Misra, Prasanta K
2012-01-01
Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1985-01-01
The condensed matter physics research in the Physics Department of Risoe National Laboratory is predominantly experimental utilising diffraction of neutrons and x-rays. The research topics range from studies of structure, excitations and phase transitions in model systems to studies of ion transport, texture and recrystallization kinetics with a more applied nature. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
This is a summary of condensed matter physics in Brazil. It discusses as well, the perspectives and financing evolved in this research area for the next decade. It is specially concerned with semiconductors, magnetic materials, superconductivity, polymers, glasses, crystals ceramics, statistical physics, magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (A.C.A.S.)
Isihara, A
2007-01-01
More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional
Marder, Michael P
2010-01-01
This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sapoval, B.
1988-01-01
The 1988 progress report of the laboratory of the Condensed Matter Physics (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities are related to the physics of semiconductors and disordered phases. The electrical and optical properties of the semiconductors, mixed conductor, superionic conductors and ceramics, are studied. Moreover, the interfaces of those systems and the sol-gel inorganic polymerization phenomena, are investigated. The most important results obtained, concern the following investigations: the electrochemical field effect transistor, the cathodoluminescence, the low energy secondary electrons emission, the fluctuations of a two-dimensional diffused junction and the aerogels [fr
Condensed matter physics in electrochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kornyshev, A.A.
1991-01-01
Some topics in electrochemistry are considered from the condensed matter physics viewpoint in relation to the problems discussed in this book. Examples of the successful application of condensed matter physics to electrochemistry are discussed together with prospective problems and pressing questions. (author). 127 refs, 4 figs
Fundamentals of condensed matter physics
Cohen, Marvin L
2016-01-01
Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...
Topology and condensed matter physics
Mj, Mahan; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit
2017-01-01
This book introduces aspects of topology and applications to problems in condensed matter physics. Basic topics in mathematics have been introduced in a form accessible to physicists, and the use of topology in quantum, statistical and solid state physics has been developed with an emphasis on pedagogy. The aim is to bridge the language barrier between physics and mathematics, as well as the different specializations in physics. Pitched at the level of a graduate student of physics, this book does not assume any additional knowledge of mathematics or physics. It is therefore suited for advanced postgraduate students as well. A collection of selected problems will help the reader learn the topics on one's own, and the broad range of topics covered will make the text a valuable resource for practising researchers in the field. The book consists of two parts: one corresponds to developing the necessary mathematics and the other discusses applications to physical problems. The section on mathematics is a qui...
Statistical physics and condensed matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2003-07-01
This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding
Statistical physics and condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2003-01-01
This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding has
Physics through the 1990s: condensed-matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-01-01
The volume presents the current status of condensed-matter physics from developments since the 1970s to opportunities in the 1990s. Topics include electronic structure, vibrational properties, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetism, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, surfaces and interfaces, low-temperature physics, liquid-state physics, polymers, nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and chaos. Appendices cover the connections between condensed-matter physics and applications of national interest, new experimental techniques and materials, laser spectroscopy, and national facilities for condensed-matter physics research. The needs of the research community regarding support for individual researchers and for national facilities are presented, as are recommendations for improved government-academic-industrial relations
Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falicov, L.M.
1988-08-01
The 1970's and 1980's can be considered the third stage in the explosive development of condensed matter physics. After the very intensive research of the 1930's and 1940's, which followed the formulation of quantum mechanics, and the path-breaking activity of the 1950's and 1960's, the problems being faced now are much more complex and not always susceptible to simple modelling. The (subjectively) open problems discussed here are: high temperature superconductivity, its properties and the possible new mechanisms which lead to it; the integral and fractional quantum Hall effects; new forms of order in condensed-matter systems; the physics of disorder, especially the problem of spin glasses; the physics of complex anisotropic systems; the theoretical prediction of stable and metastable states of matter; the physics of highly correlated states (heavy fermions); the physics of artificially made structures, in particular heterostructures and highly metastable states of matter; the determination of the microscopic structure of surfaces; and chaos and highly nonlinear phnomena. 82 refs
Holographic duality in condensed matter physics
Zaanen, Jan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Schalm, Koenraad
2015-01-01
A pioneering treatise presenting how the new mathematical techniques of holographic duality unify seemingly unrelated fields of physics. This innovative development morphs quantum field theory, general relativity and the renormalisation group into a single computational framework and this book is the first to bring together a wide range of research in this rapidly developing field. Set within the context of condensed matter physics and using boxes highlighting the specific techniques required, it examines the holographic description of thermal properties of matter, Fermi liquids and superconductors, and hitherto unknown forms of macroscopically entangled quantum matter in terms of general relativity, stars and black holes. Showing that holographic duality can succeed where classic mathematical approaches fail, this text provides a thorough overview of this major breakthrough at the heart of modern physics. The inclusion of extensive introductory material using non-technical language and online Mathematica not...
Condensed matter physics aspects of electrochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tosi, M.P.; Kornyshev, A.A.
1991-01-01
This volume collects the proceedings of the Working Party on ''Electrochemistry: Condensed Matter, Atomic and Molecular Physics Aspects'', held for two weeks in the summer of 1990 at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste. The goal of the meeting was to discuss those areas of electrochemistry that are accessible to the modern methods of theoretical condensed matter, atomic and molecular physics, in order to stimulate insight and deeper involvement by theoretical physicists into the field. The core of the ICTP Working Party was a set of topically grouped plenary lectures, accompanied by contributed seminars and by the formulation of joint research projects. In the tradition of the ICTP, it was not a meeting of pure theoreticians: about half of the lecturers were professional experimentalists - experts in electrochemistry, physical chemistry, surface science, technical applications. A set of topics was chosen for discussion at the meeting: Liquids, solvation, solutions; The interface (structure, characterization, electric properties, adsorption); Electrodynamics, optics, photo-emission; Charge transfer kinetics (homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions and processes); Superconducting electrodes; Fractal electrodes; Applied research (energy conversion and power sources, electrocatalysis, electroanalysis of turbulent flows). Refs, figs and tabs
Collaboration in Australian condensed matter physics research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cushion, J.D.
1998-01-01
Full text: This year marks the 'coming of age' of the annual Condensed Matter Physics Meetings which has constituted possibly the most successful physics series which has been run in Australia and New Zealand. The conferences have become colloquially known as the 'Wagga conferences' to the community, leading to such strange but interpretable phrases as 'Wagga is in New Zealand this year'. It seems an appropriate time to take stock of some of the changes which have taken place in Australian condensed matter physics research over the past 21 years. Statistics will be presented on some of the trends over this time, using the Wagga abstract books as the data source. Particular emphasis will be placed on the increase in collaborative research which has occurred, fuelled by a combination of government policies, reduction in resources and increasing complexity of some of the research projects. Collaborative papers now frequently include authors from more than one university as well as from CSIRO, ANSTO/AINSE, other government and semi-government laboratories and private industry. None of these occurred in the 'early days' but most would agree that the health of the discipline has been improved by the change. It is also appropriate to point out the role of the Wagga conferences in fostering these collaborations by bringing together the groups so that they could meet, interact and discover which people had the missing expertise to make a particular project viable
Physics in Brazil in the next decade: condensed matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
This book gives a general overview of the present situation in Brazil, concerning research in the different areas of condensed matter physics. The main areas discussed here are: semiconductors, magnetism and magnetic materials, superconductivity liquid crystals and polymers, ceramics, glasses and crystals, statistical physics and solid state physics, crystallography, magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy, among others. (A.C.A.S.)
Physics through the 1990s: Condensed-matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-01-01
In this survey of condensed-matter physics we describe the current status of the field, present some of the significant discoveries and developments in it since the early 1970s, and indicate some areas in which we expect that important discoveries will be made in the next decade. We also describe the resources that will be required to produce these discoveries. This volume is organized as follows. The first part is devoted to a discussion of the importance of condensed-matter physics; to brief descriptions of several of the most significant discoveries and advances in condensed-matter physics made in the 1970s and early 1980s, and of areas that appear to provide particularly exciting research opportunities in the next decade; and to a presentation of the support needs of condensed-matter physicists in the next decade and of recommendations aimed at their provision. Next, the subfields of condensed-matter physics are reviewed in detail. The volume concludes with several appendixes in which new materials, new experimental techniques, and the National Facilities are reviewed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hillebrand, C.D.
1999-05-01
An analysis of the literature on Condensed Matter Physics, with particular emphasis on High Temperature Superconductors, was performed on the contents of the bibliographic database International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Quantitative data were obtained on various characteristics of the relevant INIS records such as subject categories, language and country of publication, publication types, etc. The analysis opens up the possibility for further studies, e.g. on international research co-operation and on publication patterns. (author)
Field theories in condensed matter physics
Concha, Andres
In this thesis, field theory is applied to different problems in the context of condensed matter physics. In the first part of this work, a classical problem in which an elastic instability appears is studied. By taking advantage of the symmetries of the system, it is shown that when a soft substrate has a stiff crust and the whole system is forced to reduce its volume, the stiff crust rearranges in a way that will break the initial rotational symmetry, producing a periodic pattern that can be manipulated at our will by suitable changes of the external parameters. It is shown that elastic interactions in this type of systems can be mapped into non-local effective potentials. The possible application of these instabilities is also discussed. In the second part of this work, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is analyzed as an emergent theory that allows us to describe the low energy excitations in two-dimensional nodal systems. In particular, the ballistic electronic transport in graphene-like systems is analyzed. We propose a novel way to control massless Dirac fermions in graphene and systems alike by controlling the group velocity through the sample. We have analyzed this problem by computing transport properties using the transmission matrix formalism and, remarkably, it is found that a behavior conforming with a Snell's-like law emerges in this system: the basic ingredient needed to produce electronic wave guides. Finally, an anisotropic and strongly interacting version of QED 3 is applied to explain the non-universal emergence of antiferromagnetic order in cuprate superconductors. It is pointed out that the dynamics of interacting vortex anti-vortex fluctuations play a crucial role in defining the strength of interactions in this system. As a consequence, we find that different phases (confined and deconfined) are possible as a function of the relative velocity of the photons with respect to the Fermi and gap velocities for low energy excitation in cuprates.
Applications of holography to condensed matter physics
Ross, Simon F.
2012-10-01
Holography is one of the key insights to emerge from string theory. It connects quantum gravity to field theory, and thereby provides a non-perturbative formulation of string theory. This has enabled progress on a range of theoretical issues, from the quantum description of spacetime to the calculation of scattering amplitudes in supersymmetric field theories. There have been important insights into both the field theories and the spacetime picture. More recently, applied holography has been the subject of intense and rapid development. The idea here is to use the spacetime description to address questions about strongly coupled field theory relevant to application areas such as finite-temperature QCD and condensed matter physics; the focus in this special issue is on the latter. This involves the study of field theory at finite temperature and with chemical potentials for appropriate charges, described in spacetime by charged black hole solutions. The use of holography to study these systems requires a significant extrapolation, from the field theories where classical gravitational calculations in the bulk are a useful approximation to the experimentally relevant theories. Nonetheless, the approach has had some striking qualitative successes, including the construction of holographic versions of superconducting or superfluid phase transitions, the identification of Fermi liquids with a variety of thermal behaviours, and the construction of a map between a class of gravity solutions and the hydrodynamic regime in the field theory. The use of holography provides a qualitatively new perspective on these aspects of strong coupling dynamics. In addition to insight into the behaviour of the strongly coupled field theories, this work has led to new insights into the bulk dynamics and a deeper understanding of holography. The purpose of this focus issue is to strengthen the connections between this direction and other gravitational research and to make the gravity
Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics
Martin, Joseph D.
2017-02-01
This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.
Condensed matter physics with radioactive ion beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haas, H.
1996-01-01
An overview of the present uses of radioactive ion beams from ISOLDE for condensed matter research is presented. As simple examples of such work, tracer studies of diffusion processes with radioisotopes and blocking/channeling measurements of emitted particles for lattice location are discussed. Especially the application of nuclear hyperfine interaction techniques such as PAC or Moessbauer spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to study local electronic and structural properties at impurities. Recently, interesting information on impurity properties in semiconductors has been obtained using all these methods. The extreme sensitivity of nuclear techniques makes them also well suited for investigations of surfaces, interfaces, and biomolecules. Some ideas for future uses of high energy radioactive ion beams beyond the scope of the present projects are outlined: the study of diffusion in highly immiscible systems by deep implantation, nuclear polarization with the tilted-foil technique, and transmutation doping of wide-bandgap semiconductors. (orig.)
Proceedings of the 9. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-01-01
The 9. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics presents works developed in the following fields: amorphous materials, atomic and molecular physics, biophysics, crystallography, defects, growth and critical phenomena, instrumentation, liquid crystals, magnetism, matter science/mechanical properties, metals and alloys, optic, magnetic resonance and semiconductors. (M.C.K.) [pt
String Theory Methods for Condensed Matter Physics
Nastase, Horatiu
2017-09-01
Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction; Part I. Condensed Matter Models and Problems: 1. Lightning review of statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, phases and phase transitions; 2. Magnetism in solids; 3. Electrons in solids: Fermi gas vs. Fermi liquid; 4. Bosonic quasi-particles: phonons and plasmons; 5. Spin-charge separation in 1+1 dimensional solids: spinons and holons; 6. The Ising model and the Heisenberg spin chain; 7. Spin chains and integrable systems; 8. The thermodynamic Bethe ansatz; 9. Conformal field theories and quantum phase transitions; 10. Classical vs. quantum Hall effect; 11. Superconductivity: Landau-Ginzburg, London and BCS; 12. Topology and statistics: Berry and Chern-Simons, anyons and nonabelions; 13. Insulators; 14. The Kondo effect and the Kondo problem; 15. Hydrodynamics and transport properties: from Boltzmann to Navier-Stokes; Part II. Elements of General Relativity and String Theory: 16. The Einstein equation and the Schwarzschild solution; 17. The Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr-Newman solutions and thermodynamic properties of black holes; 18. Extra dimensions and Kaluza-Klein; 19. Electromagnetism and gravity in various dimensions. Consistent truncations; 20. Gravity plus matter: black holes and p-branes in various dimensions; 21. Weak/strong coupling dualities in 1+1, 2+1, 3+1 and d+1 dimensions; 22. The relativistic point particle and the relativistic string; 23. Lightcone strings and quantization; 24. D-branes and gauge fields; 25. Electromagnetic fields on D-branes. Supersymmetry and N = 4 SYM. T-duality of closed strings; 26. Dualities and M theory; 27. The AdS/CFT correspondence: definition and motivation; Part III. Applying String Theory to Condensed Matter Problems: 28. The pp wave correspondence: string Hamiltonian from N = 4 SYM; 29. Spin chains from N = 4 SYM; 30. The Bethe ansatz: Bethe strings from classical strings in AdS; 31. Integrability and AdS/CFT; 32. AdS/CFT phenomenology: Lifshitz, Galilean and Schrodinger
Condensed matter applied atomic collision physics, v.4
Datz, Sheldon
1983-01-01
Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 4: Condensed Matter deals with the fundamental knowledge of collision processes in condensed media.The book focuses on the range of applications of atomic collisions in condensed matter, extending from effects on biological systems to the characterization and modification of solids. This volume begins with the description of some aspects of the physics involved in the production of ion beams. The radiation effects in biological and chemical systems, ion scattering and atomic diffraction, x-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron and Auger spectrosc
Integrating Condensed Matter Physics into a Liberal Arts Physics Curriculum
Collett, Jeffrey
2008-03-01
The emergence of nanoscale science into the popular consciousness presents an opportunity to attract and retain future condensed matter scientists. We inject nanoscale physics into recruiting activities and into the introductory and the core portions of the curriculum. Laboratory involvement and research opportunity play important roles in maintaining student engagement. We use inexpensive scanning tunneling (STM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes to introduce students to nanoscale structure early in their college careers. Although the physics of tip-surface interactions is sophisticated, the resulting images can be interpreted intuitively. We use the STM in introductory modern physics to explore quantum tunneling and the properties of electrons at surfaces. An interdisciplinary course in nanoscience and nanotechnology course team-taught with chemists looks at nanoscale phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology. Core quantum and statistical physics courses look at effects of quantum mechanics and quantum statistics in degenerate systems. An upper level solid-state physics course takes up traditional condensed matter topics from a structural perspective by beginning with a study of both elastic and inelastic scattering of x-rays from crystalline solids and liquid crystals. Students encounter reciprocal space concepts through the analysis of laboratory scattering data and by the development of the scattering theory. The course then examines the importance of scattering processes in band structure and in electrical and thermal conduction. A segment of the course is devoted to surface physics and nanostructures where we explore the effects of restricting particles to two-dimensional surfaces, one-dimensional wires, and zero-dimensional quantum dots.
Proceedings of the 12. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
The XII National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics presented works in the areas: atomic and molecular physics; biophysics; crystallography; defects growth and characterization of crystals; instrumentation; liquid crystals; magnetism; science of materials, metals and alloys; magnetic resonance; semiconductors; superconductivity and; surfaces and thin films. (M.C.K.) [pt
Proceedings 20. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.
2014-01-01
The 20. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 25-28 June, 2014 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Forty-six contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty contributions) has been inputted to INIS.
Low dimensional field theories and condensed matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagaoka, Yosuke
1992-01-01
This issue is devoted to the Proceedings of the Fourth Yukawa International Seminar (YKIS '91) on Low Dimensional Field Theories and Condensed Matter Physics, which was held on July 28 to August 3 in Kyoto. In recent years there have been great experimental discoveries in the field of condensed matter physics: the quantum Hall effect and the high temperature superconductivity. Theoretical effort to clarify mechanisms of these phenomena revealed that they are deeply related to the basic problem of many-body systems with strong correlation. On the other hand, there have been important developments in field theory in low dimensions: the conformal field theory, the Chern-Simons gauge theory, etc. It was found that these theories work as a powerful method of approach to the problems in condensed matter physics. YKIS '91 was devoted to the study of common problems in low dimensional field theories and condensed matter physics. The 17 of the presented papers are collected in this issue. (J.P.N.)
The 1989 progress report: Physics of the condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sapoval, B.
1989-01-01
The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The laboratory research fields are the physics of semiconductors and the physics of disordered states. The 1989 main results were the determination of the fractal dimension of silicon aerogels by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and the observation of local vibrations of a fractal drum. The published papers, the conferences and Laboratory staff are listed [fr
Physics of condensed matter at extreme conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, M.
1988-01-01
The study of matter under extreme conditions is a highly interdisciplinary subject with broad applications to materials science, geophysics and astrophysics. High-pressure properties are studied in the laboratory using static and dynamic techniques. The two differ drastically in the methods of generating and measuring pressure and in the fundamentally different nature of the final compressed state. This article covers a very broad range of conditions, intended to present an overview of important recent developments and to emphasize the behavior of materials and the kinds of properties now being studied
Statistical physics including applications to condensed matter
Hermann, Claudine
2005-01-01
Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies -- as e.g. semiconductors or lasers -- are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.
Lectures on holographic methods for condensed matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartnoll, Sean A
2009-01-01
These notes are loosely based on lectures given at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge theories, February 2009, and at the IPM String School in Tehran, April 2009. I have focused on a few concrete topics and also on addressing questions that have arisen repeatedly. Background condensed matter physics material is included as motivation and easy reference for the high energy physics community. The discussion of holographic techniques progresses from equilibrium, to transport and to superconductivity.
Walter Kohn and the Rise of Condensed Matter Physics T V ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ramakrishnan T V
Condensed Matter Physics: ( Physics of condensed matter, which is mostly solid, ... The nature and description of electronic states in solids. ( also with coulomb ... materials, molecular complexes, etc.. (Chemistry, biology, materials science….).
Many body quantum physics at the condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Llano, M. de
1981-01-01
The non-relativistic, continuous (as opposed to spin) many-body problem as it relates to condensed matter at absolute zero temperature is reviewed in simple, non-technical terms, mainly from the standpoint of infinite order perturbation theory, for physical systems where all the particles have the same mass but which otherwise interact with arbitrary short- or long-ranged two-body forces. (author)
Proceedings 17. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pudis, D.; Kubicova, I.; Bury, P.
2011-01-01
The 17. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 22-24 June, 2011 in Spa Novy Smokovec, High Tatras, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of nano-science and technology, thin films, MOS structures, optical phenomena, GaN-based heterostructures, simulation methods, heterostructures and devices, solid state characterization and analysis, materials and radiation, sensors and detection methods, and material sciences. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (55 contributions) has been inputted to INIS.
Non-Commutative Mechanics in Mathematical & in Condensed Matter Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter A. Horváthy
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Non-commutative structures were introduced, independently and around the same time, in mathematical and in condensed matter physics (see Table 1. Souriau's construction applied to the two-parameter central extension of the planar Galilei group leads to the ''exotic'' particle, which has non-commuting position coordinates. A Berry-phase argument applied to the Bloch electron yields in turn a semiclassical model that has been used to explain the anomalous/spin/optical Hall effects. The non-commutative parameter is momentum-dependent in this case, and can take the form of a monopole in momentum space.
Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia is in its forties
Camacho, Angela
2015-03-01
Physics in Colombia started to develop in the 70's as a research part of basic sciences with the acquisition, at that time, of large research equipments such as x-rays and EPR. Experimental work was soon supplemented by theoretical investigations, which led to the formation of research groups in condensed matter. In the early 80's existed such groups in five universities. In this report we present, after a short history of the main steps that guided the initial research subjects, the major areas already developed and the minor research groups that are in the stage of consolidation. Currently this type of work is done at least in 20 universities. We also show the actual numbers of researchers, publications, PhD students and laboratories discriminated in gender to complete an overview of Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia. Finally, we present a short review of the main theoretical issues that have been worked in the last decade focusing on low dimensional systems, their structural and optical properties
Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chubb, Scott R.
2006-01-01
Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD x , these fluctuations begin to occur as x → 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD x the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)
Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chubb, Scott R. [Research Systems Inc., 9822 Pebble Weigh Ct., Burke VA 22015-3378 (United States)
2006-07-01
Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD{sub x}, these fluctuations begin to occur as x {yields} 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD{sub x} the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)
All basic condensed matter physics phenomena and notions mirror ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
biology an opportunity to explore a variety of condensed matter phenomena and situations, some of which have ... The biological matter such as the tiniest of life, an amoeba, is alive ..... and black-holes, nature fascinates physicists. It is the ...
Computer simulation studies in condensed-matter physics 5. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landau, D.P.; Mon, K.K.; Schuettler, H.B.
1993-01-01
As the role of computer simulations began to increase in importance, we sensed a need for a ''meeting place'' for both experienced simulators and neophytes to discuss new techniques and results in an environment which promotes extended discussion. As a consequence of these concerns, The Center for Simulational Physics established an annual workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics. This year's workshop was the fifth in this series and the interest which the scientific community has shown demonstrates quite clearly the useful purpose which the series has served. The workshop was held at the University of Georgia, February 17-21, 1992, and these proceedings from a record of the workshop which is published with the goal of timely dissemination of the papers to a wider audience. The proceedings are divided into four parts. The first part contains invited papers which deal with simulational studies of classical systems and includes an introduction to some new simulation techniques and special purpose computers as well. A separate section of the proceedings is devoted to invited papers on quantum systems including new results for strongly correlated electron and quantum spin models. The third section is comprised of a single, invited description of a newly developed software shell designed for running parallel programs. The contributed presentations comprise the final chapter. (orig.). 79 figs
Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics
Chubb, Scott
2005-03-01
As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.
FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics
Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.
2014-12-01
We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its
Experimental and Computational Techniques in Soft Condensed Matter Physics
Olafsen, Jeffrey
2010-09-01
1. Microscopy of soft materials Eric R. Weeks; 2. Computational methods to study jammed Systems Carl F. Schrek and Corey S. O'Hern; 3. Soft random solids: particulate gels, compressed emulsions and hybrid materials Anthony D. Dinsmore; 4. Langmuir monolayers Michael Dennin; 5. Computer modeling of granular rheology Leonardo E. Silbert; 6. Rheological and microrheological measurements of soft condensed matter John R. de Bruyn and Felix K. Oppong; 7. Particle-based measurement techniques for soft matter Nicholas T. Ouellette; 8. Cellular automata models of granular flow G. William Baxter; 9. Photoelastic materials Brian Utter; 10. Image acquisition and analysis in soft condensed matter Jeffrey S. Olafsen; 11. Structure and patterns in bacterial colonies Nicholas C. Darnton.
Condensed elementary particle matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kajantie, K.
1996-01-01
Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)
Australian and New Zealand Institutes of Physics. Eighteenth annual condensed matter physics meeting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaplin, D.; Hutchinson, W.; Yazidjoglou, N.; Stewart, G.
1994-01-01
The Handbook contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations covering various aspects of condensed matter physics such as magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor materials and their properties, as well as the use of nuclear techniques in studies of these materials. 162 contributions have been considered to be in the INIS subject scope and were indexed separately
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Messina, A.
2000-01-01
This book contains 102 scientific contributions in the areas of nuclear and condensed matter physics. The conference was attended by 144 physicists, most of them belonging to the Sicilian Universities of Palermo, Catania and Messina
Indus-I beamlines for condensed matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nandedkar, R.V.
2001-01-01
Full text: A 450 MeV electron storage ring Indus-I is now operational. This storage ring gives synchrotron radiation in soft x-ray vacuum ultra violet (VUV) and to visible region. On this storage ring six beamlines are now being set up for atomic and molecular spectroscopy experiments, solid state spectroscopy experiments and soft and VUV reflectivity experiments. In this talk, present status of beamlines which condense matter physicists will be interested in will be given along with some commissioning experiments. These beam lines are based on a toroidal grating monochromators in the range 40 - 1000 A with moderate energy resolution. Some experiments which can be conducted using these beam lines will be discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-01-01
We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 19 th International School on Condensed Matter Physics “Advances in Nanostructured Condensed Matter: Research and Innovations” (19 th ISCMP). The school was held from August 28 th till September 2 nd , 2016 in Varna, Bulgaria. It was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (ISSP-BAS), and took place at one of the fine resorts on the Bulgarian Black Sea “Saints Constantine and Helena”. The aim of this international school is to bring together top experimentalists and theoreticians, with interests in interdisciplinary areas, with the younger generation of scientists, in order to discuss current research and to communicate new forefront ideas. This year special focus was given to discussions on membrane biophysics and quantum information, also not forgotten were some traditionally covered areas, such as characterization of nanostructured materials. Participants from 12 countries presented 28 invited lectures, 12 short oral talks and 44 posters. The hope of the organizing committee is that the 19 th ISCMP provided enough opportunities for direct scientific contacts, interesting discussions and interactive exchange of ideas between the participants. The nice weather certainly helped a lot in this respect. The editors would like to thank all authors for their high-quality contributions and the members of the international program committee for their commitment. The papers submitted for publication in the Proceedings were refereed according to the publishing standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Editorial Committee members are very grateful to the Journal’s staff for the continuous fruitful relations and for giving us the opportunity to present the work from the 19 th ISCMP. Prof. DSc Hassan Chamati, Assist. Prof. Dr. Alexander A. Donkov, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Julia Genova, and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Emilia Pecheva (paper)
The Physics of Life. Part I: The Animate Organism as an Active Condensed Matter Body
Kukuruznyak , Dmitry ,
2017-01-01
Nonequilibrium "active agents" establish bonds with each other and create a quickly evolving condensed state known as active matter. Recently, active matter composed of motile self-organizing biopolymers demonstrated a biotic-like motion similar to cytoplasmic streaming. It was suggested that the active matter could produce cells. However, active matter physics cannot yet define an " organism " and thus make a satisfactory connection to biology. This paper describes an organism made of active...
Landau, David P; Schüttler, Heinz-Bernd; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVIII
2006-01-01
This volume represents a "status report" emanating from presentations made during the 18th Annual Workshop on Computer Simulations Studies in Condensed Matter Physics at the Center for Simulational Physics at the University of Georgia in March 2005. It provides a broad overview of the most recent advances in the field, spanning the range from statistical physics to soft condensed matter and biological systems. Results on nanostructures and materials are included as are several descriptions of advances in quantum simulations and quantum computing as well as.methodological advances.
Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.
2012-12-01
We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors
Graphene a new paradigm in condensed matter and device physics
Wolf, E L
2014-01-01
The book is an introduction to the science and possible applications of Graphene, the first one-atom-thick crystalline form of matter. Discovered in 2004 by now Nobelists Geim and Novoselov, the single layer of graphite, a hexagonal network of carbon atoms, has astonishing electrical and mechanical properties. It supports the highest electrical current density of any material, far exceeding metals copper and silver. Its absolute minimum thickness, 0.34 nanometers, provides an inherent advantage in possible forms of digital electronics past the era of Moore's Law. The book describes the unusual physics of the material, that it offers linear rather than parabolic energy bands. The Dirac-like electron energy bands lead to high constant carrier speed, similar to light photons. The lattice symmetry further implies a two-component wave-function, which has a practical effect of cancelling direct backscattering of carriers. The resulting high carrier mobility allows observation of the Quantum Hall Effect at room temp...
The research of condensed matter physics by using intense proton accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endoh, Yasuo
1990-01-01
The present article covers the application of intense protons to basic condensed matter physics. Major recent neutron scattering activities in condensed matter physics are first outlined, emphasizing the fact that the contribution of accelerator base science has a tremendous impact on this basic science. Application of spallation neutrons to condensed matter physics is discussed in relation to such subjects as high energy (epithermal) excitations and small angle neutron scattering. Then the specific subject of high Tc superconductor is addressed, focusing on how neutrons as well as muons provide experimental results that serve significantly in exploring the mechanism of exotic high Tc superconductivity. Techniques for neutron polarization must be developed in the future. The neutron spin reflectivity ratio has been shown to be a sensitive probe of surface depth profile of magnetization. Another new method is neutron depolarization to probe bulk magnetic induction throughout a slab which neutrons pass through. (N.K.)
4. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2008-09-01
This book includes more than 200 abstracts on various aspects of: materials processing and characterization, crystal growth methods, solid-state and crystal technology, development of condensed matter theory and modeling of materials properties, solid-state device physics, nano science and nano technology, heterostructures, superlattices, quantum wells and wires, advanced quantum physics for nano systems
Seventeenth Workshop on Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics
Landau, David P; Schütler, Heinz-Bernd; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVI
2006-01-01
This status report features the most recent developments in the field, spanning a wide range of topical areas in the computer simulation of condensed matter/materials physics. Both established and new topics are included, ranging from the statistical mechanics of classical magnetic spin models to electronic structure calculations, quantum simulations, and simulations of soft condensed matter. The book presents new physical results as well as novel methods of simulation and data analysis. Highlights of this volume include various aspects of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, studies of properties of real materials using both classical model simulations and electronic structure calculations, and the use of computer simulations in teaching.
Noise study in condensed matter physics-Towards extension to surrounding fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, Atsutaka
2006-01-01
I briefly review noise studies in condensed matter physics, such as the shot noise measurement in metals, the dynamic-coherent-volume investigation in charge-density waves, the macroscopic quantum tunneling in superconductors, and the experimental investigation of dynamic phase diagram of driven vortices in high-T c superconductors. With these examples, one finds that the noise studies have played many crucial roles in condensed matter physics. I also discuss a recent theoretical suggestion that noise measurements in Josephson junction may clarify the origin of the dark energy in the universe
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.
2013-01-01
The 19. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 19-21 June, 2013 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty contributions) has been inputted to INIS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fradkin, Eduardo [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Maldacena, Juan [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chatterjee, Lali [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of High Energy Physics; Davenport, James W [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of Basic Energy Sciences
2015-02-02
On February 2, 2015 the Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Basic Energy Sciences (BES) convened a Round Table discussion among a group of physicists on ‘Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics’. This was motivated by the realization that both fields deal with quantum many body problems, share many of the same challenges, use quantum field theoretical approaches and have productively interacted in the past. The meeting brought together physicists with intersecting interests to explore recent developments and identify possible areas of collaboration.... Several topics were identified as offering great opportunity for discovery and advancement in both condensed matter physics and particle physics research. These included topological phases of matter, the use of entanglement as a tool to study nontrivial quantum systems in condensed matter and gravity, the gauge-gravity duality, non-Fermi liquids, the interplay of transport and anomalies, and strongly interacting disordered systems. Many of the condensed matter problems are realizable in laboratory experiments, where new methods beyond the usual quasi-particle approximation are needed to explain the observed exotic and anomalous results. Tools and techniques such as lattice gauge theories, numerical simulations of many-body systems, and tensor networks are seen as valuable to both communities and will likely benefit from collaborative development.
The toroidal moment in condensed-matter physics and its relation to the magnetoelectric effect
Spaldin, Nicola A.; Fiebig, Manfred; Mostovoy, Maxim
2008-01-01
The concept of toroidal moments in condensed-matter physics and their long-range ordering in a so-called ferrotoroidic state is reviewed. We show that ferrotoroidicity as a form of primary ferroic order can be understood both from microscopic (multipole expansion) and macroscopic (symmetry-based
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2001-01-01
The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods...
Proceedings of the 14. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
Studies on atomic and molecular physics, crystallography, statistical physics and critical phenomena, instrumentation, liquid crystals, magnetism, metals and alloys, magnetic resonance, superconductivity and semi-conductors are presented. (M.C.K.)
Proceedings of the 10. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-01-01
Papers on: amorphous materials; atomic and molecular physics; biophysics; crystallography; defects, growth and characterization of crystals; statistical physics; instrumentation; liquid crystals; magnetism; science of materials/mechanical properties; metals and alloys; optic; magnetic resonance; and semiconductors are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt
Ultrasonic spectroscopy applications in condensed matter physics and materials science
Leisure, Robert G
2017-01-01
Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a technique widely used in solid-state physics, materials science, and geology that utilizes acoustic waves to determine fundamental physical properties of materials, such as their elasticity and mechanical energy dissipation. This book provides complete coverage of the main issues relevant to the design, analysis, and interpretation of ultrasonic experiments. Topics including elasticity, acoustic waves in solids, ultrasonic loss, and the relation of elastic constants to thermodynamic potentials are covered in depth. Modern techniques and experimental methods including resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, digital pulse-echo, and picosecond ultrasound are also introduced and reviewed. This self-contained book includes extensive background theory and is accessible to students new to the field of ultrasonic spectroscopy, as well as to graduate students and researchers in physics, engineering, materials science, and geophysics.
Twentieth ANZIP condensed matter physics meeting. Conference handbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-12-31
Theoretical and experimental short communications included in these proceedings cover recent achievements in high temperatures superconductivity, superconducting devices, nuclear techniques in studies of the structure of solids, lattice models and dynamics, physics studies of surfaces, interfaces and thin films. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 180 items in INIS scope
Twentieth ANZIP condensed matter physics meeting. Conference handbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-12-31
Theoretical and experimental short communications included in these proceedings cover recent achievements in high temperatures superconductivity, superconducting devices, nuclear techniques in studies of the structure of solids, lattice models and dynamics, physics studies of surfaces, interfaces and thin films. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 180 items in INIS scope
Twentieth ANZIP condensed matter physics meeting. Conference handbook
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
Theoretical and experimental short communications included in these proceedings cover recent achievements in high temperatures superconductivity, superconducting devices, nuclear techniques in studies of the structure of solids, lattice models and dynamics, physics studies of surfaces, interfaces and thin films. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 180 items in INIS scope
Group theory Application to the physics of condensed matter
Dresselhauss, M S; Jorio, A
2007-01-01
Every process in physics is governed by selection rules that are the consequence of symmetry requirements. The beauty and strength of group theory resides in the transformation of many complex symmetry operations into a very simple linear algebra. This concise and class-tested book has been pedagogically tailored over 30 years MIT and 2 years at the University Federal of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil. The approach centers on the conviction that teaching group theory in close connection with applications helps students to learn, understand and use it for their own needs. For this reason, the theoretical background is confined to the first 4 introductory chapters (6-8 classroom hours). From there, each chapter develops new theory while introducing applications so that the students can best retain new concepts, build on concepts learned the previous week, and see interrelations between topics as presented. Essential problem sets between the chapters also aid the retention of the new material and for the consolid...
Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Henrik; Ipsen, J. H.; Markvorsen, Steen
2007-01-01
In this contribution biomolecular systems are analyzed in a framework of differential geometry in order to derive important condensed matter physics information. In the first section lipid bi-layer membranes are examined with respect to statistical properties and topology, e.g. a relation between...... vesicle formation and the proliferation of genus number. In the second section differential geometric methods are used for analyzing the surface structure of proteins and thereby understanding catalytic properties of larger proteins....
Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, H.; Ipsen, John Hjort; Markvorsen, S
2007-01-01
In this contribution biomolecular systems are analyzed in a framework of differential geometry in order to derive important condensed matter physics information. In the first section lipid bi-layer membranes axe examined with respect to statistical properties and topology, e.g. a relation between...... vesicle formation and the proliferation of genus number. In the second section differential geometric methods are used for analyzing the surface structure of proteins and thereby understanding catalytic properties of larger proteins....
Monastyrsky, M I
2006-01-01
This book reports new results in condensed matter physics for which topological methods and ideas are important. It considers, on the one hand, recently discovered systems such as carbon nanocrystals and, on the other hand, new topological methods used to describe more traditional systems such as the Fermi surfaces of normal metals, liquid crystals and quasicrystals. The authors of the book are renowned specialists in their fields and present the results of ongoing research, some of it obtained only very recently and not yet published in monograph form.
6. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2012-09-01
This book includes abstracts of the communications presented at the 6th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics. The aim of this event is two-fold. First, it provides a nice opportunity for discussions and the dissemination of the latest results on selected topics in materials science, condensed-matter physics, and electrical methods of materials treatment. On the other hand, this is an occasion for sketching a broad perspective of scientific research and technological developments for the participants through oral and poster presentations. The abstracts presented in the book cover certain issues of modern theoretical and experimental physics and advanced technology, such as crystal growth, doping and implantation, fabrication of solid state structures; defect engineering, methods of fabrication and characterization of nanostructures including nanocomposites, nanowires and nano dots; fullerenes and nano tubes; quantum wells and superlattices; molecular-based materials, meso- and nano electronics; methods of structural and mechanical characterization; optical, transport, magnetic and superconductor properties, non-linear phenomena, size and interface effects; condensed matter theory; modelling of materials and structural properties including low dimensional systems; advanced materials and fabrication processes, device modelling and simulation of structures and elements; optoelectronics and photonics; microsensors and micro electro-mechanical systems; degradation and reliability, advanced technologies of electro-physico-chemical methods and equipment for materials machining, including modification of surfaces; electrophysical technologies of intensification of heat- and mass-transfer; treatment of biological preparations and foodstuff.
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.
2012-01-01
The 18th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 20-22 June, 2012 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty-eight contributions) has been inputted to INIS.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2000-01-01
The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures.Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, A.; Ellis, J.; Randjbar Daemi, S.; eds)
1994-01-01
The book contains papers, mainly on particle physics, presented at the meeting held between 8 and 12 March 1993 at the ICTP in Trieste to honor Professor Abdus Salam. The articles have been grouped in 6 chapters: Standard Model (6 papers), Beyond the Standard Model (4 papers), Astro-Particle Physics and Cosmology (3 papers), Strings and Quantum Gravity (5 papers), Mathematical Physics and Condensed Matter (2 papers), Salam's Collaborators and Students (13 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs
Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter
Shock Waves in Condensed Matter
1986-01-01
The Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter was held in Spokane, Washington, July 22-25, 1985. Two hundred and fifty scientists and engineers representing thirteen countries registered at the conference. The countries represented included the United States of America, Australia, Canada, The People's Repub lic of China, France, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of China (Taiwan), United Kingdom, U. S. S. R, Switzerland and West Germany. One hundred and sixty-two technical papers, cov ering recent developments in shock wave and high pressure physics, were presented. All of the abstracts have been published in the September 1985 issue of the Bulletin of the American Physical Society. The topical conferences, held every two years since 1979, have become the principal forum for shock wave studies in condensed materials. Both formal and informal technical discussions regarding recent developments conveyed a sense of excitement. Consistent with the past conferences, th...
CAREER opportunities at the Condensed Matter Physics Program, NSF/DMR
Durakiewicz, Tomasz
The Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program is a Foundation-wide activity, offering prestigious awards in support of junior faculty. Awards are expected to build the careers of teacher-scholars through outstanding research, excellent education and the integration of education and research. Condensed Matter Physics Program receives between 35 and 45 CAREER proposals each year, in areas related to fundamental research of phenomena exhibited by condensed matter systems. Proposal processing, merit review process, funding levels and success rates will be discussed in the presentation. NSF encourages submission of CAREER proposals from junior faculty members from CAREER-eligible organizations and encourages women, members of underrepresented minority groups, and persons with disabilities to apply. NSF/DMR/CMP homepage: https://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=5666
Quantum simulations with photons and polaritons merging quantum optics with condensed matter physics
2017-01-01
This book reviews progress towards quantum simulators based on photonic and hybrid light-matter systems, covering theoretical proposals and recent experimental work. Quantum simulators are specially designed quantum computers. Their main aim is to simulate and understand complex and inaccessible quantum many-body phenomena found or predicted in condensed matter physics, materials science and exotic quantum field theories. Applications will include the engineering of smart materials, robust optical or electronic circuits, deciphering quantum chemistry and even the design of drugs. Technological developments in the fields of interfacing light and matter, especially in many-body quantum optics, have motivated recent proposals for quantum simulators based on strongly correlated photons and polaritons generated in hybrid light-matter systems. The latter have complementary strengths to cold atom and ion based simulators and they can probe for example out of equilibrium phenomena in a natural driven-dissipative sett...
29th Workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
Thirty years ago, because of the dramatic increase in the power and utility of computer simulations, The University of Georgia formed the first institutional unit devoted to the application of simulations in research and teaching: The Center for Simulational Physics. Then, as the international simulations community expanded further, we sensed the need for a meeting place for both experienced simulators and newcomers to discuss inventive algorithms and recent results in an environment that promoted lively discussion. As a consequence, the Center for Simulational Physics established an annual workshop series on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics. This year's highly interactive workshop was the 29th in the series marking our efforts to promote high quality research in simulational physics. The continued interest shown by the scientific community amply demonstrates the useful purpose that these meetings have served. The latest workshop was held at The University of Georgia from February 22-26, 2016. It served to mark the 30 th Anniversary of the founding of the Center for Simulational Physics. In addition, during this Workshop we celebrated the 60 th birthday of our esteemed colleague Prof. H.-Bernd Schuttler. Bernd has not only contributed to the understanding of strongly correlated electron system, but has made seminal contributions to systems biology through the introduction of modern methods of computational physics. These Proceedings provide a “status report” on a number of important topics. This on-line “volume” is published with the goal of timely dissemination of the material to a wider audience. This program was supported in part by the President's Venture Fund through the generous gifts of the University of Georgia Partners and other donors. We also wish to offer thanks to the Office of the Vice-President for Research, the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, and the IBM Corporation for partial
7. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2014-09-01
This book includes the abstracts of the communications presented at the 7th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, traditional biennial meeting organized by the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (IAP) which celebrates this year its 50th anniversary. The conference reports have been delivered in a broad range of topics in materials science, condensed matter physics, electrochemistry reflecting the research results of the scientific staff and Ph.D. students from the IAP as well as those by distinguished guests from different countries. The abstracts cover special issues of modern theoretical and experimental physics and advanced technology, such as advances in condensed matter theory; theory of low dimensional systems; modelling of materials and structural properties; ordering and phase transitions; quantum optics and electronics; strong correlated electronic systems; crystal growth; electronic processes and transport properties of semiconductors and superconductors; ordering processes in magnetic and multiferroic systems; interaction of light and matter, and optical phenomena; properties of composites, meta materials and molecular materials; crystal engineering of solid state structures; metal-organic materials; porous materials; advanced materials with magnetic, luminescent, nonlinear optical , thermoelectric, catalytic, analytic and pharmaceutical properties; defects engineering and mechanical properties; crystallography of organic, inorganic and supramolecular compounds; advanced physics of nanosystems; methods of nanostructures and nanomaterials fabrication and characterization; electronic properties of quantum wells, superlattices, nanowires and nanodots; meso- and nanoelectronics, optical processes in nanostructures; emerging phenomena in nanocomposites and nanomaterials; device modelling and simulation, device structures and elements; photovoltaics: crystals, thin films, nanoparticles
Ferry, David
2009-01-01
It is with a great deal of both happiness and sadness that I have to announce that we are losing one of the real strengths of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JPCM). Dr Richard Palmer, our Senior Publisher, announced his retirement, and this issue marks the first without his involvement. Of course, we are happy that he will get to enjoy his retirement, but we are sad to lose such a valuable member of our team. Richard first started work at IOP Publishing in March 1971 as an Editorial Assistant with Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics. After a few months, he transferred to Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics. During his first year, he was sent on a residential publishing training course and asked to sign an undertaking to stay at IOP Publishing for at least two years. Although Richard refused to sign, as he did not want to commit himself, he has remained with the journal since then. The following year, the Assistant Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Malcolm Haines, walked out without notice in order to work on his family vineyard in France, and Richard stepped into the breach. In those days, external editors had a much more hands-on role in IOP Publishing and he had to travel to Harwell to be interviewed by Alan Lidiard, the Honorary Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, before being given the job of Assistant Editor permanently. I am told that in those days the job consisted mainly of editing and proofreading and peer review. There was no journal development work. At some point in the early 1980s, production and peer review were split into separate departments and Richard then headed a group of journals consisting of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics and Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics, Semiconductor Science and Technology, Superconductor Science and Technology, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, and later Nanotechnology and Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Nuclear Science
Biberian, Jean-Paul
2006-02-01
1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research
Probing condensed matter physics with magnetometry based on nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond
Casola, Francesco; van der Sar, Toeno; Yacoby, Amir
2018-01-01
The magnetic fields generated by spins and currents provide a unique window into the physics of correlated-electron materials and devices. First proposed only a decade ago, magnetometry based on the electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects in diamond is emerging as a platform that is excellently suited for probing condensed matter systems; it can be operated from cryogenic temperatures to above room temperature, has a dynamic range spanning from direct current to gigahertz and allows sensor-sample distances as small as a few nanometres. As such, NV magnetometry provides access to static and dynamic magnetic and electronic phenomena with nanoscale spatial resolution. Pioneering work has focused on proof-of-principle demonstrations of its nanoscale imaging resolution and magnetic field sensitivity. Now, experiments are starting to probe the correlated-electron physics of magnets and superconductors and to explore the current distributions in low-dimensional materials. In this Review, we discuss the application of NV magnetometry to the exploration of condensed matter physics, focusing on its use to study static and dynamic magnetic textures and static and dynamic current distributions.
Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.
Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R
2008-08-28
At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.
Chamon, Claudio; Goerbig, Mark O; Moessner, Roderich; Cugliandolo, Leticia F
2017-01-01
Topological condensed matter physics is a recent arrival among the disciplines of modern physics of a distinctive and substantive nature. Its roots reach far back, but much of its current importance derives from exciting developments in the last half-century. The field is advancing rapidly, growing explosively, and diversifying greatly. There is now a zoo of topological phenomena–the quantum spin Hall effect, topological insulators, Coulomb spin liquids, non-Abelian anyonic statistics and their potential application in topological quantum computing, to name but a few–as well as an increasingly sophisticated set of concepts and methods underpinning their understanding. The aim of this Les Houches Summer School was to present an overview of this field, along with a sense of its origins and its place on the map of advances in fundamental physics. The school comprised a set of basic lectures (Part I) aimed at a pedagogical introduction to the fundamental concepts, which was accompanied by more advanced lectur...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebech, B.
2001-03-01
The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebech, B [ed.
2000-02-01
The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scalestructures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, M.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.
1998-01-01
The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebech, B.
2000-02-01
The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans`l, R.; Johannsen, I. [eds.
1999-04-01
The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 2 tabs., 142 ills., 169 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, M; Bechgaard, K; Clausen, K N; Feidenhans` l, R; Johannsen, I [eds.
1998-01-01
The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au). 129 ills., 213 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.
1999-04-01
The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)
Prieto, P.
2009-05-01
panorama reveals the scarcity of collaboration among the Andean nations, one which does not manage inclusion in international statistics. Said isolated research processes in the countries of the region may be responsible for the scant productivity in R&D in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology. Countries like Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru have increased their investments in research on environmental issues and medicine; while productivity and development in Physics have not been consolidated as state policy in R&D. In conclusion, we will see the results of specific follow up to research in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology from an interdisciplinary perspective, describing the research themes in said fields, patents, and registrations. Reference: http://www.ricyt.org/ La Red de Indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia -Iberoamericana e Interamericana- (RICYT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.
2015-01-01
The 21. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 24-26 June, 2015 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The Scientific Conference the Advanced Fast Reactors was part of the 21 st International Conference on APCOM 2015. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Advanced fast reactors; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; interdisciplinary physics of condensed matter; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Fifty seven contributions relevant of INIS interest has been inputted to INIS.
Asymmetric condensed dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)
2016-04-01
We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwartz, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: schwartz6@llnl.gov
2007-10-11
Although there exists evidence of metallurgical practices dating back over 6000 years, studies of Pu and Pu alloys have been conducted for barely 60 years. During the time of the Manhattan Project and extending for some time afterward, the priority to produce the metal took precedence over the fundamental understanding of the metallurgical principals. In the past decade or so, there has been a resurgence in the basic metallurgy, condensed-matter physics, and chemistry of Pu and Pu alloys. These communities have made substantial progress, both experimentally and theoretically in many areas; however, many challenges still remain. The intent of this brief overview is to highlight a number important challenges that we face in the metallurgy of Pu including phase transformations and phase stability, aging, and the connection between electronic structure and metallurgy.
Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics Marvin L. Cohen and Steven G. Louie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devanathan, Ram
2017-06-01
This graduate level textbook on Condensed Matter Physics is written lucidly by two leading luminaries in this field. The volume draws its material from the graduate course in condensed matter physics that has been offered by the authors for several decades at the University of California, Berkeley. Cohen and Louie have done an admirable job of guiding the reader gradually from elementary concepts to advanced topics. The book is divided into four main parts that have four chapters each. Chapter 1 presents models of solids in terms of interacting atoms, which is appropriate for the ground state, and excitations to describe collective effects. Chapter 2 deals with the properties of electrons in crystalline materials. The authors introduce the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and then proceed to the periodic potential approximation. Chapter 3 discusses energy bands in materials and covers concepts from the free electron model to the tight binding model and periodic boundary conditions. Chapter 4 starts with fixed atomic cores and introduces lattice vibrations, phonons, and the concept of density of states. By the end of this part, the student should have a basic understanding of electrons and phonons in materials. Part II presents electron dynamics and the response of materials to external probes. Chapter 5 covers the effective Hamiltonian approximation and the motion of the electron under a perturbation, such as an external field. The discussion moves to many-electron interactions and the exchange-correlation energy in Chapter 6, the widely-used Density Functional Theory (DFT) in chapter 7, and the dielectric response function in Chapter 8. The next two parts of the book cover advanced topics. Part III begins with a discussion of the response of materials to photons in Chapter 9. Chapter 10 goes into the details of electron-phonon interactions in different materials and introduces the polaron. Chapter 11 presents electron dynamics in a magnetic field and Chapter 12
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2014-01-01
This conference covers issues relevant to condensed matter physics. The research in this area has laid the foundation for development of science and technology in wide areas of energy, information, communication etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neklyudov, I.M.
2006-01-01
The main topics of this conference deal with: fundamental base of superconductivity; superconductors with high critical parameters and applied superconductivity; quantum phenomena in condensed media; physics of strength and plasticity; electronic and magnetic properties of metals
2014-09-01
This volume contains selected papers presented at the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38) and the 1st International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics: Condensed Matter, Soft Matter and Materials Physics (IWTCP-1). Both the conference and the workshop were held from 29 July to 1 August 2013 in Pullman hotel, Da Nang, Vietnam. The IWTCP-1 was a new activity of the Vietnamese Theoretical Physics Society (VTPS) organized in association with the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38), the most well-known annual scientific forum dedicated to the dissemination of the latest development in the field of theoretical physics within the country. The IWTCP-1 was also an External Activity of the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP). The overriding goal of the IWTCP is to provide an international forum for scientists and engineers from academia to share ideas, problems and solution relating to the recent advances in theoretical physics as well as in computational physics. The main IWTCP motivation is to foster scientific exchanges between the Vietnamese theoretical and computational physics community and world-wide scientists as well as to promote high-standard level of research and education activities for young physicists in the country. About 110 participants coming from 10 countries participated in the conference and the workshop. 4 invited talks, 18 oral contributions and 46 posters were presented at the conference. In the workshop we had one keynote lecture and 9 invited talks presented by international experts in the fields of theoretical and computational physics, together with 14 oral and 33 poster contributions. The proceedings were edited by Nguyen Tri Lan, Trinh Xuan Hoang, and Nguyen Ai Viet. We would like to thank all invited speakers, participants and sponsors for making the conference and the workshop successful. Nguyen Ai Viet Chair of NCTP-38 and IWTCP-1
The Art of the Motorcycle and the History of Art (and Condensed Matter Physics)
Falco, Charles
Many topics in physics are such that they are difficult to present in ways that the general public finds engaging. In this talk I will discuss two topics I have worked on, directly related to my research in optical and condensed matter physics, that continue to have widespread appeal. In 1871 Louis Guillaume Perreaux installed a compact steam engine in a commercial bicycle and thus produced the world's first motorcycle. The 145 years since the Michaux-Perreaux have resulted in standard production motorcycles incorporating such materials as carbon-fiber composites, maraging steels, and ''exotic'' alloys of magnesium, titanium and aluminum that can exceed 190 mph straight from the show room floor. As a result of 'The Art of the Motorcycle' exhibition I co-curated at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum the public has learned the evolution of motorcycles is interwoven with developments in materials physics. In a second topic, discoveries I made with the renowned artist David Hockney convincingly demonstrated optical instruments were in use - by artists, not scientists - nearly 200 years earlier than commonly thought possible, and for the first time account for the remarkable transformation in the reality of portraits that occurred early in the 15th century. By learning a few principles of geometrical optics the public gains insight into the working process of artists such as van Eyck, Bellini and Caravaggio. Acknowledgement: Portions of this work done in collaboration with David Hockney.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Bambi.
1988-01-01
This paper reports on the travel of Bambi Hu to France for a workshop on Universalities in Condensed Matter Physics. A very brief discussion is given on the workshop. His paper titled ''Problem of Universality in Phase Transitions in Low-Symmetry Systems,'' is included in this report
Lulek, Tadeusz; Wal, Andrzej; Lulek, Barbara
2010-03-01
This volume contains the Proceedings of the Tenth Summer School on Theoretical Physics under the banner title 'Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter' (SSPCM 2009). The School was organized by Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland, in cooperation with AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland, and took place on 2-9 September 2009 in Myczkowce, Poland. With this meeting we have reached the round number ten of the series of biannual SSPCM schools, which started in 1990 and were focused on some advanced mathematical methods of condensed matter physics. The first five meetings were held in Zajaczkowo near Poznan, under the auspices of The Institute of Physics of Adam Mickiewicz University, and the last five in Myczkowce near Rzeszów, in the south-eastern part of Poland. Within these two decades several young workers who started at kindergarten lectures at SSPCM, have now reached their PhD degrees, professorships and authority. Proceedings of the first seven SSPCM meetings were published as separate volumes by World Scientific, and the last two as volumes 30 and 104 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The present meeting is also the third of the last schools which put the emphasis on quantum informatics. The main topics of our jubilee SSPCM'09 are the following: Information processing, entanglement, and tensor calculus, Integrable models and unitary symmetry, Finite systems and nanophysics. The Proceedings are divided into three parts accordingly. The school gathered together 55 participants from seven countries and several scientific centers in Poland, accommodating again advanced research with young collaborators and students. Acknowledgements The Organizing Committee would like to express its gratitude to all participants for their many activities during the School and for creating a friendly and inspiring atmosphere within our SSPCM society. Special thanks are due to all lecturers for preparing and presenting their talks and
Accelerators for condensed matter research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, P.R.
1990-01-01
The requirement for high energy, high luminosity beams has stimulated the science and engineering of accelerators to a point where they open up opportunities for new areas of scientific application to benefit from the advances driven by particle physics. One area of great importance is the use of electron or positron storage rings as a source of intense VUV or X-ray synchrotron radiation. An accelerator application that has grown in prominence over the last 10 years has been spallation neutron sources. Neutrons offer an advantage over X-rays as a condensed matter probe because the neutron energy is usually of the same order as the room temperature thermal energy fluctuations in the sample being studied. Another area in which accelerators are playing an increasingly important role in condensed matter research concerns the use of Mu mesons, Muons, as a probe. This paper also presents a description of the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. The design and status of the facility are described, and examples are given of its application to the study of condensed matter. (N.K.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borchardt, Julia
2017-02-07
By means of the functional renormalization group (FRG), systems can be described in a nonperturbative way. The derived flow equations are solved via pseudo-spectral methods. As they allow to resolve the full field dependence of the effective potential and provide highly accurate results, these numerical methods are very powerful but have hardly been used in the FRG context. We show their benefits using several examples. Moreover, we apply the pseudo-spectral methods to explore the phase diagram of a bosonic model with two coupled order parameters and to clarify the nature of a possible metastability of the Higgs-Yukawa potential.In the phase diagram of systems with two competing order parameters, fixed points govern multicritical behavior. Such systems are often discussed in the context of condensed matter. Considering the phase diagram of the bosonic model between two and three dimensions, we discover additional fixed points besides the well-known ones from studies in three dimensions. Interestingly, our findings suggest that in certain regions of the phase diagram, two universality classes coexist. To our knowledge, this is the first bosonic model where coexisting (multi-)criticalities are found. Also, the absence of nontrivial fixed points can have a physical meaning, such as in the electroweak sector of the standard model which suffers from the triviality problem. The electroweak transition giving rise to the Higgs mechanism is dominated by the Gaussian fixed point. Due to the low Higgs mass, perturbative calculations suggest a metastable potential. However, the existence of the lower Higgs-mass bound eventually is interrelated with the maximal ultraviolet extension of the standard model. A relaxation of the lower bound would mean that the standard model may be still valid to even higher scales. Within a simple Higgs-Yukawa model, we discuss the origin of metastabilities and mechanisms, which relax the Higgs-mass bound, including higher field operators.
Condensed matter analogues of cosmology
Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit
2013-10-01
It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the
Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics-An Introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logan, D E
2005-01-01
This is undoubtedly an ambitious book. It aims to provide a wide ranging, yet self-contained and pedagogical introduction to techniques of quantum many-body theory in condensed matter physics, without losing mathematical 'rigor' (which I hope means rigour), and with an eye on physical insight, motivation and application. The authors certainly bring plenty of experience to the task, the book having grown out of their graduate lectures at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen over a five year period, with the feedback and refinement this presumably brings. The book is also of course ambitious in another sense, for it competes in the tight market of general graduate/advanced undergraduate texts on many-particle physics. Prospective punters will thus want reasons to prefer it to, or at least give it space beside, well established texts in the field. Subject-wise, the book is a good mix of the ancient and modern, the standard and less so. Obligatory chapters deal with the formal cornerstones of many-body theory, from second quantization, time-dependence in quantum mechanics and linear response theory, to Green's function and Feynman diagrams. Traditional topics are well covered, including two chapters on the electron gas, chapters on phonons and electron-phonon coupling, and a concise account of superconductivity (confined, no doubt judiciously, to the conventional BCS case). Less mandatory, albeit conceptually vital, subjects are also aired. These include a chapter on Fermi liquid theory, from both semi-classical and microscopic perspectives, and a freestanding account of one-dimensional electron gases and Luttinger liquids which, given the enormity of the topic, is about as concise as it could be without sacrificing clarity. Quite naturally, the authors' own interests also influence the choice of material covered. A persistent theme, which brings a healthy topicality to the book, is the area of transport in mesoscopic systems or nanostructures. Two chapters, some
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
Activities for research into condensed matter have been supported by the German BMBF with approx. 102 million Deutschmarks in the years 1992 through 1995. These financial means have been distributed among 314 research projects in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and other fields, which all rely on the intensive utilization of photon and particle beams generated in large-scale apparatus of institutions for basic research. The volume in hand first gives information of a general kind and statistical data on the distribution of financial means, for a number of priority research projects. The project reports are summarizing reports on the progress achieved in the various projects. (CB) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Yoshio; Shibata, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Yoshitaka
2016-02-01
The research reactor at Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University is a very useful neutron generator, providing us neutron-rich unstable nuclei by bombarding nuclei with those neutrons. The produced unstable nuclei exhibit aspects distinct from those of stable ones. Nuclear structure studies on a variety of excited states reflecting dynamic nuclear properties are one of fascinating research subjects of physics. On the other hand, some radioactive nuclei can be used as useful probes for understanding interesting properties of condensed matters through studies of hyperfine interactions of static nuclear electromagnetic moments with extranuclear fields. Concerning these two research fields and related areas, the 2nd symposium under the title of 'Nuclear Spectroscopy and Condensed Matter Physics Using Short-lived Nuclei' was held at the Institute for two days on November 4 and 5 in 2015. We are pleased that many hot discussions were made. The talks were given on the followings: 1) Nuclear spectroscopic experiments, 2) TDPAC (time-differential perturbed angular correlation), 3) β-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), 4) Moessbauer spectroscopy, 5) muon, etc. This issue is the collection of 17 papers presented at the entitled meeting. The 6 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Holography, Gravity and Condensed Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartnoll, Sean [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
2017-12-20
Over the five years of funding from this grant, I produced 26 publications. These include a book-long monograph on "Holographic Quantum Matter" that is currently in press with MIT press. The remainder were mostly published in Physical Review Letters, the Journal of High Energy Physics, Nature Physics, Classical and Quantum Gravity and Physical Review B. Over this period, the field of holography applied to condensed matter physics developed from a promising theoretical approach to a mature conceptual and practical edifice, whose ideas were realized in experiments. My own work played a central role in this development. In particular, in the final year of this grant, I co-authored two experimental papers in which ideas that I had developed in earlier years were shown to usefully describe transport in strongly correlated materials — these papers were published in Science and in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (obviously my contribution to these papers was theoretical). My theoretical work in this period developed several new directions of research that have proven to be influential. These include (i) The construction of highly inhomogeneous black hole event horizons, realizing disordered fixed points and describing new regimes of classical gravity, (ii) The conjecture of a bound on diffusivities that could underpin transport in strongly interacting media — an idea which may be proven in the near future and has turned out to be intimately connected to studies of quantum chaos in black holes and strongly correlated media, (iii) The characterization of new forms of hydrodynamic transport, e.g. with phase-disordered order parameters. These studies pertain to key open questions in our understanding of how non-quasiparticle, intrinsically strongly interacting systems can behave. In addition to the interface between holography and strongly interacting condensed matter systems, I made several advances on understanding the role of entanglement in quantum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2010-09-01
This book includes abstracts of the communications presented at the 5th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed-Matter Physics and at the Symposium dedicated to the 100th anniversary of academician Boris Lazarenko, the prominent scientist and inventor, the first director of the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. The abstracts presented in the book cover a vast range of subjects, such as: advanced materials and fabrication processes; methods of crystal growth, post-growth technological processes, doping and implantation, fabrication of solid state structures; defect engineering, engineering of molecular assembly; methods of nanostructures and nano materials fabrication and characterization; quantum wells and superlattices; nano composite, nanowires and nano dots; fullerenes and nano tubes, molecular materials, meso- and nano electronics; methods of material and structure characterization; structure and mechanical characterization; optical, electrical, magnetic and superconductor properties, transport processes, nonlinear phenomena, size and interface effects; advances in condensed matter theory; theory of low dimensional systems; modelling of materials and structure properties; development of theoretical methods of solid-state characterization; phase transition; advanced quantum physics for nano systems; device modelling and simulation, device structures and elements; micro- and optoelectronics; photonics; microsensors and micro electro-mechanical systems; microsystems; degradation and reliability, solid-state device design; theory and advanced technologies of electro-physico-chemical and combined methods of materials machining and treatment, including modification of surfaces; theory and advanced technologies of using electric fields, currents and discharges so as to intensify heat mass-transfer, to raise the efficiency of treatment of materials, of biological preparations and foodstuff; modern equipment for
Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Al Rabeh R. H.
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some "the elementary particles of arithmetic" as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called "the elementary particles of physics" too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles/spheres in 2D/3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable number in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This "number/physical" stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger stable prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show convincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that of the masses of
Coherence and chaos in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, A.R.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses the following topics: nonlinearity in condensed matter; coherence and chaos in spatially extended condensed matter systems; nonlinearity and magnetism; and solitons and conducting polymers. 52 refs., 7 figs
Han, Jung Hoon
2017-01-01
This book summarizes some of the most exciting theoretical developments in the topological phenomena of skyrmions in noncentrosymmetric magnetic systems over recent decades. After presenting pedagogical backgrounds to the Berry phase and homotopy theory, the author systematically discusses skyrmions in the order of their development, from the Ginzburg-Landau theory, CP1 theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert theory, and Monte Carlo numerical approaches. Modern topics, such as the skyrmion-electron interaction, skyrmion-magnon interaction, and various generation mechanisms of the skyrmion are examined with a focus on their general theoretical aspects. The book concludes with a chapter on the skyrmion phenomena in the cold atom context. The topics are presented at a level accessible to beginning graduate students without a substantial background in field theory. The book can also be used as a text for those who wish to engage in the physics of skyrmions in magnetic systems, or as an introduction to the various theoret...
Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Al Rabeh R. H.
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some “the elementary particles of arithmetic” as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called “the elementary particles of physics” too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles / spheres in 2D / 3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable num- ber in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This “number / physical” stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger sta- ble prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show con- vincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that
Advances in condensed matter optics
Chen, Liangyao; Jiang, Xunya; Jin, Kuijuan; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Haibin
2015-01-01
This book describes some of the more recent progresses and developmentsin the study of condensed matter optics in both theoretic and experimental fields.It will help readers, especially graduate students and scientists who are studying and working in the nano-photonic field, to understand more deeply the characteristics of light waves propagated in nano-structure-based materials with potential applications in the future.
Teiji, KUNIHIRO; Tatsuyuki, TAKATSUKA; Ryozo, TAMAGAKI; Department of National Sciences, Ryukoku University; College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Iwate University; Department of Physics, Kyoto University
1985-01-01
Pion condensation in the symmetric nuclear matter is investigated on the basis of the ALS (alternating-layer-spin) model which provides a good description for the π^0 condensation. We perform energy calculations in a realistic way where the isobar (Δ)-mixing, the short range effects and the exchange energy of the interaction are taken into account. The Δ-mixing effect is built in the model state as previously done in the neutron matter. We preferentially employ G-0 force of Sprung and Banerje...
Proceedings of the 14. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics. v.2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
Studies on atomic and molecular physics, crystallography, statistical physics and critical phenomena, instrumentation, liquid crystals, magnetism, metals and alloys, magnetic resonance, superconductivity and semi-conductors are presented. (M.C.R.)
Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications
Dattagupta, Sushanta
2004-01-01
From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.
Annual report of the Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, and the Biophysics Group, 1985
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-01-01
Research on photoemission and photoluminescence in quantum wells; photoemission assisted by electric fields; the electrochemistry of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; transport properties of MESFET's; fractal physics; amorphous silicon; superionic and mixed conductors; solids chemistry and NMR; internal motion of nucleic acids; cardiophysiology; imaging of microscopic internal motions; and Ap4A metabolism is presented [fr
Annual report of the Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, and the Biophysics Group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-01-01
Research on photoemission and photoluminescence in quantum wells; photoemission assisted by electric fields; the electrochemistry of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; MESFET's; fractal physics; amorphous silicon; superionic and mixed conductors; solids chemistry and NMR; internal motion of nucleic acids; cardiophysiology; imaging of microscopic internal motions; and Ap4A metabolism is presented [fr
Quasiparticles in condensed matter systems
Wölfle, Peter
2018-03-01
Quasiparticles are a powerful concept of condensed matter quantum theory. In this review, the appearence and the properties of quasiparticles are presented in a unifying perspective. The principles behind the existence of quasiparticle excitations in both quantum disordered and ordered phases of fermionic and bosonic systems are discussed. The lifetime of quasiparticles is considered in particular near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, when the nature of quasiparticles on both sides of a transition into an ordered state changes. A new concept of critical quasiparticles near a quantum critical point is introduced, and applied to quantum phase transitions in heavy fermion metals. Fractional quasiparticles in systems of restricted dimensionality are reviewed. Dirac quasiparticles emerging in so-called Dirac materials are discussed. The more recent discoveries of topologically protected chiral quasiparticles in topological matter and Majorana quasiparticles in topological superconductors are briefly reviewed.
Condensed Matter Theories: Volume 25
Ludeña, Eduardo V.; Bishop, Raymond F.; Iza, Peter
2011-03-01
pt. A. Fermi and Bose fluids, exotic systems. Reemergence of the collective mode in [symbol]He and electron layers / H. M. Bohm ... [et al.]. Dissecting and testing collective and topological scenarios for the quantum critical point / J. W. Clark, V. A. Khodel and M. V. Zverev. Helium on nanopatterned surfaces at finite temperature / E. S. Hernandez ... [et al.]. Towards DFT calculations of metal clusters in quantum fluid matrices / S. A. Chin ... [et al.]. Acoustic band gap formation in metamaterials / D. P. Elford ... [et al.]. Dissipative processes in low density strongly interacting 2D electron systems / D. Neilson. Dynamical spatially resolved response function of finite 1-D nano plasmas / T. Raitza, H. Reinholz and G. Ropke. Renormalized bosons and fermions / K. A. Gernoth and M. L. Ristig. Light clusters in nuclear matter / G. Ropke -- pt. B. Quantum magnets, quantum dynamics and phase transitions. Magnetic ordering of antiferromagnets on a spatially anisotropic triangular lattice / R. F. Bishop ... [et al.]. Thermodynamic detection of quantum phase transitions / M. K. G. Kruse ... [et al.]. The SU(2) semi quantum systems dynamics and thermodynamics / C. M. Sarris and A. N. Proto -- pt. C. Physics of nanosystems and nanotechnology. Quasi-one dimensional fluids that exhibit higher dimensional behavior / S. M. Gatica ... [et al.]. Spectral properties of molecular oligomers. A non-Markovian quantum state diffusion approach / J. Roden, W. T. Strunz and A. Eisfeld. Quantum properties in transport through nanoscopic rings: Charge-spin separation and interference effects / K. Hallberg, J. Rincon and S. Ramasesha. Cooperative localization-delocalization in the high T[symbol] cuprates / J. Ranninger. Thermodynamically stable vortex states in superconducting nanowires / W. M. Wu, M. B. Sobnack and F. V. Kusmartsev.pt. D. Quantum information. Quantum information in optical lattices / A. M. Guzman and M. A. Duenas E. -- pt. E. Theory and applications of molecular
Applications of Classical and Quantum Mechanical Channeling in Condensed Matter Physics
Haakenaasen, Randi
1995-01-01
annihilation rate is sensitive to electron spin polarization, opening up the possibility of making measurements on magnetic materials. Detailed estimates for the count rates of such experiments are presented, indicating the feasibility of developing positron channeling into a new tool in solid state physics.
Muonic Chemistry in Condensed Matter
2002-01-01
When polarized muons (@m|+) stop in condensed matter, muonic atoms are formed in the final part of their range, and direct measurements of the @m|+-spin polarization are possible via the asymmetric decay into positrons. The hyperfine interaction determines the characteristic precession frequencies of the @m|+ spin in muonium, @w(Mu). Such frequencies can be altered by the interactions of the muonium's electron spin with the surrounding medium. The measurement of @w(Mu) in a condensed system is known often to provide unique information regarding the system. \\\\ \\\\ In particular, the use of muonium atoms as a light isotope of the simple reactive radical H|0 allows the investigation of fast reactions of radicals over a typical time scale 10|-|9~@$<$~t~@$<$~10|-|5~sec, which is determined by the instrumental resolution at one end and by the @m|+ lifetime at the other. \\\\ \\\\ In biological macromolecules transient radicals, such as the constituents of DNA itself, exist on a time scale of sub-microseconds, acco...
Computational condensed matter physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
However, the electronic structure based investigations of structural stabilities at high pressures involve tedious trial and error effort, which is avoided in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. ... Thus in some sense, it mimics the phenomena taking place during the cohesion of solids. Therefore significant changes are ...
Collision of Bose Condensate Dark Matter structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzman, F. S.
2008-01-01
The status of the scalar field or Bose condensate dark matter model is presented. Results about the solitonic behavior in collision of structures is presented as a possible explanation to the recent-possibly-solitonic behavior in the bullet cluster merger. Some estimates about the possibility to simulate the bullet cluster under the Bose Condensate dark matter model are indicated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khonik, V A
2017-01-01
A comprehensive review of a novel promising framework for the understanding of non-crystalline metallic materials, i.e., interstitialcy theory of condensed matter states (ITCM), is presented. The background of the ITCM and its basic results for equilibrium/supercooled liquids and glasses are given. It is emphasized that the ITCM provides a new consistent, clear, and testable approach, which uncovers the generic relationship between the properties of the maternal crystal, equilibrium/supercooled liquid and glass obtained by melt quenching. (topical review)
Diffusion in condensed matter methods, materials, models
Kärger, Jörg
2005-01-01
Diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement is a phenomenon of crucial relevance for a large variety of processes and materials. This comprehensive, handbook- style survey of diffusion in condensed matter gives detailed insight into diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement. Leading experts in the field describe in 23 chapters the different aspects of diffusion, covering microscopic and macroscopic experimental techniques and exemplary results for various classes of solids, liquids and interfaces as well as several theoretical concepts and models. Students and scientists in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology will benefit from this detailed compilation.
Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, J. C.
2014-01-01
. This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...
STRANGE BARYONIC MATTER AND KAON CONDENSATION
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gazda, Daniel; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, Jiří
2011-01-01
Roč. 26, 3-4 (2011), s. 567-569 ISSN 0217-751X. [11th International Workshop on Meson Production, Properties and Interaction. Krakow, 10.06.2010-15.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1441 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : (K)over-bar-nuclear bound states * strange baryonic matter * kaon condensation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2011
Doi, Masao
2013-01-01
Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students
Condensed matter view of giant resonance phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zangwill, A.
1987-01-01
The intent of this article is to present a view of giant resonance phenomena (an essentially atomic phenomenon) from the perspective of a condensed matter physicist with an interest in the optical properties of matter. As we shall see, this amounts to a particular prejudice about how one should think about many-body effects in a system of interacting electrons. Some of these effects are special to condensed matter systems and will be dealt with in the second half of this paper. However, it turns out that the authors view of the main ingredient to a giant resonance differs significantly from that normally taken by scientists trained in the traditional methods of atomic physics. Therefore, in the first section the author will take advantage of the fact that his contribution to this volume was composed and delivered to the publishers somewhat after the conclusion of the School (rather than before as requested by the organizers) and try to clearly distinguish the differences of opinion presented by the lecturers from the unalterable experimental facts. 46 references, 9 figures
Vortices in a rotating dark matter condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Rotha P; Morgan, Michael J
2002-01-01
We examine vortices in a self-gravitating dark matter Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), consisting of ultra-low mass scalar bosons that arise during a late-time cosmological phase transition. Rotation of the dark matter BEC imprints a background phase gradient on the condensate, which establishes a harmonic trap potential for vortices. A numerical simulation of vortex dynamics shows that the vortex number density, n v ∝ r -1 , resulting in a flat velocity profile for the dark matter condensate. (letter to the editor)
The Solar Photosphere: Evidence for Condensed Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robitaille P. M.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The stellar equations of state treat the Sun much like an ideal gas, wherein the photosphere is viewed as a sparse gaseous plasma. The temperatures inferred in the solar interior give some credence to these models, especially since it is counterintuitive that an object with internal temperatures in excess of 1 MK could be existing in the liquid state. Nonetheless, extreme temperatures, by themselves, are insufficient evidence for the states of matter. The presence of magnetic fields and gravity also impact the expected phase. In the end, it is the physical expression of a state that is required in establishing the proper phase of an object. The photosphere does not lend itself easily to treatment as a gaseous plasma. The physical evidence can be more simply reconciled with a solar body and a photosphere in the condensed state. A discussion of each physical feature follows: (1 the thermal spectrum, (2 limb darkening, (3 solar collapse, (4 the solar density, (5 seismic activity, (6 mass displacement, (7 the chromosphere and critical opalescence, (8 shape, (9 surface activity, (10 photospheric/coronal flows, (11 photospheric imaging, (12 the solar dynamo, and (13 the presence of Sun spots. The explanation of these findings by the gaseous models often requires an improbable combination of events, such as found in the stellar opacity problem. In sharp contrast, each can be explained with simplicity by the condensed state. This work is an invitation to reconsider the phase of the Sun.
Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L.M.
1987-09-01
Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)xSU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction. (author). 20 refs
Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter
Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L. M.
1988-01-01
Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)×SU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenom is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction.
Equation of state of warm condensed matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbee, T.W., III; Young, D.A.; Rogers, F.J.
1998-03-01
Recent advances in computational condensed matter theory have yielded accurate calculations of properties of materials. These calculations have, for the most part, focused on the low temperature (T=0) limit. An accurate determination of the equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature also requires knowledge of the behavior of the electron and ion thermal pressure as a function of T. Current approaches often interpolate between calculated T=0 results and approximations valid in the high T limit. Plasma physics-based approaches are accurate in the high temperature limit, but lose accuracy below T{approximately}T{sub Fermi}. We seek to ``connect up`` these two regimes by using ab initio finite temperature methods (including linear-response[1] based phonon calculations) to derive an equation of state of condensed matter for T{<=}T{sub Fermi}. We will present theoretical results for the principal Hugoniot of shocked materials, including carbon and aluminum, up to pressures P>100 GPa and temperatures T>10{sup 4}K, and compare our results with available experimental data.
Quark Condensate in the Strange Matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Chang-Fang; LU" Xiao-Fu
2003-01-01
In a nonlinear chiral SU(3) framework, we investigate the quark condensate in the strange matter including N, Σ, Ξ, and Λ, making use of chiral symmetry spontaneous breaking Lagrangian and mean-field approximation. The results show that the chiral symmetry is restored partially when the strange matter density increases and that 〈π→2〉 plays a very important role in the strange matter which may approach the constituents of the neutron stars. In addition, we can find that the strange matter density where the π-condensate emerges leads to the ratio of the nucleon number to baryon number.
Novel Quantum Condensates in Excitonic Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Littlewood, P. B.; Keeling, J. M. J.; Simons, B. D.; Eastham, P. R.; Marchetti, F. M.; Szymanska, M. H.
2009-01-01
These lectures interleave discussion of a novel physical problem of a new kind of condensate with teaching of the fundamental theoretical tools of quantum condensed matter field theory. Polaritons and excitons are light mass composite bosons that can be made inside solids in a number of different ways. As bosonic particles, they are liable to make a phase coherent ground state - generically called a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) - and these lectures present some models to describe that problem, as well as general approaches to the theory. The focus is very much to explain how mean-field-like approximations that are often presented heuristically can be derived in a systematic fashion by path integral methods. Going beyond the mean field theory then produces a systematic approach to calculation of the excitation energies, and the derivation of effective low energy theories that can be generalised to more complex dynamical and spatial situations than is practicable for the full theory, as well as to study statistical properties beyond the semi-classical regime. in particular, for the polariton problem, it allows one to connect the regimes of equilibrium BEC and non-equilibrium laser. The lectures are self-sufficient, but not highly detailed. The methodological aspects are covered in standard quantum field theory texts and the presentation here is deliberately cursory: the approach will be closest to the book of Altland and Simons. Since these lectures concern a particular type of condensate, reference should also be made to texts on BEC, for example by Pitaevskii and Stringari. A recent theoretically focussed review of polariton systems covers many of the technical issues associated with the polariton problem in greater depth and provides many further references.
Statistical mechanics and applications in condensed matter
Di Castro, Carlo
2015-01-01
This innovative and modular textbook combines classical topics in thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and many-body theory with the latest developments in condensed matter physics research. Written by internationally renowned experts and logically structured to cater for undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers, it covers the underlying theoretical principles and includes numerous problems and worked examples to put this knowledge into practice. Three main streams provide a framework for the book; beginning with thermodynamics and classical statistical mechanics, including mean field approximation, fluctuations and the renormalization group approach to critical phenomena. The authors then examine quantum statistical mechanics, covering key topics such as normal Fermi and Luttinger liquids, superfluidity and superconductivity. Finally, they explore classical and quantum kinetics, Anderson localization and quantum interference, and disordered Fermi liquids. Unique in providing a bridge between ...
Implanted muon studies in condensed matter science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, S.F.J.
1986-12-01
The paper reviews the broad range of applications of implanted muons in condensed matter. Muon spin rotation is discussed, along with the studies in magnetism, muonion, metals and organic radicals. A description of muon spin relaxation is also given, as well as techniques and applications appropriate to pulsed muon sources. (UK)
Condensed matter studies by nuclear methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolas, K.; Tomala, K.
1988-01-01
The separate abstract was prepared for 1 of the papers in this volume. The remaining 13 papers dealing with the use but not with advances in the use of nuclear methods in studies of condensed matter, were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (M.F.W.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Rong-Xiang; Tian, Bo; Liu, Li-Cai; Qin, Bo; Lü, Xing
2013-01-01
In this paper we investigate a fourth-order dispersive nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which governs the dynamics of a one-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple–dipole interaction in condensed-matter physics as well as the alpha helical proteins with higher-order excitations and interactions in biophysics. Beyond the existing constraint, upon the introduction of an auxiliary function, bilinear forms and N-soliton solutions are constructed with the Hirota method. Asymptotic analysis on the two-soliton solutions indicates that the soliton interactions are elastic. Soliton velocity varies linearly with the coefficient of discreteness and higher-order magnetic interactions. Bound-state solitons can also exist under certain conditions. Period of a bound-state soliton is inversely correlated to the coefficient of discreteness and higher-order magnetic interactions. Interactions among the three solitons are all pairwise elastic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daillant, J.
1997-01-01
After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques
Condensed Matter division: GCDMD-14
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segovia, J.L. de; Flores, F.; Garcia-Molines, F.
1994-01-01
The present book contains the abstracts of the plenary lectures, invited talks and communications either as oral or poster presentation. The 692 papers have been distributed according to their scheduled presentation of the corresponding session of the Conference: A. Semiconductors and Insulators B. Surfaces and Interfaces C. Liquid and Statistical Mechanics D. Magnetism and Metals E. Macromolecules and Chemical Physics
Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shamsunnahar, T.; Saha, S.; Kabir, K.; Nath, L.M.
1991-01-01
We have investigated the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter using a model of pion-nucleon interaction based essentially on chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry. We have found that pion condensation is not possible for any finite value of the density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is likely to be seen in pion-nucleus scattering nor is it likely to be possible to explain the EMC effect in terms of an increased number of pions in the nucleus. (author)
Condensate cosmology: Dark energy from dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassett, Bruce A.; Parkinson, David; Kunz, Martin; Ungarelli, Carlo
2003-01-01
Imagine a scenario in which the dark energy forms via the condensation of dark matter at some low redshift. The Compton wavelength therefore changes from small to very large at the transition, unlike quintessence or metamorphosis. We study cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure, supernova and radio galaxy constraints on condensation by performing a four parameter likelihood analysis over the Hubble constant and the three parameters associated with Q, the condensate field: Ω Q , w f and z t (energy density and equation of state today, and redshift of transition). Condensation roughly interpolates between ΛCDM (for large z t ) and SCDM (low z t ) and provides a slightly better fit to the data than ΛCDM. We confirm that there is no degeneracy in the CMB between H and z t and discuss the implications of late-time transitions for the Lyman-α forest. Finally we discuss the nonlinear phase of both condensation and metamorphosis, which is much more interesting than in standard quintessence models
Natarajan, Vasant
2017-01-01
This is a collection of essays on physics topics. It is written as a textbook for non-physics science and arts students, at the undergraduate level. Topics covered include cellphone radiation, lasers, the twin paradox, and more.
Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data
Martienssen, Werner
2005-01-01
Condensed Matter and Materials Science are two of the most active fields of applied physics, with a stream of discoveries in areas from superconductivity and magnetism to the optical, electronic and mechanical properties of materials. While a huge amount of data has been compiled and spread over numerous reference works, no single volume compiles the most used information. Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data provides a concise compilation of data and functional relationships from the fields of solid-state physics and materials in this 1200-page volume. The data, encapsulated in over 750 tables and 1025 illustrations, have been selected and extracted primarily from the extensive high-quality data collection Landolt-Börnstein and also from other systematic data sources and recent publications of physical and technical property data. Many chapters are authored by Landolt-Börnstein editors, including the editors of this Springer Handbook. Key Topics Fundamental Constants The International S...
Condensation of galactic cold dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visinelli, Luca
2016-01-01
We consider the steady-state regime describing the density profile of a dark matter halo, if dark matter is treated as a Bose-Einstein condensate. We first solve the fluid equation for “canonical” cold dark matter, obtaining a class of density profiles which includes the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, and which diverge at the halo core. We then solve numerically the equation obtained when an additional “quantum pressure” term is included in the computation of the density profile. The solution to this latter case is finite at the halo core, possibly avoiding the “cuspy halo problem” present in some cold dark matter theories. Within the model proposed, we predict the mass of the cold dark matter particle to be of the order of M_χc"2≈10"−"2"4 eV, which is of the same order of magnitude as that predicted in ultra-light scalar cold dark matter models. Finally, we derive the differential equation describing perturbations in the density and the pressure of the dark matter fluid.
Fundamentals of charged particle transport in gases and condensed matter
Robson, Robert E; Hildebrandt, Malte
2018-01-01
This book offers a comprehensive and cohesive overview of transport processes associated with all kinds of charged particles, including electrons, ions, positrons, and muons, in both gases and condensed matter. The emphasis is on fundamental physics, linking experiment, theory and applications. In particular, the authors discuss: The kinetic theory of gases, from the traditional Boltzmann equation to modern generalizations A complementary approach: Maxwell’s equations of change and fluid modeling Calculation of ion-atom scattering cross sections Extension to soft condensed matter, amorphous materials Applications: drift tube experiments, including the Franck-Hertz experiment, modeling plasma processing devices, muon catalysed fusion, positron emission tomography, gaseous radiation detectors Straightforward, physically-based arguments are used wherever possible to complement mathematical rigor.
Böhm, Arno; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Niu, Qian; Zwanziger, Joseph
2003-01-01
Aimed at graduate physics and chemistry students, this is the first comprehensive monograph covering the concept of the geometric phase in quantum physics from its mathematical foundations to its physical applications and experimental manifestations It contains all the premises of the adiabatic Berry phase as well as the exact Anandan-Aharonov phase It discusses quantum systems in a classical time-independent environment (time dependent Hamiltonians) and quantum systems in a changing environment (gauge theory of molecular physics) The mathematical methods used are a combination of differential geometry and the theory of linear operators in Hilbert Space As a result, the monograph demonstrates how non-trivial gauge theories naturally arise and how the consequences can be experimentally observed Readers benefit by gaining a deep understanding of the long-ignored gauge theoretic effects of quantum mechanics and how to measure them
Levy, Pablo
2015-03-01
In the first part of my talk, I will describe the status of the experimental research in Condensed Matter Physics in Argentina, biased towards developments related to micro and nanotechnology. In the second part, I will describe the MeMOSat Project, a consortium aimed at producing non-volatile memory devices to work in aggressive environments, like those found in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Our devices rely on the Resistive Switching mechanism, which produces a permanent but reversible change in the electrical resistance across a metal-insulator-metal structure by means of a pulsed protocol of electrical stimuli. Our project is devoted to the study of Memory Mechanisms in Oxides (MeMO) in order to establish a technological platform that tests the Resistive RAM (ReRAM) technology for aerospace applications. A review of MeMOSat's activities is presented, covering the initial Proof of Concept in ceramic millimeter sized samples; the study of different oxide-metal couples including (LaPr)2/3Ca1/3MnO, La2/3Ca1/3MnO3, YBa2Cu3O7, TiO2, HfO2, MgO and CuO; and recent miniaturized arrays of micrometer sized devices controlled by in-house designed electronics, which were launched with the BugSat01 satellite in June2014 by the argentinian company Satellogic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de
Holographic techniques for condensed matter systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herzog, Chistopher
2009-01-01
Full text. Gauge/gravity duality, a concept which emerged from string theory, holds promise for revealing the secrets of certain strongly interacting real world condensed matter systems. Historically, string theorists presented their subject as a promising framework for a quantum theory of gravity. More recently, the AdS/CFT correspondence and gauge/gravity dualities have emerged as powerful tools for using what we already know about gravity to investigate the properties of strongly interacting field theories. In this colloquium, I will survey recent developments where black holes are used to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of quantum critical systems, superconductors, superfluids, and fermions at unitarity. (author)
Diquark Bose Condensates in High Density Matter and Instantons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rapp, R.; Shuryak, E.; Schaefer, T.; Velkovsky, M.
1998-01-01
Instantons lead to strong correlations between up and down quarks with spin zero and antisymmetric color wave functions. In cold and dense matter, n b >n c ≅1 fm -3 and T c ∼50 thinspthinspMeV, these pairs Bose condense, replacing the usual left-angle bar qq right-angle condensate and restoring chiral symmetry. At high density, the ground state is a color superconductor in which diquarks play the role of Cooper pairs. An interesting toy model is provided by QCD with two colors: it has a particle-antiparticle symmetry which relates left-angle bar qq right-angle and left-angle qq right-angle condensates. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandelier, F.
2003-12-01
The quantum Hall effect appears in low temperature electron systems submitted to intense magnetic fields. Electrons are trapped in a thin layer (∼ 100.10 -8 cm thick) at the interface between 2 semiconductors or between a semiconductor and an insulating material. This thesis presents 3 personal contributions to the physics of plane systems and particularly to quantum Hall effect systems. The first contribution is a topological approach, it involves the study of Landau's problem in a geometry nearing that of Hall effect experiments. A mathematical formalism has been defined and by using the Kubo's formula, the quantification of the Hall conductivity can be linked to the Chern class of threaded holes. The second contribution represents a phenomenological approach based on dual symmetries and particularly on modular symmetries. This contribution uses visibility diagrams that have already produced right predictions concerning resistivity curves or band structures. The introduction of a physical equivalence has allowed us to build a phase diagram for the quantum Hall effect at zero temperature. This phase diagram agrees with the experimental facts concerning : -) the existence of 2 insulating phases, -) direct transitions between an insulating phase and any Hall phase through integer or fractionary values of the filling factor (ν), -) selection rules, and -) classification of the Hall states and their distribution around a metal state. The third contribution concerns another phenomenological approach based on duality symmetries. We have considered a class of (2+1)-dimensional effective models with a Maxwell-Chern-Simons part that includes a non-locality. This non-locality implies the existence of a hidden duality symmetry with a Z 2 component: z → 1/z. This symmetry has allowed us to meet the results of the Fisher's law concerning the components of the resistivity tensor. (A.C.)
10th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories
Kalia, Rajiv; Bishop, R
1987-01-01
The second volume of Condensed Matter Theories contains the proceedings of the 10th International Workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, U.S.A. during the week of July 21, 1986. The workshop was attended by high-energy, nuclear and condensed-matter physicists as well as materials scientists. This diverse blend of participants was in keeping with the flavor of the previous workshops. This annual series of international workshops was"started in 1977 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Subsequent'workshops were held in Trieste (Italy), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Caracas (Venezuela), Altenberg (West Germany), Granada (Spain), and San Francisco (U.S.A.). What began as a meeting of the physicists from the Western Hemisphere has expanded in the last three years into an international conference of scientists with diverse interests and backgrounds. This diversity has promoted a healthy exchange of ideas from different branches of physics and also fruitful interactions among the participants. The present volume is...
Nanophenomena at surfaces fundamentals of exotic condensed matter phenomena
Michailov, Michail
2011-01-01
This book presents the state of the art in nanoscale surface physics. It outlines contemporary trends in the field covering a wide range of topical areas: atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces, molecular films and polymer adsorption, biologically inspired nanophysics, surface design and pattern formation, and computer modeling of interfacial phenomena. Bridging 'classical' and 'nano' concepts, the present volume brings attention to the physical background of exotic condensed-matter properties. The book is devoted to Iwan Stranski and Rostislaw Kaischew, remarkable scientists, who played
Dark matter as the Bose-Einstein condensation in loop quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atazadeh, K.; Mousavi, M.; Darabi, F.
2016-01-01
We consider the FLRW universe in a loop quantum cosmological model filled with radiation, baryonic matter (with negligible pressure), dark energy, and dark matter. The dark matter sector is supposed to be of Bose-Einstein condensate type. The Bose-Einstein condensation process in a cosmological context by supposing it as an approximate first-order phase transition, has already been studied in the literature. Here, we study the evolution of the physical quantities related to the early universe description such as the energy density, temperature, and scale factor of the universe, before, during, and after the condensation process. We also consider in detail the evolution era of the universe in a mixed normal-condensate dark matter phase. The behavior and time evolution of the condensate dark matter fraction is also analyzed. (orig.)
A duality web in condensed matter systems
Ma, Chen-Te
2018-03-01
We study various dualities in condensed matter systems. The dualities in three dimensions can be derived from a conjecture of a duality between a Dirac fermion theory and an interacting scalar field theory at a Wilson-Fisher fixed point and zero temperature in three dimensions. We show that the dualities are not affected by non-trivial holonomy, use a mean-field method to study the dualities, and discuss the dualities at a finite temperature. Finally, we combine a bulk theory, which is an Abelian p-form theory with a theta term in 2 p + 2 dimensions, and a boundary theory, which is a 2 p + 1 dimensional theory, to discuss constraints and difficulties of a 2 p + 1 dimensional duality web.
Frustration in Condensed Matter and Protein Folding
Li, Z.; Tanner, S.; Conroy, B.; Owens, F.; Tran, M. M.; Boekema, C.
2014-03-01
By means of computer modeling, we are studying frustration in condensed matter and protein folding, including the influence of temperature and Thomson-figure formation. Frustration is due to competing interactions in a disordered state. The key issue is how the particles interact to reach the lowest frustration. The relaxation for frustration is mostly a power function (randomly assigned pattern) or an exponential function (regular patterns like Thomson figures). For the atomic Thomson model, frustration is predicted to decrease with the formation of Thomson figures at zero kelvin. We attempt to apply our frustration modeling to protein folding and dynamics. We investigate the homogeneous protein frustration that would cause the speed of the protein folding to increase. Increase of protein frustration (where frustration and hydrophobicity interplay with protein folding) may lead to a protein mutation. Research is supported by WiSE@SJSU and AFC San Jose.
The physics of exciton-polariton condensates
Lagoudakis, Konstantinos
2013-01-01
In 2006 researchers created the first polariton Bose-Einstein condensate at 19K in the solid state. Being inherently open quantum systems, polariton condensates open a window into the unpredictable world of physics beyond the “fifth state of matter”: the limited lifetime of polaritons renders polariton condensates out-of-equilibrium and provides a fertile test-bed for non-equilibrium physics. This book presents an experimental investigation into exciting features arising from this non-equilibrium behavior. Through careful experimentation, the author demonstrates the ability of polaritons to synchronize and create a single energy delocalized condensate. Under certain disorder and excitation conditions the complete opposite case of coexisting spatially overlapping condensates may be observed. The author provides the first demonstration of quantized vortices in polariton condensates and the first observation of fractional vortices with full phase and amplitude characterization. Finally, this book investigate...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sikka, S.K.; Gupta, Satish C.; Godwal, B.K.
1997-01-01
The use of pressure as a thermodynamic variable for studying condensed matter has become very important in recent years. Its main effect is to reduce the volume of a substance. Thus, in some sense, it mimics the phenomena taking place during the cohesion of solids like pressure ionization, modifications in electronic properties and phase changes etc. Some of the phase changes under pressure lead to synthesis of new materials. The recent discovery of high T c superconductivity in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 may be indirectly attributed to the pressure effect. In applied fields like simulation of reactor accident, design of inertial confinement fusion schemes and for understanding the rock mechanical effects of shock propagation in earth due to underground nuclear explosions, the pressure versus volume relations of condensed matter are a vital input. This volume containing the proceedings of the International Conference on Condensed Matter Under High Pressure covers various aspects of high pressure pertaining to equations of state, phase transitions, electronic, optical and transport properties of solids, atomic and molecular studies, shock induced reactions, energetic materials, materials synthesis, mineral physics, geophysical and planetary sciences, biological applications and food processing and advances in experimental techniques and numerical simulations. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Gravitational effects of condensate dark matter on compact stellar objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, X.Y.; Wang, F.Y.; Cheng, K.S.
2012-01-01
We study the gravitational effect of non-self-annihilating dark matter on compact stellar objects. The self-interaction of condensate dark matter can give high accretion rate of dark matter onto stars. Phase transition to condensation state takes place when the dark matter density exceeds the critical value. A compact degenerate dark matter core is developed and alter the structure and stability of the stellar objects. Condensate dark matter admixed neutron stars is studied through the two-fluid TOV equation. The existence of condensate dark matter deforms the mass-radius relation of neutron stars and lower their maximum baryonic masses and radii. The possible effects on the Gamma-ray Burst rate in high redshift are discussed
Bose-Einstein condensate & degenerate Fermi cored dark matter halos
Chung, W.-J.; Nelson, L. A.
2018-06-01
There has been considerable interest in the last several years in support of the idea that galaxies and clusters could have highly condensed cores of dark matter (DM) within their central regions. In particular, it has been suggested that dark matter could form Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) or degenerate Fermi cores. We examine these possibilities under the assumption that the core consists of highly condensed DM (either bosons or fermions) that is embedded in a diffuse envelope (e.g., isothermal sphere). The novelty of our approach is that we invoke composite polytropes to model spherical collisionless structures in a way that is physically intuitive and can be generalized to include other equations of state (EOSs). Our model is very amenable to the analysis of BEC cores (composed of ultra-light bosons) that have been proposed to resolve small-scale CDM anomalies. We show that the analysis can readily be applied to bosons with or without small repulsive self-interactions. With respect to degenerate Fermi cores, we confirm that fermionic particle masses between 1—1000 keV are not excluded by the observations. Finally, we note that this approach can be extended to include a wide range of EOSs in addition to multi-component collisionless systems.
Condensed Matter NMR under Extreme Conditions: Challenges and Opportunities
Reyes, Arneil
2006-11-01
Advances in resistive magnet and power supply technology have made available extremely high magnetic fields suitable for condensed matter broadline NMR experiments. This capability expands the available phase space for investigating a wide variety of materials using magnetic resonance; utilizing the strength of the field to expose or induce new physical phenomena resulting in better understanding of the physics. Continuous fields up to 45T in NHMFL Hybrid magnet have brought new challenges in designing NMR instrumentation. Field strengths and sample space limitations put constraints on RF pulse power, tuning range, bandwidth, and temperature control. The inclusion of other capabilities, including high pressure, optics, and sample rotation requires intricate probe design and construction, while extremely low milliKelvin temperatures are desired in order to explore energy scales where thermal fluctuations are suppressed. Optimization of these devices has been of paramount consideration in NHMFL Condensed Matter NMR user program. Science achieved at high fields, the new initiatives to develop resistively-detected NMR in 2D electron gas and similar systems, and the current new generation Series-Connected Hybrid magnets for NMR work will be discussed. The NHMFL is supported by the National Science Foundation and the State of Florida.
Diffusive instability of a kaon condensate in neutron star matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubis, Sebastian
2004-01-01
The beta equilibrated dense matter with kaon condensate is analyzed with respect to extended stability conditions, including charge fluctuations. This kind of the diffusive instability appeared to be common property in the kaon condensation case. Results for three different nuclear models are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loewdin, Per-Olov; Oehrn, N.Y.; Sabin, J.R.; Zerner, M.C.
1993-01-01
After an introduction and a personal (World War II and postwar) retrospective by C.C.J. Roothaan, 69 papers are presented in fields of quantum biology, quantum chemistry, and condensed matter physics; topics covered include advanced scientific computing, interaction of photons and matter, quantum molecular dynamics, electronic structure methods, polymeric systems, and quantum chemical methods for extended systems. An author index is included
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Helgesen, G. ed.
2003-05-01
The goal of this ASI was to bring together a group of disparate sciences to discuss areas of research related to competition between interactions of different ranges, for it is this that creates local structure on which complexity depends in soft condensed matter, biological systems and their synthetic models. The starting point, and the underlying theme throughout the ASI, was thus a thorough discussion of the relative role of the various fundamental interactions in such systems (electrostatic, hydrophobic, steric, conformational, van der Waals, etc.). The next focus was on how these competing interactions influence the form and topology of soft and biological matter, like polymers and proteins, leading to hierarchical structures in self-assembling systems and folding patterns sometimes described in terms of chirality, braids and knots. Finally, focus was on how the competing interactions influence various bio processes like genetic regulation and biological evolution taking place in systems like biopolymers, macromolecules and cell membranes. The report includes the abstracts of the posters presented, two of which are given in this database: (1) Precise characterisation of nano channels in track etched membranes by SAXS and SANS, and (2) Cisplatin binding to DNA: Structure, bonding and NMR properties from CarParrinello/Classical MD simulations.
New state of matter: Bose-Einstein condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
70 years after work by the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose led Einstein to predict the existence of a new state of matter, the Bose-Einstein condensate has finally been seen. The discovery was made in July by a team from Colorado, and was followed one month later by a second sighting at Rice University at Houston, Texas. It is Bose's theoretical framework governing the behaviour of the particles we now call bosons which led to Einstein's prediction. Unlike fermions, which obey the Pauli exclusion principle of only one resident particle per allowed quantum state, any number of bosons can pack into an identical quantum state. This led Einstein to suggest that under certain conditions, bosons would lose their individual identities, condensing into a kind of 'superboson'. This condensate forms when the quantum mechanical waves of neighbouring bosons overlap, hiding the identity of the individual particles. Such a condition is difficult to achieve, since most long-lived bosons are composite particles which tend to interact and stick together before a condensate can emerge. Extremely low temperatures and high densities are required to overcome this problem. As bosons lose energy and cool down, their wavelengths become longer, and they can be packed close enough together to merge into a condensate. Up until now, however, the extreme conditions needed have not been attainable. Nevertheless, hints of the Bose- Einstein condensate have been inferred in phenomena such as superconductivity and liquid helium superfluidity. Condensates could also play an important role in particle physics and cosmology, explaining, for example, why the pion as a bound quark-antiquark state is so much lighter than the three-quark proton. A hunt to create a pure Bose- Einstein condensate has been underway for over 15 years, with different groups employing different techniques to cool their bosons. The two recent successes have been achieved by incorporating several
Shattered glass seeking the densest matter: the color glass condensate
Appell, D
2004-01-01
"Physicists investigating heavy-particle collisions believe they are on the track of a universal form of matter, one common to very high energy particles ranging from protons to heavy nuclei such as uranium. Some think that this matter, called a color glass condensate, may explain new nuclear properties and the process of particle formation during collisions. Experimentalists have recently reported intriguing data that suggest a color glass condensate has actually formed in past work" (1 page)
Use of ultracold neutrons for condensed-matter studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michaudon, A.
1997-05-01
Ultracold neutrons have such low velocities that they are reflected by most materials at all incident angles and can be stored in material bottles for long periods of time during which their intrinsic properties can be studied in great detail. These features have been mainly used for fundamental-physics studies including the detection of a possible neutron electric dipole moment and the precise determination of neutron-decay properties. Ultracold neutrons can also play a role in condensed-matter studies with the help of high-resolution spectrometers that use gravity as a strongly dispersive medium for low-velocity neutrons. Such studies have so far been limited by the low intensity of existing ultracold-neutron sources but could be reconsidered with more intense sources, which are now envisaged. This report provides a broad survey of the properties of ultracold neutrons (including their reflectivity by different types of samples), of ultracold-neutron spectrometers that are compared with other high-resolution instruments, of results obtained in the field of condensed matter with these instruments, and of neutron microscopes. All these subjects are illustrated by numerous examples.
Use of ultracold neutrons for condensed-matter studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michaudon, A.
1997-05-01
Ultracold neutrons have such low velocities that they are reflected by most materials at all incident angles and can be stored in material bottles for long periods of time during which their intrinsic properties can be studied in great detail. These features have been mainly used for fundamental-physics studies including the detection of a possible neutron electric dipole moment and the precise determination of neutron-decay properties. Ultracold neutrons can also play a role in condensed-matter studies with the help of high-resolution spectrometers that use gravity as a strongly dispersive medium for low-velocity neutrons. Such studies have so far been limited by the low intensity of existing ultracold-neutron sources but could be reconsidered with more intense sources, which are now envisaged. This report provides a broad survey of the properties of ultracold neutrons (including their reflectivity by different types of samples), of ultracold-neutron spectrometers that are compared with other high-resolution instruments, of results obtained in the field of condensed matter with these instruments, and of neutron microscopes. All these subjects are illustrated by numerous examples
International Symposium on Dynamics of Ordering Processes in Condensed Matter
Furukawa, H
1988-01-01
The International Symposium on Dynamics of Ordering Processes in Condensed Matter was held at the Kansai Seminar House, Kyoto, for four days, from 27 to 30 August 1987, under the auspices of the Physical Soci ety of Japan. The symposium was financially supported by the four orga nizations and 45 companies listed on other pages in this volume. We are very grateful to all of them and particularly to the greatest sponsor, the Commemorative Association for the Japan World Exposition 1970. A total Df 22 invited lectures and 48 poster presentations were given and 110 participants attended from seven nations. An objective of the Symposium was to review and extend our present understanding of the dynamics of ordering processes in condensed matters, (for example, alloys, polymers and fluids), that are brought to an un stable state by sudden change of such external parameters as temperature and pressure. A second objective, no less important, was to identify new fields of science that might be investigated by sim...
Phase transition in dense nuclear matter with quark and gluon condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.; Kapusta, J.I.; Olive, K.A.
1991-01-01
Nuclear matter is expected to modify the expectation values of the quark and gluon condensates. We utilize the chiral and scale symmetries of QCD to describe the interaction between these condensates and hadrons. We solve the resulting equations self-consistently in the relativistic mean field approximation. In order that these QCD condensates be driven towards zero at high density their coupling to sigma and vector mesons must be such that the masses of these mesons do not decrease with density. In this case a physically sensible phase transition to quark matter ensures. (orig.)
Pion condensation in cold dense matter and neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haensel, P.; Proszynski, M.
1982-01-01
We study possible influence, on the neutron star structure, of a pion condensation occurring in cold dense matter. Several equations of state with pion-condensed phase are considered. The models of neutron stars are calculated and confronted with existing observational data on pulsars. Such a confrontation appears to rule out the models of dense matter with an abnormal self-bound state, and therefore it seems to exclude the possibility of the existence of abnormal superheavy neutron nuclei and abnormal neutron stars with a liquid pion-condensed surface
24th Condensed Matter Days National Conference (CMDAYS2016)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
The 24 th edition of Condensed Matter Days (CMDAYS) 2016, a National Conference had been decided to be held at Physics Department, Mizoram University, Aizwal, Mizoram, India during 29-31 August 2016. This decision was taken by the General Body meeting of the CMDAYS on 28 August 2015 at Viswa Bharati, Shanti Niketan, West Bengal, India and Prof. R.K. Thapa was proposed as the Convener of CMDAYS-2016. Initiated by the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, Odisa. The CMDAYS conference is held annually in the last week of August. The main objective of the conference was to bring all the researchers/scientists working in the field of Condensed Matter Physics, or related topics, together on a single platform. In this way, they can present, share and discuss their research findings and further plan collaborative works in future. The conference topics were on the theory and experimental research works done on Strongly correlated systems, Soft condensed matter, Magnetism and Magnetic materials, Disordered systems, Phase transition, Materials for energy harvesting, Nanomaterials and applications, Dielectrics and Ferroelectrics, Optoelectronics and devices, Semiconductors and devices, Biophysics, Biomaterials and composites, Superconductivity, Thin films and devices. It was open to all researchers from the research institutes, universities and colleges. Until the last date 1 st June 2016, we have received 1 plenary lecture, 3 Keynote lectures, 8 invited talks and 55 oral contributed papers. In total, there were 10 technical sessions to complete all the contributed papers along with the invited talks. Sessions were very interesting with the young participants interacting extensively with the senior scientists and everybody enjoyed the conference period with two cultural programmes. On the last day after the closing function, a local tour programme was arranged for all the outside participants. We are grateful to Prof. R. Lalthantluanga, Vice Cahncellor, Mizoram University, Aizawl
11th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories
Bishop, R; Manninen, Matti; Condensed Matter Theories : Volume 3
1988-01-01
This book is the third volume in an approximately annual series which comprises the proceedings of the International Workshops on Condensed Matter Theories. The first of these meetings took place in 1977 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and successive workshops have been held in Trieste, Italy (1978), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1979), Caracas, Venezuela (1980), Mexico City, Mexico (1981), St. Louis, USA (1982), Altenberg, Federal Republic of Germany (1983), Granada, Spain (1984), San Francisco, USA (1985), and Argonne, USA (1986). The present volume contains the proceedings of the Eleventh Workshop which took place in Qulu, Finland during the period 27 July - 1 August, 1987. The original motivation and the historical evolution of the series of Workshops have been amply described in the preface to the first volume in the present series. An important objective throughout has been to work against the ever-present trend for physics to fragment into increasingly narrow fields of specialisation, between which communication is d...
Theory of condensed matter. Lectures presented at an international course
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1968-01-01
The International Centre for Theoretical Physics, since its inception, has striven to maintain an interdisciplinary character in its research and training programme as far as different branches of theoretical physics are concerned. in pursuance of this aim the Centre has followed a policy of organizing extended research seminars with a comprehensive and synoptic coverage on varying disciplines. The first of these — lasting over a month — was held in 1964 on fluids of ionized particles and plasma physics; the second, lasting for two months, was concerned with physics of elementary particles and high-energy physics; the third, of three months’ duration, October — December 1966, covered nuclear theory; the fourth, bringing the series through a complete cycle, was a course on condensed matter held from 3 October to 16 December 1967. The present volume records the proceedings of this research seminar. The publication is divided into four parts containing 29 papers. Part I — General Courses, Part II - Dynamical lattice properties; Part III — Liquids and molecules; Part IV — Electronic properties
Interplay between kaon condensation and hyperons in highly dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muto, Takumi
2008-01-01
The possible coexistence and/or competition of kaon condensation with hyperons are investigated in hyperonic matter, where hyperons are mixed in the ground state of neutron-star matter. The formulation is based on the effective chiral Lagrangian for the kaon-baryon interaction and the nonrelativistic baryon-baryon interaction model. First, the onset condition of the s-wave kaon condensation realized from hyperonic matter is reexamined. It is shown that the usual assumption of the continuous phase transition is not always kept valid in the presence of the negatively charged hyperons (Σ - ). Second, the equation of state (EOS) of the kaon-condensed phase in hyperonic matter is discussed. In the case of the stronger kaon-baryon attractive interaction, it is shown that a local energy minimum with respect to the baryon number density appears as a result of considerable softening of the EOS due to both kaon condensation and hyperon mixing and recovering of the stiffness of the EOS at very high densities. This result implies a possible existence of self-bound objects with kaon condensates on any scale from an atomic nucleus to a neutron star
Long range correlations in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bochicchio, R.C.
1990-01-01
Off diagonal long range order (ODLRO) correlations are strongly related with the generalized Bose-Einstein condensation. Under certain boundary conditions, one implies the other. These phenomena are of great importance in the description of quantum situations with a macroscopic manifestation (superfluidity, superconductivity, etc.). Since ion pairs are not bosons, the definition of ODLRO is modified. The information contained with the 2-particle propagator (electron pairs) and the consequences that lead to pairs statistics are shown in this presentation. The analogy between long range correlations and fluids is also analyzed. (Author). 17 refs
Diagrammatics lectures on selected problems in condensed matter theory
Sadovskii, Michael V
2006-01-01
The introduction of quantum field theory methods has led to a kind of "revolution" in condensed matter theory. This resulted in the increased importance of Feynman diagrams or diagram technique. It has now become imperative for professionals in condensed matter theory to have a thorough knowledge of this method.There are many good books that cover the general aspects of diagrammatic methods. At the same time, there has been a rising need for books that describe calculations and methodical "know how" of specific problems for beginners in graduate and postgraduate courses. This unique collection
Universal properties of relaxation and diffusion in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ngai K L
2017-01-01
By and large the research communities today are not fully aware of the remarkable universality in the dynamic properties of many-body relaxation/diffusion processes manifested in experiments and simulations on condensed matter with diverse chemical compositions and physical structures. I shall demonstrate the universality first from the dynamic processes in glass-forming systems. This is reinforced by strikingly similar properties of different processes in contrasting interacting systems all having nothing to do with glass transition. The examples given here include glass-forming systems of diverse chemical compositions and physical structures, conductivity relaxation of ionic conductors (liquid, glassy, and crystalline), translation and orientation ordered phase of rigid molecule, and polymer chain dynamics. Universality is also found in the change of dynamics when dimension is reduced to nanometer size in widely different systems. The remarkable universality indicates that many-body relaxation/diffusion is governed by fundamental physics to be unveiled. One candidate is classical chaos on which the coupling model is based, Universal properties predicted by this model are in accord with diverse experiments and simulations. (paper)
Neutrino emission in inhomogeneous pion condensed quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Xuguang; Wang, Qun; Zhuang, Pengfei
2008-01-01
It is believed that quark matter can exist in neutron star interior if the baryon density is high enough. When there is a large isospin density, quark matter could be in a pion condensed phase. We compute neutrino emission from direct Urca processes in such a phase, particularly in the inhomogeneous Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell (LOFF) states. The neutrino emissivity and specific heat are obtained, from which the cooling rate is estimated. (author)
ICTP Summer Course on Low-Dimensional Quantum Field Theories for Condensed Matter Physicists
Morandi, G; Lu, Y
1995-01-01
This volume contains a set of pedagogical reviews covering the most recent applications of low-dimensional quantum field theory in condensed matter physics, written by experts who have made major contributions to this rapidly developing field of research. The main purpose is to introduce active young researchers to new ideas and new techniques which are not covered by the standard textbooks.
Proton mixing in -condensed phase of neutron star matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki
1984-08-01
The mixing of protons in neutron star matter under the occurrence of condensation is studied in the framework of the ALS (Alternating Layer Spin) model and with the effective interaction approach. It is found that protons are likely to mix under the situation and cause a remarkable energy gain from neutron matter as the density increases. The extent of proton mixing becomes larger by about a factor (1.5-2.5) according to the density rho asymptotically equals (2-5)rho0, rho0 being the nuclear density, as compared with that for the case without pion condensation. The reason can be attributed to the two-dimensional nature of the Fermi gas state characteristic of the nucleon system under condensation.
Soft condensed matter: Polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, D.
1995-01-01
Historians often characterize epochs through their dominant materials, clay, bronze, iron, and steel. From this perspective, the modern era is certainly the age of plastics. The progression from hard to soft materials suggests that the emerging era will be the age of open-quotes soft condensed matter.close quotes
The coupling of condensed matter excitations to electron probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritchie, R.H.
1988-01-01
Aspects of coupling of a classical electron with bulk and surface excitations in condensed matter have been sketched. Some considerations of a self-energy approach to the complete quantal treatment of this coupling have been given. 19 refs., 3 figs
Soft condensed matter approach to cooking of meat
Sman, van der R.G.M.
2007-01-01
We have viewed cooking meat from the perspective of soft condensed physics and posed that the moisture transport during cooking can be described by Flory-Rehner theory of swelling/shrinking polymer gels. This theory contains the essential physics to describe the transport of liquid moisture due to
XX International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories
1998-01-01
Rojo5, M.A. Solis6 and A.A. Valladares4 1 Institute de Fisica Teorica-UNESP, 01405 Säo Paulo, BRAZIL and Departamento de Fisica , Universidade...Estadual de Londrina Londrina, PR, BRAZIL 2Departament de Fisica , Universität de les Hies Balears 07071 Palma de Mallorca, SPAIN department of Physics...SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500, USA 4Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UN AM 04510 Mexico DF, MEXICO 5PESTIC, Secretaria Academica, IPN
Chirality: from QCD to condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kharzeev, D.
2015-01-01
This lecture is about chirality and consists of 4 parts. In the first part a general introduction of chirality is given and its implementation in nuclear and particle physics, in particular the chiral magnetic effect, as well as Chirality in quantum materials (CME, optoelectronics, photonics) are discussed. The 2nd lecture is about the chiral magnetic effect. The 3rd lecture deals with the chiral magnetic effect and hydrodynamics and the last part with chirality and light. (nowak)
No pion condensate in nuclear matter due to fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleinert, H.
1981-01-01
We show that if pion condensation occurs in a mean-field theory of infinite nuclear matter, fluctuations completely prevent the formation of a condensate as well as of the associated Goldstone mode. Thus if an increase of opalescence should ever be observed experimentally, it is these fluctuations which are measured rather than the scattering on the Goldstone modes. They preserve isotopic symmetry and increase very smoothly as the density passes the formerly critical density. There are no discontinuities in any thermodynamic quantitiy. (orig.)
Condensed matter applications of AdS/CFT (I)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
These lectures will discuss the application of ads/cft techniques to condensed matter systems. After motivating this endeavor, I will review the basic features of the ads/cft correspondence that will be used. I will review the physics of spectral functions and how they can be computed via AdS/CFT. Holographic superconductors will be discussed. The lectures will conclude with a discussion of open questions and future directions. References: - Holographic Superconductors. Sean A. Hartnoll, Christopher P. Herzog, Gary T. Horowitz, JHEP 0812:015,2008, arXiv:0810.1563 [hep-th] - Ohm's Law at strong coupling: S duality and the cyclotron resonance, Sean A. Hartnoll, Christopher P. Herzog, Phys.Rev.D76:106012,2007, arXiv:0706.3228 [hep-th] - Gravity duals for non-relativistic CFTs. Koushik Balasubramanian, John McGreevy, Phys.Rev.Lett.101:061601,2008, arXiv:0804.4053 [hep-th] - Toward an AdS/cold atoms correspondence: A Geometric realization of the Schrodinger symmetry. D.T. Son, Phys.Rev.D78:0...
13th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories
1990-01-01
This volume gathers the invited talks of the XIII International Work shop on Condensed Matter Theories which took place in Campos do Jordao near Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 6-12, 1989. It contains contributions in a wide variety of fields including neutral quantum and classical fluids, electronic systems, composite materials, plasmas, atoms, molecules and nuclei, and as this year's workshop reflected the natural preoccupation in materials science with its spectacular prospect for mankind, room tempera ture super-conductivity. All topics are treated from a common viewpoint: that of many-body physics, whether theoretical or simu1ational. Since the very first workshop, held at the prestigious Instituto de Fisica Teorica in Sao Paulo, and organized by the same organizer of the 1989 workshop, Professor Valdir Casaca Aguilera-Navarro, the meeting has taken place annually six times in Latin America, four in Europe and three in the United States. Its principal objective has been to innitiate and nurture collaborati...
Aspects of Landau condensation in atomic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gay, J.C.
1980-01-01
Some aspects of Landau condensation in atomic physics are reviewed both as regards current work on Rydberg states under laboratory conditions and from the viewpoint of the prospects of spontaneous decay of neutral vacuum with superheavy elements. The characteristics of the hydrogen-atom spectrum in a strong magnetic field are presented and discussed using essentially semiclassical arguments. Some schematic attempt at a global interpretation of the Rydberg spectrum near the ionization limit is also given. Then the action of an electric field on the quasi-Landau spectrum is discussed. The conditions for spontaneous production of positrons from neutral vacuum decay with superheavy elements are reconsidered for the case when the system experiences ultrastrong magnetic fields, as in pulsars and white dwarfs. It is shown that spontaneous decay of neutral vacuum may occur at lower Z values than 169. The possible importance of such effects during heavy-ion collisions is briefly discussed. We deal with some qualitative trends of the problem of an atom in a magnetic field with particular emphasis on diamagnetic effects. In the last few years, we have had the capability of making accurate experimental investigations of Rydberg atoms, and perhaps in the future we will develop fundamentally new means of studying heavy-ion collisions. Accordingly it seems of interest to make qualitative remarks regarding the present state of the problem and the possible importance of Landau condensation in various domains of atomic physics now under active development. (author)
Positron annihilation spectroscopy in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brauer, G.
1982-09-01
The topic of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the investigation of all aspects connected with the annihilation of slow positrons. This work deals with the application of PAS to different problems of materials science. The first chapter is an introduction to fundamental aspects of positron annihilation, as far as they are important to the different experimental techniques of PAS. Chapter 2 is concerned with the information obtainable by PAS. The three main experimental techniques of PAS (2γ-angular correlation, positron lifetime and Doppler broadening) are explained and problems in the application of these methods are discussed. Chapter 3 contains experimental results. According to the different fields of application it was subgrouped into: 1. Investigations of crystalline solids. Detection of structural defects in Cu, estimation of defect concentrations, study of the sintering of Cu powders as well as lattice defects in V 3 Si. 2. Chemical investigations. Structure of mixed solvents, selective solvation of mixed solvents by electrolytes as well as the micellization of sodium dodecylsulphate in aqueous solutions. 3. Investigations of glasses. Influence of heat treatment and production technology on the preorder of X-amorphous silica glass as well as preliminary measurements of pyrocerams. 4. Investigations of metallic glasses. Demonstration of the influence of production technology on parameters measurable by PAS. Chapter 4 contains a summary as well as an outlook of further applications of PAS to surface physics, medicine, biology and astrophysics. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de
Condensed matter research using pulsed neutron sources: a bibliography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mildner, D.F.R.; Stirling, G.C.
1976-05-01
This report is an updated revision of RL-75-095 'Condensed Matter Research Using Pulsed Neutron Sources: A Bibliography'. As before, the survey lists published papers concerning (a) the production of high intensity neutron pulses suitable for thermal neutron scattering research, (b) moderating systems for neutron thermalization and pulse shaping, (c) techniques and instrumentation for diffraction and inelastic scattering at pulsed sources, and (d) their application to research problems concerning the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matter. Papers which deal with the white beam time-of-flight technique at steady state reactors have also been included. A number of scientists have brought to the author's attention papers which have been published since the previous edition. They are thanked and encouraged to continue the cooperation so that the bibliography may be updated periodically. (author)
Advanced spallation neutron sources for condensed matter research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovesey, S.W.; Stirling, G.C.
1984-03-01
Advanced spallation neutron sources afford significant advantages over existing high flux reactors. The effective flux is much greater than that currently available with reactor sources. A ten-fold increase in neutron flux will be a major benefit to a wide range of condensed matter studies, and it will realise important experiments that are marginal at reactor sources. Moreover, the high intensity of epithermal neutrons open new vistas in studies of electronic states and molecular vibrations. (author)
Pion condensation and density isomerism in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hecking, P.; Weise, W.
1979-01-01
The possible existence of density isomers in nuclear matter, induced by pion condensation, is discussed; the nuclear equation of state is treated within the framework of the sigma model. Repulsive short-range baryon-baryon correlations, the admixture of Δ (1232) isobars and finite-range pion-baryon vertex form factors are taken into account. The strong dependence of density isomerism on the high density extrapolation of the equation of state for normal nuclear matter is also investigated. We find that, once finite range pion-baryon vertices are introduced, the appearance of density isomers becomes unlikely
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pati, J.; Shafi, Q.; Yu Lu
1993-01-01
This is a collection of five lectures on quantum field theory and its applications, two lectures on aspects of particle and nuclear physics (unification in the superstring context; and topics in P and CP violation in nuclear and particle physics), and ten lectures mainly on the physics of strong correlations, all but one of which are within the INIS scope. Refs, figs and tabs
Dark matter seen as a Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manzoni, Andre; Pires, Marcelo
2011-01-01
Full text: Astronomical observations of the stellar angular velocity in galaxies shows the general relativity theory, which considers that the usual matter changes the space-time, unable to describe the angular velocity to the peripheral stars. There are two possibilities to solve this problem, or the general relativity theory is not adequate to the phenomena or another type of matter must be considered in the composition of the galaxies. Many astrophysicists are in agreement considering another type of matter. This matter, called dark matter (DM), must interact very weakly with the barionic matter and, therefore, is invisible to direct observation. Some of them consider this dark matter made up of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which were not detected yet due to their very thin cross-section. A cloud of these particles is distributed around the galaxy under a low temperature and density. If we consider the cloud as a quantum gas, with the energies and the densities low enough to have binary interactions between particles, the gas can reach temperature condition to take a phase transition to the Bose-Einstein condensate where there are a constructive interference partner of these WIMPs. We performed an investigation about the dark matter being a Bose-Einstein condensate of WIMPs confined in itself gravitational potential. Taking the Thomas-Fermi approximation where the number of WIMPs is big enough to neglect the kinetic contribution in the total energy, we got the state equation of barotropic gas. Fitting this state equation with the data of rotational curves and density profiles taken from astronomical observations of galaxies, we estimated the mass and the scattering length of these WIMPs. (author)
The Color Glass Condensate: An Intuitive Physical Description
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLerran, Larry
2006-01-01
I argue that the scattering of very high energy strongly interacting particles is controlled by a new, universal form of matter, the Color Glass Condensate. This matter is predicted by QCD and explains the saturation of gluon densites at small x. I motivate the existence of this matter and describe some of its properties
Is a condensed state of nuclear matter possible?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'yakonov, D.I.; Mirlin, A.D.
1988-01-01
Nucleon chiral models naturally lead to the concept of ''generalized'' or ''classical'' nucleons which are characterized by a definite orientation in spin-isospin space. Nucleons and Δ resonances are different rotational states of generalized nucleons. Interaction of two generalized nucleons is sharply anisotropic and at a definite relative orientation leads to very strong attraction. This gives an idea of possible existence of a condensed state of nuclear matter, i.e. of a crystal or Fermi liquid with a short-range order which consists of N and Δ coherent superpositions. The variational estimate shows that at densities a few times that of the standard nuclear density this condensed state may be energetically favourable
Applied mathematics and condensed matter; Mathematiques appliquees et matiere condensee
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouche, D.; Jollet, F. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)
2011-01-15
Applied mathematics have always been a key tool in computing the structure of condensed matter. In this paper, we present the most widely used methods, and show the importance of mathematics in their genesis and evolution. After a brief survey of quantum Monte Carlo methods, which try to compute the N electrons wave function, the paper describes the theoretical foundations of N independent particle approximations. We mainly focus on density functional theory (DFT). This theory associated with advanced numerical methods, and high performance computing, has produced significant achievements in the field. This paper presents the foundations of the theory, as well as different numerical methods used to solve DFT equations. (authors)
Quantum simulation of strongly correlated condensed matter systems
Hofstetter, W.; Qin, T.
2018-04-01
We review recent experimental and theoretical progress in realizing and simulating many-body phases of ultracold atoms in optical lattices, which gives access to analog quantum simulations of fundamental model Hamiltonians for strongly correlated condensed matter systems, such as the Hubbard model. After a general introduction to quantum gases in optical lattices, their preparation and cooling, and measurement techniques for relevant observables, we focus on several examples, where quantum simulations of this type have been performed successfully during the past years: Mott-insulator states, itinerant quantum magnetism, disorder-induced localization and its interplay with interactions, and topological quantum states in synthetic gauge fields.
One dimensional Bosons: From Condensed Matter Systems to Ultracold Gases
Cazalilla, M. A.; Citro, R.; Giamarchi, T.; Orignac, E.; Rigol, M.
2011-01-01
The physics of one-dimensional interacting bosonic systems is reviewed. Beginning with results from exactly solvable models and computational approaches, the concept of bosonic Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids relevant for one-dimensional Bose fluids is introduced, and compared with Bose-Einstein condensates existing in dimensions higher than one. The effects of various perturbations on the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid state are discussed as well as extensions to multicomponent and out of equilibrium ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedan, D.; Kadanoff, L.; Nambu, Y.; Shenker, S.
1988-04-01
Progress is reported in the field of condensed matter physics in the area of two-dimensional critical phenomena, specifically results allowing complete classification of all possible two-dimensional critical phenomena in a certain domain. In the field of high energy physics, progress is reported in string and conformal field theory, and supersymmetry
Collective emission of matter-wave jets from driven Bose-Einstein condensates.
Clark, Logan W; Gaj, Anita; Feng, Lei; Chin, Cheng
2017-11-16
Scattering is used to probe matter and its interactions in all areas of physics. In ultracold atomic gases, control over pairwise interactions enables us to investigate scattering in quantum many-body systems. Previous experiments on colliding Bose-Einstein condensates have revealed matter-wave interference, haloes of scattered atoms, four-wave mixing and correlations between counter-propagating pairs. However, a regime with strong stimulation of spontaneous collisions analogous to superradiance has proved elusive. In this regime, the collisions rapidly produce highly correlated states with macroscopic population. Here we find that runaway stimulated collisions in Bose-Einstein condensates with periodically modulated interaction strength cause the collective emission of matter-wave jets that resemble fireworks. Jets appear only above a threshold modulation amplitude and their correlations are invariant even when the number of ejected atoms grows exponentially. Hence, we show that the structures and atom occupancies of the jets stem from the quantum fluctuations of the condensate. Our findings demonstrate the conditions required for runaway stimulated collisions and reveal the quantum nature of matter-wave emission.
International Workshop on Current Problems in Condensed Matter
Current Problems in Condensed Matter
1998-01-01
This volume contains the papers presented at the International Workshop on the Cur rent Problems in Condensed Matter: Theory and Experiment, held at Cocoyoc, More los, Mexico, during January 5-9, 1997. The participants had come from Argentina, Austria, Chile, England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Switzerland, and the USA. The presentations at the Workshop provided state-of-art reviews of many of the most important problems, currently under study, in condensed matter. Equally important to all the participants in the workshop was the fact that we had come to honor a friend, Karl Heinz Bennemann, on his sixty-fifth birthday. This Festschrift is just a small measure of recognition of the intellectualleadership of Professor Bennemann in the field and equally important, as a sincere tribute to his qualities as an exceptional friend, college and mentor. Those who have had the privilege to work closely with Karl have been deeply touched by Karl's inquisitive scientific mind as well as by bis k...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-01-01
An in-depth review of the present status and future potential of the applications of low-energy neutron scattering to research in the condensed-matter sciences, including physics, chemistry, biology, and metallurgy is presented. The study shows that neutron scattering technology has proven to be of enormous importance to research in the above areas and especially to those of solid-state physics and chemistry. The main emphasis is on the scattering of low-energy neutrons by condensed matter. Since the same type of neutron source facilities can be used for the study of radiation damage, this related topic has also been included
Latest trends in condensed matter physics
Singhal, R K
2011-01-01
This special issue of ""Solid State Phenomena"" documents some novel experimental and theoretical approaches applied to fascinating materials. Motivated by the increasing need to synthesize and understand the properties of technologically important materials, this issue represents an important step forward in improving our understanding of how modern materials can be optimised for technology and industry. The issue comprises 9 original review papers covering experimental approaches and theoretical modeling. The contributions will be very useful to researchers working in various areas of CMP an
Dark matter and particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masiero, A [SISSA-ISAS, Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Pascoli, S [SISSA-ISAS, Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)
2001-11-15
Dark matter constitutes a key-problem at the interface between Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. Indeed, the observational facts which have been accumulated in the last years on dark matter point to the existence of an amount of non-baryonic dark matter. Since the Standard Model of Particle Physics does not possess any candidate for such non-baryonic dark matter, this problem constitutes a major indication for new Physics beyond the Standard Model. We analyze the most important candidates for non-baryonic dark matter in the context of extensions of the Standard Model (in particular supersymmetric models). The recent hints for the presence of a large amount of unclustered 'vacuum' energy (cosmological constant?) is discussed from the Astrophysical and Particle Physics perspective. (author)
Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Bucher-Zimmermann, Claudia [eds.
1999-09-01
As a consequence of a major reorganisation at PSI, a new department has been formed with the groups focussing on research of condensed matter. The activities of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zuerich), the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, are described in this annual report figs., tabs., refs.
Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Bucher-Zimmermann, Claudia
1999-01-01
As a consequence of a major reorganisation at PSI, a new department has been formed with the groups focussing on research of condensed matter. The activities of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zuerich), the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, are described in this annual report
Dark matter and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, Michael E.
2007-01-01
Astrophysicists now know that 80% of the matter in the universe is 'dark matter', composed of neutral and weakly interacting elementary particles that are not part of the Standard Model of particle physics. I will summarize the evidence for dark matter. I will explain why I expect dark matter particles to be produced at the CERN LHC. We will then need to characterize the new weakly interacting particles and demonstrate that they the same particles that are found in the cosmos. I will describe how this might be done. (author)
Quark condensates in nuclear matter in the global color symmetry model of QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yuxin; Gao Dongfeng; Guo Hua
2003-01-01
With the global color symmetry model being extended to finite chemical potential, we study the density dependence of the local and nonlocal scalar quark condensates in nuclear matter. The calculated results indicate that the quark condensates increase smoothly with the increasing of nuclear matter density before the critical value (about 12ρ 0 ) is reached. It also manifests that the chiral symmetry is restored suddenly as the density of nuclear matter reaches its critical value. Meanwhile, the nonlocal quark condensate in nuclear matter changes nonmonotonously against the space-time distance among the quarks
Finite temperature effects in Bose-Einstein condensed dark matter halos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Madarassy, Enikö J.M.
2012-01-01
Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the properties of the dark matter halos. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation that takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud. The static condensate and thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium is analyzed in detail, by using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. The condensed dark matter and thermal cloud density and mass profiles at finite temperatures are explicitly obtained. Our results show that when the temperature of the condensate and of the thermal cloud are much smaller than the critical Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the zero temperature density and mass profiles give an excellent description of the dark matter halos. However, finite temperature effects may play an important role in the early stages of the cosmological evolution of the dark matter condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrieux, M.B.
1984-01-01
Characteristics of the condenser cooling waters of various French 900 MW nuclear power plants. Design and description of various types of condensers: condensers feeded directly with river water, condensers feeded by cooling towers, condensers feeded with sea water of brackish water. Presentation of the main problems encountered with the brass bundles (ammoniacal corrosion, erosion of the peripheral tubes, vibrations of the tubes), with the titanium bundles, with the tubular plates, the tubes-tubular plates assemblies, the coatings of the condenser water chamber (sea water), the vapor by-pass and with the air inlet. Analysis of the in service performances such as condensation pressure, oxygen content and availability [fr
Williams, Claudine
1999-01-01
What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.
History of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forbes, J W
2001-01-01
In order to provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock compressed condensed matter, a group of American Physical Society (APS) members worked within the Society to make this field an active part of the APS. Individual papers were presented at APS meetings starting in the 1940's and shock wave sessions were organized starting with the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Shock wave topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA. Signatures were obtained on a petition in 1984 from a balanced cross-section of the shock wave community to form an APS Topical Group (TG). The APS Council officially accepted the formation of the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM) TG at its October 1984 meeting. This action firmly aligned the shock wave field with a major physical science organization. Most early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1992 were official APS meetings. The topical group organizes a shock wave topical conference in odd numbered years while participating in shock wavehigh pressure sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years
Stabilization of matter wave solitons in weakly coupled atomic condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radha, R.; Vinayagam, P.S.
2012-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of a weakly coupled two component Bose–Einstein condensate and generate bright soliton solutions. We observe that when the bright solitons evolve in time, the density of the condensates shoots up suddenly by virtue of weak coupling indicating the onset of instability in the dynamical system. However, this instability can be overcome either through Feshbach resonance by tuning the temporal scattering length or by suitably changing the time dependent coupling coefficient, thereby extending the lifetime of the condensates.
In-stack condensible particulate matter measurement and permitting issues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corio, L.A.; Sherwell, J.
1997-01-01
Based on the results of recent epidemiological studies and assessments of the causes of visibility degradation, EPA is proposing to regulate PM2.5 emissions. PM can be classified as either filterable or condensible PM. Condensible PM includes sulfates, such as sulfuric acid. Sulfates typically account for at least half of the total dry fine PM mass in the atmosphere. Power plant SO x -based emissions make a significant contribution to ambient fine PM levels in the eastern US. Although much of this mass is derived from secondary chemical reactions in the atmosphere, a portion of this sulfate is emitted directly from stacks as condensible PM. The potential condensible PM fraction associated with coal-burning boiler emissions is somewhat uncertain. The characterization of PM emissions from these sources has been, until recently, based on in-stack filterable PM measurements only. To determine the relative magnitude of condensible PM emissions and better understand condensible PM measurement issues, a review and analysis of actual EPA Method 202 results and state-developed hybrid condensible PM methods were conducted. A review of available Method 202 results for several coal-burning boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 60% of the total PM10. A review of recent results for state-developed measurement methods for condensible PM for numerous coal-burning boilers indicated that condensible PM accounted for, on average, approximately 49% of total PM. Caution should be exercised in the use of these results because of the seemingly unresolved issue of artifact formation, which may bias the Method 202 and state-developed methods results on the high side. Condensible PM10 measurement results and issues, and potential ramifications of including condensible PM10 emissions in the PSD permit review process are discussed. Selected power plants in Maryland are discussed as examples
Strange matter and dihyperon physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, P.D.
1986-01-01
A short review of the properties of Strange Matter is followed by a discussion of dihyperon physics. Calculations of the mass, lifetime and decay modes of the H particle are discussed, along with a review of experiments designed to search for the H Dibaryon. 32 refs., 15 figs
Dark matter as a Bose-Einstein Condensate: the relativistic non-minimally coupled case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bettoni, Dario; Colombo, Mattia; Liberati, Stefano
2014-01-01
Bose-Einstein Condensates have been recently proposed as dark matter candidates. In order to characterize the phenomenology associated to such models, we extend previous investigations by studying the general case of a relativistic BEC on a curved background including a non-minimal coupling to curvature. In particular, we discuss the possibility of a two phase cosmological evolution: a cold dark matter-like phase at the large scales/early times and a condensed phase inside dark matter halos. During the first phase dark matter is described by a minimally coupled weakly self-interacting scalar field, while in the second one dark matter condensates and, we shall argue, develops as a consequence the non-minimal coupling. Finally, we discuss how such non-minimal coupling could provide a new mechanism to address cold dark matter paradigm issues at galactic scales
Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barlow, Stephan E.
2004-10-01
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its first annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2004. During this period, fourteen PNNL scientists hosted sixteen young scientists from eleven different universities. Of the sixteen participants, fourteen were graduate students; one was transitioning to graduate school; and one was a university faculty member.
2017-01-01
This book addresses a wide range of topics relating to the properties and behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions such as intense magnetic and electric fields, high pressures, heat and cold, and mechanical stresses. It is divided into four sections devoted to condensed matter theory, molecular chemistry, theoretical physics, and the philosophy and history of science. The main themes include electronic correlations in material systems under extreme pressure and temperature conditions, surface physics, the transport properties of low-dimensional electronic systems, applications of the density functional theory in molecular systems, and graphene. The book is the outcome of a workshop held at the University of Catania, Italy, in honor of Professor Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It includes selected invited contributions from collaborators and co-authors of Professor Pucci during his long and successful career, as well as from other distinguished guest authors.
Pion condensation in a theory consistent with bulk properties of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glendenning, N.K.
1980-01-01
A relativistic field theory of nuclear matter is solved for the self-consistent field strengths inthe mean-field approximation. The theory is constrained to reproduce the bulk properties of nuclear matter. A weak pion condensate is compatible with this constraint. At least this is encouraging as concerns the possible existence of a new phase of nuclear matter. In contrast, the Lee-Wick density isomer is probably not compatible with the properties of nuclear matter. 3 figures
Effects of delta degrees of freedom on quark condensate in hot and dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Lei; Ning Pingzhi
1996-01-01
The relativistic mean-field theory is applied to study the quark condensate systematically in nuclear matter at zero and finite temperature in terms of the relative importance of delta degrees of freedom. Calculations have included the high-order contributions to quark condensate in nuclear medium due to the baryon-baryon interactions. Numerical results are presented for the nuclear density up to five times larger than the normal density and temperature up to 120 MeV. It is found that the delta resonance in nuclear matter can cause substantial decreases to in-medium quark condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de
International Conference on Polarised Neutrons for Condensed Matter Investigations (PNCMI 2016)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-01-01
The present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series represents Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Polarised Neutrons for Condensed Matter Investigation (PNCMI) held in Freising, Germany from July 4–7, 2016. The conference attended by more than 120 scientists from various academic, government, and industrial institutions in Europe, Asia and the Americas was organized by the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The PNCMI-2016 continuoued the successful previous conferences in this series covering the latest condensed matter investigations using polarised neutrons and state-of-the-art methodologies, from effective polarization of neutron beams to wide-angle polarization analysis, as well as applications for novel instrumentation and experiments, with emphasis on prospects for new science and new instrument concepts. The conference program included invited and contributed oral presentations and posters which demonstrated the activities using polarized neutrons all over the world and showed the deep interest in developing the topic. The presentations tackled all area of science including multiferroic and chirality, strongly correlated electron systems, superconductors, frustrated and disordered systems, magnetic nanomaterials, thin films and multilayers, soft matter and biology, imaging, as well as further developments in polarized neutron techniques and methods, including nuclear polarisation, Larmor techniques and depolarisation methods.. We would like to thank all speakers for their presentations and all attendees for their participation. We would also like to gratefully acknowledge the financial support by J-PARC and AIRBUS DS as Premium Sponsors and Swiss Neutronics, ISIS, LLB, PSI and Mirrotron as Standard Sponsors of this conference. The next PNCMI will take place in Great Britain in 2018 and will be organized by ISIS. Alexander Ioffe (Conference Chair) Thomas Gutberlet (Conference Secretary) (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baruchel, J.; Hodeau, J.L.; Lehmann, M.S.; Regnard, J.R.; Schlenker, C.
1993-01-01
This book provides the basic information required by a research scientist wishing to undertake studies using neutrons or synchrotron radiation at a Large Facility. These lecture notes result from 'HERCULES', a course that has been held in Grenoble since 1991 to train young scientists in these fields. They cover the production of neutrons and synchrotron radiation and describe all aspects of instrumentation. In addition, this work outlines the basics of the various fields of research pursued at these Large Facilities. It consists of a series of chapters written by experts in the particular fields. While following a progression and constituting a lecture course on neutron and x-ray scattering, these chapters can also be read independently. This first volume will be followed by two further volumes concerned with the applications to solid state physics and chemistry, and to biology and soft condensed matter properties
Confinement of quasi-particles in a condensed matter system: an inelastic neutron scattering study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bera, A.K.
2016-01-01
The confinement of quasi particles, a well-known phenomenon in particle physics, can also be realized in a condensed matter system. In particle physics, baryons and mesons are produced by the confinement of quarks, where quarks are bound together by a strong interaction (gauge field) that grows stronger with increasing distance and, therefore, the quarks never exist as individual particles. The condensed matter analogue, confinement of magnetic quasiparticles (spinons) can be illustrated in quasi-one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains. We demonstrate experimentally such spinon confinement in the weakly coupled spin-1/2 XXZ antiferromagnetic chain compound SrCo_2V_2O_8 by single crystal inelastic neutron scattering. The compound SrCo_2V_2O_8 belongs to the general family SrM_2V_2O_8 (M = Ni, Co and Mn), having four-fold screw chains of edge sharing MO_6 octahedra along the crystallographic c axis. In the pure 1D magnetic state of SrCo_2V_2O_8 (above the 3D magnetic ordering temperature T_N =5 K) two spinons (excitations of individual chains) are created by a spin flip, and those spinons propagate independently by subsequent spin flips without any cost of energy. However, below the T_N, two spinons are bound together by weak interchain interactions since the separation between them frustrates the interchain interactions. The interchain interactions play the role of an attractive potential (equivalent to the gauge field), proportional to the distance between spinons, and result in confinement of spinons into bound pairs. (author)
Understanding soft condensed matter via modeling and computation
Shi, An-Chang
2011-01-01
All living organisms consist of soft matter. For this reason alone, it is important to be able to understand and predict the structural and dynamical properties of soft materials such as polymers, surfactants, colloids, granular matter and liquids crystals. To achieve a better understanding of soft matter, three different approaches have to be integrated: experiment, theory and simulation. This book focuses on the third approach - but always in the context of the other two.
Ferry, David; Dowben, Peter; Inglesfield, John
2009-11-01
This year marks the 20th anniversary of the launch of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter in 1989. The journal was formed from the merger of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics and Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics which had separated in 1971. In the 20 years since its launch, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter has more than doubled in size, while raising standards. Indeed, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter has become one of the leading scientific journals for our field. This could not have occurred without great leadership at the top. No one has been more responsible for this growth in both size and quality than our Senior Publisher, Richard Palmer. Richard first started work at IOP in March 1971 as an Editorial Assistant with J. Phys. B After a few months, he transferred to J. Phys.C The following year, the Assistant Editor of J. Phys. C, Malcolm Haines, left suddenly in order to work on his family vineyard in France, and Richard stepped into the breach. In those days, external editors had a much more hands-on role in IOP Publishing and he had to travel to Harwell to be interviewed by Alan Lidiard, the Honorary Editor of J. Phys. C, before being given the job of Assistant Editor permanently. Since J. Phys. C and J. Phys. F re-merged to form Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Richard gradually shed his other journal responsibilities, except for Reports on Progress in Physics, to build up Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. He has worked closely with four Editors-in-Chief of J. Phys. C and five of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. When Richard announced his retirement this past winter, we met it with a great deal of both happiness and sadness. Of course, we are happy that he is going to be allowed to enjoy his retirement, but we remain very sad to lose such a valuable member of our team, especially the one who had provided the heart and soul of the journal over its 20 years. We will be able to rely upon the team which Richard ably trained as
First-principles Theory of Magnetic Multipoles in Condensed Matter Systems
Suzuki, Michi-To; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Oppeneer, Peter M.
2018-04-01
The multipole concept, which characterizes the spacial distribution of scalar and vector objects by their angular dependence, has already become widely used in various areas of physics. In recent years it has become employed to systematically classify the anisotropic distribution of electrons and magnetization around atoms in solid state materials. This has been fuelled by the discovery of several physical phenomena that exhibit unusual higher rank multipole moments, beyond that of the conventional degrees of freedom as charge and magnetic dipole moment. Moreover, the higher rank electric/magnetic multipole moments have been suggested as promising order parameters in exotic hidden order phases. While the experimental investigations of such anomalous phases have provided encouraging observations of multipolar order, theoretical approaches have developed at a slower pace. In particular, a materials' specific theory has been missing. The multipole concept has furthermore been recognized as the key quantity which characterizes the resultant configuration of magnetic moments in a cluster of atomic moments. This cluster multipole moment has then been introduced as macroscopic order parameter for a noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure in crystals that can explain unusual physical phenomena whose appearance is determined by the magnetic point group symmetry. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the recent developments in the first-principles theory investigating multipolar degrees of freedom in condensed matter systems. These recent developments exemplify that ab initio electronic structure calculations can unveil detailed insight in the mechanism of physical phenomena caused by the unconventional, multipole degree of freedom.
On the existence of combined condensation of neutral and charged pions in neutron matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muto, Takumi; Tatsumi, Toshitaka
1987-01-01
Combined condensation of neutral and charged pions at high-density neutron matter is studied in an approach based on the chiral symmetry. Energy density in the combined π 0 -π c condensed phase to be considered as most energetically favored is derived in a realistic calculation, where we take into account the isobar Δ (1232) degrees of freedom, baryon-baryon short-range correlations described in terms of the Landau-Migdal parameter g', and form factors in the π-baryon vertex. Characteristic features of this phase are discussed in comparison with those of the pure π 0 or the pure π c condensation. The combined π 0 -π c condensed phase sets in at baryon density (3 ∼ 5) times the nuclear density ρ 0 depending on g' after the appearance of the pure π c condensed phase. (author)
Nuclear matter physics at NICA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)
2016-08-15
The exploration of the QCD phase diagram is one of the most exciting and challenging projects of modern nuclear physics. In particular, the investigation of nuclear matter at high baryon densities offers the opportunity to find characteristic structures such as a first-order phase transition with a region of phase coexistence and a critical endpoint. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. Equally important is the quantitative experimental information on the properties of hadrons in dense matter which may shed light on chiral symmetry restoration and the origin of hadron masses. Worldwide, substantial efforts at the major heavy-ion accelerators are devoted to the clarification of these fundamental questions, and new dedicated experiments are planned at future facilities like CBM at FAIR in Darmstadt and MPD at NICA/JINR in Dubna. In this article the perspectives for MPD at NICA will be discussed. (orig.)
Bright matter wave solitons and their collision in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radha, R.; Ramesh Kumar, V.
2007-01-01
We obtain the bright matter wave solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates from a trivial input solution by solving the time dependent Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation with quadratic potential and exponentially varying scattering length. We observe that the matter wave density of bright soliton increases with time by virtue of the exponentially increasing scattering length. We also understand that the matter wave densities of bright soliton trains remain finite despite the exchange of atoms during interaction and they travel along different trajectories (diverge) after interaction. We also observe that their amplitudes continue to fluctuate with time. For exponentially decaying scattering lengths, instability sets in the condensates. However, the scattering length can be suitably manipulated without causing the explosion or the collapse of the condensates
Zoology of condensed matter: framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Piazza, Federico [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Paris Center for Cosmological Physics and Laboratoire APC,Université Paris 7, 75205 Paris (France); CPT, Aix Marseille Université,UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques,EPFL Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-06-23
We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincaré-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern — the framid — does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries — and possibly rotational ones — and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and — if they exist — supersolids. A third, “extra-ordinary”, possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries that do not commute with the Poincaré group, for instance the galileon symmetry, supersymmetry or gauge symmetries. Among these options, we pick the systems based on the galileon symmetry, the “galileids”, for a more detailed study. Despite some similarity, all different patterns produce truly distinct physical systems with different observable properties. For instance, the low-energy 2→2 scattering amplitudes for the Goldstone excitations in the cases of framids, solids and galileids scale respectively as E{sup 2}, E{sup 4}, and E{sup 6}. Similarly the energy momentum tensor in the ground state is “trivial' for framids (ρ+p=0), normal for solids (ρ+p>0) and even inhomogenous for galileids.
Quantum condensates and topological bosons in coupled light-matter excitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janot, Alexander
2016-02-29
Motivated by the sustained interest in Bose Einstein condensates and the recent progress in the understanding of topological phases in condensed matter systems, we study quantum condensates and possible topological phases of bosons in coupled light-matter excitations, so-called polaritons. These bosonic quasi-particles emerge if electronic excitations (excitons) couple strongly to photons. In the first part of this thesis a polariton Bose Einstein condensate in the presence of disorder is investigated. In contrast to the constituents of a conventional condensate, such as cold atoms, polaritons have a finite life time. Then, the losses have to be compensated by continued pumping, and a non-thermal steady state can build up. We discuss how static disorder affects this non-equilibrium condensate, and analyze the stability of the superfluid state against disorder. We find that disorder destroys the quasi-long range order of the condensate wave function, and that the polariton condensate is not a superfluid in the thermodynamic limit, even for weak disorder, although superfluid behavior would persist in small systems. Furthermore, we analyze the far field emission pattern of a polariton condensate in a disorder environment in order to compare directly with experiments. In the second part of this thesis features of polaritons in a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall cavity with time reversal symmetry are discussed. We propose a topological invariant which has a nontrivial value if the quantum spin Hall insulator is topologically nontrivial. Furthermore, we analyze emerging polaritonic edge states, discuss their relation to the underlying electronic structure, and develop an effective edge state model for polaritons.
Radial oscillations of strange quark stars admixed with condensed dark matter
Panotopoulos, G.; Lopes, Ilídio
2017-10-01
We compute the 20 lowest frequency radial oscillation modes of strange stars admixed with condensed dark matter. We assume a self-interacting bosonic dark matter, and we model dark matter inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate. In this case the equation of state is a polytropic one with index 1 +1 /n =2 and a constant K that is computed in terms of the mass of the dark matter particle and the scattering length. Assuming a mass and a scattering length compatible with current observational bounds for self-interacting dark matter, we have integrated numerically first the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for the hydrostatic equilibrium, and then the equations for the perturbations ξ =Δ r /r and η =Δ P /P . For a compact object with certain mass and radius we have considered here three cases, namely no dark matter at all and two different dark matter scenarios. Our results show that (i) the separation between consecutive modes increases with the amount of dark matter, and (ii) the effect is more pronounced for higher order modes. These effects are relevant even for a strange star made of 5% dark matter.
PSI condensed matter research and material sciences progress report 1990
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.
1991-01-01
A brief overview is given of the research performed in 1990 at PSI's research department F3 in the fields of muon spectroscopy, neutron scattering, accelerator mass spectroscopy, applied and technical physics, geochemistry, trace elements, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, defect physics, PIREX and spallation neutron source project. figs., tabs., refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukashev, K.M.; Sarsenbinov, Sh. Sh.
2000-01-01
Fundamental problems and nature of electron-positron annihilation phenomenon, problems of its application in studies of condensed matter, development of various methodic based on this phenomenon for structural studies in solids, mathematical aspects of experimental deta decoding and program means for computer data processing are discussed. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kampel, Nir Shlomo; Griesmaier, Axel Rudolf; Steenstrup, Mads Peter Hornbak
2012-01-01
We investigate experimentally the effects of light assisted collisions on the coherence between momentum states in Bose-Einstein condensates. The onset of superradiant Rayleigh scattering serves as a sensitive monitor for matter-wave coherence. A subtle interplay of binary and collective effects...
Elements of a dialogue between nonlinear models in condensed matter and biophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, A.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Kerr, W.C.
1985-01-01
We indicate some of the emerging thematic connections between strongly nonlinear effects in condensed matter and biological materials. These are illustrated with model studies of: (1) structural phase transitions in anisotropic lattices; and (2) finite temperature effects on self-trapped states in vibron-phonon models of α-helix proteins. 13 refs., 8 figs
Spin-polarized versus chiral condensate in quark matter at finite temperature and density
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providencia, Joao
2016-01-01
It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low-energy ef...
Dissociative electron attachment and charge transfer in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bass, A.D.; Sanche, L.
2003-01-01
Experiments using energy-selected beams of electrons incident from vacuum upon thin vapour deposited solids show that, as in the gas-phase, scattering cross sections at low energies are dominated by the formation of temporary negative ions (or resonances) and that molecular damage may be effected via dissociative electron attachment (DEA). Recent results also show that charge transfer between anionic states of target molecules and their environment is often crucial in determining cross sections for electron driven processes. Here, we review recent work from our laboratory, in which charge transfer is observed. For rare gas solids, electron exchange between the electron-exciton complex and either a metal substrate or co-adsorbed molecule enhances the desorption of metastable atoms and/or molecular dissociation. We discuss how transient electron capture by surface electron states of a substrate and subsequent electron transfer to a molecular adsorbate enhances the effective cross sections for DEA. We also consider the case of DEA to CF 2 Cl 2 condensed on water and ammonia ices, where electron exchange between pre-solvated electron states of ice and transient molecular anions can also increase DEA cross sections. Electron transfer from molecular resonances into pre-solvated electron states of ice is also discussed
Quantum electrodynamics of resonant energy transfer in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juzeliunas, G.; Andrews, D.L.
1994-01-01
A microscopic many-body QED theory for dipole-dipole resonance energy transfer has been developed from first principles. A distinctive feature of the theory is full incorporation of the dielectric effects of the supporting medium. The approach employs the concept of bath polaritons mediating the energy transfer. The transfer rate is derived in terms of the Green's operator corresponding to the polariton matrix Hamiltonian. In contrast to the more common lossless polariton models, the present theory accommodates an arbitrary number of energy levels for each molecule of the medium. This includes, a case of special interest, where the excitation energy spectrum of the bath molecules is sufficiently dense that it can be treated as a quasicontinuum in the energy region in question, as in the condensed phase normally results from homogeneous and inhomogeneous line broadening. In such a situation, the photon ''dressed'' by the medium polarization (the polariton) acquires a finite lifetime, the role of the dissipative subsystem being played by bath molecules. It is this which leads to the appearance of the exponential decay factor in the microscopically derived pair transfer rates. Accordingly, the problem associated with potentially infinite total ensemble rates, due to the divergent R -2 contribution, is solved from first principles. In addition, the medium modifies the distance dependence of the energy transfer function A(R) and also produces extra modifications due to screening contributions and local field effects. The formalism addresses cases where the surrounding medium is either absorbing or lossless over the range of energies transferred. In the latter case the exponential factor does not appear and the dielectric medium effect in the near zone reduces to that which is familiar from the theory of radiationless (Foerster) energy transfer
Simulation of condensed matter dynamics in strong femtosecond laser pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wachter, G.
2014-01-01
Ultrashort custom-tailored laser pulses can be employed to observe and control the motion of electrons in atoms and small molecules on the (sub-) femtosecond time scale. Very recently, efforts are underway to extend these concepts to solid matter. This monograph theoretically explores first applications of electron control by ultrashort laser pulses in three paradigmatic systems of solid-state density: a metal nano-structure (nanometric metal tip), a bulk dielectric (quartz glass), and the buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60) as arguably the smallest possible nano-particle. The electron motion is resolved on the atomic length and time scale by ab-initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory. Our quantum simulations are complemented by classical and semi-classical models elucidating the underlying mechanisms. We compare our results to experiments where already available and find good agreement. With increasing laser intensity, we find a transition from vertical photoexcitation to tunneling-like excitation. For nanostructures, that leads to temporally confined electron photoemission and thereby to quantum interferences in the energy spectra of emitted electrons. Similarly, tunneling can be induced between neighboring atoms inside an insulator. This provides a mechanism for ultrafast light-field controlled currents and modification of the optical properties of the solid, promising to eventually realize light-field electronic devices operating on the femtosecond time scale and nanometer length scale. Electron-electron interaction leads to near field enhancement and spatial localization of the non-linear response and is investigated both classically by solving the Maxwell equations near a nanostructure as well as quantum mechanically for the fullerene molecule. For the latter, we discuss scrutiny of the molecular near-field by the attosecond streaking technique. Our results demonstrate that ultrashort laser pulses can be employed to steer the
Electron spectroscopy for atoms, molecules and condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siegbahn, K.
1981-12-01
A review is given of the research performed at the Institute of Physics, Uppsala under the direction of Prof. Siegbahn. in the field of electron spectroscopy applied to solids, liquids and gases. The developemnt of the spectroscopic methods is the central theme of the review. (L.E.)
Department F3. Condensed matter research and materials sciences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaeggeler, H.W.
1989-07-01
The report deals with work done during 1988 in the field of muon spectroscopy, neutron scattering, spallation neutron source SINQ, cryogenic detectors, accelerator mass spectrometry, geochemistry, trace elements, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement products, defect physics, irradiation damages in fusion reactor materials, and superconductivity. 111 figs., 19 tabs., 321 refs
Matter and Interactions: a particle physics perspective
Organtini, Giovanni
2011-01-01
In classical mechanics matter and fields are completely separated. Matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case. Both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this paper we explain why particle physicists believe in such a picture, introducing the technique of Feynman diagrams starting from very basic and popular analogies with classical mechanics, making the physics ...
ICTP Spring College in Condensed Matter on Superconductivity
Lu, Y
1995-01-01
This volume contains the lecture notes of the ""Spring College on Superconductivity"" held from 27 April to 19 June 1992 at ICTP. The distinguished faculty of lecturers has provided a wide coverage of topics on the fascinating subject of superconductivity, ranging from basic physics to the latest developments. The comprehensive reviews included in this volume will prove invaluable for research workers and graduate students in the field.
Applications of Density Functional Theory in Soft Condensed Matter
Löwen, Hartmut
Applications of classical density functional theory (DFT) to soft matter systems like colloids, liquid crystals and polymer solutions are discussed with a focus on the freezing transition and on nonequilibrium Brownian dynamics. First, after a brief reminder of equilibrium density functional theory, DFT is applied to the freezing transition of liquids into crystalline lattices. In particular, spherical particles with radially symmetric pair potentials will be treated (like hard spheres, the classical one-component plasma or Gaussian-core particles). Second, the DFT will be generalized towards Brownian dynamics in order to tackle nonequilibrium problems. After a general introduction to Brownian dynamics using the complementary Smoluchowski and Langevin pictures appropriate for the dynamics of colloidal suspensions, the dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) will be derived from the Smoluchowski equation. This will be done first for spherical particles (e.g. hard spheres or Gaussian-cores) without hydrodynamic interactions. Then we show how to incorporate hydrodynamic interactions between the colloidal particles into the DDFT framework and compare to Brownian dynamics computer simulations. Third orientational degrees of freedom (rod-like particles) will be considered as well. In the latter case, the stability of intermediate liquid crystalline phases (isotropic, nematic, smectic-A, plastic crystals etc) can be predicted. Finally, the corresponding dynamical extension of density functional theory towards orientational degrees of freedom is proposed and the collective behaviour of "active" (self-propelled) Brownian particles is briefly discussed.
A pulsed neutron facility for condensed matter research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hobbis, L.C.W.; Rees, G.H.; Stirling, G.C.
1977-06-01
The scientific and technical basis of the project is presented, as follows: broad synopsis of the proposal for a spallation neutron facility; description of neutron scattering and current work in the UK; scientific applications of the Spallation Neutron Source; discussion of various types of neutron sources; outline description of the SNS and its neutron performance parameters; appendix dealing in more detail with utilization (solid state physics, fluids and amorphous solids, structure determination, molecular and biological sciences); appendix dealing in more detail with the project design (800 MeV synchrotron, target station, shielding, radioactivity and radiation damage, utilization, overall programme). (U.K.)
[Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
There are four areas where major progress has occurred this year. We have applied the Fourier-transform method of describing and analyzing Moessbauer effect (ME) line shapes to make measurements of the temperature dependence of the recoilless fraction in tungsten. We have carried out quasi-elastic measurements of the gamma scattering from viscous liquids, learning about diffusive motion in polydimethylsiloxane, pentadecane, and glycerol. We have made major progress in fundamental physics, having shown for the first time how to determine precise quantum interference parameters, obtaining experimental results on the 46.5 keV line of 183 W and the 129 keV line of 191 Ir. Finally, we have continued our development of MICE detectors, with a theoretical analysis of the MICE lineshape and its relation to the lineshape of conventional transmission ME spectroscopy. 12 refs
Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ammon, Martin Matthias
2010-01-01
developed. Finally a second model for the field theory at the quantum-critical point, a Chern-Simons matter theory in (2+1) dimensions is studied more precisely. On the gravitational side thereby higher-dimensional membranes and other non-perturbative objects, so-called KK-monopoles are embedded in M-theory respectively its type IIA limit.
Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ammon, Martin Matthias
2010-07-07
developed. Finally a second model for the field theory at the quantum-critical point, a Chern-Simons matter theory in (2+1) dimensions is studied more precisely. On the gravitational side thereby higher-dimensional membranes and other non-perturbative objects, so-called KK-monopoles are embedded in M-theory respectively its type IIA limit.
Special issue on "Frontiers in Materials Science: Condensed matters"
Hoang, Nam-Nhat; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Pham, Duc-Thang
2018-03-01
This special issue includes the editor-invited and selected papers from 3rd International Symposium on Frontiers in Materials Science (FMS2016), held in Hanoi, Vietnam, from the 28th to 30th of September 2016, which coincided with the 65th anniversary of the Faculty of Physics, Hanoi University of Education. The FMS2016 is a continuation of a series of meetings starting from 2010. A first event was a bilateral Vietnamese-German meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2010, and the second one was held in Frankfurt, Germany, in 2011. The idea at that time was to initiate interactions between scientists from both countries and to further develop the field of materials science in Southeast Asia. After these successful bilateral meetings, a next step was taken by advancing the format of the symposium into an international event. In 2013, the 1st International Symposium on Frontiers in Materials Science (FMS2013) was successfully organized in Hanoi, which followed 2nd symposium, FMS2015, in Tokyo, in 2015. The FMS2016 continues this idea of providing an international forum for physicists, material scientists and chemists for discussing their latest results and the recent developments in the important field of materials science.
Probes for dark matter physics
Khlopov, Maxim Yu.
The existence of cosmological dark matter is in the bedrock of the modern cosmology. The dark matter is assumed to be nonbaryonic and consists of new stable particles. Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) miracle appeals to search for neutral stable weakly interacting particles in underground experiments by their nuclear recoil and at colliders by missing energy and momentum, which they carry out. However, the lack of WIMP effects in their direct underground searches and at colliders can appeal to other forms of dark matter candidates. These candidates may be weakly interacting slim particles, superweakly interacting particles, or composite dark matter, in which new particles are bound. Their existence should lead to cosmological effects that can find probes in the astrophysical data. However, if composite dark matter contains stable electrically charged leptons and quarks bound by ordinary Coulomb interaction in elusive dark atoms, these charged constituents of dark atoms can be the subject of direct experimental test at the colliders. The models, predicting stable particles with charge ‑ 2 without stable particles with charges + 1 and ‑ 1 can avoid severe constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements and provide solution for the puzzles of dark matter searches. In such models, the excessive ‑ 2 charged particles are bound with primordial helium in O-helium atoms, maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter. The successful development of composite dark matter scenarios appeals for experimental search for doubly charged constituents of dark atoms, making experimental search for exotic stable double charged particles experimentum crucis for dark atoms of composite dark matter.
Use of ORELA to produce neutrons for scattering studies on condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peelle, R.W.; Lewis, T.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mook, H.A.; Moon, R.M.
1975-09-01
The Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) is evaluated as a source of neutrons for condensed matter research. Two options are assessed: (1) use of the present target arrangement with minor modifications; and (2) the construction of a new target and experiment facility designed for condensed matter research and equipped with a subcritical fission booster. The expected source strength and time behavior are discussed, including the fundamentals of moderator design. The effect on the programs presently using the linac are considered. It is concluded that a special-purpose neutron source facility using pulsed electrons from ORELA and containing a subcritical booster could be built to make a cost-effective neutron scattering facility of great power and utility. (auth)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisanti, Paola; Lovesey, S.W.
1987-05-01
The paper provides a short, and partial view of the neutron scattering technique applied to condensed matter and materials research. Reactor and accelerator-based neutron spectrometers are discussed, together with examples of research projects that illustrate the puissance and modern applications of neutron scattering. Some examples are chosen to show the range of facilities available at the medium flux reactor operated by Casaccia ENEA, Roma and the advanced, pulsed spallation neutron source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire. (author)
Linking the gaseous and the condensed phases of matter: The slow electron and its interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christophorou, L.G.
1993-01-01
The interfacing of the gaseous and the condensed phases of matter as effected by interphase and cluster studies on the behavior of key reactions involving slow electrons either as reacting initial particles or as products of the reactions themselves is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the measurement of both the cross sections and the energetics involved, although most of the available information to date is on the latter. The discussion is selectively focussed on electron scattering (especially the role of negative ion states in gases, clusters, and dense matter), ionization, electron attachment and photodetachment. The dominant role of the electric polarization of the medium is emphasized
Weak nonlinear matter waves in a trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yong Wenmei; Xue Jukui
2008-01-01
The dynamics of the weak nonlinear matter solitary waves in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) with cigar-shaped external potential are investigated analytically by a perturbation method. In the small amplitude limit, the two-components can be decoupled and the dynamics of solitary waves are governed by a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The reduction to the KdV equation may be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear matter waves in two-component BEC. The analytical expressions for the evolution of soliton, emitted radiation profiles and soliton oscillation frequency are also obtained
Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero
2006-09-01
This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter gathers together a series of contributions presented at the workshop entitled `Topics in the Application of Scattering Methods to Investigate the Structure and Dynamics of Soft Condensed Matter' held at Pensione Bencista, Fiesole, Italy, a wonderful Italian jewel tucked high in the hills above Florence. This immaculate 14th century villa is a feast for the eyes with antiques and original artwork everywhere you turn, and a stunning view of Florence, overlooking numerous villas and groves of olive trees. The meeting consisted of about 40 invited talks delivered by a selected group of prominent physicists and chemists from the USA, Mexico, Europe and Asia working in the fields of complex and glassy liquids. The topics covered by the talks included: simulations on the liquid-liquid transition phenomenon dynamic crossover in deeply supercooled confined water thermodynamics and dynamics of complex fluids dynamics of interfacial water structural arrest transitions in colloidal systems structure and dynamics in complex systems structure of supramolecular assemblies The choice of topics is obviously heavily biased toward the current interests of the two organizers of the workshop, in view of the fact that one of the incentives for organizing the meeting was to celebrate Sow-Hsin Chen’s life-long scientific activities on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The 21 articles presented in this issue are a state-of-the-art description of the different aspects reported at the workshop from all points of view---experimental, theoretical and numerical. The interdisciplinary nature of the talks should make this special issue of interest to a broad community of scientists involved in the study of the properties of complex fluids, soft condensed matter and disordered glassy systems. We are grateful to the Consorzio per lo Sviluppo dei Sistemi a Grande Interfase (CSGI), Florence, Italy and to the Materials Science Program of
Testing the Bose-Einstein Condensate dark matter model at galactic cluster scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Pengxiang; Liang, Shi-Dong; Mocanu, Gabriela
2015-01-01
The possibility that dark matter may be in the form of a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) has been extensively explored at galactic scale. In particular, good fits for the galactic rotations curves have been obtained, and upper limits for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length have been estimated. In the present paper we extend the investigation of the properties of the BEC dark matter to the galactic cluster scale, involving dark matter dominated astrophysical systems formed of thousands of galaxies each. By considering that one of the major components of a galactic cluster, the intra-cluster hot gas, is described by King's β-model, and that both intra-cluster gas and dark matter are in hydrostatic equilibrium, bound by the same total mass profile, we derive the mass and density profiles of the BEC dark matter. In our analysis we consider several theoretical models, corresponding to isothermal hot gas and zero temperature BEC dark matter, non-isothermal gas and zero temperature dark matter, and isothermal gas and finite temperature BEC, respectively. The properties of the finite temperature BEC dark matter cluster are investigated in detail numerically. We compare our theoretical results with the observational data of 106 galactic clusters. Using a least-squares fitting, as well as the observational results for the dark matter self-interaction cross section, we obtain some upper bounds for the mass and scattering length of the dark matter particle. Our results suggest that the mass of the dark matter particle is of the order of μ eV, while the scattering length has values in the range of 10 −7 fm
Gravitational probes of dark matter physics
Buckley, Matthew R.; Peter, Annika H. G.
2017-01-01
The nature of dark matter is one of the most pressing questions in particle physics. Yet all our present knowledge of the dark sector to date comes from its gravitational interactions with astrophysical systems. Moreover, astronomical results still have immense potential to constrain the particle properties of dark matter. We introduce a simple 2D parameter space which classifies models in terms of a particle physics interaction strength and a characteristic astrophysical scale on which new p...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fano, U.
1987-02-01
A summary is given for theoretical procedures that describe and evaluate the penetration, degradation and diffusion of slow electrons in condensed matter with characteristics relevant to biological systems. 5 refs
Martins, C J A P
2016-01-01
This book sheds new light on topological defects in widely differing systems, using the Velocity-Dependent One-Scale Model to better understand their evolution. Topological defects – cosmic strings, monopoles, domain walls or others - necessarily form at cosmological (and condensed matter) phase transitions. If they are stable and long-lived they will be fossil relics of higher-energy physics. Understanding their behaviour and consequences is a key part of any serious attempt to understand the universe, and this requires modelling their evolution. The velocity-dependent one-scale model is the only fully quantitative model of defect network evolution, and the canonical model in the field. This book provides a review of the model, explaining its physical content and describing its broad range of applicability.
PREFACE: REXS 2013 - Workshop on Resonant Elastic X-ray Scattering in Condensed Matter
Beutier, G.; Mazzoli, C.; Yakhou, F.; Brown, S. D.; Bombardi, A.; Collins, S. P.
2014-05-01
The aim of this workshop was to bring together experts in experimental and theoretical aspects of resonant elastic x-ray scattering, along with researchers who are new to the field, to discuss important recent results and the fundamentals of the technique. The meeting was a great success, with the first day dedicated to students and new researchers in the field, who received introductory lectures and tutorials. All conference delegates were invited either to make an oral presentation or to present a poster, accompanied by a short talk. The first two papers selected for the REXS13 proceedings (Grenier & Joly and Helliwell) give a basic background to the theory of REXS and applications across a wide range of scientific areas. The remainder of the papers report on some of the latest scientific results obtained by applying the REXS technique to contemporary problems in condensed matter, materials and x-ray physics. It is hoped that these proceedings provide a snapshot of the current status of a vibrant and diverse scientific technique that will be of value not just to those who attended the workshop but also to any other reader with an interest in the subject. Local Scientific Committee REXS13 International Scientific Advisory Committee M Altarelli, European XFEL, Germany F de Bergevin, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France J Garcia-Ruiz, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain A I Goldman, Iowa State University, USA M Goldmann, Institut Nanosciences, France T Schulli, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France C R Natoli, Laboratori Nazionali de Frascati, Italy G Materlik, Diamond Light Source, UK L Paolasini, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France U Staub, Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland K Finkelstein, Cornell University, USA Y Murakami, Photon Factory, Japan REXS13 Local Scientific Committee G Beutier, CNRS Grenoble, France C Mazzoli, Politecnico di Milano, Italy F Yakhou, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France S D Brown, XMaS UK CRG
Israel physical society 1993 annual meeting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
The publication includes abstracts from several fields of physics: particle and fields, medical physics, astrophysics, condensed matter, plasma, computational physics, statistical physics, nuclear physics, lasers and optics
Israel Physical Society annual meeting 1996
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
The publication includes abstracts from several fields of physics: particle and fields, medical physics, astrophysics, condensed matter, plasma, computational physics, statistical physics, nuclear physics, lasers and optics
String-net condensation: A physical mechanism for topological phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, Michael A.; Wen Xiaogang
2005-01-01
We show that quantum systems of extended objects naturally give rise to a large class of exotic phases--namely topological phases. These phases occur when extended objects, called ''string-nets,'' become highly fluctuating and condense. We construct a large class of exactly soluble 2D spin Hamiltonians whose ground states are string-net condensed. Each ground state corresponds to a different parity invariant topological phase. The models reveal the mathematical framework underlying topological phases: tensor category theory. One of the Hamiltonians--a spin-1/2 system on the honeycomb lattice--is a simple theoretical realization of a universal fault tolerant quantum computer. The higher dimensional case also yields an interesting result: we find that 3D string-net condensation naturally gives rise to both emergent gauge bosons and emergent fermions. Thus, string-net condensation provides a mechanism for unifying gauge bosons and fermions in 3 and higher dimensions
2014-11-01
The Special issue presents the papers for the INERA Workshop entitled "Transition Metal Oxides as Functional Layers in Smart windows and Water Splitting Devices", which was held in Varna, St. Konstantin and Elena, Bulgaria, from the 4th-6th September 2014. The Workshop is organized within the context of the INERA "Research and Innovation Capacity Strengthening of ISSP-BAS in Multifunctional Nanostructures", FP7 Project REGPOT 316309 program, European project of the Institute of Solid State Physics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. There were 42 participants at the workshop, 16 from Sweden, Germany, Romania and Hungary, 11 invited lecturers, and 28 young participants. There were researchers present from prestigious European laboratories which are leaders in the field of transition metal oxide thin film technologies. The event contributed to training young researchers in innovative thin film technologies, as well as thin films characterization techniques. The topics of the Workshop cover the field of technology and investigation of thin oxide films as functional layers in "Smart windows" and "Water splitting" devices. The topics are related to the application of novel technologies for the preparation of transition metal oxide films and the modification of chromogenic properties towards the improvement of electrochromic and termochromic device parameters for possible industrial deployment. The Workshop addressed the following topics: Metal oxide films-functional layers in energy efficient devices; Photocatalysts and chemical sensing; Novel thin film technologies and applications; Methods of thin films characterizations; From the 37 abstracts sent, 21 manuscripts were written and later refereed. We appreciate the comments from all the referees, and we are grateful for their valuable contributions. Guest Editors: Assoc. Prof. Dr.Tatyana Ivanova Prof. DSc Kostadinka Gesheva Prof. DSc Hassan Chamatti Assoc. Prof. Dr. Georgi Popkirov Workshop Organizing Committee Prof
Neutron beams for the study of condensed matter: a view of the first half-century
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bacon, G.E.
1982-01-01
Neutron diffraction was first demonstrated in 1936 but awaited the development of the nuclear reactor before becoming a practical technique for the study of condensed matter. Neutrons have unique advantages for the location of hydrogen atoms, the recognition of magnetic architecture and the study of crystal vibrations and atomic and molecular motions. The techniques available exploit the optical properties of neutrons over a wavelength range from 0.5 to 500 A. Progress has gone hand in hand with a steady increase of reactor flux over 50 years but future improvements may depend on pulsed linear accelerators as the source of neutrons. (author)
Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.
2006-02-01
A mixture of two different species of positively charged bosons in harmonic traps is considered in the mean-field approximation. It is shown that depending on the ratio of parameters, the two components may coexist in same regions of space, in spite of the Coulomb repulsion between the two species. Application of this result is discussed for the generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deutron-lithium (d + Li) LENR, the result indicates that (d + 6Li) reactions may dominate over (d + d) reactions in LENR experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeong, E. Kim; Zubarev, Alexander L. [Purdue Nuclear and Many-Body Theory Group (PNMBTG) Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2006-07-01
A mixture of two different species of positively charged bosons in harmonic traps is considered in the mean-field approximation. It is shown that depending on the ratio of parameters, the two components may coexist in some regions of space, in spite of the Coulomb repulsion between the two species. Application of this result is discussed for the generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deuteron-lithium (d + Li) LENR, the result indicates that (d + {sup 6}Li) reactions may dominate over (d + d) reactions in LENR experiments. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeong, E. Kim; Zubarev, Alexander L.
2006-01-01
A mixture of two different species of positively charged bosons in harmonic traps is considered in the mean-field approximation. It is shown that depending on the ratio of parameters, the two components may coexist in some regions of space, in spite of the Coulomb repulsion between the two species. Application of this result is discussed for the generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deuteron-lithium (d + Li) LENR, the result indicates that (d + 6 Li) reactions may dominate over (d + d) reactions in LENR experiments. (authors)
Inhomogeneous condensates in dilute nuclear matter and BCS-BEC crossovers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W; Röpke, Gerd
2014-01-01
We report on recent progress in understanding pairing phenomena in low-density nuclear matter at small and moderate isospin asymmetry. A rich phase diagram has been found comprising various superfluid phases that include a homogeneous and phase-separated BEC phase of deuterons at low density and a homogeneous BCS phase, an inhomogeneous LOFF phase, and a phase-separated BCS phase at higher densities. The transition from the BEC phases to the BCS phases is characterized in terms of the evolution, from strong to weak coupling, of the condensate wavefunction and the second moment of its density distribution in r-space. We briefly discuss approaches to higher-order clustering in low-density nuclear matter.
Condensation for non-relativistic matter in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiliang Jing
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We study condensation for non-relativistic matter in a Hořava–Lifshitz black hole without the condition of the detailed balance. We show that, for the fixed non-relativistic parameter α2 (or the detailed balance parameter ϵ, it is easier for the scalar hair to form as the parameter ϵ (or α2 becomes larger, but the condensation is not affected by the non-relativistic parameter β2. We also find that the ratio of the gap frequency in conductivity to the critical temperature decreases with the increase of ϵ and α2, but increases with the increase of β2. The ratio can reduce to the Horowitz–Roberts relation ωg/Tc≈8 obtained in the Einstein gravity and Cai's result ωg/Tc≈13 found in a Hořava–Lifshitz gravity with the condition of the detailed balance for the relativistic matter. Especially, we note that the ratio can arrive at the value of the BCS theory ωg/Tc≈3.5 by taking proper values of the parameters.
32. Brazilian meeting on condensed matter physics. Book of abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-01-01
Theoretical and experimental papers are presented in these proceedings approaching the following subjects: X-radiation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, molecular biology, magnetism, superconductivity, crystallography, and oxides
On physical scales of dark matter halos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zemp, Marcel
2014-01-01
It is common practice to describe formal size and mass scales of dark matter halos as spherical overdensities with respect to an evolving density threshold. Here, we critically investigate the evolutionary effects of several such commonly used definitions and compare them to the halo evolution within fixed physical scales as well as to the evolution of other intrinsic physical properties of dark matter halos. It is shown that, in general, the traditional way of characterizing sizes and masses of halos dramatically overpredicts the degree of evolution in the last 10 Gyr, especially for low-mass halos. This pseudo-evolution leads to the illusion of growth even though there are no major changes within fixed physical scales. Such formal size definitions also serve as proxies for the virialized region of a halo in the literature. In general, those spherical overdensity scales do not coincide with the virialized region. A physically more precise nomenclature would be to simply characterize them by their very definition instead of calling such formal size and mass definitions 'virial'. In general, we find a discrepancy between the evolution of the underlying physical structure of dark matter halos seen in cosmological structure formation simulations and pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities. We question the importance of the role of formal virial quantities currently ubiquitously used in descriptions, models, and relations that involve properties of dark matter structures. Concepts and relations based on pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities do not properly reflect the actual evolution of dark matter halos and lead to an inaccurate picture of the physical evolution of our universe.
An Experimental Study of the Dropwise Condensation on Physically Processed Surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Jaeyoung; Chang, Soonheung; Watanabe, N.; Sambuichi, T.; Shiota, D.; Aritomi, M.
2013-01-01
Recent research by Kawakubo et al. derived empirical condensation heat transfer correlation suitable for wider range of operating condition in presence of non-condensable gas. However, their proposals of PCCS are focused on plane tube surface. To design better PCCS heat exchanger with high heat transfer coefficient new treatment on condensation surface can be considered in order to maintain dropwise condensation, the heat transfer coefficient of which has an order of magnitude larger than those of film condensation. Advanced research measure dropwise condensation heat transfer coefficient of Au and Cr coated surface based on number of droplet and droplet growth rate. However, coated surface is not desirable in power plant due to its duration of few years. On the other hand, physical processing (micro holes and patterns) on stainless steel and titanium surface is expected to perform better heat transfer, also is durable for the whole reactor lifetime. Since there is no published research about dropwise condensation for physically processed surface on SUS and Ti, the purposes of this research are to measure the condensation heat transfer coefficient and analyze its mechanism of enhanced heat transfer of treated SUS and Ti commonly used to nuclear plant. In the comparison of theoretical equation and experiment, it shows same result that heat transfer coefficient is proportional to maximum droplet diameter power to -0.321. Moreover, in the comparison of bare and processed surface, heat transfer coefficient decreases in processed surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snoke, David; Littlewood, Peter
2010-01-01
Most students of physics know about the special properties of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) as demonstrated in the two best-known examples: superfluid helium-4, first reported in 1938, and condensates of trapped atomic gases, first observed in 1995. (See the article by Wolfgang Ketterle in PHYSICS TODAY, December 1999, page 30.) Many also know that superfluid 3 He and superconducting metals contain BECs of fermion pairs. An underlying principle of all those condensed-matter systems, known as quantum fluids, is that an even number of fermions with half-integer spin can be combined to make a composite boson with integer spin. Such composite bosons, like all bosons, have the property that below some critical temperature--roughly the temperature at which the thermal de Broglie wavelength becomes comparable to the distance between the bosons--the total free energy is minimized by having a macroscopic number of bosons enter a single quantum state and form a macroscopic, coherent matter wave. Remarkably, the effect of interparticle repulsion is to lead to quantum mechanical exchange interactions that make that state robust, since the exchange interactions add coherently.
Characteristic size and mass of galaxies in the Bose–Einstein condensate dark matter model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jae-Weon Lee
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We study the characteristic length scale of galactic halos in the Bose–Einstein condensate (or scalar field dark matter model. Considering the evolution of the density perturbation we show that the average background matter density determines the quantum Jeans mass and hence the spatial size of galaxies at a given epoch. In this model the minimum size of galaxies increases while the minimum mass of the galaxies decreases as the universe expands. The observed values of the mass and the size of the dwarf galaxies are successfully reproduced with the dark matter particle mass m≃5×10−22 eV. The minimum size is about 6×10−3m/Hλc and the typical rotation velocity of the dwarf galaxies is O(H/m c, where H is the Hubble parameter and λc is the Compton wave length of the particle. We also suggest that ultra compact dwarf galaxies are the remnants of the dwarf galaxies formed in the early universe.
Extreme state of matter physics at FAIR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boris Sharkov
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe, FAIR, will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented fore-front research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in hadron, nuclear, atomic and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale. This presentation outlines the current status of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. It is expected that the actual construction of the facility will commence in 2010 as the project has raised more than one billion euro in funding. The sequence and scope of the construction will be described. Also the physics program of FAIR, based on the acquired funding, will be presented.
Fair for extreme state of matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharkov, B.
2013-01-01
The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe, FAIR, will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented fore-front research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in hadron, nuclear, atomic and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale. This presentation outlines the current status of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. It is expected that the actual construction of the facility will commence in 2010 as the project has raised more than one billion euro in funding. The sequence and scope of the construction will be described. Also the physics program of FAIR, based on the acquired funding, will be presented. (author)
Piezoresistive Soft Condensed Matter Sensor for Body-Mounted Vital Function Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark Melnykowycz
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A soft condensed matter sensor (SCMS designed to measure strains on the human body is presented. The hybrid material based on carbon black (CB and a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE was bonded to a textile elastic band and used as a sensor on the human wrist to measure hand motion by detecting the movement of tendons in the wrist. Additionally it was able to track the blood pulse wave of a person, allowing for the determination of pulse wave peaks corresponding to the systole and diastole blood pressures in order to calculate the heart rate. Sensor characterization was done using mechanical cycle testing, and the band sensor achieved a gauge factor of 4–6.3 while displaying low signal relaxation when held at a strain levels. Near-linear signal performance was displayed when loading to successively higher strain levels up to 50% strain.
3-sphere fibrations: a tool for analyzing twisted materials in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadoc, J F; Charvolin, J
2009-01-01
Chiral molecules, when densely packed in soft condensed matter or biological materials, build organizations which are most often spontaneously twisted. The crystals of 'blue' phases formed by small mesogenic molecules demonstrate the structural importance of such a twist or torsion, and its presence was also recently observed in finite toroidal aggregates formed by long DNA molecules. The formation of these organizations is driven by the fact that compactness, which tends to align the molecules, enters into conflict with torsion, which tends to disrupt this alignment. This conflict of topological nature, or frustration, arises because of the flatness of the Euclidean space, but does not exist in the curved space of the 3-sphere where particular lines, its fibres, can be drawn which are parallel and nevertheless twisted. As these fibrations conciliate compactness and torsion, they can be used as geometrical templates for the analysis of organizations in the Euclidean space. We describe these fibrations, with a particular emphasis on their torsion.
Roy, S. B.; Myneni, G. R.
2015-12-01
We address the issue of qualifications of the niobium materials to be used for superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity fabrications, from the point of view of a condensed matter physicist/materials scientist. We focus on the particular materials properties of niobium required for the functioning a SCRF cavity, and how to optimize the same properties for the best SCRF cavity performance in a reproducible manner. In this way the niobium materials will not necessarily be characterized by their purity alone, but in terms of those materials properties, which will define the limit of the SCRF cavity performance and also other related material properties, which will help to sustain this best SCRF cavity performance. Furthermore we point out the need of standardization of the post fabrication processing of the niobium-SCRF cavities, which does not impair the optimized superconducting and thermal properties of the starting niobium-materials required for the reproducible performance of the SCRF cavities according to the design values.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roy, S. B., E-mail: sbroy@rrcat.gov.in [Magnetic & Superconducting Materials Section, Materials & Advanced Accelerator Sciences Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Myneni, G. R., E-mail: rao@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States)
2015-12-04
We address the issue of qualifications of the niobium materials to be used for superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity fabrications, from the point of view of a condensed matter physicist/materials scientist. We focus on the particular materials properties of niobium required for the functioning a SCRF cavity, and how to optimize the same properties for the best SCRF cavity performance in a reproducible manner. In this way the niobium materials will not necessarily be characterized by their purity alone, but in terms of those materials properties, which will define the limit of the SCRF cavity performance and also other related material properties, which will help to sustain this best SCRF cavity performance. Furthermore we point out the need of standardization of the post fabrication processing of the niobium-SCRF cavities, which does not impair the optimized superconducting and thermal properties of the starting niobium-materials required for the reproducible performance of the SCRF cavities according to the design values.
Gravitational waves as a new probe of Bose–Einstein condensate Dark Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.S. Bhupal Dev
2017-10-01
Full Text Available There exists a class of ultralight Dark Matter (DM models which could give rise to a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC in the early universe and behave as a single coherent wave instead of individual particles in galaxies. We show that a generic BEC-DM halo intervening along the line of sight of a gravitational wave (GW signal could induce an observable change in the speed of GWs, with the effective refractive index depending only on the mass and self-interaction of the constituent DM particles and the GW frequency. Hence, we propose to use the deviation in the speed of GWs as a new probe of the BEC-DM parameter space. With a multi-messenger approach to GW astronomy and/or with extended sensitivity to lower GW frequencies, the entire BEC-DM parameter space can be effectively probed by our new method in the near future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, S. B.; Myneni, G. R.
2015-01-01
We address the issue of qualifications of the niobium materials to be used for superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity fabrications, from the point of view of a condensed matter physicist/materials scientist. We focus on the particular materials properties of niobium required for the functioning a SCRF cavity, and how to optimize the same properties for the best SCRF cavity performance in a reproducible manner. In this way the niobium materials will not necessarily be characterized by their purity alone, but in terms of those materials properties, which will define the limit of the SCRF cavity performance and also other related material properties, which will help to sustain this best SCRF cavity performance. Furthermore we point out the need of standardization of the post fabrication processing of the niobium-SCRF cavities, which does not impair the optimized superconducting and thermal properties of the starting niobium-materials required for the reproducible performance of the SCRF cavities according to the design values
Measurement of Viscoelastic Properties of Condensed Matter using Magnetic Resonance Elastography
Gruwel, Marco L. H.; Latta, Peter; Matwiy, Brendon; Sboto-Frankenstein, Uta; Gervai, Patricia; Tomanek, Boguslaw
2010-01-01
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a phase contrast technique that provides a non-invasive means of evaluating the viscoelastic properties of soft condensed matter. This has a profound bio-medical significance as it allows for the virtual palpation of areas of the body usually not accessible to the hands of a medical practitioner, such as the brain. Applications of MRE are not restricted to bio-medical applications, however, the viscoelastic properties of prepackaged food products can also non-invasively be determined. Here we describe the design and use of a modular MRE acoustic actuator that can be used for experiments ranging from the human brain to pre-packaged food products. The unique feature of the used actuator design is its simplicity and flexibility, which allows easy reconfiguration.
Ran, Yong; Yang, Yu; Xing, Baoshan; Pignatello, Joseph J; Kwon, Seokjoo; Su, Wei; Zhou, Li
2013-01-01
Although microporosity and surface area of natural organic matter (NOM) are crucial for mechanistic evaluation of the sorption process for nonpolar organic contaminants (NOCs), they have been underestimated by the N adsorption technique. We investigated the CO-derived internal hydrophobic microporosity () and specific surface area (SSA) obtained on dry samples and related them to sorption behaviors of NOCs in water for a wide range of condensed NOM samples. The is obtained from the total CO-derived microporosity by subtracting out the contribution of the outer surfaces of minerals and NOM using N adsorption-derived parameters. The correlation between or CO-SSA and fractional organic carbon content () is very significant, demonstrating that much of the microporosity is associated with internal NOM matrices. The average and CO-SSA are, respectively, 75.1 μL g organic carbon (OC) and 185 m g OC from the correlation analysis. The rigid aliphatic carbon significantly contributes to the microporosity of the Pahokee peat. A strong linear correlation is demonstrated between / and the OC-normalized sorption capacity at the liquid or subcooled liquid-state water solubility calculated via the Freundlich equation for each of four NOCs (phenanthrene, naphthalene, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, and 1,2-dichlorobenzene). We concluded that micropore filling ("adsorption") contributes to NOC sorption by condensed NOM, but the exact contribution requires knowing the relationship between the dry-state, CO-determined microporosity and the wet-state, NOC-available microporosity of the organic matter. The findings offer new clues for explaining the nonideal sorption behaviors of NOCs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
BOOK REVIEW: Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics—An Introduction
Logan, D. E.
2005-02-01
This is undoubtedly an ambitious book. It aims to provide a wide ranging, yet self-contained and pedagogical introduction to techniques of quantum many-body theory in condensed matter physics, without losing mathematical `rigor' (which I hope means rigour), and with an eye on physical insight, motivation and application. The authors certainly bring plenty of experience to the task, the book having grown out of their graduate lectures at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen over a five year period, with the feedback and refinement this presumably brings. The book is also of course ambitious in another sense, for it competes in the tight market of general graduate/advanced undergraduate texts on many-particle physics. Prospective punters will thus want reasons to prefer it to, or at least give it space beside, well established texts in the field. Subject-wise, the book is a good mix of the ancient and modern, the standard and less so. Obligatory chapters deal with the formal cornerstones of many-body theory, from second quantization, time-dependence in quantum mechanics and linear response theory, to Green's function and Feynman diagrams. Traditional topics are well covered, including two chapters on the electron gas, chapters on phonons and electron phonon coupling, and a concise account of superconductivity (confined, no doubt judiciously, to the conventional BCS case). Less mandatory, albeit conceptually vital, subjects are also aired. These include a chapter on Fermi liquid theory, from both semi-classical and microscopic perspectives, and a freestanding account of one-dimensional electron gases and Luttinger liquids which, given the enormity of the topic, is about as concise as it could be without sacrificing clarity. Quite naturally, the authors' own interests also influence the choice of material covered. A persistent theme, which brings a healthy topicality to the book, is the area of transport in mesoscopic systems or nanostructures. Two chapters, some
The Physics of Coupled Atomic-Molecular Condensate System
2010-10-09
electric dipoles represents a novel state of matter with long-range and anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions, that are highly amenable to the...free-bound FC factor. Simultaneously, a series of laser �elds of (molecular) Rabi frequency i (i 2) are applied to move the molecules from the
Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit [eds.
2001-07-01
This year started with a highlight for the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source SINQ located at PSI: The thermal neutron flux exceeded the value of 10{sup 14} n cm{sup -2} s{sup 1} which may be considered as the critical limit for an advanced medium-flux neutron source. The excellent performance attracted a large number of external users to participate at the neutron scattering programme. The major part of this annual report gives an overview on the scientific activities of the staff members of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich). The research topics covered diverse areas such as strongly correlated electron systems including high-temperature superconductors, low-dimensional and quantum magnetism, materials research on soft and hard matter including multilayers. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.
Bose-Einstein Condensate Dark Matter Halos Confronted with Galactic Rotation Curves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Dwornik
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We present a comparative confrontation of both the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC and the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW dark halo models with galactic rotation curves. We employ 6 High Surface Brightness (HSB, 6 Low Surface Brightness (LSB, and 7 dwarf galaxies with rotation curves falling into two classes. In the first class rotational velocities increase with radius over the observed range. The BEC and NFW models give comparable fits for HSB and LSB galaxies of this type, while for dwarf galaxies the fit is significantly better with the BEC model. In the second class the rotational velocity of HSB and LSB galaxies exhibits long flat plateaus, resulting in better fit with the NFW model for HSB galaxies and comparable fits for LSB galaxies. We conclude that due to its central density cusp avoidance the BEC model fits better dwarf galaxy dark matter distribution. Nevertheless it suffers from sharp cutoff in larger galaxies, where the NFW model performs better. The investigated galaxy sample obeys the Tully-Fisher relation, including the particular characteristics exhibited by dwarf galaxies. In both models the fitting enforces a relation between dark matter parameters: the characteristic density and the corresponding characteristic distance scale with an inverse power.
Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit
2001-01-01
This year started with a highlight for the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source SINQ located at PSI: The thermal neutron flux exceeded the value of 10 14 n cm -2 s 1 which may be considered as the critical limit for an advanced medium-flux neutron source. The excellent performance attracted a large number of external users to participate at the neutron scattering programme. The major part of this annual report gives an overview on the scientific activities of the staff members of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich). The research topics covered diverse areas such as strongly correlated electron systems including high-temperature superconductors, low-dimensional and quantum magnetism, materials research on soft and hard matter including multilayers. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided
Holmlid, Leif
2009-08-01
Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.
Holmlid, Leif
2009-01-01
Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, J. A; Guzman, F. S.
2011-01-01
In order to explore nonlinear effects on the distribution of matter during collisions within the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter model driven by the Schroedinger-Poisson system of equations, we study the head-on collision of structures and focus on the interference pattern formation in the density of matter during the collision process. We explore the possibility that the collision of two structures of fluid matter modeled with an ideal gas equation of state also forms interference patterns and found a negative result. Given that a fluid is the most common flavor of dark matter models, we conclude that one fingerprint of the BEC dark matter model is the pattern formation in the density during a collision of structures.
Physics of superheavy dark matter in supergravity
Addazi, Andrea; Marciano, Antonino; Ketov, Sergei V.; Khlopov, Maxim Yu.
New trends in inflationary model building and dark matter production in supergravity are considered. Starobinsky inflation is embedded into 𝒩 = 1 supergravity, avoiding instability problems, when the inflaton belongs to a vector superfield associated with a U(1) gauge symmetry, instead of a chiral superfield. This gauge symmetry can be spontaneously broken by the super-Higgs mechanism resulting in a massive vector supermultiplet including the (real scalar) inflaton field. Both supersymmetry (SUSY) and the R-symmetry can also be spontaneously broken by the Polonyi mechanism at high scales close to the inflationary scale. In this case, Polonyi particles and gravitinos become superheavy, and can be copiously produced during inflation by the Schwinger mechanism sourced by the universe expansion. The Polonyi mass slightly exceeds twice the gravitino mass, so that Polonyi particles are unstable and decay into gravitinos. Considering the mechanisms of superheavy gravitino production, we find that the right amount of cold dark matter composed of gravitinos can be achieved. In our scenario, the parameter space of the inflaton potential is directly related to the dark matter one, providing a new unifying framework of inflation and dark matter genesis. A multi-superfield extension of the supergravity framework with a single (inflaton) superfield can result in a formation of primordial nonlinear structures like mini- and stellar-mass black holes, primordial nongaussianity, and the running spectral index of density fluctuations. This framework can be embedded into the SUSY GUTs inspired by heterotic string compactifications on Calabi-Yau three-folds, thus unifying particle physics with quantum gravity.
Particle dark matter from physics beyond the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matchev, Konstantin
2004-01-01
In this talk I contrast three different particle dark matter candidates, all motivated by new physics beyond the Standard Model: supersymmetric dark matter, Kaluza-Klein dark matter, and scalar dark matter. I then discuss the prospects for their discovery and identification in both direct detection as well as collider experiments
Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit [eds.
2000-07-01
This year was a period of consolidation of the operation at the spallation source of PSI and its scientific exploitation at an increasing number of instruments. The major part of this annual report gives an overview of the research activities in the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich) of our department, mainly emphasizing highly correlated electron systems and the investigation of magnetism. The activities on multilayers and surfaces, a basic research object by itself, is however also to a large extent motivated by the development of optical components for neutron- and X-ray instrumentation. While most of the solid-state work has been done with neutrons, some contributions deal with other probes, like muons and synchrotron light, exploiting the unique possibilities at PSI, to take advantage of the complementary nature of the different probes. Progress in 1999 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 1999 is also provided.
Camp, Piet
1985-01-01
The 1984 Advanced Study Institute on "Electronic Structure, Dynamics and Quantum Structural Properties of Condensed Matter" took place at the Corsendonk Conference Center, close to the City of Antwerpen, from July 16 till 27, 1984. This NATO Advanced Study Institute was motivated by the research in my Institute, where, in 1971, a project was started on "ab-initio" phonon calculations in Silicon. I~ is my pleasure to thank several instances and people who made this ASI possible. First of all, the sponsor of the Institute, the NATO Scientific Committee. Next, the co-sponsors: Agfa-Gevaert, Bell Telephone Mfg. Co. N.V., C & A, Esso Belgium·, CDC Belgium, Janssens Pharmaceutica, Kredietbank and the Scientific Office of the U.S. Army. Special thanks are due to Dr. P. Van Camp and Drs. H. Nachtegaele, who, over several months, prepared the practical aspects of the ASI with the secretarial help of Mrs. R.-M. Vandekerkhof. I also like to. thank Mrs. M. Cuyvers who prepared and organized the subject and material ...
Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit
2000-01-01
This year was a period of consolidation of the operation at the spallation source of PSI and its scientific exploitation at an increasing number of instruments. The major part of this annual report gives an overview of the research activities in the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich) of our department, mainly emphasizing highly correlated electron systems and the investigation of magnetism. The activities on multilayers and surfaces, a basic research object by itself, is however also to a large extent motivated by the development of optical components for neutron- and X-ray instrumentation. While most of the solid-state work has been done with neutrons, some contributions deal with other probes, like muons and synchrotron light, exploiting the unique possibilities at PSI, to take advantage of the complementary nature of the different probes. Progress in 1999 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 1999 is also provided
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. L. Johnson
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We present a non-comprehensive review of some representative experimental studies in crystalline condensed matter systems where the effects of intense ultrashort light pulses are probed using x-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy. On an ultrafast (sub-picosecond time scale, conventional concepts derived from the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium must often be modified in order to adequately describe the time-dependent changes in material properties. There are several commonly adopted approaches to this modification, appropriate in different experimental circumstances. One approach is to treat the material as a collection of quasi-thermal subsystems in thermal contact with each other in the so-called “N-temperature” models. On the other extreme, one can also treat the time-dependent changes as fully coherent dynamics of a sometimes complex network of excitations. Here, we present examples of experiments that fall into each of these categories, as well as experiments that partake of both models. We conclude with a discussion of the limitations and future potential of these concepts.
Tang, Feng; Luo, Xi; Du, Yongping; Yu, Yue; Wan, Xiangang
Very recently, there has been significant progress in realizing high-energy particles in condensed matter system (CMS) such as the Dirac, Weyl and Majorana fermions. Besides the spin-1/2 particles, the spin-3/2 elementary particle, known as the Rarita-Schwinger (RS) fermion, has not been observed or simulated in the laboratory. The main obstacle of realizing RS fermion in CMS lies in the nontrivial constraints that eliminate the redundant degrees of freedom in its representation of the Poincaré group. In this Letter, we propose a generic method that automatically contains the constraints in the Hamiltonian and prove the RS modes always exist and can be separated from the other non-RS bands. Through symmetry considerations, we show that the two dimensional (2D) massive RS (M-RS) quasiparticle can emerge in several trigonal and hexagonal lattices. Based on ab initio calculations, we predict that the thin film of CaLiX (X=Ge and Si) may host 2D M-RS excitations near the Fermi level. and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing 210093, China.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kral, Teresa; Langner, M.; Hof, Martin; Adjimatera, N.; Blagbrough, I. S.
2004-01-01
Roč. 98, Supplement (2004), s22-s23 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : fluorescence * nanostructure * DNA condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.348, year: 2004
2005 Annual Report Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barlow, Stephan E.
2005-11-15
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its second annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2005. During this period, sixteen PNNL scientists hosted fourteen young scientists from eleven different universities. Of the fourteen participants, twelve were graduate students; one was a postdoctoral fellow; and one was a university faculty member.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, Sadhan K.
2004-01-01
Using the axially-symmetric time-dependent mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation we study the Josephson oscillation in a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate trapped by a harmonic plus an one-dimensional optical-lattice potential to describe the experiments by Cataliotti et al. [Science 293 (2001) 843, New J. Phys. 5 (2003) 71.1]. After a study of the formation of matter-wave interference upon releasing the condensate from the optical trap, we directly investigate the alternating atomic superfluid Josephson current upon displacing the harmonic trap along the optical axis. The Josephson current is found to be disrupted upon displacing the harmonic trap through a distance greater than a critical distance signaling a superfluid to a classical insulator transition in the condensate
Temperature dependence of the physical properties of Bose–Einstein condensed gases and liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayers, J
2014-01-01
It is shown that in the presence of Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) in any N particle system, the N particle Schrödinger wave functions of thermally occupied states are the sum of a ‘localized’ component and a ‘delocalized’ component, identical to the ground state wave function. It is shown that if N is sufficiently large, this implies that all physical properties of the system are the sum of two independent contributions from these two components. These results are used here to provide quantitative explanations of fundamental properties of BE condensed liquid 4 He, unexplained even qualitatively by existing theory; why BE condensed liquid 4 He is the only known physical system in which pair correlations between atomic positions reduce as it is cooled, why it is the only known liquid with sharp peaks in its dynamic structure factor, why the liquid expands with cooling and how the condensate fraction is related to the superfluid fraction. It is shown that these results also provide a relatively simple, physically transparent and quantitative explanation from first principles of macroscopic quantum effects. A new algorithm is given for the calculation of the time development of the macroscopic density of any BE condensed liquid or gas at any temperature. Unlike the Gross–Pitaevskii equation, this algorithm is valid for both strongly and weakly interacting systems. It is used here to show that macroscopic quantum interference fringes, observed between overlapping clouds of BE condensed atoms, are a necessary consequence of BEC and the N particle Schrödinger equation for the atoms in the clouds. It follows that the widely held view that these fringes are created by measurement is unnecessary. New, experimentally testable predictions are made of how the visibility of these fringes will vary with temperature. (paper)
Theory of homogeneous condensation from small nuclei. I. Modified Mayer theory of physical clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lockett, A.M. III
1980-01-01
A theory of physical clusters is developed within the framework of the Theory of Imperfect Gases. Physical monomers and clusters are redefined diagrammatically thereby removing the unphysical nature of the usual Mayer clusters while retaining essentially all of the desirable features of the Mayer theory. The resulting formulation is simple, unambiguous, and well suited for incorporation into a kinetic theory of condensation which is computationally tractable
Study of the Condensed Matter Dynamics by the Deep Inelastic Neutron Technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blostein, Juan Jeronimo
2004-01-01
physical phenomena.For the special case of light water/ heavy water mixtures we present calculations that reproduce the behavior of the reported anomalies on the hydrogen-deuterium neutron cross section rate.We present total cross section measurements of such liquid mixtures, in total agreement with the expected values, whereby we conclude that the purported anomalous cross sections (reported after employing the convolution approximation in the eVS data treatment) do not exist.The absence of anomalies in the total cross sections of those liquid mixtures provides a clear evidence of the invalidity of the convolution formalism usually employed in the eVS data treatment. In view of the main motivation that originated the eVS technique, and the clear invalidity of the convolution formalism, we present for the first time the exact formalism to obtain the nuclear impulse distributions in condensed matter systems, starting form the experimentally observed intensity profiles.Such formalism, valid for an arbitrary impulse distribution, does not require the harmonic potential hypothesis, and involves an integration kernel that depends analytically only on the instrumental characteristics, and is independent of the sample characteristics. Our work, besides assessing the magnitude of the inaccuracy of the convolution formalism, establishes the basis for a correct treatment of the experimental data obtained with this technique.On the experimental side, we implemented successfully the eVS technique in the linear accelerator pulsed neutron facility at the Bariloche Atomic Center, thus being the second laboratory in the world to employ it regularly.Monte Carlo simulation presented in this thesis, show the importance to adequately select the sample thickness, and to correct by multiple scattering, attenuation and detector efficiency effects, and also to employ the exact formalism.To this end it is necessary to characterize in detail the different elements that compose the experimental
7th International Conference on Physics of Liquid Matter : Modern Problems
Chalyi, Alexander
2018-01-01
This book presents a collection of selected lectures discussing current problems in molecular physics and reviews the main cutting-edge advances in condensed and soft matter physics. It offers deep insights and a powerful basis for scientists and engineers to study complicated problems in physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. The unification of experimental, theoretical, and computational methods allows milestone results to be achieved in areas such as ionic and ionic-electronic liquids, magnetic liquid systems, liquid systems with nanoparticles, structural phase transitions and critical phenomena, and small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering in liquids and liquid systems. The lectures selected for this book were held at the 7th International Conference “Physics of Liquid Matter: Modern Problems” (PLMMP-2016), 27–31 May in Kiev, Ukraine.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doddato, Francesca; McDonald, John
2011-01-01
We study the conditions for successful Affleck-Dine baryogenesis and the origin of gravitino dark matter in GMSB models. AD baryogenesis in GMSB models is ruled out by neutron star stability unless Q-balls are unstable and decay before nucleosynthesis. Unstable Q-balls can form if the messenger mass scale is larger than the flat-direction field Φ when the condensate fragments. We provide an example based on AD baryogenesis along a d = 6 flat direction for the case where m 3/2 ≈ 2GeV, as predicted by gravitino dark matter from Q-ball decay. Using a phenomenological GMSB potential which models the Φ dependence of the SUSY breaking terms, we numerically solve for the evolution of Φ and show that the messenger mass can be sufficiently close to the flat-direction field when the condensate fragments. We compute the corresponding reheating temperature and the baryonic charge of the condensate fragments and show that the charge is large enough to produce late-decaying Q-balls which can be the origin of gravitino dark matter
2006 Annual Report Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avery, Nikki B.; Barlow, Stephan E.
2006-11-10
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its third annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2006. During this period, twenty PNNL scientists hosted twenty-seven scientists from twenty-five different universities. Of the twenty-seven participants, one was a graduating senior; twenty-one were graduate students; one was a postdoctoral fellow; and four were university faculty members.
2007 Annual Report Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beck, Kenneth M.
2007-10-31
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its fourth annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from April through September 2007. During this time, 21 PNNL scientists hosted 23 participants from 20 different universities. Of the 23 participants, 20 were graduate students, 1 was a postdoctoral fellow, and 2 were university faculty members. This report covers the essense of the program and the research the participants performed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolomeitsev, E.E. [Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Voskresensky, D.N. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
The spectrum of bosonic scalar-mode excitations in a normal Fermi liquid with local scalar interaction is investigated for various values and momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter f{sub 0} in the particle-hole channel. For f{sub 0} > 0 the conditions are found when the phase velocity on the spectrum of zero sound acquires a minimum at non-zero momentum. For -1 < f{sub 0} < 0 there are only damped excitations, and for f{sub 0} < -1 the spectrum becomes unstable against the growth of scalar-mode excitations. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar excitation modes is derived after performing a bosonization procedure. We demonstrate that the instability may be tamed by the formation of a static Bose condensate of the scalar modes. The condensation may occur in a homogeneous or inhomogeneous state relying on the momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter. We show that in the isospin-symmetric nuclear matter there may appear a metastable state at subsaturation nuclear density owing to the condensate. Then we consider a possibility of the condensation of the zero-sound-like excitations in a state with a non-zero momentum in Fermi liquids moving with overcritical velocities, provided an appropriate momentum dependence of the Landau parameter f{sub 0}(k) > 0. We also argue that in peripheral heavy-ion collisions the Pomeranchuk instability may occur already for f{sub 0} > -1. (orig.)
Investigation of static and dynamic properties of condensed matter by using neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidovic, M.
1997-01-01
Possibilities of using neutron scattering for investigating microscopic properties of materials are analyzed. Basic neutron scattering theory is presented and its use in structure and dynamics analyses of condense systems. (author)
EDITORIAL: Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics
Aprile, Elena; Profumo, Stefano
2009-10-01
The quest for the nature of dark matter has reached a historical point in time, with several different and complementary experiments on the verge of conclusively exploring large portions of the parameter space of the most theoretically compelling particle dark matter models. This focus issue on dark matter and particle physics brings together a broad selection of invited articles from the leading experimental and theoretical groups in the field. The leitmotif of the collection is the need for a multi-faceted search strategy that includes complementary experimental and theoretical techniques with the common goal of a sound understanding of the fundamental particle physical nature of dark matter. These include theoretical modelling, high-energy colliders and direct and indirect searches. We are confident that the works collected here present the state of the art of this rapidly changing field and will be of interest to both experts in the topic of dark matter as well as to those new to this exciting field. Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics Contents DARK MATTER AND ASTROPHYSICS Scintillator-based detectors for dark matter searches I S K Kim, H J Kim and Y D Kim Cosmology: small-scale issues Joel R Primack Big Bang nucleosynthesis and particle dark matter Karsten Jedamzik and Maxim Pospelov Particle models and the small-scale structure of dark matter Torsten Bringmann DARK MATTER AND COLLIDERS Dark matter in the MSSM R C Cotta, J S Gainer, J L Hewett and T G Rizzo The role of an e+e- linear collider in the study of cosmic dark matter M Battaglia Collider, direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter Howard Baer, Eun-Kyung Park and Xerxes Tata INDIRECT PARTICLE DARK MATTER SEARCHES:EXPERIMENTS PAMELA and indirect dark matter searches M Boezio et al An indirect search for dark matter using antideuterons: the GAPS experiment C J Hailey Perspectives for indirect dark matter search with AMS-2 using cosmic-ray electrons and positrons B Beischer, P von
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schurtenberger, P.; Cavaco, C.
1992-01-01
''Complex fluids'' or ''soft condensed matter'' have recently attracted considerable attention both experimentally as well as theoretically. The hypothesis of a water-induced formation of flexible cylindrical micelles and the existence of entanglement networks was largely based on ''low-resolution'' light scattering and rheological measurements and analogies to classical polymer theory. In order to directly confirm this picture and verify the postulated analogy between the structural properties of polymer chains and lecithin reverse micelles we now used a combination of static light scattering and small angle neutron scattering. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang Weiyan; Tuhe Xia
2009-01-01
The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either 'direct' or 'in-direct x-ray driven' type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of 'chirped' lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of 'fast ignition (FI)' to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed 'block ignition' (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter 'clusters' of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B 11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B 11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B 11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants
Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang, Weiyan; tu He, Xia
2009-03-01
The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either "direct "or "in-direct x-ray driven" type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of "chirped" lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of "fast ignition (FI)" to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed "block ignition" (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter "clusters" of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants using p
Impact of condensed matter theories on material studies at high pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godwal, B.K.; Rao, R.S.; Sikka, S.K.; Chidambaram, R.
1997-01-01
We are vigorously pursuing a program to study the behaviour of materials under pressure for the last three decades. Theoretical component has been an important part of our activity. The initial phase of such efforts was devoted to the development of equation of state models at arbitrary temperature and matter density. With the advent of diamond anvil cell device and improvements of the diagnostic technique in dynamic methods, the focus of our studies switched over to the predictions and interpretations of phase transitions. Many times these have led to intense experimental studies and sometimes helped in resolving the controversies. The introduction of linear methods in electron band theory and availability of supercomputers and parallel processors have given boost to the computational physics, and the efforts are now being extended more and more to the ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. These simulations have a promise to avoid the tedious search for structural stability by trail and error in phase transition studies under pressure or temperature. The current status of our efforts in this direction will be listed with an illustration on liquid sulphur. Our past work on electronic topological transition in zinc led to many experimental and theoretical investigations. The results of electronic structure changes in similar metal cadmium shall be compared with existing understanding in Zn under pressure. Our studies on other compounds (AuIn 2 , YNi 2 B 2 C), which have also been found to display electronic topological transition under pressure, will be discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, C; Henderson, K C; Boshier, M G
2014-01-01
Bessel beams are plane waves with amplitude profiles described by Bessel functions. They are important because they propagate ‘diffraction-free’ and because they can carry orbital angular momentum. Here we report the creation of a Bessel beam of de Broglie matter waves. The Bessel beam is produced by the free evolution of a thin toroidal atomic Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) which has been set into rotational motion. By attempting to stir it at different rotation rates, we show that the toroidal BEC can only be made to rotate at discrete, equally spaced frequencies, demonstrating that circulation is quantized in atomic BECs. The method used here can be viewed as a form of wavefunction engineering which might be developed to implement cold atom matter wave holography. (paper)
2015 Soft Condensed Matter Physics: Self-Assembly and Active Matter GRC/GRS
2015-10-20
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard Poster Presenter Registered Beller, Daniel A Harvard University Poster Presenter Registered Bi, Dapeng Syracuse...Poster Presenter Registered Deforet, Maxime Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Poster Presenter Registered Del Gado, Emanuela Georgetown...Registered Dullens, Roel University of Oxford Poster Presenter Registered Fakhri, Nikta MIT Poster Presenter Registered Fan, Jing Harvard
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund
2014-01-01
The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ne, F.; Zemb, T.
1998-01-01
This project is a part of the 'SOLEIL' synchrotron project. The camera proposed is optimized for small angle x-ray scattering in the domain of soft condensed matter, common heterogeneous materials such as wood, cements, glass, and more generally non-crystalline materials. The beam line is designed to allow a quick succession of different users without time consuming adjustments. Therefore, optical settings are minimized, taking into account the pluri-disciplinary nature of the analysis possibilities. To this end, the technical requirements are as follows. First and essentially, the wave-length has to be fixed and set around 12 keV. Focusing mirrors, optics to sample and sample to detector distances, and the size of the detector allow for a wide range of wave vector to be used. Rejection rate will be lower, and angular dynamical range will be larger than any of the current synchrotron lines. We want this line to be, and to stay, complementary to more specific systems, such as reflectivity experiments or grazing angle scattering experiments. However, we are thinking of an adaptation to ultra small angle scattering mode, based on the Bonse and Hart camera. Such equipment, actually a kind of 'Instamatic' of the reciprocal space, will fulfill to the need of chemical engineers, biophysicists or material scientists interested in hard as well as soft condensed matter. It will allow a large amount of experiments per time unit. (author)
CURRICULUM MATTERS: Physics 2000: a personal view
Field, R. J.
1997-03-01
The author expresses his personal views of how Physics for A-level should develop towards the year 2000. These cover: the historical treatment of core topics, syllabus structure and the relevance of practical physics.
2008 Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics Annual Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garrett, Bruce C.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Avery, Nachael B.
2008-11-01
For the fifth year, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, invited graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, university faculty, and students entering graduate students from around the world to participate in the Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics. The institute offers participants the opportunity to gain hands-on experience in top-notch research laboratories while working along internationally respected mentors. Of the 38 applicants, 20 were accepted for the 8- to 10-week program. The participants came from universities as close as Seattle and Portland and as far away as Germany and Singapore. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the 20 participants were mentored by 13 scientists. These mentors help tailor the participant’s experience to the needs of that person. Further, the mentors provide guidance on experimental and theoretical techniques, research design and completion, and other aspects of scientific careers in interfacial and condensed phase chemical physics. The research conducted at the institute can result in tangible benefits for the participants. For example, many have co-authored papers that have been published in peer-reviewed journals, including top-rated journals such as Science. Also, they have presented their research at conferences, such as the Gordon Research Conference on Dynamics at Surfaces and the AVS national meeting. Beyond that, many of the participants have started building professional connections with researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, connections that will serve them well during their careers.
Nonlocal astrophysics dark matter, dark energy and physical vacuum
Alexeev, Boris V
2017-01-01
Non-Local Astrophysics: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Physical Vacuum highlights the most significant features of non-local theory, a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems in areas where classical local theory runs into difficulties. The book provides the fundamental science behind new non-local astrophysics, discussing non-local kinetic and generalized hydrodynamic equations, non-local parameters in several physical systems, dark matter, dark energy, black holes and gravitational waves. Devoted to the solution of astrophysical problems from the position of non-local physics Provides a solution for dark matter and dark energy Discusses cosmological aspects of the theory of non-local physics Includes a solution for the problem of the Hubble Universe expansion, and of the dependence of the orbital velocity from the center of gravity
Excitonic condensation in systems of strongly correlated electrons
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kuneš, Jan
2015-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 33 (2015), s. 333201 ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electronic correlations * exciton * Bose-Einstein condensation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2015
Tunable rotary orbits of matter-wave nonlinear modes in attractive Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Y J; Wang, H Z; Malomed, Boris A; Mihalache, Dumitru
2008-01-01
We demonstrate that by spatially modulating the Bessel optical lattice where a Bose-Einstein condensate is loaded, we get tunable rotary orbits of nonlinear lattice modes. We show that the radially expanding or shrinking Bessel lattice can drag the nonlinear localized modes to orbits of either larger or smaller radii and the rotary velocity of nonlinear modes can be changed accordingly. The localized modes can even be transferred to the Bessel lattice core when the localized modes' rotations are stopped. Effects beyond the quasi-particle approximation such as destruction of the nonlinear modes by nonadiabatic dragging are also explored
Khunjua, T. G.; Klimenko, K. G.; Zhokhov, R. N.
2018-03-01
In this paper the phase structure of dense quark matter has been investigated at zero temperature in the presence of baryon, isospin and chiral isospin chemical potentials in the framework of massless (3 +1 )-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with two quark flavors. It has been shown that in the large-Nc limit (Nc is the number of colors of quarks) there exists a duality correspondence between the chiral symmetry breaking phase and the charged pion condensation one. The key conclusion of our studies is the fact that chiral isospin chemical potential generates charged pion condensation in dense quark matter with isotopic asymmetry.
Israel physical society 1991 annual meeting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
The volume contains 79 abstracts of lectures covering some aspects of the following physical sciences: particles and fields; astrophysics and space physics; lasers and spectroscopy; environmental physics; nuclear physics; medical physics; chaos; condensed matter
Atomic physics precise measurements and ultracold matter
Inguscio, Massimo
2013-01-01
Atomic Physics provides an expert guide to two spectacular new landscapes in physics: precision measurements, which have been revolutionized by the advent of the optical frequency comb, and atomic physics, which has been revolutionized by laser cooling. These advances are not incremental but transformative: they have generated a consilience between atomic and many-body physics, precipitated an explosion of scientific and technological applications, opened new areas of research, and attracted a brilliant generation of younger scientists. The research is advancing so rapidly, the barrage of applications is so dazzling, that students can be bewildered. For both students and experienced scientists, this book provides an invaluable description of basic principles, experimental methods, and scientific applications.
Transcending matter: physics and ultimate meaning.
Paulson, Steve; Frank, Adam; Kaiser, David; Maudlin, Tim; Natarajan, Priyamvada
2015-12-01
From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics-from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm-a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.
Particle physics: Matter and antimatter scrutinized
Jungmann, Klaus Peter
2015-01-01
A search for differences in the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and antiprotons, conducted at unprecedented levels of precision, results in stringent limits to the validity of fundamental physical symmetries.
Space, Time, Matter, and Form Essays on Aristotle's Physics
Bostock, David
2006-01-01
Space, Time, Matter, and Form collects ten of David Bostock's essays on themes from Aristotle's Physics, four of them published here for the first time. The first five papers look at issues raised in the first two books of the Physics, centred on notions of matter and form, and the idea of substance as what persists through change. They also range over other of Aristotle's scientific works, such as his biology and psychology and the account of change in his De Generatione et Corruptione. The volume's remaining essays examine themes in later books of the Physics, including infinity, place, time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division
2016-11-14
These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.
Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Lei
2018-01-01
To show the existence and properties of matter rogue waves in an F =1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), we work on the three-component Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations. Via the Darboux-dressing transformation, we obtain a family of rational solutions describing the extreme events, i.e. rogue waves. This family of solutions includes bright-dark-bright and bright-bright-bright rogue waves. The algebraic construction depends on Lax matrices and their Jordan form. The conditions for the existence of rogue wave solutions in an F =1 spinor BEC are discussed. For the three-component GP equations, if there is modulation instability, it is of baseband type only, confirming our analytic conditions. The energy transfers between the waves are discussed.
Physics of the galaxy and interstellar matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffler, H.; Elsasser, H.
1988-01-01
This book is based on the authors' long standing experience in teaching astronomy courses. It presents in a modern and complete way our present picture of the physics of the Milky Way system. The first part of the book deals with topics of more empirical character, such as the positions and motions of stars, the structure and kinetics of the stellar systems and interstellar phenomena. The more advanced second part is devoted to the interpretation of observational results, i.e. to the physics of interstellar gas and dust, to stellar dynamics, to the theory of spiral structures and the dynamics of interstellar gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robitaille P.-M.
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The continuous spectrum of the solar photosphere stands as the paramount observation with regard to the condensed nature of the solar body. Studies relative to Kirchhoﬀ’s law of thermal emission (e.g. Robitaille P.-M. Kirchhoﬀ’s law of thermal emission: 150 years. Progr. Phys., 2009, v. 4, 3–13. and a detailed analysis of the stellar opacity problem (Robitaille P.M. Stellar opacity: The Achilles’ heel of the gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 93–99 have revealed that gaseous models remain unable to properly account for the generation of this spectrum. Therefore, it can be stated with certainty that the photosphere is comprised of condensed matter. Beyond the solar surface, the chromospheric layer of the Sun also generates a weak continuous spectrum in the visible region. This emission exposes the presence of material in the condensed state. As a result, above the level of the photosphere, matter exists in both gaseous and condensed forms, much like within the atmosphere of the Earth. The continuous visible spectrum associated with the chromosphere provides the twenty-sixth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.
Preparata, Giuliano
1995-01-01
Up until now the dominant view of condensed matter physics has been that of an "electrostatic MECCANO" (erector set, for Americans). This book is the first systematic attempt to consider the full quantum-electrodynamical interaction (QED), thus greatly enriching the possible dynamical mechanisms that operate in the construction of the wonderful variety of condensed matter systems, including life itself.A new paradigm is emerging, replacing the "electrostatic MECCANO" with an "electrodynamic NETWORK," which builds condensed matter through the long range (as opposed to the "short range" nature o
Stopping powers of energetic electrons penetrating condensed matter-theory and application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan Zhenyu; Xia Yueyuan
2004-01-01
In this review article, the motivation of studying inelastic energy loss for energetic electrons penetrating through matter and the corresponding technological importance have been outlined. The theoretical development and method for the calculation of stopping powers are described. The stopping power data tables for a group of polymers and bioorganic compounds are presented, and the application aspects of the stopping power data are briefly discussed. (authors)
Light-matter interaction physics and engineering at the nanoscale
Weiner, John
2017-01-01
Light–matter interaction is pervasive throughout the disciplines of optical and atomic physics, condensedmatter physics, and electrical engineering with frequency and length scales extending over many orders of magnitude. The frequency range extends from a few tens of Hz for sea communications to hundreds of petaHz (1015 s–1) for X-ray imaging systems. Length scales range from thousands of kilometres to a few hundred picometres. Although the present work does not offer an exhaustive treatise on this vast subject, it does aim to provide advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers from these diverse disciplines the principal tools required to understand and contribute to rapidly advancing developments in light–matter interaction centred at optical frequencies and length scales. Classical electrodynamics, with an emphasis on the macroscopic expressions of Maxwell’s equations, physical optics, and quantum mechanics provide unique perspectives to the interaction of light and matter at these...
Physical activity school intervention: context matters.
Guldager, J D; Andersen, P T; von Seelen, J; Leppin, A
2018-06-01
School-based interventions for increasing physical activity among children are widespread, however there is still a lack of knowledge about how school context factors are linked to implementation quality and effectiveness of programmes. The aim of this paper is to examine teacher-perceived effectiveness of a Danish national classroom-based health programme 'Active Around Denmark' and in particular, to investigate whether perceptions vary as a function of school social context factors. After completion of the programme all teachers (N = 5.892) received an electronic questionnaire. 2.097 completed the questionnaire (response rate 36%) and 1.781 datasets could be used for analysis. The teachers were asked about their perceptions of changes in children's attitudes towards and levels of physical activity after the competition. Our results indicated that certain contextual factors, such as schools' prioritization of health promotion, teachers' support by their school principal in implementation as well as teacher's satisfaction with the school' physical environment made a significant difference in teacher-perceived effectiveness. To conclude, teacher-perceived effectiveness of the health programme does vary as a function of school social context factors.
Making Physics Matter in Primary Schools
Flaherty, Jackie; Cox, Wendy; Poole, Amanda; Watson, Jenny; Greygoose, Kirstin
2016-04-01
"Efforts to broaden students' aspirations, particularly in relation to STEM, need to begin in primary school." Kings College London "Aspires" Research Project 2013 From my outreach activity I have learnt that primary teachers could feel under pressure when faced with delivering the science curriculum. The teachers could be lacking confidence in their subject knowledge, lacking the equipment needed to deliver practical science or lacking enthusiasm for the subject. In addition, English and Mathematics were the subjects that were externally tested and reported to the authorities and so some teachers felt that time for science was being marginalised to ensure the best results in the externally assessed subjects. In my work with The Ogden Trust Primary Science team I have been involved in developing a range of strategies to address some of the issues outlined above. • CPD (Teacher Training) Programme We have provided free training to improve teachers knowledge and understanding of key physics concepts to GCSE standard and a practical workshop consisting of ten investigations, extension and challenge tasks. The teachers each receive a book of lesson plans and a resource box containing a class set of the equipment required. The four year programme covers Forces Light and Sound Electricity Earth & Space • "Phiz Labs" Funding from The Ogden Trust has allowed us to set up science laboratories within primary schools. The pupils have lab coats, goggles and access to a range of equipment that allows them to participate in more practical science activity and open-ended investigative work. My Phiz Lab is in the secondary school where I teach physics and practical workshops for primary pupils and teachers are held there on a regular basis. • Enrichment In order to enthuse and challenge the primary pupils a variety of enrichment activities take place. These include "Physics of Go-Karts" and "Particle Physics for Primary" workshops, competitions and regional Science Fairs
Physics of hot hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuryak, E.V.
1990-07-01
This Introductory talk contains a brief review of the current status of theoretical and experimental activities related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we discuss latest lattice results on the phase transition, recent progress in chiral symmetry physics based on the theory of interacting instantons, new in the theory of QGP and of hot hadronic matter, mean p t and collective flow, the shape of p t distribution, strangeness production, J/ψ suppression and φ enhancement, two puzzles connected with soft pion and soft photon enhancements, and some other ''ultrasoft'' phenomena. 56 refs., 6 figs
On importance of dark matter for LHC physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bednyakov, V.A.
2000-01-01
The aim of this paper is to attract attention of the LHC high-energy physics community to non-accelerator, low-energy experiments that are also very sensitive to new physics. This example concerns the search for supersymmetric dark matter particles. It is shown that non-observation of the SUSY dark matter candidates with a high-accuracy detector can exclude large domains of the MSSM parameter space and, in particular, can make especially desirable collider search for light SUSY charged Higgs boson
Condensed tannins in the diets of primates: a matter of methods?
Rothman, Jessica M; Dusinberre, Kathy; Pell, Alice N
2009-01-01
To understand the ways in which condensed tannins (CT) affect primate diet selection and nutritional status, correct measurements are essential. In the majority of studies of the CT contents of primate foods, a tannin source such as "quebracho" is used to standardize CT assays, but the CT in quebracho tannin may not be similar to those in the plants of interest. We investigated how the choice of standard to calibrate CT assays affects the estimation of CT in the diets of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei). We purified the CT from gorilla foods and compared the actual amounts of CT in the foods with estimates produced by using the quebracho tannin. When quebracho was used, the estimates of CT contents of gorilla foods were, on average, 3.6 times the actual content of CT so that the amounts in frequently eaten gorilla foods were substantially overestimated. The overestimation for a given plant could not be predicted reliably and the ranking of plants by tannin content differed according to the standard used. Our results demonstrate that accurate measurements of CT necessitate the use of tannins purified from the plant species of interest. A reevaluation of primatology studies using interspecific comparisons of tannin content will provide new insights into primate food selection and nutritional ecology. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The generation of high-power charge particle micro beams and its interaction with condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogel, N.; Skvortsov, V.A.
1996-01-01
As has been observed experimentally, the action of a picosecond laser beam on an Al-target in air gives rise to the generation and acceleration of high-power micro electron and ion beams. An original theoretical model for describing the generation and particle acceleration of such micro beams as a result of the micro channeling effect is presented. It was found that extreme states of matter, with compression in the Gbar pressure range, can be produced by such micro beams. (author). 3 figs., 12 refs
New analytic and computational techniques for finite temperature condensed matter systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arias, T.A.
1992-01-01
By employing a special summation technique we find that the breakdown of the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect in the three dimensional Bose gas as the applied field passes;through its critical value is an entropy driven weakly first order transition, rather than the second order transition usually ascribed to the system. The transition is second order at the usual Bose condensation temperature T c as well as at T = O, with a line o first order transition connecting these critical points. The first order transitions make the Bose gas resemble familiar superconductors, and a Landau-Ginzburg analysis indicates that the Bose gas is always a type I superconductor. We employ the recently introduce conjugate-gradient methods for minimization of the electronic energy functional to perform an extensive ab initio study of the Σ = 5 tilt [310] grain boundary in germanium. We find that the boundary reliably reconstructs to the tetrahedrally bonded network observed in HREM experiments without the proliferation of false local minima observed in similar twist boundaries. The reduced density of bonds crossing the grain boundary plan leads us to conjecture that the boundary may be a preferred fracture interface. We then combine these conjugate-gradient methods with a new technique for generating trail wavefunctions to produce an efficient ab initio molecular dynamics scheme that is that is at least two orders of magnitude more accurate than previous schemes and thus allows accurate calculation of dynamic correlation functions while maintaining tolerable energy conservation for microcanonical averages of those correlation function over picosecond time scales. We present two advances which greatly enhance the efficiency of our new ab initio molecular dynamics technique. We introduce a class of generalizations of traditional Fermionic energy functionals which allow us to lift the orthonormality constraints on the single particle orbitals and thus speed convergence
Astrophysical dark matter: candidates from particle physics and detection possibilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freese, K.
1989-01-01
In this talk, I will discuss the arguments that 50% to 90% of the matter in galaxies, including our own, is made of an unknown type of dark matter. I will review the reason why cosmologists believe Ω = 1 and illustrate the contrast with the limits on the amount of baryonic matter from element abundances in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Other arguments for nonbaryonic dark matter will also be discussed. Candidates for the dark matter from particle physics will be presented. I will focus on cold dark matter candidates known as WIMPs, weakly interacting massive (O(GeV)) particles. I will try to illustrate why these particles are interesting for astrophysics and outline ideas for cornering them. Detection possibilities for these particles include indirect detection, which takes advantage of the annihilation products of these particles in the galactic halo, the sun, or the earth. Direct detection via newly proposed cryogenic detectors must be sensitive to <∼ keV energy deposits. Annual modulation of the dark matter signal can be used as a signature for these halo particles. I hope to motivate the interest in these particles and discuss ideas for finding them
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamboa, J.; Mendez, F.; Grigorio, L.S.; Guimaraes, M.S.; Wotzasek, C.
2008-01-01
We study the radiative corrections of QED 3 from the dual point of view and show that this process is the exact dual to the Julia-Toulouse mechanism introduced by Quevedo and Trugenberger [F. Quevedo, C.A. Trugenberger, Nucl. Phys. B 501 (1997) 143] some years ago. We discuss the physics behind this mechanism that involves condensation of topological defects. It is shown that the dual Stuckelberg mechanism is responsible for the 'rank-jump' phenomenon that transforms the scalar field (dual to Maxwell in this dimensionality) into the vectorial self-dual field. This phenomenon is studied using the ideas of noncommutative fields theory that examines possible deformations of the canonical structure of some well-known models in (2+1)D. A deformation is constructed linking the massless scalar field theory with the self-dual theory. This is the exact dual of the known deformation connecting the Maxwell theory with the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory. Duality, radiative corrections, the Julia-Toulouse mechanism and canonical deformations are then used to establish a web of relations between the mentioned theories and to propose a physical picture of the deformation procedure adopted
Mohammed, Asadig; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu
2012-11-02
We present an embedding of the three-dimensional relativistic Landau-Ginzburg model for condensed matter systems in an N = 6, U(N) × U(N) Chern-Simons-matter theory [the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model] by consistently truncating the latter to an Abelian effective field theory encoding the collective dynamics of O(N) of the O(N(2)) modes. In fact, depending on the vacuum expectation value on one of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena scalars, a mass deformation parameter μ and the Chern-Simons level number k, our Abelianization prescription allows us to interpolate between the Abelian Higgs model with its usual multivortex solutions and a Ø(4) theory. We sketch a simple condensed matter model that reproduces all the salient features of the Abelianization. In this context, the Abelianization can be interpreted as giving a dimensional reduction from four dimensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baltensperger, U.
1995-01-01
This annex reports on the PSI division IIIA's progress achieved during 1994 in the Laboratory of Ionbeam-Physics, the Laboratory of Radiochemistry; the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and the Laboratory for Astrophysics. Progress of the spallation neutron source project (SINQ) is documented by a set of pictures. A bibliography of the department's publications is included. figs., tabs., refs
Department F3. Condensed matter research and materials sciences. Progress report 1989
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.
1990-04-01
The report deals with work done during 1989 in the field of muon spectroscopy, neutron scattering, cryogenic detectors, accelerator mass spectrometry, geochemistry, trace elements, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement products, defect physics, irradiation damages in fusion reactor materials, and superconductivity. 135 figs., 15 tabs. 417 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baltensperger, U [ed.; Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1995-10-01
This annex reports on the PSI division IIIA`s progress achieved during 1994 in the Laboratory of Ionbeam-Physics, the Laboratory of Radiochemistry; the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and the Laboratory for Astrophysics. Progress of the spallation neutron source project (SINQ) is documented by a set of pictures. A bibliography of the department`s publications is included. figs., tabs., refs.
Nuclear physics: the core of matter, the fuel of stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiffer, J.P.
1999-01-01
Dramatic progress has been made in all branches of physics since the National Research Council's 1986 decadal survey of the field. The Physics in a New Era series explores these advances and looks ahead to future goals. The series includes assessments of the major subfields and reports on several smaller subfields, and preparation has begun on an overview volume on the unity of physics, its relationships to other fields, and its contributions to national needs. Nuclear Physics is the latest volume of the series. The book describes current activity in understanding nuclear structure and symmetries, the behavior of matter at extreme densities, the role of nuclear physics in astrophysics and cosmology, and the instrumentation and facilities used by the field. It makes recommendations on the resources needed for experimental and theoretical advances in the coming decade. Nuclear physics addresses the nature of matter making up 99.9 percent of the mass of our everyday world. It explores the nuclear reactions that fuel the stars, including our Sun, which provides the energy for all life on Earth. The field of nuclear physics encompasses some 3,000 experimental and theoretical researchers who work at universities and national laboratories across the United States, as well as the experimental facilities and infrastructure that allow these researchers to address the outstanding scientific questions facing us. This report provides an overview of the frontiers of nuclear physics as we enter the next millennium, with special attention to the state of the science in the United States.The current frontiers of nuclear physics involve fundamental and rapidly evolving issues. One is understanding the structure and behavior of strongly interacting matter in terms of its basic constituents, quarks and gluons, over a wide range of conditions - from normal nuclear matter to the dense cores of neutron stars, and to the Big Bang that was the birth of the universe. Another is to describe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1987-01-01
The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included
High energy synchrotron radiation. A new probe for condensed matter research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, J.R.; Bouchard, R.; Brueckel, T.; Lippert, M.; Neumann, H.B.; Poulsen, H.F.; Ruett, U.; Schmidt, T.; Zimmermann, M. von
1994-01-01
The absorption of 150 keV synchrotron radiation in matter is weak and, as normally done with neutrons, bulk properties are studied in large samples. However, the k-space resolution obtained with a Triple Crystal Diffractometer (TCD) for high energy synchrotron radiation is about one order of magnitude better than in high resolution neutron diffraction. The technique has been applied to measure the structure factor S(Q) of amorphous solids up to momentum transfers of the order of 32 A -1 , to study the intermediate range Ortho-II ordering in large, high quality YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.5 single crystals and for investigations of the defect scattering from annealed Czochralski grown silicon crystals. Magnetic superlattice reflections have been measured in MnF 2 demonstrating the potential of the technique for high resolution studies of ground state bulk antiferromagnetism. Recently the question of two length scales in the critical scattering at the 100 K phase transition in SrTiO 3 was studied. At the PETRA storage ring, which serves as an accumulator for the HERA electron-proton-ring at DESY and which can be operated up to electron energies of 12 GeV, an undulator beam line is currently under construction and should be available in summer 1995. It opens up exciting new research opportunities for photon energies from about 20 to 150 keV. (orig.)
Light-matter interaction physics and engineering at the nanoscale
Weiner, John
2013-01-01
This book draws together the essential elements of classical electrodynamics, surface wave physics, plasmonic materials, and circuit theory of electrical engineering to provide insight into the essential physics of nanoscale light-matter interaction and to provide design methodology for practical nanoscale plasmonic devices. A chapter on classical and quantal radiation also highlights the similarities (and differences) between the classical fields of Maxwell's equations and the wave functions of Schrodinger's equation. The aim of this chapter is to provide a semiclassical picture of atomic absorption and emission of radiation, lending credence and physical plausibility to the "rules" of standard wave-mechanical calculations.
Physics understanding the properties of matter and energy
2015-01-01
Without physics, modern life would not exist. Instead of electric light, we would read by the light of candles. We couldn''t build skyscrapers. We could not possibly bridge rivers, much less build a jet or interplanetary craft. Computers and smartphones would be unimaginable. Physics is concerned with the most fundamental aspects of matter and energy and how they interact to make the physical universe work. In accessible language and with explanatory graphics and visual aids, this book introduces readers to the science that is at the very center of all other sciences and essential to our very
Nonlinear waves in Bose–Einstein condensates: physical relevance and mathematical techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carretero-González, R; Frantzeskakis, D J; Kevrekidis, P G
2008-01-01
The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to some of the physical notions and the mathematical methods that are relevant to the study of nonlinear waves in Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Upon introducing the general framework, we discuss the prototypical models that are relevant to this setting for different dimensions and different potentials confining the atoms. We analyse some of the model properties and explore their typical wave solutions (plane wave solutions, bright, dark, gap solitons as well as vortices). We then offer a collection of mathematical methods that can be used to understand the existence, stability and dynamics of nonlinear waves in such BECs, either directly or starting from different types of limits (e.g. the linear or the nonlinear limit or the discrete limit of the corresponding equation). Finally, we consider some special topics involving more recent developments, and experimental setups in which there is still considerable need for developing mathematical as well as computational tools. (invited article)
Use of cold neutrons for condensed matter research at the neutron guide laboratory ELLA in Juelich
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaetzler, R.; Monkenbusch, M.
1998-01-01
Cold neutrons produced in the FRJ-2 DIDO reactor are guided into the external hall ELLA. It hosts 10 instruments that are red by three major neutron guides. Cold neutrons allow for diffraction and small angle scattering experiments resolving mesoscopic structures (1 to 100 nm). Contrast variation by isotopic substitution in chemically identical species yields information uniquely accessible bi neutrons. Inelastic scattering of cold neutrons allows investigating slow molecular motions because the low neutron velocity results in large relative velocity changes even at small energy transfers. The SANS machines and the HADAS reflectometer serve as structure probes and the backscattering BSS1 and spin-echo spectrometers NSE as main dynamics probes. Besides this the diffuse scattering instrument DNS and the lattice parameter determination instrument LAP deal mainly with crystals and their defects. Finally the beta-NMR and the EKN position allow for methods other than scattering employing nuclear reactions for solid state physics, chemistry and biology/medicine. (author)
Landau-Migdal parameters and pion condensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tatsumi, Toshitaka [Department of Physics, Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)
1999-08-01
The possibility of pion condensation, one of the long-standing issues in nuclear physics, is reexamined in the light of the recent experimental data on the giant Gamow-Teller resonance. The experimental result tells that the coupling of nucleon particle-hole states with {delta} isobar-hole states in the spin-isospin channel should be weaker than that previously believed. It, in turn, implies that nuclear matter has the making of pion condensation at low densities. The possibility and implications of pion condensation in the heavy-ion collisions and neutron stars should be seriously reconsidered. (author)
Simulation of charge transfer and orbital rehybridization in molecular and condensed matter systems
Nistor, Razvan A.
The mixing and shifting of electronic orbitals in molecules, or between atoms in bulk systems, is crucially important to the overall structure and physical properties of materials. Understanding and accurately modeling these orbital interactions is of both scientific and industrial relevance. Electronic orbitals can be perturbed in several ways. Doping, adding or removing electrons from systems, can change the bond-order and the physical properties of certain materials. Orbital rehybridization, driven by either thermal or pressure excitation, alters the short-range structure of materials and changes their long-range transport properties. Macroscopically, during bond formation, the shifting of electronic orbitals can be interpreted as a charge transfer phenomenon, as electron density may pile up around, and hence, alter the effective charge of, a given atom in the changing chemical environment. Several levels of theory exist to elucidate the mechanisms behind these orbital interactions. Electronic structure calculations solve the time-independent Schrodinger equation to high chemical accuracy, but are computationally expensive and limited to small system sizes and simulation times. Less fundamental atomistic calculations use simpler parameterized functional expressions called force-fields to model atomic interactions. Atomistic simulations can describe systems and time-scales larger and longer than electronic-structure methods, but at the cost of chemical accuracy. In this thesis, both first-principles and phenomenological methods are addressed in the study of several encompassing problems dealing with charge transfer and orbital rehybridization. Firstly, a new charge-equilibration method is developed that improves upon existing models to allow next-generation force-fields to describe the electrostatics of changing chemical environments. Secondly, electronic structure calculations are used to investigate the doping dependent energy landscapes of several high
P. W. Bridgman's contributions to the foundations of shock compression of condensed matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nellis, W J, E-mail: nellis@physics.harvard.ed [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)
2010-03-01
Based on his 50-year career in static high-pressure research, P. W. Bridgman (PWB) is the father of modern high-pressure physics. What is not generally recognized is that Bridgman was also intimately connected with establishing shock compression as a scientific tool and he predicted major events in shock research that occurred up to 40 years after his death. In 1956 the first phase transition under shock compression was reported in Fe at 13 GPa (130 kbar). PWB said a phase transition could not occur in a {approx}microsec, thus setting off a controversy. The scientific legitimacy of shock compression resulted 5 years later when static high-pressure researchers confirmed with x-ray diffraction the existence of epsilon-Fe. Once PWB accepted the fact that shock waves generated with chemical explosives were a valid scientific tool, he immediately realized that substantially higher pressures would be achieved with nuclear explosives. He included his ideas for achieving higher pressures in articles published a few years after his death. L. V. Altshuler eventually read Bridgman's articles and pursued the idea of using nuclear explosives to generate super high pressures, which subsequently morphed today into giant lasers. PWB also anticipated combining static and shock methods, which today is done with pre-compression of a soft sample in a diamond anvil cell followed by laser-driven shock compression. One variation of that method is the reverberating-shock technique, in which the first shock pre-compresses a soft sample and subsequent reverberations isentropically compress the first-shocked state.
Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel
2017-01-01
This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...
Extreme states of matter in strong interaction physics an introduction
Satz, Helmut
2018-01-01
This book is a course-tested primer on the thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter – a profound and challenging area of both theoretical and experimental modern physics. Analytical and numerical studies of statistical quantum chromodynamics provide the main theoretical tool, while in experiments, high-energy nuclear collisions are the key for extensive laboratory investigations. As such, the field straddles statistical, particle and nuclear physics, both conceptually and in the methods of investigation used. The book addresses, above all, the many young scientists starting their scientific research in this field, providing them with a general, self-contained introduction that highlights the basic concepts and ideas and explains why we do what we do. Much of the book focuses on equilibrium thermodynamics: first it presents simplified phenomenological pictures, leading to critical behavior in hadronic matter and to a quark-hadron phase transition. This is followed by elements of finite temperature latti...
Condensed matter nuclear science: Proceedings of the 11. international conference on cold fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biberian, Jean-Paul
2006-01-01
The tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion, ICCF 10, was held in Cambridge and then it appeared to the chairman Jean-Paul Biberian that the ideal choice for the venue of ICCF 11 would be Marseille. He considers that the field had matured and it was obvious that a scientific demonstration of Cold Fusion had been made. He realizes that a lot more is needed to be accomplished in the field of research and technology, but the answers to many of the questions of scientific community are available. It is known for sure that the phenomenon announced in 1989 by Martin Fleischmann and Stan Pons was real. Discoveries since their announcement, in particular the discovery that hydrogen, not only deuterium, may be nuclear active under certain conditions. It had been shown that the simple D + D producing helium reaction was not the only reaction channel. One had observed fission and transmutation beyond doubts, but there are probably more reactions than one currently knows. Several important new results were presented during the conference. The team headed by Irving Dardik confirmed that the super-waves they used in their electrolytic experiment help introducing more heat. Also Iwamura et al. showed new transmutation effects in their experiments of diffusion of deuterium gas through a complex structure of palladium and calcium oxide. A team of Russian scientists claimed that their experiments showed the existence of light monopoles. Czerski and Huke who were working in high-energy physics, discovered CMNS when they lowered the energy of the deuterium beam. They demonstrated that the cross section of the deuterium with deuterated metals was much higher than expected. They came to the conclusion that they were doing indeed cold fusion. Another important contribution was the one from the Vysotskii team from Ukraine, who confirmed their biological transmutation experiments. On the theory front there appears to be many problems. The initial idea of the necessity of high
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robitaille P.-M.
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The K-corona, a signiﬁcant portion of the solar atmosphere, displays a continuous spectrum which closely parallels photospheric emission, though without the presence of overlying Fraunhofer lines. The E-corona exists in the same region and is characterized by weak emission lines from highly ionized atoms. For instance, the famous green emission line from coronium (FeXIV is part of the E-corona. The F-corona exists beyond the K/E-corona and, like the photospheric spectrum, is characterized by Fraunhofer lines. The F-corona represents photospheric light scattered by dust particles in the interplanetary medium. Within the gaseous models of the Sun, the K-corona is viewed as photospheric radiation which has been scattered by relativistic electrons. This scattering is thought to broaden the Fraunhofer lines of the solar spectrum such that they can no longer be detected in the K-corona. Thus, the gaseous models of the Sun account for the appearance of the K-corona by distorting photospheric light, since they are unable to have recourse to condensed matter to directly produce such radiation. Conversely, it is now advanced that the continuous emission of the K-corona and associated emission lines from the E-corona must be interpreted as manifestations of the same phenomenon: condensed matter exists in the corona. It is well-known that the Sun expels large amounts of material from its surface in the form of ﬂares and coronal mass ejections. Given a liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, it is logical to assume that such matter, which exists in the condensed state on the solar surface, continues to manifest its nature once expelled into the corona. Therefore, the continuous spectrum of the K-corona provides the twenty-seventh line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.
Universal Themes of Bose-Einstein Condensation
Proukakis, Nick P.; Snoke, David W.; Littlewood, Peter B.
2017-04-01
Foreword; List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Universality and Bose-Einstein condensation: perspectives on recent work D. W. Snoke, N. P. Proukakis, T. Giamarchi and P. B. Littlewood; 2. A history of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen T. Greytak and D. Kleppner; 3. Twenty years of atomic quantum gases: 1995-2015 W. Ketterle; 4. Introduction to polariton condensation P. B. Littlewood and A. Edelman; Part II. General Topics: Editorial notes; 5. The question of spontaneous symmetry breaking in condensates D. W. Snoke and A. J. Daley; 6. Effects of interactions on Bose-Einstein condensation R. P. Smith; 7. Formation of Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Davis, T. M. Wright, T. Gasenzer, S. A. Gardiner and N. P. Proukakis; 8. Quenches, relaxation and pre-thermalization in an isolated quantum system T. Langen and J. Schmiedmayer; 9. Ultracold gases with intrinsic scale invariance C. Chin; 10. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase of a driven-dissipative condensate N. Y. Kim, W. H. Nitsche and Y. Yamamoto; 11. Superfluidity and phase correlations of driven dissipative condensates J. Keeling, L. M. Sieberer, E. Altman, L. Chen, S. Diehl and J. Toner; 12. BEC to BCS crossover from superconductors to polaritons A. Edelman and P. B. Littlewood; Part III. Condensates in Atomic Physics: Editorial notes; 13. Probing and controlling strongly correlated quantum many-body systems using ultracold quantum gases I. Bloch; 14. Preparing and probing chern bands with cold atoms N. Goldman, N. R. Cooper and J. Dalibard; 15. Bose-Einstein condensates in artificial gauge fields L. J. LeBlanc and I. B. Spielman; 16. Second sound in ultracold atomic gases L. Pitaevskii and S. Stringari; 17. Quantum turbulence in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates N. G. Parker, A. J. Allen, C. F. Barenghi and N. P. Proukakis; 18. Spinor-dipolar aspects of Bose-Einstein condensation M. Ueda; Part IV. Condensates in Condensed Matter Physics: Editorial notes; 19. Bose
Ablyazimov, T.; Abuhoza, A.; Adak, R. P.; Adamczyk, M.; Agarwal, K.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, F.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, S.; Akindinov, A.; Akishin, P.; Akishina, E.; Akishina, T.; Akishina, V.; Akram, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Alekseev, I.; Alexandrov, E.; Alexandrov, I.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Anđelić, M.; Andreeva, O.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anisimov, Yu.; Appelshäuser, H.; Argintaru, D.; Atkin, E.; Avdeev, S.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Baban, V.; Bach, M.; Badura, E.; Bähr, S.; Balog, T.; Balzer, M.; Bao, E.; Baranova, N.; Barczyk, T.; Bartoş, D.; Bashir, S.; Baszczyk, M.; Batenkov, O.; Baublis, V.; Baznat, M.; Becker, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Belyakov, D.; Bendarouach, J.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berendes, R.; Berezin, G.; Bergmann, C.; Bertini, D.; Bertini, O.; Beşliu, C.; Bezshyyko, O.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Biswas, S.; Blank, T.; Blau, D.; Blinov, V.; Blume, C.; Bocharov, Yu.; Book, J.; Breitner, T.; Brüning, U.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Büsching, H.; Bus, T.; Butuzov, V.; Bychkov, A.; Byszuk, A.; Cai, Xu; Cãlin, M.; Cao, Ping; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Carević, I.; Cătănescu, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaus, A.; Chen, Hongfang; Chen, LuYao; Cheng, Jianping; Chepurnov, V.; Cherif, H.; Chernogorov, A.; Ciobanu, M. I.; Claus, G.; Constantin, F.; Csanád, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Das, Supriya; Das, Susovan; de Cuveland, J.; Debnath, B.; Dementiev, D.; Deng, Wendi; Deng, Zhi; Deppe, H.; Deppner, I.; Derenovskaya, O.; Deveaux, C. A.; Deveaux, M.; Dey, K.; Dey, M.; Dillenseger, P.; Dobyrn, V.; Doering, D.; Dong, Sheng; Dorokhov, A.; Dreschmann, M.; Drozd, A.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubnichka, S.; Dubnichkova, Z.; Dürr, M.; Dutka, L.; Dželalija, M.; Elsha, V. V.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Eremin, V.; Eşanu, T.; Eschke, J.; Eschweiler, D.; Fan, Huanhuan; Fan, Xingming; Farooq, M.; Fateev, O.; Feng, Shengqin; Figuli, S. P. D.; Filozova, I.; Finogeev, D.; Fischer, P.; Flemming, H.; Förtsch, J.; Frankenfeld, U.; Friese, V.; Friske, E.; Fröhlich, I.; Frühauf, J.; Gajda, J.; Galatyuk, T.; Gangopadhyay, G.; García Chávez, C.; Gebelein, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gläßel, S.; Goffe, M.; Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.; Golovatyuk, V.; Golovnya, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Golubeva, M.; Golubkov, D.; Gómez Ramírez, A.; Gorbunov, S.; Gorokhov, S.; Gottschalk, D.; Gryboś, P.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Gudima, K.; Gumiński, M.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Yu.; Han, Dong; Hartmann, H.; He, Shue; Hehner, J.; Heine, N.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrmann, N.; Heß, B.; Heuser, J. M.; Himmi, A.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Hu, Dongdong; Huang, Guangming; Huang, Xinjie; Hutter, D.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, P.; Ivanov, Valery; Ivanov, Victor; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivashkin, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Jahan, H.; Jain, V.; Jakovlev, V.; Janson, T.; Jiang, Di; Jipa, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kähler, P.; Kämpfer, B.; Kalinin, V.; Kallunkathariyil, J.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kaptur, E.; Karabowicz, R.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karmanov, D.; Karnaukhov, V.; Karpechev, E.; Kasiński, K.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kaur, M.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Kekelidze, G.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Khasanov, F.; Khvorostukhin, A.; Kirakosyan, V.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kiryakov, A.; Kiš, M.; Kisel, I.; Kisel, P.; Kiselev, S.; Kiss, T.; Klaus, P.; Kłeczek, R.; Klein-Bösing, Ch.; Kleipa, V.; Klochkov, V.; Kmon, P.; Koch, K.; Kochenda, L.; Koczoń, P.; Koenig, W.; Kohn, M.; Kolb, B. W.; Kolosova, A.; Komkov, B.; Korolev, M.; Korolko, I.; Kotte, R.; Kovalchuk, A.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Kozlov, G.; Kozlov, V.; Kramarenko, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Krebs, E.; Kreidl, C.; Kres, I.; Kresan, D.; Kretschmar, G.; Krieger, M.; Kryanev, A. V.; Kryshen, E.; Kuc, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucher, V.; Kudin, L.; Kugler, A.; Kumar, Ajit; Kumar, Ashwini; Kumar, L.; Kunkel, J.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, N.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Kushpil, V.; Kuznetsov, S.; Kyva, V.; Ladygin, V.; Lara, C.; Larionov, P.; Laso García, A.; Lavrik, E.; Lazanu, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Lehnert, J.; Lehrbach, J.; Leifels, Y.; Lemke, F.; Li, Cheng; Li, Qiyan; Li, Xin; Li, Yuanjing; Lindenstruth, V.; Linnik, B.; Liu, Feng; Lobanov, I.; Lobanova, E.; Löchner, S.; Loizeau, P.-A.; Lone, S. A.; Lucio Martínez, J. A.; Luo, Xiaofeng; Lymanets, A.; Lyu, Pengfei; Maevskaya, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmoud, T.; Maj, P.; Majka, Z.; Malakhov, A.; Malankin, E.; Malkevich, D.; Malyatina, O.; Malygina, H.; Mandal, M. M.; Mandal, S.; Manko, V.; Manz, S.; Marin Garcia, A. M.; Markert, J.; Masciocchi, S.; Matulewicz, T.; Meder, L.; Merkin, M.; Mialkovski, V.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Mik, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Mikhaylov, V.; Milanović, B.; Militsija, V.; Miskowiec, D.; Momot, I.; Morhardt, T.; Morozov, S.; Müller, W. F. J.; Müntz, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Muñoz Castillo, C. E.; Murin, Yu.; Najman, R.; Nandi, C.; Nandy, E.; Naumann, L.; Nayak, T.; Nedosekin, A.; Negi, V. S.; Niebur, W.; Nikulin, V.; Normanov, D.; Oancea, A.; Oh, Kunsu; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ososkov, G.; Otfinowski, P.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pal, S.; Panasenko, I.; Panda, N. R.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Penschuck, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Petráček, V.; Petri, M.; Petriş, M.; Petrovici, A.; Petrovici, M.; Petrovskiy, A.; Petukhov, O.; Pfeifer, D.; Piasecki, K.; Pieper, J.; Pietraszko, J.; Płaneta, R.; Plotnikov, V.; Plujko, V.; Pluta, J.; Pop, A.; Pospisil, V.; Poźniak, K.; Prakash, A.; Prasad, S. K.; Prokudin, M.; Pshenichnov, I.; Pugach, M.; Pugatch, V.; Querchfeld, S.; Rabtsun, S.; Radulescu, L.; Raha, S.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Raportirenko, A.; Rautenberg, J.; Rauza, J.; Ray, R.; Razin, S.; Reichelt, P.; Reinecke, S.; Reinefeld, A.; Reshetin, A.; Ristea, C.; Ristea, O.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Roether, F.; Romaniuk, R.; Rost, A.; Rostchin, E.; Rostovtseva, I.; Roy, Amitava; Roy, Ankhi; Rożynek, J.; Ryabov, Yu.; Sadovsky, A.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Saini, J.; Samanta, S.; Sambyal, S. S.; Samsonov, V.; Sánchez Rosado, J.; Sander, O.; Sarangi, S.; Satława, T.; Sau, S.; Saveliev, V.; Schatral, S.; Schiaua, C.; Schintke, F.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, J.; Schweda, K.; Seck, F.; Seddiki, S.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Semennikov, A.; Senger, A.; Senger, P.; Shabanov, A.; Shabunov, A.; Shao, Ming; Sheremetiev, A. D.; Shi, Shusu; Shumeiko, N.; Shumikhin, V.; Sibiryak, I.; Sikora, B.; Simakov, A.; Simon, C.; Simons, C.; Singaraju, R. N.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singhal, V.; Singla, M.; Sitzmann, P.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Škoda, L.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Som, I.; Song, Guofeng; Song, Jihye; Sosin, Z.; Soyk, D.; Staszel, P.; Strikhanov, M.; Strohauer, S.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sultanov, R.; Sun, Yongjie; Svirida, D.; Svoboda, O.; Szabó, A.; Szczygieł, R.; Talukdar, R.; Tang, Zebo; Tanha, M.; Tarasiuk, J.; Tarassenkova, O.; Târzilă, M.-G.; Teklishyn, M.; Tischler, T.; Tlustý, P.; Tölyhi, T.; Toia, A.; Topil'skaya, N.; Träger, M.; Tripathy, S.; Tsakov, I.; Tsyupa, Yu.; Turowiecki, A.; Tuturas, N. G.; Uhlig, F.; Usenko, E.; Valin, I.; Varga, D.; Vassiliev, I.; Vasylyev, O.; Verbitskaya, E.; Verhoeven, W.; Veshikov, A.; Visinka, R.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Volkov, S.; Volochniuk, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Voronin, Aleksey; Voronin, Alexander; Vovchenko, V.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xi-Wei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Yi; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wessels, J. P.; Wiebusch, M.; Wiechula, J.; Wielanek, D.; Wieloch, A.; Wilms, A.; Winckler, N.; Winter, M.; Wiśniewski, K.; Wolf, Gy.; Won, Sanguk; Wu, Ke-Jun; Wüstenfeld, J.; Xiang, Changzhou; Xu, Nu; Yang, Junfeng; Yang, Rongxing; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yuldashev, B.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabołotny, W.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Zamiatin, N. I.; Zanevsky, Yu.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Lei; Zheng, Jiajun; Zheng, Sheng; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Xianglei; Zinchenko, A.; Zipper, W.; Żoładź, M.; Zrelov, P.; Zryuev, V.; Zumbruch, P.; Zyzak, M.
2017-03-01
Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√{s_{NN}}= 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials ( μ_B > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter.
Soft matter food physics--the physics of food and cooking.
Vilgis, Thomas A
2015-12-01
This review discusses the (soft matter) physics of food. Although food is generally not considered as a typical model system for fundamental (soft matter) physics, a number of basic principles can be found in the interplay between the basic components of foods, water, oil/fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The review starts with the introduction and behavior of food-relevant molecules and discusses food-relevant properties and applications from their fundamental (multiscale) behavior. Typical food aspects from 'hard matter systems', such as chocolates or crystalline fats, to 'soft matter' in emulsions, dough, pasta and meat are covered and can be explained on a molecular basis. An important conclusion is the point that the macroscopic properties and the perception are defined by the molecular interplay on all length and time scales.
Spatial interference patterns in the dynamics of a 2D Bose-Einstein condensate
Bera, Jayanta; Roy, Utpal
2018-05-01
Bose-Einstein condensate has become a highly tunable physical system, which is proven to mimic a number of interesting physical phenomena in condensed matter physics. We study the dynamics of a two-dimensional Bose Einstein condensate (BEC) in the presence of a flat harmonic confinement and time-dependent sharp potential peak. Condensate density can be meticulously controlled with time by tuning the physically relevant parameters: frequency of the harmonic trap, width of the peaks, frequency of their oscillations, initial density etc. By engineering various trap profile, we solve the system, numerically, and explore the resulting spatial interference patters.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
three freely moving electrons. The value at room temperature is 3.1 k B; the electronic specific heat is missing! The next stage in the electronic theory of solids clears up ..... a big dog? We do not know the reasons yet. As it turns out for many fundamentally interesting phenomena, colossal magneto- resistance may also find ...
Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions
Larsen, Jon
2017-01-01
High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...
Extreme states of matter high energy density physics
Fortov, Vladimir E
2016-01-01
With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.
Physical stress, mass, and energy for non-relativistic matter
Geracie, Michael; Prabhu, Kartik; Roberts, Matthew M.
2017-06-01
For theories of relativistic matter fields there exist two possible definitions of the stress-energy tensor, one defined by a variation of the action with the coframes at fixed connection, and the other at fixed torsion. These two stress-energy tensors do not necessarily coincide and it is the latter that corresponds to the Cauchy stress measured in the lab. In this note we discuss the corresponding issue for non-relativistic matter theories. We point out that while the physical non-relativistic stress, momentum, and mass currents are defined by a variation of the action at fixed torsion, the energy current does not admit such a description and is naturally defined at fixed connection. Any attempt to define an energy current at fixed torsion results in an ambiguity which cannot be resolved from the background spacetime data or conservation laws. We also provide computations of these quantities for some simple non-relativistic actions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandelier, F
2003-12-01
The quantum Hall effect appears in low temperature electron systems submitted to intense magnetic fields. Electrons are trapped in a thin layer ({approx} 100.10{sup -8} cm thick) at the interface between 2 semiconductors or between a semiconductor and an insulating material. This thesis presents 3 personal contributions to the physics of plane systems and particularly to quantum Hall effect systems. The first contribution is a topological approach, it involves the study of Landau's problem in a geometry nearing that of Hall effect experiments. A mathematical formalism has been defined and by using the Kubo's formula, the quantification of the Hall conductivity can be linked to the Chern class of threaded holes. The second contribution represents a phenomenological approach based on dual symmetries and particularly on modular symmetries. This contribution uses visibility diagrams that have already produced right predictions concerning resistivity curves or band structures. The introduction of a physical equivalence has allowed us to build a phase diagram for the quantum Hall effect at zero temperature. This phase diagram agrees with the experimental facts concerning : -) the existence of 2 insulating phases, -) direct transitions between an insulating phase and any Hall phase through integer or fractionary values of the filling factor ({nu}), -) selection rules, and -) classification of the Hall states and their distribution around a metal state. The third contribution concerns another phenomenological approach based on duality symmetries. We have considered a class of (2+1)-dimensional effective models with a Maxwell-Chern-Simons part that includes a non-locality. This non-locality implies the existence of a hidden duality symmetry with a Z{sub 2} component: z {yields} 1/z. This symmetry has allowed us to meet the results of the Fisher's law concerning the components of the resistivity tensor. (A.C.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ablyazimov, T. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR-LIT), Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Information Technologies; Abuhoza, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Adak, R.P. [Bose Institute, Kolkata (India). Dept. of Physics; and others
2017-03-15
Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√(s{sub NN}) = 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials (μ{sub B} > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ablyazimov, T.; Adak, R.P.
2017-01-01
Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√(s_N_N) = 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials (μ_B > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter. (orig.)
An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentine, John S.
2010-01-01
We define an abstract and absolute phase space (''APS'') for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of 'unique solvability' and 'identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.
Progress report, Physics Division
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-03-01
This report reviews events and progress in the following areas: development of the TASCC facility; experimental and theoretical nuclear physics research; radionuclide standardization; condensed matter research; applied mathematics; and computer facility operation
The new physics of non-equilibrium condensates: insights from classical dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eastham, P R [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2007-07-25
We discuss the dynamics of classical Dicke-type models, aiming to clarify the mechanisms by which coherent states could develop in potentially non-equilibrium systems such as semiconductor microcavities. We present simulations of an undamped model which show spontaneous coherent states with persistent oscillations in the magnitude of the order parameter. These states are generalizations of superradiant ringing to the case of inhomogeneous broadening. They correspond to the persistent gap oscillations proposed in fermionic atomic condensates, and arise from a variety of initial conditions. We show that introducing randomness into the couplings can suppress the oscillations, leading to a limiting dynamics with a time-independent order parameter. This demonstrates that non-equilibrium generalizations of polariton condensates can be created even without dissipation. We explain the dynamical origins of the coherence in terms of instabilities of the normal state, and consider how it can additionally develop through scattering and dissipation.
The new physics of non-equilibrium condensates: insights from classical dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eastham, P R
2007-01-01
We discuss the dynamics of classical Dicke-type models, aiming to clarify the mechanisms by which coherent states could develop in potentially non-equilibrium systems such as semiconductor microcavities. We present simulations of an undamped model which show spontaneous coherent states with persistent oscillations in the magnitude of the order parameter. These states are generalizations of superradiant ringing to the case of inhomogeneous broadening. They correspond to the persistent gap oscillations proposed in fermionic atomic condensates, and arise from a variety of initial conditions. We show that introducing randomness into the couplings can suppress the oscillations, leading to a limiting dynamics with a time-independent order parameter. This demonstrates that non-equilibrium generalizations of polariton condensates can be created even without dissipation. We explain the dynamical origins of the coherence in terms of instabilities of the normal state, and consider how it can additionally develop through scattering and dissipation
Eureka! Physics of Particles, Matter and the Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Sullivan, Colm T
1997-01-01
To provide a simple account of the whole of physics within 200 pages (excluding a glossary and index) of a small-format book is an extraordinarily ambitious project, yet this is what Roger Blin-Stoyle has attempted in Eureka! and, on the whole, he has succeeded admirably. Furthermore, he has achieved this without resorting to much more than a dozen mathematical expressions, most of them in the treatment of special relativity. To say that the account is comprehensive would be something of an understatement; this reviewer failed to detect a single topic, pure or applied, which could be described as part of mainstream physics which did not get at least a mention in these pages. The book is well written and the explanations are clear, as one would expect from an author who is an eminent scientist and who has given a professional lifetime to physics education and the promotion of the discipline. The reader should be warned, however, not to expect anything very radical - there are no novel treatments, no unique insights. The strength of the book lies in its clarity and compactness. The material is presented in a matter-of-fact manner with no forced emphasis on the exotic, so often a feature of recent attempts to present physics to the lay reader. The modern trend towards early specialization in physics courses in schools and universities has many unhappy consequences, not least of which is the loss of awareness of the essential unity of the subject. In this little book Professor Blin-Stoyle makes a valiant and welcome attempt to address the balance. Anyone with an interest in getting to know what is involved in that area of human knowledge we call physics could do a lot worse than start here. (book review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-01-01
The Review Panel on Neutron Scattering has recommended an expanded budget to allow systematic development of the field. An alternative plan for the future of neutron research on condensed matter is presented here, in case it is not possible to fund the expanded budget. This plan leads, in a rational and logical way, to a world-class neutron source that will ensure the vitality of the field and exploit the many benefits that state-of-the-art neutron facilities can bring to programs in the materials and biological sciences. 2 tables
Modelling of condensation phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Jae Jun; Chang, Won Pyo
1996-07-01
Condensation occurs when vapor is cooled sufficiently below the saturation temperature to induce the nucleation of droplets. Such nucleation may occur homogeneously within the vapor or heterogeneously on entrained particular matter. Heterogeneous nucleation may occur on the walls of the system, where the temperature is below the saturation temperature. There are two forms of heterogeneous condensation, drop-wise and film-wise. Another form of condensation occurs when vapor directly contacts to subcooled liquid. In nuclear power plant systems, all forms of condensation may occur during normal operation or accident conditions. In this work the modelling of condensation is surveyed, including the Nusselts' laminar film condensation theory in 1916, Rohsenow's turbulent film condensation model in 1950s, and Chen's models in 1987. Major attention is paid on the film condensation models among various research results because of its importance in engineering applications. It is found that theory, experiment, and empirical correlations for film condensation are well established, but research for drop-wise and direct-contact condensation are not sufficient yet. Condensation models in the best-estimate system codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2 are also investigated. 3 tabs., 11 figs., 36 refs. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abe, Tomohiro [Institute for Advanced Research, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kawamura, Junichiro [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Okawa, Shohei [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omura, Yuji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)
2017-03-10
In the scenario that dark matter (DM) is a weakly interacting massive particle, there are many possibilities of the interactions with the Standard Model (SM) particles to achieve the relic density of DM. In this paper, we consider a simple DM model where the DM candidate is a complex scalar boson. The model contains a new complex gauge singlet scalar boson and a new fermion whose gauge charge is the same as the right-handed down-type quark. We dub the new fermion the bottom partner. These new particles have Yukawa interactions with the SM down-type quarks. The DM candidate interacts with the SM particles through the Yukawa interactions. The Yukawa interactions are not only relevant to the annihilation process of the DM but also contribute to the flavor physics, such as the ΔF=2 processes. In addition, the flavor alignment of the Yukawa couplings is related to the decay modes of the bottom partner, and thus we can find the explicit correlations among the physical observables in DM physics, flavor physics, and the signals at the LHC. We survey the ΔF=2 processes based on the numerical analyses of the thermal relic density, the direct detection of the DM, and the current LHC bounds. We investigate the perturbative bound on the Yukawa coupling as well. A Study of a fermionic DM model with extra scalar quarks is also given for comparison.
Schewe, Phillip F., Ed.
Information is provided on some of the interesting and newsworthy developments in physics and its related fields during 1983. Areas considered include: (1) acoustics; (2) astrophysics; (3) condensed matter physics; (4) crystallography; (5) physics education; (6) electron and atomic physics; (7) elementary particle physics; (8) fluid dynamics; (9)…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacob, M.; Schopper, H.
1995-01-01
The papers presented at this conference dealt with the following topics: particle physics, computing and data transmission, nuclear and atomic physics and their new facets, condensed matter physics, fusion and plasma physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics. The proceedings include the review talks, a report on the OECD Megascience Forum and summaries of the round-table discussions. figs., tabs., refs
Spin-Wave Wave Function for Quantum Spin Models : Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics
Franjo, FRANJIC; Sandro, SORELLA; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia International School for Advance Studies; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia International School for Advance Studies
1997-01-01
We present a new approach to determine an accurate variational wave function for general quantum spin models, completely defined by a consistency requirement with the simple and well-known linear spin-wave expansion. With this wave function, it is also possible to obtain the correct behavior of the long distance correlation functions for the 1D S=1/2 antiferromagnet. In 2D the proposed spin-wave wave function represents an excellent approximation to the exact ground state of the S=1.2 XY mode...
Introduction to the physics of the condensed matter of the actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lander, H
2014-01-01
The actinides were essentially “born” in the fiery birth of the Manhattan Project in the 1940s. All elements beyond U were discovered in that program and its aftermath. At the end of WWII there was a huge legacy of properties of these materials that were not understood at all. Without the crash program of the war, the number of people working on the fundamental problems reduced. Progress was slow on what has turned out to be one of the most complex series of elements in the periodic table. On Pu metal, for example, it has taken us 50 years to even understand the absence of magnetism in this complex element
Proceedings of the 31. Brazilian national meeting on condensed matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2008-01-01
Theoretical and experimental short communications are presented on the following subjects: spectroscopy, molecular structure, rare earths, superconductivity, nano structures, magnetism, synchrotron radiation, structural chemical analysis, crystallography and quantum mechanics
Carrier-doped aromatic hydrocarbons: a new platform in condensed matter chemistry and physics.
Heguri, Satoshi; Tanigaki, Katsumi
2018-02-27
High-quality bulk samples of the first four polyacenes, which are naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene, and pentacene, doped with alkali metal in 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 stoichiometries were prepared and their fundamental properties were systematically studied. A new systematic understanding on the electronic states of electron-doped polyacenes sensitive to the energetic balance among on-site Coulomb repulsion, bandwidth and the Peierls instability was provided. The carrier-doped typical aromatic hydrocarbons showed a large variety of properties as well as charge transfer complexes and metal-doped fullerides. We open a new avenue for organometallic and inorganic chemistry.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Escudero, C.; Gazzola, F.; Hakl, Robert; Torres, P.J.
2015-01-01
Roč. 140, č. 4 (2015), s. 385-393 ISSN 0862-7959 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : higher order parabolic equation * existence of solution * blow-up in finite time Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/144457
Non-abelian bosonization in two-dimensional condensed matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froehlich, J.; Kerler, T.; Marchetti, P.A.
1992-01-01
We derive mathematical identities proving that some systems of interacting, non-relativistic fermions of spin or 'isospin' S=1/2, 3/3, 5/2, ... confined to a plane (e.g. a heterojuncture) can be described in terms of a complex boson of spin or isospin S coupled to statistical U(1) and SU(2) gauge fields. In a Feynman path integral formulation, the U(1) gauge field has a Chern-Simons action with coupling constant k=2/(2l+1), l=0, 1, 2, ..., while the SU(2) gauge field has a Chern-Simons action with level 2S. Generalization to internal symmetry groups other than SU(2) are sketched, and applications of our formalism to an analysis of excitations with braid statistics in incompressible quantum fluids and of holons and spinons in the t-J model are discussed. (orig.)
All problems of theoretical physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Bong Yeol
1991-09-01
This book introduces particle physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. It deals with trend of particle physics, gauge theory and renormalisation, Quark-Hadron phase transition, unified field theory and theory of internal string, supersymmetry and supergravity, Berry's connection and Quantum separation of slow versus fast dynamics, giant resonance, intermediate energy nuclear physics, unclear fission reactor physics, atomic structure of metastable defect in semiconductor, dynamics theory of condensation material world, and two-dimensional Ising model revisited.
Progress report - physics division 1985 January 01 - June 30
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1985-08-01
This report reviews progress made during the first half of 1985 in the following areas: development of the TASCC facility; experimental and theoretical nuclear physics research; accelerator physics; condensed matter physics; applied mathematics and computer facility operation
Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Proceedings of PHENO1: The First Workshop on Beyond Standard Model Physics at IISER Mohali ... on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science ... Proceedings of the National Mathematics Initiative Workshop on Nonlinear ... Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nuclear Physics.
Les Houches Summer School of Theoretical Physics : Session 72, Coherent Atomic Matter Waves
Westbrook, C; David, F; Coherent Atomic Matter Waves
2001-01-01
Progress in atomic physics has been so vigorous during the past decade that one is hard pressed to follow all the new developments. In the early 1990s the first atom interferometers opened a new field in which we have been able to use the wave nature of atoms to probe fundamental quantum me chanics questions as well as to make precision measurements. Coming fast on the heels of this development was the demonstration of Bose Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapors which intensified research interest in studying the wave nature of matter, especially in a domain in which "macro scopic" quantum effects (vortices, stimulated scattering of atomic beams) are visible. At the same time there has been much progress in our understanding of the behavior of waves (notably electromagnetic) in complex media, both periodic and disordered. An obvious topic of speculation and probably of future research is whether any new insight or applications will develop if one examines the behavior of de Broglie waves in ana...
A Monte-Carlo code for the detailed simulation of electron and light-ion tracks in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emfietzoglou, D.; Papamichael, G.; Karava, K.; Androulidakis, I.; Pathak, A.; Phillips, G. W.; Moscovitch, M.; Kostarelos, K.
2006-01-01
In an effort to understand the basic mechanism of the action of charged particles in solid radiation dosimeters, we extend our Monte-Carlo code (MC4) to condensed media (liquids/solids) and present new track-structure calculations for electrons and protons. Modeling the energy dissipation process is based on a model dielectric function, which accounts in a semi-empirical and self-consistent way for condensed-phase effects which are computationally intractable. Importantly, these effects mostly influence track-structure characteristics at the nano-meter scale, which is the focus of radiation action models. Since the event-by-event scheme for electron transport is impractical above several kilo-electron volts, a condensed-history random-walk scheme has been implemented to transport the energetic delta rays produced by energetic ions. Based on the above developments, new track-structure calculations are presented for two representative dosimetric materials, namely, liquid water and silicon. Results include radial dose distributions in cylindrical and spherical geometries, as well as, clustering distributions, which, among other things, are important in predicting irreparable damage in biological systems and prompt electric-fields in microelectronics. (authors)
Proceedings of the eighth national conference on research in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
This is a book of abstracts of the oral presentations that were presented during the eighth national conference on research in physics that was held from 20 to 23 deecember 2005 in Tunisia (Elkantaoui- Sousse). The following themes were covered : Nuclear and theoretical physics; Optical, molecular and atomic physics; Condensed matter physics; Soft matter physics; Mechanis; Thermal transfert; Electronics; physics engineering
Proceedings of the Ninth National Conference on Research in Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2008-01-01
This is a book of abstracts of the oral presentations that were presented during the ninth national conference on research in physics that was held from 17 to 20 mars 2008 in Tunisia (Yasmine Hammamet). The following themes were covered : Nuclear and theoretical physics; optical, molecular and atomic physics; condensed matter physics; Soft matter physics; Mechanics; Thermal transfer; Electronics; physics engineering
Physics of quantum fluids new trends and hot topics in atomic and polariton condensates
Modugno, Michele
2013-01-01
The study of quantum fluids, stimulated by the discovery of superfluidity in liquid helium, has experienced renewed interest after the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in ultra-cold atomic gases and the observation a new type of quantum fluid with specific characteristics derived from its intrinsic out-of-equilibrium nature. The main objective of this book is to take a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of this fast moving field with a special emphasis on the hot topics and new trends. Bringing together the most active specialists of the two areas (atomic and polaritonic quantum fluids), we expect that this book will facilitate the exchange and the collaboration between these two communities working on subjects with very strong analogies.
Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anglin, J. R.; Ketterle, W.
2003-01-01
The early experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases accomplished three longstanding goals. First, cooling of neutral atoms into their motional state, thus subjecting them to ultimate control, limited only by Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Second, creation of a coherent sample of atoms, in which all occupy the same quantum states, and the realization of atom lasers - devices that output coherent matter waves. And third, creation of gaseous quantum fluid, with properties that are different from the quantum liquids helium-3 and helium-4. The field of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases has continued to progress rapidly, driven by the combination of new experimental techniques and theoretical advances. The family of quantum degenerate gases has grown, and now includes metastable and fermionic atoms. condensates have become an ultralow-temperature laboratory for atom optics, collisional physics and many-body physics, encompassing phonons, superfluidity, quantized vortices, Josephson junctions and quantum phase transitions. (author)
Physics of dense matter, neutron stars, and supernova
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glendenning, N.K.
1989-02-01
Nuclear and astrophysical evidence on the equation of state of dense matter is examined. The role of hyperonization of matter in the development of proto-neutron stars is briefly discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs
Progress report: Physical Sciences - Physics Division, 1992 July 01 -December 31
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ungrin, J; Kim, S M; Sears, V F [eds.
1993-03-01
This report summarizes operations and research activities in the Accelerator Physics, Neutron and Condensed Matter Science and Theoretical Physics branches at Chalk River Laboratories during the last half of 1992. 21 figs., 3 tabs.
Progress report: Physical Sciences - Physics Division, 1992 July 01 -December 31
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ungrin, J.; Kim, S.M.; Sears, V.F.
1993-03-01
This report summarizes operations and research activities in the Accelerator Physics, Neutron and Condensed Matter Science and Theoretical Physics branches at Chalk River Laboratories during the last half of 1992. 21 figs., 3 tabs
Quantum tunnelling in condensed media
Kagan, Yu
1992-01-01
The essays in this book deal with of the problem of quantum tunnelling and related behavior of a microscopic or macroscopic system, which interacts strongly with an ""environment"" - this being some form of condensed matter. The ""system"" in question need not be physically distinct from its environment, but could, for example, be one particular degree of freedom on which attention is focussed, as in the case of the Josephson junction studied in several of the papers. This general problem has been studied in many hundreds, if not thousands, of articles in the literature, in contexts as diverse
Introduction to the physics of matter basic atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics
Manini, Nicola
2014-01-01
This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in gra...
Higgs inflation, seesaw physics and fermion dark matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nobuchika Okada
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We present an inflationary model in which the Standard Model Higgs doublet field with non-minimal coupling to gravity drives inflation, and the effective Higgs potential is stabilized by new physics which includes a dark matter particle and right-handed neutrinos for the seesaw mechanism. All of the new particles are fermions, so that the Higgs doublet is the unique inflaton candidate. With central values for the masses of the top quark and the Higgs boson, the renormalization group improved Higgs potential is employed to yield the scalar spectral index ns≃0.968, the tensor-to-scalar ratio r≃0.003, and the running of the spectral index α=dns/dlnk≃−5.2×10−4 for the number of e-folds N0=60 (ns≃0.962, r≃0.004, and α≃−7.5×10−4 for N0=50. The fairly low value of r≃0.003 predicted in this class of models means that the ongoing space and land based experiments are not expected to observe gravity waves generated during inflation.
Physics of quantum fluids. New trends and hot topics in atomic and polariton condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bramati, Alberto [Paris Univ. (France). Laboratoire Kastler Brossel; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Modugno, Michele (eds.) [IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (Spain); Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica e Historia de la Ciencia
2013-10-01
Provides an overview of the field of quantum fluids. Presents analogies and differences between polariton and atomic quantum fluids. With contributions from the major actors in the field. Explains a new type of quantum fluid with specific characteristics. The study of quantum fluids, stimulated by the discovery of superfluidity in liquid helium, has experienced renewed interest after the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in ultra-cold atomic gases and the observation a new type of quantum fluid with specific characteristics derived from its intrinsic out-of-equilibrium nature. The main objective of this book is to take a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of this fast moving field with a special emphasis on the hot topics and new trends. Bringing together the most active specialists of the two areas (atomic and polaritonic quantum fluids), we expect that this book will facilitate the exchange and the collaboration between these two communities working on subjects with very strong analogies.
2nd National Conference on Theoretical Physics. Abstracts Book
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grecu, Alexandru Tudor
2004-01-01
The 2nd National Conference on Theoretical Physics was held on 26-29 August 2004 in Constanta, Romania. The addressed physics fields within the INIS scope are as follows: classical and quantum mechanics, general physics, physics of elementary particles and fields, nuclear physics and radiation physics, classical and quantum mechanics, general physics, atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chutia, Simanta; Saikia, Shantu
2017-06-01
This conference provided a platform to discuss the recent developments in Physics research in different fields which includes high energy astrophysics, condensed matter physics, electronics, spectroscopy, atmospheric sciences, cosmology, general physics etc. The papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Mintz, Stephan; Perlmutter, Arnold; Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Gravitational Waves, Condensation of Atoms and Monopoles, Light-cone Quantization : Orbis Scientiae '96
1996-01-01
The International Conference, Orbis Scientiae 1996, focused on the topics: The Neutrino Mass, Light Cone Quantization, Monopole Condensation, Dark Matter, and Gravitational Waves which we have adopted as the title of these proceedings. Was there any exciting news at the conference? Maybe, it depends on who answers the question. There was an almost unanimous agreement on the overall success of the conference as was evidenced by the fact that in the after-dinner remarks by one of us (BNK) the suggestion of organizing the conference on a biannual basis was presented but not accepted: the participants wanted the continuation of the tradition to convene annually. We shall, of course, comply. The expected observation of gravitational waves will constitute the most exciting vindication of Einstein's general relativity. This subject is attracting the attention of the experimentalists and theorists alike. We hope that by the first decade of the third millennium or earlier, gravitational waves will be detected,...
Influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties of LTE and non-LTE SF6-Cu mixture
Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin
2017-10-01
SF6-Cu mixture is frequently formed in high-voltage circuit breakers due to the electrode erosion and metal vapor diffusion. During the interruption process, the multiphase effect and deviation from local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE assumption) can both affect the thermo-physical of the arc plasma and further influence the performance of circuit breaker. In this paper, thermo-physical properties, namely composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated for multiphase SF6-Cu mixture with and without LTE assumption. The composition is confirmed by combining classical two-temperature mass action law with phase equilibrium condition deduced from second law of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated using the multiphase composition result. The influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties is discussed at different temperature, pressure (0.1-10 atm), non-equilibrium degrees (1-10), and copper molar proportions (0-50%). It is found that the multiphase effect has significant influence on specific enthalpy, specific heat and heavy species thermal conductivity in both LTE and non-LTE SF6-Cu system. This paper provides a more accurate database for computational fluid dynamic calculation.
Melting of heterogeneous vortex matter: The vortex 'nanoliquid'
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E ZELDOV2, A SOIBEL3, F de la CRUZ4,CJ van der BEEK5,. M KONCZYKOWSKI5, T ... 2Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot. 76100, Israel ..... heterogeneous nature of the vortex nanoliquid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramakrishnan, T.V.
1992-01-01
Three principle areas of future growth in physics are identified as the 'small' comprising high energy physics, the 'large' comprising astronomy and astrophysics and the 'complex' comprising condensed matter physics, optical physics, plasma physics and nuclear physics. The broad outlines of India's position (or state-of-the-art) in these areas are given. Investments made in them are briefly indicated. It is pointed out that support by way of investment in many areas of condensed matter physics is marginal due to lack of effective and sustained advocacy. Initiatives in these areas are urgently needed. (M.G.B.)
Dark clouds in particle physics and cosmology: the issues of dark matter and dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xinmin
2011-01-01
Unveiling the nature of dark matter and dark energy is one of the main tasks of particle physics and cosmology in the 21st century. We first present an overview of the history and current status of research in cosmology, at the same time emphasizing the new challenges in particle physics. Then we focus on the scientific issues of dark energy, dark matter and anti-matter, and review the recent progress made in these fields. Finally, we discuss the prospects for future research on the experimental probing of dark matter and dark energy in China. (authors)
12th general conference of the condensed matter division of the E.P.S. V.16A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velicky, B.; Vorlicek, V.; Zaveta, K.
1992-01-01
The proceedings contain 630 abstracts of contributions and posters presented at the conference, out of which 35 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with the application of the dispersion and diffraction of X-rays and neutrons to the investigation of the structure of matter, crystals in particular; with spin-lattice relaxation and superlattices; and with electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (M.D.)
Book of Abstracts of the 52. Annual Meeting of the Israel Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2006-01-01
The book of abstracts contains oral presentations in the following topics: Astrophysics and cosmology, Biological physics, Computational physics, Medical physics, Nonlinear dynamics, Optics and photonics, Particles fields and relativity, Nuclear physics, Plasma physics, Physics in Industry, Quantum physics, Soft condensed matter physics, Solid state physics, Statistical physics
Intense Ion Beams for Warm Dense Matter Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heimbucher, Lynn; Coleman, Joshua Eugene
2008-01-01
The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K + ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally, comparisons of
Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coleman, Joshua Eugene [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2008-01-01
The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K^{+} ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally
Frontiers in Theoretical and Applied Physics
2017-01-01
The aim of the conference is to provide a forum for physicists, astronomers, and space and material scientists from around the world to present the latest developments in the various dynamic fields of physics. Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Material Science and Nanophysics, Nuclear and High Energy Physics, Mathematical Physics, Astrophysics, Space and Planetary Physics
Israel physical society 1990 annual meeting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
The volume contains 24 abstracts of lectures covering some aspects of the following physical sciences: a) statistical physics. b) particles and fields. c) sub-micron and low dimensionality. d) nuclear physics. e) lasers, plasma physics and spectroscopy. f) computational physics. g) high T c superconductivity. h) medical physics. i) condensed matter. j) opto-electronic. k) quantum optics. l) chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaksch, D
2003-01-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation, named after one of the authors of the book, and its large number of applications for describing the properties of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in trapped weakly interacting atomic gases, is the main topic of this book. In total the monograph comprises 18 chapters and is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the notion of BEC and superfluidity in general terms. The most important properties of the ideal and the weakly interacting Bose gas are described and the effects of nonuniformity due to an external potential at zero temperature are studied. The first part is then concluded with a summary of the properties of superfluid He. In Part II the authors describe the theoretical aspects of BEC in harmonically trapped weakly interacting atomic gases. A short and rather rudimentary chapter on collisions and trapping of atomic gases which seems to be included for completeness only is followed by a detailed analysis of the ground state, collective excitations, thermodynamics, and vortices as well as mixtures of BECs and the Josephson effect in BEC. Finally, the last three chapters deal with topics of more recent interest like BEC in optical lattices, low dimensional systems, and cold Fermi gases. The book is well written and in fact it provides numerous useful and important relations between the different properties of a BEC and covers most of the aspects of ultracold weakly interacting atomic gases from the point of view of condensed matter physics. The book contains a comprehensive introduction to BEC for physicists new to the field as well as a lot of detail and insight for those already familiar with this area. I therefore recommend it to everyone who is interested in BEC. Very clearly however, the intention of the book is not to provide prospects for applications of BEC in atomic physics, quantum optics or quantum state engineering and therefore the more practically oriented reader might sometimes wonder why exactly an equation is
Perceived Mattering to the Family and Physical Violence within the Family by Adolescents
Elliott, Gregory C.; Cunningham, Susan M.; Colangelo, Melissa; Gelles, Richard J.
2011-01-01
Mattering is the extent to which people believe they make a difference in the world around them. This study hypothesizes that adolescents who believe they matter less to their families will more likely threaten or engage in intrafamily physical violence. The data come from a national sample of 2,004 adolescents. Controlling for respondents' age,…
Searching for Dark Matter at the Stawell Underground Physics Laboratory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Urquijo Phillip
2016-01-01
Full Text Available facility to be built in 2016, located 1 km below the surface in western Victoria, Australia. I will discuss the status of the proposed SABRE experiment, which will be comprised of a pair of high purity 50-60 kg NaI crystal detectors with active veto shielding to be located in labs in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres respectively. I also discuss projects beyond SABRE, including directional dark matter detectors, which will be used to determine the origin of any true dark matter signals.
Searches for dark matter and new physics with unconventional signatures
Wulz, C.-E.; CMS Collaboration
2017-07-01
Selected results on searches for dark matter and unconventional signatures with the CMS detector are presented. Dark matter searches in channels with one or two jets, single photons, vector bosons, or top and bottom quarks combined with missing momentum in the final states are described. Unusual signatures such as displaced objects, disappearing or kinked tracks, delayed or stopped particles have also been explored. The analyses were performed with proton-proton data recorded at LHC centre-of-mass energies up to 13TeV.
Lode, Axel U. J.; Diorico, Fritz S.; Wu, RuGway; Molignini, Paolo; Papariello, Luca; Lin, Rui; Lévêque, Camille; Exl, Lukas; Tsatsos, Marios C.; Chitra, R.; Mauser, Norbert J.
2018-05-01
We consider laser-pumped one-dimensional two-component bosons in a parabolic trap embedded in a high-finesse optical cavity. Above a threshold pump power, the photons that populate the cavity modify the effective atom trap and mediate a coupling between the two components of the Bose–Einstein condensate. We calculate the ground state of the laser-pumped system and find different stages of self-organization depending on the power of the laser. The modified potential and the laser-mediated coupling between the atomic components give rise to rich many-body physics: an increase of the pump power triggers a self-organization of the atoms while an even larger pump power causes correlations between the self-organized atoms—the BEC becomes fragmented and the reduced density matrix acquires multiple macroscopic eigenvalues. In this fragmented superradiant state, the atoms can no longer be described as two-level systems and the mapping of the system to the Dicke model breaks down.
Context Matters: Systematic Observation of Place-Based Physical Activity
McKenzie, Thomas L.
2016-01-01
Physical activity is place-based, and being able to assess the number of people and their characteristics in specific locations is important both for public health surveillance and for practitioners in their design of physical activity spaces and programs. Although physical activity measurement has improved recently, many investigators avoid or…
At LEP, a new Physics. The dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouquet, A.; Haissinski, J.; Perrottet, M.; Renard, F.M.; Sadoulet, B.; Savoy, C.; Treille, D.
1990-01-01
Different observational and theoric reasons of thinking that the major portion of universe matter is dark, are examined, with a particular attention about the milky way halo question. Among the proposed explanations, the interpretation in terms of WINPs (weakly interacting massive particles) and the indirect detection possibilities by their astrophysic consequences are principally presented [fr
Supernova Neutrino Physics with Xenon Dark Matter Detectors
Reichard, S.; Lang, R.F.; McCabe, C.; Selvi, M.; Tamborra, I.
2017-01-01
The dark matter experiment XENON1T is operational and sensitive to all flavors of neutrinos emitted from a supernova. We show that the proportional scintillation signal (S2) allows for a clear observation of the neutrino signal and guarantees a particularly low energy threshold, while the
Group theoretical methods in Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olmo, M.A. del; Santander, M.; Mateos Guilarte, J.M.
1993-01-01
The meeting had 102 papers. These was distributed in following areas: -Quantum groups,-Integrable systems,-Physical Applications of Group Theory,-Mathematical Results,-Geometry, Topology and Quantum Field Theory,-Super physics,-Super mathematics,-Atomic, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Nuclear and Particle Physics,-Symmetry and Foundations of classical and Quantum mechanics
Chromosome condensation and segmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viegas-Pequignot, E.M.
1981-01-01
Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr
Abstracts of the 81. national meeting on physics of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
Abstracts are presented at the 81 Annual meeting of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA). The papers can be grouped under the following main topics: teaching, history and philosophy of physics; classical and quantum physics: particles and fields; statistical physics and thermodynamics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; optic; fluid dynamics and plasmas; condensed matter; instrumentation; geophysics and astrophysics. refs., ills
Strangeness condensation and ''clearing'' of the vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, G.E.; Kubodera, Kuniharu; Rho, M.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook
1987-01-01
We show that a substantial amount of strange quark-antiquark pair condensates in the nucleon required by the πN sigma term implies that kaons could condense in nuclear matter at a density about three times that of normal nuclear matter. This phenomenon can be understood as the ''cleansing'' of qanti q condensates from the QCD vacuum by a dense nuclear matter, resulting in a (partial) restoration of the chiral symmetry explicitly broken in the vacuum. It is suggested that the condensation signals a new phase distinct from that of quark plasma and that of ordinary dense hadronic matter. (orig.)
Israel Physical Society 44. annual meeting. Program and abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-01-01
During the 1998 Annual Conference of the Israel Physical Society, various chapters were treated in parallel sessions: Physics teaching, Condensed matter, Lasers and Quantum Optics, Atomic and Nuclear physics, Particles and Fields, Statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics, Physics in industry, Plasma physics and computational physics
The Israel Physical Society 1997 Annual Meeting. Program and abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1997-01-01
The book of program and abstracts of the 43rd meeting of the Israel physical society presents abstracts of presentations in various field of physics. Follow is the list of these fields. Astrophysics, condensed matter, laser and quantum optics, nuclear physics, particle and fields, physics in biology, physics in industry, plasma and space physics, statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics
Israel Physical Society 44. annual meeting. Program and abstracts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-04-08
During the 1998 Annual Conference of the Israel Physical Society, various chapters were treated in parallel sessions: Physics teaching, Condensed matter, Lasers and Quantum Optics, Atomic and Nuclear physics, Particles and Fields, Statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics, Physics in industry, Plasma physics and computational physics.
High energy physics. Ultimate structure of matter and energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-04-01
Some of the principle discoveries and insights and their development up to today are sketched. It is shown how one layer after another was discovered by penetrating farther into the structure of matter. Covered are the mounting energy scale, discoveries at high energy frontier, the families of quarks and leptons, the four forces of nature, some achievements of the past few years, particle accelerators and experimental apparatus. A glossary of terms is included
International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Scientific Activities in 1983
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1984-08-01
The main activities and results of the ICTP during 1983 are reported, according to the following programme components: Physics and energy (Plasma physics; Non-conventional energy; Nuclear physics); Fundamental physics (Elementary particles and fundamental theory); Physics of the living state (Medical physics; Applications of physics to medicine and biology); Physics and technology (Condensed matter physics and related; Atomic, molecular and laser physics; Physics of communications); Mathematics (Applicable mathematics); Physics of the environment and of natural resources (Soil physics; Geophysics); other fields
SOLAR NEUTRINO PHYSICS: SENSITIVITY TO LIGHT DARK MATTER PARTICLES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopes, Ilidio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt, E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris 75014 (France)
2012-06-20
Neutrinos are produced in several neutrino nuclear reactions of the proton-proton chain and carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle that take place at different radii of the Sun's core. Hence, measurements of solar neutrino fluxes provide a precise determination of the local temperature. The accumulation of non-annihilating light dark matter particles (with masses between 5 GeV and 16 GeV) in the Sun produces a change in the local solar structure, namely, a decrease in the central temperature of a few percent. This variation depends on the properties of the dark matter particles, such as the mass of the particle and its spin-independent scattering cross-section on baryon-nuclei, specifically, the scattering with helium, oxygen, and nitrogen among other heavy elements. This temperature effect can be measured in almost all solar neutrino fluxes. In particular, by comparing the neutrino fluxes generated by stellar models with current observations, namely {sup 8}B neutrino fluxes, we find that non-annihilating dark matter particles with a mass smaller than 10 GeV and a spin-independent scattering cross-section with heavy baryon-nuclei larger than 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -37} cm{sup -2} produce a variation in the {sup 8}B neutrino fluxes that would be in conflict with current measurements.
Dark matter physics in neutrino specific two Higgs doublet model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baek, Seungwon; Nomura, Takaaki [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-10
Although the seesaw mechanism is a natural explanation for the small neutrino masses, there are cases when the Majorana mass terms for the right-handed neutrinos are not allowed due to symmetry. In that case, if neutrino-specific Higgs doublet is introduced, neutrinos become Dirac particles and their small masses can be explained by its small VEV. We show that the same symmetry, which we assume a global U(1){sub X}, can also be used to explain the stability of dark matter. In our model, a new singlet scalar breaks the global symmetry spontaneously down to a discrete Z{sub 2} symmetry. The dark matter particle, lightest Z{sub 2}-odd fermion, is stabilized. We discuss the phenomenology of dark matter: relic density, direct detection, and indirect detection. We find that the relic density can be explained by a novel Goldstone boson channel or by resonance channel. In the most region of parameter space considered, the direct detections is suppressed well below the current experimental bound. Our model can be further tested in indirect detection experiments such as FermiLAT gamma ray searches or neutrinoless double beta decay experiments.
5th International Heidelberg Conference on Dark Matter in Astro- and Particle Physics
Arnowitt, Richard; DARK 2004; Dark Matter in Astro- and Particle Physics
2006-01-01
The search for dark matter in the universe has established itself as one of the most exciting and central fields of astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. The lectures and talks in this book emphasize the experimental and theoretical status and future perspectives, stressing in particular the interplay between astro- and particle physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1999-01-01
This is the book of abstracts of the 45th annual meeting of the Israel Physical Society. Some of the subjects are: condensed matter; atomic and nuclear physics; quantum mechanics; particles and fields; quantum optics and plasma physics
Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.
2004-07-20
The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ablyazimov, T.; Abuhoza, A.; Adak, R. P.; Adamczyk, M.; Kugler, Andrej; Kushpil, Vasilij; Mikhaylov, Vasily; Petráček, V.; Pospíšil, V.; Prakash, Arun; Škoda, L.; Svoboda, Ondřej; Tlustý, Pavel
2017-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 3 (2017), č. článku 60. ISSN 1434-6001 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : FAIR * RHIC * LHC Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2016
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fiorilla, Salvatore
2012-10-23
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiorilla, Salvatore
2012-01-01
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Neutron scattering in soft matter physics and chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, J.W.
1999-01-01
Recent experiments area of soft matter science show that self assembly on the micron scale as well as the nanometer scale can be directed chemically. This lecture illustrates how such processes can be studied using the contrast variation available in neutron scattering through isotopic replacement and the techniques of neutron small angle scattering and neutron reflectivity. Related dynamical information at nanometer resolution and on time scales between a nanosecond and a few tenths of a picosecond will become accessible with brighter neutron sources. The examples presented concern the template induced crystallisation of zeolites, the liquid crystal template induced synthesis of mesoporous materials and the structure of thin films at the air water interface. (J.P.N.)
Physical considerations relevant to HZE-particle transport in matter.
Schimmerling, W
1988-06-01
High-energy, highly charged (HZE) heavy nuclei may seem at first sight to be an exotic type of radiation, only remotely connected with nuclear power generation. On closer examination it becomes evident that heavy-ion accelerators are being seriously considered for driving inertial confinement fusion reactors, and high-energy heavy nuclei in the cosmic radiation are likely to place significant constraints on satellite power system deployment and space-based power generation. The use of beams of heavy nuclei in an increasing number of current applications, as well as their importance for the development of the state of the art of the future, makes it necessary to develop at the same time a good understanding of their transport through matter.
Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter-neutrino resonances
Wu, Meng-Ru; Duan, Huaiyu; Qian, Yong-Zhong
2016-01-01
In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter-neutrino resonances (MNRs) can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino-electron and neutrino-neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.
Mind over matter: The intellectual content of experimental physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Telegdi, V.L.
1990-01-01
The author presents a new way of teaching experimental physics using Selenyi's experiment on dipole radiation, Michelson's optical demonstration of the earth rotation, the direct measurement of the helicity of the electron neutrino by Goldhaber, grodzins, and Sunyar and the determination of the helicity of the muonic neutrino by Grenas et al. (HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oancea, Margareta; Sandu, Doina; Calboreanu, Rodica
2000-01-01
The National Physics Conference organized annually by the Romanian Physical Society has been held in Constanta, Romania on September 21-23, 2000. It covered the following 12 sections: - 1. Astrophysics and High Energy (9 reports); - 2. Atomic and Molecular Physics (20 reports); - 3. Nuclear Physics (18 reports); - 4. Technical and Engineering Physics (34 reports); - 5. Condensed Matter Physics (67 reports); - 6. Optics and Quantum Electronics (12 reports); - 7. Plasma Physics (27 reports); - 8. Biophysics (30 reports); - 9. Physics for Energy (17 reports); - 10. Mathematical and Computational Physics (20 reports); -11. Physics and Education (8 reports); - 12. Earth and Environmental Physics (16 reports). The proceedings contains mainly short communications
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Looking at the growing importance of materials science and the related area of condensed matter physics, the series has articles about diamonds, the role of neutrons in the study of solids, inelastic scattering of. X-rays, high temperature superconductivity, as well as basic crystal structure analysis. Physics at the microscopic ...
International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste: Scientific activities in 1988
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-10-01
The document contains three parts. Part I is a review of the Scientific activities in 1988 with a statistical digest. Part II describes the scientific programme in Fundamental physics, Condensed matter, Atomic and molecular physics, Mathematics, Physics and energy, Physics and environment, Physics of the living state, Applied physics, Adriatico research conferences. Part III lists the publications issued in 1988. Tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masuda, Fujio
1980-01-01
Purpose: To enable safe steam condensation by providing steam condensation blades at the end of a pipe. Constitution: When high temperature high pressure steam flows into a vent pipe having an opening under water in a pool or an exhaust pipe or the like for a main steam eacape safety valve, non-condensable gas filled beforehand in the steam exhaust pipe is compressed, and discharged into the water in the pool. The non-condensable gas thus discharged from the steam exhaust pipe is introduced into the interior of the hollow steam condensing blades, is then suitably expanded, and thereafter exhausted from a number of exhaust holes into the water in the pool. In this manner, the non-condensable gas thus discharged is not directly introduced into the water in the pool, but is suitable expanded in the space of the steam condensing blades to suppress extreme over-compression and over-expansion of the gas so as to prevent unstable pressure vibration. (Yoshihara, H.)
At LEP, a new Physics. The dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouquet, A.; Haissinski, J.; Perrottet, M.; Renard, F.M.; Sadoulet, B.; Savoy, C.; Treille, D.
1990-01-01
The starting of LEP (European Large Electron-Positron storage rings) took place, in July 1989 and the 5 reports introduced during the 21th Summer School on Particle Physics (Ecole de Gif) locate, after a rapid recall of standard model, the problems that LEP will have to resolve in a more or less long time, LEP 100 or LEP 200. These reports are indexed separately [fr
Prevention Research Matters-Communities Working to Improve Physical Activity
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2018-02-15
We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity. Created: 2/15/2018 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 2/15/2018.
From quantum physics to consciousness. Cosmos, spirit, and matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goernitz, Thomas; Goernitz, Brigitte
2016-01-01
The present book is a consequent continuation and deepening of a new concept layed down ba Thomas and Brigitte Goernitz in several writings. Starting from quantum theory they describe the evolution of the spirituality from the origin of the cosmos until the origin of the consciousness. Obtained was this knowledge by profund physical and mathematical research lasting for decades and in cooperation lasting for years with scientists and philosophers, especially with Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benisti, D.
2011-01-01
This manuscript provides a theoretical description, sometimes illustrated by experimental results, of several examples of field-matter interaction in various domains of physics, showing how the same basic concepts and theoretical methods may be used in very different physics situations. The issues addressed here are nonlinear field-matter interaction in plasma physics within the framework of classical mechanics (with a particular emphasis on wave-particle interaction), the linear analysis of beam-plasma instabilities in the relativistic regime, and the quantum description of laser-atom interaction, including quantum electrodynamics. Novel methods are systematically introduced in order to solve some very old problems, like the nonlinear counterpart of the Landau damping rate in plasma physics, for example. Moreover, our results directly apply to inertial confinement fusion, laser propagation in an atomic vapor, ion acceleration in a magnetized plasma and the physics of the Reversed Field Pinch for magnetic fusion. (author)
Physics of antimatter-matter reactions for interstellar propulsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morgan, D.L. Jr.
1986-01-01
At the stage of the antiproton-nucleon annihilation chain of events relevant to propulsion the annihilation produces energetic charged pions and gamma rays. If annihilation occurs in a complex nucleus, protons, neutrons, and other nuclear fragments are also produced. The charge, number, and energy of the annihilation products are such that annihilation rocket engine concepts involving relatively low specific impulse (I/sub sp/ ≅ 1000 to 2000 s) and very high I/sub sp/ (3 x 10 7 s) appear feasible and have efficiencies on the order of 50% for annihilation energy to propulsion energy conversion. At I/sub sp/'s of around 15,000 s, however, it may be that only the kinetic energy of the charged nuclear fragments can be utilized for propulsion in engines of ordinary size. An estimate of this kinetic energy was made from known pieces of experimental and theoretical information. Its value is about 10% of the annihilation energy. Control over the mean penetration depth of protons into matter prior to annihilation is necessary so that annihilation occurs in the proper region within the engine. Control is possible by varying the antiproton kinetic energy to obtain a suitable annihilation cross section. The annihilation cross section at low energies is on the order of or larger than atomic areas due to a rearrangement reaction, but it is very low at high energy where its value is closer to nuclear areas
Dynamical Evolution of the Scalar Condensate in Heavy Ion Collisions
Csernai, Laszlo P.; Jeon, Sangyong; Kapusta, Joseph I.; Csernai, Laszlo P.; Ellis, Paul J.; Jeon, Sangyong; Kapusta, Joseph I.
2000-01-01
We derive the effective coarse-grained field equation for the scalar condensate of the linear sigma model in a simple and straightforward manner using linear response theory. In general, the necessary response functions cannot be obtained in perturbation theory but require a summation of ladder diagrams. We estimate these response functions using direct physical reasoning. The field equation is solved for hot matter undergoing either one or three dimensional expansion and cooling in the aftermath of a high energy nuclear collision. The results show that the time constant for returning the scalar condensate to thermal equilibrium is of order 2 fm/c.
Pion condensation and neutron star dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaempfer, B.
1983-01-01
The question of formation of pion condensate via a phase transition in nuclear matter, especially in the core of neutron stars is reviewed. The possible mechanisms and the theoretical restrictions of pion condensation are summarized. The effects of ultradense equation of state and density jumps on the possible condensation phase transition are investigated. The possibilities of observation of condensation process are described. (D.Gy.)
Frontiers in condensed matter theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lax, M.; Gor'kov, L.P.; Birman, J.L.
1990-01-01
This report contains papers on the following topics: superconductivity; transport, quantum hall effect, localization, and scattering in random systems; high-tc superconductivity; antiferromagnetism and superconductivity; nonradiative transport and energy transport; self-similarity and chaos; superfluids; dielectrics and semiconductors; two dimensional transport and the quantum hall effect; and localization effects
Investigation of condensed matter fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, S.E.; Berrondo, M.; Czirr, J.B.; Decker, D.L.; Harrison, K.; Jensen, G.L.; Palmer, E.P.; Rees, L.B.; Taylor, S.; Vanfleet, H.B.; Wang, J.C.; Bennion, D.N.; Harb, J.N.; Pitt, W.G.; Thorne, J.M.; Anderson, A.N.; McMurtry, G.; Murphy, N.; Goff, F.E.
1990-12-01
Work on muon-catalyzed fusion led to research on a possible new type of fusion occurring in hydrogen isotopes embedded in metal lattices. While the nuclear-product yields observed to date are so small as to require careful further checking, rates observed over short times appear sufficiently large to suggest that significant neutrons and triton yields could be realized -- if the process could be understood and controlled. During 1990, we have developed two charged-particle detection systems and three new neutron detectors. A segmented, high-efficiency neutron counter was taken into 600 m underground in a mine in Colorado for studies out of the cosmic-ray background. Significant neutron emissions were observed in this environment in both deuterium-gas-loaded metals and in electrolytic cells, confirming our earlier observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peter, Annika H. G.
2010-01-01
The next decade will bring massive new data sets from experiments of the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter. Mapping the data sets to the particle-physics properties of dark matter is complicated not only by the considerable uncertainties in the dark-matter model, but by its poorly constrained local distribution function (the 'astrophysics' of dark matter). I propose a shift in how to think about direct-detection data analysis. I show that by treating the astrophysical and particle-physics uncertainties of dark matter on equal footing, and by incorporating a combination of data sets into the analysis, one may recover both the particle physics and astrophysics of dark matter. Not only does such an approach yield more accurate estimates of dark-matter properties, but it may illuminate how dark matter coevolves with galaxies.
Some problems of quantum cosmology and dark matter physics
Wang, Jin
The quantum cosmology is studied of the string universe obtained by embedding the Robertson-Walker metric in the nonlinear sigma model. It was found that initially the universe exists in a series of metastable bound states with the scale factor taking discrete values. Then it tunnels through a barrier and comes out in an inflationary state. This tunneling (or evolution in imaginary time) also has the effect of heating up the matter field so that we have a condition of chaotic inflation. The asymptotic solutions agree with those obtained from the classical Einstein equations. Quantum cosmology was considered of a 4-D universe using the effective action of superstrings. Both Hartle-Hawking and Vilenkin boundary conditions were applied to the solution of Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Under certain conditions (fermions added) the universe was found to tunnel through to the Lorentzian regime from the Euclidean regime and time is dynamically generated. Chudnovsky and Vilenkin's idea was applied to possible existence of cosmic strings in the Sun. Stellar evolution with cosmic strings at solar age gives a radius and luminosity of the star which are in contradiction with observation. The astrophysical bound was studied on the change of gravitational constant with time. It was found that (G/G) less than 10-12yr-1 is the condition that has to be satisfied in order not to cause the conflict with observation. The effect was studied of axions on the steller evolution of a 10 solar mass star model. If the axion mass is larger than .1 ev the star's age is significantly different at late stages, compared to the star without axions. It is argued that if cosmions (or WIMPS) solve the solar neutrino problem, then they must also play an important role in the evolution of low mass star main sequence stars. If they do so, then a simple (long mean free path) model for the interaction of cosmions with baryons leads to changes in the structure of the nuclear-burning core which may in principle
2016-01-01
The Conference is organized by the West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Physics. The scientific program of the conference will include invited lectures, oral and poster presentations, as well as discussions on various topics of present interest, such as, but not limited to condensed matter physics and applications, theoretical and computational physics, and applied physics.
Fukushima, Kenji
2014-01-01
We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.
Soft matter food physics—the physics of food and cooking
Vilgis, Thomas A.
2015-12-01
This review discusses the (soft matter) physics of food. Although food is generally not considered as a typical model system for fundamental (soft matter) physics, a number of basic principles can be found in the interplay between the basic components of foods, water, oil/fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The review starts with the introduction and behavior of food-relevant molecules and discusses food-relevant properties and applications from their fundamental (multiscale) behavior. Typical food aspects from ‘hard matter systems’, such as chocolates or crystalline fats, to ‘soft matter’ in emulsions, dough, pasta and meat are covered and can be explained on a molecular basis. An important conclusion is the point that the macroscopic properties and the perception are defined by the molecular interplay on all length and time scales.
Soft matter food physics—the physics of food and cooking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilgis, Thomas A
2015-01-01
This review discusses the (soft matter) physics of food. Although food is generally not considered as a typical model system for fundamental (soft matter) physics, a number of basic principles can be found in the interplay between the basic components of foods, water, oil/fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The review starts with the introduction and behavior of food-relevant molecules and discusses food-relevant properties and applications from their fundamental (multiscale) behavior. Typical food aspects from ‘hard matter systems’, such as chocolates or crystalline fats, to ‘soft matter’ in emulsions, dough, pasta and meat are covered and can be explained on a molecular basis. An important conclusion is the point that the macroscopic properties and the perception are defined by the molecular interplay on all length and time scales. (report on progress)
Some concepts in condensed phase chemical kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adelman, S.A.
1986-01-01
Some concepts in condensed phase chemical kinetics which have emerged from a recent rigorous statistical mechanical treatment of condensed phase chemical reaction dynamics (S.A. Adelman, Adv. Chem. Phys.53:61 (1983)) are discussed in simple physical terms
Get 150 minutes/week of moderate physical activity: It doesn’t matter how
Researchers at the National Cancer Institute have shown that people who engage in more minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity enjoy health benefits (measured here by likelihood of dying during the study period), but it does not matter how those minutes are accumulated.
Neutrino and dark matter physics with sub-keV germanium detectors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-11-04
Nov 4, 2014 ... the recent results on spin-independent couplings of light WIMPs from the ... the studies of low-energy neutrino and dark matter physics. .... vs. SAT. 12 (shaping time is 12 μs with partial integration) signals, for both calibration.
Engelen, J.
2012-01-01
n this paper, I present a view of organizational and financial matters relevant for the successful construction and operation of the experimental set-ups at the Large Hadron Collider of CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva. Construction of these experiments was particularly
Neutrino and dark matter physics with sub-keV germanium detectors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-11-04
Nov 4, 2014 ... Germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities open a window to study neutrino physics to search for light weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. We summarize the recent results on spin-independent couplings of light WIMPs from the TEXONO experiment at the Kuo-Sheng Reactor ...
Coupled Atom-Polar Molecule Condensate Systems: A Theoretical Adventure
2014-07-14
second uses the linear-response theory more familiar to people working in the �eld of condensed-matter physics. We have introduced a quasiparticle ...picture and found that in this picture the bare EIT model in Fig. 2 (a) can be compared to a double EIT system shown in Fig. 2 (b). The quasiparticle ...energy levels consists of a particle (with positive quasiparticle energy ) and a hole (with negative quasiparticle energy) branch. The double EIT
Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
2016-11-03
21. "Many-body physics of spin-orbit-coupled quantum gases ," Invited talk at the March Meeting 2014 in Denver, Colorado (March, 2014) 22... properties of the fundamentally new class of coherent states of quantum matter that had been predicted by the PI and subsequently experimentally...Report Title This ARO research proposal entitled "SPIN-ORBIT COUPLED BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES" (SOBECs) explored properties of the fundamentally new
Space Matters: Physical-Digital and Physical-Virtual Codesign in inSpace
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reilly, D.; Voida, S.; McKeon, M.
2010-01-01
The physical and social cues on which we rely during collaboration can vanish in the digital realm. inSpace focuses on physical-digital codesign, leveraging an approach grounded in social behavior patterns.......The physical and social cues on which we rely during collaboration can vanish in the digital realm. inSpace focuses on physical-digital codesign, leveraging an approach grounded in social behavior patterns....
Field-induced exciton condensation in LaCoO.sub.3./sub.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sotnikov, A.; Kuneš, Jan
2016-01-01
Roč. 6, Jul (2016), 1-6, č. článku 30510. ISSN 2045-2322 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 646807 - EXMAG Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : exciton condensation * LaCoO 3 * dynamical mean-field theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mathieu, J P
1991-01-01
This book proposes a synthesis of the physics evolution and of upsettings produced by the many discoveries in this century: Relativity theory, quantum mechanics, quantum statistics, thermodynamics, optics, electromagnetism, atomic physics, molecular physics, condensed matter physics, nuclear physics and high energy physics, information processing and computers. Many examples are illustrated.
Condensates in quantum chromodynamics and the cosmological constant
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Shrock, Robert
2011-01-01
Casher and Susskind [Casher A, Susskind L (1974) Phys Rev 9:436–460] have noted that in the light-front description, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is a property of hadronic wavefunctions and not of the vacuum. Here we show from several physical perspectives that, because of color confinement, quark and gluon condensates in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are associated with the internal dynamics of hadrons. We discuss condensates using condensed matter analogues, the Anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, and the Bethe–Salpeter–Dyson–Schwinger approach for bound states. Our analysis is in agreement with the Casher and Susskind model and the explicit demonstration of “in-hadron” condensates by Roberts and coworkers [Maris P, Roberts CD, Tandy PC (1998) Phys Lett B 420:267–273], using the Bethe–Salpeter–Dyson–Schwinger formalism for QCD-bound states. These results imply that QCD condensates give zero contribution to the cosmological constant, because all of the gravitational effects of the in-hadron condensates are already included in the normal contribution from hadron masses.
Newman, Mark
2013-01-01
A complete introduction to the field of computational physics, with examples and exercises in the Python programming language. Computers play a central role in virtually every major physics discovery today, from astrophysics and particle physics to biophysics and condensed matter. This book explains the fundamentals of computational physics and describes in simple terms the techniques that every physicist should know, such as finite difference methods, numerical quadrature, and the fast Fourier transform. The book offers a complete introduction to the topic at the undergraduate level, and is also suitable for the advanced student or researcher who wants to learn the foundational elements of this important field.
Mathematical models of granular matter
Mariano, Paolo; Giovine, Pasquale
2008-01-01
Granular matter displays a variety of peculiarities that distinguish it from other appearances studied in condensed matter physics and renders its overall mathematical modelling somewhat arduous. Prominent directions in the modelling granular flows are analyzed from various points of view. Foundational issues, numerical schemes and experimental results are discussed. The volume furnishes a rather complete overview of the current research trends in the mechanics of granular matter. Various chapters introduce the reader to different points of view and related techniques. New models describing granular bodies as complex bodies are presented. Results on the analysis of the inelastic Boltzmann equations are collected in different chapters. Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry is also discussed.
Physics of Neutron Star Crusts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chamel Nicolas
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.
Supersymmetry in physics, introduction and overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, D.K.; Kostelecky, V.A.
1983-01-01
Some of the basic concepts in Lie Algebra and superalgebra theory are reviewed, and then an elementary summary of each of the areas in which supersymmetry has already been applied is given. These areas include nuclear physics, condensed matter and statistical physics, and particle physics and supergravity