strikingly similar properties of different processes in contrasting interacting systems all having nothing to do with glass transition. The examples given here include glass-forming systems of diverse chemical compositions and physical structures, conductivity relaxation of ionic conductors (liquid, glassy, and crystalline), translation and orientation ordered phase of rigid molecule, and polymer chain dynamics. Universality is also found in the change of dynamics when dimension is reduced to nanometer size in widely different systems. The remarkable universality indicates that many-body relaxation/diffusion is governed by fundamental physics to be unveiled. One candidate is classical chaos on which the coupling model is based, Universal properties predicted by this model are in accord with diverse experiments and simulations. (paper)

  11. Statistical physics including applications to condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies -- as e.g. semiconductors or lasers -- are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  12. Diquark Bose Condensates in High Density Matter and Instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.; Shuryak, E.; Schaefer, T.; Velkovsky, M.

    1998-01-01

    Instantons lead to strong correlations between up and down quarks with spin zero and antisymmetric color wave functions. In cold and dense matter, n b >n c ≅1 fm -3 and T c ∼50 thinspthinspMeV, these pairs Bose condense, replacing the usual left-angle bar qq right-angle condensate and restoring chiral symmetry. At high density, the ground state is a color superconductor in which diquarks play the role of Cooper pairs. An interesting toy model is provided by QCD with two colors: it has a particle-antiparticle symmetry which relates left-angle bar qq right-angle and left-angle qq right-angle condensates. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  13. Topological Insulators Dirac Equation in Condensed Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, Topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological in...

  14. Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data

    CERN Document Server

    Martienssen, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Condensed Matter and Materials Science are two of the most active fields of applied physics, with a stream of discoveries in areas from superconductivity and magnetism to the optical, electronic and mechanical properties of materials. While a huge amount of data has been compiled and spread over numerous reference works, no single volume compiles the most used information. Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data provides a concise compilation of data and functional relationships from the fields of solid-state physics and materials in this 1200-page volume. The data, encapsulated in over 750 tables and 1025 illustrations, have been selected and extracted primarily from the extensive high-quality data collection Landolt-Börnstein and also from other systematic data sources and recent publications of physical and technical property data. Many chapters are authored by Landolt-Börnstein editors, including the editors of this Springer Handbook. Key Topics Fundamental Constants The International S...

  15. Fundamentals of charged particle transport in gases and condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Robson, Robert E; Hildebrandt, Malte

    2018-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive and cohesive overview of transport processes associated with all kinds of charged particles, including electrons, ions, positrons, and muons, in both gases and condensed matter. The emphasis is on fundamental physics, linking experiment, theory and applications. In particular, the authors discuss: The kinetic theory of gases, from the traditional Boltzmann equation to modern generalizations A complementary approach: Maxwell’s equations of change and fluid modeling Calculation of ion-atom scattering cross sections Extension to soft condensed matter, amorphous materials Applications: drift tube experiments, including the Franck-Hertz experiment, modeling plasma processing devices, muon catalysed fusion, positron emission tomography, gaseous radiation detectors Straightforward, physically-based arguments are used wherever possible to complement mathematical rigor.

  16. 10th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kalia, Rajiv; Bishop, R

    1987-01-01

    The second volume of Condensed Matter Theories contains the proceedings of the 10th International Workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, U.S.A. during the week of July 21, 1986. The workshop was attended by high-energy, nuclear and condensed-matter physicists as well as materials scientists. This diverse blend of participants was in keeping with the flavor of the previous workshops. This annual series of international workshops was"started in 1977 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Subsequent'workshops were held in Trieste (Italy), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Caracas (Venezuela), Altenberg (West Germany), Granada (Spain), and San Francisco (U.S.A.). What began as a meeting of the physicists from the Western Hemisphere has expanded in the last three years into an international conference of scientists with diverse interests and backgrounds. This diversity has promoted a healthy exchange of ideas from different branches of physics and also fruitful interactions among the participants. The present volume is...

  17. Statistical Mechanics and Applications in Condensed Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Castro, Carlo; Raimondi, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Preface; 1. Thermodynamics: a brief overview; 2. Kinetics; 3. From Boltzmann to Gibbs; 4. More ensembles; 5. The thermodynamic limit and its thermodynamic stability; 6. Density matrix and quantum statistical mechanics; 7. The quantum gases; 8. Mean-field theories and critical phenomena; 9. Second quantization and Hartree-Fock approximation; 10. Linear response and fluctuation-dissipation theorem in quantum systems: equilibrium and small deviations; 11. Brownian motion and transport in disordered systems; 12. Fermi liquids; 13. The Landau theory of the second order phase transitions; 14. The Landau-Wilson model for critical phenomena; 15. Superfluidity and superconductivity; 16. The scaling theory; 17. The renormalization group approach; 18. Thermal Green functions; 19. The microscopic foundations of Fermi liquids; 20. The Luttinger liquid; 21. Quantum interference effects in disordered electron systems; Appendix A. The central limit theorem; Appendix B. Some useful properties of the Euler Gamma function; Appendix C. Proof of the second theorem of Yang and Lee; Appendix D. The most probable distribution for the quantum gases; Appendix E. Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integrals; Appendix F. The Fermi gas in a uniform magnetic field: Landau diamagnetism; Appendix G. Ising and gas-lattice models; Appendix H. Sum over discrete Matsubara frequencies; Appendix I. Hydrodynamics of the two-fluid model of superfluidity; Appendix J. The Cooper problem in the theory of superconductivity; Appendix K. Superconductive fluctuations phenomena; Appendix L. Diagrammatic aspects of the exact solution of the Tomonaga Luttinger model; Appendix M. Details on the theory of the disordered Fermi liquid; References; Author index; Index.

  18. Eighteenth Workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, David P; Schüttler, Heinz-Bernd; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVIII

    2006-01-01

    This volume represents a "status report" emanating from presentations made during the 18th Annual Workshop on Computer Simulations Studies in Condensed Matter Physics at the Center for Simulational Physics at the University of Georgia in March 2005. It provides a broad overview of the most recent advances in the field, spanning the range from statistical physics to soft condensed matter and biological systems. Results on nanostructures and materials are included as are several descriptions of advances in quantum simulations and quantum computing as well as.methodological advances.

  19. Surface and bulk excitations in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    In this lecture collective and single-particle electron excitations of solids will be discussed with emphasis on the properties of metallic and semiconducting materials. However, some of the general properties of long-wavelength collective modes to be discussed are valid for insulators as well, and some considerations apply to nuclear excitations such as optical or acoustical phonons, dipolar plasmons, etc. The concept of elementary excitations in solids, pioneered by Bohm and Pines almost 4 decades ago, has proved to be extremely useful in understanding the properties of systems of many particles, especially in respect to the response to the action of external probes. 32 refs., 12 figs

  20. BES-HEP Connections: Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics, Round Table Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, Eduardo [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Maldacena, Juan [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chatterjee, Lali [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of High Energy Physics; Davenport, James W [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2015-02-02

    On February 2, 2015 the Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Basic Energy Sciences (BES) convened a Round Table discussion among a group of physicists on ‘Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics’. This was motivated by the realization that both fields deal with quantum many body problems, share many of the same challenges, use quantum field theoretical approaches and have productively interacted in the past. The meeting brought together physicists with intersecting interests to explore recent developments and identify possible areas of collaboration.... Several topics were identified as offering great opportunity for discovery and advancement in both condensed matter physics and particle physics research. These included topological phases of matter, the use of entanglement as a tool to study nontrivial quantum systems in condensed matter and gravity, the gauge-gravity duality, non-Fermi liquids, the interplay of transport and anomalies, and strongly interacting disordered systems. Many of the condensed matter problems are realizable in laboratory experiments, where new methods beyond the usual quasi-particle approximation are needed to explain the observed exotic and anomalous results. Tools and techniques such as lattice gauge theories, numerical simulations of many-body systems, and tensor networks are seen as valuable to both communities and will likely benefit from collaborative development.

  1. Topological insulators Dirac equation in condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2017-01-01

    This new edition presents a unified description of these insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. It derives a series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary, and describes the current status of these solutions. Readers are introduced to topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetylene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids, and topological Weyl semimetals, helping them to better understand this fascinating field. To reflect research advances in topological insulators, several parts of the book have been updated for the second edition, including: Spin-Triplet Superconductors, Superconductivity in Doped Topological Insulators, Detection of Majorana Fermions and so on. In particular, the book features a new chapter on Weyl semimetals, a topic that has attracted considerable attention and has already b...

  2. Advanced spallation neutron sources for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.; Stirling, G.C.

    1984-03-01

    Advanced spallation neutron sources afford significant advantages over existing high flux reactors. The effective flux is much greater than that currently available with reactor sources. A ten-fold increase in neutron flux will be a major benefit to a wide range of condensed matter studies, and it will realise important experiments that are marginal at reactor sources. Moreover, the high intensity of epithermal neutrons open new vistas in studies of electronic states and molecular vibrations. (author)

  3. Lectures on holographic methods for condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A

    2009-01-01

    These notes are loosely based on lectures given at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge theories, February 2009, and at the IPM String School in Tehran, April 2009. I have focused on a few concrete topics and also on addressing questions that have arisen repeatedly. Background condensed matter physics material is included as motivation and easy reference for the high energy physics community. The discussion of holographic techniques progresses from equilibrium, to transport and to superconductivity.

  4. The 1989 progress report: Physics of the condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapoval, B.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The laboratory research fields are the physics of semiconductors and the physics of disordered states. The 1989 main results were the determination of the fractal dimension of silicon aerogels by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and the observation of local vibrations of a fractal drum. The published papers, the conferences and Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  5. Proceedings 17. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudis, D.; Kubicova, I.; Bury, P.

    2011-01-01

    The 17. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 22-24 June, 2011 in Spa Novy Smokovec, High Tatras, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of nano-science and technology, thin films, MOS structures, optical phenomena, GaN-based heterostructures, simulation methods, heterostructures and devices, solid state characterization and analysis, materials and radiation, sensors and detection methods, and material sciences. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (55 contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  6. Computer simulation studies in condensed-matter physics 5. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, D.P.; Mon, K.K.; Schuettler, H.B.

    1993-01-01

    As the role of computer simulations began to increase in importance, we sensed a need for a ''meeting place'' for both experienced simulators and neophytes to discuss new techniques and results in an environment which promotes extended discussion. As a consequence of these concerns, The Center for Simulational Physics established an annual workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics. This year's workshop was the fifth in this series and the interest which the scientific community has shown demonstrates quite clearly the useful purpose which the series has served. The workshop was held at the University of Georgia, February 17-21, 1992, and these proceedings from a record of the workshop which is published with the goal of timely dissemination of the papers to a wider audience. The proceedings are divided into four parts. The first part contains invited papers which deal with simulational studies of classical systems and includes an introduction to some new simulation techniques and special purpose computers as well. A separate section of the proceedings is devoted to invited papers on quantum systems including new results for strongly correlated electron and quantum spin models. The third section is comprised of a single, invited description of a newly developed software shell designed for running parallel programs. The contributed presentations comprise the final chapter. (orig.). 79 figs

  7. Pion condensation and density isomerism in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecking, P.; Weise, W.

    1979-01-01

    The possible existence of density isomers in nuclear matter, induced by pion condensation, is discussed; the nuclear equation of state is treated within the framework of the sigma model. Repulsive short-range baryon-baryon correlations, the admixture of Δ (1232) isobars and finite-range pion-baryon vertex form factors are taken into account. The strong dependence of density isomerism on the high density extrapolation of the equation of state for normal nuclear matter is also investigated. We find that, once finite range pion-baryon vertices are introduced, the appearance of density isomers becomes unlikely

  8. Proceedings 20. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2014-01-01

    The 20. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 25-28 June, 2014 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Forty-six contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  9. Dark matter seen as a Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoni, Andre; Pires, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Astronomical observations of the stellar angular velocity in galaxies shows the general relativity theory, which considers that the usual matter changes the space-time, unable to describe the angular velocity to the peripheral stars. There are two possibilities to solve this problem, or the general relativity theory is not adequate to the phenomena or another type of matter must be considered in the composition of the galaxies. Many astrophysicists are in agreement considering another type of matter. This matter, called dark matter (DM), must interact very weakly with the barionic matter and, therefore, is invisible to direct observation. Some of them consider this dark matter made up of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which were not detected yet due to their very thin cross-section. A cloud of these particles is distributed around the galaxy under a low temperature and density. If we consider the cloud as a quantum gas, with the energies and the densities low enough to have binary interactions between particles, the gas can reach temperature condition to take a phase transition to the Bose-Einstein condensate where there are a constructive interference partner of these WIMPs. We performed an investigation about the dark matter being a Bose-Einstein condensate of WIMPs confined in itself gravitational potential. Taking the Thomas-Fermi approximation where the number of WIMPs is big enough to neglect the kinetic contribution in the total energy, we got the state equation of barotropic gas. Fitting this state equation with the data of rotational curves and density profiles taken from astronomical observations of galaxies, we estimated the mass and the scattering length of these WIMPs. (author)

  10. Condensed matter applications of AdS/CFT (I)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    These lectures will discuss the application of ads/cft techniques to condensed matter systems. After motivating this endeavor, I will review the basic features of the ads/cft correspondence that will be used. I will review the physics of spectral functions and how they can be computed via AdS/CFT. Holographic superconductors will be discussed. The lectures will conclude with a discussion of open questions and future directions. References: - Holographic Superconductors. Sean A. Hartnoll, Christopher P. Herzog, Gary T. Horowitz, JHEP 0812:015,2008, arXiv:0810.1563 [hep-th] - Ohm's Law at strong coupling: S duality and the cyclotron resonance, Sean A. Hartnoll, Christopher P. Herzog,  Phys.Rev.D76:106012,2007, arXiv:0706.3228 [hep-th] - Gravity duals for non-relativistic CFTs. Koushik Balasubramanian, John McGreevy,  Phys.Rev.Lett.101:061601,2008, arXiv:0804.4053 [hep-th] - Toward an AdS/cold atoms correspondence: A Geometric realization of the Schrodinger symmetry. D.T. Son, Phys.Rev.D78:0...

  11. 13th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This volume gathers the invited talks of the XIII International Work­ shop on Condensed Matter Theories which took place in Campos do Jordao near Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 6-12, 1989. It contains contributions in a wide variety of fields including neutral quantum and classical fluids, electronic systems, composite materials, plasmas, atoms, molecules and nuclei, and as this year's workshop reflected the natural preoccupation in materials science with its spectacular prospect for mankind, room tempera­ ture super-conductivity. All topics are treated from a common viewpoint: that of many-body physics, whether theoretical or simu1ational. Since the very first workshop, held at the prestigious Instituto de Fisica Teorica in Sao Paulo, and organized by the same organizer of the 1989 workshop, Professor Valdir Casaca Aguilera-Navarro, the meeting has taken place annually six times in Latin America, four in Europe and three in the United States. Its principal objective has been to innitiate and nurture collaborati...

  12. 4. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    This book includes more than 200 abstracts on various aspects of: materials processing and characterization, crystal growth methods, solid-state and crystal technology, development of condensed matter theory and modeling of materials properties, solid-state device physics, nano science and nano technology, heterostructures, superlattices, quantum wells and wires, advanced quantum physics for nano systems

  13. Slow electron motion in condensed matter: Final progress report for period January 1, 1984-December 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fano, U.

    1987-02-01

    A summary is given for theoretical procedures that describe and evaluate the penetration, degradation and diffusion of slow electrons in condensed matter with characteristics relevant to biological systems. 5 refs

  14. Quantum condensates and topological bosons in coupled light-matter excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janot, Alexander

    2016-02-29

    Motivated by the sustained interest in Bose Einstein condensates and the recent progress in the understanding of topological phases in condensed matter systems, we study quantum condensates and possible topological phases of bosons in coupled light-matter excitations, so-called polaritons. These bosonic quasi-particles emerge if electronic excitations (excitons) couple strongly to photons. In the first part of this thesis a polariton Bose Einstein condensate in the presence of disorder is investigated. In contrast to the constituents of a conventional condensate, such as cold atoms, polaritons have a finite life time. Then, the losses have to be compensated by continued pumping, and a non-thermal steady state can build up. We discuss how static disorder affects this non-equilibrium condensate, and analyze the stability of the superfluid state against disorder. We find that disorder destroys the quasi-long range order of the condensate wave function, and that the polariton condensate is not a superfluid in the thermodynamic limit, even for weak disorder, although superfluid behavior would persist in small systems. Furthermore, we analyze the far field emission pattern of a polariton condensate in a disorder environment in order to compare directly with experiments. In the second part of this thesis features of polaritons in a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall cavity with time reversal symmetry are discussed. We propose a topological invariant which has a nontrivial value if the quantum spin Hall insulator is topologically nontrivial. Furthermore, we analyze emerging polaritonic edge states, discuss their relation to the underlying electronic structure, and develop an effective edge state model for polaritons.

  15. Advances in high pressure research in condensed matter: proceedings of the international conference on condensed matter under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.; Gupta, Satish C.; Godwal, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The use of pressure as a thermodynamic variable for studying condensed matter has become very important in recent years. Its main effect is to reduce the volume of a substance. Thus, in some sense, it mimics the phenomena taking place during the cohesion of solids like pressure ionization, modifications in electronic properties and phase changes etc. Some of the phase changes under pressure lead to synthesis of new materials. The recent discovery of high T c superconductivity in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 may be indirectly attributed to the pressure effect. In applied fields like simulation of reactor accident, design of inertial confinement fusion schemes and for understanding the rock mechanical effects of shock propagation in earth due to underground nuclear explosions, the pressure versus volume relations of condensed matter are a vital input. This volume containing the proceedings of the International Conference on Condensed Matter Under High Pressure covers various aspects of high pressure pertaining to equations of state, phase transitions, electronic, optical and transport properties of solids, atomic and molecular studies, shock induced reactions, energetic materials, materials synthesis, mineral physics, geophysical and planetary sciences, biological applications and food processing and advances in experimental techniques and numerical simulations. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. Is a condensed state of nuclear matter possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakonov, D.I.; Mirlin, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Nucleon chiral models naturally lead to the concept of ''generalized'' or ''classical'' nucleons which are characterized by a definite orientation in spin-isospin space. Nucleons and Δ resonances are different rotational states of generalized nucleons. Interaction of two generalized nucleons is sharply anisotropic and at a definite relative orientation leads to very strong attraction. This gives an idea of possible existence of a condensed state of nuclear matter, i.e. of a crystal or Fermi liquid with a short-range order which consists of N and Δ coherent superpositions. The variational estimate shows that at densities a few times that of the standard nuclear density this condensed state may be energetically favourable

  17. New state of matter: Bose-Einstein condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    70 years after work by the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose led Einstein to predict the existence of a new state of matter, the Bose-Einstein condensate has finally been seen. The discovery was made in July by a team from Colorado, and was followed one month later by a second sighting at Rice University at Houston, Texas. It is Bose's theoretical framework governing the behaviour of the particles we now call bosons which led to Einstein's prediction. Unlike fermions, which obey the Pauli exclusion principle of only one resident particle per allowed quantum state, any number of bosons can pack into an identical quantum state. This led Einstein to suggest that under certain conditions, bosons would lose their individual identities, condensing into a kind of 'superboson'. This condensate forms when the quantum mechanical waves of neighbouring bosons overlap, hiding the identity of the individual particles. Such a condition is difficult to achieve, since most long-lived bosons are composite particles which tend to interact and stick together before a condensate can emerge. Extremely low temperatures and high densities are required to overcome this problem. As bosons lose energy and cool down, their wavelengths become longer, and they can be packed close enough together to merge into a condensate. Up until now, however, the extreme conditions needed have not been attainable. Nevertheless, hints of the Bose- Einstein condensate have been inferred in phenomena such as superconductivity and liquid helium superfluidity. Condensates could also play an important role in particle physics and cosmology, explaining, for example, why the pion as a bound quark-antiquark state is so much lighter than the three-quark proton. A hunt to create a pure Bose- Einstein condensate has been underway for over 15 years, with different groups employing different techniques to cool their bosons. The two recent successes have been achieved by incorporating several

  18. Applied mathematics and condensed matter; Mathematiques appliquees et matiere condensee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouche, D.; Jollet, F. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2011-01-15

    Applied mathematics have always been a key tool in computing the structure of condensed matter. In this paper, we present the most widely used methods, and show the importance of mathematics in their genesis and evolution. After a brief survey of quantum Monte Carlo methods, which try to compute the N electrons wave function, the paper describes the theoretical foundations of N independent particle approximations. We mainly focus on density functional theory (DFT). This theory associated with advanced numerical methods, and high performance computing, has produced significant achievements in the field. This paper presents the foundations of the theory, as well as different numerical methods used to solve DFT equations. (authors)

  19. Non-Commutative Mechanics in Mathematical & in Condensed Matter Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Horváthy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-commutative structures were introduced, independently and around the same time, in mathematical and in condensed matter physics (see Table 1. Souriau's construction applied to the two-parameter central extension of the planar Galilei group leads to the ''exotic'' particle, which has non-commuting position coordinates. A Berry-phase argument applied to the Bloch electron yields in turn a semiclassical model that has been used to explain the anomalous/spin/optical Hall effects. The non-commutative parameter is momentum-dependent in this case, and can take the form of a monopole in momentum space.

  20. Nanophenomena at surfaces fundamentals of exotic condensed matter phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Michailov, Michail

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in nanoscale surface physics. It outlines contemporary trends in the field covering a wide range of topical areas: atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces, molecular films and polymer adsorption, biologically inspired nanophysics, surface design and pattern formation, and computer modeling of interfacial phenomena. Bridging 'classical' and 'nano' concepts, the present volume brings attention to the physical background of exotic condensed-matter properties. The book is devoted to Iwan Stranski and Rostislaw Kaischew, remarkable scientists, who played

  1. Use of ultracold neutrons for condensed-matter studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaudon, A.

    1997-05-01

    Ultracold neutrons have such low velocities that they are reflected by most materials at all incident angles and can be stored in material bottles for long periods of time during which their intrinsic properties can be studied in great detail. These features have been mainly used for fundamental-physics studies including the detection of a possible neutron electric dipole moment and the precise determination of neutron-decay properties. Ultracold neutrons can also play a role in condensed-matter studies with the help of high-resolution spectrometers that use gravity as a strongly dispersive medium for low-velocity neutrons. Such studies have so far been limited by the low intensity of existing ultracold-neutron sources but could be reconsidered with more intense sources, which are now envisaged. This report provides a broad survey of the properties of ultracold neutrons (including their reflectivity by different types of samples), of ultracold-neutron spectrometers that are compared with other high-resolution instruments, of results obtained in the field of condensed matter with these instruments, and of neutron microscopes. All these subjects are illustrated by numerous examples.

  2. Use of ultracold neutrons for condensed-matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaudon, A.

    1997-05-01

    Ultracold neutrons have such low velocities that they are reflected by most materials at all incident angles and can be stored in material bottles for long periods of time during which their intrinsic properties can be studied in great detail. These features have been mainly used for fundamental-physics studies including the detection of a possible neutron electric dipole moment and the precise determination of neutron-decay properties. Ultracold neutrons can also play a role in condensed-matter studies with the help of high-resolution spectrometers that use gravity as a strongly dispersive medium for low-velocity neutrons. Such studies have so far been limited by the low intensity of existing ultracold-neutron sources but could be reconsidered with more intense sources, which are now envisaged. This report provides a broad survey of the properties of ultracold neutrons (including their reflectivity by different types of samples), of ultracold-neutron spectrometers that are compared with other high-resolution instruments, of results obtained in the field of condensed matter with these instruments, and of neutron microscopes. All these subjects are illustrated by numerous examples

  3. International Symposium on Dynamics of Ordering Processes in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, H

    1988-01-01

    The International Symposium on Dynamics of Ordering Processes in Condensed Matter was held at the Kansai Seminar House, Kyoto, for four days, from 27 to 30 August 1987, under the auspices of the Physical Soci­ ety of Japan. The symposium was financially supported by the four orga­ nizations and 45 companies listed on other pages in this volume. We are very grateful to all of them and particularly to the greatest sponsor, the Commemorative Association for the Japan World Exposition 1970. A total Df 22 invited lectures and 48 poster presentations were given and 110 participants attended from seven nations. An objective of the Symposium was to review and extend our present understanding of the dynamics of ordering processes in condensed matters, (for example, alloys, polymers and fluids), that are brought to an un­ stable state by sudden change of such external parameters as temperature and pressure. A second objective, no less important, was to identify new fields of science that might be investigated by sim...

  4. International Workshop on Current Problems in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Current Problems in Condensed Matter

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the International Workshop on the Cur­ rent Problems in Condensed Matter: Theory and Experiment, held at Cocoyoc, More­ los, Mexico, during January 5-9, 1997. The participants had come from Argentina, Austria, Chile, England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Switzerland, and the USA. The presentations at the Workshop provided state-of-art reviews of many of the most important problems, currently under study, in condensed matter. Equally important to all the participants in the workshop was the fact that we had come to honor a friend, Karl Heinz Bennemann, on his sixty-fifth birthday. This Festschrift is just a small measure of recognition of the intellectualleadership of Professor Bennemann in the field and equally important, as a sincere tribute to his qualities as an exceptional friend, college and mentor. Those who have had the privilege to work closely with Karl have been deeply touched by Karl's inquisitive scientific mind as well as by bis k...

  5. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condensate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-29

    Preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Condensate System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides a collection point for condensate generated by the W-030 primary vent offgas cooling system serving tanks AYIOI, AY102, AZIOI, AZI02. The system is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell and consists of a condensate seal pot, sampling features, a drain line to existing Catch Tank 241-AZ-151, and a cell sump jet pump. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  6. Collective emission of matter-wave jets from driven Bose-Einstein condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Logan W; Gaj, Anita; Feng, Lei; Chin, Cheng

    2017-11-16

    Scattering is used to probe matter and its interactions in all areas of physics. In ultracold atomic gases, control over pairwise interactions enables us to investigate scattering in quantum many-body systems. Previous experiments on colliding Bose-Einstein condensates have revealed matter-wave interference, haloes of scattered atoms, four-wave mixing and correlations between counter-propagating pairs. However, a regime with strong stimulation of spontaneous collisions analogous to superradiance has proved elusive. In this regime, the collisions rapidly produce highly correlated states with macroscopic population. Here we find that runaway stimulated collisions in Bose-Einstein condensates with periodically modulated interaction strength cause the collective emission of matter-wave jets that resemble fireworks. Jets appear only above a threshold modulation amplitude and their correlations are invariant even when the number of ejected atoms grows exponentially. Hence, we show that the structures and atom occupancies of the jets stem from the quantum fluctuations of the condensate. Our findings demonstrate the conditions required for runaway stimulated collisions and reveal the quantum nature of matter-wave emission.

  7. 11th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, R; Manninen, Matti; Condensed Matter Theories : Volume 3

    1988-01-01

    This book is the third volume in an approximately annual series which comprises the proceedings of the International Workshops on Condensed Matter Theories. The first of these meetings took place in 1977 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and successive workshops have been held in Trieste, Italy (1978), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1979), Caracas, Venezuela (1980), Mexico City, Mexico (1981), St. Louis, USA (1982), Altenberg, Federal Republic of Germany (1983), Granada, Spain (1984), San Francisco, USA (1985), and Argonne, USA (1986). The present volume contains the proceedings of the Eleventh Workshop which took place in Qulu, Finland during the period 27 July - 1 August, 1987. The original motivation and the historical evolution of the series of Workshops have been amply described in the preface to the first volume in the present series. An important objective throughout has been to work against the ever-present trend for physics to fragment into increasingly narrow fields of specialisation, between which communication is d...

  8. Indus-I beamlines for condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandedkar, R.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: A 450 MeV electron storage ring Indus-I is now operational. This storage ring gives synchrotron radiation in soft x-ray vacuum ultra violet (VUV) and to visible region. On this storage ring six beamlines are now being set up for atomic and molecular spectroscopy experiments, solid state spectroscopy experiments and soft and VUV reflectivity experiments. In this talk, present status of beamlines which condense matter physicists will be interested in will be given along with some commissioning experiments. These beam lines are based on a toroidal grating monochromators in the range 40 - 1000 A with moderate energy resolution. Some experiments which can be conducted using these beam lines will be discussed

  9. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD x , these fluctuations begin to occur as x → 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD x the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  10. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, Scott R. [Research Systems Inc., 9822 Pebble Weigh Ct., Burke VA 22015-3378 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD{sub x}, these fluctuations begin to occur as x {yields} 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD{sub x} the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  11. Quantum simulations with photons and polaritons merging quantum optics with condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book reviews progress towards quantum simulators based on photonic and hybrid light-matter systems, covering theoretical proposals and recent experimental work. Quantum simulators are specially designed quantum computers. Their main aim is to simulate and understand complex and inaccessible quantum many-body phenomena found or predicted in condensed matter physics, materials science and exotic quantum field theories. Applications will include the engineering of smart materials, robust optical or electronic circuits, deciphering quantum chemistry and even the design of drugs. Technological developments in the fields of interfacing light and matter, especially in many-body quantum optics, have motivated recent proposals for quantum simulators based on strongly correlated photons and polaritons generated in hybrid light-matter systems. The latter have complementary strengths to cold atom and ion based simulators and they can probe for example out of equilibrium phenomena in a natural driven-dissipative sett...

  12. CAREER opportunities at the Condensed Matter Physics Program, NSF/DMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakiewicz, Tomasz

    The Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program is a Foundation-wide activity, offering prestigious awards in support of junior faculty. Awards are expected to build the careers of teacher-scholars through outstanding research, excellent education and the integration of education and research. Condensed Matter Physics Program receives between 35 and 45 CAREER proposals each year, in areas related to fundamental research of phenomena exhibited by condensed matter systems. Proposal processing, merit review process, funding levels and success rates will be discussed in the presentation. NSF encourages submission of CAREER proposals from junior faculty members from CAREER-eligible organizations and encourages women, members of underrepresented minority groups, and persons with disabilities to apply. NSF/DMR/CMP homepage: https://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=5666

  13. 6. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    This book includes abstracts of the communications presented at the 6th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics. The aim of this event is two-fold. First, it provides a nice opportunity for discussions and the dissemination of the latest results on selected topics in materials science, condensed-matter physics, and electrical methods of materials treatment. On the other hand, this is an occasion for sketching a broad perspective of scientific research and technological developments for the participants through oral and poster presentations. The abstracts presented in the book cover certain issues of modern theoretical and experimental physics and advanced technology, such as crystal growth, doping and implantation, fabrication of solid state structures; defect engineering, methods of fabrication and characterization of nanostructures including nanocomposites, nanowires and nano dots; fullerenes and nano tubes; quantum wells and superlattices; molecular-based materials, meso- and nano electronics; methods of structural and mechanical characterization; optical, transport, magnetic and superconductor properties, non-linear phenomena, size and interface effects; condensed matter theory; modelling of materials and structural properties including low dimensional systems; advanced materials and fabrication processes, device modelling and simulation of structures and elements; optoelectronics and photonics; microsensors and micro electro-mechanical systems; degradation and reliability, advanced technologies of electro-physico-chemical methods and equipment for materials machining, including modification of surfaces; electrophysical technologies of intensification of heat- and mass-transfer; treatment of biological preparations and foodstuff.

  14. 19th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Advances in Nanostructured Condensed Matter: Research and Innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 19 th International School on Condensed Matter Physics “Advances in Nanostructured Condensed Matter: Research and Innovations” (19 th ISCMP). The school was held from August 28 th till September 2 nd , 2016 in Varna, Bulgaria. It was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (ISSP-BAS), and took place at one of the fine resorts on the Bulgarian Black Sea “Saints Constantine and Helena”. The aim of this international school is to bring together top experimentalists and theoreticians, with interests in interdisciplinary areas, with the younger generation of scientists, in order to discuss current research and to communicate new forefront ideas. This year special focus was given to discussions on membrane biophysics and quantum information, also not forgotten were some traditionally covered areas, such as characterization of nanostructured materials. Participants from 12 countries presented 28 invited lectures, 12 short oral talks and 44 posters. The hope of the organizing committee is that the 19 th ISCMP provided enough opportunities for direct scientific contacts, interesting discussions and interactive exchange of ideas between the participants. The nice weather certainly helped a lot in this respect. The editors would like to thank all authors for their high-quality contributions and the members of the international program committee for their commitment. The papers submitted for publication in the Proceedings were refereed according to the publishing standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Editorial Committee members are very grateful to the Journal’s staff for the continuous fruitful relations and for giving us the opportunity to present the work from the 19 th ISCMP. Prof. DSc Hassan Chamati, Assist. Prof. Dr. Alexander A. Donkov, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Julia Genova, and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Emilia Pecheva (paper)

  15. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Bucher-Zimmermann, Claudia [eds.

    1999-09-01

    As a consequence of a major reorganisation at PSI, a new department has been formed with the groups focussing on research of condensed matter. The activities of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zuerich), the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, are described in this annual report figs., tabs., refs.

  16. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Bucher-Zimmermann, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    As a consequence of a major reorganisation at PSI, a new department has been formed with the groups focussing on research of condensed matter. The activities of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zuerich), the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, are described in this annual report

  17. Dark matter as the Bose-Einstein condensation in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atazadeh, K.; Mousavi, M.; Darabi, F.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the FLRW universe in a loop quantum cosmological model filled with radiation, baryonic matter (with negligible pressure), dark energy, and dark matter. The dark matter sector is supposed to be of Bose-Einstein condensate type. The Bose-Einstein condensation process in a cosmological context by supposing it as an approximate first-order phase transition, has already been studied in the literature. Here, we study the evolution of the physical quantities related to the early universe description such as the energy density, temperature, and scale factor of the universe, before, during, and after the condensation process. We also consider in detail the evolution era of the universe in a mixed normal-condensate dark matter phase. The behavior and time evolution of the condensate dark matter fraction is also analyzed. (orig.)

  18. Quark condensates in nuclear matter in the global color symmetry model of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuxin; Gao Dongfeng; Guo Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the global color symmetry model being extended to finite chemical potential, we study the density dependence of the local and nonlocal scalar quark condensates in nuclear matter. The calculated results indicate that the quark condensates increase smoothly with the increasing of nuclear matter density before the critical value (about 12ρ 0 ) is reached. It also manifests that the chiral symmetry is restored suddenly as the density of nuclear matter reaches its critical value. Meanwhile, the nonlocal quark condensate in nuclear matter changes nonmonotonously against the space-time distance among the quarks

  19. Energy condensed packaged systems. Composition, production, properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kovalenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the substantiation of choice of fuel phase composition and optimal technology of emulsion production on the basis of binary solution of ammonium and calcium nitrates, which provide the obtaining of energy condensed packaged systems with specified properties. The thermal decomposition of energy condensed systems on the basis of ammonium nitrate is investigated. It is shown that the fuel phase of emulsion systems should be based on esters of polyunsaturated acids or on combinations thereof with petroleum products. And ceresin or petroleum wax can be used as the structuring additive. The influence of the technology of energy condensed systems production on the physicochemical and detonation parameters of emulsion explosives is considered. It is shown the possibility of obtaining of emulsion systems with dispersion of 1.3...1.8 microns and viscosity higher than 103 Pa∙s in the apparatus of original design. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated paraffin CP-470 on the thermolysis of energy condensed emulsion system is shown. The composition and production technology of energy condensed packaged emulsion systems of mark Ukrainit-P for underground mining in mines not dangerous on gas and dust are developed.

  20. Testing the Bose-Einstein Condensate dark matter model at galactic cluster scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Pengxiang; Liang, Shi-Dong; Mocanu, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The possibility that dark matter may be in the form of a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) has been extensively explored at galactic scale. In particular, good fits for the galactic rotations curves have been obtained, and upper limits for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length have been estimated. In the present paper we extend the investigation of the properties of the BEC dark matter to the galactic cluster scale, involving dark matter dominated astrophysical systems formed of thousands of galaxies each. By considering that one of the major components of a galactic cluster, the intra-cluster hot gas, is described by King's β-model, and that both intra-cluster gas and dark matter are in hydrostatic equilibrium, bound by the same total mass profile, we derive the mass and density profiles of the BEC dark matter. In our analysis we consider several theoretical models, corresponding to isothermal hot gas and zero temperature BEC dark matter, non-isothermal gas and zero temperature dark matter, and isothermal gas and finite temperature BEC, respectively. The properties of the finite temperature BEC dark matter cluster are investigated in detail numerically. We compare our theoretical results with the observational data of 106 galactic clusters. Using a least-squares fitting, as well as the observational results for the dark matter self-interaction cross section, we obtain some upper bounds for the mass and scattering length of the dark matter particle. Our results suggest that the mass of the dark matter particle is of the order of μ eV, while the scattering length has values in the range of 10 −7 fm

  1. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  2. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  3. Coupled Atom-Polar Molecule Condensate Systems: A Theoretical Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-14

    second uses the linear-response theory more familiar to people working in the �eld of condensed-matter physics. We have introduced a quasiparticle ...picture and found that in this picture the bare EIT model in Fig. 2 (a) can be compared to a double EIT system shown in Fig. 2 (b). The quasiparticle ...energy levels consists of a particle (with positive quasiparticle energy ) and a hole (with negative quasiparticle energy) branch. The double EIT

  4. Finite temperature effects in Bose-Einstein condensed dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Madarassy, Enikö J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the properties of the dark matter halos. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation that takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud. The static condensate and thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium is analyzed in detail, by using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. The condensed dark matter and thermal cloud density and mass profiles at finite temperatures are explicitly obtained. Our results show that when the temperature of the condensate and of the thermal cloud are much smaller than the critical Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the zero temperature density and mass profiles give an excellent description of the dark matter halos. However, finite temperature effects may play an important role in the early stages of the cosmological evolution of the dark matter condensates

  5. Theory of condensed matter. Lectures presented at an international course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The International Centre for Theoretical Physics, since its inception, has striven to maintain an interdisciplinary character in its research and training programme as far as different branches of theoretical physics are concerned. in pursuance of this aim the Centre has followed a policy of organizing extended research seminars with a comprehensive and synoptic coverage on varying disciplines. The first of these — lasting over a month — was held in 1964 on fluids of ionized particles and plasma physics; the second, lasting for two months, was concerned with physics of elementary particles and high-energy physics; the third, of three months’ duration, October — December 1966, covered nuclear theory; the fourth, bringing the series through a complete cycle, was a course on condensed matter held from 3 October to 16 December 1967. The present volume records the proceedings of this research seminar. The publication is divided into four parts containing 29 papers. Part I — General Courses, Part II - Dynamical lattice properties; Part III — Liquids and molecules; Part IV — Electronic properties

  6. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  7. Condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Characteristics of the condenser cooling waters of various French 900 MW nuclear power plants. Design and description of various types of condensers: condensers feeded directly with river water, condensers feeded by cooling towers, condensers feeded with sea water of brackish water. Presentation of the main problems encountered with the brass bundles (ammoniacal corrosion, erosion of the peripheral tubes, vibrations of the tubes), with the titanium bundles, with the tubular plates, the tubes-tubular plates assemblies, the coatings of the condenser water chamber (sea water), the vapor by-pass and with the air inlet. Analysis of the in service performances such as condensation pressure, oxygen content and availability [fr

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  9. 242-A evaporator vacuum condenser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document is written for the 242-A evaporator vacuum condenser system (VCS), describing its purpose and operation within the evaporator. The document establishes the operating parameters specifying pressure, temperature, flow rates, interlock safety features and interfacing sub-systems to support its operation

  10. 7. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This book includes the abstracts of the communications presented at the 7th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, traditional biennial meeting organized by the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (IAP) which celebrates this year its 50th anniversary. The conference reports have been delivered in a broad range of topics in materials science, condensed matter physics, electrochemistry reflecting the research results of the scientific staff and Ph.D. students from the IAP as well as those by distinguished guests from different countries. The abstracts cover special issues of modern theoretical and experimental physics and advanced technology, such as advances in condensed matter theory; theory of low dimensional systems; modelling of materials and structural properties; ordering and phase transitions; quantum optics and electronics; strong correlated electronic systems; crystal growth; electronic processes and transport properties of semiconductors and superconductors; ordering processes in magnetic and multiferroic systems; interaction of light and matter, and optical phenomena; properties of composites, meta materials and molecular materials; crystal engineering of solid state structures; metal-organic materials; porous materials; advanced materials with magnetic, luminescent, nonlinear optical , thermoelectric, catalytic, analytic and pharmaceutical properties; defects engineering and mechanical properties; crystallography of organic, inorganic and supramolecular compounds; advanced physics of nanosystems; methods of nanostructures and nanomaterials fabrication and characterization; electronic properties of quantum wells, superlattices, nanowires and nanodots; meso- and nanoelectronics, optical processes in nanostructures; emerging phenomena in nanocomposites and nanomaterials; device modelling and simulation, device structures and elements; photovoltaics: crystals, thin films, nanoparticles

  11. In-stack condensible particulate matter measurement and permitting issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corio, L.A.; Sherwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the results of recent epidemiological studies and assessments of the causes of visibility degradation, EPA is proposing to regulate PM2.5 emissions. PM can be classified as either filterable or condensible PM. Condensible PM includes sulfates, such as sulfuric acid. Sulfates typically account for at least half of the total dry fine PM mass in the atmosphere. Power plant SO x -based emissions make a significant contribution to ambient fine PM levels in the eastern US. Although much of this mass is derived from secondary chemical reactions in the atmosphere, a portion of this sulfate is emitted directly from stacks as condensible PM. The potential condensible PM fraction associated with coal-burning boiler emissions is somewhat uncertain. The characterization of PM emissions from these sources has been, until recently, based on in-stack filterable PM measurements only. To determine the relative magnitude of condensible PM emissions and better understand condensible PM measurement issues, a review and analysis of actual EPA Method 202 results and state-developed hybrid condensible PM methods were conducted. A review of available Method 202 results for several coal-burning boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 60% of the total PM10. A review of recent results for state-developed measurement methods for condensible PM for numerous coal-burning boilers indicated that condensible PM accounted for, on average, approximately 49% of total PM. Caution should be exercised in the use of these results because of the seemingly unresolved issue of artifact formation, which may bias the Method 202 and state-developed methods results on the high side. Condensible PM10 measurement results and issues, and potential ramifications of including condensible PM10 emissions in the PSD permit review process are discussed. Selected power plants in Maryland are discussed as examples

  12. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  13. Dark matter as a Bose-Einstein Condensate: the relativistic non-minimally coupled case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettoni, Dario; Colombo, Mattia; Liberati, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Bose-Einstein Condensates have been recently proposed as dark matter candidates. In order to characterize the phenomenology associated to such models, we extend previous investigations by studying the general case of a relativistic BEC on a curved background including a non-minimal coupling to curvature. In particular, we discuss the possibility of a two phase cosmological evolution: a cold dark matter-like phase at the large scales/early times and a condensed phase inside dark matter halos. During the first phase dark matter is described by a minimally coupled weakly self-interacting scalar field, while in the second one dark matter condensates and, we shall argue, develops as a consequence the non-minimal coupling. Finally, we discuss how such non-minimal coupling could provide a new mechanism to address cold dark matter paradigm issues at galactic scales

  14. [Winter workshop on universalities in condensed matter physics, Les Houches, France, March 15-24, 1988]: [Foreign trip report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bambi.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the travel of Bambi Hu to France for a workshop on Universalities in Condensed Matter Physics. A very brief discussion is given on the workshop. His paper titled ''Problem of Universality in Phase Transitions in Low-Symmetry Systems,'' is included in this report

  15. Nuclear and Condensed Matter Physics: VI Regional CRRNSM Conference. AIP Conference Proceedings, No. 513 [APCPCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messina, A.

    2000-01-01

    This book contains 102 scientific contributions in the areas of nuclear and condensed matter physics. The conference was attended by 144 physicists, most of them belonging to the Sicilian Universities of Palermo, Catania and Messina

  16. 29th Workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, because of the dramatic increase in the power and utility of computer simulations, The University of Georgia formed the first institutional unit devoted to the application of simulations in research and teaching: The Center for Simulational Physics. Then, as the international simulations community expanded further, we sensed the need for a meeting place for both experienced simulators and newcomers to discuss inventive algorithms and recent results in an environment that promoted lively discussion. As a consequence, the Center for Simulational Physics established an annual workshop series on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics. This year's highly interactive workshop was the 29th in the series marking our efforts to promote high quality research in simulational physics. The continued interest shown by the scientific community amply demonstrates the useful purpose that these meetings have served. The latest workshop was held at The University of Georgia from February 22-26, 2016. It served to mark the 30 th Anniversary of the founding of the Center for Simulational Physics. In addition, during this Workshop we celebrated the 60 th birthday of our esteemed colleague Prof. H.-Bernd Schuttler. Bernd has not only contributed to the understanding of strongly correlated electron system, but has made seminal contributions to systems biology through the introduction of modern methods of computational physics. These Proceedings provide a “status report” on a number of important topics. This on-line “volume” is published with the goal of timely dissemination of the material to a wider audience. This program was supported in part by the President's Venture Fund through the generous gifts of the University of Georgia Partners and other donors. We also wish to offer thanks to the Office of the Vice-President for Research, the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, and the IBM Corporation for partial

  17. The Mott localization and magnetic properties in condensed fermions systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the present thesis the Mott localization and magnetic properties in condensed fermions system are considered. The Hubbard model has been used to strongly correlated electron systems and the Skyrme potential to a dense neutron matter with small concentration of protons. A variational approach to the metal-insulator transition is proposed which combines the Mott and Gutzwiller-Brinkman-Rice aspects of the localization. Magnetic properties of strongly correlated electrons are analyzed within the modified spin-rotation-invariant approach in the slow-boson representation. The theoretical prediction for considered systems are presented. 112 refs, 39 figs

  18. Cold Vacuum Drying facility condensate collection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) condensate collection system (CCS). The function of the CCS is to collect cooling coil condensate from air-handling units in the CVDF and to isolate the condensate in collection tanks until the condensate is determined to be acceptable to drain to the effluent drain collection basin

  19. Pion condensation in a theory consistent with bulk properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1980-01-01

    A relativistic field theory of nuclear matter is solved for the self-consistent field strengths inthe mean-field approximation. The theory is constrained to reproduce the bulk properties of nuclear matter. A weak pion condensate is compatible with this constraint. At least this is encouraging as concerns the possible existence of a new phase of nuclear matter. In contrast, the Lee-Wick density isomer is probably not compatible with the properties of nuclear matter. 3 figures

  20. The Physics of Life. Part I: The Animate Organism as an Active Condensed Matter Body

    OpenAIRE

    Kukuruznyak , Dmitry ,

    2017-01-01

    Nonequilibrium "active agents" establish bonds with each other and create a quickly evolving condensed state known as active matter. Recently, active matter composed of motile self-organizing biopolymers demonstrated a biotic-like motion similar to cytoplasmic streaming. It was suggested that the active matter could produce cells. However, active matter physics cannot yet define an " organism " and thus make a satisfactory connection to biology. This paper describes an organism made of active...

  1. Effects of delta degrees of freedom on quark condensate in hot and dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Ning Pingzhi

    1996-01-01

    The relativistic mean-field theory is applied to study the quark condensate systematically in nuclear matter at zero and finite temperature in terms of the relative importance of delta degrees of freedom. Calculations have included the high-order contributions to quark condensate in nuclear medium due to the baryon-baryon interactions. Numerical results are presented for the nuclear density up to five times larger than the normal density and temperature up to 120 MeV. It is found that the delta resonance in nuclear matter can cause substantial decreases to in-medium quark condensate

  2. Phase transition in dense nuclear matter with quark and gluon condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Kapusta, J.I.; Olive, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear matter is expected to modify the expectation values of the quark and gluon condensates. We utilize the chiral and scale symmetries of QCD to describe the interaction between these condensates and hadrons. We solve the resulting equations self-consistently in the relativistic mean field approximation. In order that these QCD condensates be driven towards zero at high density their coupling to sigma and vector mesons must be such that the masses of these mesons do not decrease with density. In this case a physically sensible phase transition to quark matter ensures. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of liquid-liquid equilibria for condensate + glycol and condensate + glycol + water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    ,2-ethanediol (MEG) + condensate and MEG + water + condensate systems at temperatures from (275 to 323) K at atmospheric pressure. The condensate used in this work is a stabilized natural gas condensate from an offshore field in the North Sea. Compositional analysis of the natural gas condensate was carried out...... by gas chromatography, and detailed separation of individual condensate's components has been carried out. Approximately 85 peaks eluting before nonane were identified by their retention time. Peak areas were converted to mass fraction using 1-heptene as an internal standard. The components were divided...... into boiling range groups from hexane to nonane. Paraffinic (P), naphthenic (N), and aromatic (A) distributions were obtained for the boiling point fractions up to nonane. The average molar mass and the overall density of the condensate were measured experimentally. For the mutual solubility of MEG...

  4. Interference pattern in the collision of structures in the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter model: Comparison with fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. A; Guzman, F. S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore nonlinear effects on the distribution of matter during collisions within the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter model driven by the Schroedinger-Poisson system of equations, we study the head-on collision of structures and focus on the interference pattern formation in the density of matter during the collision process. We explore the possibility that the collision of two structures of fluid matter modeled with an ideal gas equation of state also forms interference patterns and found a negative result. Given that a fluid is the most common flavor of dark matter models, we conclude that one fingerprint of the BEC dark matter model is the pattern formation in the density during a collision of structures.

  5. Probing condensed matter physics with magnetometry based on nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casola, Francesco; van der Sar, Toeno; Yacoby, Amir

    2018-01-01

    The magnetic fields generated by spins and currents provide a unique window into the physics of correlated-electron materials and devices. First proposed only a decade ago, magnetometry based on the electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects in diamond is emerging as a platform that is excellently suited for probing condensed matter systems; it can be operated from cryogenic temperatures to above room temperature, has a dynamic range spanning from direct current to gigahertz and allows sensor-sample distances as small as a few nanometres. As such, NV magnetometry provides access to static and dynamic magnetic and electronic phenomena with nanoscale spatial resolution. Pioneering work has focused on proof-of-principle demonstrations of its nanoscale imaging resolution and magnetic field sensitivity. Now, experiments are starting to probe the correlated-electron physics of magnets and superconductors and to explore the current distributions in low-dimensional materials. In this Review, we discuss the application of NV magnetometry to the exploration of condensed matter physics, focusing on its use to study static and dynamic magnetic textures and static and dynamic current distributions.

  6. Soft condensed matter approach to cooking of meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have viewed cooking meat from the perspective of soft condensed physics and posed that the moisture transport during cooking can be described by Flory-Rehner theory of swelling/shrinking polymer gels. This theory contains the essential physics to describe the transport of liquid moisture due to

  7. Excitonic condensation in systems of strongly correlated electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 33 (2015), s. 333201 ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electronic correlations * exciton * Bose-Einstein condensation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2015

  8. Understanding soft condensed matter via modeling and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, An-Chang

    2011-01-01

    All living organisms consist of soft matter. For this reason alone, it is important to be able to understand and predict the structural and dynamical properties of soft materials such as polymers, surfactants, colloids, granular matter and liquids crystals. To achieve a better understanding of soft matter, three different approaches have to be integrated: experiment, theory and simulation. This book focuses on the third approach - but always in the context of the other two.

  9. Simulation of condensed matter dynamics in strong femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, G.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort custom-tailored laser pulses can be employed to observe and control the motion of electrons in atoms and small molecules on the (sub-) femtosecond time scale. Very recently, efforts are underway to extend these concepts to solid matter. This monograph theoretically explores first applications of electron control by ultrashort laser pulses in three paradigmatic systems of solid-state density: a metal nano-structure (nanometric metal tip), a bulk dielectric (quartz glass), and the buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60) as arguably the smallest possible nano-particle. The electron motion is resolved on the atomic length and time scale by ab-initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory. Our quantum simulations are complemented by classical and semi-classical models elucidating the underlying mechanisms. We compare our results to experiments where already available and find good agreement. With increasing laser intensity, we find a transition from vertical photoexcitation to tunneling-like excitation. For nanostructures, that leads to temporally confined electron photoemission and thereby to quantum interferences in the energy spectra of emitted electrons. Similarly, tunneling can be induced between neighboring atoms inside an insulator. This provides a mechanism for ultrafast light-field controlled currents and modification of the optical properties of the solid, promising to eventually realize light-field electronic devices operating on the femtosecond time scale and nanometer length scale. Electron-electron interaction leads to near field enhancement and spatial localization of the non-linear response and is investigated both classically by solving the Maxwell equations near a nanostructure as well as quantum mechanically for the fullerene molecule. For the latter, we discuss scrutiny of the molecular near-field by the attosecond streaking technique. Our results demonstrate that ultrashort laser pulses can be employed to steer the

  10. Conditions for maximum isolation of stable condensate during separation in gas-condensate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivus, N.A.; Belkina, N.A.

    1969-02-01

    A thermodynamic analysis is made of the gas-liquid separation process in order to determine the relationship between conditions of maximum stable condensate separation and physico-chemical nature and composition of condensate. The analysis was made by considering the multicomponent gas-condensate fluid produced from Zyrya field as a ternary system, composed of methane, an intermediate component (propane and butane) and a heavy residue, C/sub 6+/. Composition of 5 ternary systems was calculated for a wide variation in separator conditions. At each separator pressure there is maximum condensate production at a certain temperature. This occurs because solubility of condensate components changes with temperature. Results of all calculations are shown graphically. The graphs show conditions of maximum stable condensate separation.

  11. International Conference on Polarised Neutrons for Condensed Matter Investigations (PNCMI 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series represents Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Polarised Neutrons for Condensed Matter Investigation (PNCMI) held in Freising, Germany from July 4–7, 2016. The conference attended by more than 120 scientists from various academic, government, and industrial institutions in Europe, Asia and the Americas was organized by the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The PNCMI-2016 continuoued the successful previous conferences in this series covering the latest condensed matter investigations using polarised neutrons and state-of-the-art methodologies, from effective polarization of neutron beams to wide-angle polarization analysis, as well as applications for novel instrumentation and experiments, with emphasis on prospects for new science and new instrument concepts. The conference program included invited and contributed oral presentations and posters which demonstrated the activities using polarized neutrons all over the world and showed the deep interest in developing the topic. The presentations tackled all area of science including multiferroic and chirality, strongly correlated electron systems, superconductors, frustrated and disordered systems, magnetic nanomaterials, thin films and multilayers, soft matter and biology, imaging, as well as further developments in polarized neutron techniques and methods, including nuclear polarisation, Larmor techniques and depolarisation methods.. We would like to thank all speakers for their presentations and all attendees for their participation. We would also like to gratefully acknowledge the financial support by J-PARC and AIRBUS DS as Premium Sponsors and Swiss Neutronics, ISIS, LLB, PSI and Mirrotron as Standard Sponsors of this conference. The next PNCMI will take place in Great Britain in 2018 and will be organized by ISIS. Alexander Ioffe (Conference Chair) Thomas Gutberlet (Conference Secretary) (paper)

  12. The development of air cooled condensation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodas, J.

    1990-01-01

    EGI - Contracting/Engineering has had experience with the development of air cooled condensing systems since the 1950's. There are two accepted types of dry cooling systems,the direct and the indirect ones. Due to the fact that the indirect system has several advantages over the direct one, EGI's purpose was to develop an economic, reliable and efficient type of indirect cooling system, both for industrial and power station applications. Apart from system development, the main components of dry cooling plant have been developed as well. These are: the water-to-air heat exchangers; the direct contact (DC, or jet) condenser; the cooling water circulating pumps and recovery turbines; and the peak cooling/preheating units. As a result of this broad development work which was connected with intensive market activity, EGI has supplied about 50% of the dry cooling plants employed for large power stations all over the world. This means that today the cumulated capacity of power units using Heller type dry cooling systems supplied and contracted by EGI is over 6000 MW

  13. On the existence of combined condensation of neutral and charged pions in neutron matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Takumi; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    1987-01-01

    Combined condensation of neutral and charged pions at high-density neutron matter is studied in an approach based on the chiral symmetry. Energy density in the combined π 0 -π c condensed phase to be considered as most energetically favored is derived in a realistic calculation, where we take into account the isobar Δ (1232) degrees of freedom, baryon-baryon short-range correlations described in terms of the Landau-Migdal parameter g', and form factors in the π-baryon vertex. Characteristic features of this phase are discussed in comparison with those of the pure π 0 or the pure π c condensation. The combined π 0 -π c condensed phase sets in at baryon density (3 ∼ 5) times the nuclear density ρ 0 depending on g' after the appearance of the pure π c condensed phase. (author)

  14. Correlations in condensed matter under extreme conditions a tribute to Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses a wide range of topics relating to the properties and behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions such as intense magnetic and electric fields, high pressures, heat and cold, and mechanical stresses. It is divided into four sections devoted to condensed matter theory, molecular chemistry, theoretical physics, and the philosophy and history of science. The main themes include electronic correlations in material systems under extreme pressure and temperature conditions, surface physics, the transport properties of low-dimensional electronic systems, applications of the density functional theory in molecular systems, and graphene. The book is the outcome of a workshop held at the University of Catania, Italy, in honor of Professor Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It includes selected invited contributions from collaborators and co-authors of Professor Pucci during his long and successful career, as well as from other distinguished guest authors.

  15. Applications of Density Functional Theory in Soft Condensed Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    Applications of classical density functional theory (DFT) to soft matter systems like colloids, liquid crystals and polymer solutions are discussed with a focus on the freezing transition and on nonequilibrium Brownian dynamics. First, after a brief reminder of equilibrium density functional theory, DFT is applied to the freezing transition of liquids into crystalline lattices. In particular, spherical particles with radially symmetric pair potentials will be treated (like hard spheres, the classical one-component plasma or Gaussian-core particles). Second, the DFT will be generalized towards Brownian dynamics in order to tackle nonequilibrium problems. After a general introduction to Brownian dynamics using the complementary Smoluchowski and Langevin pictures appropriate for the dynamics of colloidal suspensions, the dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) will be derived from the Smoluchowski equation. This will be done first for spherical particles (e.g. hard spheres or Gaussian-cores) without hydrodynamic interactions. Then we show how to incorporate hydrodynamic interactions between the colloidal particles into the DDFT framework and compare to Brownian dynamics computer simulations. Third orientational degrees of freedom (rod-like particles) will be considered as well. In the latter case, the stability of intermediate liquid crystalline phases (isotropic, nematic, smectic-A, plastic crystals etc) can be predicted. Finally, the corresponding dynamical extension of density functional theory towards orientational degrees of freedom is proposed and the collective behaviour of "active" (self-propelled) Brownian particles is briefly discussed.

  16. Bright matter wave solitons and their collision in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, R.; Ramesh Kumar, V.

    2007-01-01

    We obtain the bright matter wave solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates from a trivial input solution by solving the time dependent Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation with quadratic potential and exponentially varying scattering length. We observe that the matter wave density of bright soliton increases with time by virtue of the exponentially increasing scattering length. We also understand that the matter wave densities of bright soliton trains remain finite despite the exchange of atoms during interaction and they travel along different trajectories (diverge) after interaction. We also observe that their amplitudes continue to fluctuate with time. For exponentially decaying scattering lengths, instability sets in the condensates. However, the scattering length can be suitably manipulated without causing the explosion or the collapse of the condensates

  17. The research of condensed matter physics by using intense proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1990-01-01

    The present article covers the application of intense protons to basic condensed matter physics. Major recent neutron scattering activities in condensed matter physics are first outlined, emphasizing the fact that the contribution of accelerator base science has a tremendous impact on this basic science. Application of spallation neutrons to condensed matter physics is discussed in relation to such subjects as high energy (epithermal) excitations and small angle neutron scattering. Then the specific subject of high Tc superconductor is addressed, focusing on how neutrons as well as muons provide experimental results that serve significantly in exploring the mechanism of exotic high Tc superconductivity. Techniques for neutron polarization must be developed in the future. The neutron spin reflectivity ratio has been shown to be a sensitive probe of surface depth profile of magnetization. Another new method is neutron depolarization to probe bulk magnetic induction throughout a slab which neutrons pass through. (N.K.)

  18. Zoology of condensed matter: framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Piazza, Federico [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Paris Center for Cosmological Physics and Laboratoire APC,Université Paris 7, 75205 Paris (France); CPT, Aix Marseille Université,UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques,EPFL Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-06-23

    We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincaré-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern — the framid — does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries — and possibly rotational ones — and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and — if they exist — supersolids. A third, “extra-ordinary”, possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries that do not commute with the Poincaré group, for instance the galileon symmetry, supersymmetry or gauge symmetries. Among these options, we pick the systems based on the galileon symmetry, the “galileids”, for a more detailed study. Despite some similarity, all different patterns produce truly distinct physical systems with different observable properties. For instance, the low-energy 2→2 scattering amplitudes for the Goldstone excitations in the cases of framids, solids and galileids scale respectively as E{sup 2}, E{sup 4}, and E{sup 6}. Similarly the energy momentum tensor in the ground state is “trivial' for framids (ρ+p=0), normal for solids (ρ+p>0) and even inhomogenous for galileids.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Molecular Dynamics Study of Stability of Solid Solutions and Amorphous Phase in the Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Lai, Wen-Sheng

    2009-06-01

    The relative stability of fcc and bcc solid solutions and amorphous phase with different compositions in the Cu-Al system is studied by molecular dynamics simulations with n-body potentials. For Cu1-xAlx alloys, the calculations show that the fcc solid solution has the lowest energies in the composition region with x 0.72, while the bee solid solution has the lowest energies in the central composition range, in agreement with the ball-milling experiments that a single bcc solid solution with 0.30 < x < 0.70 is obtained. The evolution of structures in solid solutions and amorphous phase is studied by the coordination number (CN) and bond-length analysis so as to unveil the underlying physics. It is found that the energy sequence among three phases is determined by the competition in energy change originating from the bond length and CNs (or the number of bonds).

  20. Seventeenth Workshop on Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, David P; Schütler, Heinz-Bernd; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVI

    2006-01-01

    This status report features the most recent developments in the field, spanning a wide range of topical areas in the computer simulation of condensed matter/materials physics. Both established and new topics are included, ranging from the statistical mechanics of classical magnetic spin models to electronic structure calculations, quantum simulations, and simulations of soft condensed matter. The book presents new physical results as well as novel methods of simulation and data analysis. Highlights of this volume include various aspects of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, studies of properties of real materials using both classical model simulations and electronic structure calculations, and the use of computer simulations in teaching.

  1. Noise study in condensed matter physics-Towards extension to surrounding fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Atsutaka

    2006-01-01

    I briefly review noise studies in condensed matter physics, such as the shot noise measurement in metals, the dynamic-coherent-volume investigation in charge-density waves, the macroscopic quantum tunneling in superconductors, and the experimental investigation of dynamic phase diagram of driven vortices in high-T c superconductors. With these examples, one finds that the noise studies have played many crucial roles in condensed matter physics. I also discuss a recent theoretical suggestion that noise measurements in Josephson junction may clarify the origin of the dark energy in the universe

  2. Quantum Computing in Condensed Matter Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Privman, V

    1997-01-01

    Specific theoretical calculations of Hamiltonians corresponding to several quantum logic gates, including the NOT gate, quantum signal splitting, and quantum copying, were obtained and prepared for publication...

  3. Synchronous Condenser Allocation for Improving System Short Circuit Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Jundi; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2018-01-01

    With converter-based renewable energy sources increasingly integrated into power systems and conventional power plants gradually phased out, future power systems will experience reduced short circuit strength. The deployment of synchronous condensers can serve as a potential solution. This paper...... presents an optimal synchronous condenser allocation method for improving system short circuit ratio at converter point of common coupling using a modified short circuit analysis approach. The total cost of installing new synchronous condensers is minimized while the system short circuit ratios...

  4. Radial oscillations of strange quark stars admixed with condensed dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panotopoulos, G.; Lopes, Ilídio

    2017-10-01

    We compute the 20 lowest frequency radial oscillation modes of strange stars admixed with condensed dark matter. We assume a self-interacting bosonic dark matter, and we model dark matter inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate. In this case the equation of state is a polytropic one with index 1 +1 /n =2 and a constant K that is computed in terms of the mass of the dark matter particle and the scattering length. Assuming a mass and a scattering length compatible with current observational bounds for self-interacting dark matter, we have integrated numerically first the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for the hydrostatic equilibrium, and then the equations for the perturbations ξ =Δ r /r and η =Δ P /P . For a compact object with certain mass and radius we have considered here three cases, namely no dark matter at all and two different dark matter scenarios. Our results show that (i) the separation between consecutive modes increases with the amount of dark matter, and (ii) the effect is more pronounced for higher order modes. These effects are relevant even for a strange star made of 5% dark matter.

  5. Matter Tracking Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Matter Tracking Information System (MTIS) principle function is to streamline and integrate the workload and work activity generated or addressed by our 300 plus...

  6. ICTP Summer Course on Low-Dimensional Quantum Field Theories for Condensed Matter Physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Morandi, G; Lu, Y

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains a set of pedagogical reviews covering the most recent applications of low-dimensional quantum field theory in condensed matter physics, written by experts who have made major contributions to this rapidly developing field of research. The main purpose is to introduce active young researchers to new ideas and new techniques which are not covered by the standard textbooks.

  7. Fundamental problems and perspectives of positron diagnostics of structural imperfections in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, K.M.; Sarsenbinov, Sh. Sh.

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental problems and nature of electron-positron annihilation phenomenon, problems of its application in studies of condensed matter, development of various methodic based on this phenomenon for structural studies in solids, mathematical aspects of experimental deta decoding and program means for computer data processing are discussed. (author)

  8. Effect of light assisted collisions on matter wave coherence in superradiant Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampel, Nir Shlomo; Griesmaier, Axel Rudolf; Steenstrup, Mads Peter Hornbak

    2012-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the effects of light assisted collisions on the coherence between momentum states in Bose-Einstein condensates. The onset of superradiant Rayleigh scattering serves as a sensitive monitor for matter-wave coherence. A subtle interplay of binary and collective effects...

  9. Australian and New Zealand Institutes of Physics. Eighteenth annual condensed matter physics meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.; Hutchinson, W.; Yazidjoglou, N.; Stewart, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Handbook contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations covering various aspects of condensed matter physics such as magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor materials and their properties, as well as the use of nuclear techniques in studies of these materials. 162 contributions have been considered to be in the INIS subject scope and were indexed separately

  10. Elements of a dialogue between nonlinear models in condensed matter and biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Kerr, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    We indicate some of the emerging thematic connections between strongly nonlinear effects in condensed matter and biological materials. These are illustrated with model studies of: (1) structural phase transitions in anisotropic lattices; and (2) finite temperature effects on self-trapped states in vibron-phonon models of α-helix proteins. 13 refs., 8 figs

  11. Spin-polarized versus chiral condensate in quark matter at finite temperature and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providencia, Joao

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low-energy ef...

  12. The toroidal moment in condensed-matter physics and its relation to the magnetoelectric effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaldin, Nicola A.; Fiebig, Manfred; Mostovoy, Maxim

    2008-01-01

    The concept of toroidal moments in condensed-matter physics and their long-range ordering in a so-called ferrotoroidic state is reviewed. We show that ferrotoroidicity as a form of primary ferroic order can be understood both from microscopic (multipole expansion) and macroscopic (symmetry-based

  13. Dissociative electron attachment and charge transfer in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, A.D.; Sanche, L.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments using energy-selected beams of electrons incident from vacuum upon thin vapour deposited solids show that, as in the gas-phase, scattering cross sections at low energies are dominated by the formation of temporary negative ions (or resonances) and that molecular damage may be effected via dissociative electron attachment (DEA). Recent results also show that charge transfer between anionic states of target molecules and their environment is often crucial in determining cross sections for electron driven processes. Here, we review recent work from our laboratory, in which charge transfer is observed. For rare gas solids, electron exchange between the electron-exciton complex and either a metal substrate or co-adsorbed molecule enhances the desorption of metastable atoms and/or molecular dissociation. We discuss how transient electron capture by surface electron states of a substrate and subsequent electron transfer to a molecular adsorbate enhances the effective cross sections for DEA. We also consider the case of DEA to CF 2 Cl 2 condensed on water and ammonia ices, where electron exchange between pre-solvated electron states of ice and transient molecular anions can also increase DEA cross sections. Electron transfer from molecular resonances into pre-solvated electron states of ice is also discussed

  14. Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics Marvin L. Cohen and Steven G. Louie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ram

    2017-06-01

    discusses electrical and thermal transport in materials. Part IV takes the reader further into many body effects, superconductivity, and nanoscale materials. The authors introduce Feynman diagrams and many-body perturbation theory in Chapter 13, theories of superconductivity in Chapter 14, magnetism in Chapter 15, and low dimensional systems in Chapter 16. The first two parts are required reading for the beginner planning to perform DFT calculations. The advanced student interested in conducting research in condensed matter physics will benefit from continuing on to the last two parts. There is a set of problems at the end of each part. The narrative is aided by equations and detailed figures. References at the end of the book direct the reader to relevant books and review articles for each chapter. The inside covers include a periodic table and a useful list of fundamental physical constants. The authors present the underlying mathematics elegantly, which makes the textbook quite readable for those with a good mathematical background. Students lacking a firm footing in math will find the terrain rough after Chapter 1. This field has seen many good undergraduate textbooks including those by Kittel and by Ashcroft and Mermin. This volume fills the need for a rigorous graduate level textbook, and is a required addition to the bookshelf of every condensed matter physicist. Cohen and Louie have brought refreshing clarity to a challenging subject and made it eminently accessible to the motivated student.

  15. Quantum electrodynamics of resonant energy transfer in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juzeliunas, G.; Andrews, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    A microscopic many-body QED theory for dipole-dipole resonance energy transfer has been developed from first principles. A distinctive feature of the theory is full incorporation of the dielectric effects of the supporting medium. The approach employs the concept of bath polaritons mediating the energy transfer. The transfer rate is derived in terms of the Green's operator corresponding to the polariton matrix Hamiltonian. In contrast to the more common lossless polariton models, the present theory accommodates an arbitrary number of energy levels for each molecule of the medium. This includes, a case of special interest, where the excitation energy spectrum of the bath molecules is sufficiently dense that it can be treated as a quasicontinuum in the energy region in question, as in the condensed phase normally results from homogeneous and inhomogeneous line broadening. In such a situation, the photon ''dressed'' by the medium polarization (the polariton) acquires a finite lifetime, the role of the dissipative subsystem being played by bath molecules. It is this which leads to the appearance of the exponential decay factor in the microscopically derived pair transfer rates. Accordingly, the problem associated with potentially infinite total ensemble rates, due to the divergent R -2 contribution, is solved from first principles. In addition, the medium modifies the distance dependence of the energy transfer function A(R) and also produces extra modifications due to screening contributions and local field effects. The formalism addresses cases where the surrounding medium is either absorbing or lossless over the range of energies transferred. In the latter case the exponential factor does not appear and the dielectric medium effect in the near zone reduces to that which is familiar from the theory of radiationless (Foerster) energy transfer

  16. Graphene a new paradigm in condensed matter and device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, E L

    2014-01-01

    The book is an introduction to the science and possible applications of Graphene, the first one-atom-thick crystalline form of matter. Discovered in 2004 by now Nobelists Geim and Novoselov, the single layer of graphite, a hexagonal network of carbon atoms, has astonishing electrical and mechanical properties. It supports the highest electrical current density of any material, far exceeding metals copper and silver. Its absolute minimum thickness, 0.34 nanometers, provides an inherent advantage in possible forms of digital electronics past the era of Moore's Law. The book describes the unusual physics of the material, that it offers linear rather than parabolic energy bands. The Dirac-like electron energy bands lead to high constant carrier speed, similar to light photons. The lattice symmetry further implies a two-component wave-function, which has a practical effect of cancelling direct backscattering of carriers. The resulting high carrier mobility allows observation of the Quantum Hall Effect at room temp...

  17. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit [eds.

    2001-07-01

    This year started with a highlight for the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source SINQ located at PSI: The thermal neutron flux exceeded the value of 10{sup 14} n cm{sup -2} s{sup 1} which may be considered as the critical limit for an advanced medium-flux neutron source. The excellent performance attracted a large number of external users to participate at the neutron scattering programme. The major part of this annual report gives an overview on the scientific activities of the staff members of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich). The research topics covered diverse areas such as strongly correlated electron systems including high-temperature superconductors, low-dimensional and quantum magnetism, materials research on soft and hard matter including multilayers. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  18. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit

    2001-01-01

    This year started with a highlight for the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source SINQ located at PSI: The thermal neutron flux exceeded the value of 10 14 n cm -2 s 1 which may be considered as the critical limit for an advanced medium-flux neutron source. The excellent performance attracted a large number of external users to participate at the neutron scattering programme. The major part of this annual report gives an overview on the scientific activities of the staff members of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich). The research topics covered diverse areas such as strongly correlated electron systems including high-temperature superconductors, low-dimensional and quantum magnetism, materials research on soft and hard matter including multilayers. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided

  19. Investigation of static and dynamic properties of condensed matter by using neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovic, M.

    1997-01-01

    Possibilities of using neutron scattering for investigating microscopic properties of materials are analyzed. Basic neutron scattering theory is presented and its use in structure and dynamics analyses of condense systems. (author)

  20. Condenser inleakage monitoring system development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassen, W.R.; Putkey, T.A.; Sawochka, S.G.; Pearl, W.L.; Clouse, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    An instrument/hardware package for air and condenser cooling water inleakage location employing the helium and freon techniques was designed and fabricated. The package consists of design details for tracer gas distribution hardware, injection plenums, and a sample preconditioner and instrument module. Design of the package was based on an evaluation of helium and freon leak detectors and a survey of utility user's experience with the helium and freon techniques. The applicability of the instrument/hardware package to air and cooling water inleakage location was demonstrated at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Moss Landing Station. The use of calibrated leaks indicated that cooling water leaks down to 1.5 x 10 -4 gpm (0.56 ml/min) and air leaks down to 0.05 cfm were readily detectable with the helium technique, whereas a 4 x 10 -4 gpm (1.5 ml/min) liquid leak was the readily detectable minimum via the freon technique. The field demonstration and in-house detector testing showed the helium technique to be preferable to the freon technique for inleakage location at PWRs, BWRs, and fossil-fueled systems

  1. Study on UF6 condensing receiving system improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenxing; Li Yingfeng; Li Zhenfeng; He Ping; Wang Yanping; Tian Yushan

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve receiving capacity of UF 6 condensing system, the pressure release mode is changed through modifying gas phase inlet of the first-grade condenser, thus pressure release time is reduced from 13.1 h to 8.1 h. Be- cause of improvement of utility condensers of the two product lines, both the flexibility of feeding nitrogen and the emergency capacity of condensers are improved greatly. And modification of fluid transferring and sampling system make the remains in system transfer flexibly. The practise shows that metal direct recovery rises to the extent, and capacity of the first-grade condensing receiving system improves 8.4%, which strongly guarantees fluorination production safely, continuously and stably run. (authors)

  2. Use of ORELA to produce neutrons for scattering studies on condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, R.W.; Lewis, T.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mook, H.A.; Moon, R.M.

    1975-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) is evaluated as a source of neutrons for condensed matter research. Two options are assessed: (1) use of the present target arrangement with minor modifications; and (2) the construction of a new target and experiment facility designed for condensed matter research and equipped with a subcritical fission booster. The expected source strength and time behavior are discussed, including the fundamentals of moderator design. The effect on the programs presently using the linac are considered. It is concluded that a special-purpose neutron source facility using pulsed electrons from ORELA and containing a subcritical booster could be built to make a cost-effective neutron scattering facility of great power and utility. (auth)

  3. Electronic and ionic ordering in condensed matter plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in treating phase transitions induced by Coulomb interactions is reviewed. This is done by appealing to simple models, and in particular to the one-component plasma, with its quantum-mechanical counterpart jellium. The relevance of the phase transition, to a body-centred-cubic crystal in the classical one-component plasma, to the freezing of liquid metals Na and K is stressed. By generalizing these arguments to a two-component system, regularities in the freezing of the molten alkali halides are understandable. Sublattice disorder in superionics, driven by Coulomb forces, is then discussed. Finally, the ordering of electrons in jellium, in the limit of complete degeneracy, is considered: evidence being presented for the existence of electron liquids in molten Na and K. (author)

  4. Femtosecond X-ray scattering in condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korff Schmising, Clemens von

    2008-11-24

    This thesis investigates the manifold couplings between electronic and structural properties in crystalline Perovskite oxides and a polar molecular crystal. Ultrashort optical excitation changes the electronic structure and the dynamics of the connected reversible lattice rearrangement is imaged in real time by femtosecond X-ray scattering experiments. An epitaxially grown superlattice consisting of alternating nanolayers of metallic and ferromagnetic strontium ruthenate (SRO) and dielectric strontium titanate serves as a model system to study optically generated stress. In the ferromagnetic phase, phonon-mediated and magnetostrictive stress in SRO display similar sub-picosecond dynamics, similar strengths but opposite sign and different excitation spectra. The amplitude of the magnetic component follows the temperature dependent magnetization square, whereas the strength of phononic stress is determined by the amount of deposited energy only. The ultrafast, phonon-mediated stress in SRO compresses ferroelectric nanolayers of lead zirconate titanate in a further superlattice system. This change of tetragonal distortion of the ferroelectric layer reaches up to 2 percent within 1.5 picoseconds and couples to the ferroelectric soft mode, or ion displacement within the unit cell. As a result, the macroscopic polarization is reduced by up to 100 percent with a 500 femtosecond delay that is due to final elongation time of the two anharmonically coupled modes. Femtosecond photoexcitation of organic chromophores in a molecular, polar crystal induces strong changes of the electronic dipole moment via intramolecular charge transfer. Ultrafast changes of transmitted X-ray intensity evidence an angular rotation of molecules around excited dipoles following the 10 picosecond kinetics of the charge transfer reaction. Transient X-ray scattering is governed by solvation, masking changes of the chromophore's molecular structure. (orig.)

  5. Femtosecond X-ray scattering in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korff Schmising, Clemens von

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the manifold couplings between electronic and structural properties in crystalline Perovskite oxides and a polar molecular crystal. Ultrashort optical excitation changes the electronic structure and the dynamics of the connected reversible lattice rearrangement is imaged in real time by femtosecond X-ray scattering experiments. An epitaxially grown superlattice consisting of alternating nanolayers of metallic and ferromagnetic strontium ruthenate (SRO) and dielectric strontium titanate serves as a model system to study optically generated stress. In the ferromagnetic phase, phonon-mediated and magnetostrictive stress in SRO display similar sub-picosecond dynamics, similar strengths but opposite sign and different excitation spectra. The amplitude of the magnetic component follows the temperature dependent magnetization square, whereas the strength of phononic stress is determined by the amount of deposited energy only. The ultrafast, phonon-mediated stress in SRO compresses ferroelectric nanolayers of lead zirconate titanate in a further superlattice system. This change of tetragonal distortion of the ferroelectric layer reaches up to 2 percent within 1.5 picoseconds and couples to the ferroelectric soft mode, or ion displacement within the unit cell. As a result, the macroscopic polarization is reduced by up to 100 percent with a 500 femtosecond delay that is due to final elongation time of the two anharmonically coupled modes. Femtosecond photoexcitation of organic chromophores in a molecular, polar crystal induces strong changes of the electronic dipole moment via intramolecular charge transfer. Ultrafast changes of transmitted X-ray intensity evidence an angular rotation of molecules around excited dipoles following the 10 picosecond kinetics of the charge transfer reaction. Transient X-ray scattering is governed by solvation, masking changes of the chromophore's molecular structure. (orig.)

  6. Condensed matter and materials research using neutron diffraction and spectroscopy: reactor and pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisanti, Paola; Lovesey, S.W.

    1987-05-01

    The paper provides a short, and partial view of the neutron scattering technique applied to condensed matter and materials research. Reactor and accelerator-based neutron spectrometers are discussed, together with examples of research projects that illustrate the puissance and modern applications of neutron scattering. Some examples are chosen to show the range of facilities available at the medium flux reactor operated by Casaccia ENEA, Roma and the advanced, pulsed spallation neutron source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire. (author)

  7. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods...

  8. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2013-01-01

    The 19. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 19-21 June, 2013 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  9. Linking the gaseous and the condensed phases of matter: The slow electron and its interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The interfacing of the gaseous and the condensed phases of matter as effected by interphase and cluster studies on the behavior of key reactions involving slow electrons either as reacting initial particles or as products of the reactions themselves is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the measurement of both the cross sections and the energetics involved, although most of the available information to date is on the latter. The discussion is selectively focussed on electron scattering (especially the role of negative ion states in gases, clusters, and dense matter), ionization, electron attachment and photodetachment. The dominant role of the electric polarization of the medium is emphasized

  10. Weak nonlinear matter waves in a trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Wenmei; Xue Jukui

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of the weak nonlinear matter solitary waves in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) with cigar-shaped external potential are investigated analytically by a perturbation method. In the small amplitude limit, the two-components can be decoupled and the dynamics of solitary waves are governed by a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The reduction to the KdV equation may be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear matter waves in two-component BEC. The analytical expressions for the evolution of soliton, emitted radiation profiles and soliton oscillation frequency are also obtained

  11. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1993-02-01

    The QUEGS facility at MURR has produced a number of new results and demonstrated the range of potential applications of high resolution, high intensity Moessbauer scattering. This work has been carried out by both MU and Purdue researchers and includes published results on Na, W, pentadecane, polydimethylsiloxane and other systems, manuscripts submitted on alkali halides (Phys. Rev. B) and accurate Moessbauer lineshape measurements (Phys. Rev. C), and manuscripts in preparation on glycerol, NiAl and Moessbauer spectra obtained by modulating a scattering crystal. Recently, new collaborations have been initiated which will substantially enhance our efforts. These are with W. Steiner (Vienna), G. Coddens (Saclay), and R. D. Taylor (Los Alamos). Steiner is experienced with Fe-57 Moessbauer scattering, while Coddens specializes in quasielastic neutron scattering; both of these areas naturally complement our work. R. D. Taylor has pioneered Moessbauer spectroscopy from the time of its discovery and has already made important contributions to our study of lattice dynamics and superconductivity for lead alloyed with small quantities of tin. At the same time, a significant instrument upgrade is underway, funded in part by the DOE-URIP program

  12. PREFACE: Topics in the application of scattering methods to investigate the structure and dynamics of soft condensed matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2006-09-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter gathers together a series of contributions presented at the workshop entitled `Topics in the Application of Scattering Methods to Investigate the Structure and Dynamics of Soft Condensed Matter' held at Pensione Bencista, Fiesole, Italy, a wonderful Italian jewel tucked high in the hills above Florence. This immaculate 14th century villa is a feast for the eyes with antiques and original artwork everywhere you turn, and a stunning view of Florence, overlooking numerous villas and groves of olive trees. The meeting consisted of about 40 invited talks delivered by a selected group of prominent physicists and chemists from the USA, Mexico, Europe and Asia working in the fields of complex and glassy liquids. The topics covered by the talks included: simulations on the liquid-liquid transition phenomenon dynamic crossover in deeply supercooled confined water thermodynamics and dynamics of complex fluids dynamics of interfacial water structural arrest transitions in colloidal systems structure and dynamics in complex systems structure of supramolecular assemblies The choice of topics is obviously heavily biased toward the current interests of the two organizers of the workshop, in view of the fact that one of the incentives for organizing the meeting was to celebrate Sow-Hsin Chen’s life-long scientific activities on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The 21 articles presented in this issue are a state-of-the-art description of the different aspects reported at the workshop from all points of view---experimental, theoretical and numerical. The interdisciplinary nature of the talks should make this special issue of interest to a broad community of scientists involved in the study of the properties of complex fluids, soft condensed matter and disordered glassy systems. We are grateful to the Consorzio per lo Sviluppo dei Sistemi a Grande Interfase (CSGI), Florence, Italy and to the Materials Science Program of

  13. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This year was a period of consolidation of the operation at the spallation source of PSI and its scientific exploitation at an increasing number of instruments. The major part of this annual report gives an overview of the research activities in the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich) of our department, mainly emphasizing highly correlated electron systems and the investigation of magnetism. The activities on multilayers and surfaces, a basic research object by itself, is however also to a large extent motivated by the development of optical components for neutron- and X-ray instrumentation. While most of the solid-state work has been done with neutrons, some contributions deal with other probes, like muons and synchrotron light, exploiting the unique possibilities at PSI, to take advantage of the complementary nature of the different probes. Progress in 1999 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 1999 is also provided.

  14. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit

    2000-01-01

    This year was a period of consolidation of the operation at the spallation source of PSI and its scientific exploitation at an increasing number of instruments. The major part of this annual report gives an overview of the research activities in the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich) of our department, mainly emphasizing highly correlated electron systems and the investigation of magnetism. The activities on multilayers and surfaces, a basic research object by itself, is however also to a large extent motivated by the development of optical components for neutron- and X-ray instrumentation. While most of the solid-state work has been done with neutrons, some contributions deal with other probes, like muons and synchrotron light, exploiting the unique possibilities at PSI, to take advantage of the complementary nature of the different probes. Progress in 1999 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 1999 is also provided

  15. Watching ultrafast responses of structure and magnetism in condensed matter with momentum-resolved probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a non-comprehensive review of some representative experimental studies in crystalline condensed matter systems where the effects of intense ultrashort light pulses are probed using x-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy. On an ultrafast (sub-picosecond time scale, conventional concepts derived from the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium must often be modified in order to adequately describe the time-dependent changes in material properties. There are several commonly adopted approaches to this modification, appropriate in different experimental circumstances. One approach is to treat the material as a collection of quasi-thermal subsystems in thermal contact with each other in the so-called “N-temperature” models. On the other extreme, one can also treat the time-dependent changes as fully coherent dynamics of a sometimes complex network of excitations. Here, we present examples of experiments that fall into each of these categories, as well as experiments that partake of both models. We conclude with a discussion of the limitations and future potential of these concepts.

  16. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  17. From condensed matter to Higgs physics. Solving functional renormalization group equations globally in field space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchardt, Julia

    2017-02-07

    By means of the functional renormalization group (FRG), systems can be described in a nonperturbative way. The derived flow equations are solved via pseudo-spectral methods. As they allow to resolve the full field dependence of the effective potential and provide highly accurate results, these numerical methods are very powerful but have hardly been used in the FRG context. We show their benefits using several examples. Moreover, we apply the pseudo-spectral methods to explore the phase diagram of a bosonic model with two coupled order parameters and to clarify the nature of a possible metastability of the Higgs-Yukawa potential.In the phase diagram of systems with two competing order parameters, fixed points govern multicritical behavior. Such systems are often discussed in the context of condensed matter. Considering the phase diagram of the bosonic model between two and three dimensions, we discover additional fixed points besides the well-known ones from studies in three dimensions. Interestingly, our findings suggest that in certain regions of the phase diagram, two universality classes coexist. To our knowledge, this is the first bosonic model where coexisting (multi-)criticalities are found. Also, the absence of nontrivial fixed points can have a physical meaning, such as in the electroweak sector of the standard model which suffers from the triviality problem. The electroweak transition giving rise to the Higgs mechanism is dominated by the Gaussian fixed point. Due to the low Higgs mass, perturbative calculations suggest a metastable potential. However, the existence of the lower Higgs-mass bound eventually is interrelated with the maximal ultraviolet extension of the standard model. A relaxation of the lower bound would mean that the standard model may be still valid to even higher scales. Within a simple Higgs-Yukawa model, we discuss the origin of metastabilities and mechanisms, which relax the Higgs-mass bound, including higher field operators.

  18. Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    1986-01-01

    The Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter was held in Spokane, Washington, July 22-25, 1985. Two hundred and fifty scientists and engineers representing thirteen countries registered at the conference. The countries represented included the United States of America, Australia, Canada, The People's Repub­ lic of China, France, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of China (Taiwan), United Kingdom, U. S. S. R, Switzerland and West Germany. One hundred and sixty-two technical papers, cov­ ering recent developments in shock wave and high pressure physics, were presented. All of the abstracts have been published in the September 1985 issue of the Bulletin of the American Physical Society. The topical conferences, held every two years since 1979, have become the principal forum for shock wave studies in condensed materials. Both formal and informal technical discussions regarding recent developments conveyed a sense of excitement. Consistent with the past conferences, th...

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Condensate Collection System Design Description. System 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) provides required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities to support the SNF Project mission. This system design description (SDD) addresses the Condensate Collection System (CCS). This is a general service system. The CCS begins at the condensate outlet of the general process air-handling unit (AHU) and the condensate outlets for the active process bays AHUs. The system terminates at each condensate collection tank (5 total)

  20. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2012-01-01

    The 18th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 20-22 June, 2012 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty-eight contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  1. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures.Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods...

  2. Salamfestschrift. A collection of talks from the conference on highlights of particle and condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Ellis, J.; Randjbar Daemi, S.; eds)

    1994-01-01

    The book contains papers, mainly on particle physics, presented at the meeting held between 8 and 12 March 1993 at the ICTP in Trieste to honor Professor Abdus Salam. The articles have been grouped in 6 chapters: Standard Model (6 papers), Beyond the Standard Model (4 papers), Astro-Particle Physics and Cosmology (3 papers), Strings and Quantum Gravity (5 papers), Mathematical Physics and Condensed Matter (2 papers), Salam's Collaborators and Students (13 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Physics in the Andean Countries: A Perspective from Condensed Matter, Novel Materials and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, P.

    2009-05-01

    We will discuss the current state of R&D in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology in the Andean nations. We will initially consider Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to then visualize individual developments, as well as those for the region as a whole in these fields of knowledge in each of the nations constituting the Andean Region (Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, and Colombia). Based on Science & Technology watch exercises in the countries involved, along with the Iberian American and Inter-American Science & Technology Network of Indicators (Red de indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (RICYT) iberoamericana e interamericana)1, we will reveal statistical data that will shed light on the development in the fields mentioned. As will be noted, total R&D investment in Latin American and Caribbean countries remained constant since 1997. In spite of having reached a general increase in publications without international collaboration in LAC nations, the countries with greatest research productivity in Latin America (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, and Chile) have strengthened their international collaboration with the United States, France, Germany, and Italy through close links associated with the formation processes of their researchers. Academic and research integration is evaluated through joint authorship of scientific articles, evidencing close collaboration in fields of research. This principle has been used in the creation of cooperation networks among participating nations. As far as networks of research on condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology, the Andean nations have not consolidated a regional network allowing permanent and effective cooperation in research and technological development; as would be expected, given their idiomatic and cultural similarities, their historical background, and geographical proximity, which have been integrating factors in other research areas or socio-economic aspects. This

  4. Neutron beams for the study of condensed matter: a view of the first half-century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was first demonstrated in 1936 but awaited the development of the nuclear reactor before becoming a practical technique for the study of condensed matter. Neutrons have unique advantages for the location of hydrogen atoms, the recognition of magnetic architecture and the study of crystal vibrations and atomic and molecular motions. The techniques available exploit the optical properties of neutrons over a wavelength range from 0.5 to 500 A. Progress has gone hand in hand with a steady increase of reactor flux over 50 years but future improvements may depend on pulsed linear accelerators as the source of neutrons. (author)

  5. Multistability in an optomechanical system with a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ying; Ye Jinwu; Pu Han

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a system consisting of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate interacting dispersively with a Fabry-Perot optical cavity where the two components of the condensate are resonantly coupled to each other by another classical field. The key feature of this system is that the atomic motional degrees of freedom and the internal pseudospin degrees of freedom are coupled to the cavity field simultaneously, hence an effective spin-orbital coupling within the condensate is induced by the cavity. The interplay among the atomic center-of-mass motion, the atomic collective spin, and the cavity field leads to a strong nonlinearity, resulting in multistable behavior in both matter wave and light wave at the few-photon level.

  6. Mixtures of Charged Bosons Confined in Harmonic Traps and Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    2006-02-01

    A mixture of two different species of positively charged bosons in harmonic traps is considered in the mean-field approximation. It is shown that depending on the ratio of parameters, the two components may coexist in same regions of space, in spite of the Coulomb repulsion between the two species. Application of this result is discussed for the generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deutron-lithium (d + Li) LENR, the result indicates that (d + 6Li) reactions may dominate over (d + d) reactions in LENR experiments.

  7. Mixtures of charged bosons confined in harmonic traps and Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reactions and transmutation processes in condensed matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeong, E. Kim; Zubarev, Alexander L. [Purdue Nuclear and Many-Body Theory Group (PNMBTG) Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A mixture of two different species of positively charged bosons in harmonic traps is considered in the mean-field approximation. It is shown that depending on the ratio of parameters, the two components may coexist in some regions of space, in spite of the Coulomb repulsion between the two species. Application of this result is discussed for the generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deuteron-lithium (d + Li) LENR, the result indicates that (d + {sup 6}Li) reactions may dominate over (d + d) reactions in LENR experiments. (authors)

  8. Mixtures of charged bosons confined in harmonic traps and Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reactions and transmutation processes in condensed matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeong, E. Kim; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    A mixture of two different species of positively charged bosons in harmonic traps is considered in the mean-field approximation. It is shown that depending on the ratio of parameters, the two components may coexist in some regions of space, in spite of the Coulomb repulsion between the two species. Application of this result is discussed for the generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deuteron-lithium (d + Li) LENR, the result indicates that (d + 6 Li) reactions may dominate over (d + d) reactions in LENR experiments. (authors)

  9. Project for a beam line consecrated to soft condensed matter, common heterogeneous materials and non-crystalline materials on soleil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne, F.; Zemb, T.

    1998-01-01

    This project is a part of the 'SOLEIL' synchrotron project. The camera proposed is optimized for small angle x-ray scattering in the domain of soft condensed matter, common heterogeneous materials such as wood, cements, glass, and more generally non-crystalline materials. The beam line is designed to allow a quick succession of different users without time consuming adjustments. Therefore, optical settings are minimized, taking into account the pluri-disciplinary nature of the analysis possibilities. To this end, the technical requirements are as follows. First and essentially, the wave-length has to be fixed and set around 12 keV. Focusing mirrors, optics to sample and sample to detector distances, and the size of the detector allow for a wide range of wave vector to be used. Rejection rate will be lower, and angular dynamical range will be larger than any of the current synchrotron lines. We want this line to be, and to stay, complementary to more specific systems, such as reflectivity experiments or grazing angle scattering experiments. However, we are thinking of an adaptation to ultra small angle scattering mode, based on the Bonse and Hart camera. Such equipment, actually a kind of 'Instamatic' of the reciprocal space, will fulfill to the need of chemical engineers, biophysicists or material scientists interested in hard as well as soft condensed matter. It will allow a large amount of experiments per time unit. (author)

  10. Inhomogeneous condensates in dilute nuclear matter and BCS-BEC crossovers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W; Röpke, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    We report on recent progress in understanding pairing phenomena in low-density nuclear matter at small and moderate isospin asymmetry. A rich phase diagram has been found comprising various superfluid phases that include a homogeneous and phase-separated BEC phase of deuterons at low density and a homogeneous BCS phase, an inhomogeneous LOFF phase, and a phase-separated BCS phase at higher densities. The transition from the BEC phases to the BCS phases is characterized in terms of the evolution, from strong to weak coupling, of the condensate wavefunction and the second moment of its density distribution in r-space. We briefly discuss approaches to higher-order clustering in low-density nuclear matter.

  11. Resin regenerating device in condensate desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Hiroo; Oosumi, Katsumi; Nishimura, Yusaku; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Norikazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy in the separation of anionic and cationic exchange resins. Constitution: Resins transferred from a condensate desalting column are charged in a cationic exchange resin column. The temperature of water for separating and transferring the resins is measured by a temperature detector disposed in a purified water injection line, and water is adjusted to a suitable flow rate for the separation and transfer of the resins by an automatic flow rate control valve, and then is injected. The resins are separated into cationic exchange resins and anionic exchange resins, in which only the anionic exchange resins are transferred, through an anionic exchange transfer line, into an anionic exchange resin column. By controlling the flow rate depending on the temperature of the injected water, the developing rate of the resin layer is made constant to enable separation and transfer of the resins at high accuracy. (Seki, T.)

  12. Design Of The Canal System Of KLA-60 Condensation Produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriawan; Wiranto, Slamet

    2000-01-01

    The RSG-GAS reactor pool ventilation system (KLA-60) which be used to avoid circulation of contamination air in the reactor hall, flow the 60% air from the pool surface to stack through the various filters. In case the isolation building the air from the pool surface is flooded back to the operation hall after exceed the heat exchanger, cooler and the various filters. One of the weakness of this system and must be solved by RSG is handing of the condensation water because in the canal system of the KLA-60 condensation produce is to be found some soiled like algae and to go the reactor pool. To solve this problem should be carried out research about the canal system of KLA-60 condensation produce and design the new canal system to find the good function. At the first design is carried out study about the function of the old of canal system of KLA-60 condensation produce. Base on this study have been carried out design of the canal system KLA-60 condensation produce, with can prevent the soiled to go to the reactor pool

  13. PREFACE: 10th Summer School on Theoretical Physics 'Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulek, Tadeusz; Wal, Andrzej; Lulek, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Tenth Summer School on Theoretical Physics under the banner title 'Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter' (SSPCM 2009). The School was organized by Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland, in cooperation with AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland, and took place on 2-9 September 2009 in Myczkowce, Poland. With this meeting we have reached the round number ten of the series of biannual SSPCM schools, which started in 1990 and were focused on some advanced mathematical methods of condensed matter physics. The first five meetings were held in Zajaczkowo near Poznan, under the auspices of The Institute of Physics of Adam Mickiewicz University, and the last five in Myczkowce near Rzeszów, in the south-eastern part of Poland. Within these two decades several young workers who started at kindergarten lectures at SSPCM, have now reached their PhD degrees, professorships and authority. Proceedings of the first seven SSPCM meetings were published as separate volumes by World Scientific, and the last two as volumes 30 and 104 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The present meeting is also the third of the last schools which put the emphasis on quantum informatics. The main topics of our jubilee SSPCM'09 are the following: Information processing, entanglement, and tensor calculus, Integrable models and unitary symmetry, Finite systems and nanophysics. The Proceedings are divided into three parts accordingly. The school gathered together 55 participants from seven countries and several scientific centers in Poland, accommodating again advanced research with young collaborators and students. Acknowledgements The Organizing Committee would like to express its gratitude to all participants for their many activities during the School and for creating a friendly and inspiring atmosphere within our SSPCM society. Special thanks are due to all lecturers for preparing and presenting their talks and

  14. Towards a realization of the condensed-matter-gravity correspondence in string theory via consistent Abelian truncation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Asadig; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu

    2012-11-02

    We present an embedding of the three-dimensional relativistic Landau-Ginzburg model for condensed matter systems in an N = 6, U(N) × U(N) Chern-Simons-matter theory [the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model] by consistently truncating the latter to an Abelian effective field theory encoding the collective dynamics of O(N) of the O(N(2)) modes. In fact, depending on the vacuum expectation value on one of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena scalars, a mass deformation parameter μ and the Chern-Simons level number k, our Abelianization prescription allows us to interpolate between the Abelian Higgs model with its usual multivortex solutions and a Ø(4) theory. We sketch a simple condensed matter model that reproduces all the salient features of the Abelianization. In this context, the Abelianization can be interpreted as giving a dimensional reduction from four dimensions.

  15. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  16. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  17. History of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J W

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock compressed condensed matter, a group of American Physical Society (APS) members worked within the Society to make this field an active part of the APS. Individual papers were presented at APS meetings starting in the 1940's and shock wave sessions were organized starting with the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Shock wave topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA. Signatures were obtained on a petition in 1984 from a balanced cross-section of the shock wave community to form an APS Topical Group (TG). The APS Council officially accepted the formation of the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM) TG at its October 1984 meeting. This action firmly aligned the shock wave field with a major physical science organization. Most early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1992 were official APS meetings. The topical group organizes a shock wave topical conference in odd numbered years while participating in shock wavehigh pressure sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years

  18. Condensation for non-relativistic matter in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Jing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study condensation for non-relativistic matter in a Hořava–Lifshitz black hole without the condition of the detailed balance. We show that, for the fixed non-relativistic parameter α2 (or the detailed balance parameter ϵ, it is easier for the scalar hair to form as the parameter ϵ (or α2 becomes larger, but the condensation is not affected by the non-relativistic parameter β2. We also find that the ratio of the gap frequency in conductivity to the critical temperature decreases with the increase of ϵ and α2, but increases with the increase of β2. The ratio can reduce to the Horowitz–Roberts relation ωg/Tc≈8 obtained in the Einstein gravity and Cai's result ωg/Tc≈13 found in a Hořava–Lifshitz gravity with the condition of the detailed balance for the relativistic matter. Especially, we note that the ratio can arrive at the value of the BCS theory ωg/Tc≈3.5 by taking proper values of the parameters.

  19. An experimental study of high pressure steam condensation in a vertical tube of passive secondary condensation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Jae; No, Hee Cheon [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To investigate the physical parameters of PSCS (Passive Secondary Condensation System) which is a passive residual heat removal system of CP-1300, the high pressure condensation experiments are performed in a small scale experimental facility. The experimental parameters are the local heat flux and the transfer coefficient and the pressure drop in a condensation heat trasnfer. The film condensation heat transfer coefficients in a vertical tube are calculated from the measured wall temperature difference and compared with the analytical models. A new analytical condensation model is developed based on the annular film flow model. The present model gives marginally better results than those from the Shah model in comparison with the experimental data in the database. Also, experimental data are compared with the results of the RELAP5/MOD3.2 thermal hydraulic code. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 underpredicts the condensation heat transfer coefficients of the present experiment by 50 %.

  20. Modelling of condensation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae Jun; Chang, Won Pyo

    1996-07-01

    Condensation occurs when vapor is cooled sufficiently below the saturation temperature to induce the nucleation of droplets. Such nucleation may occur homogeneously within the vapor or heterogeneously on entrained particular matter. Heterogeneous nucleation may occur on the walls of the system, where the temperature is below the saturation temperature. There are two forms of heterogeneous condensation, drop-wise and film-wise. Another form of condensation occurs when vapor directly contacts to subcooled liquid. In nuclear power plant systems, all forms of condensation may occur during normal operation or accident conditions. In this work the modelling of condensation is surveyed, including the Nusselts' laminar film condensation theory in 1916, Rohsenow's turbulent film condensation model in 1950s, and Chen's models in 1987. Major attention is paid on the film condensation models among various research results because of its importance in engineering applications. It is found that theory, experiment, and empirical correlations for film condensation are well established, but research for drop-wise and direct-contact condensation are not sufficient yet. Condensation models in the best-estimate system codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2 are also investigated. 3 tabs., 11 figs., 36 refs. (Author)

  1. Modelling of Condensation in Vertical Tubes for Passive Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papini, D.; Ricotti, M.; Santini, L.; Grgic, D.

    2008-01-01

    Condensation in vertical tubes plays an important role in the performance of heat exchangers in passive safety systems, widely adopted in next generation reactors. Vertical pipe condensers are implemented in the GE-SBWR1000 Isolation Condenser as well as in the Emergency Heat Removal System (EHRS) of the IRIS reactor. The transient and safety analysis is usually carried out by means of best-estimate, thermalhydraulic codes, as RELAP. Suitable heat transfer correlations are required to duly model the two-phase processes. As far as the condensation process is concerned, RELAP5/MOD3.3 adopts the Nusselt correlation to calculate the heat transfer coefficient in laminar conditions and the Shah correlation for turbulent conditions; the maximum of the predictions from laminar and turbulent regimes is used to calculate the condensation heat transfer coefficient. Shah correlation is generally considered as the best empirical correlation for turbulent annular film condensation, but suitable in proper ranges of the various parameters. Nevertheless, recent investigations have pointed out that its validity is highly questionable for high pressure and large diameter tube applications with water, as should be for the utilization for vertical tube condensers in passive safety systems. Thus, a best-estimate model, based on the theory of film condensation on a plain wall, is proposed. Condensate velocity, expressed in terms of Reynolds number, governs the development of three different regime zones: laminar, laminar wavy and turbulent. The best correlation for each regime (Nusselt's for laminar, Kutateladze's for laminar wavy and Chen's for turbulent) is considered and then implemented in RELAP code. Comparison between the Nusselt-Shah and the proposed model shows substantial differences in heat transfer coefficient prediction. Especially, a trend of increasing value of the heat transfer coefficient with tube abscissa (and quality decreasing) is predicted, when turbulence

  2. Characteristic size and mass of galaxies in the Bose–Einstein condensate dark matter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Weon Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the characteristic length scale of galactic halos in the Bose–Einstein condensate (or scalar field dark matter model. Considering the evolution of the density perturbation we show that the average background matter density determines the quantum Jeans mass and hence the spatial size of galaxies at a given epoch. In this model the minimum size of galaxies increases while the minimum mass of the galaxies decreases as the universe expands. The observed values of the mass and the size of the dwarf galaxies are successfully reproduced with the dark matter particle mass m≃5×10−22 eV. The minimum size is about 6×10−3m/Hλc and the typical rotation velocity of the dwarf galaxies is O(H/m c, where H is the Hubble parameter and λc is the Compton wave length of the particle. We also suggest that ultra compact dwarf galaxies are the remnants of the dwarf galaxies formed in the early universe.

  3. 5. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics and symposium 'Electrical methods of materials treatment'. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This book includes abstracts of the communications presented at the 5th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed-Matter Physics and at the Symposium dedicated to the 100th anniversary of academician Boris Lazarenko, the prominent scientist and inventor, the first director of the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. The abstracts presented in the book cover a vast range of subjects, such as: advanced materials and fabrication processes; methods of crystal growth, post-growth technological processes, doping and implantation, fabrication of solid state structures; defect engineering, engineering of molecular assembly; methods of nanostructures and nano materials fabrication and characterization; quantum wells and superlattices; nano composite, nanowires and nano dots; fullerenes and nano tubes, molecular materials, meso- and nano electronics; methods of material and structure characterization; structure and mechanical characterization; optical, electrical, magnetic and superconductor properties, transport processes, nonlinear phenomena, size and interface effects; advances in condensed matter theory; theory of low dimensional systems; modelling of materials and structure properties; development of theoretical methods of solid-state characterization; phase transition; advanced quantum physics for nano systems; device modelling and simulation, device structures and elements; micro- and optoelectronics; photonics; microsensors and micro electro-mechanical systems; microsystems; degradation and reliability, solid-state device design; theory and advanced technologies of electro-physico-chemical and combined methods of materials machining and treatment, including modification of surfaces; theory and advanced technologies of using electric fields, currents and discharges so as to intensify heat mass-transfer, to raise the efficiency of treatment of materials, of biological preparations and foodstuff; modern equipment for

  4. Pion Condensation and Alternating Layer Spin Model in Symmetric Nuclear Matter : Use of Extended Effective Nuclear Forces : Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Teiji, KUNIHIRO; Tatsuyuki, TAKATSUKA; Ryozo, TAMAGAKI; Department of National Sciences, Ryukoku University; College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Iwate University; Department of Physics, Kyoto University

    1985-01-01

    Pion condensation in the symmetric nuclear matter is investigated on the basis of the ALS (alternating-layer-spin) model which provides a good description for the π^0 condensation. We perform energy calculations in a realistic way where the isobar (Δ)-mixing, the short range effects and the exchange energy of the interaction are taken into account. The Δ-mixing effect is built in the model state as previously done in the neutron matter. We preferentially employ G-0 force of Sprung and Banerje...

  5. Neutron research on condensed matter: a study of the facilities and scientific opportunities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An in-depth review of the present status and future potential of the applications of low-energy neutron scattering to research in the condensed-matter sciences, including physics, chemistry, biology, and metallurgy is presented. The study shows that neutron scattering technology has proven to be of enormous importance to research in the above areas and especially to those of solid-state physics and chemistry. The main emphasis is on the scattering of low-energy neutrons by condensed matter. Since the same type of neutron source facilities can be used for the study of radiation damage, this related topic has also been included

  6. Defect evolution in cosmology and condensed matter quantitative analysis with the velocity-dependent one-scale model

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P

    2016-01-01

    This book sheds new light on topological defects in widely differing systems, using the Velocity-Dependent One-Scale Model to better understand their evolution. Topological defects – cosmic strings, monopoles, domain walls or others - necessarily form at cosmological (and condensed matter) phase transitions. If they are stable and long-lived they will be fossil relics of higher-energy physics. Understanding their behaviour and consequences is a key part of any serious attempt to understand the universe, and this requires modelling their evolution. The velocity-dependent one-scale model is the only fully quantitative model of defect network evolution, and the canonical model in the field. This book provides a review of the model, explaining its physical content and describing its broad range of applicability.

  7. Plutonium metallurgy: The materials science challenges bridging condensed-matter physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: schwartz6@llnl.gov

    2007-10-11

    Although there exists evidence of metallurgical practices dating back over 6000 years, studies of Pu and Pu alloys have been conducted for barely 60 years. During the time of the Manhattan Project and extending for some time afterward, the priority to produce the metal took precedence over the fundamental understanding of the metallurgical principals. In the past decade or so, there has been a resurgence in the basic metallurgy, condensed-matter physics, and chemistry of Pu and Pu alloys. These communities have made substantial progress, both experimentally and theoretically in many areas; however, many challenges still remain. The intent of this brief overview is to highlight a number important challenges that we face in the metallurgy of Pu including phase transformations and phase stability, aging, and the connection between electronic structure and metallurgy.

  8. Piezoresistive Soft Condensed Matter Sensor for Body-Mounted Vital Function Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Melnykowycz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A soft condensed matter sensor (SCMS designed to measure strains on the human body is presented. The hybrid material based on carbon black (CB and a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE was bonded to a textile elastic band and used as a sensor on the human wrist to measure hand motion by detecting the movement of tendons in the wrist. Additionally it was able to track the blood pulse wave of a person, allowing for the determination of pulse wave peaks corresponding to the systole and diastole blood pressures in order to calculate the heart rate. Sensor characterization was done using mechanical cycle testing, and the band sensor achieved a gauge factor of 4–6.3 while displaying low signal relaxation when held at a strain levels. Near-linear signal performance was displayed when loading to successively higher strain levels up to 50% strain.

  9. Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics : Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School : Session CIII

    CERN Document Server

    Chamon, Claudio; Goerbig, Mark O; Moessner, Roderich; Cugliandolo, Leticia F

    2017-01-01

    Topological condensed matter physics is a recent arrival among the disciplines of modern physics of a distinctive and substantive nature. Its roots reach far back, but much of its current importance derives from exciting developments in the last half-century. The field is advancing rapidly, growing explosively, and diversifying greatly. There is now a zoo of topological phenomena–the quantum spin Hall effect, topological insulators, Coulomb spin liquids, non-Abelian anyonic statistics and their potential application in topological quantum computing, to name but a few–as well as an increasingly sophisticated set of concepts and methods underpinning their understanding. The aim of this Les Houches Summer School was to present an overview of this field, along with a sense of its origins and its place on the map of advances in fundamental physics. The school comprised a set of basic lectures (Part I) aimed at a pedagogical introduction to the fundamental concepts, which was accompanied by more advanced lectur...

  10. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebech, B.

    2001-03-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  11. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebech, B [ed.

    2000-02-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scalestructures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  12. 3-sphere fibrations: a tool for analyzing twisted materials in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoc, J F; Charvolin, J

    2009-01-01

    Chiral molecules, when densely packed in soft condensed matter or biological materials, build organizations which are most often spontaneously twisted. The crystals of 'blue' phases formed by small mesogenic molecules demonstrate the structural importance of such a twist or torsion, and its presence was also recently observed in finite toroidal aggregates formed by long DNA molecules. The formation of these organizations is driven by the fact that compactness, which tends to align the molecules, enters into conflict with torsion, which tends to disrupt this alignment. This conflict of topological nature, or frustration, arises because of the flatness of the Euclidean space, but does not exist in the curved space of the 3-sphere where particular lines, its fibres, can be drawn which are parallel and nevertheless twisted. As these fibrations conciliate compactness and torsion, they can be used as geometrical templates for the analysis of organizations in the Euclidean space. We describe these fibrations, with a particular emphasis on their torsion.

  13. Qualification of niobium materials for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications: View of a condensed matter physicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. B.; Myneni, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    We address the issue of qualifications of the niobium materials to be used for superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity fabrications, from the point of view of a condensed matter physicist/materials scientist. We focus on the particular materials properties of niobium required for the functioning a SCRF cavity, and how to optimize the same properties for the best SCRF cavity performance in a reproducible manner. In this way the niobium materials will not necessarily be characterized by their purity alone, but in terms of those materials properties, which will define the limit of the SCRF cavity performance and also other related material properties, which will help to sustain this best SCRF cavity performance. Furthermore we point out the need of standardization of the post fabrication processing of the niobium-SCRF cavities, which does not impair the optimized superconducting and thermal properties of the starting niobium-materials required for the reproducible performance of the SCRF cavities according to the design values.

  14. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1998-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  15. Qualification of niobium materials for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications: View of a condensed matter physicist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S. B., E-mail: sbroy@rrcat.gov.in [Magnetic & Superconducting Materials Section, Materials & Advanced Accelerator Sciences Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Myneni, G. R., E-mail: rao@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States)

    2015-12-04

    We address the issue of qualifications of the niobium materials to be used for superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity fabrications, from the point of view of a condensed matter physicist/materials scientist. We focus on the particular materials properties of niobium required for the functioning a SCRF cavity, and how to optimize the same properties for the best SCRF cavity performance in a reproducible manner. In this way the niobium materials will not necessarily be characterized by their purity alone, but in terms of those materials properties, which will define the limit of the SCRF cavity performance and also other related material properties, which will help to sustain this best SCRF cavity performance. Furthermore we point out the need of standardization of the post fabrication processing of the niobium-SCRF cavities, which does not impair the optimized superconducting and thermal properties of the starting niobium-materials required for the reproducible performance of the SCRF cavities according to the design values.

  16. Gravitational waves as a new probe of Bose–Einstein condensate Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Bhupal Dev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There exists a class of ultralight Dark Matter (DM models which could give rise to a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC in the early universe and behave as a single coherent wave instead of individual particles in galaxies. We show that a generic BEC-DM halo intervening along the line of sight of a gravitational wave (GW signal could induce an observable change in the speed of GWs, with the effective refractive index depending only on the mass and self-interaction of the constituent DM particles and the GW frequency. Hence, we propose to use the deviation in the speed of GWs as a new probe of the BEC-DM parameter space. With a multi-messenger approach to GW astronomy and/or with extended sensitivity to lower GW frequencies, the entire BEC-DM parameter space can be effectively probed by our new method in the near future.

  17. Qualification of niobium materials for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications: View of a condensed matter physicist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S. B.; Myneni, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    We address the issue of qualifications of the niobium materials to be used for superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity fabrications, from the point of view of a condensed matter physicist/materials scientist. We focus on the particular materials properties of niobium required for the functioning a SCRF cavity, and how to optimize the same properties for the best SCRF cavity performance in a reproducible manner. In this way the niobium materials will not necessarily be characterized by their purity alone, but in terms of those materials properties, which will define the limit of the SCRF cavity performance and also other related material properties, which will help to sustain this best SCRF cavity performance. Furthermore we point out the need of standardization of the post fabrication processing of the niobium-SCRF cavities, which does not impair the optimized superconducting and thermal properties of the starting niobium-materials required for the reproducible performance of the SCRF cavities according to the design values

  18. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebech, B.

    2000-02-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  19. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans`l, R.; Johannsen, I. [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 2 tabs., 142 ills., 169 refs.

  20. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M; Bechgaard, K; Clausen, K N; Feidenhans` l, R; Johannsen, I [eds.

    1998-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au). 129 ills., 213 refs.

  1. Measurement of Viscoelastic Properties of Condensed Matter using Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwel, Marco L. H.; Latta, Peter; Matwiy, Brendon; Sboto-Frankenstein, Uta; Gervai, Patricia; Tomanek, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a phase contrast technique that provides a non-invasive means of evaluating the viscoelastic properties of soft condensed matter. This has a profound bio-medical significance as it allows for the virtual palpation of areas of the body usually not accessible to the hands of a medical practitioner, such as the brain. Applications of MRE are not restricted to bio-medical applications, however, the viscoelastic properties of prepackaged food products can also non-invasively be determined. Here we describe the design and use of a modular MRE acoustic actuator that can be used for experiments ranging from the human brain to pre-packaged food products. The unique feature of the used actuator design is its simplicity and flexibility, which allows easy reconfiguration.

  2. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1999-04-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  3. Neutron and synchrotron radiation for condensed matter studies. Volume 1: theory, instruments and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruchel, J.; Hodeau, J.L.; Lehmann, M.S.; Regnard, J.R.; Schlenker, C.

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the basic information required by a research scientist wishing to undertake studies using neutrons or synchrotron radiation at a Large Facility. These lecture notes result from 'HERCULES', a course that has been held in Grenoble since 1991 to train young scientists in these fields. They cover the production of neutrons and synchrotron radiation and describe all aspects of instrumentation. In addition, this work outlines the basics of the various fields of research pursued at these Large Facilities. It consists of a series of chapters written by experts in the particular fields. While following a progression and constituting a lecture course on neutron and x-ray scattering, these chapters can also be read independently. This first volume will be followed by two further volumes concerned with the applications to solid state physics and chemistry, and to biology and soft condensed matter properties

  4. Evidence of micropore filling for sorption of nonpolar organic contaminants by condensed organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yong; Yang, Yu; Xing, Baoshan; Pignatello, Joseph J; Kwon, Seokjoo; Su, Wei; Zhou, Li

    2013-01-01

    Although microporosity and surface area of natural organic matter (NOM) are crucial for mechanistic evaluation of the sorption process for nonpolar organic contaminants (NOCs), they have been underestimated by the N adsorption technique. We investigated the CO-derived internal hydrophobic microporosity () and specific surface area (SSA) obtained on dry samples and related them to sorption behaviors of NOCs in water for a wide range of condensed NOM samples. The is obtained from the total CO-derived microporosity by subtracting out the contribution of the outer surfaces of minerals and NOM using N adsorption-derived parameters. The correlation between or CO-SSA and fractional organic carbon content () is very significant, demonstrating that much of the microporosity is associated with internal NOM matrices. The average and CO-SSA are, respectively, 75.1 μL g organic carbon (OC) and 185 m g OC from the correlation analysis. The rigid aliphatic carbon significantly contributes to the microporosity of the Pahokee peat. A strong linear correlation is demonstrated between / and the OC-normalized sorption capacity at the liquid or subcooled liquid-state water solubility calculated via the Freundlich equation for each of four NOCs (phenanthrene, naphthalene, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, and 1,2-dichlorobenzene). We concluded that micropore filling ("adsorption") contributes to NOC sorption by condensed NOM, but the exact contribution requires knowing the relationship between the dry-state, CO-determined microporosity and the wet-state, NOC-available microporosity of the organic matter. The findings offer new clues for explaining the nonideal sorption behaviors of NOCs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Condensation irrigation a system for desalination and irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, J.; Nordell, B

    2006-01-01

    condensation irrigation is a system for both desalination and irrigation. The principles is that humidified air is let into an underground horizontal pipe system, where the air is cooled by the ground and humidity falls out as fresh water. The humidification could e.g. be achieved by evaporation of seawater in solar stills or any other heat source. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation the water percolates into the soil, thereby irrigating the land. This study focuses on drinking water production, which means that humid air is led into plan pipes where the condensed water is collected at the pipe endings. Numerical simulations gave a study-state diurnal mean water production of 1.8 kg per meter of pipe over a 50 m pipe. Shorter pipes result in a greater mean production rate. Since the heat transfer of drainage pipes would be greater, current study indicates that condensation irrigation is a promising method for desalination and irrigation. Performed studies in condensation irrigation started at LTU in 2003. Current paper reports the initial theoretical work on the system.(Author)

  6. Research in the theory of condensed matter and elementary particles: Final report, September 1, 1984-November 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedan, D.; Kadanoff, L.; Nambu, Y.; Shenker, S.

    1988-04-01

    Progress is reported in the field of condensed matter physics in the area of two-dimensional critical phenomena, specifically results allowing complete classification of all possible two-dimensional critical phenomena in a certain domain. In the field of high energy physics, progress is reported in string and conformal field theory, and supersymmetry

  7. Bose-Einstein Condensate Dark Matter Halos Confronted with Galactic Rotation Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dwornik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative confrontation of both the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC and the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW dark halo models with galactic rotation curves. We employ 6 High Surface Brightness (HSB, 6 Low Surface Brightness (LSB, and 7 dwarf galaxies with rotation curves falling into two classes. In the first class rotational velocities increase with radius over the observed range. The BEC and NFW models give comparable fits for HSB and LSB galaxies of this type, while for dwarf galaxies the fit is significantly better with the BEC model. In the second class the rotational velocity of HSB and LSB galaxies exhibits long flat plateaus, resulting in better fit with the NFW model for HSB galaxies and comparable fits for LSB galaxies. We conclude that due to its central density cusp avoidance the BEC model fits better dwarf galaxy dark matter distribution. Nevertheless it suffers from sharp cutoff in larger galaxies, where the NFW model performs better. The investigated galaxy sample obeys the Tully-Fisher relation, including the particular characteristics exhibited by dwarf galaxies. In both models the fitting enforces a relation between dark matter parameters: the characteristic density and the corresponding characteristic distance scale with an inverse power.

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying facility condensate collection system design description (SYS 19); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) condensate collection system (CCS). The function of the CCS is to collect cooling coil condensate from air-handling units in the CVDF and to isolate the condensate in collection tanks until the condensate is determined to be acceptable to drain to the effluent drain collection basin

  9. Light in Condensed Matter in the Upper Atmosphere as the Origin of Homochirality: Circularly Polarized Light from Rydberg Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-08-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.

  10. Light in condensed matter in the upper atmosphere as the origin of homochirality: circularly polarized light from Rydberg matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.

  11. Bose–Einstein condensation temperature of finite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mi

    2018-05-01

    In studies of the Bose–Einstein condensation of ideal gases in finite systems, the divergence problem usually arises in the equation of state. In this paper, we present a technique based on the heat kernel expansion and zeta function regularization to solve the divergence problem, and obtain the analytical expression of the Bose–Einstein condensation temperature for general finite systems. The result is represented by the heat kernel coefficients, where the asymptotic energy spectrum of the system is used. Besides the general case, for systems with exact spectra, e.g. ideal gases in an infinite slab or in a three-sphere, the sums of the spectra can be obtained exactly and the calculation of corrections to the critical temperatures is more direct. For a system confined in a bounded potential, the form of the heat kernel is different from the usual heat kernel expansion. We show that as long as the asymptotic form of the global heat kernel can be found, our method works. For Bose gases confined in three- and two-dimensional isotropic harmonic potentials, we obtain the higher-order corrections to the usual results of the critical temperatures. Our method can also be applied to the problem of generalized condensation, and we give the correction of the boundary on the second critical temperature in a highly anisotropic slab.

  12. Proceedings 21. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter and of the Scientific Conference Advanced Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2015-01-01

    The 21. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 24-26 June, 2015 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The Scientific Conference the Advanced Fast Reactors was part of the 21 st International Conference on APCOM 2015. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Advanced fast reactors; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; interdisciplinary physics of condensed matter; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Fifty seven contributions relevant of INIS interest has been inputted to INIS.

  13. Pair condensation and bound states in fermionic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedrakian, Armen; Clark, John W.

    2006-01-01

    We study the finite temperature-density phase diagram of an attractive fermionic system that supports two-body (dimer) and three-body (trimer) bound states in free space. Using interactions characteristic for nuclear systems, we obtain the critical temperature T c2 for the superfluid phase transition and the limiting temperature T c3 for the extinction of trimers. The phase diagram features a Cooper-pair condensate in the high-density, low-temperature domain which, with decreasing density, crosses over to a Bose condensate of strongly bound dimers. The high-temperature, low-density domain is populated by trimers whose binding energy decreases toward the density-temperature domain occupied by the superfluid and vanishes at a critical temperature T c3 >T c2

  14. Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics-An Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, D E

    2005-01-01

    This is undoubtedly an ambitious book. It aims to provide a wide ranging, yet self-contained and pedagogical introduction to techniques of quantum many-body theory in condensed matter physics, without losing mathematical 'rigor' (which I hope means rigour), and with an eye on physical insight, motivation and application. The authors certainly bring plenty of experience to the task, the book having grown out of their graduate lectures at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen over a five year period, with the feedback and refinement this presumably brings. The book is also of course ambitious in another sense, for it competes in the tight market of general graduate/advanced undergraduate texts on many-particle physics. Prospective punters will thus want reasons to prefer it to, or at least give it space beside, well established texts in the field. Subject-wise, the book is a good mix of the ancient and modern, the standard and less so. Obligatory chapters deal with the formal cornerstones of many-body theory, from second quantization, time-dependence in quantum mechanics and linear response theory, to Green's function and Feynman diagrams. Traditional topics are well covered, including two chapters on the electron gas, chapters on phonons and electron-phonon coupling, and a concise account of superconductivity (confined, no doubt judiciously, to the conventional BCS case). Less mandatory, albeit conceptually vital, subjects are also aired. These include a chapter on Fermi liquid theory, from both semi-classical and microscopic perspectives, and a freestanding account of one-dimensional electron gases and Luttinger liquids which, given the enormity of the topic, is about as concise as it could be without sacrificing clarity. Quite naturally, the authors' own interests also influence the choice of material covered. A persistent theme, which brings a healthy topicality to the book, is the area of transport in mesoscopic systems or nanostructures. Two chapters, some

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics—An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, D. E.

    2005-02-01

    This is undoubtedly an ambitious book. It aims to provide a wide ranging, yet self-contained and pedagogical introduction to techniques of quantum many-body theory in condensed matter physics, without losing mathematical `rigor' (which I hope means rigour), and with an eye on physical insight, motivation and application. The authors certainly bring plenty of experience to the task, the book having grown out of their graduate lectures at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen over a five year period, with the feedback and refinement this presumably brings. The book is also of course ambitious in another sense, for it competes in the tight market of general graduate/advanced undergraduate texts on many-particle physics. Prospective punters will thus want reasons to prefer it to, or at least give it space beside, well established texts in the field. Subject-wise, the book is a good mix of the ancient and modern, the standard and less so. Obligatory chapters deal with the formal cornerstones of many-body theory, from second quantization, time-dependence in quantum mechanics and linear response theory, to Green's function and Feynman diagrams. Traditional topics are well covered, including two chapters on the electron gas, chapters on phonons and electron phonon coupling, and a concise account of superconductivity (confined, no doubt judiciously, to the conventional BCS case). Less mandatory, albeit conceptually vital, subjects are also aired. These include a chapter on Fermi liquid theory, from both semi-classical and microscopic perspectives, and a freestanding account of one-dimensional electron gases and Luttinger liquids which, given the enormity of the topic, is about as concise as it could be without sacrificing clarity. Quite naturally, the authors' own interests also influence the choice of material covered. A persistent theme, which brings a healthy topicality to the book, is the area of transport in mesoscopic systems or nanostructures. Two chapters, some

  16. Condensing and water supplying systems in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinmura, Akira.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To reduce heat loss and eliminate accumulation of drain in water supplying and heating units in an atomic power plant by providing a direct contact type drain cooler between a gland-exhauster vapor condenser and a condensing and de-salting means, the drain from each water supplying and heating unit being collected in said cooler for heating the condensed water. Structure: Condensed water from a condenser is fed by a low pressure condensing pump through an air ejector and gland-exhauster vapor condenser to the direct-contact type drain cooler and is condensed in each water supply heater. Next, it is heated by drain fed through a drain level adjuster valve and an orifice and then forced by a medium pressure condenser pump into the condensing and de-salting means. It is then supplied by a high pressure condensing pump into the successive water supply heater. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. EDITORIAL: Richard Palmer: celebrating 37 years with Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter Richard Palmer: celebrating 37 years with Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, David

    2009-01-01

    It is with a great deal of both happiness and sadness that I have to announce that we are losing one of the real strengths of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JPCM). Dr Richard Palmer, our Senior Publisher, announced his retirement, and this issue marks the first without his involvement. Of course, we are happy that he will get to enjoy his retirement, but we are sad to lose such a valuable member of our team. Richard first started work at IOP Publishing in March 1971 as an Editorial Assistant with Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics. After a few months, he transferred to Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics. During his first year, he was sent on a residential publishing training course and asked to sign an undertaking to stay at IOP Publishing for at least two years. Although Richard refused to sign, as he did not want to commit himself, he has remained with the journal since then. The following year, the Assistant Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Malcolm Haines, walked out without notice in order to work on his family vineyard in France, and Richard stepped into the breach. In those days, external editors had a much more hands-on role in IOP Publishing and he had to travel to Harwell to be interviewed by Alan Lidiard, the Honorary Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, before being given the job of Assistant Editor permanently. I am told that in those days the job consisted mainly of editing and proofreading and peer review. There was no journal development work. At some point in the early 1980s, production and peer review were split into separate departments and Richard then headed a group of journals consisting of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics and Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics, Semiconductor Science and Technology, Superconductor Science and Technology, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, and later Nanotechnology and Modelling and Simulation

  18. High speed auto-charging system for condenser bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Yasunori; Bito, Fumio; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Sometani, Taro

    1987-01-01

    A current-control type high-speed charging system, which is intended for auto-charging of the condenser bank, is developed. Moreover, the system can also serve to compensate the current leakage from the condenser bank so that the charged voltage can be kept constant. The system consists of a sequence circuit, a charging current control circuit (or auto-charging circuit) and a charging circuit. The auto-charging circuit is characterized by the use of a triac to control the current. The current, controlled by the circuit, is supplied to the condenser bank through a step-up transformer and voltage doubler rectifier circuit. It is demonstrated that the use of the high-speed auto-charging circuit can largely decrease the required charging time, compared to constant voltage charging. In addition, the compensation function is shown to serve effectively for maintaining a constant voltage after the completion of charging. The required charging time is decreases as the charging current increases. The maximum charging current is decided by the rating of the traic and the current rating of the rectifier diode in the secondary circuit. Major components of these circuits have decreased impedances to minimize the effect of noise, so that the possibility of an accident can be eliminated. Other various improvements are made in the grounding circuit and the charging protection circuit in order to ensure safety. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified.

  20. The Art of the Motorcycle and the History of Art (and Condensed Matter Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles

    Many topics in physics are such that they are difficult to present in ways that the general public finds engaging. In this talk I will discuss two topics I have worked on, directly related to my research in optical and condensed matter physics, that continue to have widespread appeal. In 1871 Louis Guillaume Perreaux installed a compact steam engine in a commercial bicycle and thus produced the world's first motorcycle. The 145 years since the Michaux-Perreaux have resulted in standard production motorcycles incorporating such materials as carbon-fiber composites, maraging steels, and ''exotic'' alloys of magnesium, titanium and aluminum that can exceed 190 mph straight from the show room floor. As a result of 'The Art of the Motorcycle' exhibition I co-curated at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum the public has learned the evolution of motorcycles is interwoven with developments in materials physics. In a second topic, discoveries I made with the renowned artist David Hockney convincingly demonstrated optical instruments were in use - by artists, not scientists - nearly 200 years earlier than commonly thought possible, and for the first time account for the remarkable transformation in the reality of portraits that occurred early in the 15th century. By learning a few principles of geometrical optics the public gains insight into the working process of artists such as van Eyck, Bellini and Caravaggio. Acknowledgement: Portions of this work done in collaboration with David Hockney.

  1. Antwerp Advanced Study Institute on Electronic Structure, Dynamics and Quantum Structural Properties of Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Camp, Piet

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 Advanced Study Institute on "Electronic Structure, Dynamics and Quantum Structural Properties of Condensed Matter" took place at the Corsendonk Conference Center, close to the City of Antwerpen, from July 16 till 27, 1984. This NATO Advanced Study Institute was motivated by the research in my Institute, where, in 1971, a project was started on "ab-initio" phonon calculations in Silicon. I~ is my pleasure to thank several instances and people who made this ASI possible. First of all, the sponsor of the Institute, the NATO Scientific Committee. Next, the co-sponsors: Agfa-Gevaert, Bell Telephone Mfg. Co. N.V., C & A, Esso Belgium·, CDC Belgium, Janssens Pharmaceutica, Kredietbank and the Scientific Office of the U.S. Army. Special thanks are due to Dr. P. Van Camp and Drs. H. Nachtegaele, who, over several months, prepared the practical aspects of the ASI with the secretarial help of Mrs. R.-M. Vandekerkhof. I also like to. thank Mrs. M. Cuyvers who prepared and organized the subject and material ...

  2. Air Pollutants Minimalization of Pollutant Absorber with Condensation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhiat, Yayat; Wibowo, Firmanul Catur; Oktarisa, Yuvita

    2017-01-01

    Industrial development has implications for pollution, one of it is air pollution. The amount of air pollutants emitted from industrial depend on several factors which are capacity of its fuel, high chimneys and atmospheric stability. To minimize pollutants emitted from industries is created a tool called Pollutant Absorber (PA) with a condensing system. Research and Development with the approach of Design for Production was used as methodology in making PA. To test the function of PA, the simulation had been done by using the data on industrial emissions Cilegon industrial area. The simulation results in 15 years period showed that the PA was able to minimize the pollutant emissions of SO2 by 38% NOx by 37% and dust by 64%. Differences in the absorption of pollutants shows the weakness of particle separation process in the separator. This condition happen because the condensation process is less optimal during the absorption and separation in the separator. (paper)

  3. Polariton condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoke, David; Littlewood, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Most students of physics know about the special properties of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) as demonstrated in the two best-known examples: superfluid helium-4, first reported in 1938, and condensates of trapped atomic gases, first observed in 1995. (See the article by Wolfgang Ketterle in PHYSICS TODAY, December 1999, page 30.) Many also know that superfluid 3 He and superconducting metals contain BECs of fermion pairs. An underlying principle of all those condensed-matter systems, known as quantum fluids, is that an even number of fermions with half-integer spin can be combined to make a composite boson with integer spin. Such composite bosons, like all bosons, have the property that below some critical temperature--roughly the temperature at which the thermal de Broglie wavelength becomes comparable to the distance between the bosons--the total free energy is minimized by having a macroscopic number of bosons enter a single quantum state and form a macroscopic, coherent matter wave. Remarkably, the effect of interparticle repulsion is to lead to quantum mechanical exchange interactions that make that state robust, since the exchange interactions add coherently.

  4. Matter-wave interference, Josephson oscillation and its disruption in a Bose-Einstein condensate on an optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Sadhan K.

    2004-01-01

    Using the axially-symmetric time-dependent mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation we study the Josephson oscillation in a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate trapped by a harmonic plus an one-dimensional optical-lattice potential to describe the experiments by Cataliotti et al. [Science 293 (2001) 843, New J. Phys. 5 (2003) 71.1]. After a study of the formation of matter-wave interference upon releasing the condensate from the optical trap, we directly investigate the alternating atomic superfluid Josephson current upon displacing the harmonic trap along the optical axis. The Josephson current is found to be disrupted upon displacing the harmonic trap through a distance greater than a critical distance signaling a superfluid to a classical insulator transition in the condensate

  5. Study of the Condensed Matter Dynamics by the Deep Inelastic Neutron Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blostein, Juan Jeronimo

    2004-01-01

    physical phenomena.For the special case of light water/ heavy water mixtures we present calculations that reproduce the behavior of the reported anomalies on the hydrogen-deuterium neutron cross section rate.We present total cross section measurements of such liquid mixtures, in total agreement with the expected values, whereby we conclude that the purported anomalous cross sections (reported after employing the convolution approximation in the eVS data treatment) do not exist.The absence of anomalies in the total cross sections of those liquid mixtures provides a clear evidence of the invalidity of the convolution formalism usually employed in the eVS data treatment. In view of the main motivation that originated the eVS technique, and the clear invalidity of the convolution formalism, we present for the first time the exact formalism to obtain the nuclear impulse distributions in condensed matter systems, starting form the experimentally observed intensity profiles.Such formalism, valid for an arbitrary impulse distribution, does not require the harmonic potential hypothesis, and involves an integration kernel that depends analytically only on the instrumental characteristics, and is independent of the sample characteristics. Our work, besides assessing the magnitude of the inaccuracy of the convolution formalism, establishes the basis for a correct treatment of the experimental data obtained with this technique.On the experimental side, we implemented successfully the eVS technique in the linear accelerator pulsed neutron facility at the Bariloche Atomic Center, thus being the second laboratory in the world to employ it regularly.Monte Carlo simulation presented in this thesis, show the importance to adequately select the sample thickness, and to correct by multiple scattering, attenuation and detector efficiency effects, and also to employ the exact formalism.To this end it is necessary to characterize in detail the different elements that compose the experimental

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of cooling systems for nuclear power stations condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.

    1985-06-01

    This work is an attempt to concentrate on the thermodynamic theory, the engineering solution and the quantities of water needed for the operation of a wet as well as a wet/dry cooling towers coupled to a nuclear turbine condenser,. About two hundred variables are needed for the design of a condenser - cooling tower system. In order to make the solution fast and handy, a computer model was developed. The amount of water evaporation from cooling towers is a function of the climate conditions prevailing around the site. To achieve an authentic analysis, the meteorological data of the northern Negev was used. The total amount of water necessary to add to the system in a year time of operation is large and is a function of both the blow-down rate and the evaporation. First estimations show that the use of a combined system, wet/dry cooling tower, is beneficial in the northern Negev area. Such a system can reduce significantly the amount of wasted fresh water. Lack of international experience is the major problem in the acceptability of wet/dry cooling towers. The technology of a wet cooling tower using sea water is also discussed where no technical or engineering limitations were found. This work is an attempt to give some handy tools for making the choice of cooling systems for nuclear power plants easier

  7. Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, condensate fragmentation and gravitino dark matter in gauge-mediation with a large messenger mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doddato, Francesca; McDonald, John

    2011-01-01

    We study the conditions for successful Affleck-Dine baryogenesis and the origin of gravitino dark matter in GMSB models. AD baryogenesis in GMSB models is ruled out by neutron star stability unless Q-balls are unstable and decay before nucleosynthesis. Unstable Q-balls can form if the messenger mass scale is larger than the flat-direction field Φ when the condensate fragments. We provide an example based on AD baryogenesis along a d = 6 flat direction for the case where m 3/2 ≈ 2GeV, as predicted by gravitino dark matter from Q-ball decay. Using a phenomenological GMSB potential which models the Φ dependence of the SUSY breaking terms, we numerically solve for the evolution of Φ and show that the messenger mass can be sufficiently close to the flat-direction field when the condensate fragments. We compute the corresponding reheating temperature and the baryonic charge of the condensate fragments and show that the charge is large enough to produce late-decaying Q-balls which can be the origin of gravitino dark matter

  8. PREFACE: REXS 2013 - Workshop on Resonant Elastic X-ray Scattering in Condensed Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutier, G.; Mazzoli, C.; Yakhou, F.; Brown, S. D.; Bombardi, A.; Collins, S. P.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this workshop was to bring together experts in experimental and theoretical aspects of resonant elastic x-ray scattering, along with researchers who are new to the field, to discuss important recent results and the fundamentals of the technique. The meeting was a great success, with the first day dedicated to students and new researchers in the field, who received introductory lectures and tutorials. All conference delegates were invited either to make an oral presentation or to present a poster, accompanied by a short talk. The first two papers selected for the REXS13 proceedings (Grenier & Joly and Helliwell) give a basic background to the theory of REXS and applications across a wide range of scientific areas. The remainder of the papers report on some of the latest scientific results obtained by applying the REXS technique to contemporary problems in condensed matter, materials and x-ray physics. It is hoped that these proceedings provide a snapshot of the current status of a vibrant and diverse scientific technique that will be of value not just to those who attended the workshop but also to any other reader with an interest in the subject. Local Scientific Committee REXS13 International Scientific Advisory Committee M Altarelli, European XFEL, Germany F de Bergevin, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France J Garcia-Ruiz, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain A I Goldman, Iowa State University, USA M Goldmann, Institut Nanosciences, France T Schulli, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France C R Natoli, Laboratori Nazionali de Frascati, Italy G Materlik, Diamond Light Source, UK L Paolasini, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France U Staub, Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland K Finkelstein, Cornell University, USA Y Murakami, Photon Factory, Japan REXS13 Local Scientific Committee G Beutier, CNRS Grenoble, France C Mazzoli, Politecnico di Milano, Italy F Yakhou, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France S D Brown, XMaS UK CRG

  9. Development of a condenser for the dual catalyst water recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinikas, P.; Rasouli, F.; Rabadi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual evaporation/condensation systems suitable for integration with the catalytic water recovery method were evaluated. The primary requirements for each concept were its capability to operate under zero-gravity conditions, condense recovered water from a vapor-noncondensable gas mixture, and integrate with the catalytic system. Specific energy requirements were estimated for concepts meeting the primary requirements, and the concept most suitable for integration with the catalytic system was proposed. A three-man rate condenser capable of integration with the proposed system, condensing water vapor in presence of noncondensables and transferring the heat of condensation to feed urine was designed, fabricated, and tested. It was treated with steam/air mixtures at atmospheric and elevated pressures and integrated with an actual catalytic water recovery system. The condenser has a condensation efficiency exceeding 90% and heat transfer rate of approximately 85% of theoretical value at coolant temperature ranging from 7 to 80 deg C.

  10. Proceedings of the thirty first convention of Orissa Physical Society and national seminar on recent trends in condensed matter physics: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This conference covers issues relevant to condensed matter physics. The research in this area has laid the foundation for development of science and technology in wide areas of energy, information, communication etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. Enhancement of Condensation Heat Transfer Rate of the Air-Steam Mixture on a Passive Condenser System Using Annular Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Jun Jang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation on the enhancement of the heat transfer rate of steam condensation on the external surfaces of a vertical tube with annular fins. A cylindrical condenser tube, which is 40 mm in outer diameter and 1000 mm in length, with annular disks of uniform cross-sectional area is fabricated in the manner of ensuring perfect contact between the base surface and fins. A total of 13 annular fins of 80 mm diameter were installed along the tube height in order to increase the effective heat transfer area by 85%. Through a series of condensation tests for the air-steam mixture under natural convection conditions, the heat transfer data was measured in the pressure range of between 2 and 5 bar, and the air mass fraction from 0.3 to 0.7. The rates of heat transfer of the finned tube are compared to those that are measured on a bare tube to demonstrate the enhanced performance by extended surfaces. In addition, based on the experimental results and the characteristics of steam condensation, the applicability of finned tubes to a large condenser system with a bundle layout is evaluated.

  12. Scalar quanta in Fermi liquids: Zero sounds, instabilities, Bose condensation, and a metastable state in dilute nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomeitsev, E.E. [Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Voskresensky, D.N. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The spectrum of bosonic scalar-mode excitations in a normal Fermi liquid with local scalar interaction is investigated for various values and momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter f{sub 0} in the particle-hole channel. For f{sub 0} > 0 the conditions are found when the phase velocity on the spectrum of zero sound acquires a minimum at non-zero momentum. For -1 < f{sub 0} < 0 there are only damped excitations, and for f{sub 0} < -1 the spectrum becomes unstable against the growth of scalar-mode excitations. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar excitation modes is derived after performing a bosonization procedure. We demonstrate that the instability may be tamed by the formation of a static Bose condensate of the scalar modes. The condensation may occur in a homogeneous or inhomogeneous state relying on the momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter. We show that in the isospin-symmetric nuclear matter there may appear a metastable state at subsaturation nuclear density owing to the condensate. Then we consider a possibility of the condensation of the zero-sound-like excitations in a state with a non-zero momentum in Fermi liquids moving with overcritical velocities, provided an appropriate momentum dependence of the Landau parameter f{sub 0}(k) > 0. We also argue that in peripheral heavy-ion collisions the Pomeranchuk instability may occur already for f{sub 0} > -1. (orig.)

  13. Theses of reports of International Conference 'Physics of the condensed matter state at low temperatures'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The main topics of this conference deal with: fundamental base of superconductivity; superconductors with high critical parameters and applied superconductivity; quantum phenomena in condensed media; physics of strength and plasticity; electronic and magnetic properties of metals

  14. Investigation of Condensation Heat Transfer Correlation of Heat Exchanger Design in Secondary Passive Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yun Jae; Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hanok; Lee, Taeho; Park, Cheontae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Recently, condensation heat exchangers have been studied for applications to the passive cooling systems of nuclear plants. To design vertical-type condensation heat exchangers in secondary passive cooling systems, TSCON (Thermal Sizing of CONdenser), a thermal sizing program for a condensation heat exchanger, was developed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). In this study, the existing condensation heat transfer correlation of TSCON was evaluated using 1,157 collected experimental data points from the heat exchanger of a secondary passive cooling system for the case of pure steam condensation. The investigation showed that the Shah correlation, published in 2009, provided the most satisfactory results for the heat transfer coefficient with a mean absolute error of 34.8%. It is suggested that the Shah correlation is appropriate for designing a condensation heat exchanger in TSCON.

  15. Condensate clean up control system with distributed DDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, K.; Tazima, T.; Nakamura, O.; Kobayashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    In the operation of the Condensate Clean Up System in BWR plants, regeneration intervals of the demineralizer are not equal and there is no base to determine the interval, which is usually decided by operator's experience. Regeneration of resin is, therefore, sometimes performed too early, leaving much of the capacity of the resin unused. In order to improve such operations efforts were made to equalize the operating time difference of two sequential demineralizers, to control the initial flow into newly-connected demineralizers. The economic and efficient operation of this system, along with the reduction of radioactive resins and the safety supervisory function can be achieved by the distributed DDC with a microprocessor. (LL)

  16. Assessment of Condenser Design in the Cooling System of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukmanto Dibyo

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains various cases related to the problem of condenser design principle. Condenser equipment is circuit component of cooling that is very important. Steam that goes down from the turbine, flowing to the condenser and the steam is condensate to be water. Step of design is beginning from identification of problem until mechanic design. Usually, the condenser is designed by conservative certain levels, as well as thermal aspect or mechanic. Beside that, the design analysis is also anticipated to the existing of degradation due to aging therefore safety aspect and requirement are accepted. The assessment that related to the condenser design has been discussed. Most important aspect is obtaining of performances. Beside that, the discussion is also described about design method and that complication should consider aspect of thermal design, physics, economic, aspect of corrosion and others factors. (author)

  17. The application of SANS to ''soft condensed matter'': the structure of polymer-like lecithin reverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtenberger, P.; Cavaco, C.

    1992-01-01

    ''Complex fluids'' or ''soft condensed matter'' have recently attracted considerable attention both experimentally as well as theoretically. The hypothesis of a water-induced formation of flexible cylindrical micelles and the existence of entanglement networks was largely based on ''low-resolution'' light scattering and rheological measurements and analogies to classical polymer theory. In order to directly confirm this picture and verify the postulated analogy between the structural properties of polymer chains and lecithin reverse micelles we now used a combination of static light scattering and small angle neutron scattering. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs

  18. Research into condensed matter using large-scale apparatus. Physics, chemistry, biology. Progress report 1992-1995. Summarizing reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Activities for research into condensed matter have been supported by the German BMBF with approx. 102 million Deutschmarks in the years 1992 through 1995. These financial means have been distributed among 314 research projects in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and other fields, which all rely on the intensive utilization of photon and particle beams generated in large-scale apparatus of institutions for basic research. The volume in hand first gives information of a general kind and statistical data on the distribution of financial means, for a number of priority research projects. The project reports are summarizing reports on the progress achieved in the various projects. (CB) [de

  19. Amorphous physics and materials: Interstitialcy theory of condensed matter states and its application to non-crystalline metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khonik, V A

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive review of a novel promising framework for the understanding of non-crystalline metallic materials, i.e., interstitialcy theory of condensed matter states (ITCM), is presented. The background of the ITCM and its basic results for equilibrium/supercooled liquids and glasses are given. It is emphasized that the ITCM provides a new consistent, clear, and testable approach, which uncovers the generic relationship between the properties of the maternal crystal, equilibrium/supercooled liquid and glass obtained by melt quenching. (topical review)

  20. Creation of matter wave Bessel beams and observation of quantized circulation in a Bose–Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C; Henderson, K C; Boshier, M G

    2014-01-01

    Bessel beams are plane waves with amplitude profiles described by Bessel functions. They are important because they propagate ‘diffraction-free’ and because they can carry orbital angular momentum. Here we report the creation of a Bessel beam of de Broglie matter waves. The Bessel beam is produced by the free evolution of a thin toroidal atomic Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) which has been set into rotational motion. By attempting to stir it at different rotation rates, we show that the toroidal BEC can only be made to rotate at discrete, equally spaced frequencies, demonstrating that circulation is quantized in atomic BECs. The method used here can be viewed as a form of wavefunction engineering which might be developed to implement cold atom matter wave holography. (paper)

  1. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on 'nuclear spectroscopy and condensed matter physics using short-lived nuclei'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Shibata, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Yoshitaka

    2016-02-01

    The research reactor at Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University is a very useful neutron generator, providing us neutron-rich unstable nuclei by bombarding nuclei with those neutrons. The produced unstable nuclei exhibit aspects distinct from those of stable ones. Nuclear structure studies on a variety of excited states reflecting dynamic nuclear properties are one of fascinating research subjects of physics. On the other hand, some radioactive nuclei can be used as useful probes for understanding interesting properties of condensed matters through studies of hyperfine interactions of static nuclear electromagnetic moments with extranuclear fields. Concerning these two research fields and related areas, the 2nd symposium under the title of 'Nuclear Spectroscopy and Condensed Matter Physics Using Short-lived Nuclei' was held at the Institute for two days on November 4 and 5 in 2015. We are pleased that many hot discussions were made. The talks were given on the followings: 1) Nuclear spectroscopic experiments, 2) TDPAC (time-differential perturbed angular correlation), 3) β-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), 4) Moessbauer spectroscopy, 5) muon, etc. This issue is the collection of 17 papers presented at the entitled meeting. The 6 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Condensation induced water hammer in steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.B.; Antaki, G.A.; Rawls, G.B.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The accidental mixing of steam and water usually leads to condensation induced water hammer. This phenomenon is not uncommon in the power and process industries, and is of particular concern due to the high energies which accompany steam transients. The paper discusses the conditions which lead to a recent condensation induced water hammer in a 150 psig steam supply header. The ensuing structural damage, inspection and repairs are described. Finally, a list of design, maintenance and operational cautions are presented to help minimize the potential for condensation induced water hammer in steam lines

  3. Condensation induced water hammer in steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.B.; Antaki, G.A.; Rawls, G.B.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The accidental mixing of steam and water usually leads to condensation induced water hammer. THis phenomenon is not uncommon in the power and process industries, and is of particular concern due to the high energies which accompany steam transients. The paper discusses the conditions which lead to a recent condensation induced water hammer in a 150 psig steam supply header. The insuing structural damage, inspection and repairs are described. Finally, a list of design cautions are presented to help minimize the potential for condensation induced water hammer in steam lines

  4. Simulating the transient regime for main condensate system at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nita, Iulian; Gheorghiu, Mihai; Prisecaru, Ilie; Dupleac, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to make a Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Main Condensate System for getting real-time answer of installation during regimes occurring during normal and abnormal operation. To obtain the analyses the MMS code was used. The boundaries of the systems analysis are extended to Main Feedwater System in order to get a realistic response of Deaerator equipment which are situated between those two systems and have entrances from both systems. In this way we made a complex analysis with main condenser and steam generators as boundaries. We obtained a model for the entire chain of condensate and feedwater preheater with interface just turbine bleed steam. From that we could reduce the number of assumptions necessary to make the analysis. The analyses consist in hydraulics and thermal hydraulics analyses, respectively. For the first case analysed are: - the nominal operation regime with main condensate pumps; - start-up regime with total circulate of condensate to condenser; - 25% MCR (Maximum Continuous Rate) regime (this regime was used in designing the condensate regulating valves at low flow; - 40% MCR regime (with circulate of some condensate flow to condenser); - operating regime of 60% MCR with one main condensate pump operating; - operating regime with auxiliary condensate pump; - operating regime with discharging a condensate flow to condensate storage tank. The thermal hydraulic analyses deal with normal and abnormal operating regimes, respectively. In the first case analysed are the following regimes: - nominal operating regime with main condensate pump operating 100% MCR; - transient regime, 100-80% MCR; - transient regime, 100-80-60% MCR with two pumps in operation and 60 % MCR with one main condensate pump in operation; - transient regime, 100-80-60-60-40 % MCR; - shut-down regime; - start-up regime from Hot zero power to rated power regime. Finally, for the abnormal operating regimes the analyses concerned: - transient regime 100

  5. The Mott localization and magnetic properties in condensed fermions systems; Lokalizacja Motta i wlasnosci magnetyczne skondensowanych ukladow fermionowych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, W. [Politechnika Krakowska, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the present thesis the Mott localization and magnetic properties in condensed fermions system are considered. The Hubbard model has been used to strongly correlated electron systems and the Skyrme potential to a dense neutron matter with small concentration of protons. A variational approach to the metal-insulator transition is proposed which combines the Mott and Gutzwiller-Brinkman-Rice aspects of the localization. Magnetic properties of strongly correlated electrons are analyzed within the modified spin-rotation-invariant approach in the slow-boson representation. The theoretical prediction for considered systems are presented. 112 refs, 39 figs.

  6. The Mott localization and magnetic properties in condensed fermions systems; Lokalizacja Motta i wlasnosci magnetyczne skondensowanych ukladow fermionowych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, W [Politechnika Krakowska, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    In the present thesis the Mott localization and magnetic properties in condensed fermions system are considered. The Hubbard model has been used to strongly correlated electron systems and the Skyrme potential to a dense neutron matter with small concentration of protons. A variational approach to the metal-insulator transition is proposed which combines the Mott and Gutzwiller-Brinkman-Rice aspects of the localization. Magnetic properties of strongly correlated electrons are analyzed within the modified spin-rotation-invariant approach in the slow-boson representation. The theoretical prediction for considered systems are presented. 112 refs, 39 figs.

  7. Tachyon condensation in the D0/D4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2000-01-01

    The D0/D4 system with a Neveu-Schwarz B-field in the spatial directions of the D4-brane has a tachyon in the spectrum of the (0,4) strings. The tachyon signals the instability of the system to form a bound state of the D0-brane with the D4-brane. We use the Wess-Zumino-Witten like open superstring field theory formulated by Berkovits to study the tachyon potential for this system. The tachyon potential lies outside the universality class of the D-brane anti-D-brane system. It is a function of the B-field. We calculate the tachyon potential at the zeroth level approximation. The minimum of the tachyon potential in this case is expected to reproduce the mass defect involved in the formation of the D0/D4 bound state. We compare the minimum of the tachyon potential with the mass defect in three cases. For small values of the B-field we obtain 70% of the expected mass defect. For large values of the B-field with Pf(2πα' B) > 0 the potential reduces to that of the D-brane anti-D-brane reproducing 62% of the expected mass defect. For large values of the B-field with Pf(2πα' B) < 0 the minimum of the tachyon potential gives 25% of the expected mass defect. At the tachyon condensate we show that the (0,4) strings decouple from the low energy dynamics. (author)

  8. Shock absorber system for nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, J.F.; Rudd, G.E.; Pradhan, A.V.; George, J.A.; Lippincott, H.W.; Sutherland, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A shock absorber system was designed to absorb the energy imparted to doors in a nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment as they swing rapidly to an open position. Each shock absorber which is installed on a wall adjacent to each door is large and must absorb up to about 40,000 foot pounds of energy. The basic shock absorber component comprises foam enclosed in a synthetic fabric bag having a volume about twice the foam volume. A stainless steel knitted mesh bag of the same volume as the fabric bag, contains the fabric bag and its enclosed foam. To protect the foam and bags during construction activities at the reactor site and from the shearing action of the doors, a protective sheet metal cover is installed over the shock absorber ends and the surface to be contacted by the moving door. With the above shock absorber mounted on a wall behind each door, as the door is forcibly opened by steam pressure and air resulting from a pipe break in the reactor compartment, it swings at a high velocity into contact with the shock absorber, crushes the foam and forces it into the fabric bag excess material thus containing the foam fragmented particles, and minimizes build-up of pressure in the bag as a result of the applied compressive force

  9. Steel-fabricated butterfly valves for condenser circulating water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Hiroshi; Yasuoka, Masahiro; Nanao, Teruaki.

    1979-01-01

    The steel-fabricated butterfly valves, which are large in general, and gave rubber linings inside to prevent the corrosion due to sea Water, are utilized for the condenser circulating water systems of thermal and nuclear power plants. Cast iron butterfly valves, having been used hitherto, have some technical irrationalities, such as corrosion prevention, the techniques for manufacturing large castings, severe thermal transient operation. On the contrary, the steel plate-fabricated butterfly valves have the following advantages; much superior characteristics in strength, rigidity and shock resistance, the streamline shape of valve plates, the narrow width between two flanges, superior execution of works for rubber lining, the perfect sealed structure, safety to vibration, light weight and easy maintenance. The structural design and the main specifications for the steel plate butterfly valves with the nominal bore from 1350 mm to 3500 mm are presented. Concerning the design criteria, the torque of operating butterfly valves and the strength of valve bodies, valve plates and valve stems are explained. The performance tests utilizing the mock-up valve were carried out for the measurements of stress distribution, the deformation of valve body, the endurance and the operating torque. In the welding standards for steel plate butterfly valves, three kinds of welded parts are classified, and the inspection method for each part is stipulated. The vibration of the valves induced by flow vortexes and cavitation is explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  10. Numerical model of sprayed air cooled condenser coupled to refrigerating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youbi-Idrissi, M.; Macchi-Tejeda, H.; Fournaison, L.; Guilpart, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because of technological, economic and environmental constraints, many refrigeration and air conditioning units are equipped with a simple air cooled condenser. Spraying the condenser seems to be an original solution to improve the energetic performances of such systems. To characterise this energetic benefit, a semi-local mathematical model was developed and applied to a refrigerating machine with and without spraying its air cooled condenser. It is found that, compared to a dry air cooled condenser, both the calorific capacity and machine COP increase by 13% and 55%, respectively. Furthermore, the model shows that a spray flow rate threshold occurs. It should not be exceeded to assure an effective and rational spray use

  11. Tunable rotary orbits of matter-wave nonlinear modes in attractive Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y J; Wang, H Z; Malomed, Boris A; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that by spatially modulating the Bessel optical lattice where a Bose-Einstein condensate is loaded, we get tunable rotary orbits of nonlinear lattice modes. We show that the radially expanding or shrinking Bessel lattice can drag the nonlinear localized modes to orbits of either larger or smaller radii and the rotary velocity of nonlinear modes can be changed accordingly. The localized modes can even be transferred to the Bessel lattice core when the localized modes' rotations are stopped. Effects beyond the quasi-particle approximation such as destruction of the nonlinear modes by nonadiabatic dragging are also explored

  12. Dense baryon matter with isospin and chiral imbalance in the framework of a NJL4 model at large Nc: Duality between chiral symmetry breaking and charged pion condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunjua, T. G.; Klimenko, K. G.; Zhokhov, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper the phase structure of dense quark matter has been investigated at zero temperature in the presence of baryon, isospin and chiral isospin chemical potentials in the framework of massless (3 +1 )-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with two quark flavors. It has been shown that in the large-Nc limit (Nc is the number of colors of quarks) there exists a duality correspondence between the chiral symmetry breaking phase and the charged pion condensation one. The key conclusion of our studies is the fact that chiral isospin chemical potential generates charged pion condensation in dense quark matter with isotopic asymmetry.

  13. Research on How to Remove Efficiently the Condensate Water of Sampling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, SungHwan; Kim, MinSoo; Choi, HoYoung; In, WonHo

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion was caused in the measurement chamber inside the O 2 and H 2 analyzer, and thus measuring the concentration of O 2 and H 2 was not possible. It was confirmed that the cause of the occurrence of condensate water is due to the temperature difference caused during the process of the internal gas of the disposal and degasifier tank being brought into the analyzer. Thus, a heating system was installed inside and outside of the sampling panel for gas to remove generated condensate water in the analyzer and pipe. For the case where condensate water is not removed by the heating system, drain port is also installed in the sampling panel for gas to collect the condensate water of the sampling system. It was verified that there is a great volume of condensate water existing in the pipe line during the purging process after installing manufactured goods. The condensate water was fully removed by the installed heating cable and drain port. The heating cable was operated constantly at a temperature of 80 to 90 .deg. C, which allows the precise measurement of gas concentration and longer maintenance duration by blocking of the condensate water before being produced. To install instruments for measuring the gas, such as an O 2 and H 2 analyzer etc., consideration regarding whether there condensate water is present due to the temperature difference between the measuring system and analyzer is required

  14. Research on How to Remove Efficiently the Condensate Water of Sampling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, SungHwan; Kim, MinSoo; Choi, HoYoung; In, WonHo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Corrosion was caused in the measurement chamber inside the O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} analyzer, and thus measuring the concentration of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} was not possible. It was confirmed that the cause of the occurrence of condensate water is due to the temperature difference caused during the process of the internal gas of the disposal and degasifier tank being brought into the analyzer. Thus, a heating system was installed inside and outside of the sampling panel for gas to remove generated condensate water in the analyzer and pipe. For the case where condensate water is not removed by the heating system, drain port is also installed in the sampling panel for gas to collect the condensate water of the sampling system. It was verified that there is a great volume of condensate water existing in the pipe line during the purging process after installing manufactured goods. The condensate water was fully removed by the installed heating cable and drain port. The heating cable was operated constantly at a temperature of 80 to 90 .deg. C, which allows the precise measurement of gas concentration and longer maintenance duration by blocking of the condensate water before being produced. To install instruments for measuring the gas, such as an O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} analyzer etc., consideration regarding whether there condensate water is present due to the temperature difference between the measuring system and analyzer is required.

  15. Condensate induced water hammer in a steam distribution system results in fatality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debban, H.L.; Eyre, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Water hammer event s in steam distribution piping interrupt service and have the potential to cause serious injury and property damage. Conditions of condensation induced water hammer are discussed and recommendations aimed to improve safety of steam systems are presented. Condensate induced water hammer events at Hanford, a DOE facility, are examined

  16. Forces, Growth and Form in Soft Condensed Matter: At the Interface between Physics and Biology NATO Advanced Study Institute, Geilo, Norway, 24 March - 3 April 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helgesen, G. ed.

    2003-05-01

    The goal of this ASI was to bring together a group of disparate sciences to discuss areas of research related to competition between interactions of different ranges, for it is this that creates local structure on which complexity depends in soft condensed matter, biological systems and their synthetic models. The starting point, and the underlying theme throughout the ASI, was thus a thorough discussion of the relative role of the various fundamental interactions in such systems (electrostatic, hydrophobic, steric, conformational, van der Waals, etc.). The next focus was on how these competing interactions influence the form and topology of soft and biological matter, like polymers and proteins, leading to hierarchical structures in self-assembling systems and folding patterns sometimes described in terms of chirality, braids and knots. Finally, focus was on how the competing interactions influence various bio processes like genetic regulation and biological evolution taking place in systems like biopolymers, macromolecules and cell membranes. The report includes the abstracts of the posters presented, two of which are given in this database: (1) Precise characterisation of nano channels in track etched membranes by SAXS and SANS, and (2) Cisplatin binding to DNA: Structure, bonding and NMR properties from CarParrinello/Classical MD simulations.

  17. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  18. Matter rogue waves for the three-component Gross-Pitaevskii equations in the spinor Bose-Einstein condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    To show the existence and properties of matter rogue waves in an F =1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), we work on the three-component Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations. Via the Darboux-dressing transformation, we obtain a family of rational solutions describing the extreme events, i.e. rogue waves. This family of solutions includes bright-dark-bright and bright-bright-bright rogue waves. The algebraic construction depends on Lax matrices and their Jordan form. The conditions for the existence of rogue wave solutions in an F =1 spinor BEC are discussed. For the three-component GP equations, if there is modulation instability, it is of baseband type only, confirming our analytic conditions. The energy transfers between the waves are discussed.

  19. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere I. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Chromosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous spectrum of the solar photosphere stands as the paramount observation with regard to the condensed nature of the solar body. Studies relative to Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission (e.g. Robitaille P.-M. Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission: 150 years. Progr. Phys., 2009, v. 4, 3–13. and a detailed analysis of the stellar opacity problem (Robitaille P.M. Stellar opacity: The Achilles’ heel of the gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 93–99 have revealed that gaseous models remain unable to properly account for the generation of this spectrum. Therefore, it can be stated with certainty that the photosphere is comprised of condensed matter. Beyond the solar surface, the chromospheric layer of the Sun also generates a weak continuous spectrum in the visible region. This emission exposes the presence of material in the condensed state. As a result, above the level of the photosphere, matter exists in both gaseous and condensed forms, much like within the atmosphere of the Earth. The continuous visible spectrum associated with the chromosphere provides the twenty-sixth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.

  20. Performance test of condensate polishing system for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Zhaojin; Qian Shijun; Lu Ruiting

    1995-11-01

    The flow chart, resin performance and water quality specifications of the condensate polishing system for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP) are briefly described. The initial regeneration process and the following service of the condensate polishing system are introduced. And the ability to remove corrosion products and ionic impurities of the condensate polishing system are verified during start-up, normal power operation and condenser leakage of the plant. The result shows that the performance of condensate polishing system in QNPP can completely meet the design requirements. Especially during the start-up of the unit or the leakage of the condenser, despite the inlet water quality of the polishers is far worse than the specified standard, the outlet water quality is still controlled within the indexes. Finally, several existing problems, such as 'volume ratio between resins is not optimum' and 'the inert resin and anion resin can not be stratified completely', in the condensate polishing system are also discussed. (4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.)

  1. Accident localization system with jet condensers for VVER 440-V 230 NPP at Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murani, J.

    1995-01-01

    The operational safety of the V1 nuclear power plant (NPP) is unsatisfactory and does not correspond to present requirements as to nuclear safety. Further NPP operation after 1995 is conditional on nuclear safety enhancement to a level comparable with that in West European countries. This aim should be achieved by a principal reconstruction involving in addition to others also backfitting the V1 NPP with technical facilities aimed at coping with a design basis accident (DBA).To cope with such an accident the Power Equipment Research Institute (VUEZ) designed an accident localization system with jet condensers. This system consists of (a) an air trap (one for each unit, mutually interconnected) with an expansion bell enclosed within, placed on a plate with 200 pipes of jet condensers passing through, and (b) a connecting duct between the hermetic zone and the air trap. The vertical jet condenser is an essential element of the system designed for steam condensation. Apart from condensation it serves as a water seal separating units 1 and 2.Demonstration tests of the jet condenser (model 1:1) condensing function were carried out at the testing unit of the All-Union Research Institute for NPP Operation (VNIIAES), Moscow in Kashir, 11-22 September 1992. These experiments proved the jet condenser ability to ensure complete condensation of the steam produced. Experimental verification of the sealing function (model 1:1) was carried out at the testing unit of the VUEZ Tlmace. These experiments concerning the dynamics and overpressure in the free space above the pool were close to the conditions in the air trap during DBA. The jet condenser height was proved to be sufficient to ensure the sealing function. Design and experimental work has been implemented in close cooperation with Russian experts Mr. V.N. Bulynin from the VNIIAES, Moscow, and Mr. M.V. Kuznecov from the Scientific and Engineering Center for Nuclear and Radiological Safety, Moscow. (orig.)

  2. Experimental verification of a condenser with liquid–vapor separation in an air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xueqing; Chen, Ying; Deng, Lisheng; Mo, Songping; Zhang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Three liquid–vapor separation condensers (LSC) were tested to evaluate their ability to automatically separate the liquid and vapor during condensation. Each was used in a split-type air conditioner to investigate the performance. The performance of the LSC system having the greatest cooling capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) was then compared with that of the system having a baseline fin-and-tube condenser for various ambient temperatures from 29 °C to 43 °C. The results showed that both the cooling capacity and EER of the two systems were almost the same at the three standard conditions in the Chinese standard GB/T 7725-2004, with the LSC having just 67% of the heat transfer area of the baseline condenser. In addition, the LSC system was charged with only 80% of the refrigerant in the baseline system. -- Highlights: ► We tested three liquid–vapor separation condensers in an air conditioning system. ► The best system had the most uniform wall temperature and the smallest pressure drop. ► The LSC system performance with only 67% condenser area was as good as the baseline system. ► LSC system operations are compared for various outdoor temperatures

  3. A Monte-Carlo code for the detailed simulation of electron and light-ion tracks in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emfietzoglou, D.; Papamichael, G.; Karava, K.; Androulidakis, I.; Pathak, A.; Phillips, G. W.; Moscovitch, M.; Kostarelos, K.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to understand the basic mechanism of the action of charged particles in solid radiation dosimeters, we extend our Monte-Carlo code (MC4) to condensed media (liquids/solids) and present new track-structure calculations for electrons and protons. Modeling the energy dissipation process is based on a model dielectric function, which accounts in a semi-empirical and self-consistent way for condensed-phase effects which are computationally intractable. Importantly, these effects mostly influence track-structure characteristics at the nano-meter scale, which is the focus of radiation action models. Since the event-by-event scheme for electron transport is impractical above several kilo-electron volts, a condensed-history random-walk scheme has been implemented to transport the energetic delta rays produced by energetic ions. Based on the above developments, new track-structure calculations are presented for two representative dosimetric materials, namely, liquid water and silicon. Results include radial dose distributions in cylindrical and spherical geometries, as well as, clustering distributions, which, among other things, are important in predicting irreparable damage in biological systems and prompt electric-fields in microelectronics. (authors)

  4. Stopping powers of energetic electrons penetrating condensed matter-theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhenyu; Xia Yueyuan

    2004-01-01

    In this review article, the motivation of studying inelastic energy loss for energetic electrons penetrating through matter and the corresponding technological importance have been outlined. The theoretical development and method for the calculation of stopping powers are described. The stopping power data tables for a group of polymers and bioorganic compounds are presented, and the application aspects of the stopping power data are briefly discussed. (authors)

  5. Conceptual Design of a Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems Using Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Khan, Lutful I.; Nayagam, Vedha; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy

    2006-01-01

    Condensing heat exchangers are used in many space applications in the thermal and humidity control systems. In the International Space Station (ISS), humidity control is achieved by using a water cooled fin surface over which the moist air condenses, followed by "slurper bars" that take in both the condensate and air into a rotary separator and separates the water from air. The use of a cooled porous substrate as the condensing surface provides and attractive alternative that combines both heat removal as well as liquid/gas separation into a single unit. By selecting the pore sizes of the porous substrate a gravity independent operation may also be possible with this concept. Condensation of vapor into and on the porous surface from the flowing air and the removal of condensate from the porous substrate are the critical processes involved in the proposed concept. This paper describes some preliminary results of the proposed condensate withdrawal process and discusses the on-going design and development work of a porous media based condensing heat exchanger at the NASA Glenn Research Center in collaboration with NASA Johnson Space Center.

  6. Condensed tannins in the diets of primates: a matter of methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Dusinberre, Kathy; Pell, Alice N

    2009-01-01

    To understand the ways in which condensed tannins (CT) affect primate diet selection and nutritional status, correct measurements are essential. In the majority of studies of the CT contents of primate foods, a tannin source such as "quebracho" is used to standardize CT assays, but the CT in quebracho tannin may not be similar to those in the plants of interest. We investigated how the choice of standard to calibrate CT assays affects the estimation of CT in the diets of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei). We purified the CT from gorilla foods and compared the actual amounts of CT in the foods with estimates produced by using the quebracho tannin. When quebracho was used, the estimates of CT contents of gorilla foods were, on average, 3.6 times the actual content of CT so that the amounts in frequently eaten gorilla foods were substantially overestimated. The overestimation for a given plant could not be predicted reliably and the ranking of plants by tannin content differed according to the standard used. Our results demonstrate that accurate measurements of CT necessitate the use of tannins purified from the plant species of interest. A reevaluation of primatology studies using interspecific comparisons of tannin content will provide new insights into primate food selection and nutritional ecology. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Wireless sensor network-based greenhouse environment monitoring and automatic control system for dew condensation prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop's surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control.

  8. Wireless Sensor Network-Based Greenhouse Environment Monitoring and Automatic Control System for Dew Condensation Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop’s surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control. PMID:22163813

  9. Nucleation and capture of condensible airborne contaminants in an aqueous scrubbing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Hilliard, R.K.

    1978-09-01

    The fate of condensible contaminants in an aqueous scrubbing system was evaluated. Knowledge of the behavior of volatile fission product compounds is important in evaluating the effectiveness of emergency air cleaning systems proposed for use in containment systems of breeder reactor plants. When a high temperature air stream passes through a spray quench chamber, very large cooling rates occur in the drop boundary layers. These large cooling rates cause large supersaturations in airborne concentrations of condensible contaminants, and one predicts that most condensation would take place through homogeneous nucleation. The very small particles formed would agglomerate, and attach to sodium aerosol particles which would be present. In the study the overall removal efficiency of volatile fission product species (typified by NaI, SeO 2 , and Sb 2 O 3 ) in an air cleaning train (quench chamber, venturi scrubber, and fibrous bed) was theoretically evaluated. The overall removal efficiency of condensible materials was found to be lower than that for sodium compound aerosols because the freshly condensed particles would be smaller in size. For a base case, a removal efficiency of 99.97 percent was predicted for condensible materials. The fibrous bed scrubber exhibited superior particle removal characteristics for small particles compared to the quench chamber and venturi scrubber. Its removal efficiency exceeded 97 percent for even the most penetrating particle size (about 0.4 micron aerodynamic diameter). Therefore, all condensible fission products would be removed with efficiencies exceeding 97 percent

  10. The generation of high-power charge particle micro beams and its interaction with condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, N.; Skvortsov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    As has been observed experimentally, the action of a picosecond laser beam on an Al-target in air gives rise to the generation and acceleration of high-power micro electron and ion beams. An original theoretical model for describing the generation and particle acceleration of such micro beams as a result of the micro channeling effect is presented. It was found that extreme states of matter, with compression in the Gbar pressure range, can be produced by such micro beams. (author). 3 figs., 12 refs

  11. Artificial neural network analysis of a refrigeration system with an evaporative condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertunc, H.M. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kocaeli University, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey); Hosoz, M. [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes an application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the performance of a refrigeration system with an evaporative condenser. In order to gather data for training and testing the proposed ANN, an experimental refrigeration system with an evaporative condenser was set up. Then, steady-state test runs were conducted varying the evaporator load, air and water flow rates passing through the condenser and both dry and wet bulb temperatures of the air stream entering the condenser. Utilizing some of the experimental data, an ANN model for the system based on standard backpropagation algorithm was developed. The ANN was used for predicting various performance parameters of the system, namely the condenser heat rejection rate, refrigerant mass flow rate, compressor power, electric power input to the compressor motor and the coefficient of performance. The ANN predictions usually agree well with the experimental values with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.933-1.000, mean relative errors in the range of 1.90-4.18% and very low root mean square errors. Results show that refrigeration systems, even complex ones involving concurrent heat and mass transfer such as systems with an evaporative condenser, can alternatively be modelled using ANNs within a high degree of accuracy. [Author].

  12. Evaporation and condensation devices for passive heat removal systems in nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershuni, A.N.; Pis'mennyj, E.N.; Nishchik, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    The paper justifies advantages of evaporation and condensation heat transfer devices as means of passive heat removal and thermal shielding in nuclear power engineering. The main thermophysical factors that limit heat transfer capacity of evaporation and condensation systems have been examined in the research. The results of experimental studies of heat engineering properties of elongated (8-m) vertically oriented evaporation and condensation devices (two-phase thermosyphons), which showed a high enough heat transfer capacity, as well as stability and reliability both in steady state and in start-up modes, are provided. The paper presents the examples of schematic designs of evaporation and condensation systems for passive heat removal and thermal shielding in application to nuclear power equipment

  13. Impact of condensed matter theories on material studies at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwal, B.K.; Rao, R.S.; Sikka, S.K.; Chidambaram, R.

    1997-01-01

    We are vigorously pursuing a program to study the behaviour of materials under pressure for the last three decades. Theoretical component has been an important part of our activity. The initial phase of such efforts was devoted to the development of equation of state models at arbitrary temperature and matter density. With the advent of diamond anvil cell device and improvements of the diagnostic technique in dynamic methods, the focus of our studies switched over to the predictions and interpretations of phase transitions. Many times these have led to intense experimental studies and sometimes helped in resolving the controversies. The introduction of linear methods in electron band theory and availability of supercomputers and parallel processors have given boost to the computational physics, and the efforts are now being extended more and more to the ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. These simulations have a promise to avoid the tedious search for structural stability by trail and error in phase transition studies under pressure or temperature. The current status of our efforts in this direction will be listed with an illustration on liquid sulphur. Our past work on electronic topological transition in zinc led to many experimental and theoretical investigations. The results of electronic structure changes in similar metal cadmium shall be compared with existing understanding in Zn under pressure. Our studies on other compounds (AuIn 2 , YNi 2 B 2 C), which have also been found to display electronic topological transition under pressure, will be discussed. (author)

  14. High energy synchrotron radiation. A new probe for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.R.; Bouchard, R.; Brueckel, T.; Lippert, M.; Neumann, H.B.; Poulsen, H.F.; Ruett, U.; Schmidt, T.; Zimmermann, M. von

    1994-01-01

    The absorption of 150 keV synchrotron radiation in matter is weak and, as normally done with neutrons, bulk properties are studied in large samples. However, the k-space resolution obtained with a Triple Crystal Diffractometer (TCD) for high energy synchrotron radiation is about one order of magnitude better than in high resolution neutron diffraction. The technique has been applied to measure the structure factor S(Q) of amorphous solids up to momentum transfers of the order of 32 A -1 , to study the intermediate range Ortho-II ordering in large, high quality YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.5 single crystals and for investigations of the defect scattering from annealed Czochralski grown silicon crystals. Magnetic superlattice reflections have been measured in MnF 2 demonstrating the potential of the technique for high resolution studies of ground state bulk antiferromagnetism. Recently the question of two length scales in the critical scattering at the 100 K phase transition in SrTiO 3 was studied. At the PETRA storage ring, which serves as an accumulator for the HERA electron-proton-ring at DESY and which can be operated up to electron energies of 12 GeV, an undulator beam line is currently under construction and should be available in summer 1995. It opens up exciting new research opportunities for photon energies from about 20 to 150 keV. (orig.)

  15. The Physics of Coupled Atomic-Molecular Condensate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-09

    electric dipoles represents a novel state of matter with long-range and anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions, that are highly amenable to the...free-bound FC factor. Simultaneously, a series of laser �elds of (molecular) Rabi frequency i (i 2) are applied to move the molecules from the

  16. PREFACE: 1st International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics: Condensed Matter, Soft Matter and Materials Physics & 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38) and the 1st International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics: Condensed Matter, Soft Matter and Materials Physics (IWTCP-1). Both the conference and the workshop were held from 29 July to 1 August 2013 in Pullman hotel, Da Nang, Vietnam. The IWTCP-1 was a new activity of the Vietnamese Theoretical Physics Society (VTPS) organized in association with the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38), the most well-known annual scientific forum dedicated to the dissemination of the latest development in the field of theoretical physics within the country. The IWTCP-1 was also an External Activity of the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP). The overriding goal of the IWTCP is to provide an international forum for scientists and engineers from academia to share ideas, problems and solution relating to the recent advances in theoretical physics as well as in computational physics. The main IWTCP motivation is to foster scientific exchanges between the Vietnamese theoretical and computational physics community and world-wide scientists as well as to promote high-standard level of research and education activities for young physicists in the country. About 110 participants coming from 10 countries participated in the conference and the workshop. 4 invited talks, 18 oral contributions and 46 posters were presented at the conference. In the workshop we had one keynote lecture and 9 invited talks presented by international experts in the fields of theoretical and computational physics, together with 14 oral and 33 poster contributions. The proceedings were edited by Nguyen Tri Lan, Trinh Xuan Hoang, and Nguyen Ai Viet. We would like to thank all invited speakers, participants and sponsors for making the conference and the workshop successful. Nguyen Ai Viet Chair of NCTP-38 and IWTCP-1

  17. Waste heat recovery system including a mechanism for collection, detection and removal of non-condensable gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-06-20

    The disclosure describes a non-condensable gas collection, detection, and removal system for a WHR system that helps to maintain cycle efficiency of the WHR system across the life of an engine system associated with the WHR system. A storage volume is configured to collect non-condensable gas received from the working fluid circuit, and a release valve is configured to selectively release non-condensable gas contained within the storage volume.

  18. Communication: Thermodynamics of condensed matter with strong pressure-energy correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Bøhling, Lasse; Schrøder, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We show that for any liquid or solid with strong correlation between its NVT virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations, the temperature is a product of a function of excess entropy per particle and a function of density, T = f(s)h(ρ). This implies that (1) the system's isomorphs (curve...

  19. A device for combined neutron-photon processes in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckli, A.; Isacson, A.; Koch, M.; Furrer, A.

    1985-01-01

    A device has been developed for performing neutron scattering experiments with simultaneous irradiation by light at low temperatures. The light source is a halogen lamp which yields broad bands of wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm by using appropriate filters. The light is guided by a series of lenses to the sample, which is mounted in a cooling system. A mechanical chopper may be inserted into the light beam in order to create light pulses with frequencies between 0.05 Hz and 5 Hz, and the neutron counts resulting from the dark and light experiments are separately stored. Our device has been used to study the light-induced dynamical behaviour of photosynthetic chlorophyll systems by neutron spectroscopy. (author)

  20. Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize: Emergent gravity from interacting Majorana modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaev, Alexei

    I will describe a concrete many-body Hamiltonian that exhibits some features of a quantum black hole. The Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model is a system of N >> 1 Majorana modes that are all coupled by random 4-th order terms. The problem admits an approximate dynamic mean field solution. At low temperatures, there is a fluctuating collective mode that corresponds to reparametrization of time. The effective action for this mode is equivalent to dilaton gravity in two space-time dimensions. Some important questions are how to quantize the reparametrization mode in Lorentzian time, include dissipative effects, and understand this system from the quantum information perspective. Supported by the Simons Foundation, Award Number 376205.

  1. Improved energy performance of ammonia recycling system using floating condensing temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei; Meng, Zhuo; Sun, Yize; Zhong, Qianwen; Zhu, Helei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic models for the compressor and evaporative condenser were developed. • An evaluation index was proposed to determine the optimal set point. • An algorithm was presented to compute the optimal set point. • Strategies for operating ammonia recycling system were proposed. - Abstract: Aiming at reducing the energy-consumption of ammonia recycling system, we presented floating condensing temperature control to maximize the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system. Firstly, thermodynamic models for the compressor and evaporative condenser were developed respectively. Then, an evaluation index and a solution scheme were proposed to determine the optimal set point of condensing temperature and the corresponding compressor speed. It is found that the system COP can be maximized by controlling the compressor speed to adjust the set point based on any given operating conditions. When the wet-bulb temperature is 22 °C, the system COP could be improved by 19.2–27.6% under floating condensing temperature control.

  2. Research in the theory of condensed matter and elementary particles. [Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The proposed research is concerned with problems occupying the common ground between quantum field theory and statistical mechanics. The topics under investigation include: superconformal field theory in two dimensions, its relationship to two dimensional critical phenomena and its applications in string theory; the covariant formulation of the superstring theory; formation of large-scale structures and spatial chaos in dynamical systems; fermion-boson mass relations in BCS type theories; and properties of quantum field theories defined over galois fields. 37 refs

  3. Assessment of a potential rapid condensation induced water hammer in a passive auxiliary feedwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Byung Soo; Do, Kyu Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moody, Frederick J. [General Electric (Retired), CA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) which is incorporated in the APR+ system is a kind of closed natural circulation loop. The PAFS has no operating functions during normal plant operation, but it has a dedicated safety function of the residual heat removal following initiating events, including the unlikely event of the most limiting single failure occurring coincident with a loss of offsite power, when the feedwater system becomes inoperable or unavailable. Even in the unlikely event of a station blackout, the isolation valves can be opened either by DC power or manual operation and then the PAFS can also provide adequate condensate to the steam generator (SG). The PAFS piping in the vicinity of each of the two SGs is designed to minimize the potential for destructive water hammer during start up operation by setting the stroke time for full close or full open of the condensate isolation valves upon receipt of a passive auxiliary feedwater actuation signal. The temperature of the stagnant condensate water and its surrounding tubes and piping during the reactor normal operation modes may fall to the ambient temperature. A possible concern is the introduction of saturated steam into the PAFS recirculation pipe downstream of the PCHX in the beginning of the PAFS operation. Although the steam introduction rate is expected to be slow, a rapid condensation rate is expected due to the initial cold surrounding temperature in the pipe, which could result in a localized pressure reduction and the propagation of decompression and velocity disturbances into the condensate water leg, which might cause the sudden closure of check valves and associated water hammer. Thus, it is requisite for the licensing review of the PAFS design to confirm if destructive water hammers will not be produced due to such rapid condensation induced decompressions in the system. This paper addresses an assessment of the potential local decompressions which could result from the steam

  4. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Pair interaction of bilayer-coated nanoscopic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Yi

    2009-02-01

    The pair interaction between bilayer membrane-coated nanosized particles has been explored by using the self-consistent field (SCF) theory. The bilayer membranes are composed of amphiphilic polymers. For different system parameters, the pair-interaction free energies are obtained. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of a sequence of structural transformations of bilayers on spherical particles, which occur during their approaching processes. For different head fractions of amphiphiles, the asymmetrical morphologies between bilayers on two particles and the inverted micellar intermediates have been found in the membrane fusion pathway. These results can benefit the fabrication of vesicles as encapsulation vectors for drug and gene delivery.

  5. Control systems for the dissolved oxygen concentration in condensate- and feed-water systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikajiri, Motohiko; Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To surely prevent the generation of corrosion products and contaminations in the systems thereby decreasing the exposure dose to operators in BWR type nuclear power plants. Constitution: Dissolved oxygen concentration in condensates is measured by a dissolved oxygen concentration meter disposed to the pipeway down stream of the condensator and the measured value is sent to an injection amount control mechanism for heater drain water. The control mechanism controls the injection amount from the injection mechanism that injection heater drain water from a feed-water heater to the liquid phase in the hot wall of the condensator. Thus, heater drawin water at high dissolved oxygen is injected to the condensates in the condensator which is de-airated and reduced with dissolved oxygen concentration, to maintain the dissolved oxygen concentration at a predetermined level, whereby stable oxide films are formed to the inner surface of the pipeways to prevent the generation of corrosion products such as rusts. (Furukawa, Y.)

  6. QED coherence in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Preparata, Giuliano

    1995-01-01

    Up until now the dominant view of condensed matter physics has been that of an "electrostatic MECCANO" (erector set, for Americans). This book is the first systematic attempt to consider the full quantum-electrodynamical interaction (QED), thus greatly enriching the possible dynamical mechanisms that operate in the construction of the wonderful variety of condensed matter systems, including life itself.A new paradigm is emerging, replacing the "electrostatic MECCANO" with an "electrodynamic NETWORK," which builds condensed matter through the long range (as opposed to the "short range" nature o

  7. SOLGASMIX-PV, Chemical System Equilibrium of Gaseous and Condensed Phase Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SOLGASMIX-PV, which is based on the earlier SOLGAS and SOLGASMIX codes, calculates equilibrium relationships in complex chemical systems. Chemical equilibrium calculations involve finding the system composition, within certain constraints, which contains the minimum free energy. The constraints are the preservation of the masses of each element present and either constant pressure or volume. SOLGASMIX-PV can calculate equilibria in systems containing a gaseous phase, condensed phase solutions, and condensed phases of invariant and variable stoichiometry. Either a constant total gas volume or a constant total pressure can be assumed. Unit activities for condensed phases and ideality for solutions are assumed, although nonideal systems can be handled provided activity coefficient relationships are available. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program is designed to handle a maximum of 20 elements, 99 substances, and 10 mixtures, where the gas phase is considered a mixture. Each substance is either a gas or condensed phase species, or a member of a condensed phase mixture

  8. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1993-01-01

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  9. Non-abelian bosonization in two-dimensional condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, J.; Kerler, T.; Marchetti, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    We derive mathematical identities proving that some systems of interacting, non-relativistic fermions of spin or 'isospin' S=1/2, 3/3, 5/2, ... confined to a plane (e.g. a heterojuncture) can be described in terms of a complex boson of spin or isospin S coupled to statistical U(1) and SU(2) gauge fields. In a Feynman path integral formulation, the U(1) gauge field has a Chern-Simons action with coupling constant k=2/(2l+1), l=0, 1, 2, ..., while the SU(2) gauge field has a Chern-Simons action with level 2S. Generalization to internal symmetry groups other than SU(2) are sketched, and applications of our formalism to an analysis of excitations with braid statistics in incompressible quantum fluids and of holons and spinons in the t-J model are discussed. (orig.)

  10. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere II. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The K-corona, a significant portion of the solar atmosphere, displays a continuous spectrum which closely parallels photospheric emission, though without the presence of overlying Fraunhofer lines. The E-corona exists in the same region and is characterized by weak emission lines from highly ionized atoms. For instance, the famous green emission line from coronium (FeXIV is part of the E-corona. The F-corona exists beyond the K/E-corona and, like the photospheric spectrum, is characterized by Fraunhofer lines. The F-corona represents photospheric light scattered by dust particles in the interplanetary medium. Within the gaseous models of the Sun, the K-corona is viewed as photospheric radiation which has been scattered by relativistic electrons. This scattering is thought to broaden the Fraunhofer lines of the solar spectrum such that they can no longer be detected in the K-corona. Thus, the gaseous models of the Sun account for the appearance of the K-corona by distorting photospheric light, since they are unable to have recourse to condensed matter to directly produce such radiation. Conversely, it is now advanced that the continuous emission of the K-corona and associated emission lines from the E-corona must be interpreted as manifestations of the same phenomenon: condensed matter exists in the corona. It is well-known that the Sun expels large amounts of material from its surface in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. Given a liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, it is logical to assume that such matter, which exists in the condensed state on the solar surface, continues to manifest its nature once expelled into the corona. Therefore, the continuous spectrum of the K-corona provides the twenty-seventh line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.

  11. DFT, Its Impact on Condensed Matter and on ``Materials-Genome'' Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Matthias

    About 40 years ago, two seminal works demonstrated the power of density-functional theory (DFT) for real materials. These studies by Moruzzi, Janak, and Williams on metals and Yin and Cohen on semiconductors visualized the spatial distribution of electrons, predicted the equation of state of solids, crystal stability, pressure-induced phase transitions, and more. They also stressed the importance of identifying trends by looking at many systems (e.g. the whole transition-metal series). Since then, the field has seen numerous applications of DFT to solids, liquids, defects, surfaces, and interfaces providing important descriptions and explanations as well as predictions of experimentally not yet identified systems. - ∖ ∖ About 10 years ago, G. Ceder and his group [Ref. 3 and references therein] started with high-throughput screening calculations in the spirit of what in 2011 became the ``Materials Genome Initiative''. The idea of high-throughput screening is old (a key example is the ammonia catalyst found by A. Mittasch at BASF more than 100 years ago), but it is now increasingly becoming clear that big data of materials does not only provide direct information but that the data is structured. This enables interpolation, (modest) extrapolation, and new routes towards understanding [Ref. 5 and references therein]. - ∖ ∖ The amount of data created by ``computational materials science'' is significant. For instance, the NoMaD Repository (which includes also data from other repositories, e.g. AFLOWLIB and OQMD) now holds more than 18 million total-energy calculations. In fact, the amount of data of computational materials science is steadily increasing, and about hundred million CPU core hours are nowadays used every day, worldwide, for DFT calculations for materials. - ∖ ∖ The talk will summarize this enormous impact of DFT on materials science, and it will address the next steps, e.g. the issue how to exploit big data of materials for doing forefront

  12. Modern trends in position-sensitive neutron detectors development for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belushkin, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Detecting neutrons is a more complicated task compared to the detection of ionizing particles or ionizing radiation. This is why the variety of neutron detectors is much more limited. Meanwhile, different types of neutron experiments pose specific and often contradictory requirements for detector characteristics. For experiments on the high-intensity neutron sources, the high counting rate is one of the key issues. This is very important, for example, for small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry. For other experiments, characteristics like detection efficiency, high position resolution, high time resolution, neutron/gamma discrimination, large-area imaging, or compactness, are very important. Today, the cost of the detector also became one of the most important factors. There is no single type of detector which satisfies all the above criteria. Therefore, compromise is inevitable and some of the characteristics are trade off in favor of others. The present report gives an overview of detector systems presently operating at the leading neutron scattering facilities as well as some development work around the globe

  13. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, J; Castellazzi, D; Shea-Braun, M [eds.

    2002-03-01

    The SINQ-facility stopped operation at the end of the year 2001 for the scheduled shut down. By that time the spallation target of the 'Cannelloni'-type (D{sub 2}O-cooled steel pins filled with lead) had received a total charge of more then 10 Ah at an average proton current higher than 1 mA. Thereby nearly 4 mols of neutrons had been released from this target. The two operational years with this target delivered the neutrons for about 300 experiments. During this operational period not one single interrupt caused by the spallation target has been recorded -indeed a convincing evidence for the reliability of this system. The probes inserted into the target and some of its parts will now soon be available to the materials scientists for careful investigation. SINQ as a continuous spallation neutron source was considered to be a 'high risk' project. Furthermore it was often accompanied with the suspicion to represent the 'worst of two worlds' - meaning that this facility would suffer from the disadvantages but not benefit from the advantage of a spallation neutron source - the pulse structure. According to our operational experience these fears are not justified provided the various concerns have been properly taken into consideration during design and construction. This report testifies what can be achieved at a continuous spallation neutron source. We believe that these research activities compare well with those from a beam-tube reactor of medium flux. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  14. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefer, J.; Castellazzi, D.; Shea-Braun, M.

    2002-03-01

    The SINQ-facility stopped operation at the end of the year 2001 for the scheduled shut down. By that time the spallation target of the 'Cannelloni'-type (D 2 O-cooled steel pins filled with lead) had received a total charge of more then 10 Ah at an average proton current higher than 1 mA. Thereby nearly 4 mols of neutrons had been released from this target. The two operational years with this target delivered the neutrons for about 300 experiments. During this operational period not one single interrupt caused by the spallation target has been recorded -indeed a convincing evidence for the reliability of this system. The probes inserted into the target and some of its parts will now soon be available to the materials scientists for careful investigation. SINQ as a continuous spallation neutron source was considered to be a 'high risk' project. Furthermore it was often accompanied with the suspicion to represent the 'worst of two worlds' - meaning that this facility would suffer from the disadvantages but not benefit from the advantage of a spallation neutron source - the pulse structure. According to our operational experience these fears are not justified provided the various concerns have been properly taken into consideration during design and construction. This report testifies what can be achieved at a continuous spallation neutron source. We believe that these research activities compare well with those from a beam-tube reactor of medium flux. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided

  15. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-07-08

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to : 1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, 2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and 3) develop mathematical model and ehat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal- hydraulic codes assessment.

  16. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to: (1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, (2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and (3) develop mathematical model and heat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal-hydraulic codes assessment

  17. Allocation of synchronous condensers for restoration of system short-circuit power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrazi, Emanuel; Yang, Guangya; Weinreich-Jensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Modern power systems, employing an increasing number of converter-based renewable energy sources (RES) and decreasing the usage of conventional power plants, are leading to lower levels of short-circuit power and rotational inertia. A solution to this is the employment of synchronous condensers...... in the grid, in order to provide sufficient short-circuit power. This results in the increase of the short-circuit ratio (SCR) at transmission system bus-bars serving as points of interconnection (POI) to renewable generation. Evaluation of the required capacity and grid-location of the synchronous condensers......, isinherently a mixed integer non-linear optimization problem, which could not be done on manual basis considering each type of machine and all bus-bars. This study therefore proposes a method of optimal allocation of synchronous condensers in a hypothetic future scenario of a transmission system fed...

  18. Allocation of synchronous condensers for restoration of system short-circuit power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrazi, Emanuel; Yang, Guangya; Weinreich-Jensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Modern power systems, employing an increasing number of converter-based renewable energy sources (RES) and decreasing the usage of conventional power plants, are leading to lower levels of short-circuit power and rotational inertia. A solution to this is the employment of synchronous condensers...... in the grid, in order to provide sufficient short-circuit power. This results in the increase of the short-circuit ratio (SCR) at transmission system bus-bars serving as points of interconnection (POI) to renewable generation. Evaluation of the required capacity and grid-location of the synchronous condensers...... by renewable generation. Total cost of synchronous condenser installations in the system is minimized and the SCRs at the POIs of central renewable power plants are strengthened. The method has potential for application on larger grids, aiding grid-integration of RES....

  19. Test facility of the VVER-440 condensation-type pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, H.; Arndt, S.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early nineties, GRS has supported regulatory authorities in Central and Eastern Europe in performing safety assessments of nuclear power plants. Especially studies of the condensation-type pressure suppression system of VVER-440/V-213-type plants have been important in this respect. Major steps in demonstrating complete functioning of the condensation-type pressure suppression system under accident conditions by experiments run in the Russian large scale test facility, BC V-213, have been completed in the past two years within the framework of various international experimental programs. The test results were used to validate specifically for power plants with VVER-400/V-213 reactors the COCOSYS GRS computer code, which is used in the safety assessments. The results of recalculations of the C02 EREC test, which simulates a break of a main steam pipe, demonstrate the present state of validation of COCOSYS for VVER condensation-type pressure suppression systems. (orig.) [de

  20. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, J.; Castellazzi, D.; Shea-Braun, M. (eds.)

    2002-03-01

    The SINQ-facility stopped operation at the end of the year 2001 for the scheduled shut down. By that time the spallation target of the 'Cannelloni'-type (D{sub 2}O-cooled steel pins filled with lead) had received a total charge of more then 10 Ah at an average proton current higher than 1 mA. Thereby nearly 4 mols of neutrons had been released from this target. The two operational years with this target delivered the neutrons for about 300 experiments. During this operational period not one single interrupt caused by the spallation target has been recorded -indeed a convincing evidence for the reliability of this system. The probes inserted into the target and some of its parts will now soon be available to the materials scientists for careful investigation. SINQ as a continuous spallation neutron source was considered to be a 'high risk' project. Furthermore it was often accompanied with the suspicion to represent the 'worst of two worlds' - meaning that this facility would suffer from the disadvantages but not benefit from the advantage of a spallation neutron source - the pulse structure. According to our operational experience these fears are not justified provided the various concerns have been properly taken into consideration during design and construction. This report testifies what can be achieved at a continuous spallation neutron source. We believe that these research activities compare well with those from a beam-tube reactor of medium flux. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  1. Density of states and excitonic condensation in the double layer correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apinyan, V., E-mail: v.apinyan@int.pan.wroc.pl; Kopeć, T.K.

    2016-01-15

    We consider the single-particle density of states (DOS) in the strongly correlated double layer (DL) system, without applied external fields. We demonstrate an unusual collapse effect in the spectrum of the normal single-particle spectral function at the particular high-symmetry point corresponding to the specific bunching-point solution of the chemical potential in the Frenkel channel. We show that at the low-temperature limit the anomalous spectral function obeys a concave like structure, which is directly related to the interlayer pair formation and condensation. We calculate the normal DOS functions, and we find their temperature dependence for different values of the interlayer Coulomb interaction parameter. We show that the normal electron and hole DOS functions demonstrate typical condensates double peak structures on the background of the excitonic pair formation quasiparticle spectra and we have found the evidence of the hybridization gap in the case of high-temperature limit, and small interlayer coupling parameter. Meanwhile, we show a possible crossover from the excitonic condensate regime into the band insulator state. The structure of the normal DOS spectra, in the Frenkel channel and for the strong interlayer coupling regime, is found gapless for all temperature limits, which clearly indicates the strong coherence effects in the DL structure, and the excitonic condensates therein. We have shown that the excitonic pair formation and pair condensation occur simultaneously in the DL system, in contrast with the purely three-dimensional (3D) or two-dimensional cases (2D), discussed previously.

  2. BWR Passive Containment Cooling System by condensation-driven natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierow, K.M.; Townsend, H.E.; Fitch, J.R.; Andersen, J.G.M.; Alamgir, M.; Schrock, V.E.

    1991-01-01

    A method of long-term decay heat removal which is safe, reliable, and passive has been incorporated into the design of the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). The primary functions of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) are to remove heat and maintain the containment pressure below allowable levels following a LOCA. A key component of the PCCS is the PCC condenser unit (PCC). By natural circulation, a steam-nitrogen mixture flows into the PCC heat exchanger, condensate drains to the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), and noncondensables are vented to the suppression chamber (S/C). This analysis focuses on three significant thermal-hydraulic phenomena which occur in the system. Specifically, steam condensation in the presence of a noncondensable, the PCC noncondensable venting and the natural circulation are discussed. Results of TRACG simulations are presented which show that the PCCS performs its intended functions. (author)

  3. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    three freely moving electrons. The value at room temperature is 3.1 k B; the electronic specific heat is missing! The next stage in the electronic theory of solids clears up ..... a big dog? We do not know the reasons yet. As it turns out for many fundamentally interesting phenomena, colossal magneto- resistance may also find ...

  4. Computational condensed matter physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the electronic structure based investigations of structural stabilities at high pressures involve tedious trial and error effort, which is avoided in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. ... Thus in some sense, it mimics the phenomena taking place during the cohesion of solids. Therefore significant changes are ...

  5. Analogies between dark solitons in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proukakis, N P; Parker, N G; Frantzeskakis, D J; Adams, C S

    2004-01-01

    Dark solitons have been observed in optical systems (optical fibres, dielectric guides and bulk media), and, more recently, in harmonically confined atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. This paper presents an overview of some of the common features and analogies experienced by these two intrinsically nonlinear systems, with emphasis on the stability of dark solitons in such systems and their decay via emission of radiation. The closely related issue of vortex dynamics in such systems is also briefly discussed

  6. Frequency Stability Improvement of Low Inertia Systems Using Synchronous Condensers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Ha Thi; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2016-01-01

    of converter interfaced components (wind turbine, HVDC, and Photovoltaic) may have negative effects on the stability of the power system. These components do not have enough inertia response to control frequency excursion, so the power grid can depend on few synchronous machines for frequency regulation...... and reduce the system inertia. Consequently, the frequency stability of the system will be easily jeopardized. To address these issues, the paper studies frequency characteristics of future Western Danish renewable-based system that uses a majority of wind turbine generators. Different scenarios of wind...

  7. The performance of a mobile air conditioning system with a water cooled condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Battista, Davide; Cipollone, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle technological evolution lived, in recent years, a strong acceleration due to the increased awareness of environmental issues related to pollutants and climate altering emissions. This resulted in a series of international regulations on automotive sector which put technical challenges that must consider the engine and the vehicle as a global system, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The air conditioning system of the cabin, for instance, is the one of the most important auxiliaries in a vehicle and requires significant powers. Its performances can be significantly improved if it is integrated within the engine cooling circuit, eventually modified with more temperature levels.In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of the A/C system, starting from its single components: compressors, condenser, flush valve and evaporator and a comparison between different refrigerant fluid. In particular, it is introduced the opportunity to have an A/C condenser cooled by a water circuit instead of the external air linked to the vehicle speed, as in the actual traditional configuration. The A/C condenser, in fact, could be housed on a low temperature water circuit, reducing the condensing temperature of the refrigeration cycle with a considerable efficiency increase. (paper)

  8. Development of passive condensers for accident localization systems at nuclear power plants in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznecov, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    The development is summarized of passive condensers for accident localization systems at nuclear power plants (with RBMK and WWER reactors) in the former USSR. Basic properties and criteria defining their availability are described, as are experimental tests and technical solution optimization results. (author) 2 fig

  9. The performance of a mobile air conditioning system with a water cooled condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Battista, Davide; Cipollone, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Vehicle technological evolution lived, in recent years, a strong acceleration due to the increased awareness of environmental issues related to pollutants and climate altering emissions. This resulted in a series of international regulations on automotive sector which put technical challenges that must consider the engine and the vehicle as a global system, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The air conditioning system of the cabin, for instance, is the one of the most important auxiliaries in a vehicle and requires significant powers. Its performances can be significantly improved if it is integrated within the engine cooling circuit, eventually modified with more temperature levels. In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of the A/C system, starting from its single components: compressors, condenser, flush valve and evaporator and a comparison between different refrigerant fluid. In particular, it is introduced the opportunity to have an A/C condenser cooled by a water circuit instead of the external air linked to the vehicle speed, as in the actual traditional configuration. The A/C condenser, in fact, could be housed on a low temperature water circuit, reducing the condensing temperature of the refrigeration cycle with a considerable efficiency increase.

  10. Heat transfer performance of condenser tubes in an MSF desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, T.; Kalendar, A.; Al Saftawi, A.; Zedan, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines the amount of condensed fresh water off the outer-side surface of heat exchangers in an MSF system. The quantitative modeling of condensed water on the outer surface of comparable tubes, enhanced and plain, in a simulated MSF technique is investigated. An adapted simulation design on a test-rig facility, accounting for the condenser tubing in actual industrial desalination plate-form, is used with corrugated and smooth aluminum-brass material tubes 1100mm long and 23mm bore. A single phase flow of authentic brine water that typifies real fouling is utilized to simulate the actual environmental life of a multi-stage flashing desalination system, with coolant flow velocity 0.1 m/s in the two delineated types of condenser tubing. It is demonstrated that the condensate water amount from the specified enhanced tube is about 1.22 times the condensate water amount from the smooth tube, adaptive for 140 running hours under deliberated constrains. The topic covers a comparative analysis of thermal performance. Comparing results with fresh water confirm the effect of fouling on significantly lowering the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient versus time. Fouling resistance R f is reported with the critical coolant flow speed of 0.1 m/s. Comparison between the fouling resistance for both smooth and corrugated tubes versus time is performed. The fouling thermal resistance of the corrugated tube is 0.56 of the fouling thermal resistance of the smooth tube after140 running hours of the experiment are concluded. Overall, in the case of real brine, results prove that heat performance for the corrugated tube is superior to the plain tube over the studied time period (140 hrs) for the chosen range of flow speeds

  11. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)

  12. Passive heat removal system with injector-condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soplenkov, K I [All-Russian Inst. of Nuclear Power Plant Operation, Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre of Nuclear Power Safety (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The system described in this paper is a passive system for decay heat removal from WWERs. It operates off the secondary side of the steam generators (SG). Steam is taken from the SG to operate a passive injector pump which causes secondary fluid to be pumped through a heat exchanger. Variants pass either water or steam from the SG through the heat exchanger. There is a passive initiation scheme. The programme for experimental and theoretical validation of the system is described. (author). 8 figs.

  13. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang Weiyan; Tuhe Xia

    2009-01-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either 'direct' or 'in-direct x-ray driven' type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of 'chirped' lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of 'fast ignition (FI)' to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed 'block ignition' (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter 'clusters' of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B 11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B 11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B 11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants

  14. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang, Weiyan; tu He, Xia

    2009-03-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either "direct "or "in-direct x-ray driven" type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of "chirped" lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of "fast ignition (FI)" to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed "block ignition" (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter "clusters" of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants using p

  15. Universal Themes of Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proukakis, Nick P.; Snoke, David W.; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2017-04-01

    Foreword; List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Universality and Bose-Einstein condensation: perspectives on recent work D. W. Snoke, N. P. Proukakis, T. Giamarchi and P. B. Littlewood; 2. A history of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen T. Greytak and D. Kleppner; 3. Twenty years of atomic quantum gases: 1995-2015 W. Ketterle; 4. Introduction to polariton condensation P. B. Littlewood and A. Edelman; Part II. General Topics: Editorial notes; 5. The question of spontaneous symmetry breaking in condensates D. W. Snoke and A. J. Daley; 6. Effects of interactions on Bose-Einstein condensation R. P. Smith; 7. Formation of Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Davis, T. M. Wright, T. Gasenzer, S. A. Gardiner and N. P. Proukakis; 8. Quenches, relaxation and pre-thermalization in an isolated quantum system T. Langen and J. Schmiedmayer; 9. Ultracold gases with intrinsic scale invariance C. Chin; 10. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase of a driven-dissipative condensate N. Y. Kim, W. H. Nitsche and Y. Yamamoto; 11. Superfluidity and phase correlations of driven dissipative condensates J. Keeling, L. M. Sieberer, E. Altman, L. Chen, S. Diehl and J. Toner; 12. BEC to BCS crossover from superconductors to polaritons A. Edelman and P. B. Littlewood; Part III. Condensates in Atomic Physics: Editorial notes; 13. Probing and controlling strongly correlated quantum many-body systems using ultracold quantum gases I. Bloch; 14. Preparing and probing chern bands with cold atoms N. Goldman, N. R. Cooper and J. Dalibard; 15. Bose-Einstein condensates in artificial gauge fields L. J. LeBlanc and I. B. Spielman; 16. Second sound in ultracold atomic gases L. Pitaevskii and S. Stringari; 17. Quantum turbulence in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates N. G. Parker, A. J. Allen, C. F. Barenghi and N. P. Proukakis; 18. Spinor-dipolar aspects of Bose-Einstein condensation M. Ueda; Part IV. Condensates in Condensed Matter Physics: Editorial notes; 19. Bose

  16. Experimental investigation on improving the removal effect of WFGD system on fine particles by heterogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Jingjing; Yang, Linjun; Yan, Jinpei; Xiong, Guilong; Shen, Xianglin [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    Heterogeneous condensation of water vapor as a preconditioning technique for the removal of fine particles from flue gas was investigated experimentally in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system. A supersaturated vapor phase, necessary for condensational growth of fine particles, was achieved in the SO{sub 2} absorption zone and at the top of the wet FGD scrubber by adding steam in the gas inlet and above the scrubbing liquid inlet of the scrubber, respectively. The condensational grown droplets were then removed by the scrubbing liquid and a high-efficiency demister. The results show that the effectiveness of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles is related to the SO{sub 2} absorbent and the types of scrubber employed. Despite a little better effectiveness for the removal of fine particles in the rotating-stream-tray scrubber at the same liquid-to-gas ratio, The similar trends are obtained between the spray scrubber and rotating-stream-tray scrubber. Due to the formation of aerosol particles in the limestone and ammonia-based FGD processes, the fine particle removal efficiencies are lower than those for Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and water. The performance of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles can be significantly improved for both steam addition cases, for which the removal efficiency increases with increasing amount of added steam. A high liquid to gas ratio is beneficial for efficient removal of fine particles by heterogeneous condensation of water vapor.

  17. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

  18. Removal of fine particles in wet flue gas desulfurization system by heterogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.J.; Bao, J.J.; Yan, J.P.; Liu, J.H.; Song, S.J.; Fan, F.X. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2010-01-01

    A novel process to remove fine particles with high efficiency by heterogeneous condensation in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system is presented. A supersaturated vapor phase, necessary for condensational growth of fine particles, was achieved in the SO{sub 2} absorption zone and at the top of the wet FGD scrubber by adding steam in the gas inlet and above the scrubbing liquid inlet of the scrubber, respectively. The condensational grown droplets were then removed by the scrubbing liquid and a high-efficiency demister. The results show that the effectiveness of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles is related to the SO{sub 2} absorbent employed. When using CaCO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas, the fine particle removal efficiencies are lower than those for Na2CO{sub 3} and water, and the morphology and elemental composition of fine particles are changed. This effect can be attributed to the formation of aerosol particles in the limestone and ammonia-based FGD processes. The performance of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles can be significantly improved for both steam addition cases, for which the removal efficiency increases with increasing amount of added steam. A high liquid to gas ratio is beneficial for efficient removal of fine particles by heterogeneous condensation of water vapor.

  19. Performance of evaporative condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettouney, Hisham M.; El-Dessouky, Hisham T.; Bouhamra, Walid; Al-Azmi, Bader

    2001-07-01

    Experimental investigation is conducted to study the performance of evaporative condensers/coolers. The analysis includes development of correlations for the external heat transfer coefficient and the system efficiency. The evaporative condenser includes two finned-tube heat exchangers. The system is designed to allow for operation of a single condenser, two condensers in parallel, and two condensers in series. The analysis is performed as a function of the water-to-air mass flow rate ratio (L/G) and the steam temperature. Also, comparison is made between the performance of the evaporative condenser and same device as an air-cooled condenser. Analysis of the collected data shows that the system efficiency increases at lower L/G ratios and higher steam temperatures. The system efficiency for various configurations for the evaporative condenser varies between 97% and 99%. Lower efficiencies are obtained for the air-cooled condenser, with values between 88% and 92%. The highest efficiency is found for the two condensers in series, followed by two condensers in parallel and then the single condenser. The parallel condenser configuration can handle a larger amount of inlet steam and can provide the required system efficiency and degree of subcooling. The correlation for the system efficiency gives a simple tool for preliminary system design. The correlation developed for the external heat transfer coefficient is found to be consistent with the available literature data. (Author)

  20. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  1. Life Cycle Impact Assessment of a Rainwater Harvesting System Compared with an A/C Condensate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reviewed U.S. commercial buildings to design a decentralized rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system and air-conditioning (AC) condensate harvesting (ACH) system for non-potable use. RWH systems were designed for one-to multi-story buildings selected from each of th...

  2. On the influence of drag effect on acoustic modes in two-condensate relativistic superfluid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.

    1999-01-01

    Equations of velocities of acoustic excitations in a relativistic two-condensate superfluid system are derived with due account of reciprocal drag of superfluid motion (drag effect). The influence of the drag effect on acoustic modes in the system is considered. It is shown that the effect does not influence the nature of acoustic excitation oscillations but produces changes in the velocities of the second, third and fourth sounds

  3. Dark matter, neutrinos, and our solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Nirmala

    2013-01-01

    Dark Matter, Neutrinos, and Our Solar System is a unique enterprise that should be viewed as an important contribution to our understanding of dark matter, neutrinos and the solar system. It describes these issues in terms of links, between cosmology, particle and nuclear physics, as well as between cosmology, atmospheric and terrestrial physics. It studies the constituents of dark matter (classified as hot warm and cold) first in terms of their individual structures (baryonic and non-baryonic, massive and non-massive, interacting and non-interacting) and second, in terms of facilities available to detect these structures (large and small). Neutrinos (an important component of dark matter) are treated as a separate entity. A detailed study of these elusive (sub-atomic) particles is done, from the year 1913 when they were found as byproducts of beta decay -- until the discovery in 2007 which confirmed that neutrino flavors were not more than three (as speculated by some). The last chapter of the book details t...

  4. Plan for the future of neutron research on condensed matter: an Argonne National Laboratory report prepared in response to the Report of the Review Panel on Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Review Panel on Neutron Scattering has recommended an expanded budget to allow systematic development of the field. An alternative plan for the future of neutron research on condensed matter is presented here, in case it is not possible to fund the expanded budget. This plan leads, in a rational and logical way, to a world-class neutron source that will ensure the vitality of the field and exploit the many benefits that state-of-the-art neutron facilities can bring to programs in the materials and biological sciences. 2 tables

  5. Multi-column adsorption systems with condenser for tritiated water vapor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoh, Kenji; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    1996-01-01

    Two types of multi-column adsorption system are proposed as the system for removal of tritiated moisture from tritium process gases or/and handling room atmospheres. The types are of recycle use of adsorption columns, and are composed of twin or triplet columns and one condenser which is used for collecting the adsorbed moisture from columns in desorption process. The systems utilize the dry gas from a working column as the purge gas for regenerating a saturated column and appropriate an active column for recovery of the tritiated moisture passing through the condenser. Each column hence needs the additional amount of adsorbent for collecting the moisture from the condenser. In the modeling and design of an adsorption column, it is primary to estimate the necessary amount of a candidate adsorbent for its packed-bed. The performance of the proposed systems is examined here by analyzing the dependence of the necessary amount of adsorbent for their columns on process operational conditions and adsorbent moisture-adsorption characteristics. The result shows that the necessary amount is sensitive to the types of adsorption isotherm, and suggests that these systems should employ adsorbents which exhibit the Langmuir-type isotherms. (author)

  6. The status of the Bubbler Condenser Containment System for the Reactors of the VVER-440/213 Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.; Rosinger, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    VVER-440/213 Pressurized Water Reactors have a pressure-suppression containment structure called a 'Bubbler Condenser' tower which can reduce the design pressure of the entire containment following a design basis accident (DBA), such as a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The bubbler condenser pressure suppression system provides reduction of the LOCA containment pressure by the condensation of released steam in a water pool. World-wide there are 14 nuclear power plants of the VVER-440/213 type in Eastern Europe and Russia. One of the safety concerns for the VVER-440/213 reactors relates to the ability of the bubbler condenser containment system to function satisfactorily and to maintain its integrity following certain postulated accidents and thus limit the release of radioactive material to the environment. The complicated geometry of the bubbler condenser unit, and the dependence on several moving devices and interlocks are the main doubts expressed by different specialists with regard to the design. General description of the bubbler condenser containment system, the physical processes, concerns and design assessment of the bubbler condenser containment system, presentation of the OECD's Unified Bubbler Condenser Research Project (UBCRP) and the European Commission PHARE/TACIS project. Recent utility investigations are also discussed

  7. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  8. Comparative analysis of an evaporative condenser using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metin Ertunc, H. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kocaeli University, Umuttepe, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Hosoz, Murat [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, Umuttepe, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    This study deals with predicting the performance of an evaporative condenser using both artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) techniques. For this aim, an experimental evaporative condenser consisting of a copper tube condensing coil along with air and water circuit elements was developed and equipped with instruments used for temperature, pressure and flow rate measurements. After the condenser was connected to an R134a vapour-compression refrigeration circuit, it was operated at steady state conditions, while varying both dry and wet bulb temperatures of the air stream entering the condenser, air and water flow rates as well as pressure, temperature and flow rate of the entering refrigerant. Using some of the experimental data for training, ANN and ANFIS models for the evaporative condenser were developed. These models were used for predicting the condenser heat rejection rate, refrigerant temperature leaving the condenser along with dry and wet bulb temperatures of the leaving air stream. Although it was observed that both ANN and ANFIS models yielded a good statistical prediction performance in terms of correlation coefficient, mean relative error, root mean square error and absolute fraction of variance, the accuracies of ANFIS predictions were usually slightly better than those of ANN predictions. This study reveals that, having an extended prediction capability compared to ANN, the ANFIS technique can also be used for predicting the performance of evaporative condensers. (author)

  9. Experimental and numerical study of an evaporatively-cooled condenser of air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.R.; Jahangeer, K.A.; Chua, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of an air-conditioning unit with evaporately-cooled condenser coil is studied experimentally and numerically. An experimental setup is fabricated by retrofitting a commercially available air-conditioning unit and installing comprehensive measuring sensors and controllers. Experimental result shows that the COP (Coefficient of Performance) of the evaporately-cooled air-conditioning unit increases by about 28% compared to the conventional air cooled air-conditioning unit. To analyze the heat and mass transfer processes involved in the evaporately-cooled condenser, a detailed theoretical model has been developed based on the fluid flow characteristics of the falling film and the thermodynamic aspect of the evaporation process. Simulated results agree well with experimental data. The numerical model provides new insights into the intrinsic links between operating variables and heat transfer characteristics of water film in evaluating the performance of evaporatively-cooled condenser system. Two heat transfer coefficients, namely, wall to bulk and bulk to interface are introduced and computed from the simulation results under different operating conditions. Finally, the overall heat transfer coefficient for the water film is computed and presented as a function of dimensionless variables which can conveniently be employed by engineers to design and analyze high performance evaporatively-cooled heat exchangers. - Highlights: • Performance of evaporatively-cooled condenser is investigated. • Local convective heat transfer coefficients of water film are determined. • Thermal resistance of water film is negligible. • Heat transfer with evaporated vapor plays significant role on performance. • Better condenser performance translates to an improvement in COP

  10. Condensation model for the ESBWR passive condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revankar, S. T.; Zhou, W.; Wolf, B.; Oh, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the General Electric's Economic simplified boiling water reactor (GE-ESBWR) the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) plays a major role in containment pressure control in case of an loss of coolant accident. The PCCS condenser must be able to remove sufficient energy from the reactor containment to prevent containment from exceeding its design pressure following a design basis accident. There are three PCCS condensation modes depending on the containment pressurization due to coolant discharge; complete condensation, cyclic venting and flow through mode. The present work reviews the models and presents model predictive capability along with comparison with existing data from separate effects test. The condensation models in thermal hydraulics code RELAP5 are also assessed to examine its application to various flow modes of condensation. The default model in the code predicts complete condensation well, and basically is Nusselt solution. The UCB model predicts through flow well. None of condensation model in RELAP5 predict complete condensation, cyclic venting, and through flow condensation consistently. New condensation correlations are given that accurately predict all three modes of PCCS condensation. (authors)

  11. Expert Meeting: Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  12. Characteristic aspects of pion-condensed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki; Tamagaki, Ryozo; Tatsumi, Toshitaka.

    1993-01-01

    Characteristic aspects of pion-condensed phases are described in a simple model, for the system involving only nucleons and pions which interact through the π-N P-wave interaction. We consider one typical version in each of three kinds of pion condensation; the one of neutral pions (π 0 ), the one of charged pions (π C ) and the combined one in which both the π 0 and π C condensations are coexistent. Emphasis is put on the description to clarify the novel structures of the nucleon system which are realized in the pion-condensed phases. At first, it is shown that the π 0 condensation is equivalent to the particular nucleonic phase realized by a structure change of the nucleon system, where the attractive first-order effect of the one-pion-exchange (OPE) tensor force is brought about coherently. The aspects of this phase are characterized by the layered structure with a specific spin-isospin order with one-dimensional localization (named the ALS structure in short), which provides the source function for the condensed π 0 field. We utilize both descriptions with use of fields and potentials for the π 0 condensation. Next, the π C condensation realized in neutron-rich matter is described by adopting a version of the traveling condensed wave. In this phase, the nucleonic structure becomes the Fermi gas consisting of quasi-neutrons described by a superposition of neutron and proton. In this sense the structure change of the nucleon system for the π C condensation is moderate, and the field description is suitable. Finally, we describe a coexistent pion condensation, in which both the π 0 and π C condensations coexist without interference in such a manner that the π C condensation develops in the ALS structure. The model adopted here provides us with the characteristic aspects of the pion-condensed phases persisting in the realistic situation, where other ingredients affecting the pion condensation are taken into account. (author)

  13. Dynamic analysis of the condensate feedwater system in boiling water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, J.; Omori, T.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code, CONFAC, has been developed for dynamic analysis of the condensate feedwater system in boiling water reactor plants. This code simulates the hydrodynamics in the piping system, the pump dynamics, and the feedwater controller in order to clarify the system transient characteristics in such cases as pump trip incidents. Code verification was performed by comparison between analytical results and actual plant operational data. Satisfactory agreement was obtained. With the code, appropriate pump start/stop interlocks were estimated for preventing pump cavitation in pump trip incidents

  14. Reliability assessment of passive isolation condenser system of AHWR using APSRA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, A.K.; Jain, Vikas; Gartia, M.R.; Prasad, Hari; Anthony, A.; Bhatia, S.K.; Sinha, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology known as APSRA (Assessment of Passive System ReliAbility) is used for evaluation of reliability of passive isolation condenser system of the Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). As per the APSRA methodology, the passive system reliability evaluation is based on the failure probability of the system to perform the design basis function. The methodology first determines the operational characteristics of the system and the failure conditions based on a predetermined failure criterion. The parameters that could degrade the system performance are identified and considered for analysis. Different modes of failure and their cause are identified. The failure surface is predicted using a best estimate code considering deviations of the operating parameters from their nominal states, which affect the isolation condenser system performance. Once the failure surface of the system is predicted, the causes of failure are examined through root diagnosis, which occur mainly due to failure of mechanical components. Reliability of the system is evaluated through a classical PSA treatment based on the failure probability of the components using generic data

  15. Researches of a thermodynamic behaviour of bubbling vacuum system bubble condenser NPP 'Mochovce'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rjeznikov, Iu.V.; Lifshitz, E.V.; Kouznetsov, M.V.; Antropov, V. N.; Doulepov, U. N.; Suchanek, M.

    1997-01-01

    During joint development and designing of the bubbling vacuum system (BVS) equipment for localization of under-loss of coolant accident (LOCA) consequences on NPPs with WWER 440/213, a large volume of experimental and calculational activities have been performed by VTI and SverdNIIchimmash for the substantiation of functionality of this system, and in particular, for bubbler-condenser (BC) design, as a part of BVS. However, not looking on broad introduction of BVS on 16-th NPP units with WWER 440/213, its functionality was subjected to a doubt from experts of different countries. Sequentially, that promoted issue of the IAEA, document and OECD document. Therefore, before commissioning of the NPP 'Mochovce' unit 1 it was decided to execute additional experimental and computational researches for Safety Analysis Report preparation. Within the framework of these BVS thermodynamic behavior researches, in particular the following problems were chosen: (1) The check of a capability of valves DN 250 blocking in an opened position, as a result of return pressure differential on BC, during vent clearing process of the hydro-lock, that can sequentially result in an a drop of efficiency of stem condensation in BC pool; (2) To provide by direct measurements the absence of pressure oscillations dangerous for strength of a BC design in different modes of steam condensation in BC and to execute computational researches of instability of steam condensation processes (for such mode as 'chugging'); (3) Study influences of pool swell and water carry over through check valves DN 500 in the air traps on a BVS functionality; (4) To determine by a computational way the maximum pressure in NPP premises during LOCA, with taking into consideration additional failures of the BC equipment: absence of a water on two and more BC plates and DN 250 valves have blocked in an opened position (conservative conditions). (authors)

  16. Heat transfer in an evaporation-condensation system in simulated weightlessness conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologa, M. K.; Grosu, F. P.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Motorin, O. V.; Polikarpov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The process of heat transfer in an evaporation-condensation system (ECS) at circulation of dielectric liquid in a closed thermoelectrohydrodynamic (TEHD) loop consisting of an evaporator, a condenser and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pump for pumping of heat carrier, is considered. Previously, the authors studied the dependence of heat transfer on the angle of rotation of TEHD loop in a vertical plane. The report contains the results of studies of heat transfer at electrohydrodynamic pumping of the heat carrier (8% solution of acetone in Freon 113) in the condenser area by means of EHD pump of “cone-cone” type. All elements of the ECS are arranged in a horizontal plane and the heat transfer from the heater to the condenser without EHD pumping is impossible. A pulsating heat carrier flow mode, depending on the heat input and the voltage applied to the pump, takes place at EHD pumping. As the input power is decreasing the frequency of the coolant pulsations as well as the departure diameter and number of vapour bubbles are also decreasing. At some critical heat input the pulsations disappear and the transition from turbulent mode to the laminar one takes place causing the decrease of the heat transfer coefficient. The increase of the pumping flow rate by raising the voltage applied to the EHD pump, results in a partial suppression of boiling. The maximum intensification of heat transfer is reached at pulsation frequency of 1.25 Hz. The maximum heat flow from the heater was 4.2·104 W/m2. Graphical representation and the physical interpretation of the results, which reflect the essence of the process, are given.

  17. New method for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems under ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrtens, A.; Moske, M.; Samwer, K.

    1988-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum apparatus is described for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems. Three singly controlled electron beam evaporation sources provide a constant evaporation rate of the different elements. A specially designed rotating mask guarantees a concentration gradient on the substrate according to a ternary phase diagram. The conversion of the actual concentration profile into a standard ternary phase diagram is done by simple computer calculations. They involve corrections for the beam characteristics of the evaporation sources and for the rotating mask. As an example, measurements for the Zr--Cu--Co system are given. The concentration range for the amorphous phase is compared with thermodynamic predictions using Miedema's parameter

  18. Cold storage condensation heat recovery system with a novel composite phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Mingzhu; Yuan, Yanping; Zhao, Xudong; Cao, Xiaoling; Tang, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cold storage condensation heat recovery system using PCM was proposed. • CW with a phase change temperature of nearly 80 °C was selected as the potential PCM. • The optimal mass ratio between the CW and EG was 10:1. • The thermal and physical performances of the CW/EG were investigated. • The thermal reliability was demonstrated by 1000 cycles. - Abstract: Using condensation heat from cold storage refrigeration systems to provide heat for domestic hot water preparation and industrial hot water supply promotes energy conservation. However, few studies have investigated cold storage condensation heat recovery using phase change materials (PCMs). In this study, a cold storage condensation heat recovery system that uses PCMs has been designed and analysed. According to the principle of energy cascade recycling, different operation modes could be effectively switched to recycle condensation heat. Furthermore, a novel and suitable phase change composite material is developed for cold storage condensation heat recovery, which has a relatively large latent heat, high thermal conductivity, and an appropriate phase change temperature (i.e. 80 °C). With carnauba wax (CW) as the PCM and expanded graphite (EG) as the additive, a composite was developed with an optimal mass ratio of CW:EG = 10:1. The thermal and physical properties and the interior structure of the composite were then investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal constants analyser (Hot Disk), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). Furthermore, experiments on the melting and solidification processes and accelerated thermal cycling were also conducted. It was found that at the optimal mass ratio of 10:1, the temperatures of the CW/EG composite in the melting and solidification processes were 81.98 °C and 80.43 °C, respectively, while the corresponding latent heats were 150.9 J/g and 142.6 J/g, respectively

  19. Single-tube condensation experiment in Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System of APR1400+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Wook; No, Hee Cheon; Yun, Bong Yo; Jeon, Byong Guk [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Conventional Korean nuclear power plants, Advanced Power Reactors (APR), are characterized by an active cooling system. However, Active cooling system may not prevent significant damage without any AC power source available for its operation as vividly illustrated through the recent Fukushima incident. In the APR1400+ to be designed, an independent passive cooling system was added in order to overcome the aforementioned shortcomings. In the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS), gravity force and density difference between steam and water are used. The system comprises of 240 condensation tubes to efficiently remove decay heat. Before applying the PAFS to APR1400+, the system's safety and heat removal performance must be verified. The present study experimentally evaluates the heat removal performance of a single tube in the PAFS. The objectives of SCOP (Single-tube Condensation experiment facility of PAFS) are the evaluation of the heat removal performance in the tube of the PAFS and database construction under various tube designs and test conditions. Reaching these objectives, we developed advanced measurement techniques for the amount of moisture, heat flux, and water film thickness.

  20. Low pressure lithium condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.; Oh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure experiment to evaluate the laminar film condensation coefficients of lithium was conducted. Some thirty-six different heat transfer tests were made at system pressures ranging from 1.3 to 26 Pa. Boiled lithium was condensed on the inside of a 7.6-cm (ID), 409 stainless-steel pipe. Condensed lithium was allowed to reflux back to the pool boiling region below the condensing section. Fourteen chromel/alumel thermocouples were attached in various regions of the condensing section. The thermocouples were initially calibrated with errors of less than one degree Celsius

  1. Bilinear forms, N-soliton solutions and soliton interactions for a fourth-order dispersive nonlinear Schrödinger equation in condensed-matter physics and biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rong-Xiang; Tian, Bo; Liu, Li-Cai; Qin, Bo; Lü, Xing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a fourth-order dispersive nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which governs the dynamics of a one-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple–dipole interaction in condensed-matter physics as well as the alpha helical proteins with higher-order excitations and interactions in biophysics. Beyond the existing constraint, upon the introduction of an auxiliary function, bilinear forms and N-soliton solutions are constructed with the Hirota method. Asymptotic analysis on the two-soliton solutions indicates that the soliton interactions are elastic. Soliton velocity varies linearly with the coefficient of discreteness and higher-order magnetic interactions. Bound-state solitons can also exist under certain conditions. Period of a bound-state soliton is inversely correlated to the coefficient of discreteness and higher-order magnetic interactions. Interactions among the three solitons are all pairwise elastic

  2. International Conference on Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Gravitational Waves, Condensation of Atoms and Monopoles, Light-cone Quantization : Orbis Scientiae '96

    CERN Document Server

    Mintz, Stephan; Perlmutter, Arnold; Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Gravitational Waves, Condensation of Atoms and Monopoles, Light-cone Quantization : Orbis Scientiae '96

    1996-01-01

    The International Conference, Orbis Scientiae 1996, focused on the topics: The Neutrino Mass, Light Cone Quantization, Monopole Condensation, Dark Matter, and Gravitational Waves which we have adopted as the title of these proceedings. Was there any exciting news at the conference? Maybe, it depends on who answers the question. There was an almost unanimous agreement on the overall success of the conference as was evidenced by the fact that in the after-dinner remarks by one of us (BNK) the suggestion of organizing the conference on a biannual basis was presented but not accepted: the participants wanted the continuation of the tradition to convene annually. We shall, of course, comply. The expected observation of gravitational waves will constitute the most exciting vindication of Einstein's general relativity. This subject is attracting the attention of the experimentalists and theorists alike. We hope that by the first decade of the third millennium or earlier, gravitational waves will be detected,...

  3. System monitoring feedback in cinemas and harvesting energy of the air conditioning condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Barz, C.; Latinovic, T.; Chiver, O.

    2017-05-01

    Our article monitors the degree of emotional involvement of the audience in the action film in theaters by measuring the concentration of CO2. The software performs data processing obtained dispersion sensors and displays data during the film. The software will also trigger the start of the air conditioning condenser where we can get harvesting energy by installing a piezoelectric device. Useful energy can be recovered from various waste produced in cinema. The time lag between actions and changes in environmental systems determines that decisions made now will affect subsequent generations and the future of our environment.

  4. Spatially Extended Avalanches in a Hysteretic Capillary Condensation System: Superfluid 4He in Nuclepore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, M.P.; Wootters, A.H.; Hallock, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    Capacitive studies of hysteretic capillary condensation of superfluid 4 He in Nuclepore have shown that the initial draining of the pores occurs over a small range of the chemical potential with avalanches present as groups of pores drain. In the work reported here, the avalanches in this system are shown to be nonlocal events which involve pores distributed at low density across the entire sample. The nonlocal avalanche behavior is shown to be enabled by the presence of a superfluid film connection among the pores. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Effect of non-condensable gas on heat transfer in steam turbine condenser and modelling of ejector pump system by controlling the gas extraction rate through extraction tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strušnik, Dušan; Golob, Marjan; Avsec, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Control of the amount of the pumped gases through extraction tubes. The connecting locations interconnect the extraction tubes for STC gas pumping. The extraction tubes are fitted with 3 control valves to control the amount of the pumped gas depending on the temperature of the pumped gas. The amount of the pumped gas increases through the extraction tubes, where the pumped gases are cooler and decreases, at the same time, through the extraction tubes, where the pumped gases are warmer. As a result, pumping of a larger amount of NCG is ensured and of a smaller amount of CG, given that the NCG concentration is the highest on the colder places. This way, the total amount of the pumped gases from the STC can be reduced, the SEPS operates more efficiently and consumes less energy for its operation. - Highlights: • Impact of non-condensable gas on heat transfer in a steam turbine condenser. • The ejector system is optimised by selecting a Laval nozzle diameter. • Simulation model of the control of the amount of pumped gases through extraction tubes. • Neural network and fuzzy logic systems used to control gas extraction rate. • Simulation model was designed by using real process data from the thermal power plant. - Abstract: The paper describes the impact of non-condensable gas (NCG) on heat transfer in a steam turbine condenser (STC) and modelling of the steam ejector pump system (SEPS) by controlling the gas extraction rate through extraction tubes. The ideal connection points for the NCG extraction from the STC are identified by analysing the impact of the NCG on the heat transfer and measuring the existing system at a thermal power plant in Slovenia. A simulation model is designed using the Matlab software and Simulink, Neural Net Work, Fuzzy Logic and Curve Fitting Toolboxes, to control gas extraction rate through extraction tubes of the gas pumped from the STC, thus optimising the operation of the steam ejector pump system (SEPS). The

  6. Bose-condensation through resonance decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornik, U.; Pluemer, M.; Strottman, D.

    1993-04-01

    We show that a system described by an equation of state which contains a high number of degrees of freedom (resonances) can create a considerable amount of superfluid (condensed) pions through the decay of short-lived resonances, if baryon number and entropy are large and the dense matter decouples from chemical equilibrium earlier than from thermal equilibrium. The system cools down faster in the presence of a condensate, an effect that may partially compensate the enhancement of the lifetime expected in the case of quark-gluon-plasma formation. (orig.). 3 figs

  7. Modeling of a New Structure of Precision Air Conditioning System Using Secondary Condenser for Rh Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Subiantoro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic mathematical model for a new structure of precision air conditioning (PAC has been developed. The proposed PAC uses an additional secondary condenser for relative humidity regulation compared to a basic refrigeration system. The work mechanism for this system and a vapour-compression cycle process of the system are illustrated using psychrometric chart and pressure-enthalpy diagram. A non-linear system model is derived based on the conservation of mass and energy balance principles and then linearized at steady state operating point for developing a 8th-order state space model suited for multivariable controller design. The quality of linearized model is analyzed in terms of transient response, controllability, observability, and interaction between input-output variables. The developed model is verified through simulation showing its ability for imitating the nonlinear behavior and the interaction of input-output variables.

  8. TECHNOLGIES AND SYSTEMS FOR WATER MANAGEMENT AND CONDENSATES IN THE SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar factories do achieve an efficient use of process water, but this process should be self-sufficient for consumption because these sugar factories have the special characteristic of having as its main raw material, sugar cane, which consists in approximately 70% of water Those condensed recovered will be the first option to recover process water and are aimed to the feeding of boilers. The quantities of the condensate types are dependent of the evaporator’s configuration, also the grade in that show up the vapor extractions. In this paper the fundamental aspects are described as for the use and handling of water in the process of sugar production. Also, important considerations are shown on the treatment systems of residual that are generated in these factories. The evaporation system is shown as the most important area for the handling of water in the process, in it, vegetable vapor takes place and it is used in other technological equipment. A major surplus of steam will be produced in this area if the process is more energetically efficient. It is shown through a balance of water that the process is self-sufficient for water consumption.

  9. 12th general conference of the condensed matter division of the E.P.S. V.16A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velicky, B.; Vorlicek, V.; Zaveta, K.

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings contain 630 abstracts of contributions and posters presented at the conference, out of which 35 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with the application of the dispersion and diffraction of X-rays and neutrons to the investigation of the structure of matter, crystals in particular; with spin-lattice relaxation and superlattices; and with electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (M.D.)

  10. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  11. Quantum tunnelling in condensed media

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yu

    1992-01-01

    The essays in this book deal with of the problem of quantum tunnelling and related behavior of a microscopic or macroscopic system, which interacts strongly with an ""environment"" - this being some form of condensed matter. The ""system"" in question need not be physically distinct from its environment, but could, for example, be one particular degree of freedom on which attention is focussed, as in the case of the Josephson junction studied in several of the papers. This general problem has been studied in many hundreds, if not thousands, of articles in the literature, in contexts as diverse

  12. A thermodynamic evaluation on high pressure condenser of double effect absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yılmaz, İbrahim Halil; Saka, Kenan; Kaynakli, Omer

    2016-01-01

    One of the parameters affecting the COP of the absorption system can be considered as the thermal balance between the high pressure condenser (HPC) and the low pressure generator (LPG) since heat rejected from the HPC is utilized as an energy source by the LPG. Condensation of the water vapor in the HPC depends on the heat removal via the LPG. This circumstance is significant for making an appropriate design and a controllable system with high performance in practical applications. For this reason, a thermodynamic analysis for the HPC of a double effect series flow water/lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system was emphasized in this study. A simulation was developed to investigate the energy transfer between the HPC and LPG. The results show that the proper designation of the HPC temperature improves the COP and ECOP due its significant impact, and its value necessarily has to be higher than the outlet temperature of the LPG based on the operating scheme. Furthermore, the COP and ECOP of the absorption system can be raised in the range of 9.72–35.09% in case of 2 °C-temperature increment in the HPC under the described conditions to be applied. - Highlights: • Thermal balance in HPC/LPG unit of a double effect absorption system was studied. • A simulation program was developed and its outputs were validated. • A parametric study was conducted for a wide range of component temperatures. • Proper designation of the HPC temperature improves the COP and ECOP. • The system performance raised 9.72–35.09% by controlling the HPC temperature.

  13. Bose condensates make quantum leaps and bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castin, Y.; Dum, R.; Sinatra, A.

    1999-01-01

    Since the first observation in 1995 of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases, atomic physicists have made extraordinary progress in understanding this unusual quantum state of matter. BOSE-EINSTEIN condensation is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon that was first predicted by Albert Einstein in the 1920s, at a time when quantum theory was still developing and was being applied to microscopic systems, such as individual particles and atoms. Einstein applied the new concept of Bose statistics to an ideal gas of identical atoms that were at thermal equilibrium and trapped in a box. He predicted that at sufficiently low temperatures the particles would accumulate in the lowest quantum state in the box, giving rise to a new state of matter with many unusual properties. The crucial point of Einstein's model is the absence of interactions between the particles in the box. However, this makes his prediction difficult to test in practice. In most real systems the complicating effect of particle interactions causes the gas to solidify well before the temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is reached. But techniques developed in the past four years have allowed physicists to form Bose-Einstein condensates for a wide range of elements. In this article the authors describe the latest advances in Bose-Einstein condensation. (UK)

  14. Impact of rapid condensations of large vapor spaces on natural circulation in integral systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Almenas, K.; DiMarzo, M.; Hsu, Y.Y.; Unal, C.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that the Interruption-Resumption flow mode (IRM) observed in the University of Maryland 2x4 loop is a unique and effective natural circulation cooling mode. The IRM flow mode consists of a series of large flow cycles which are initiated from a quiescent steady-state flow condition by periodic rapid condensation of large vapor spaces. The significance of this mass/energy transport mechanism is that it cannot be evaluated using the techniques developed for the commonly known density-driven natural circulation cooling mode. We also demonstrated that the rapid condensation mechanism essentially acts as a strong amplifier which will augment small perturbations and will activate several flow phenomena. The interplay of the phenomena involves a degree of randomness. This poses two important implications. First, the study of an isolated flow phenomenon is not sufficient for the understanding of the system-wide IRM fluid movement. Second, the duplication of reactor transients which involves randomness can be achieved only within certain bounds. The modeling of such transients by deterministic computer codes requires recognition of this physical reality. (orig.)

  15. Effect of salt on the glass transition of condensed tapioca starch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert A; Kasapis, Stefan

    2017-08-15

    This work examines the effect of including hydrated NaCl and CaCl 2 (up to 6% w/w) on the physicochemical properties of condensed tapioca starch. Samples were prepared by hot pressing at 120°C to produce condensed systems that covered a range of moisture contents from 7.34% w/w (23% relative humidity) to 19.52% w/w (75% relative humidity). Tensile storage modulus and heat flow measurements were taken using DMA and MDSC, which were accompanied by FTIR, WAXD and ESEM. Increasing the salt level enhances the mechanical strength of starch in the glassy state and shifts the glass transition temperature to a higher value. Antiplasticising effects of NaCl and CaCl 2 on the non-phosphorylated tapioca starch are indistinguishable from each other. Observations are complemented by intensification of absorbance peaks in FTIR spectra and a systematic change in shape and intensity of diffraction patterns with increasing addition of salt consistent with interactions between added ions and macromolecule. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Studies on the characteristics of the separated heat pipe system with non-condensible gas for the use of the passive decay heat removal in reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takao; Ishi, Takayuki; Hayakawa, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Kazutaka

    1997-01-01

    Experiments on the separated heat pipe system of variable conductance type, which enclose non-condensible gas, have been carried out with intention of applying such system to passive decay heat removal of the modular reactors such as HTR plant. Basic experiments have been carried out on the experimental apparatus consisting of evaporator, vapor transfer tube, condenser tube and return tube which returns the condensed liquid back to the evaporator. Water and methanol were examined as the working fluids and nitrogen gas was enclosed as the non-condensible gas. The behaviors of the system were examined for the parametric changes of the heat input under the various pressures of nitrogen gas initially enclosed, including the case without enclosing N 2 gas for the comparison. The results of the experiments shows very clear features of self control characteristics. The self control mechanism was made clear, that is, in such system in which the condensing area in the condenser expands automatically in accordance with the increase of the heat input to keep the system temperature nearly constant. The working temperature of the system are clearly dependent on the pressure of the non-condensable gas initially enclosed, with higher system working temperature with higher initial gas pressure enclosed. The analyses were done on water and methanol as the working fluids, which show very good agreement with the experimental results. A lot of attractive applications are expected including the self switching feature with minimum heat loss during normal operation with maintaining the sufficient heat removal at accidents. (author)

  17. Semi-classical description of matter wave interferometers and hybrid quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Mathias

    2015-02-16

    This work considers the semi-classical description of two applications involving cold atoms. This is, on one hand, the behavior of a BOSE-EINSTEIN condensate in hybrid systems, i.e. in contact with a microscopic object (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, etc.). On the other, the evolution of phase space distributions in matter wave interferometers utilizing ray tracing methods was discussed. For describing condensates in hybrid systems, one can map the GROSS-PITAEVSKII equation, a differential equation in the complex-valued macroscopic wave function, onto a system of two differential equations in density and phase. Neglecting quantum dispersion, one obtains a semiclassical description which is easily modified to incorporate interactions between condensate and microscopical object. In our model, these interactions comprise attractive forces (CASIMIR-POLDER forces) and loss of condensed atoms due to inelastic collisions at the surface of the object. Our model exhibited the excitation of sound waves that are triggered by the object's rapid immersion, and spread across the condensate thereafter. Moreover, local particle loss leads to a shrinking of the bulk condensate. We showed that the total number of condensed particles is decreasing potentially in the beginning (large condensate, strong mean field interaction), while it decays exponentially in the long-time limit (small condensate, mean field inetraction negligible). For representing the physics of matter wave interferometers in phase space, we utilized the WIGNER function. In semi-classical approximation, which again consists in ignoring the quantum dispersion, this representation is subject to the same equation of motion as classical phase space distributions, i.e. the LIOUVILLE equation. This implies that time evolution of theWIGNER function follows a phase space flow that consists of classical trajectories (classical transport). This means, for calculating a time-evolved distribution, one has know the initial

  18. Optomechanically induced transparency with Bose–Einstein condensate in double-cavity optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Wei; Gengzang, Duo-Jie; An, Xiu-Jia; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2018-03-01

    We propose a novel technique of generating multiple optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) of a weak probe field in hybrid optomechanical system. This system consists of a cigar-shaped Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC), trapped inside each high finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity. In the resolved sideband regime, the analytic solutions of the absorption and the dispersion spectrum are given. The tunneling strength of the two resonators and the coupling parameters of the each BEC in combination with the cavity field have the appearance of three distinct OMIT windows in the absorption spectrum. Furthermore, whether there is BEC in each cavity is a key factor in the number of OMIT windows determination. The technique presented may have potential applications in quantum engineering and quantum information networks. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11564034, 11105062, and 21663026) and the Scientific Research Funds of College of Electrical Engineering, Northwest University, China (Grant No. xbmuyjrc201115).

  19. Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, P., E-mail: marini@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Zheng, H. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX-77843 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, via Santa Sofia, 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Boisjoli, M. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire, Université Laval, Québec, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Verde, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); INFN – Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia, 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Chbihi, A. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Napolitani, P.; Ademard, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Augey, L. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Bhattacharya, C. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India); Borderie, B. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); and others

    2016-05-10

    We report on first experimental observations of nuclear fermionic and bosonic components displaying different behaviours in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4π detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. By means of quantum-fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and local partial densities of bosons and fermions could be correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed systems of bosons and fermions, where bosons experience higher phase-space and energy density as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall phenomena observed in the study of Bose condensates and Fermi gases in atomic traps despite the different scales.

  20. Study of optimal operation management by a monitoring system for corrosion and heat-transfer rate of condensate pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Katsmi; Kominami, Hirohiko; Atsumi, Tetsuro; Nagata, Koji (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Sumitomo Light Metal Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-09-26

    In order to optimize the anticorrosion and antifouling management of aluminum brass condensate pipes, the monitoring system was developed, which could control a corrosion resistance and heat transfer rate during operation. Since a polarization resistance could be used as an index for anticorrosion control, while a heat transmission coefficient or cleanliness factor for heat transfer control, a polarization resistance meter and fouling meter were made as prototype detectors. Fundamental test of a model condenser (simulated by-pass pipe) was performed using a processing system combined with the meters, and monitored data and analytical data of the test were arranged. System performance was ascertained to be preferable by the verification test on a real condenser, however, more compact system was required for practical use because of restriction in by-pass pipe installation. In addition to the monitoring function, a control function for sponge ball cleaning and iron ion injection was also added to keep the specified index value. 13 figs,. 1 tab.

  1. Bose–Einstein condensation of anti-kaons and neutron star twins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the role of Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) of anti-kaons on the equation of state (EoS) and other properties of compact stars. In the framework of relativistic mean field model we determine the EoS for -stable hyperon matter and compare it to the situation when anti-kaons condense in the system.

  2. Evaluation to Mitigate Secondary System Peak Pressure for Loss of Condenser Vacuum Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bong Oh; Park, Jong Cheol; Park, Min Soo; Lee, Gyu Cheon; Kim, Shin Whan [KEPCO E and C, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, countermeasures to compensate the increased secondary pressure are introduced and evaluated. From the standpoint of the secondary system pressurization, consideration of the PPCS may result in a conservative secondary system peak pressure. The control systems are generally credited for the safety analysis if the analysis produces conservative results. However, in most of all non-loss of coolant accident (non-LOCA) events, the control system helps to mitigate a transient state. Accordingly, the safety analysis of non-LOCA assumes the control systems are in the manual mode of operation. The loss of condenser vacuum event (LOCV) is a typical anticipated operational occurrence (AOO) which results in an increase in primary and secondary system pressure. The pressurizer (PZR) pressure control system (PPCS) will function to reduce the primary system pressure increase during the transient. Therefore, it is assumed to be in manual mode and credit is not taken for its functioning. However, crediting the function of PPCS has been found to be more conservative with regard to the secondary system pressure. This is due to the delay of the reactor trip on high pressurizer pressure (HPP) and results in an increase in secondary pressure.

  3. Transport-induced shifts in condensate dew-point and composition in multicomponent systems with chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.; Nagarajan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Partial heterogeneous condensation phenomena in multicomponent reacting systems are analyzed taking into consideration the chemical element transport phenomena. It is demonstrated that the dew-point surface temperature in chemically reactive systems is not a purely thermodynamic quantity, but is influenced by the multicomponent diffusion and Soret-mass diffusion phenomena. Several distinct dew-points are shown to exist in such systems and, as a result of transport constraints, the 'sharp' locus between two chemically distinct condensates is systematically moved to a difference mainstream composition.

  4. Proceedings: Condenser technology conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, J.L.; Mussalli, Y.G.

    1991-08-01

    Seam surface condenser and associated systems performance strongly affects availability and heat rate in nuclear and fossil power plants. Thirty-six papers presented at a 1990 conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of condenser problems and solutions. This report contains papers on life extension, performance improvement, corrosion and failure analysis, fouling prevention, and recommendation for future R ampersand D. The information represents recent work on condenser problems and solutions to improve the procurement, operation, and maintenance functions of power plant personnel. Several key points follow: A nuclear and a fossil power plant report show that replacing titanium tube bundles improves condenser availability and performance. One paper reports 10 years of experience with enhanced heat transfer tubes in utility condensers. The newly developed enhanced condenser tubes could further improve condensing heat transfer. A new resistance summation method improves the accuracy of condenser performance prediction, especially for stainless steel and titanium tubed condensers. Several papers describe improved condenser fouling monitoring techniques, including a review of zebra mussel issues

  5. Structural specifics of the condensate prepared by thermal evaporation of alloys of As2S3-Yb systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehfendiev, Eh.G.; Mamedov, A.I.; Il'yasov, T.M.; Rustamov, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The problem aimed at preparation of the films of As 2 S 3 -Yb system, at studying their substructure depending on condensation conditions and defining noncrystallinity region of this system in the film state, is formulated. It is shown that in representative samples of As 2 S 3 -Yb system the vitrification region is extended up to 7 at.% Yb, in the films noncrystallinity region is extended up to 30 at.% Yb. With up to 30 at.% increase of ytterbium amount in initial alloys a tendency to crystallization in amorphous condensate structure is noticed. In evaporation of As 2 S 3 + 40 at.% Yb and As 2 S 3 + 50 at.% Yb, unknown in the film state YbAs 2 S 4 , Yb 3 As 4 S 9 and YbAs 4 S 7 phases are prepared, and the latter is formed in case of As 2 S 3 + 50 at.% Yb alloy at small evaporation rates (∼10 A/s). Substructure of As 2 S 3 + 50 at.% Yb alloy prepared condensate is more dependent on evaporation rate than in evaporation of As 2 S 3 + 40 at.% Yb alloy. In this case, evaporation rates being ∼ 100 A/s, the condensate has a polycrystal structure, and at small rates of ∼ 10 A/c, condensate structure is primarily blocked

  6. Role of vortex structures in excitation of self-oscillating combustion of condensed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonov, V.P.; Murunov, E.Yu.; Alekseev, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    One studied experimentally the effect of the free convection and the eddy structures occurring near the gasoline burner singing flame on the excitation conditions of thermal self-oscillations in a tube-resonator. One introduces a procedure to measure the gas column oscillation amplitude. The singing flame height and the flame mass speed at the excitation of the acoustic oscillations are revealed to reduce, while the gasoline burning efficiency is found to increase. By means of the digital photometry one studied the mechanisms of the singing flame temperature field changes within one oscillation period. One derived the hysteresis dependences of the amplitude of the acoustic oscillations on the gasoline diffusion flame thermal power. One brings to the notice a mechanism of the effect of the eddy structures of the excitation of the burning self-oscillation mode of the condensed systems [ru

  7. Condensation heat transfer coefficient of air-cooled condensing heat exchanger of emergency cooldown tank in long-term passive cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Seon Jeong; Lee, Hee Joon; Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In

    2017-01-01

    For the design purpose of air-cooled condensing heat exchanger of emergency cooldown tank, average condensation heat transfer coefficient inside a circular tube was reduced by a thermal sizing program using the experimental data of Kim et al. It was compared to the existing condensation heat transfer correlations. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis of both inside condensation and outside air natural convection correlations was performed. Although condensation heat transfer did not play a great role to design over 10 3 W/m 2 /K, the improved Shah's correlation gives the best prediction for the design. Consequently, air natural convection coefficient significantly affects the design of air-cooled condensing heat exchanger. (author)

  8. Transient Performance of Air-cooled Condensing Heat Exchanger in Long-term Passive Cooling System during Decay Heat Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the event of a 'loss of coolant accident'(LOCA) and a non-LOCA, the secondary passive cooling system would be activated to cool the steam in a condensing heat exchanger that is immersed in an emergency cooldown tank (ECT). Currently, the capacities of these ECTs are designed to be sufficient to remove the sensible and residual heat from the reactor coolant system for 72 hours after the occurrence of an accident. After the operation of a conventional passive cooling system for an extended period, however, the water level falls as a result of the evaporation from the ECT, as steam is emitted from the open top of the tank. Therefore, the tank should be refilled regularly from an auxiliary water supply system when the system is used for more than 72 hours. Otherwise, the system would fail to dissipate heat from the condensing heat exchanger due to the loss of the cooling water. Ultimately, the functionality of the passive cooling system would be seriously compromised. As a passive means of overcoming the water depletion in the tank, Kim et al. applied for a Korean patent covering the concept of a long-term passive cooling system for an ECT even after 72 hours. This study presents transient performance of ECT with installing air-cooled condensing heat exchanger under decay heat load. The cooling capacity of an air-cooled condensing heat exchanger was evaluated to determine its practicality.

  9. Strangeness condensation and ''clearing'' of the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Kubodera, Kuniharu; Rho, M.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook

    1987-01-01

    We show that a substantial amount of strange quark-antiquark pair condensates in the nucleon required by the πN sigma term implies that kaons could condense in nuclear matter at a density about three times that of normal nuclear matter. This phenomenon can be understood as the ''cleansing'' of qanti q condensates from the QCD vacuum by a dense nuclear matter, resulting in a (partial) restoration of the chiral symmetry explicitly broken in the vacuum. It is suggested that the condensation signals a new phase distinct from that of quark plasma and that of ordinary dense hadronic matter. (orig.)

  10. A novel modelling approach for condensing boilers based on hybrid dynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, H.; Baldi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Condensing boilers use waste heat from flue gases to pre-heat cold water entering the boiler. Flue gases are condensed into liquid form, thus recovering their latent heat of vaporization, which results in as much as 10%–12% increase in efficiency. Modeling these heat transfer phenomena is crucial to

  11. Spatial interference patterns in the dynamics of a 2D Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Jayanta; Roy, Utpal

    2018-05-01

    Bose-Einstein condensate has become a highly tunable physical system, which is proven to mimic a number of interesting physical phenomena in condensed matter physics. We study the dynamics of a two-dimensional Bose Einstein condensate (BEC) in the presence of a flat harmonic confinement and time-dependent sharp potential peak. Condensate density can be meticulously controlled with time by tuning the physically relevant parameters: frequency of the harmonic trap, width of the peaks, frequency of their oscillations, initial density etc. By engineering various trap profile, we solve the system, numerically, and explore the resulting spatial interference patters.

  12. An overview of Experimental Condensed Matter Physics in Argentina by 2014, and Oxides for Non Volatile Memory Devices: The MeMOSat Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    In the first part of my talk, I will describe the status of the experimental research in Condensed Matter Physics in Argentina, biased towards developments related to micro and nanotechnology. In the second part, I will describe the MeMOSat Project, a consortium aimed at producing non-volatile memory devices to work in aggressive environments, like those found in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Our devices rely on the Resistive Switching mechanism, which produces a permanent but reversible change in the electrical resistance across a metal-insulator-metal structure by means of a pulsed protocol of electrical stimuli. Our project is devoted to the study of Memory Mechanisms in Oxides (MeMO) in order to establish a technological platform that tests the Resistive RAM (ReRAM) technology for aerospace applications. A review of MeMOSat's activities is presented, covering the initial Proof of Concept in ceramic millimeter sized samples; the study of different oxide-metal couples including (LaPr)2/3Ca1/3MnO, La2/3Ca1/3MnO3, YBa2Cu3O7, TiO2, HfO2, MgO and CuO; and recent miniaturized arrays of micrometer sized devices controlled by in-house designed electronics, which were launched with the BugSat01 satellite in June2014 by the argentinian company Satellogic.

  13. Application of a power plant simplification methodology: The example of the condensate feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, P.H.; Manno, V.P.; Golay, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    A novel framework for the systematic simplification of power plant design is described with a focus on the application for the optimization of condensate feedwater system (CFWS) design. The evolution of design complexity of CFWS is reviewed with emphasis upon the underlying optimization process. A new evaluation methodology which includes explicit accounting of human as well as mechanical effects upon system availability is described. The unifying figure of merit for an operating system is taken to be net electricity production cost. The evaluation methodology is applied to the comparative analysis of three designs. In the illustrative examples, the results illustrate how inclusion in the evaluation of explicit availability related costs leads to optimal configurations. These are different from those of current system design practices in that thermodynamic efficiency and capital cost optimization are not overemphasized. Rather a more complete set of design-dependent variables is taken into account, and other important variables which remain neglected in current practices are identified. A critique of the new optimization approach and a discussion of future work areas including improved human performance modeling and different optimization constraints are provided. (orig.)

  14. Real-time locating systems (RTLS) in healthcare: a condensed primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Berry, Geoff

    2012-06-28

    Real-time locating systems (RTLS, also known as real-time location systems) have become an important component of many existing ubiquitous location aware systems. While GPS (global positioning system) has been quite successful as an outdoor real-time locating solution, it fails to repeat this success indoors. A number of RTLS technologies have been used to solve indoor tracking problems. The ability to accurately track the location of assets and individuals indoors has many applications in healthcare. This paper provides a condensed primer of RTLS in healthcare, briefly covering the many options and technologies that are involved, as well as the various possible applications of RTLS in healthcare facilities and their potential benefits, including capital expenditure reduction and workflow and patient throughput improvements. The key to a successful RTLS deployment lies in picking the right RTLS option(s) and solution(s) for the application(s) or problem(s) at hand. Where this application-technology match has not been carefully thought of, any technology will be doomed to failure or to achieving less than optimal results.

  15. Preventing freezing of condensate inside tubes of air cooled condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Jeong A; Hwang, In Hwan; Lee, Dong Hwan; Cho, Young Il

    2012-01-01

    An air cooled condenser is a device that is used for converting steam into condensate by using ambient air. The air cooled condenser is prone to suffer from a serious explosion when the condensate inside the tubes of a heat exchanger is frozen; in particular, tubes can break during winter. This is primarily due to the structural problem of the tube outlet of an existing conventional air cooled condenser system, which causes the backflow of residual steam and noncondensable gases. To solve the backflow problem in such condensers, such a system was simulated and a new system was designed and evaluated in this study. The experimental results using the simulated condenser showed the occurrence of freezing because of the backflow inside the tube. On the other hand, no backflow and freezing occurred in the advanced new condenser, and efficient heat exchange occurred

  16. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  17. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF VCR SYSTEM WITH VARYING THE DIAMETERS OF HELICAL CONDENSER COIL BY USING R-134A REFRIGERANT

    OpenAIRE

    R.Hussain Vali; P.Yagnasri; S.Naresh Kumar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Vapor compression machine is a refrigerator in which the heat removed from the cold by evaporation of the refrigerant is given a thermal potential so that it can gravitate to a natural sink by compressing the vapor produced. Majority of the refrigerators works on the Vapor compression refrigeration system. The system consists of components like compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator. The performance of the system depends on the performance of all the components of the system. ...

  18. Determination of Reasons of Obstruction in the Condensate Stabilizer System of Namconson Gas Treatment Terminal by Radioisotope Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Quang Tri; Nguyen Huu Quang; Dang Nguyen The Duy; Tran Tri Hai; Tran Thanh Minh

    2008-01-01

    The Condensate Stabilizer System of Namconson Gas Treatment Terminal was designed with operational flow rate of 60 m 3 /h but for unknown reason it ran efficiently below 20 m 3 /h. The Radiotracer in combination with Gamma Scan was used to investigate in understanding the reasons. The results showed the build up at the bottom of Trap out Tray which caused obstruction of condensate flow in the outlet of Trap out Tray. As a results the feed flow rate to Reboiler from Trap out Tray lowered into 1/3 and the remaining 2/3 by passing the Reboiler by overflow to the Sump. (author)

  19. Non-linear optical techniques and optical properties of condensed molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citroni, Margherita

    2013-06-01

    Structure, dynamics, and optical properties of molecular systems can be largely modified by the applied pressure, with remarkable consequences on their chemical stability. Several examples of selective reactions yielding technologically attractive products can be cited, which are particularly efficient when photochemical effects are exploited in conjunction with the structural conditions attained at high density. Non-linear optical techniques are a basic tool to unveil key aspects of the chemical reactivity and dynamic properties of molecules. Their application to high-pressure samples is experimentally challenging, mainly because of the small sample dimensions and of the non-linear effects generated in the anvil materials. In this talk I will present results on the electronic spectra of several aromatic crystals obtained through two-photon induced fluorescence and two-photon excitation profiles measured as a function of pressure (typically up to about 25 GPa), and discuss the relationship between the pressure-induced modifications of the electronic structure and the chemical reactivity at high pressure. I will also present the first successful pump-probe infrared measurement performed as a function of pressure on a condensed molecular system. The system under examination is liquid water, in a sapphire anvil cell, up to 1 GPa along isotherms at 298 and 363 K. These measurements give a new enlightening insight into the dynamical properties of low- and high-density water allowing a definition of the two structures.

  20. Evaluation on the thermal-hydraulic behavior of condensation pool and piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soon Bum; Lee, B. E.; Baek, S. C.; Joo, S. Y.; Lee, D. E.; Woo, S. W. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) has the function of heat sink, when steam is released from the pressurizer. The hydrodynamic behaviors occurring at the piping system and sparger are very complex because of the wide variety of operating conditions and the complex geometry. Hydrodynamic behavior when air is discharged through a sparger in a condensation pool is investigated using CFD techniques in the present study. The effect of pressure acting on the sparger header during both water and air discharge through the sparger is studied. In addition, pressure oscillation occurring in the IRWST during air discharge through the sparger is studied for a better understanding of mechanisms of air discharge md an advanced evaluation technology of reactor safety. Understanding of flow behaviors occurring m the various types of pipes when POSRV is opened are also very important because those are very complex and may damage the structures of reactor coolant system. The principle of shock tube has been applied to analyze flow behaviors occurring in the piping system and several important phenomena which can be used for the evaluation of nuclear reactor safety has been obtained.

  1. Steam condensation heat transfer in the presence of noncondensables in a vertical tube of passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Sik

    1999-02-01

    A database for laminar condensation heat transfer is constructed from the previous experimental data at various condensation conditions. Based on the database, the condensation models in the standard RELAP5/MOD3.2 code are assessed and improved. Two wall film condensation models, the default and the alternative, are used in RELAP5/MOD3.2. The default model of the laminar film condensation in RELAP5/MOD3.2 does not give any reliable predictions, and its alternative model always predicts higher values than the experimental data. Therefore, it is needed to develop a new correlation based on the experimental data of various operating ranges. A set of condensation experiments in the presence of noncondensable gas in a vertical tube of the passive containment cooling system of the CP-1300 are performed. The experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) increase as the inlet air mass fraction decreases and the inlet saturated steam temperature decreases. However, the dependence of the inlet mixture Reynolds number on the HTC is small for the operating range. An empirical correlation is developed, and its predictions are compared with experimental data to show good agreement with the standard deviation of 22.3%. The experimental HTCs are also compared with the predictions from the default and the alternative models used in RELAP5/MOD3.2. The experimental apparatus is modeled with two wall-film condensation models in RELAP5/MOD3.2 and the empirical correlation, and simulations are performed for several subtests to be compared with the experimental results. Overall, the simulation results show that the default model of RELAP5/MOD3.2 underpredicts the HTCs, and the alternative model overpredicts them, while the empirical correlation predicts them well throughout the condensing tube. Both the nodalization study and the sensitivity study are also performed. The nodalization study shows that the variation of the node number does not change both modeling

  2. Evaporation and condensation heat transfer in a suppression chamber of the water wall type passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the system pressure response of a water wall type containment cooling system, which is one of the passive safety systems, the evaporation and condensation behaviors in a suppression chamber have been experimentally examined. In the system, the suppression pool water evaporates from the pool surface, passing into the wetwell due to pool temperature rise, while steam in the wetwell condenses on the steel containment vessel wall due to the heat release through the wall. The wetwell is a gas phase region in the suppression chamber and its pressure, which is expressed as the sum of the noncondensable gas pressure and saturated steam pressure, is strongly affected by the evaporation heat transfer from the suppression pool surface and condensation heat transfer on the containment vessel wall. Based on the measured temperature profiles near the heat transfer surface and the wetwell pressure using two apparatuses, evaporation and condensation heat transfer coefficients were evaluated. The following results were obtained. (1) Both heat transfer coefficients increased as the ratio of the steam partial pressure to the total pressure increased. (2) Comparison of the results from two types of test apparatuses confirmed that the size of the heat transfer surface did not affect the heat transfer characteristics within these tests. (3) The heat transfer coefficients were expressed by the ratio of the steam to noncondensable gas logarithmic mean concentration, which considered the steam and gas concentration gradient from the heat transfer surface to the wetwell bulk. (author)

  3. CATEGORIZATION OF EXTRANEOUS MATTER IN COTTON USING MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) was developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory to identify and categorize extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneous matter calls assigned ...

  4. Maintaining steam/condensate lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russum, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Steam and condensate systems must be maintained with the same diligence as the boiler itself. Unfortunately, they often are not. The water treatment program, critical to keeping the boiler at peak efficiency and optimizing operating life, should not stop with the boiler. The program must encompass the steam and condensate system as well. A properly maintained condensate system maximizes condensate recovery, which is a cost-free energy source. The fuel needed to turn the boiler feedwater into steam has already been provided. Returning the condensate allows a significant portion of that fuel cost to be recouped. Condensate has a high heat content. Condensate is a readily available, economical feedwater source. Properly treated, it is very pure. Condensate improves feedwater quality and reduces makeup water demand and pretreatment costs. Higher quality feedwater means more reliable boiler operation

  5. Commissioning of the first U.S. hollow fiber condensate filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, John A.; Mura, Michelle; Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    Exelon Corporation's Oyster Creek Generating Station, a boiling water reactor (BWR), is the first nuclear plant in the U.S. to install and operate a condensate filtration system using HFF (hollow fiber filter) technology developed in Japan. Oyster Creek is a 640 MW (electric)/1 930 MW (thermal) General Electric BWR-2 (non-jet pump plant) with cascaded heater drains. The plant began commercial operation in 1969, and is one of the two oldest operating commercial BWRs in the U.S. Both noble metal chemical addition (NMCA) and hydrogen injection are used for intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mitigation, and depleted zinc oxide (DZO) is injected for drywell radiation field control. The HFF filters, which were installed in preparation for the operating license renewal, were commissioned in November 2007 and are designed to treat 3 639 m 3 . h -1 (16 020 gallons per minute) using a total filtration surface area of 9 457 m 2 (101 796 ft 2 ). The particle retention rating of the hollow fibers is 0.14 μm, which is considerably smaller than the rating of 1-4 μm for filters commonly used in U.S. condensate filtration applications. System performance and monitoring results during the initial year of operation are reported, including the use of a special hollow fiber health monitoring sampling system. Feedwater and reactor water chemistry control and monitoring strategies and results are discussed, including the effects of the transition from the highest feedwater iron to among the lowest in the U.S. BWR fleet. The projected annual average feedwater iron concentration is -1 . Data on the impact of low iron operation on reactor coolant activated corrosion products and the ratio of 60 Co(soluble)/Zn(soluble), the key parameter used to suppress drywell radiation dose rates, are presented. The zinc control strategy and results are presented, including the effect of low feedwater iron on the reactor water to feedwater zinc concentration factor. The potential need and

  6. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make?), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries)

  7. OPTIMAL SYSNTHESIS PROCESSES OF LOW-TEMPERATURE CONDENSATION ASSOCIATED OIL GAS PLANT REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ostapenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of modern high-efficient systems is a key priority for the Energy Sector of Ukraine. The cooling technological streams of gas and oil refineries, including air coolers, water cooling and refrigeration systems for specific refrigerants are the objectives of the present study. Improvement of the refrigeration unit with refrigerant separation into fractions is mandatory in order to increase cooling capacity, lowering the boiling point of coolant and increasing the coefficient of target hydrocarbons extraction from the associated gas flow. In this paper it is shown that cooling temperature plays significant role in low-temperature condensation process. Two operation modes for refrigeration unit were proposed: permanent, in which the concentration of the refrigerant mixture does not change and dynamic, in which the concentration of refrigerant mixtures depends on the ambient temperature. Based on the analysis of exergy losses the optimal concentration of refrigerant mixtures propane/ethane for both modes of operation of the refrigeration unit has been determined. On the basis of the conducted pinch-analysis the modification of refrigeration unit with refrigerant separation into fractions was developed. Additional recuperative heat exchangers for utilization heat were added to the scheme. Several important measures to increase the mass flow rate of refrigerant through the second section of the refrigeration centrifugal compressor from 22.5 to 25 kg/s without violating the agreed operational mode of the compressor sections were implemented.

  8. Some applications of the field theory to condensed matter physics: the different sides of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandelier, F.

    2003-12-01

    The quantum Hall effect appears in low temperature electron systems submitted to intense magnetic fields. Electrons are trapped in a thin layer (∼ 100.10 -8 cm thick) at the interface between 2 semiconductors or between a semiconductor and an insulating material. This thesis presents 3 personal contributions to the physics of plane systems and particularly to quantum Hall effect systems. The first contribution is a topological approach, it involves the study of Landau's problem in a geometry nearing that of Hall effect experiments. A mathematical formalism has been defined and by using the Kubo's formula, the quantification of the Hall conductivity can be linked to the Chern class of threaded holes. The second contribution represents a phenomenological approach based on dual symmetries and particularly on modular symmetries. This contribution uses visibility diagrams that have already produced right predictions concerning resistivity curves or band structures. The introduction of a physical equivalence has allowed us to build a phase diagram for the quantum Hall effect at zero temperature. This phase diagram agrees with the experimental facts concerning : -) the existence of 2 insulating phases, -) direct transitions between an insulating phase and any Hall phase through integer or fractionary values of the filling factor (ν), -) selection rules, and -) classification of the Hall states and their distribution around a metal state. The third contribution concerns another phenomenological approach based on duality symmetries. We have considered a class of (2+1)-dimensional effective models with a Maxwell-Chern-Simons part that includes a non-locality. This non-locality implies the existence of a hidden duality symmetry with a Z 2 component: z → 1/z. This symmetry has allowed us to meet the results of the Fisher's law concerning the components of the resistivity tensor. (A.C.)

  9. Requirements of data acquisition and analysis for condensed matter studies at the weapons neutron research/proton storage ring facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.; Goldstone, J.A.; Taylor, A.D.

    1982-11-01

    With the completion of the proton storage ring (PSR) in 1985, the subsquent increase in neutron flux, and the continuing improvement in neutron scattering instruments, a significant improvement in data acquisition and data analysis capabilities will be required. A brief account of the neutron source is given together with the associated neutron scattering instruments. Based on current technology and operating instruments, a projection for 1985 to 1990 of the neutron scattering instruments and their main parameters are given. From the expected data rates and the projected instruments, the size of data storage is estimated and the user requirements are developed. General requirements are outlined with specific requirements in user hardware and software stated. A project time scale to complete the data acquisition and analysis system by 1985 is given

  10. Main Achievements 2003-2004 - Condensed Matter Studies - Electronic structure of disordered alloys studied by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    3D momentum density and the Fermi surface of disordered Cu 0.86 Al 0.16 alloy were reconstructed from high-resolution Compton profiles. The effect known as ''nesting'' of the Fermi surface was revealed (cooperation with KEK, Tsukuba, Japan). This feature of the Fermi surface, when present, is believed to lead to local ordering phenomena in disordered systems. Our electron diffraction studies showed that a short-range order was indeed present in the alloy. Moreover, the character of the diffuse scattering (the four-fold splitting of the diffuse spots) pointed to the ''nesting'' of the Fermi surface as the origin of this ordering. The results lend support to the notion that the formation of the short-range order in nondiluted, disordered alloys can be driven by their electronic properties like the shape of the Fermi surface

  11. Performance improvement of air-cooled refrigeration system by using evaporatively cooled air condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajidavalloo, E.; Eghtedari, H. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahid Chamran University, Golestan St., Ahvaz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    Increasing the coefficient of performance of air conditioner with air-cooled condenser is a challenging problem especially in area with very hot weather conditions. Application of evaporatively cooled air condenser instead of air-cooled condenser is proposed in this paper as an efficient way to solve the problem. An evaporative cooler was built and coupled to the existing air-cooled condenser of a split-air-conditioner in order to measure its effect on the cycle performance under various ambient air temperatures up to 49 C. Experimental results show that application of evaporatively cooled air condenser has significant effect on the performance improvement of the cycle and the rate of improvement is increased as ambient air temperature increases. It is also found that by using evaporatively cooled air condenser in hot weather conditions, the power consumption can be reduced up to 20% and the coefficient of performance can be improved around 50%. More improvements can be expected if a more efficient evaporative cooler is used. (author)

  12. Performance of a passive emergency heat removal system of advanced reactors in two-phase flow and with high concentration of non-condensable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Luiz Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The research and the development of passive emergency cooling systems are necessary for the new generation of thermo-nuclear systems. Some basic information on the operation of these systems require the research of some relative processes to the natural circulation, mainly in conditions of two-phase flow involving processes of condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases, because many found situations are new. The experimental facility called Bancada de Circulacao Natural (BCN) was used for the realization of tests with diverse concentrations of non-condensable and power levels. The non-condensable gas present in the circuit decreases the rate of heat transfer for the secondary of the heat exchanger, determining low efficiency of the heat exchanger. High concentration of non-condensable in the vapor condensation, determines negative pressure, and cause the inversion of the flow in the circuit. The initial concentration of non-condensable and the geometry of the circuit, in the inlet of the heat exchanger, determines the establishment of transitory with two-phase flow. The BCN was performed with the computational code of Analysis of Accidents and Thermal-Hydraulics RELAP5/MOD 3.3 and, the calculated values had been compared with the experimental data, presenting good agreement for small non-condensable concentrations. The values calculated for high concentrations of non-condensable had been satisfactory after the circuit to have reached the temperature of saturation in the electric heater. (author)

  13. An evaluation of thermal-hydrodynamics for condensation pool and piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soon Bum; Lee, B. E.; Baek, S. C.; Joo, S. Y.; Lee, D. E.; Woo, S. W. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    If the steam with high pressure and high temperature at APR-1400 is discharged into IRWST through, the spargers submerged into it to release the pressure of coolant system 10 accident. The shock wave accompanying unsteady flow motion is propagated through the various piping system, it exerts high pressure load on units and may cause the structural problems and severe vibration. From the viewpoint of nuclear power plant safety, The analysis of flow behaviors 10 the IRWST and piping system is essential to achieve the technology for the evaluation of safety. And also he evaluation methods by the analysis of thermal hydrodynamic behaviors through the sparger is established. The results obtained show that the initial shock wave experienced reflection, diffraction and interaction with shock-induced vortex. The time-dependent maximum load exerted on the wall is largest 10 the T-junction, while the smallest 10 the branch. It is found that because there is nearly no change 10 pressure at condensation pool during water clearing, the system appears to be safe. However, calculations of the air clearing for 0.2 second were performed using VOF model to analyze air that coexist with water between load reduction and sparger head. In addition, since actual POSRV opening takes finite time of 1.7 second, it is expected that the flow field will be different from the that of instant opening the valve. Therefore, now the grid generation is proceeded for the case of POSRV opening at finite time of 1.7 second consecutively. The future study alms at flow analysis of POSRV opening at finite time, changing boundary conditions for wall into pressure inlet.

  14. Steam condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Fujio

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safe steam condensation by providing steam condensation blades at the end of a pipe. Constitution: When high temperature high pressure steam flows into a vent pipe having an opening under water in a pool or an exhaust pipe or the like for a main steam eacape safety valve, non-condensable gas filled beforehand in the steam exhaust pipe is compressed, and discharged into the water in the pool. The non-condensable gas thus discharged from the steam exhaust pipe is introduced into the interior of the hollow steam condensing blades, is then suitably expanded, and thereafter exhausted from a number of exhaust holes into the water in the pool. In this manner, the non-condensable gas thus discharged is not directly introduced into the water in the pool, but is suitable expanded in the space of the steam condensing blades to suppress extreme over-compression and over-expansion of the gas so as to prevent unstable pressure vibration. (Yoshihara, H.)

  15. Condensation in Microchannels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ameel, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    .... Evaporators and condensers for meso-scale energy systems will most likely be constructed of microchannels due to the microfabrication constraints that limit most structures to two-dimensional planar geometries...

  16. Testing for Dark Matter Trapped in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisher, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the possibility of dark matter trapped in the solar system in bound solar orbits. If there exist mechanisms for dissipating excess kinetic energy by an amount sufficient for generating bound solar orbits, then trapping of galactic dark matter might have taken place during formation of the solar system, or could be an ongoing process. Possible locations for acumulation of trapped dark matter are orbital resonances with the planets or regions in the outer solar system. It is posible to test for the presence of unseen matter by detecting its gravitational effects. Current results for dynamical limits obtained from analyses of planetary ephemeris data and spacecraft tracking data are presented. Possible future improvements are discussed.

  17. Pion condensation and neutron star dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.

    1983-01-01

    The question of formation of pion condensate via a phase transition in nuclear matter, especially in the core of neutron stars is reviewed. The possible mechanisms and the theoretical restrictions of pion condensation are summarized. The effects of ultradense equation of state and density jumps on the possible condensation phase transition are investigated. The possibilities of observation of condensation process are described. (D.Gy.)

  18. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksch, D

    2003-01-01

    The Gross-Pitaevskii equation, named after one of the authors of the book, and its large number of applications for describing the properties of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in trapped weakly interacting atomic gases, is the main topic of this book. In total the monograph comprises 18 chapters and is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the notion of BEC and superfluidity in general terms. The most important properties of the ideal and the weakly interacting Bose gas are described and the effects of nonuniformity due to an external potential at zero temperature are studied. The first part is then concluded with a summary of the properties of superfluid He. In Part II the authors describe the theoretical aspects of BEC in harmonically trapped weakly interacting atomic gases. A short and rather rudimentary chapter on collisions and trapping of atomic gases which seems to be included for completeness only is followed by a detailed analysis of the ground state, collective excitations, thermodynamics, and vortices as well as mixtures of BECs and the Josephson effect in BEC. Finally, the last three chapters deal with topics of more recent interest like BEC in optical lattices, low dimensional systems, and cold Fermi gases. The book is well written and in fact it provides numerous useful and important relations between the different properties of a BEC and covers most of the aspects of ultracold weakly interacting atomic gases from the point of view of condensed matter physics. The book contains a comprehensive introduction to BEC for physicists new to the field as well as a lot of detail and insight for those already familiar with this area. I therefore recommend it to everyone who is interested in BEC. Very clearly however, the intention of the book is not to provide prospects for applications of BEC in atomic physics, quantum optics or quantum state engineering and therefore the more practically oriented reader might sometimes wonder why exactly an equation is

  19. Desalination Using the Condensation Irrigation System, A Case Study of the Research Farm of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Yousefi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensation Irrigation (CI is a combination of simultaneous desalination and irrigation/drinking water production. As saline water evaporates in a solar distiller and the hot and humid air is transferred into an underground pipeline, fresh water will condense on the inner pipe surface due to cooling of air by the ground. The water thus condensed infiltrates into the soil through pores in the perforated drainage pipes laid in the ground to transfer the humidified air. In this study, the CI system was developed using common buried pipes to determine the amount of water produced. In this setup, condensed water is collected at the end of the pipe to be used for drinking. Observations and calculations indicated a mean water production capacity of 4 liters every 8 hours along a pipe 25m long. Less water was produced on the first day because some of the water was lost to the wetting of the internal pipe walls. Finally, examination of temperature effects revealed that water production along the pipe reduces as we move farther away from the inlet part of the pipe.

  20. Condensed Matter division: GCDMD-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, J.L. de; Flores, F.; Garcia-Molines, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present book contains the abstracts of the plenary lectures, invited talks and communications either as oral or poster presentation. The 692 papers have been distributed according to their scheduled presentation of the corresponding session of the Conference: A. Semiconductors and Insulators B. Surfaces and Interfaces C. Liquid and Statistical Mechanics D. Magnetism and Metals E. Macromolecules and Chemical Physics

  1. Quantum Simulations of Condensed Matter Systems Using Ultra-Cold Atomic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d...M.    Moreno-­‐ Cardoner ,    T.    Kitagawa,    T.    Best,    S.    Will,          E.  Demler

  2. Precondensed matter: Key to the early solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic anomalies in meteorites may be understandable in terms of the chemical fractionation routinely expected in the interstellar medium (ISM). Dust of distinct composition is idealized as being of three types: (1) thermal supernova condensates (SUNOCONS), (2) thermal condensation during other stellar mass-loss processes (STARDUST), and (3) nonthermal sticking processes in cold nebulae (NEBCONS). Great depletions in ISM of Ca Al Ti are due to SUNOCONS although STARDUST is about twice as abundant. An abundance table of interstellar SUNOCONS is presented. Parent bodies in the solar system are accumulated directly from the ISM. No hot solar condensation sequence is assumed. Only relatively volatile elements within NEBOCONS are vaporized in the warm solar accretion disk. Variations in the relative amounts of these components during accumulation processes plus subsequent solid chemistry may have profduced such chemical anomalies as the meteorite fractionation patterns and the Ca Al-rich inclusions. Isotopic anomalies result from four processes that selectively site specific isotopes: (1) extinct radioactivities, (2) distinct supernova shells, (3) gas-dust separation, and (4) gas-dust age difference. Planetary accumulation will have been fingerprinted by the chemical state of the ISM if this picture is correct. (Auth.)

  3. Baryonic matter and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  4. GASCON and MHDGAS: FORTRAN IV computer codes for calculating gas and condensed-phase compositions in the coal-fired open-cycle MHD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, P E

    1977-12-01

    Fortran IV computer codes have been written to calculate the equilibrium partial pressures of the gaseous phase and the quantity and composition of the condensed phases in the open-cycle MHD system. The codes are based on temperature-dependent equilibrium constants, mass conservation, the mass action law, and assumed ideal solution of compounds in each of two condensed phases. It is assumed that the phases are an oxide-silicate phase and a sulfate-carbonate-hydroxide phase. Calculations are iterated for gas and condensate concentrations while increasing or decreasing the total moles of elements, but keeping mole ratios constant, to achieve the desired total pressure. During iteration the oxygen partial pressure is incrementally changed. The decision to increase or decrease the oxygen pressure in this process depends on comparison of the oxygen content calculated in the gas and condensate phases with the initial amount of oxygen in the ash, coal, seed, and air. This process, together with a normalization step, allows the elements to converge to their initial quantities. Two versions of the computer code have been written. GASCON calculates the equilibrium gas partial pressures and the quantity and composition of the condensed phases in steps of thirteen temperature and pressure combinations in which the condensate is removed after each step, simulating continuous slag removal from the MHD system. MHDGAS retains the condensate for each step, simulating flow of condensate (and gas) through the MHD system.

  5. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce losses in the cooling source (condenser and to increase effectiveness of fuel-and-power resources utilization, the authors present a modern automatic ball-cleaning system for the pipes of condenser 180-KTsS-1 of turbine unit Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ of Gomel CHP-2. The article examines exploitation challenges of the steam turbine condensers and methods of clearing them from sedimentations. Depending on the sedimentation character and composition, and the quality of cooling water at the power plant, they apply various methods of the condenser tubes clearing: heat drying, vacuum dehydration, acid-washing, pipes-shooting with water and water-air pistols, ablution with high-pressure water jet etc. All the applied cleaning methods are the periodical means to fight the sedimentations and require the turbine halting or unloading, predetermine the equipment operating between clearings with constantly smearing cooling surfaces of the condensers, i.e. with reduced efficiency of equipment operation.The installation of the ball-cleaning system practically excludes defects of the chemical and mechanical cleaning methods, which leads to the condenser pipes life-in-service increase, the full-flow condensate quality improvement, reliability and efficient performance enhancement of the steam turbines equipment. The authors consider developed algorithms of data processing and designed system control of the condenser cleaning that allowed realizing its operation in automatic mode.

  6. Boilers, evaporators, and condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakac, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the boilers, evaporators and condensers that are used in power plants including nuclear power plants. Topics included are forced convection for single-phase side heat exchangers, heat exchanger fouling, industrial heat exchanger design, fossil-fuel-fired boilers, once through boilers, thermodynamic designs of fossil fuel-first boilers, evaporators and condensers in refrigeration and air conditioning systems (with respect to reducing CFC's) and nuclear steam generators

  7. Condenser performance monitoring and cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    The main condenser at Ginna Station was retubed from admiralty brass to 316 stainless steel. A condenser performance monitoring spreadsheet was developed using EPRI guidelines after fouling was discovered. PEPSE computer models were used to determine the power loss and confirm the spreadsheet results. Cleaning of the condenser was performed using plastic scrubbers. Condenser performance improved dramatically following the cleaning. PEPSE, condenser spreadsheet performance, and actual observed plant data correlated well together. The fouling mechanism was determined to be a common lake bacteria and fungus growth which was combined with silt. Chlorination of the circulating water system at the allowable limits is keeping the biofouling under control

  8. The impact of feedwater and condensate return excursions on boiler system component failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmacher, Mel J. [GE Water and Process Technologies, The Woodlands, TX (United States); Rossi, Anthony [GE Water and Process Technologies, Trevose, PA (United States)

    2010-02-15

    During boiler operation, the transport of contaminants in boiler feedwater or condensate return via hardness excursions or transport of metal oxides due to corrosion can cause fouling and subsequent tube failure due to under-deposit corrosion or overheating. Case histories are reviewed and suitable corrective actions discussed. (orig.)

  9. Development of a neural fuzzy system for advanced prediction of dew point pressure in gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowroozi, Saeed; Hashemipour, Hasan; Schaffie, Mahin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (Iran); ERC, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (Iran); Ranjbar, Mohammad [Department of Mining Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (Iran); ERC, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (Iran)

    2009-03-15

    Dew point pressure is one of the most critical quantities for characterizing a gas condensate reservoir. So, accurate determination of this property has been the main challenge in reservoir development and management. The experimental determination of dew point pressure in PVT cell is often difficult especially in case of lean retrograde gas condensate. Empirical correlations and some equations of state can be used to calculate reservoir fluid properties. Empirical correlations do not have ability to reliable duplicate the temperature behavior of constant composition fluids. Equations of state have convergence problem and need to be tuned against some experimental data. Complexity, non-linearity and vagueness are some reservoir parameter characteristic which can be propagated simply by intelligent system. With the advantage of fuzzy sets in knowledge representation and the high capacity of neural nets (NNs) in learning knowledge expressed in data, in this paper a neural fuzzy system(NFS) is proposed to predict dew point pressure of gas condensate reservoir. The model was developed using 110 measurements of dew point pressure. The performance of the model is compared against performance of some of the most accurate and general correlations for dew point pressure calculation. From the results of this study, it can be pointed out that this novel method is more accurate and reliable with the mean square error of 0.058%, 0.074% and 0.044% for training, validation and test processes, respectively. (author)

  10. Control systems for condensing flue-gas coolers related to natural-gas-fired heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krighaar, M.; Paulsen, O.

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical study is made of the enthalpy-efficiency for a water-cooled heat exchanger added to a natural gas-fired boiler. Under varying conditions of both water flow and temperature and flue-gas flow and temperature, both in condensing and non-condensing mode, the efficiency seems to be constant. The result is very useful for comparison between two different working conditions. The efficiency is used to calculate the savings achieved for a district heating plant by using a heat exchanger. The energy economic calculations are also helpful for estimating the most appropriate size of heat exchanger. The annual savings are calculated by means of data regarding heat production, flue gas temperature and water return temperature. The savings achieved by using different connection principles such as bypass, reheating and controlled water temperature are also calculated. (author)

  11. Wave fluctuations in the system with some Yang-Mills condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokhorov, G., E-mail: zhoraprox@yandex.ru [Southern Federal University, Physical Department (Russian Federation); Pasechnik, R., E-mail: Roman.Pasechnik@thep.lu.se [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics (Sweden); Vereshkov, G., E-mail: gveresh@gmail.com [Southern Federal University, Research Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Self-consistent dynamics of non-homogeneous fluctuations and homogeneous and isotropic condensate of Yang–Mills fields was investigated in zero, linear and quasilinear approximations over the wave modes in the framework of N = 4 supersymmetric model in Hamilton gauge in quasiclassical theory. The models with SU(2), SU(3) and SU(4) gauge groups were considered. Particle production effect and effect of generation of longitudinal oscillations were obtained.

  12. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors elaborate the economical efficiency evaluation technique that could be universal and applied for technical-and-economic feasibility study of the ball-cleaning system installation on the steam turbines of the electric power plants. Besides the effect from reducing the exhaust steam pressure in the condenser by means of the ball-cleaning system implementation, this technique also accounts for the effect of lowering the condenser hydraulic pressure.The article refers to the practical results of the ball-cleaning system introduction on the steam turbines of Gomel CHP-2. As a result of regular application of the ball-cleaning system the temperature difference of the condensers of all blocks Т-180/210-130-1 confined into the regulatory values and the cleanness coefficient of all three turbine units reached 0,85. The authors consider the working results, implementation experience of the ball-cleaning system at Gomel CHP-2 and its efficiency evaluation technique to be worth disseminating when introducing the analogous systems at the plants of Belarusian power network.The authors suggest measures on the condenser automatic-cleaning system improvement with the turbine mathematical-simulation model employment that will make it possible to optimize the condenser cleaning regimes and to increase the ball-cleaning system effectiveness with the condenser cleanness coefficient growing up to 0,90–0,92.

  13. Condensate demineralizer system for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Shigeki; Ikeda, Yukio; Kuramoto, Kenji; Omori, Yoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroyoshi

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the condensate demineralizing equipment recently supplied to the second, third, and fifth power units of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. The output of this equipment is rated as 4,900 m 3 /h each, which is currently the largest capacity for this type of equipment in Japan. The purpose of this equipment is to remove any ion components and suspended solids contained in condensate to improve its water purity. By doing so, decreasing the corrosion rate of materials used in the plant and, at the same time, decreasing the radioactivity of the condensate, thus easing the whole plant operation can be achieved. The same kind of equipment is also employed at the conventional thermal power stations, but the required functioning and operating mode are quite different. In the case of the nuclear power plant, extremely severe requirements specific with nuclear technology must be met which arise solely from dealing with radioactive substances. Not only the water treatment method, but also layout and arrangement, operation and liquid waste processing methods differ from those for the conventional power plants. The equipment for the sixth unit at Fukushima is now under designing and that for the Tokai No.2 unit of the Japan Atomic Power Company is already under shop fabrication. Both have the rated capacity of 7,300 m 3 /h each, which exceeds far up the capacity of the previously mentioned equipment. (auth.)

  14. Circadian systems biology: When time matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Fuhr

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript we review the combination of experimental methodologies, bioinformatics and theoretical models that have been essential to explore this remarkable timing-system. Such an integrative and interdisciplinary approach may provide new strategies with regard to chronotherapeutic treatment and new insights concerning the restoration of the circadian timing in clock-associated diseases.

  15. SLAC synchronous condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvin, C.

    1995-06-01

    A synchronous condenser is a synchronous machine that generates reactive power that leads real power by 90 degrees in phase. The leading reactive power generated by the condenser offsets or cancels the normal lagging reactive power consumed by inductive and nonlinear loads at the accelerator complex. The quality of SLAC's utility power is improved with the addition of the condenser. The inertia of the condenser's 35,000 pound rotor damps and smoothes voltage excursions on two 12 kilovolt master substation buses, improving voltage regulation site wide. The condenser absorbs high frequency transients and noise in effect ''scrubbing'' the electric system power at its primary distribution source. In addition, the condenser produces a substantial savings in power costs. Federal and investor owned utilities that supply electric power to SLAC levy a monthly penalty for lagging reactive power delivered to the site. For the 1993 fiscal year this totaled over $285,000 in added costs for the year. By generating leading reactive power on site, thereby reducing total lagging reactive power requirements, a substantial savings in electric utility bills is achieved. Actual savings of $150,000 or more a year are possible depending on experimental operations

  16. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  17. Develop of a system of sampling of condensable species with the vapor of water in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Beermann, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Implements a method for the determination of the dioxide of dissolved sulfur when condensing the vapor of water in samples of air. To carry out this project it was necessary to design, to build and to gauge the sampling system, a generating SO 2 , a meter of relative humidity, a system of dilution of gases and the system to make the laundries of the glassware, as well as a device to carry out the mensuration of the flow of air. The determination of the anions dissolved in those condensed one carries out for ionic chromatography. The calibration test made to the system of designed sampling demonstrated that behaves of stable form and reproducible for flows between 0,3 and 1,0 L/min. Of the tests of efficiency in the gathering of dioxide of sulfur, it was found that this it reached a maximum of 93% for a sampling flow 0,6 L/min. Lower conditions of relative humidity of 66%. It was found that using this sampling method and the later analysis of the one condensed by ionic chromatography is possible to detect the anions fluoride, chloride, saltpeter, nitrate and sulfate dissolved in concentrations of approximately 1 μg/m 3 . the limit of detection obtained for the soluble species in μg/m 3 of air it was of 1,0 for the fluoride, 4,0 for chloride, 5,0 for saltpeter, 8,0 for nitrate and 8,0 for dioxide of sulfur (reported as sulfate) [es

  18. Preliminary Design of Compact Condenser in an Organic Rankine Cycle System for the Low Grade Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a thermodynamic cycle for the production of electrical power in the 2–5 kW range, suitable for all types of thermally propelled vehicles. The sensible heat recovered from the exhaust gases feeds the energy recovery system, which is able to produce sufficient power to sustain the air conditioning system or other auxiliaries. The working fluids R134a and R245fa have been used in the ORC system, and the systems are simulated by CAMEL-ProTM software. The cycles are generated starting from the same heat source: the exhaust gas of a typical 2.0 L Diesel engine (or from a small size turbine engine. The design of the condenser has been performed to obtain a very compact component, evaluating the heat exchanger tube and fins type design. Through empirical formulas, the area of heat exchange, the heat required to exchange and the pressure drop in the element have been calculated. A commercial software package is used to build the model of the condenser, then a thermal and mechanical analysis and a CFD analysis are realized to estimate the heat exchange. Finally the evaluations, the possible future studies and possible improvements of the system are shown.

  19. Project for a beam line consecrated to soft condensed matter, common heterogeneous materials and non-crystalline materials on soleil; Proposition pour une ligne dediee a la matiere molle, aux materiaux de grande diffusion et aux materiaux non-cristallises sur soleil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ne, F.; Zemb, T. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Recherche sur l`Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules; Diat, O. [ESRF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1998-12-31

    This project is a part of the `SOLEIL` synchrotron project. The camera proposed is optimized for small angle x-ray scattering in the domain of soft condensed matter, common heterogeneous materials such as wood, cements, glass, and more generally non-crystalline materials. The beam line is designed to allow a quick succession of different users without time consuming adjustments. Therefore, optical settings are minimized, taking into account the pluri-disciplinary nature of the analysis possibilities. To this end, the technical requirements are as follows. First and essentially, the wave-length has to be fixed and set around 12 keV. Focusing mirrors, optics to sample and sample to detector distances, and the size of the detector allow for a wide range of wave vector to be used. Rejection rate will be lower, and angular dynamical range will be larger than any of the current synchrotron lines. We want this line to be, and to stay, complementary to more specific systems, such as reflectivity experiments or grazing angle scattering experiments. However, we are thinking of an adaptation to ultra small angle scattering mode, based on the Bonse and Hart camera. Such equipment, actually a kind of `Instamatic` of the reciprocal space, will fulfill to the need of chemical engineers, biophysicists or material scientists interested in hard as well as soft condensed matter. It will allow a large amount of experiments per time unit. (author)

  20. Experimental characterization of the COndensation PArticle counting System for high altitude aircraft-borne application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of the ultra-fine aerosol particle counter COPAS (COndensation PArticle counting System for operation on board the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysika is presented. The COPAS instrument consists of an aerosol inlet and two dual-channel continuous flow Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs operated with the chlorofluorocarbon FC-43. It operates at pressures between 400 and 50 hPa for aerosol detection in the particle diameter (dp range from 6 nm up to 1 μm. The aerosol inlet, designed for the M-55, is characterized with respect to aspiration, transmission, and transport losses. The experimental characterization of counting efficiencies of three CPCs yields dp50 (50% detection particle diameter of 6 nm, 11 nm, and 15 nm at temperature differences (ΔT between saturator and condenser of 17°C, 30°C, and 33°C, respectively. Non-volatile particles are quantified with a fourth CPC, with dp50=11 nm. It includes an aerosol heating line (250°C to evaporate H2SO4-H2O particles of 11 nm<dp<200 nm at pressures between 70 and 300 hPa. An instrumental in-flight inter-comparison of the different COPAS CPCs yields correlation coefficients of 0.996 and 0.985. The particle emission index for the M-55 in the range of 1.4–8.4×1016 kg−1 fuel burned has been estimated based on measurements of the Geophysika's own exhaust.