WorldWideScience

Sample records for condensate polishing system

  1. Advanced ion exchange resins for PWR condensate polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, B. [Rohm and Haas Co. (United States); Tsuzuki, S. [Rohm and Haas Co. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The severe chemical and mechanical requirements of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) condensate polishing plant (CPP) present a major challenge to the design of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the development and initial operating experience of improved cation and anion exchange resins that were specifically designed to meet PWR CPP needs. Although this paper focuses specifically on the ion exchange resins and their role in plant performance, it is also recognized and acknowledged that excellent mechanical design and operation of the CPP system are equally essential to obtaining good results. (authors)

  2. Modeling radial flow ion exchange performance for condensate polisher conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallcross, D. [University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Renouf, P.

    2001-11-01

    A theoretical model is developed which simulates ion exchange performance within an annular resin bed. Flow within the mixed ion exchange bed is diverging, with the solution flowing outwards away from the bed's axis. The model is used to simulate performance of a mixed annular bed operating under condensate polisher conditions. The simulation predictions are used to develop design envelope curves for practical radial flow beds and to estimate potential cost savings flowing from less expensive polisher vessels. (orig.)

  3. New ion exchange resin designs and regeneration procedures yield improved performance for various condensate polishing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najmy, S.W. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Condensate polishing is an application with many different design and operational aspects. The past decade has brought new challenges for improved water quality with respect to both soluble and insoluble contaminants. Nonetheless, the endeavors to understand the compositional complexities of the ion exchange resin bead and the convoluted dynamics of ion exchange chemistry and chemical engineering mechanisms occurring within the mixed bed condensate polisher have brought new ideas and expectations for ion exchange resin in deep-bed condensate polishers than ever before. The new products and procedures presented here are a collaboration of a great deal of effort on the part of researchers, consultants, system engineers, station chemists, lab technicians and others. The studies discussed in this paper unequivocally demonstrate the merits of: 1. A specially designed cation resin to achieve greater than 95% insoluble iron removal efficiency, 2. A less-separable mixed resin for improved control of reactor water sulfate in BWR primary cycles, 3. Applying increased levels of regeneration chemicals and retrofitting the service vessels with re-mixing capability to improve the operation of deep-bed condensate polishers in PWR secondary cycles. (authors)

  4. Performance of monosphere new gel type ion exchange resins for condensate polisher at PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, S.; Nakamura, M.; Asou, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Izumi, T.; Deguchi, T.; Ino, T.; Hagiwara, M.

    1998-12-31

    There are two kinds of ion exchange resins of gel type and porous one which are used as condensate polisher in LWR nuclear power plants. In order to estimate the performance of these resins on the condensate polisher at the secondary cycle of Japanese PWR plants, a column test was performed setting the column test device in Ohi power station unit 1 of the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. and the variations of the resin properties and the samples at the end of column were analyzed. The column test showed that the cross-linking degree of the new gel resins used was lower than those of porous ones. The new resins captured larger amounts of Matrix-Diffused Crud than the conventional cation resins before regeneration but not after that. Whereas the surface adsorbed crud was less captured by the new resins than conventional anion resins. However, there were little differences among these resins in respects of rinsing characteristics, sphericity, water quality, break through capacity, etc. At the condensate polisher in the secondary system it was confirmed that new gel resins had almost the same performance as one of the conventional ones and could be applied to the actual plant. (M.N.)

  5. Is countercurrent regeneration an option for condensate polishing? Yes, it is.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daucik, K. [DONG Energy Generation A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2008-03-15

    This paper presents a brief report on operation experience with a three-train separate bed condensate polisher in countercurrent operation/regeneration mode installed at a 400 MW ultra supercritical unit. Operation data show that the quality of the polished condensate is superior to that of the previously used standard (cation-mixed bed) condensate polisher, and it has been possible to almost completely eliminate sodium sulfate-related deposition problems in the plant cycle experienced when operating with that standard design unit. (orig.)

  6. Internet in Upbringing System of Polish Scouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Czarkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available „Harcerstwo” is a Polish version of scouting, a unique result of fusing traditional scouting values with Polish national tradition, culture and patriotism. The main goal I set myself for this work was to define the place and role of Internet in the upbringing system used in Polish scouting and the function of media – Internet specifically – in determining the activities of scouts and guides within this system. The results of the study presented open the way for reflection upon the models of how a traditional educational (upbringing – parenting institution shouldoperate and the function of the Internet in such institutions. Using Polish Scouting and Guiding Association and its educational system as an example it provides answers for various questions concerning the place of education and traditional educational institutions in the future IT society, in which the role of Internet and other, even newer media, will unquestionably be significant and will largely determine the character of interpersonal relations.

  7. Priorities in the Polish health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieszporska, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    Since 1999, Polish health policy has changed, the quality of services has increased, and also the level of financing, mainly from public benefits. Despite constant growth of indexes reflecting the health status of Polish society, such as life expectancy, quality of life, or decreasing index of deaths at birth, just as in the majority of European countries, in Poland the society is growing older, which implies the necessity to reorganize the system. In this paper, the author has described the most important factors that determine the operation of the health system in Poland, as well as presents the ways it was restructured over the last few years, taking into consideration the structural, legislative, financial, organizational, and quantitative aspects. Also, the latest trends in Polish health policy, which take into account new goals of the system, have been presented within.

  8. Knowledge Mobilisation in the Polish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlagic, Jan; Erkol, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Poland has made substantial progress in improving the quality of its education system in recent years. This paper aims to describe the situation of the Polish education system from a knowledge management perspective and, to some extent, through innovation policies in education. The many challenges, this paper argues, can be tackled only through…

  9. Condensation Processes in Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D. I.; Moore, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    We model condensation processes in geothermal systems to understand how this process changes fluid chemistry. We assume two processes operate in geothermal systems: 1) condensation of a vapor phase derived by boiling an aqueous geothermal fluid into a cool near surface water and 2) condensation of a magmatic vapor by a deep circulating meteoric thermal fluid. It is assumed that the condensation process has two stages. Initially the condensing fluid is under saturated in gaseous species. Condensation of the vapor phase continues until the pressure on the fluid equals the sum of the partial pressures of water and the dissolved gaseous species. At that time bubbles flux through the condensing fluid. In time the fluid and fluxing gas phase come to equilibrium. Calculation shows that during the second stage of the condensation process the liquid phase becomes enriched in more soluble gaseous species like CO2 and H2S, and depleted in less soluble species like CH4 and N2. Stage 2 condensation processes can therefore be monitored by ratios of more and less condensable species like CO2/N2. Condensation of vapor released by boiling geothermal fluids results in liquids with high concentrations of H2S and CO2 like is seen in geothermal system steam-heated waters. Condensation of a magmatic vapor into circulating meteoric water has been proposed, but not well demonstrated. We compare to our models the Cerro Prieto, Mexico gas analysis data set collected over twelve years time by USGS personnel. It was assumed for modeling that the Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids are circulating meteoritic fluids with N2/Ar ratios about 40 to which is added a magmatic vapor with N2/Ar ratio = 400. The Cerro Prieto analyses show a strong correlation between N2/Ar and CO2/N2 as predicted by calculation. Two dimensional image plots of well N2/Ar + CO2/N2 show a bull's-eye pattern on the geothermal field. Image plots of analyses collected over a year or less time show N2/Ar and CO2/N2 hot spots

  10. Visible Light Activated Photocatalytic Water Polishing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal targets development of a LED light activated photocatalytic water polishing system that enables reduction of organic impurities (TOC and...

  11. 600MW空冷机组凝结水精处理加装混床技术改造%Technological transformation of 600 MW indirect air-cooling unit condensate polishing system by installing a mixed bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦传宝; 刘龙龙

    2011-01-01

    The running situation and existing problems of the powder resin covered filter in the advanced treatment of condensate of 2x600 MW indirect air cooling unit are introduced. The desalinization capacity of the powder filter is low. After the high-speed mixed bed is installed to the system,its running effect gets obvious,the quality of steam and water is remarkably improved and running cost is saved.%介绍了阳城电厂2x600 MW间接空冷机组凝结水精处理系统粉末树脂覆盖过滤器的运行状况,其存在的问题是除盐能力低.系统增加高速混床后,运行效果明显提高,汽水品质得到极大改善,节约了运行成本.

  12. Evaporative Condensers in Comfortable Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ying-de; ZHU Dong-sheng; DU Gui-mei; LI Yuan-xi; SUN He-jing; LIU Qing-ming

    2009-01-01

    The operating theory of an evaporative condenser was expatiated.The difference between an e-vaporative condensing refrigeration system and a general refrigeration system was analyzed.Compared with the air-cooled and the water-cooled,the virtues of energy-conservation and water-conservation of evaporative con-densers were analyzed.Some questions existing in the application of evaporative condensers were pointed out,the corresponding solving methods were analyzed accordingly,and the development trend of evaporative con-densing technique in mechanical refrigeration system field and the applied foreground of evaporative condensers in comfortable air conditioning were prospected.

  13. Analysis and Countermeasures for 1 000 MW Unit Condensate Polishing Mixed-bed Resin Running during Commissioning and Outage%1000MW机组凝结水精处理混床投停时跑树脂分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄校春

    2012-01-01

    凝结水精处理混床在投退过程中发生跑树脂的问题严重影响混床的安全、经济、稳定运行。文章简要介绍了某1 000 MW超超临界机组凝结水精处理混床系统,分析了凝结水精处理混床投退过程中发生的跑树脂问题及产生的原因,提出了相应对策,为大型电厂凝结水精处理系统解决类似问题提供了参考。%Condensate polishing mixed bed resin running during commissioning and outage seriously affect the safe, economic and stable operation of mixed bed. This paper briefly introduced the 1 000 MW ultra-supercritical units condensate polishing mixed bed system, analyzed the problem and cause of condensate polishing mixed-bed resin running cecurred during commissioning and outage, proposed countermeasures, and provided reference to large power plants to solve similar problems of condensate polishing system.

  14. Predicting the operation performance of condensate polishing plant using a mathematical kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handy, B.J.; Greene, J.C. [NNC Solutions Ltd, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    NNC limited provides an ion exchange resin technology facility, which includes a resin testing service. A range of ion exchange resin properties is measured and this includes ion exchange capacity, resin bead particle sizes and anion kinetic performance in terms of mass transfer coefficients. It has long been considered by the authors that the experimental data for resins taken from operating condensate polishing plant (CPP) could be used to predict the expected plant performance. This has now been realised with the development of a mathematical model which predicts CPP behaviour using appropriate experimentally derived parameters and plant design data. Modelling methods for the separate anion and cation components of a mixed bed were initially developed before the mixed bed as a whole was addressed. Initially, an analytical approach was adopted, which proved successful for simple cases. For more complex examples a numerical approach was developed and found to be more suitable. The paper describes the development of anion and cation bed models, and a mixed bed model. In the latter model, the anion and cation components modelled earlier are combined, and used to model simultaneously typical concentrations of ammonia, sodium, chloride and sulphate. Examples of operation are given, and observations and points of interest are discussed with respect to the calculated concentration profiles. The experimental behaviour of a number of resin samples taken from operating plant was examined in a purpose-built ultrapure water recirculation loop equipped with a range of analytical instruments. This has permitted the observed experimental results to be compared with model predictions. The next stage of the model development is to identify plants suitable for testing the model against real plant performance and the authors are now seeking to identify plant managers interested in collaborating in this venture. (orig.)

  15. Polish device for FOCCoS/PFS slit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; de Arruda, Marcio V.; Souza Marrara, Lucas; dos Santos, Leandro Henrique; Ferreira, Décio; dos Santos, Jesulino Bispo; de Paiva Vilaça, Rodrigo; Rosa, Josimar Aparecido; Sodré Junior, Laerte; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Optical Cable and Connector System, "FOCCoS", for the Prime Focus Spectrograph, "PFS", is responsible for transporting light from the Subaru Telescope focal plane to a set of four spectrographs. Each spectrograph will be fed by a convex curved slit with 616 optical fibers organized in a linear arrangement. The slit frontal surface is covered with a special dark composite, made with refractory oxide, which is able to sustain its properties with minimum quantities of abrasives during the polishing process; this stability is obtained This stability is obtained by the detachment of the refractory oxide nanoparticles, which then gently reinforce gently the polishing process and increase its the efficiency. The surface roughness measured in several samples after high performance polishing was about 0.01 microns. Furthermore, the time for obtaining a polished surface with this quality is about 10 times less than the time required for polishing a brass, glass or ceramic surface of the same size. In this paper, we describe the procedure developed for high quality polishing of this type of slit. The cylindrical polishing described here, uses cylindrical concave metal bases on which glass paper is based. The polishing process consists to use grid sequences of 30μm, 12μm, 9μm, 5μm, 3μm, 1μm and, finally, a colloidal silica on a chemical cloth. To obtain the maximum throughput, the surface of the fibers should be polished in such a way that they are optically flat and free from scratches. The optical fibers are inspected with a microscope at all stages of the polishing process to ensure high quality. The efficiency of the process may be improved by using a cylindrical concave composite base as a substrate suitable for diamond liquid solutions. Despite this process being completely by hand, the final result shows a very high quality.

  16. Electrochemical and mechanical polishing and shaping method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor); Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Jones, William David (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Benson, Carl M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system are provided for the shaping and polishing of the surface of a material selected from the group consisting of electrically semi-conductive materials and conductive materials. An electrically non-conductive polishing lap incorporates a conductive electrode such that, when the polishing lap is placed on the material's surface, the electrode is placed in spaced-apart juxtaposition with respect to the material's surface. A liquid electrolyte is disposed between the material's surface and the electrode. The electrolyte has an electrochemical stability constant such that cathodic material deposition on the electrode is not supported when a current flows through the electrode, the electrolyte and the material. As the polishing lap and the material surface experience relative movement, current flows through the electrode based on (i) adherence to Faraday's Law, and (ii) a pre-processing profile of the surface and a desired post-processing profile of the surface.

  17. Environmentally Conscious Polishing System Based on Robotics and Artificial Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dieste

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the manufacturing issues that are essential in the production flow, but it generates the major amount of defects on parts. Finishing tasks in which polishing is included are performed in the final steps of the manufacturing sequence. Any defect in these steps impliesrejection of the part, generating a big amount of scrap and generating a huge amount of energy consumption, emission, and time to manufacture and replace the rejected part. Traditionally polishing process has not evolved during the last 30 years, while other manufacturing processes have been automated and technologically improved. Finishing processes (grinding and polishing, are still manually performed, especially in freeform surface parts, but to be sustainable some development and automation have to be introduced. This research proposes a novel polishing system based on robotics and artificial vision. The application of this novel system has allowed reducing the failed parts due to finishing process down to zero percent from 28% of rejected parts with manual polishing process. The reduction in process time consumption, and amount of scrapped parts, has reduced the energy consumption up to 30% in finishing process and 20% in whole manufacturing process for an injection moulded aluminium part for automotive industry with high production volumes.

  18. Surface roughness and morphology of resin composites polished with two-step polishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can Say, Esra; Yurdagüven, Haktan; Yaman, Batu Can; Özer, Füsun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate surface roughness (Ra) and morphology of supra-nanofilled [Estelite Omega (EO), Estelite ∑ Quick (EQ)], micro-hybrid [Esthet.X HD (EHD), G-aenial (GAE)] and nano-hybrid [Clearfil Majesty Posterior (CMP), Charisma Diamond (CD), Beautifil II (BII)] composites polished with two-step polishing systems [Enhance/PoGo (EP); Venus Supra (VS)]. Composite discs, 30 of each type, were prepared. Each composite group was divided into three subgroups: Mylar (control), EP and VS. Ra was evaluated with profilometer. In each composite group, the control had the lowest Ra. With both polishing systems, EO and EQ had significantly the lowest Ra, whereas CMP and BII had the highest. Except for GAE, CD and BII, the differences in Ra between EP and VS in each composite group were significant, showing smoother surfaces for EP. Supra-nanofilled composites created smoother surfaces than nano-hybrids, and their performance was similar or slightly better than that of micro-hybrids.

  19. Laser measurement and analysis of reposition error in polishing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weisen; Wang, Junhua; Xu, Min; He, Xiaoying

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, robotic reposition error measurement method based on laser interference remote positioning is presented, the geometric error is analyzed in the polishing system based on robot and the mathematical model of the tilt error is presented. Studies show that less than 1 mm error is mainly caused by the tilt error with small incident angle. Marking spot position with interference fringe enhances greatly the error measurement precision, the measurement precision of tilt error can reach 5 um. Measurement results show that reposition error of the polishing system is mainly from the tilt error caused by the motor A, repositioning precision is greatly increased after polishing system improvement. The measurement method has important applications in the actual error measurement with low cost, simple operation.

  20. Polish device for FOCCoS/PFS slit system

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Arruda, Marcio Vital; Marrara, Lucas Souza; Santos, Leandro Henrique dos; Ferreira, Décio; Santos, Jesulino Bispo dos; Vilaca, Rodrigo de Paiva; Rosa, Josimar Aparecido; Junior, Laerte Sodre; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2014-01-01

    The Fiber Optical Cable and Connector System, FOCCoS, for the Prime Focus Spectrograph, PFS, is responsible for transporting light from the Subaru Telescope focal plane to a set of four spectrographs. Each spectrograph will be fed by a convex curved slit with 616 optical fibers organized in a linear arrangement. The slit frontal surface is covered with a special dark composite, made with refractory oxide, which is able to sustain its properties with minimum quantities of abrasives during the polishing process; this stability is obtained This stability is obtained by the detachment of the refractory oxide nanoparticles, which then gently reinforce gently the polishing process and increase its the efficiency. The surface roughness measured in several samples after high performance polishing was about 0.01 microns. Furthermore, the time for obtaining a polished surface with this quality is about 10 times less than the time required for polishing a brass, glass or ceramic surface of the same size. In this paper, ...

  1. Energy condensed packaged systems. Composition, production, properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kovalenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the substantiation of choice of fuel phase composition and optimal technology of emulsion production on the basis of binary solution of ammonium and calcium nitrates, which provide the obtaining of energy condensed packaged systems with specified properties. The thermal decomposition of energy condensed systems on the basis of ammonium nitrate is investigated. It is shown that the fuel phase of emulsion systems should be based on esters of polyunsaturated acids or on combinations thereof with petroleum products. And ceresin or petroleum wax can be used as the structuring additive. The influence of the technology of energy condensed systems production on the physicochemical and detonation parameters of emulsion explosives is considered. It is shown the possibility of obtaining of emulsion systems with dispersion of 1.3...1.8 microns and viscosity higher than 103 Pa∙s in the apparatus of original design. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated paraffin CP-470 on the thermolysis of energy condensed emulsion system is shown. The composition and production technology of energy condensed packaged emulsion systems of mark Ukrainit-P for underground mining in mines not dangerous on gas and dust are developed.

  2. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  3. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  4. The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional change in the Polish public science system (PPSS) in the past twenty years. Employing macro-statistical data, the paper argues that this change process has unfolded stepwise and relatively late despite major political and economic transformations in post-socialist Poland. Using a historical-institutionalist perspective, the paper focuses on processes of institutional change, including layering, displacement, and dismantling. One major finding is that the speed and depth of the gradual transformation differs considerably between the three research performing sectors of the Polish public science system. As the Polish Academy of Sciences was reproduced institutionally, the former governmental units for applied R&D were partly dismantled and displaced by private sector R&D units. In contrast, the Higher Education sector underwent a strong expansion and, thus, layering of new research activities and fields. Since policy shifts within the PPSS occurred relatively late, the more than two decades following the collapse of communism are of special interest to scholars of incremental, yet cumulative, institutional change. PMID:27077386

  5. The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional change in the Polish public science system (PPSS) in the past twenty years. Employing macro-statistical data, the paper argues that this change process has unfolded stepwise and relatively late despite major political and economic transformations in post-socialist Poland. Using a historical-institutionalist perspective, the paper focuses on processes of institutional change, including layering, displacement, and dismantling. One major finding is that the speed and depth of the gradual transformation differs considerably between the three research performing sectors of the Polish public science system. As the Polish Academy of Sciences was reproduced institutionally, the former governmental units for applied R&D were partly dismantled and displaced by private sector R&D units. In contrast, the Higher Education sector underwent a strong expansion and, thus, layering of new research activities and fields. Since policy shifts within the PPSS occurred relatively late, the more than two decades following the collapse of communism are of special interest to scholars of incremental, yet cumulative, institutional change.

  6. THE VALUE SYSTEM IN DEAF POLISH ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna KOSSEWSKA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the core stage for the development of the value system, one of the most important determinants of the human identity. The issue discussed in this paper is the perception of the value system by the people with impaired hearing who constitute a cultural minority. Such assumption can be made based on the cross-cultural value survey conducted by S.H. Schwartz. The Schwartz’s approach was chosen in this research to measure the culture on individual level.Sixty-six deaf adolescent students from secondary residential schools aged between15 and 20 years (29 male, 37 female and 93 hearing students from boarding middle schools aged between 15 and 17 years (39 male and 54 female were tested by using the Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire.The results showed that the intergroup value system differences were modified by gender. Hearing adolescent males considered bene­volence, hedonism and stimulation as more important than female adolescents did. In the deaf subgroup, the females valued security, power and achievement more than males. The mode of communication within the family had only one significant effect: the use of signing language implies significantly higher level of conformity in comparison to the people who communicate verbally.

  7. Polish banking system during the global financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wiszniowski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lasting for over a year the global crisis in financial markets, affected individual countries’ banking systems to a different degree. The present article discusses the phenomenon and its effects on the Polish banking system. The aim of the article is to present trends, the scale of the crisis and the current level of danger to stability of domestic financial market. The result of the research is a synthetic estimation of the level of the financial sector stability, taking into account the risks to solvency, liquidity, profitability, and quality loan portfolio and changes in deposits.

  8. Effect of Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness and Topography of Monolithic Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, C L; Yap, Auj; Tan, Kbc; Fawzy, A S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different chairside polishing systems on the surface roughness and topography of monolithic zirconia. Thirty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (Lava PLUS, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and divided into five groups of seven and polished with the following: Group 1 (WZ)-Dura white stone followed by Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 2 (SZ)-Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 3 (CE)-Ceramiste porcelain polishers; Group 4 (CM)-Ceramaster porcelain polishers; and Group 5 (KZ)-Komet ZR zirconia polishers. All specimens were ground with a fine-grit diamond bur prior to polishing procedures to simulate clinical finishing. Baseline and post-polishing profilometric readings were recorded and delta Ra values (difference in mean surface roughness before and after polishing) were computed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc test (ppolished specimens were acquired. Delta Ra values ranged from 0.146 for CE to 0.400 for KZ. Delta Ra values for KZ, WZ, and SZ were significantly greater than for CE. Significant differences in delta Ra values were also observed between KZ and CM. The SEM images obtained were consistent with the profilometric findings. Diamond-impregnated polishing systems were more effective than silica carbide-impregnated ones in reducing the surface roughness of ground monolithic zirconia.

  9. System Study: Isolation Condenser 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the isolation condenser (ISO) system at four U.S. boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified. A statistically significant decreasing trend was identified for ISO unreliability. The magnitude of the trend indicated a 1.5 percent decrease in system unreliability over the last 10 years.

  10. Polaron in Bose-Einstein-Condensation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bei-Bing; WAN Shao-Long

    2009-01-01

    We consider the motion of an impurity in a Bose-Einstein condensate system at T=0 K with the contact interactions for boson-boson and boson-impurity.Under the forward-scattering approximation,we obtain a Fr(o)hlich-like Hamiltonian for this system,which means that a polaron can be formed.The effective mass,the phonon number and the energy to form a polaron are obtained.We also discuss the validity of the forwardscattering approximation for this system.

  11. System Study: Isolation Condenser 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the isolation condenser (ISO) system at four U.S. boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the ISO results.

  12. Polish system of education in maritime health care and medical assistance for seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodnik, Tomasz; Jeżewska, Maria; Jaremin, Bogdan; Kotłowski, Andrzej; Leszczyńska, Irena; Grubman-Nowak, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The Polish public awareness of the crucial importance of the own maritime economy to the very existenceof the national state has its historical reasons. The Polish maritime involvement has seen several dramaticcrises, but the Polish nationals have become an established group in the global marine trade workforceand are entitled to the proper health care. In this paper the main maritime health issues are mentioned.To meet the issues, also the national education system provides the opportunities for both seafarers andmedical professionals. The Polish doctors can specialise in the maritime medicine. In many cases the generalmedicine students formations include these topics as well. The psychological aspects are also takeninto account, both of the education of the seafarers and the organisational structure of the Polish healthcare system. Some recent aspects of the Polish participation in the international cooperation in the fieldof the medical support of the maritime economy are also described.

  13. Condensation theory for finite, closed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Edward; Gibbs, Julian H.

    1981-03-01

    The applicability of Mayer's cluster integral formulation of statistical mechanics in the canonical ensemble has been restricted to the gas phase by two difficulties: the enormous labor required for the calculation of cluster integrals from realistic intermolecular potentials and the divergence of the cluster integral expansions of thermodynamic observables and n-particle correlation functions prior to condensation. In this paper the divergence of the cluster expansions is shown to be due to the way in which the limit of a system of infinite size is taken, implicitly, when the partition function, written as a sum over all the cluster size distributions attainable by the closed system, is approximated by its maximum term alone. The use in condensation theory of this ''maximum term approximation,'' and of the particular infinite limit it entails, are obviated herein by demonstration that the full theory with use of all the terms in the partition function, can be solved conveniently and exactly by recurrence relation (or formal power series) methods. The cluster size distributions thus found, since they describe finite systems, can have no associated divergences. Because no realistic set of volume dependent cluster integrals is known, we demonstrate the new formalism and the use of the recurrence relations in the case of cluster integrals obtained in the infinite volume limit from the virial expansion determined by the van der Waals equation of state. At low densities these are seen to predict correctly the ideal, imperfect, and metastable states of the homogeneous gas phase. Beyond the spinodal density, they predict bimodal cluster size distributions distinctive of coexisting vapor and liquid; the corresponding pressure isotherms are found to be constant, rather than diverging or displaying a van der Waals loop. Because the sole approximation made is the replacement of the volume dependent cluster integrals by their infinite volume limits, this evidently is the cause

  14. Effect of One-Step and Multi-Steps Polishing System on Enamel Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Sumali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The final procedures of orthodontic treatment are bracket debonding and cleaning the remaining adhesive. Multi-step polishing system is the most common method used. The disadvantage of that system is long working time, because of the stages that should be done. Therefore, dental material manufacturer make an improvement to the system, to reduce several stages into one stage only. This new system is known as one-step polishing system. Objective: To compare the effect of one-step and multi-step polishing system on enamel roughness after orthodontic bracket debonding. Methods: Randomized control trial was conducted included twenty-eight maxillary premolar randomized into two polishing system; one-step OptraPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent and multi-step AstroPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent. After bracket debonding, the remaining adhesive on each group was cleaned by subjective polishing system for ninety seconds using low speed handpiece. The enamel roughness was subjected to profilometer, registering two roughness parameters (Ra, Rz. Independent t-test was used to analyze the mean score of enamel roughness in each group. Results: There was no significant difference of enamel roughness between one-step and multi-step polishing system (p>0.005. Conclusion: One-step polishing system can produce a similar enamel roughness to multi-step polishing system after bracket debonding and adhesive cleaning.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.136

  15. The dielectric function of condensed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Keldysh, LV; Kirzhnitz, DA

    1989-01-01

    Much progress has been made in the understanding of the general properties of the dielectric function and in the calculation of this quantity for many classes of media. This volume gathers together the considerable information available and presents a detailed overview of the present status of the theory of electromagnetic response functions, whilst simultaneously covering a wide range of problems in its application to condensed matter physics.The following subjects are covered:- the dielectric function of the homogeneous electron gas, of crystalline systems, and of inh

  16. Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2016-12-01

    The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum chiral anomaly [S. L. Adler. Axial-vector vertex in spinor electrodynamics. Physical Review, 177, 2426 (1969), J. S. Bell and R. Jackiw. A PCAC puzzle: π 0 γγin the σ-model. Il Nuovo Cimento A, 60, 47-61 (1969)] in systems possessing charged chiral fermions. In quark-gluon plasma containing nearly massless quarks, the chirality imbalance is sourced by the topological transitions. In condensed matter systems, the chiral quasiparticles emerge in gapless semiconductors with two energy bands having pointlike degeneracies opening the path to the study of chiral anomaly [H. B. Nielsen and M. Ninomiya. The Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly and Weyl fermions in a crystal. Physics Letters B, 130, 389-396 (1983)]. Recently, these novel materials - so-called Dirac and Weyl semimetals have been discovered experimentally, are suitable for the investigation of the CME in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first experimental observation of the CME in a 3D Dirac semimetal ZrTe5 [Q. Li, D. E. Kharzeev, C. Zhang, Y. Huang, I. Pletikosić, A. V. Fedorov, R. D. Zhong, J. A. Schneeloch, G. D. Gu, and T. Valla. Chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe5. Nature Physics (2016) doi:10.1038/nphys3648].

  17. Measurement of liquid-liquid equilibria for condensate + glycol and condensate + glycol + water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Today's oil and gas production requires the application of various chemicals in large amounts. To evaluate the effects of those chemicals on the environment, it is of crucial importance to know how much of the chemicals are discharged via produced water and how much is dissolved in the crude oil....... The ultimate objective of this work is to develop a predictive thermodynamic model for the mutual solubility of oil, water, and polar chemicals. But for the development and validation of the model, experimental data are required. This work presents new experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for 1......,2-ethanediol (MEG) + condensate and MEG + water + condensate systems at temperatures from (275 to 323) K at atmospheric pressure. The condensate used in this work is a stabilized natural gas condensate from an offshore field in the North Sea. Compositional analysis of the natural gas condensate was carried out...

  18. Quantum entanglement in condensed matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laflorencie, Nicolas, E-mail: laflo@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr

    2016-08-03

    This review focuses on the field of quantum entanglement applied to condensed matter physics systems with strong correlations, a domain which has rapidly grown over the last decade. By tracing out part of the degrees of freedom of correlated quantum systems, useful and non-trivial information can be obtained through the study of the reduced density matrix, whose eigenvalue spectrum (the entanglement spectrum) and the associated Rényi entropies are now well recognized to contain key features. In particular, the celebrated area law for the entanglement entropy of ground-states will be discussed from the perspective of its subleading corrections which encode universal details of various quantum states of matter, e.g. symmetry breaking states or topological order. Going beyond entropies, the study of the low-lying part of the entanglement spectrum also allows to diagnose topological properties or give a direct access to the excitation spectrum of the edges, and may also raise significant questions about the underlying entanglement Hamiltonian. All these powerful tools can be further applied to shed some light on disordered quantum systems where impurity/disorder can conspire with quantum fluctuations to induce non-trivial effects. Disordered quantum spin systems, the Kondo effect, or the many-body localization problem, which have all been successfully (re)visited through the prism of quantum entanglement, will be discussed in detail. Finally, the issue of experimental access to entanglement measurement will be addressed, together with its most recent developments.

  19. Quantum entanglement in condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflorencie, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This review focuses on the field of quantum entanglement applied to condensed matter physics systems with strong correlations, a domain which has rapidly grown over the last decade. By tracing out part of the degrees of freedom of correlated quantum systems, useful and non-trivial information can be obtained through the study of the reduced density matrix, whose eigenvalue spectrum (the entanglement spectrum) and the associated Rényi entropies are now well recognized to contain key features. In particular, the celebrated area law for the entanglement entropy of ground-states will be discussed from the perspective of its subleading corrections which encode universal details of various quantum states of matter, e.g. symmetry breaking states or topological order. Going beyond entropies, the study of the low-lying part of the entanglement spectrum also allows to diagnose topological properties or give a direct access to the excitation spectrum of the edges, and may also raise significant questions about the underlying entanglement Hamiltonian. All these powerful tools can be further applied to shed some light on disordered quantum systems where impurity/disorder can conspire with quantum fluctuations to induce non-trivial effects. Disordered quantum spin systems, the Kondo effect, or the many-body localization problem, which have all been successfully (re)visited through the prism of quantum entanglement, will be discussed in detail. Finally, the issue of experimental access to entanglement measurement will be addressed, together with its most recent developments.

  20. The effect of various polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Atabek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of three finishing and polishing systems on the surface roughness of nano-manufactured composite resins. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Nano-ceramic Ceram-X (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany, nano-filled Premise (Kerr Corporation, Orange, NJ, USA and nano-filled Clearfil Majestic (Kuraray Medical Inc., Tokyo, Japan composite resins were tested. Forty samples of each material were cured under matrix strips. The samples were then randomly assigned into four test groups: 1 unpolished; 2 polished with burs out of resin reinforced by zircon-rich glass fiber (Stainbuster, Abrasive Technology, Inc., Lewis Center, OH, USA; 3 polished with aluminum oxide impregnated polymer points (Enhance Finishing System, Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE, USA followed by diamond impregnated micro-polishing points (PoGo, Dentsply Caulk; and 4 polished with aluminum oxide disks (Sof-Lex, Dentsply Caulk. The sample surface roughness values (Ra were determined using a profilometer, and the surfaces were observed under a scanning electron microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in surface roughness were detected among the finishing and polishing systems (p>0.05. However, all finishing and polishing techniques created statistically rougher surfaces than the control group (p<0.05. The mean Ra values of the finishing and polishing systems were ranked as follows: Mylar strip < Enhance Finishing System+PoGo < Stainbuster < Sof-Lex. These findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscope photomicrographs. CONCLUSION: All polishing systems produced clinically acceptable surface roughness on the tested composite materials. The smoothest surfaces were achieved using the nano-ceramic composites with the Enhance Finishing System and PoGo.

  1. Experimental results of ammonia operated condensate polishing plants in combined cycle power plants; Untersuchungsergebnisse zur Ammoniumfahrweise einer Kondensatreinigungsanlage bei GuD-Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochsmann, Christian [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Jahr, Henrik; Glueck, Wolfgang [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Neumann, Stefan; Wedemeyer, Hans-Juergen [Lanxess Deutschland GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    Modern combined cycle power plants with once-through boilers require highly pure boiler feedwater. Typically a condensate polishing plant (CPP) is used as 'salt sink' in the water-steam cycle, with a combination of cation and anion exchanger resin in a mixed bed filter. Ammonia ions are removed which reduces the lifetime of CPP. An alternative is the so-called 'ammonium form operation' which is being presented and discussed. This mode was investigated. The experimental results show that the 'ammonium form operation' is an attractive technology, which offers reduced operating costs and therefore meets economical expectations of power plant operators. (orig.)

  2. Profilometric analysis of two composite resins′ surface repolished after tooth brush abrasion with three polishing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Uppal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of three polishing protocols that could be implemented at recall on the surface roughness of two direct esthetic restorative materials. Materials and Methods: Specimens (n = 40 measuring 8 mm (length × 5 mm (width × 4 mm (height were fabricated in an acrylic mold using two light-cured resin-based materials (microfilled composite and microhybrid composite. After photopolymerization, all specimens were finished and polished with one of three polishing protocols (Enhance, One Gloss, and Sof-Lex polishing systems. The average surface roughness of each treated specimen was determined using 3D optical profilometer. Next all specimens were brushed 60,000 times with nylon bristles at 7200 rpm using crosshead brushing device with equal parts of toothpaste and water used as abrasive medium. The surface roughness of each specimen was measured after brushing followed by repolishing with one of three polishing protocols, and then, the final surface roughness values were determined. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way and two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s honestly significant difference (HSD. Significant difference (P < 0.05 in surface roughness was observed. Simulated brushing following initial polishing procedure significantly roughened the surface of restorative material (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Polishing protocols can be used to restore a smooth surface on esthetic restorative materials following simulated tooth brushing.

  3. Temperature Impact of Nitrogen Transformation in Technological System: Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland and Polishing Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszograj, Sylwia; Bydałek, Franciszek

    2016-12-01

    The article describes the results of the research, purpose of which was to evaluate influence of the temperature on the effectiveness of nitrification and denitrification in the sewage treatment system consisting of vertical flow constructed wetland and polishing pond. During the analysed period, the efficiency of removing total nitrogen was low and amounted to 12.7%. In the polishing pond in the summer period, content of total nitrogen in treated sewages was further decreased by nearly 50%. In the winter period, the polishing pond fulfilled mainly retention role and thus did not improve effectiveness of the whole system. Temperature coefficients, calculated on the basis of single first-order kinetics, for nitrification process in the filter bed (N-NH4+) and denitrification process in the polishing pond (N-NO3-) amounted to 1.039 and 1.089, respectively.

  4. Effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of nano-hybrid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to investigate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of nano-hybrid composite resins. Background: Different shapes of polishing systems are available according to the site of work. To minimize variability, a new system with single shape is developed that can be utilized in both anterior as well as posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Seventy composite discs were fabricated using Teflon well (10 mm × 3 mm. Two main group of nano-hybrid composite Group I - Filtek Z350 and Group II - Tetric N-Ceram were used (n = 35 for each group. Both groups were further divided into four subgroups. Subgroup a - OneGloss (n = 10, Subgroup b - PoGo (n = 10, Subgroup c - Sof-Lex spiral (n = 10, Subgroup d - Mylar strip (control, n = 5. Samples were polished according to the manufacturer′s recommendations. Surface roughness test was performed using contact profilometer. The obtained data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance test. Result: Tetric N-Ceram produced smoother surfaces than Filtek Z350 (P < 0.05. Mylar strip and "PoGo" created equally smooth surfaces, while significantly rougher surfaces were obtained after applications of "Sof-Lex spiral" and "OneGloss" (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Polishing ability of Tetric N-Ceram is better than Filtek Z350 XT. "PoGo" seems to be a better polishing system than "OneGloss" and "Sof-Lex Spiral."

  5. QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEMS IN POLISH AND UKRAINIAN HIGHER EDUCATION. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Tutko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the progress made to develop external and internal quality assurance systems in Polish and Ukrainian higher education in the European Higher Education Area background. The focus of the paper is on the extent to which quality assurance systems in these countries are following the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area. Furthermore, internal and external quality assur-ance in the European context is presented in the article. The authors of the article also conducted a comparative analysis of quality assurance systems in Polish and Ukrainian higher education.

  6. Optimization of ion exchange in polishers at PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.D. [Pedro Point Technology, Inc., Pacifica, CA (United States); Fruzzetti, K. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Blowdown polishers are indispensable components in the secondary systems of pressurized water reactors. The application of advanced amines to reduce iron levels in final steam generator feedwater influences the resin selection for and operation of condensate polishers. There are many opportunities to optimize blowdown polisher performance. This paper summarizes the work currently underway to optimally use resin properties such as ion selectivity and capacity and operational parameters to maximize water quality while minimizing cost. It is shown that the best amine for a given power plant is a complex function of amine properties, ion exchange resin choice, purification systems and other plant design and operational parameters. (orig.)

  7. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  8. Use of polishing pond effluents to cultivate lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, R; Perin, K; Souza, W G; Cruz, L S; Zandonade, E; Cassini, S T A; Goncalves, R F

    2008-01-01

    The sanitary quality and productivity of hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions and treated with effluent from anaerobic reactor + polishing pond followed by physical-chemical treatment was evaluated. Two hydroponic cultivations were performed at summer and winter time at Vitoria-ES, Brazil. The treatments for both cultivations were: T1) conventional nutrient solution, T2) effluent from physical-chemical treatment, T3) effluent from polishing pond, and T4) effluent from polishing pond with 50% dilution. The plants were evaluated for microbial contamination, productivity and nutrient content. In all cases, no significant microbial contamination of lettuce was detected and the levels of macronutrients in the shoot system were similar to those in published reports. In the experiments from summer season, the treatments T1 and T2 resulted in higher production than the T3 and T4 treatments. Plants from T3 and T4 had a less developed root system as a result of reduced oxygenation from competition with the higher algae biomass content from the polishing pond effluent. In the winter season, the effect of the algal biomass was pronounced only in the T3 treatment (undiluted effluent from polishing pond). In conclusion, hydroponic cultivation of lettuce with pond effluent is suitable as a complement to water and nutrients for plants.

  9. Family values system of Polish single youth in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatczyk, W

    1994-01-01

    "We have presented the selected results of [a] family attitude (to marriage and procreation) survey, viewed against the Polish single youth's value system.... The empirical data...consists of 4,316 questionnaires answered by youth, aged 18-34, who were single in 1986. We focussed on selected elements of a hypothetical model of the future family: pattern of marital values and pattern of procreational values. Moreover, we identified the Polish youth's system of family values, taking into account the motivation for entering marriage, marital life values and evaluation of marital success."

  10. Factorised steady states and condensation transitions in nonequilibrium systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R Evans

    2005-06-01

    Systems driven out of equilibrium can often exhibit behaviour not seen in systems in thermal equilibrium – for example phase transitions in one-dimensional systems. In this talk I will review a simple model of a nonequilibrium system known as the `zero-range process' and its recent developments. The nonequilibrium stationary state of this model factorises and this property allows a detailed analysis of several `condensation' transitions wherein a finite fraction of the constituent particles condenses onto a single lattice site. I will then consider a more general class of mass transport models, encompassing continuous mass variables and discrete time updating, and present a necessary and sufficient condition for the steady state to factorise. The property of factorisation again allows an analysis of the condensation transitions which may occur.

  11. Fröhlich Condensate: Emergence of Synergetic Dissipative Structures in Information Processing Biological and Condensed Matter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Luzzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the case of a peculiar complex behavior in open boson systems sufficiently away from equilibrium, having relevance in the functioning of information-processing biological and condensed matter systems. This is the so-called Fröhlich–Bose–Einstein condensation, a self-organizing-synergetic dissipative structure, a phenomenon apparently working in biological processes and present in several cases of systems of boson-like quasi-particles in condensed inorganic matter. Emphasis is centered on the quantum-mechanical-statistical irreversible thermodynamics of these open systems, and the informational characteristics of the phenomena.

  12. Effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of microhybrid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Guará Brusaca Almeida Scheibe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite resins in dentistry is well accepted for restoring anterior and posterior teeth. Many polishing protocols have been evaluated for their effect on the surface roughness of restorative materials. This study compared the effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of microhybrid composites. Thirty-six specimens were prepared for each composite $#91;Charisma® (Heraeus Kulzer, Fill Magic® (Vigodent, TPH Spectrum® (Dentsply, Z100® (3M/ESPE and Z250® (3M/ESPE] and submitted to surface treatment with Enhance® and PoGo® (Dentsply points, sequential Sof-Lex XT® aluminum oxide disks (3M/ESPE, and felt disks (TDV combined with Excel® diamond polishing paste (TDV. Average surface roughness (Ra was measured with a mechanical roughness tester. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with repetition of the factorial design and the Tukey-Kramer test (p<0.01. The F-test result for treatments and resins was high (p<0.0001 for both, indicating that the effect of the treatment applied to the specimen surface and the effect of the type of resin on surface roughness was highly significant. Regarding the interaction between polishing system and type of resin used, a p value of 0.0002 was obtained, indicating a statistically significant difference. A Ra of 1.3663 was obtained for the Sof-Lex/TPH Spectrum interaction. In contrast, the Ra for the felt disk+paste/Z250 interactions was 0.1846. In conclusion, Sof-Lex polishing system produced a higher surface roughness on TPH Spectrum resin when compared to the other interactions.

  13. Uniqueness of system response time for transient condensing flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, G.L.; Bhatt, B.L. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)); Beck, B.T. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States)); Roslund, G.L. (General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States))

    1989-11-01

    The unique characteristics under consideration in this paper are encountered in condensing flows, and have to do with a system's response time for various degrees of outlet flow quality. Specifically, the system response time for condensing flows appears to increase monotonically with decreasing outlet flow quality, reaching a maximum for systems having an outlet flow quality of between 10 and 20%. The system response time then decreases for outlet flow qualities that are less than that value. These unique characteristics are predicted theoretically by system mean void fraction model. The purpose of this paper is to develop analytically the characteristics, explain the physics of the phenomena responsible, and discuss the experimental verification efforts that have thus far been carried out.

  14. [Health literacy as an element of the Polish occupational health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobras, Maciej

    Nowadays it is believed that a comprehensive approach towards one's health requires the development and subsequent mastering of health literacy. Although this term has no Polish equivalent, it applies to the ability of individuals to access, analyze and understand information necessary to make informed health decisions. In this publication it is suggested that 'biegłość zdrowotna' can be used as a corresponding Polish term. This publication is based on the review of the available literature (in Polish and in English) on health literacy. To illustrate the hypothetical level of health literacy among Polish employers and employees reports of the Chief Labour Inspectorate and individual items from the Second European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER-2) were used. The analysis proves that health literacy is a multidimensional concept which has been studied and investigated so far only in relation to chosen nosological units, but practically it does not appear in relation to occupational health. There are reasons to believe that in Poland the low level of health literacy among both employers and employees, lies at the forefront of a passive approach towards the safeguarding of workers health. The concept of health literacy needs further dissemination in Poland, whereas the main area of future research should be the design of the Polish tool for assessing health literacy. The national system of occupational health seems to offer a possible ground for implementing such a concept, especially bearing in mind that within the current system there are several entities and services, which have the legal mandate to undertake informative and advisory duties - exactly those, which help build and master health literacy skills. Med Pr 2016;67(5):681-689.

  15. MINITYPE MACHINING SYSTEM FOR DIAMOND LAPPING & POLISHING BY USING BRUSHLESS DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR AS PRECISE SPINDLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Huinan; CHEN Dongsheng; ZHAO Yong; LIN Binquan

    2008-01-01

    A minitype precise spindle system which can machine precisely and stably in the process of diamond lapping and polishing is designed. In such minitype spindle system, the brushless DC spindle motor is used to drive the lapping finish table, which is built with fluid dynamic bearings. Some measures have been taken to make the lapping system dynamic balance, and a servo controller which can adjust the speed of motor from 1 200 r/min to 5 400 r/min is designed. Experiments show that the spindle system is reliable and stable for diamond polishing, and the detection results by atomic force microscope(AFM) show that the surfaces of diamond edge's Ra is 6.725 nm and whole diamond average Ra is 3.25 nm.

  16. Balance Sheet and Analysis of Reactive Power Demand in the Polish Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the balance sheet and the reactive power demand of the Polish Power System. Reactive power balance sheets were made for the specific operating conditions of the system: the last winter peak, summer peak and summer off peak load. The basis of the study was load flow models and selected load flow calculation results. In addition, changes in demand for active and reactive power in recent years were presented.

  17. Wick wetting for water condensation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, Susanne Vera; Spielman, Steven Russel; Lewis, Gregory Stephen; Kreisberg, Nathan Michael

    2017-04-04

    A system and method for particle enlargement with continuously wetted wicks includes a container into which a flow of particle-laden air is introduced in a laminar manner through an inlet and to an outlet. The container has a first section, a second section and a third section though which the particle-laden air flows between the inlet and the outlet. The temperature of the second section is warmer than that of the first section at the inlet and the third section at the outlet. In one embodiment, a continuous wick spanning an interior wall of the first second, second section and third section, said wick being capable of internally transporting liquid water along its length is provided.

  18. Ultrasonic Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic polishing process makes use of the high-frequency (ultrasonic) vibrations of an abradable tool which automatically conforms to the work piece and an abrasive slurry to finish surfaces and edges on complex, highly detailed, close tolerance cavities in materials from beryllium copper to carbide. Applications range from critical deburring of guidance system components to removing EDM recast layers from aircraft engine components to polishing molds for forming carbide cutting tool inserts or injection molding plastics. A variety of materials including tool steels, carbides, and even ceramics can be successfully processed. Since the abradable tool automatically conforms to the work piece geometry, the ultrasonic finishing method described offers a number of important benefits in finishing components with complex geometries.

  19. Advanced manufacturing technologies for light-weight post- polished snap-together reflective optical system designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael N.

    2002-09-01

    Fast, light weight, off-axis, aspheric, reflective optical designs are increasingly being designed and built for space-based remote sensing, fire control systems, aerial reconnaissance, cryovac instrumentation and laser scanning. Diamond point turning (DPT) is the technology of first resort for many of these applications. In many cases the best diamond machining technologies available cannot meet the desired requirements for system wavefront error and scatter. Aluminum, beryllium, AlBeMet and silicon carbide mirrors, layered with thin films of electroless nickel or silicon can be first diamond machined and then post polished to achieve greatly enhanced performance levels for surface scatter, wavefront error (WFE), and alignment registration. By application of post polishing using precise null testing techniques, the objectives of snap-together, or limited compensation alignment of aggressive reflective optical systems can be achieved that are well beyond the performance envelope achievable by diamond machining alone. This paper discusses the tradeoffs among materials and processes selection for post polished reflective systems and illustrates actual applications including telescopes for earth and Mars orbit, and a commercial, high speed, flat field scan engine.

  20. Dynamic model for controller design of condensate throttling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Zeng, De-Liang; Liu, Ji-Zhen; Zhao, Zheng; Li, Ya-zhe

    2015-09-01

    Improving the load adjustment rate of coal-fired power plants in China is very important because of grid load fluctuations and the construction of new large-scale power plants connected to the country's power grid. In this paper, a new application of condensate throttling system for rapid load adjustment is proposed on the basis of the characteristics of turbine-stored energy. To ensure effective and safe operation of the condensate throttling system, a non-linear control model is derived through reasonable simplifications of fundamental physical laws, and the model parameters are identified using experimental data from a 660 MW supercritical coal-fired power plant. The model outputs are compared with actual measured data for different unit loads. Results show that the established model's responses strongly correlate with the actual unit's responses and can be used for controller design.

  1. Applications of lattice QCD techniques for condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buividovich, P. V.; Ulybyshev, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    We review the application of lattice QCD techniques, most notably the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) simulations, to first-principle study of tight-binding models of crystalline solids with strong inter-electron interactions. After providing a basic introduction into the HMC algorithm as applied to condensed matter systems, we review HMC simulations of graphene, which in the recent years have helped to understand the semimetal behavior of clean suspended graphene at the quantitative level. We also briefly summarize other novel physical results obtained in these simulations. Then we comment on the applicability of hybrid Monte Carlo to topological insulators and Dirac and Weyl semimetals and highlight some of the relevant open physical problems. Finally, we also touch upon the lattice strong-coupling expansion technique as applied to condensed matter systems.

  2. EFFECTIVE USE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS IN POLISH CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Niechaj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems form two groups: grid-connected ones and stand-alone ones. The first group can be divided into: centralised systems with large power (PV farms, and decentralised systems with low-power (especially prosumer ones. The second group includes systems with electric buffer sources (especially with electrochemical batteries, and those without electric buffer sources (possibly with non-electric buffer sources. Due to significant decline in price of PV modules, both of these groups are becoming increasingly common in Poland, especially grid-connected ones. Additional factor for prosumer systems is economic and legal support in a form of exemption from fees for connection to grid, lack of additional required licenses for such connection, and possible support in a form of guaranteed sale prices to grid (feed-in tariffs of electrical energy generated in system. However, in case of systems not covered by economic benefits, increasing, or even ensuring, their cost-effectiveness, requires the number of ventures regarding areas of proper installation and operation rules of PV generator from installer/user/owner of system, as well as selection of suitable tariff and rational restructuring of energy demands. Detailed analysis and conclusions of these ventures, especially for prosumer systems, is discussed in paper.

  3. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is the study? This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays. Why was it done? No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  4. MINING SURVEY SYSTEM (MSS – INNOVATIVE SOLUTION IN POLISH MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamek Artur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning technology is developing rapidly also in mining. For several years research and tests are conducted on the use of that type of measurement in the inventory of the mine shafts. The company SKALA 3D in the project 1.4 POIG by PARP undertook to create Mobile automatic steering system of spatial geometry measurements mine shafts using laser scanning technology. Its main advantage is a faithful reflection of the object being measured in just a few hours. It is based on the data flowing from laser scannersand precision inertial unit. The main problem of the research was to determine the trajectory of the passing Mobile Platforms Mining (MPG in the shaft as accurately as possible. Unable toreceive signals from satellites in the pipe shaft prevented the use of solutions known for measuring terrestrial mobile systems. The company SKALA 3D has developed a methodology for determine the trajectory of the system, based on geometrical data coming from laser scanners and readings of accelerometers and gyroscopes of inertial unit. To improve the quality and accuracy of measurements MPG is also equipped with a set of anti-vibration parts prevent the transmission of vibrations ascending while cage is moving in the shaft on the measuring system. The whole forms a calibrated system, which in a short time is able to provide spatial measurement data from the measuring shaft. The accuracy of 2-3 mm in a single measurement horizon and a few centimeters determine the position of a point on the thousandth meter below ground make the system very accurate. During the project there have been numerous research problems, including the need to define the physical references, drift of IMU whether harsh weather conditions in the shaft. However, the company SKALA 3D solved these problems and making MPG unique in the world.

  5. Alpha particle clusters and their condensation in nuclear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Peter; Funaki, Yasuro; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Röpke, Gerd; Tohsaki, Akihiro; Yamada, Taiichi

    2016-12-01

    In this article we review the present status of α clustering in nuclear systems. First of all, an important aspect is condensation in nuclear matter. Like for pairing, quartetting in matter is at the root of similar phenomena in finite nuclei. Cluster approaches for finite nuclei are shortly recapitulated in historical order. The α container model, recently been proposed by Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Röpke (THSR), will be outlined and the ensuing condensate aspect of the Hoyle state at 7.65 MeV in 12C is investigated in some detail. A special case will be made with respect to the very accurate reproduction of the inelastic form factor from the ground to Hoyle state with the THSR description. The extended volume will be deduced. New developments concerning excitations of the Hoyle state will be discussed. After 15 years since the proposal of the α condensation concept a critical assessment of this idea will be given. Alpha gas states in other nuclei like 16O and 13C will be considered. An important aspect is the experimental evidence, both present and future ones. The THSR wave function can also describe configurations of one α particle on top of a doubly magic core. The cases of 20Ne and 212Po will be investigated.

  6. Enhancing Condensers for Geothermal Systems: the Effect of High Contact Angles on Dropwise Condensation Heat Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, John M.; Kim, Sunwoo; Kim, Kwang J.

    2009-10-06

    Phase change heat transfer is notorious for increasing the irreversibility of, and therefore decreasing the efficiency of, geothermal power plants. Its significant contribution to the overall irreversibility of the plant makes it the most important source of inefficiency in the process. Recent studies here have shown the promotion of drop wise condensation in the lab by means of increasing the surface energy density of a tube with nanotechnology. The use of nanotechnology has allowed the creation of surface treatments which discourage water from wetting a tube surface during a static test. These surface treatments are unique in that they create high- contact angles on the condensing tube surfaces to promote drop wise condensation.

  7. Fossilized condensation lines in the Solar System protoplanetary disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, A.; Bitsch, B.; Crida, A.; Gounelle, M.; Guillot, T.; Jacobson, S.; Johansen, A.; Lambrechts, M.; Lega, E.

    2016-03-01

    The terrestrial planets and the asteroids dominant in the inner asteroid belt are water poor. However, in the protoplanetary disk the temperature should have decreased below water-condensation level well before the disk was photo-evaporated. Thus, the global water depletion of the inner Solar System is puzzling. We show that, even if the inner disk becomes cold, there cannot be direct condensation of water. This is because the snowline moves towards the Sun more slowly than the gas itself. Thus the gas in the vicinity of the snowline always comes from farther out, where it should have already condensed, and therefore it should be dry. The appearance of ice in a range of heliocentric distances swept by the snowline can only be due to the radial drift of icy particles from the outer disk. However, if a planet with a mass larger than 20 Earth mass is present, the radial drift of particles is interrupted, because such a planet gives the disk a super-Keplerian rotation just outside of its own orbit. From this result, we propose that the precursor of Jupiter achieved this threshold mass when the snowline was still around 3 AU. This effectively fossilized the snowline at that location. In fact, even if it cooled later, the disk inside of Jupiter's orbit remained ice-depleted because the flow of icy particles from the outer system was intercepted by the planet. This scenario predicts that planetary systems without giant planets should be much more rich in water in their inner regions than our system. We also show that the inner edge of the planetesimal disk at 0.7 AU, required in terrestrial planet formation models to explain the small mass of Mercury and the absence of planets inside of its orbit, could be due to the silicate condensation line, fossilized at the end of the phase of streaming instability that generated the planetesimal seeds. Thus, when the disk cooled, silicate particles started to drift inwards of 0.7 AU without being sublimated, but they could not be

  8. Development of a condenser for the dual catalyst water recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinikas, P.; Rasouli, F.; Rabadi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual evaporation/condensation systems suitable for integration with the catalytic water recovery method were evaluated. The primary requirements for each concept were its capability to operate under zero-gravity conditions, condense recovered water from a vapor-noncondensable gas mixture, and integrate with the catalytic system. Specific energy requirements were estimated for concepts meeting the primary requirements, and the concept most suitable for integration with the catalytic system was proposed. A three-man rate condenser capable of integration with the proposed system, condensing water vapor in presence of noncondensables and transferring the heat of condensation to feed urine was designed, fabricated, and tested. It was treated with steam/air mixtures at atmospheric and elevated pressures and integrated with an actual catalytic water recovery system. The condenser has a condensation efficiency exceeding 90% and heat transfer rate of approximately 85% of theoretical value at coolant temperature ranging from 7 to 80 deg C.

  9. Mechanocaloric and Thermomechanical Effects in Bose-Einstein Condensed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, G. C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Muniz, S. R.; Spehler, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we extend previous hydrodynamic equations, governing the motion of Bose-Einstein-condensed fluids, to include temperature effects. This allows us to analyze some differences between a normal fluid and a Bose-Einstein-condensed one. We show that, in close analogy with superfluid He-4, a Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid exhibits the mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects. In our approach we can explain both effects without using the hypothesis that the Bose-Einstein-condensed fl...

  10. Transient behavior of a radiative distiller/condenser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, O.M.; Al-Nimr, M.A. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Irbid (Jordan)

    2002-04-01

    In this work, a mathematical model is proposed to describe the thermal performance of a radiative distiller under transient conditions. The parameters which cause the dynamic variation in the condenser performance are the finite thermal capacity of the radiative condenser panel, effective sky-temperature, ambient temperature, humidity ratio and the condensers overall heat transfer coefficient. The presented model is solved numerically and the effects of the design and operating conditions on the condensers performance are investigated. (Author)

  11. Effect of two different polishing systems on fluoride release, surface roughness and bacterial adhesion of newly developed restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Gokcen Deniz; Sandalli, Nuket; Selvi-Kuvvetli, Senem; Topcuoglu, Nursen; Kulekci, Guven

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the effects of two different polishing systems on fluoride release, surface roughness and bacterial adhesion of five restorative materials MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study groups were comprised of five different restorative materials, Beautifil II (B); GCP Glass Fill (G); Amalgomer CR (A); Dyract XP (D); Fuji IX GP (F) and 21 specimens were prepared from each material. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the polishing system: Mylar (control) (C), Sof-lex (S), and Enhance-Pogo (EP). The amount of fluoride release was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode and surface roughness was investigated with a profilometer. Bacterial adhesion on the materials was evaluated by optical density readouts for S.mutans on a spectrophotometer. The highest amount of fluoride was released from specimens in the S subgroup of group G during all measurement days. Surface roughness values were significantly lower in subgroup C than the other polishing systems in all study groups except group G (P material groups in both subgroups (S and EP) (P materials especially in glass ionomer-based materials. Proper polishing systems must be chosen according to the structure and composition of materials to provide the best clinical benefits. Additionally, polishing is necessary for GCP Glass Fill materials following the surface coat and heat application. This article stated that polishing promoted a significant increase of fluoride release on restorative materials especially in glass ionomer-based materials. Further, proper polishing systems must be chosen according to the structure and composition of materials to provide the best clinical benefits in terms of fluoride release, surface roughness and bacterial adhesion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The effect of one-step and multi-step polishing systems on surface texture of two different resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashetty Kusum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the surface roughness of two direct resin composites polished with one-step and multi-step polishing systems. Materials and Methods: The resin composites examined in this study include minifill-hybrid composite Esthet-X (DENTSPLY/Caulk, Milford, DE, USA and packable composite Solitaire II (Heraeus Kulzer, Inc., Southbend. A total of 42 discs (10 3 2 mm, 21 specimens of each restorative material were fabricated. Seven specimens per composite group received no polishing treatment and served as control. For each composite group, the specimens were randomly divided into two polishing systems: One-step PoGo (Dentsply/Caulk, Milford, DE, USA and multi-step Super Snap (Shofu, Inc. Kyoto, Japan. Polishing systems were applied according to the manufacturer′s instructions after being ground wet with 1200 grit silicon carbide paper. The surface roughness values were determined using a profilometer. Results: Data was subjected to student′s t test at a significance level of 0.05. The smoothest surfaces were achieved under Mylar strips in both the composite groups. Mean Ra values ranged from 0.09 to 0.3 mm for Esthet-X group and from 0.18 to 0.3 mm for Solitaire II with different polishing systems. The ranking of the order of surface roughness on the basis of the type of composite was as follows: Esthet-X , Solitaire II for PoGo system and Esthet-X 5 Solitaire II for Super Snap; and the ranking for the polishing system was: PoGo , Super Snap (P # 0.05. Conclusion: The one-step polishing system (PoGo produced better surface quality in terms of roughness than the multi-step system (Super Snap for minifill-hybrid composite (Esthet-X, and it was equivalent to Super Snap for packable composites (Solitaire II. Minifill-hybrid presented a better surface finish than Solitaire II when PoGo polishing system was used. No significant difference was present in surface roughness between both

  13. Effect of Two Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness, Topography, and Flexural Strength of a Monolithic Lithium Disilicate Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadibassir, Mahshid; Rezvani, Mohammad Bagher; Golzari, Hossein; Moravej Salehi, Elham; Fahimi, Mohammad Amin; Kharazi Fard, Mohammad Javad

    2017-03-08

    To evaluate the effect of overglazing and two polishing procedures on flexural strength and quality and quantity of surface roughness of a monolithic lithium disilicate ceramic computer-aided design (CAD) after grinding. This in vitro study was conducted on 52 partially crystalized bar-shaped specimens (16 × 4 × 1.6 mm) of monolithic lithium disilicate ceramic. The specimens were wet polished with 600-, 800-, and 1200-grit silicon carbide papers for 15 seconds using a grinding/polishing machine at a speed of 300 rpm. Then, the specimens were crystalized and glaze-fired in one step simultaneously and randomly divided into four groups of 13: (I) Glazing group (control); (II) Grinding-glazing group, subjected to grinding with red band finishing diamond bur (46 μm) followed by glazing; (III) Grinding-D+Z group, subjected to grinding and then polishing by coarse, medium, and fine diamond rubber points (D+Z); and (IV) Grinding-OptraFine group, subjected to grinding and then polishing with a two-step diamond rubber polishing system followed by a final polishing step with an OptraFine HP brush and diamond polishing paste. The surface roughness (Ra and Rz) values (μm) were measured by a profilometer, and the mean values were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane's test (post hoc comparison). One specimen of each group was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for surface topography. The three-point flexural strength values of the bars were measured using a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed and recorded. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane's test (α = 0.05). Statistically significant differences were noted among the experimental groups for Ra, Rz (p quality of roughness compared to glazing. The flexural strength of lithium disilicate ceramic after polishing with the OptraFine system was similar to that after glazing (p = 0.86). Despite similar surface roughness after polishing with the two systems, the D

  14. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS AMONG ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), is genotoxic in many short-term in vitro tests and carcinogenic in rodents. However, no study has evaluatedd a set of CSCs prepared from a diverse set of cigarettes in a variety of short-term genotoxic...

  15. Fossilized condensation lines in the Solar System protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, A; Crida, A; Gounelle, M; Guillot, T; Jacobson, S; Johansen, A; Lambrechts, M; Lega, E

    2015-01-01

    The terrestrial planets and the asteroids dominant in the inner asteroid belt are water poor. However, in the protoplanetary disk the temperature should have decreased below water condensation level well before the disk was photoevaporated. Thus, the global water depletion of the inner Solar System is puzling. We show that, even if the inner disk becomes cold, there cannot be direct condensation of water. This is because the snowline moves towards the Sun more slowly than the gas itself. The appearance of ice in a range of heliocentric distances swept by the snowline can only be due to the radial drift of icy particles from the outer disk. However, if a sufficiently massive planet is present, the radial drift of particles is interrupted, because the disk acquires a superKeplerian rotation just outside of the planetary orbit. From this result, we propose that the precursor of Jupiter achieved about 20 Earth masses when the snowline was still around 3 AU. This effectively fossilized the snowline at that locatio...

  16. The Role Of Non-public Schools In Modern Education Systems: A Polish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarski, Rafał

    2006-09-01

    THE ROLE OF NON-PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN MODERN EDUCATION SYSTEMS: A POLISH PERSPECTIVE - Non-public education can be viewed as one way of decentralizing the provision of education. The present study explores the ways in which non-public education is understood along with the scope of that education in countries belonging to the OECD. It focuses for the most part on the situation in Poland. The role of non-public kindergartens and schools in national education systems is assessed with reference to both the percentage of students in non-public educational institutions and the share of funding for education that comes from public and private sources. This assessment provides a context for discussing the issue of the independent status of non-public education in the education market, as well as the type of obligations borne by the state. The study also includes a brief history of Polish non-public education during the transitional period of the 1990s.

  17. Mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects in Bose-Einstein-condensed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G. C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Muniz, S. R.; Spehler, D.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we extend previous hydrodynamic equations, governing the motion of Bose-Einstein-condensed fluids, to include temperature effects. This allows us to analyze some differences between a normal fluid and a Bose-Einstein-condensed one. We show that, in close analogy with superfluid 4He , a Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid exhibits the mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects. In our approach we can explain both effects without using the hypothesis that the Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid has zero entropy. Such ideas could be investigated in existing experiments.

  18. Comparative evaluation of effect of different polishing systems on surface roughness of composite resin: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chour, Rashmi G.; Moda, Aman; Arora, Arpana; Arafath, Muhmmed Y.; Shetty, Vikram K.; Rishal, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Satisfactory composite restoration depends upon its smooth finish, quality of polishing agents, type of composite material used, and its composition. The present study evaluated the effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resin. Materials and Methods: Forty discs of composite were prepared and equally subjected to different finishing and polishing procedures; (i) unpolished control group, (ii) sof-lex discs, (iii) diamond tips, and (iv) Astrobrush groups. Later, the surface roughness for the entire specimen was evaluated using Profilomotor. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test at significance level of 0.001. Results: Composite surface roughness after polishing was statistically significant between the groups. Sof-lex group produced lesser surface roughness compared to control, Astrobrush, and diamond group. Conclusion: The present study indicated that diamond tips can be used to remove rough surface whereas sof-lex can be used for final finish and polish of the composite restoration. PMID:27652251

  19. Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component test report for the ground demonstration system jet condenser orifice performance. 77-KIPS-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, E.L.

    1977-11-08

    The purpose of these tests was to determine which orifice elements achieved satisfactory hydraulic and thermal performance prior to their incorporation into the Jet Condenser Assembly. Requirements were as set forth within the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Component Test Procedure number 414 for the Jet Condenser Orifice Performance testing. The results of the performance testing conducted on the Jet Condenser Orifices are presented. Part Number 720841 Jet Condenser Orifice Nozzle successfully completed the orifice screening tests.

  20. Near future of Polish energy system – COP21 and BAT conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwała Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next years will be very important for the development of the Polish energy system. Substantial part of the existing capacities are obsolete and need to be replaced or at least deeply modernised to fulfil expected emissions regulations. A hybrid of TIMES-PL and TIMES-MACRO energy-economic models was used to analyse the possible changes in the power generation mix and economic impact of different scenarios that combine the climate and air pollution regulations. The results show that to maintain the CO2 emission reduction trend a combination of measures is needed including the use of renewables, nuclear, natural gas and clean coal technologies. However, such transition in the energy sector will lead to a cumulative GDP loss in the near future once the possible GDP gains could happen after 2045 in which the economic, technical and legislative conditions are very difficult to foresee.

  1. Human Dignity in Law – A Case Study of the Polish Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Butrymowicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human dignity is one of the most fundamental ideas in the entire international human rights system. As from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in 1948, the concept of the human dignity become used as a tool to protect the basic needs of humans. The other formal instruments of international human rights also make reference to dignity. Whereas international law widely accepted the inherence of dignity, controversies still arise around the source of the dignity. Polish lawmakers, on the other hand, have no doubt about the fact the concept of dignity comes from natural law. Poland, in her Constitution, refers to the teaching of John Paul II about the source, value and meaning of human dignity. There is no doubt that concept of human dignity, even when it is controversial, is the most widely accepted by all religions and political society in the world.

  2. Effects of sports beverages and polishing systems on color stability of different resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Taskinsel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of certain acidic beverages may alter the physical and esthetic properties of resin composites. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two sports beverages on color stability of two different types of resin composites polished with different composite polishing systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 disk-shaped specimens (diameter: 8-mm and thickness: 2-mm were made from two different resin composites (Cavex Quadrant Universal-LC, and Clearfil-APX. All of the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C. Color measurements of each specimen were performed using a colorimeter according to the CIELFNx01aFNx01bFNx01 color scale at baseline and after seven days of immersion in two different sports beverages (Powerade and Buzzer. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were evaluated using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Significant differences were found between the mean ΔE values of the groups after seven days of immersion (P < 0.05. The highest level of the mean color change was observed in the Clearfil APX specimens immersed in Powerade (ΔE = 3.5 ± 0.9. Control groups stored in distilled water for both composites exhibited small color changes (ΔE-Cavex-bur = 2.1 ± 1; ΔE-Clearfil APX-bur = 2.1 ± 0.4. Conclusion: Sport beverages caused discoloration in the resin composites after seven days.

  3. Fidelity of quantum state for interacting system of light field and atomic Bose-Einstein condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunjia Huang; Ming Zhou; Fanzhi Kong; Jiayuan Fang; Kewei Mo

    2005-01-01

    @@ The evolution characteristics of quantum state fidelity in an interacting system of single-mode light field and atomic Bose-Einstein condensate have been studied and the influence of the initial light field intensity and the interaction among atoms of Bose-Einstein condensate on the quantum state fidelity respectively have been discussed.

  4. Experimental Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Third Party Joint and Several Liability in the Polish VAT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research results, indicating, that VAT third party joint and several liability in an efficient antifraud element of the Polish VAT system. As the experimental verification of joint and several responsibility proves, there are situations, in which the VAT fraud is possible when this element of the VAT system is not applied, and is not possible any more when the element is applied, which indicates the efficiency of thereof and proves the hypothesis of the present article.

  5. Contemporary Scheduling and Planning of Physical Education Lessons in the Polish Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof WARCHOŁ

    Full Text Available Polish's education system introduces many significant changes in the area of scheduling and planning of didactic and educational activity. The primary advantage of contemporary concept of scheduling is the possibility of creating one’s own – authorial teaching programs and plans. In this way, the physical education teacher has full influence on all elements of the praxeological model of physical education. Model of scheduling and planning in the area of physical education includes the following elements: core curriculum, teaching program, detailed plan of didactic and educational work, and thematic unit and lesson plan or scenario. The problem with the contemporary model of physical education lies in realization and execution of the approved teaching programs and lesson plans. Lack of uniform and comparable system of evaluation for achievements of the students in their individual improvement and in acquiring new motor abilities causes a situation where the school physical education contains a lot of randomness, selectivity, school sport alone and random realization of the program governed by immediate needs, possibilities, interests and good will of the teacher instead of there being real goals for physical education fit for the 21st century.

  6. Polish electoral system to self local government – changes and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słobodzian Beata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Poland as a young democracy is supported by extensive experience of mature democratic systems. Poland is still seeking reasonable and effective solutions regarding its electoral system. The right for electing the representatives of authority bodies is one of the fundamentals of democracy. This right entitles citizens for active public participation through expressing their support (votes for candidates, which will respectively represent their voters in certain institutions. Polish electoral law, which regulates the local self-government elections is very controversial. The existing legal rules have been changed many times since 2011. Among the subjects being discussed are electoral campaigns, and candidate registration rules and organization of elections. Frequent changes in the electoral law result in misunderstandings and an unwillingness to participate in elections. Their effect is low voter turnout and a large number of invalid votes. Regardless of the above, it is worth to consider, why the Electoral Code was prepared so chaotically and without any further discussion? Why before the forthcoming elections to the European Parliament and municipalities planned for 2014 it was not possible to be assured about the electoral regulations, which were the subject of numerous changes?

  7. The Pre-treatment of New Condensate-Polishing Resin Before In-used%新树脂在凝结水精处理应用前的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莉; 袁劲梅

    2012-01-01

    Influence of water and steam quality of power soluble extractives from resins was introduced. It was plant induced by decomposing product and water- pointed out that new condensate-polishing resin should be washed and pre-treated by acid or sodium hydroxide before in-used. And it could get better effect by lengthening in duration and increasing treatment temperature. Pre-treatment method for cation resin and anion resin were introduced. It was particularly pointed out that new anion resin in the Cl-form should be converted to the SO4 form by using H2SO4 for obtaining better regeneration result.%介绍了树脂分解产物和溶出物对发电机组水汽品质的影响。提出凝结水精处理新树脂在使用前应进行清洗和酸碱预处理,延长处理时间和增加处理温度可以得到更好的处理效果。分别介绍了阳树脂和阴树脂的预处理工艺。特别指出当新阴树脂为Cl型时,可先用H2SO4转化为SO4型,以获得更好的再生效果。

  8. Prevention of female reproductive system cancer among rural and urban Polish pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Iwona; Biliński, Przemysław; Boyle, Peter; Zatoński, Witold; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Based on data obtained from the system MoZMaD - PL (Polish Mother and Child Health Monitoring System; an equivalent of the American system PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System). In the developed countries prevention programmes proved to be efficient in reducing morbidity and mortality due to breast and cervical cancer. In Poland, these diseases still constitute a very big problem, despite relatively easy and early diagnostics of pathological conditions preceding their development. The objective of the study was analysis of the usage of prophylactic examinations and the assessment of knowledge concerning risk factors of the development of reproductive cancers among pregnant women from rural and urban environments in Poland. The study was based on questionnaire forms within the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (MoZMaD - PL) implemented in Poland. The precise date of the study for the whole of Poland is announced annually by the Chief Sanitary Inspector. The questionnaire forms were correctly completed in 2010 by 2,877 women. The replies to the questions were introduced by surveyors into the MoZMaD - PL system central database managed by the Institute of Agricultural Medicine in Lublin. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The studies of pregnant women in Poland showed that the situation with respect to the performance of prevention examinations for cervical cancer was significantly worse among rural than urban women. Pregnant women from both rural and urban areas very rarely had breast USG performed. Awareness concerning cervical cancer risk factors was lower among rural than urban women. Also, knowledge concerning the examinations which should be performed for the prevention of breast cancer was poorer among rural, compared to urban women. The recognition of the attitudes of women at reproductive age towards prevention examinations is necessary in order to effectively plan health education and social health promotion

  9. Energy and Exergy Efficiency Analysis of Sealing Steam Condenser in Propulsion System of LNG Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Medica-Viola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In ship propulsion systems today diesel engines are dominant, but steam propulsion systems prevail in one type of ships and that are LNG carriers. Such steam propulsion systems consist of many different components. One interesting component of these systems is sealing steam condenser analysed in this paper. Measurements of all necessary operating parameters for analysed sealing steam condenser were performed during the ship exploitation and they were used for calculating the energy and exergy efficiency of this device. Except the displayed movement of both efficiencies the reasons for those changes and proposals for possible improvements were presented. Also, it was displayed all operating parameters of sealing steam condenser that has an impact on its performance and efficiency. During the ship exploitation, improvements related to the sealing steam condenser efficiency are hard to expect because improvements would cause an increase in the steam propulsion system operating costs.

  10. Polish visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 6 October, Professor Michal Kleiber, Polish Minister of Science and Chairman of the State Committee for Scientific Research, visited CERN and met both the current and designated Director General, Luciano Maiani and Robert Aymar. Professor Kleiber visited the CMS and ATLAS detector assembly halls, the underground cavern for ATLAS, and the LHC superconducting magnet string test hall. Michal Kleiber (left), Polish minister of science and Jan Krolikowski, scientist at Warsaw University and working for CMS, who shows the prototypes of the Muon Trigger board of CMS.

  11. Accuracy and coverage of the modernized Polish Maritime differential GPS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Cezary

    2011-01-01

    The DGPS navigation service augments The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System by providing localized pseudorange correction factors and ancillary information which are broadcast over selected marine reference stations. The DGPS service position and integrity information satisfy requirements in coastal navigation and hydrographic surveys. Polish Maritime DGPS system has been established in 1994 and modernized (in 2009) to meet the requirements set out in IMO resolution for a future GNSS, but also to preserve backward signal compatibility of user equipment. Having finalized installation of the new technology L1, L2 reference equipment performance tests were performed.The paper presents results of the coverage modeling and accuracy measuring campaign based on long-term signal analyses of the DGPS reference station Rozewie, which was performed for 26 days in July 2009. Final results allowed to verify the coverage area of the differential signal from reference station and calculated repeatable and absolute accuracy of the system, after the technical modernization. Obtained field strength level area and position statistics (215,000 fixes) were compared to past measurements performed in 2002 (coverage) and 2005 (accuracy), when previous system infrastructure was in operation.So far, no campaigns were performed on differential Galileo. However, as signals, signal processing and receiver techniques are comparable to those know from DGPS. Because all satellite differential GNSS systems use the same transmission standard (RTCM), maritime DGPS Radiobeacons are standardized in all radio communication aspects (frequency, binary rate, modulation), then the accuracy results of differential Galileo can be expected as a similar to DGPS.Coverage of the reference station was calculated based on unique software, which calculate the signal strength level based on transmitter parameters or field signal strength measurement campaign, done in the representative points. The software works

  12. Calculation in Orifice Plate of CEFR Condensate Water Recycling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Yi-min

    2012-01-01

    <正>In order to avoid condensation water pump occurring cavitation due to the flow is too small and affect the normal operation of pump when the startup or shutdown in the unit, low load or accident under empty load operation, recirculation loop should maintain a certain flow, to ensure that the shaft seal heater has enough cooling water, recirculation flow is not less than 20 t/h.

  13. Simple-Minded Models of Condensed Matter Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Paul Edward

    Chapter 0 presents a survey of recent work on the role of topological defects in classical equilibrium phase transitions. A wide variety of systems and models are covered. The range includes XY models in two and three dimensions, defect theories of two and three dimensional melting of solids and smectic-A liquid crystals, and systems with nonabelian global symmetries, specifically three-dimensional Heisenberg models and IR P^{(n -1)}(generalized nematic) models in two and three dimensions. An attempt is made to bring some clarity to the conceptual problems and to draw attention to the common themes. The general review is followed by detailed study of the effects of topological defects in a specific system, namely nematic media. Chapters 1 and 2 present analysis of a new model of the isotropic-nematic transition in which disclination lines--the characteristic topological defects of nematics--figure prominently. This nematic model incorporates the nematic inversion symmetry as a gauge symmetry. In Chapter 1, Monte Carlo and analytical results on this model are presented. It is found that the first-order isotropic-nematic transition is weakened by increasing defect suppression. Sufficiently great suppression causes that transition to split into two continuous ones, which correspond to unbinding and condensation of dislocation loops, respectively. The intermediate phase possesses a subtle sort of topological ordering. Observable consequences of the new scenario are calculated in detail in Chapter 2. Specifically these are the critical behavior associated with the two continuous transitions. Specific heat, light scattering, magnetic susceptibility and Frank elastic constants are treated. The remaining chapters are devoted to the phenomenon of superconductivity in doped C_{60 }. A selective overview of the physics and a bit of the chemistry of these materials is found in Chapter 3. The focus is on superconducting phenomenology and the attempts which have been made to

  14. Artificial neural network analysis of a refrigeration system with an evaporative condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertunc, H.M. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kocaeli University, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey); Hosoz, M. [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes an application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the performance of a refrigeration system with an evaporative condenser. In order to gather data for training and testing the proposed ANN, an experimental refrigeration system with an evaporative condenser was set up. Then, steady-state test runs were conducted varying the evaporator load, air and water flow rates passing through the condenser and both dry and wet bulb temperatures of the air stream entering the condenser. Utilizing some of the experimental data, an ANN model for the system based on standard backpropagation algorithm was developed. The ANN was used for predicting various performance parameters of the system, namely the condenser heat rejection rate, refrigerant mass flow rate, compressor power, electric power input to the compressor motor and the coefficient of performance. The ANN predictions usually agree well with the experimental values with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.933-1.000, mean relative errors in the range of 1.90-4.18% and very low root mean square errors. Results show that refrigeration systems, even complex ones involving concurrent heat and mass transfer such as systems with an evaporative condenser, can alternatively be modelled using ANNs within a high degree of accuracy. [Author].

  15. Energy losses in the Polish power system and possibilities of reducing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchta, F.; Janiczek, R.; Sobieszczanski, S. [Politechnika Slaska, Katowice (Poland). PSE SA

    1993-11-01

    Analyzes energy losses in power generation and power distribution systems in Poland. The following aspects of power losses in power generation are evaluated: structure of existing power plants in Poland, types of equipment used in coal-fired power plants, efficiency of condensation units (about 36.0% or 11.6-10 MJ/kWxh), efficiency of planned modernization of existing power units, effects of flue gas desulfurization on efficiency of power generation in coal-fired power plants, energy policy of Poland, investment in coal-fired power plants, feasibility of clean coal programs, effects of replacing conventional coal combustion by combined-cycle power plants with coal gasification on energy efficiency and energy losses, energy losses during power transmission and distribution. 19 refs.

  16. The Parametrisation of Legal Terminology Concerning Child Maintenance Support in the Swedish and Polish Legal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadryan Milena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with translating legal terminology concerning child maintenance from Polish to Swedish. The analysis covers selected terms regulated in the Polish civil law and their possible Swedish equivalents. The method used is based on the parameterisation of legal terms, which allows the specification of terms by selected parameters, which are understood as mutually exclusive properties. The parameterised equivalents are analysed in the context of various types of recipients. This provides the basis for the choice of appropriate translation strategies. The author also discusses pragmatic equivalents featured in Rikstermbanken, the Swedish national terminological database, and those used in practice.

  17. Role of single-particle and pair condensates in Bose systems with arbitrary intensity of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Peletminskii

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study a superfluid Bose system with single-particle and pair condensates on the basis of a half-phenomenological theory of a Bose liquid not involving the weakness of interparticle interaction. The coupled equations describing the equilibrium state of such system are derived from the variational principle for entropy. These equations are analyzed at zero temperature both analytically and numerically. It is shown that the fraction of particles in the single-particle and pair condensates essentially depends on the total density of the system. At densities attainable in condensates of alkali-metal atoms, almost all particles are in the single-particle condensate. The pair condensate fraction grows with increasing total density and becomes dominant. It is shown that at density of liquid helium, the single-particle condensate fraction is less than 10% that agrees with experimental data on inelastic neutron scattering, Monte Carlo calculations and other theoretical predictions. The ground state energy, pressure, and compressibility are found for the system under consideration. The spectrum of single-particle excitations is also analyzed.

  18. The Impact of Enterprises Systems on Sales Performance: A Study of Erp System Implementations in Polish Smes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patalas-Maliszewska Justyna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While having been the object of numerous studies, the link between ERP implementation and SMEs performance still requires understanding. This paper documents the effect of investments in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems on a firm’s sales performance and profitability measure such as return on sales (ROS. The models are based on a sample of 240 during time of defined activities in the sales process realized during the each month by 40 knowledge workers in each of 5 Polish SMEs announcements of ERP implementations. Our analysis of the financial benefits of these implementations yields mixed results. Our results are encouraging that we find the business activity that can persistent evidence of sales performance associated with ERP investments. This should help alleviate the companies that some have expressed about the viability of ERP given the highly publicized implementation problems at some firms.

  19. Polymorphism of molecular-genetic systems in the Polish red cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauzińska, M; Siadkowska, E; Grochowska, R; Zwierzchowski, L; Zurkowski, M

    2001-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate gene polymorphism in the Polish Red (PR) cattle, a local Polish breed included in the FAO conservation programme. Milk protein genes and other genes with possible effect on production traits were analysed. Frequencies of different gene variants were compared with those in the Polish Friesian cattle. The following gene polymorphisms were analysed with PCR/RFLP technique: milk protein genes--kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin, growth hormone (GH), PitI (a transcription factor) and leptin. Moreover, SSCP analysis was performed of myostatin (MSTN) gene at the site previously shown to cause muscle overgrowth in Belgian Blue double-muscled cattle. A significant difference was found in this study between kappa-casein A and B allele frequency in PR and Friesian cattle. No such differences were found in the frequency of A and B alleles of beta-lactoglobulin, L and V alleles of GH, A and B alleles of PitI, and A, B and C alleles of leptin gene. In the analysed group of the Polish Red cattle three animals were found with the rare AI genotype of -lactoglobulin. No such genotype was identified in analysed Friesians. Moreover, 8 PR animals were identified carrying a mutation in MSTN gene, possibly identical to that causing the double-muscled phenotype in some breeds of meat cattle.

  20. Structural Changes in the Polish Higher Education System (1990-2010): A Synthetic View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiek, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The paper locates the past two decades of changes in Polish universities in a comparative European context. It shows a wider transition: from an expanding, privatized and disciplinarily divided university of the 1990s to a publicly funded, increasingly contracting and stratified university of the 2000s (and beyond). The gradual political and…

  1. Analysis of nitrogenous and algal oxygen demand in effluent from a system of aerated lagoons followed by polishing pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsandi, Hassan; Alizadeh, Rahimeh; Tosinejad, Horiyeh; Porghaffar, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    In this descriptive-analytical study, nitrogenous and algal oxygen demand were assessed for effluent from a system of facultative partially mixed lagoons followed by the polishing pond using 120 grab samples over 1 year. Filtered and non-filtered samples of polishing pond effluent were tested in the presence and absence of a nitrification inhibitor. Effective factors, including 5-day biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD and COD), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll A, and temperature, were measured using standard methods for water and wastewater tests. The results were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with SPSS version 16. Findings show that the annual mean of the total 5-day BOD in the effluent from the polishing pond consisted of 44.92% as the algal carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), 43.61% as the nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand (NBOD), and 11.47% as the soluble CBOD. According to this study, the annual mean ratios of algal COD and 5-day algal CBOD to TSS were 0.8 and 0.37, respectively. As the results demonstrate, undertaking quality evaluation of the final effluent from the lagoons without considering nitrogenous and algal oxygen demand would undermine effluent quality assessment and interpretation of the performance of the wastewater treatment plant.

  2. Energy Performance and Condensation Risk of DCDV System in Subtropical Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾捷; 李慧玲

    2014-01-01

    The combined use of dry cooling (DC) system and dedicated ventilation (DV) system to decouple cool-ing and dehumidification process for energy efficiency was proposed for subtropical climates like Hong Kong. In this study, the energy performance and condensation risk of the use of DCDV system were examined by analyzing its ap-plication in a typical office building in Hong Kong. Through hour-by-hour simulation using actual equipment per-formance data and realistic building and system characteristics, it was found that with the use of DCDV system, the annual energy consumption could be reduced by 54%in comparison with the conventional system (constant air vol-ume with reheat system). In respect of condensation risk, it was found that the annual frequency of occurrence of con-densation on DC coil was 35 h. Additional simulations were conducted to examine the influence of different parame-ters on the condensation risk of DCDV system. Measures to ensure condensate-free on DC coil were also discussed.

  3. Numerical model of sprayed air cooled condenser coupled to refrigerating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youbi-Idrissi, M.; Macchi-Tejeda, H.; Fournaison, L.; Guilpart, J. [Refrigerating Processes Research Unit, CEMAGEF, Parc de Tourvoie, BP 44, 92163 Antony Cedex (France)

    2007-07-15

    Because of technological, economic and environmental constraints, many refrigeration and air conditioning units are equipped with a simple air cooled condenser. Spraying the condenser seems to be an original solution to improve the energetic performances of such systems. To characterise this energetic benefit, a semi-local mathematical model was developed and applied to a refrigerating machine with and without spraying its air cooled condenser. It is found that, compared to a dry air cooled condenser, both the calorific capacity and machine COP increase by 13% and 55%, respectively. Furthermore, the model shows that a spray flow rate threshold occurs. It should not be exceeded to assure an effective and rational spray use. (author)

  4. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified.

  5. Inside-pipe hydrophobic coating method promoting dropwise condensation in a passive cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Joo Won; Kang, Jun Young; Hwang, Kyoung Won; Park, Hyun Sun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama [POSTECH, Pohang(Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Korea Institute of nuclear safety, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Submerged by large tsunami, active cooling system was not operated to cool down decay heat. Likewise, station black out can lead to severe accident so that the necessity of cooling system without requesting any electric power was stressed out. Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System(PAFS) is one of the passive cooling systems suggested by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). It has hundreds of slightly inclined horizontal U-shaped pipes submerged in a large water pool. Under the accident circumstances, this system cools steam that comes from the steam generator into condensed water inside the pipes without any electric power. These pipes are made of stainless steel 304L, with the diameter of 50 mm, and the length of 8 m. The main heat transfer phenomenon inside a pipe is the condensation phenomenon. There are two modes of condensation: one is filmwise condensation(FWC) and the other is dropwise condensation(DWC). On a surface wetted by a liquid well, FWC occurs to form liquid film. The final goal of this study is to increase cooling capacity of passive safety system like PAFS. Up to now, the attempts to increase condensation heat transfer were limited to make finned tube. DWC which has higher heat transfer coefficient was only promoted on vertical plates or external pipes. By promoting DWC inside a pipe, condensation heat transfer will be fundamentally enhanced. In this paper, hydrophobic coating inside a pipe method will be presented for promoting DWC, and its condensation heat transfer performance will be evaluated by conducting condensation experiment on a vertical plate. The inside-pipe hydrophobic coating method was developed using Teflon, and it was checked that DWC was promoted by this method with visualization results. At the saturation pressure of 145kPa, average heat transfer coefficient for DWC was 53.3 kW/m''2/K, and that for FWC was 13.5 kW/m''2/K. Based on this results, it can be concluded that this coating method will

  6. The Relationship Between Burnout Syndrome Among the Medical Staff and Work Conditions in the Polish Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głębocka, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Psychologists emphasize that people employed in social service organizations are vulnerable to chronic stress and burnout syndrome caused by a close and unsatisfied interpersonal relationship. However, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a feeling of diminished personal accomplishment can be attributed to other external factors. One of them is poor living and occupational conditions. According to a report by OECD, the healthcare system in Poland is the worst among the member countries. The aim of the present study was to define the relationship between occupational burnout and the rating of the Polish healthcare system among the medical staff. The study included 224 participants. The Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Dehumanized Behavior and the Głębocka and Rużyczka scale of Behavioral Indicators of Patient's Dehumanization were applied. The evaluations of the healthcare system were also collected. The results demonstrate that physicians were the group of most emotionally exhausted and, simultaneously, most life-satisfied persons, while nurses presented the highest level of dehumanization and the lowest level of satisfaction from life achievements. Only did physicians evaluate the healthcare system as a relatively good one. They were also more tolerant of latent dehumanization. A relationship between the dimensions of burnout and the evaluation of healthcare system were observed. The emotionally exhausted or prone to dehumanization persons were more likely to evaluate the Polish healthcare system negatively.

  7. NMR quadrupolar system described as Bose-Einstein-condensate-like system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auccaise, R.; Teles, J.; Bonagamba, T. J.; Oliveira, I. S.; deAzevedo, E. R.; Sarthour, R. S.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a description of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of quadrupolar systems using the Holstein-Primakoff (HP) formalism and its analogy with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) system. Two nuclear spin systems constituted of quadrupolar nuclei I =3/2 (N23a) and I =7/2 (C133s) in lyotropic liquid crystals were used for experimental demonstrations. Specifically, we derived the conditions necessary for accomplishing the analogy, executed the proper experiments, and compared with quantum mechanical prediction for a Bose system. The NMR description in the HP representation could be applied in the future as a workbench for BEC-like systems, where the statistical properties may be obtained using the intermediate statistic, first established by Gentile. The description can be applied for any quadrupolar systems, including new developed solid-state NMR GaAS nanodevices.

  8. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-07-08

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to : 1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, 2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and 3) develop mathematical model and ehat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal- hydraulic codes assessment.

  9. Studies on corrosion control of naphtha fractions in overhead condensing system using laboratory distillation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, R.C.; Jayaraman, A.; Chauhan, R.K; Goyal, H.B. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun-248005 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Corrosion in the overhead condensing system of atmospheric distillation units is a common occurrence in petroleum refineries worldwide. These corrosion problems are influenced by the presence of three phases: vapours, liquid hydrocarbons and aqueous phase containing hydrochloric acid formed during distillation by decomposition of chloride salts of calcium and magnesium. Present studies highlight the corrosion control of naphtha fractions of Bombay High and Dubai crude oils in laboratory distillation device by chemical treatment using various corrosion inhibitors having different functional groups. These studies were carried out using two phase systems (aqueous-hydrocarbon) in the distillation device having facilities for monitoring the corrosion and temperatures in vapour condensing region and liquid condensate. Corrosion monitoring was carried out by potentiodynamic polarization technique and dissolved iron analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Experimental findings indicate that Dubai naphtha fraction is more corrosive in nature when compared to Bombay High naphtha. This observation can also be explained on the basis of characterization of both crude oils and their naphtha fractions. At normally recommended dosage level as in refinery overhead systems, water soluble corrosion inhibitors are more effective than hydrocarbon soluble ones in the vapour condensing region as well as in the liquid condensate of both naphtha fractions. (author)

  10. Investigation of slurry systems in metal and dielectric chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenyu

    The properties of slurries play a significant role in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of metal and dielectric films in semiconductor device manufacturing. This study investigates the effects of the size, shape, and hardness of uniform abrasive particles of simple and composite natures on the polishing of copper, tantalum, and thermal oxide films in the presence of different chemical reagents. It was shown that the total surface area of the solids in the slurry controlled the material removal rate by pure silica for both Cu and Ta, while the surface quality of the polished films was better when using higher silica contents. Ceria particles are the choice abrasives in polishing of oxide surfaces. Since it is difficult to prepare in quantities uniform ceria particles of various shapes, the latter were prepared by using monodispersed cubic and ellipsoidal hematite (Fe2O3) particles and spherical silica, and coating them with nanosized ceria. The polishing data were then obtained using slurries of all these particles and the results were compared with slurries containing only nanosized ceria. At the same pH and the same solid content, the removal rates of these slurries followed the contact area model. Furthermore, slurries containing mixtures of particles performed more efficiently than those of individual particles. Interactions of abrasive particles with surface films to be polished are also very important in CMP. In this study, the packed column technique was employed to investigate the physical and chemical reactions at the particle/film interfaces under conditions that simulate CMP processes. Well-defined dispersions of uniform particles, including spherical silica, calcined alumina, and silica cores coated with nanosized ceria particles were used to evaluate particle adhesion on copper and glass beads. It was shown that pH and the slurry flow rate had significant effects on particle deposition and detachment. The attachment results of silica particles on

  11. Topological phases in condensed matter systems: A study of symmetries, quasiparticles and phase transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaker, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on topological phases in condensed matter systems. It can be roughly divided into two parts. In the first part noninteracting systems are studied. The symmetry algebra of a charged spin-1/2 particle coupled to a non-Abelian magnetic field is determined,

  12. Analysis of an evaporator-condenser-separated mechanical vapor compression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Li, Yulong; Chen, Jiang

    2013-04-01

    An evaporator-condenser-separated mechanical vapor compression (MVC) system was presented. The better effect of descaling and antiscaling was obtained by the new system. This study focused on the method of thermodynamic analysis, and the energy and exergy flow diagrams were established by using the first and second law of thermodynamics analysis. The results show that the energy utilization rate is very high and the specific power consumption is low. Exergy analysis indicates that the exergy efficiency is low, and the largest exergy loss occurs within the evaporator -condenser and the compressor.

  13. Clinical Effectiveness of Different Polishing Systems and Self-Etch Adhesives in Class V Composite Resin Restorations: Two-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J-H; Kim, H-Y; Shin, S-M; Lee, C-O; Kim, D S; Choi, K-K; Kim, S-Y

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the clinical effectiveness of different polishing systems and self-etch adhesives in class V composite resin restorations. A total of 164 noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) from 35 patients were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups, each of which used a combination of polishing systems and adhesives. The two polishing systems used were Sof-Lex XT (Sof), a multistep abrasive disc, and Enhance/Pogo (EP), a simplified abrasive-impregnated rubber instrument. The adhesive systems were Clearfil SE bond (CS), a two-step self-etch adhesive, and Xeno V (XE), a one-step self-etch adhesive. All NCCLs were restored with light-cured microhybrid resin composites (Z250). Restorations were evaluated at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months by two blinded independent examiners using modified FDI criteria. The Fisher exact test and generalized estimating equation analysis considering repeated measurements were performed to compare the outcomes between the polishing systems and adhesives. Three restorations were dislodged: two in CS/Sof and one in CS/EP. None of the restorations required any repair or retreatment except those showing retention loss. Sof was superior to EP with regard to surface luster, staining, and marginal adaptation (p0.05). Sof is clinically superior to EP for polishing performance in class V composite resin restoration. XE demonstrates clinically equivalent bonding performance to CS.

  14. THE IMPACT OF MEDICAL TOURISM ON THE QUALITY OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN THE POLISH HEALTHCARE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Olkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of Medical Tourism in the process of a complex satisfaction of the prosumers and the impact played in the organizational and functional changes in the Polish healthcare system. The analysis of the literature on the subject as well as an analysis of the documentation were the inspiration to write this work. The main emphasis was put on stating the conditions stimulating the development of this sector of the economy as well as the risk factors determining the quality of process changes in the healthcare system (functioning of public hospitals. To approximate the characteristics of the involved risk within the framework of health tourism functioning in the conditions of a market economy. Selected research methods allowed to present the motives behind undertaken actions of both the regulators as well as participants of the health tourism. Polish accession to the EU was an important impulse changing the way of thinking about health tourism in healthcare as well as, what is important, changes in the institutional and financial policy in Poland. In order to meet health-oriented demands of a prosumer, there should be a coordinated and effective informational system, aimed at improving the quality, reliability, availability of information concerning health tourism.

  15. Dynamical theory of photon superradiative emission by nanoscale system of Bose-condensed magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Sergey N.; Moiseev, Sergey A.

    2017-09-01

    We have shown the possibility of non-Dicke superradiance for non-ideal magnon Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a broadband frequency bath. Here, it is found that all the stored energy in the system of Bose-condensed magnons can be irradiated into a short pulse with a time delay caused by the strong frequency modulation of magnons due to direct inter-particle interactions in the Bose-condensed state. The last mechanism radically distinguishes this effect from the well-known Dicke superradiance of two-level atomic ensemble where the delay is connected with enhancement of the inter-atomic correlations due to exchange by virtual photons. In our case, the superradiance is the consequence of Bose-condensation in the coherent state where the particles are coupled by direct interaction. We have discussed the conditions for observation of this effect for Bose-condensed magnons in a solid-state sample with a spatial size smaller comparing with the wavelength of the emitted field. In general, we had shown that this kind of superradiance can proceed in samples with ferromagnetic type interaction. As for the antiferromagnetic ones, the effect of magnon superradiance takes place without delay.

  16. Condensation reaction of formaldehyde and methyl formate catalyzed by a composite catalyst system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The condensation reaction of formaldehyde and methyl formate to form methyl glycolate and methyl methoxy acetate catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid and different Lewis acid compounds has been investigated. The composite catalytic system consisting of p-toluenesulfonic acid and NiX2 (X = Cl, Br, I), especially NiI2, exhibited a high catalytic performance for the condensation reaction, the total yield of MG and MMAc was up to 72.37%.(C) 2007 Gong Ying Wang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Oron

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Extra treatment stages are required to polish the secondary effluent for unrestricted reuse, primarily for agricultural irrigation. Improved technology for the removal of particles, turbidity, bacteria and cysts, without the use of disinfectants is based on MicroFiltration (MF and UltraFiltration (UF membrane technology and in series with Reverse Osmosis (RO for dissolved solids removal. Field experiments were conducted using a mobile UF and RO membrane pilot unit at a capacity of around 1.0 m3/hr. A management model was defined and tested towards optimal polishing of secondary effluent. The two major purposes of the management model are: (i to delineate a methodology for economic assessment of optimal membrane technology implementation for secondary effluent upgrading for unrestricted use, and; (ii to provide guidelines for optimal RO membrane selection in regards to the pretreatment stage. The defined linear model takes into account the costs of the feed secondary effluent, the UF pretreatment and the RO process. Technological constraints refer primarily to the longevity of the membrane and their performance. Final treatment cost (the objective function includes investment, operation and maintenance expenses, UF pretreatment, RO treatment, post treatment and incentive for low salinity permeate use. The cost range of water for irrigation according to the model is between 15 and 42 US cents per m3.

  18. Two, three, many body systems involving mesons. Multimeson condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Dote, A; Hyodo, T; Khemchandani, P K; Liang, W H; Torres, A Martinez; Oka, M; Roca, L; Uchino, T; Xiao, C W

    2015-01-01

    In this talk we review results from studies with unconventional many hadron systems containing mesons: systems with two mesons and one baryon, three mesons, some novel systems with two baryons and one meson, and finally systems with many vector mesons, up to six, with their spins aligned forming states of increasing spin. We show that in many cases one has experimental counterparts for the states found, while in some other cases they remain as predictions, which we suggest to be searched in BESIII, Belle, LHCb, FAIR and other facilities.

  19. Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Ipsen, J. H.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution biomolecular systems are analyzed in a framework of differential geometry in order to derive important condensed matter physics information. In the first section lipid bi-layer membranes are examined with respect to statistical properties and topology, e.g. a relation between...

  20. Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, H.; Ipsen, John Hjort; Markvorsen, S

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution biomolecular systems are analyzed in a framework of differential geometry in order to derive important condensed matter physics information. In the first section lipid bi-layer membranes axe examined with respect to statistical properties and topology, e.g. a relation between...

  1. The performance of a mobile air conditioning system with a water cooled condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Battista, Davide; Cipollone, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Vehicle technological evolution lived, in recent years, a strong acceleration due to the increased awareness of environmental issues related to pollutants and climate altering emissions. This resulted in a series of international regulations on automotive sector which put technical challenges that must consider the engine and the vehicle as a global system, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The air conditioning system of the cabin, for instance, is the one of the most important auxiliaries in a vehicle and requires significant powers. Its performances can be significantly improved if it is integrated within the engine cooling circuit, eventually modified with more temperature levels. In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of the A/C system, starting from its single components: compressors, condenser, flush valve and evaporator and a comparison between different refrigerant fluid. In particular, it is introduced the opportunity to have an A/C condenser cooled by a water circuit instead of the external air linked to the vehicle speed, as in the actual traditional configuration. The A/C condenser, in fact, could be housed on a low temperature water circuit, reducing the condensing temperature of the refrigeration cycle with a considerable efficiency increase.

  2. Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Ipsen, J. H.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution biomolecular systems are analyzed in a framework of differential geometry in order to derive important condensed matter physics information. In the first section lipid bi-layer membranes are examined with respect to statistical properties and topology, e.g. a relation between...

  3. Applications of quantum Monte Carlo methods in condensed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolorenc, Jindrich

    2010-01-01

    The quantum Monte Carlo methods represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solutions of the stationary Schroedinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. The algorithms are intrinsically parallel and are able to take full advantage of the present-day high-performance computing systems. This review article concentrates on the fixed-node/fixed-phase diffusion Monte Carlo method with emphasis on its applications to electronic structure of solids and other extended many-particle systems.

  4. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

  5. Independent component analysis approach for fault diagnosis of condenser system in thermal power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajami Ali; Daneshvar Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    A statistical signal processing technique was proposed and verified as independent component analysis (ICA) for fault detection and diagnosis of industrial systems without exact and detailed model. Actually, the aim is to utilize system as a black box. The system studied is condenser system of one of MAPNA’s power plants. At first, principal component analysis (PCA) approach was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the real acquired data set and to identify the essential and useful ones. Then, the fault sources were diagnosed by ICA technique. The results show that ICA approach is valid and effective for faults detection and diagnosis even in noisy states, and it can distinguish main factors of abnormality among many diverse parts of a power plant’s condenser system. This selectivity problem is left unsolved in many plants, because the main factors often become unnoticed by fault expansion through other parts of the plants.

  6. Bose-Einstein condensation in low dimensional systems with deformed bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algin, Abdullah; Olkun, Ali

    2017-08-01

    We study the low and high temperature thermostatistical properties of a deformed boson gas constructed by the bosonic intermediate-statistics particles confined in low spatial dimensions. Many of the deformed thermodynamical functions of the system such as internal energy and entropy are investigated by means of some elements of the Fibonacci calculus. Particular emphasis is given to a careful analysis on low dimensional systems of such deformed bosons, and the conditions under which the Bose-Einstein condensation would occur in such systems are discussed. We show that low dimensional systems with deformed bosons exhibit the Bose-Einstein condensation for values of the model deformation parameters (p , q) greater than one. We also study possible anyonic behavior of the model for high temperatures. The results obtained in this work reveal that the present deformed boson gas model can be used for modeling nonlinear behavior of systems with quasiparticles encountered in several areas of research particularly in quantum science.

  7. Prediction of Interfacial Tensions of Reservoir Crude Oil and Gas Condensate Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the linear gradient theory (LGT) model, the simplified linear gradient theory (SLGT) model, the corresponding-states (CS) correlation, and the parachor method developed by the authors were extended to calculate interfacial tensions (IFT's) of crude oil and gas condensate systems...... model and the parachor model. For gas condensate systems, the predictions by use of the SLGT model are in good agreement with the measured IFT data. In the near-critical region, a correlation was proposed for estimations of IFT’s for CO2/oil systems, and satisfactory correlated results were obtained....... the CS correlation were in good agreement with the measured IFT data for several crude oil and CO2/oil systems. The SLGT model and the parachor model perform better than the LGT model and the CS correlation. For N 2 volatile oil systems, the performance of the LGT model is better than that of the SLGT...

  8. HVAC system simulation: use of condensed input data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanby, V.I.; Round, M. (Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    In many applications of HVAC system simulation, results are required over an extended time period. For example, long-term energy use predictions are frequently needed in a design context for comparison of alternative plant configurations and they are also necessary in plant optimisation studies where the objective function to be minimised contains energy-use terms. These are typical application areas which have involved the use of SPATS, a modular, steady-state HVAC plant simulation program developed at Loughborough University. The computation time involved in generating long-run performance figures has prompted an investigation of ways in which such results can be generated more quickly. SPATS was conceived and developed for performance simulation of HVAC systems at the design stage and although a dynamic zone model has recently been implemented, the main use of SPATS has been to examine the performance of mechanical systems and subsystems over a range of load conditions. (Author).

  9. Development of an Exhaled Breath Monitoring System with Semiconductive Gas Sensors, a Gas Condenser Unit, and Gas Chromatograph Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Itoh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath exhaled by patients with lung cancer, healthy controls, and patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery for resection of cancer were analyzed by gas condenser-equipped gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS for development of an exhaled breath monitoring prototype system involving metal oxide gas sensors, a gas condenser, and gas chromatography columns. The gas condenser-GC/MS analysis identified concentrations of 56 VOCs in the breath exhaled by the test population of 136 volunteers (107 patients with lung cancer and 29 controls, and selected four target VOCs, nonanal, acetoin, acetic acid, and propanoic acid, for use with the condenser, GC, and sensor-type prototype system. The prototype system analyzed exhaled breath samples from 101 volunteers (74 patients with lung cancer and 27 controls. The prototype system exhibited a level of performance similar to that of the gas condenser-GC/MS system for breath analysis.

  10. Development of an Exhaled Breath Monitoring System with Semiconductive Gas Sensors, a Gas Condenser Unit, and Gas Chromatograph Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshio; Miwa, Toshio; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck; Park, Jangchul; Hida, Toyoaki; Eda, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-10

    Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath exhaled by patients with lung cancer, healthy controls, and patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery for resection of cancer were analyzed by gas condenser-equipped gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for development of an exhaled breath monitoring prototype system involving metal oxide gas sensors, a gas condenser, and gas chromatography columns. The gas condenser-GC/MS analysis identified concentrations of 56 VOCs in the breath exhaled by the test population of 136 volunteers (107 patients with lung cancer and 29 controls), and selected four target VOCs, nonanal, acetoin, acetic acid, and propanoic acid, for use with the condenser, GC, and sensor-type prototype system. The prototype system analyzed exhaled breath samples from 101 volunteers (74 patients with lung cancer and 27 controls). The prototype system exhibited a level of performance similar to that of the gas condenser-GC/MS system for breath analysis.

  11. Coupled Atom-Polar Molecule Condensate Systems: A Theoretical Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-14

    nonlinear optics, due both to its fundamental interest, and to its many practical applications in fast optical switches, optical memory, laser pulse...p-wave (px ipy) phase in both superconductors and ultracold atomic systems has attracted signi�cant attention in recent years mainly because its...Theory, Experiment, Applications , edited by R. V. Krems, B. Friedrich, and W. C. Stwalley (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2009). Scienti�c Progress and

  12. Passive evaporation-condensation system for laser cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gershuni A. N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A special heat pipe for ensuring the thermal regime of the active element of an optical quantum generator (laser under heat sink by radiation has been developed. It is shown that under the simulated fuel element power of 50 W wall temperature in the heat pipe heating zone does not exceed 30°C, and the emergency heating prevents deep freezing of the entire system in the absence of heat generation of the object itself.

  13. Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation through a Bose-Einstein condensate cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamide Kazemi, S.; Ghanbari, S.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of a probe laser field in a cavity optomechanical system with a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied. The transmission properties of the system are investigated and it is shown that the group velocity of the probe pulse field can be controlled by Rabi frequency of the pump laser field. The effect of the decay rate of the cavity photons on the group velocity is studied and it is demonstrated that for small values of the decay rates, the light propagation switches from subluminal to superluminal just by changing the Rabi frequency of the pump field. Then, the gain-assisted superluminal light propagation due to the cross-Kerr nonlinearity is established in cavity optomechanical system with a Bose-Einstein condensate. Such behavior can not appear in the pump-probe two-level atomic systems in the normal phase. We also find that the amplification is achieved without inversion in the population of the quantum energy levels.

  14. Confined Phase Envelope of Gas-Condensate Systems in Shale Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Stanislaw; Siemek, Jakub

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas from shales (NGS) and from tight rocks are one of the most important fossil energy resource in this and next decade. Significant increase in gas consumption, in all world regions, will be marked in the energy sector. The exploration of unconventional natural gas & oil reservoirs has been discussed recently in many conferences. This paper describes the complex phenomena related to the impact of adsorption and capillary condensation of gas-condensate systems in nanopores. New two phase saturation model and new algorithm for search capillary condensation area is discussed. The algorithm is based on the Modified Tangent Plane Criterion for Capillary Condensation (MTPCCC) is presented. The examples of shift of phase envelopes are presented for selected composition of gas-condensate systems. Gaz ziemny z łupków (NGS) oraz z ze złóż niskoprzepuszczalnych (typu `tight') staje się jednym z najważniejszych zasobów paliw kopalnych, w tym i następnym dziesięcioleciu. Znaczący wzrost zużycia gazu we wszystkich regionach świata zaznacza się głównie w sektorze energetycznym. Rozpoznawanie niekonwencjonalnych złóż gazu ziemnego i ropy naftowej w ostatnim czasie jest omawiane w wielu konferencjach. Niniejszy artykuł opisuje złożone zjawiska związane z wpływem adsorpcji i kapilarnej kondensacji w nanoporach w złożach gazowo-kondensatowych. Pokazano nowy dwufazowy model równowagowy dwufazowy i nowy algorytm wyznaczania krzywej nasycenia w obszarze kondensacji kapilarnej. Algorytm bazuje na kryterium zmodyfikowanym płaszczyzny stycznej dla kapilarnej kondensacji (MTPCCC). Przykłady zmiany krzywych nasycenia są przedstawiane w wybranym składzie systemów gazowo- kondensatowych

  15. Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Martin Matthias

    2010-07-07

    DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further

  16. Magnetogasdynamic Control of Burning Rate of Condensed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Borovskoy

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of modelling combustion products of solid propellant flow. The product of combustion is the ionized gas occurring in a channel with current conducting walls, when a part of the channel is in the external homogeneous magnetic field, oriented in such a way that the ponderomotive force, occuring in the flow region, is opposite to the flow. This results in gas deceleration and increase of static pressure. For the condenensed systems, whose mass burning rate is in direct proportion to the environment pressure, the static pressure increase causes increase of mass burning rate. The basic parameters have been determined by numerical simulation. The nature of their influence on the process of combustion in a cylindrical channel has also been determined. The study revealed that a ten-fold increase of burning rate is possible at moderate values of the parameter of magnetogasdynamic interaction.

  17. Battery powered portable vapor compression cycle system with PCM condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNardo, Nicholas M.

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, encompasses manufacturing processes that construct a geometry by depositing or solidifying material only where it is needed in the absence of a mold. The ability to manufacture complex geometries on demand directly from a digital file, as well as the decreasing equipment costs due to increased competition in the market, have resulted in the AM industry experiencing rapid growth in the past decade. Many companies have emerged with novel technologies well suited to improve products and/or save costs in various industries. Until recently, the applications of polymer additive manufacturing have been mainly limited to prototyping. This can be attributed to multiple factors, namely the high cost of the machines and materials, long print times, and anisotropy of printed parts. In addition, the low unit cost and cycle time of competing processes such as injection molding further skew the economics in favor of other processes. The addition of fiber-reinforcement into polymers used in additive manufacturing processes significantly increases the strength of parts, and also allows larger parts to be manufactured. In 2014, large-scale additive manufacturing of fiber-reinforced polymers was pioneered, and has generated significant attention from both academia and industry. Commercial machines that incorporate high throughput extruders on gantry systems are now available. New applications that require high temperature polymers with low coefficients of thermal expansion and high stiffness are being targeted, for example tooling used in the manufacturing of composite components. The state of the art of this new paradigm in additive manufacturing as well as the target applications will be discussed in detail. Many new challenges arise as AM scales and reinforced polymers are incorporated. One of the most notable challenges is the presence of large temperature gradients induced in parts during the manufacturing process, which lead to residual

  18. Formation of porous low-dimensional nickel systems during near equilibrium condensation in ultrapure inert environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perekrestov, Vyacheslav [Sumy State University, Laboratory of Vacuum Nanotechnologies, 2, Rimsky-Korsakov Str., 40007 Sumy (Ukraine); Kornyushchenko, Anna, E-mail: ann_korn@ukr.net [Sumy State University, Laboratory of Vacuum Nanotechnologies, 2, Rimsky-Korsakov Str., 40007 Sumy (Ukraine); Kosminska, Yuliya [Sumy State University, Laboratory of Vacuum Nanotechnologies, 2, Rimsky-Korsakov Str., 40007 Sumy (Ukraine); Wilde, Gerhard; Ostendorp, Stefan; Winkler, Nina [University of Muenster, Institute of Materials Physics, 10, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str., 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new method of Ni low-dimensional porous systems formation has been developed. • Ni porous structures formation mechanisms have been investigated. • New peculiarities of growth mechanism near equilibrium conditions have been found. • Prolonged condensation process lead to Ni whiskers growth with diameter 30–600 nm. • Ni magnetic properties have been investigated. - Abstract: A new technique for synthesizing porous low-dimensional nickel has been developed, which involves the controlled sputter deposition of extremely small vapor fluxes in an ultrapure inert environment. This technique is based on the phase transition of sputtered substances into the condensed state under conditions close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The evolution of morphologically unique condensates which consist of weakly bound crystals have been analyzed on the basis of electron microscopy investigations. The experiments have shown that a rather prolonged condensation for durations exceeding 4 h results in the nucleation of whiskers with diameters between 30 and 600 nm. It is suggested that highly porous nickel structures obtained near thermodynamic equilibrium belong to a new zone in the structure zone model.

  19. Some aspects of singular interactions in condensed Fermi systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, P. C. E.

    1993-02-01

    This article gives a fairly detailed survey of some of the problems raised when the interaction energy f^{σ σ'}_{k k'} between 2 fermionic quasiparticles (in 2 dimensions) is singular when |k-k'|to 0. Before dealing with singular interactions, it is shown how a non-singular f^{σ σ'}_{k k'} leads to a 2-dimensional Fermi liquid theory, which is internally consistent, at least as far as its infrared properties are concerned. The quasiparticle properties are calculated in detail. The question of whether singular interactions arise for the dilute Fermi gas, with short-range repulsive interactions, is investigated perturbatively. One finds a weak singularity in f^{σ σ'}_{k k'}, when the dimensionality D = 2, but it does not destabilize the Fermi liquid. A more sophisticated analysis is then given, to all orders in the interaction, using the Lippman-Schwinger equation as well as a phase shift analysis for a finite box. The conclusion is that any breakdown of Fermi liquid theory must come from non-perturbative effects. An examination is then made of some of the consequences arising if a singular interaction is introduced — the form proposed by Anderson is used as an example. A hierarchy of singular terms arise in all quantities — this is shown for the self-energy, and also the 3 point and 4 point scattering functions. These may be summed in a perfectly consistent manner. Most attention is given to the particle-hole channel, since it appears to lead to results different from those of Anderson. Nevertheless it appears that it is possible to derive a sensible theory starting from a singular effective Hamiltonian — although Fermi Liquid theory breaks down, all fermionic quantities may be calculated consistently. Finally, the effect of a magnetic field (which cuts off the infrared divergences) is investigated, and the de Haas-van Alphen amplitude calculated, for such a singular Fermionic system.

  20. The effect of polishing systems on microleakage of tooth-coloured restoratives. Part 2: composite and polyacid-modified composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, A U; Wong, M L; Lim, A C

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of polishing systems on the microleakage of composite and polyacid-modified composite resins. Class V cavities were prepared at the cemento-enamel junction of 80 freshly extracted posterior teeth. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into two groups and restored with conventional or polyacid-modified composite resins. The restored teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 1 week after removal of excess restorative with diamond finishing burs. The restored teeth were then divided into four groups of ten and finished/polished using the following systems: Two Striper micron finishing system (MFS), Sof-Lex XT (Sof-Lex), Enhance composite finishing and polishing system (Enhance), and Shofu composite finishing kit (Shofu). The finished restorations were subjected to dye penetration testing. Results showed that the microleakage resistance at both enamel and dentin margins of composite and polyacid-modified composite resins are not significantly affected by the different polishing systems.

  1. Contribution of ultrasonic traveling wave to chemical-mechanical polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; He, Qing; Zheng, Mian; Liu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    The ultrasonic vibrators are introduced into the chemical-mechanical polishing devices, and in this polishing system, the ultrasonic vibrators generate ultrasonic traveling wave and keep coaxial with the polished silicon wafer rotating at given speed so as to compare the texture of the polished silicon wafers. And the experiments on the chemical-mechanical polishing with assisted ultrasonic vibration are accomplished in order to investigate the effect of the ultrasonic vibration on the chemical-mechanical polishing. Via comparing the roughness average of the two silicon wafers polished with assisted ultrasonic vibration and without assisted vibration, it is found that the morphology of the silicon wafer polished with assisted vibration is superior to that without assisted vibration, that is, this series of experiments indicate that the ultrasonic vibration is beneficial to the chemical-mechanical polishing. Aiming at understanding the contribution of the ultrasonic vibration to chemical-mechanical polishing in detail, the model of the chemical-mechanical polishing with the assisted ultrasonic vibration is built up, which establishes the relationship of the removal rate and the polishing variables such as the rotary speed of silicon wafers, the amplitude and the frequency of vibrators, the particle density of polishing slurry and the characteristics of polishing pad etc. This model not only could be used to explain the experimental results but also to illuminate the roles played by the polishing variables.

  2. Comparative analysis of an evaporative condenser using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metin Ertunc, H. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kocaeli University, Umuttepe, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Hosoz, Murat [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, Umuttepe, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    This study deals with predicting the performance of an evaporative condenser using both artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) techniques. For this aim, an experimental evaporative condenser consisting of a copper tube condensing coil along with air and water circuit elements was developed and equipped with instruments used for temperature, pressure and flow rate measurements. After the condenser was connected to an R134a vapour-compression refrigeration circuit, it was operated at steady state conditions, while varying both dry and wet bulb temperatures of the air stream entering the condenser, air and water flow rates as well as pressure, temperature and flow rate of the entering refrigerant. Using some of the experimental data for training, ANN and ANFIS models for the evaporative condenser were developed. These models were used for predicting the condenser heat rejection rate, refrigerant temperature leaving the condenser along with dry and wet bulb temperatures of the leaving air stream. Although it was observed that both ANN and ANFIS models yielded a good statistical prediction performance in terms of correlation coefficient, mean relative error, root mean square error and absolute fraction of variance, the accuracies of ANFIS predictions were usually slightly better than those of ANN predictions. This study reveals that, having an extended prediction capability compared to ANN, the ANFIS technique can also be used for predicting the performance of evaporative condensers. (author)

  3. The effect of polishing systems on microleakage of tooth coloured restoratives: Part 1. Conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, A U; Tan, S; Teh, T Y

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of polishing systems on the microleakage of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements. Class V cavities were prepared at the cemento-enamel junction of 80 freshly extracted posterior teeth. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into two groups and restored with conventional or resin-modified glass-ionomer cements. The restored teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 1 week after removal of excess restorative with diamond finishing burs. The restored teeth were then divided into four groups of 10 and finished and polished using the following systems: Two Striper MFS; Sof-Lex XT; Enhance Composite Finishing and Polishing System; Shofu Composite Finishing Kit. The finished restorations were subjected to dye penetration testing. Results showed that the microleakage at dentin margins of conventional glass-ionomer cements and enamel margins of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements are significantly affected by the different polishing systems.

  4. Modeling the thermally governed transient flow surges in multitube condensing flow systems with thermal and flow distribution asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, G.L.; Bhatt, B.L. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States))

    1989-08-01

    In a tube-type condenser involving complete condensation, small changes in the inlet vapor flow rate momentarily cause very large transient surges in the outlet liquid flow rate. An equivalent single-tube model is proposed that predicts these transient flow surges for a multitube system. The model, based upon a system mean void fraction model developed earlier, includes the effects of thermal and flow distribution asymmetry associated with each individual condenser tube in the multitube system. Theoretical and experimental verification for a two-tube system is presented.

  5. Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

  6. Expert Meeting. Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  7. Expert Meeting: Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  8. Method and apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid in a binary power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mines, Gregory L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bloomfield, K. Kit (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid utilized in a thermodynamic system comprises a membrane having an upstream side operatively connected to the thermodynamic system so that the upstream side of the membrane receives a portion of the working fluid. The first membrane separates the non-condensible gas from the working fluid. A pump operatively associated with the membrane causes the portion of the working fluid to contact the membrane and to be returned to the thermodynamic system.

  9. Why more is different philosophical issues in condensed matter physics and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The physics of condensed matter, in contrast to quantum physics or cosmology, is not traditionally associated with deep philosophical questions. However, as science - largely thanks to more powerful computers - becomes capable of analysing and modelling ever more complex many-body systems, basic questions of philosophical relevance arise. Questions about the emergence of structure, the nature of cooperative behaviour, the implications of the second law,  the quantum-classical transition and many other issues. This book is a collection of essays by leading physicists and philosophers. Each investigates one or more of these issues, making use of examples from modern condensed matter research.  Physicists and philosophers alike will find surprising and stimulating ideas in these pages.

  10. A Compact, Transportable, Microchip-Based System for High Repetition Rate Production of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Daniel M; Salim, Evan A; Segal, Stephen R; Squires, Matthew B; Anderson, Dana Z

    2009-01-01

    We present a compact, transportable system that produces Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) near the surface of an integrated atom microchip. The system occupies a volume of 0.4 m^3 and operates at a repetition rate as high as 0.3 Hz. Evaporative cooling in a chip trap with trap frequencies of several kHz leads to nearly pure condensates containing 1.9x10^4 87Rb atoms. Partial condensates are observed at a temperature of 1.58(8) \\mu K, close to the theoretical transition temperature of 1.1 \\mu K.

  11. Specifics of boiling and condensation in upward flow in minichannel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. V.; Safonov, S. A.; Shamirzaev, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The results of experimental and numerical studies focused on determining the mechanism of heat transfer during boiling and condensation in a single-row system of minichannels in upward flow conditions at a mass flux of 30 and 50 kg/(m2 s) are presented. Refrigerant R21, which models cryogenic liquids at low temperatures, was used as the working liquid. The determining influence of self-organization of the flow under the influence of capillary forces on the processes of heat transfer during a phase transition in the system of minichannels at low mass and heat fluxes was revealed.

  12. Experimental characterization of the COndensation PArticle counting System for high altitude aircraft-borne application [Discussion paper

    OpenAIRE

    Weigel, Ralf; Hermann, Markus; Curtius, Joachim; Voigt, Christiane; Walter, Saskia; Böttger, Thomas; Lepukhov, Boris; Belyaev, Gennady; Borrmann, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    his study aims at a detailed characterization of an ultra-fine aerosol particle counting system for operation on board the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 "Geophysica" (maximum ceiling of 21 km). The COndensation PArticle counting Systems (COPAS) consists of an aerosol inlet and two dual-channel continuous flow Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs). The aerosol inlet, adapted for COPAS measurements on board the M-55 "Geophysica", is described concerning aspiration, transmissio...

  13. Convergent polishing: a simple, rapid, full aperture polishing process of high quality optical flats & spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan

    2014-12-01

    Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher.

  14. DNA packaging induced by micellar aggregates: a novel in vitro DNA condensation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirlando, R; Wachtel, E J; Arad, T; Minsky, A

    1992-08-11

    Evidence for a conceptually novel DNA packaging process is presented. X-ray scattering, electron microscopy, and circular dichroism measurements indicate that in the presence of positively charged micellar aggregates and flexible anionic polymers, such as negatively charged polypeptides or single-stranded RNA species, a complex is formed in which DNA molecules are partially embedded within a micellar scaffold and partially condensed into highly packed chiral structures. Based on studies of micelle-DNA and micelle-flexible anionic polymer systems, as well as on the known effects of a high charge density upon the micellar organization, a DNA packaging model is proposed. According to this model, the DNA induces the elongation of the micelles into rodlike aggregates, forming a closely packed matrix in which the DNA molecules are immobilized. In contrast, the flexible anionic polymers stabilize clusters of spherical micelles which are proposed to effect a capping of the rodlike micelles, thus arresting their elongation and creating surfactant-free segments of the DNA that are able to converge and collapse. Thus, unlike other in vitro DNA packaging systems, in which condensation follows encounters between charge-neutralized DNA molecules, a prepackaging phase where the DNA is immobilized within a matrix is proposed in this case. Cellular and nuclear membranes have been implicated in DNA packaging processes in vivo, and negatively charged polyelectrolytes were shown to be involved in the processes. These observations, combined with the basic tenets of the DNA condensation system described here, allow for the progression to the study of more elaborate model systems and thus might lead to insights into the nature and roles of the intricate in vivo DNA-membrane complexes.

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING SYSTEM AND CHANGE IN ACCOUNTANT’S ROLE – POLISH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wanda MARUSZEWSKA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ERP systems integrate all processes and software users in one computerized environment reshaping organization to fit into system’s functionalities. ERP system implementation is a complex process with technical and socio‐organizational issues. As ERP system encompass financial data and management decision modules, accountants are important actors of the system both during implementation and after go‐live stage.

  16. Entropy Assessment on Environmental Influence of Condense Heat in Recovery System in Air-Conditioning Refrigerating Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wen-wu; WANG Han-qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented an entropy evaluation method for the influences of condense heat recovery system on the environment.Aiming at the damage of the condense heat to the environment,an entropy of re-source loss and an emission entropy from the condense heat recovery system in the air conditioning refrigerating machine were introduced.For the evaluation of the entropies,we developed a new algorithm for the parameter i-dentifieation.called the composite influence coefficient,based on the Least Squares Support Vector Machine method.By simulation,the numerical experiments shows that the Least Squares Support Vector Machine method is one of the powerful methods for the parameter identification to compute the damage entropy of the condense heat,with the largest training error being-0.025(the relative error being-3.56%),and the biggest test error being 0.015(the relative error being 2.5%).

  17. Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Two-Dimensional System with Sixty Bosons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Cheng-Guang

    2000-01-01

    A 60-boson system confined on a sphere has been qualitatively studied based on symmetry considerations. The low-lying spectrum is dominated by the ground rotation band based on the fullerene structure. In this band all the L=1 to L=5 states are found to be prohibited by symmetry. Therefore, there is a large gap lying between the ground state and the first excited state. The magnitude of this gap, which is associated with the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation, has been evaluated. It is found that, the smaller the radius of the sphere of confinement, the higher the critical temperature.

  18. System monitoring feedback in cinemas and harvesting energy of the air conditioning condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Barz, C.; Latinovic, T.; Chiver, O.

    2017-05-01

    Our article monitors the degree of emotional involvement of the audience in the action film in theaters by measuring the concentration of CO2. The software performs data processing obtained dispersion sensors and displays data during the film. The software will also trigger the start of the air conditioning condenser where we can get harvesting energy by installing a piezoelectric device. Useful energy can be recovered from various waste produced in cinema. The time lag between actions and changes in environmental systems determines that decisions made now will affect subsequent generations and the future of our environment.

  19. Hazard detection and alarm systems of the EMAG Center used in Polish coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firganek, B.; Mironowicz, W.

    1982-06-01

    This paper presents a review of equipment, measurement and alarm systems for underground mining developed and produced by the EMAG Center for Research and Production of Electrical Engineering and Mine Automation. The following systems for detection and measurement of methane content in mine air are evaluated: the VM-1p methane meter (range from 2 to 10% methane) the MCm-1 methane meter (range from 0 to 3 % methane), the MK-1A methane meter which is mounted on mining machines (it activates an alarm system when methane content in mine air exceeds 1%, 1.5% or 2%), stationary methane measuring systems (MIS-3A, MW-1), automatic methane measuring systems, e.g. the CTT-63/40Up methane station produced on the basis of French licence (Oldham), the CMC-1 methane measuring station developed by EMAG. Systems for detection of underground fires in coal mines are also described: the SATW-4bc carbon monoxide analyzer (used for detecting spontaneous combustion of coal), the SP-24 fire alarm system and the ADD-1 smoke detector used for detecting fires caused by reasons other than spontaneous combustion. Some systems for rock burst forecasting are evaluated: the PRS-4/a computer system, the PRS-4/m microseismologic system, the AUD-80 alarm system for coal mines. Design, specifications and schemes of the safety systems for underground mining are discussed.

  20. TECHNOLGIES AND SYSTEMS FOR WATER MANAGEMENT AND CONDENSATES IN THE SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar factories do achieve an efficient use of process water, but this process should be self-sufficient for consumption because these sugar factories have the special characteristic of having as its main raw material, sugar cane, which consists in approximately 70% of water Those condensed recovered will be the first option to recover process water and are aimed to the feeding of boilers. The quantities of the condensate types are dependent of the evaporator’s configuration, also the grade in that show up the vapor extractions. In this paper the fundamental aspects are described as for the use and handling of water in the process of sugar production. Also, important considerations are shown on the treatment systems of residual that are generated in these factories. The evaporation system is shown as the most important area for the handling of water in the process, in it, vegetable vapor takes place and it is used in other technological equipment. A major surplus of steam will be produced in this area if the process is more energetically efficient. It is shown through a balance of water that the process is self-sufficient for water consumption.

  1. Hierarchical maximum entropy principle for generalized superstatistical systems and Bose-Einstein condensation of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich

    2012-06-01

    A principle of hierarchical entropy maximization is proposed for generalized superstatistical systems, which are characterized by the existence of three levels of dynamics. If a generalized superstatistical system comprises a set of superstatistical subsystems, each made up of a set of cells, then the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy should be maximized first for each cell, second for each subsystem, and finally for the whole system. Hierarchical entropy maximization naturally reflects the sufficient time-scale separation between different dynamical levels and allows one to find the distribution of both the intensive parameter and the control parameter for the corresponding superstatistics. The hierarchical maximum entropy principle is applied to fluctuations of the photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye microcavity. This principle provides an alternative to the master equation approach recently applied to this problem. The possibility of constructing generalized superstatistics based on a statistics different from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics is pointed out.

  2. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  3. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  4. Comment on: Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation through a Bose-Einstein condensate cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Bruno; Ségard, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    In a recent theoretical article [S.H. Kazemi, S. Ghanbari, M. Mahmoudi, Eur. Phys. J. D 70, 1 (2016)], Kazemi et al. claim to have demonstrated superluminal light transmission in an optomechanical system where a Bose-Einstein condensate serves as the mechanical oscillator. In fact the superluminal propagation is only inferred from the existence of a minimum of transmission of the system at the probe frequency. This condition is not sufficient and we show that, in all the cases where superluminal propagation is claimed by Kazemi et al., the propagation is in reality subluminal. Moreover, we point out that the system under consideration is not minimum-phase-shift. The Kramers-Kronig relations then only fix a lower limit to the group delay and we show that these two quantities have sometimes opposite signs.

  5. Comment on "Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation through a Bose-Einstein condensate cavity system"

    CERN Document Server

    Macke, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In a recent theoretical article [Eur. Phys. J. D 70, 1 (2016)], Kazemi et al. claim to have demonstrated superluminal light transmission in an optomechanical system where a Bose-Einstein condensate serves as the mechanical oscillator. In fact the superluminal propagation is only inferred from the existence of a minimum of transmission of the system at the probe frequency. This condition is not sufficient and we show that, in all the cases where superluminal propagation is claimed by Kazemi et al., the propagation is in reality subluminal. Moreover, we point out that the system under consideration is not minimum-phase-shift. The Kramers-Kronig relations then only fix a lower limit to the group delay and we show that these two quantities have sometimes opposite signs.

  6. Calcium chloride effects on the glass transition of condensed systems of potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Katopo, Lita; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2016-05-15

    The effect of calcium chloride on the structural properties of condensed potato starch undergoing a thermally induced glass transition has been studied using dynamic mechanical analysis and modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Extensive starch gelatinisation was obtained by hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min producing materials that covered a range of moisture contents from 3.7% w/w (11% relative humidity) to 18.8% w/w (75% relative humidity). FTIR, ESEM and WAXD were also performed in order to elucidate the manner by which salt addition affects the molecular interactions and morphology of condensed starch. Experimental protocol ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of calcium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Highly reactive calcium ions form a direct interaction with starch to alter considerably its structural properties via an anti-plasticizing effect, as compared to the polymer-water matrix.

  7. PHOTOEMISSION AS A PROBE OF THE COLLECTIVE EXCITATIONS IN CONDENSED MATTER SYSTEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, P.D.; VALLA, T.

    2006-08-01

    New developments in instrumentation have recently allowed photoemission measurements to be performed with very high energy and momentum resolution.[1] This has allowed detailed studies of the self-energy corrections to the lifetime and mass renormalization of excitations in the vicinity of the Fermi level. These developments come at an opportune time. Indeed the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and related systems is presenting a range of challenges for condensed matter physics.[2] Does the mechanism of high T{sub c} superconductivity represent new physics? Do we need to go beyond Landau's concept of the Fermi liquid?[3] What, if any, is the evidence for the presence or absence of quasiparticles in the excitation spectra of these complex oxides? The energy resolution of the new instruments is comparable to or better than the energy or temperature scale of superconductivity and the energy of many collective excitations. As such, photoemission has again become recognized as an important probe of condensed matter. Studies of the high T{sub c} superconductors and related materials are aided by the observation that they are two dimensional. To understand this, we note that the photoemission process results in both an excited photoelectron and a photohole in the final state. Thus the experimentally measured photoemission peak is broadened to a width reflecting contributions from both the finite lifetime of the photohole and the momentum broadening of the outgoing photoelectron.

  8. HYDRONIC BASEBOARD THERMAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WITH OUTDOOR RESET CONTROL TO ENABLE THE USE OF A CONDENSING BOILER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    2004-10-01

    Use of condensing boilers in residential heating systems offers the potential for significant improvements in efficiency. For these to operate in a condensing mode the return water temperature needs to be about 10 degrees below the saturation temperature for the flue gas water vapor. This saturation temperature depends on fuel type and excess air and ranges from about 110 F to 135 F. Conventional baseboard hydronic distribution systems are most common and these are designed for water temperatures in the 180 F range, well above the saturation temperature. Operating strategies which may allow these systems to operate in a condensing mode have been considered in the past. In this study an approach to achieving this for a significant part of the heating season has been tested in an instrumented home. The approach involves use of an outdoor reset control which reduces the temperature of the water circulating in the hydronic loop when the outdoor temperature is higher than the design point for the region. Results showed that this strategy allows the boiler to operate in the condensing region for 80% of the winter heating season with oil, 90% with propane, and 95% with gas, based on cumulative degree days. The heating system as tested combines space heating and domestic hot water loads using an indirect, 40 gallon tank with an internal heat exchanger. Tests conducted during the summer months showed that the return water temperature from the domestic hot water tank heat exchanger is always below a temperature which will provide condensing operation of the boiler. In the field tests both the condensing boiler and the conventional, non-condensing boiler were in the test home and each was operated periodically to provide a direct performance comparison.

  9. Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on first experimental observations of nuclear fermionic and bosonic components displaying different behaviours in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4π detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. By means of quantum-fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and local partial densities of bosons and fermions could be correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed systems of bosons and fermions, where bosons experience higher phase-space and energy density as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall phenomena observed in the study of Bose condensates and Fermi gases in atomic traps despite the different scales.

  10. Polishing of POME by Chlorella sp. in suspended and immobilized system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahin, F. A.; Sarbatly, R.; Suali, E.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of using suspended and immobilized growth of Chlorella sp. to treat POME was studied. Cotton and nylon ropes were used as the immobilization material in a rotating microalgae biofilm reactor. The result showed that POME treated in suspended growth system was able to remove 81.9% and 55.5% of the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) respectively. Whereas the immobilized system showed lower removal of 77.22% and 53.02% for TN and TP. Lower performance of immobilized microalgae is due to the limited light penetration and supply of CO2 inside the immobilization materials. The rotating microalgae biofilm reactor was able to reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to 90 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) to 720 mg/L. Higher BOD and COD reading were obtained in suspended growth due to the presence of small number of microalgae cell in the samples. This study shows that suspended growth system is able to remove higher percentages of nitrogen and phosphorus. However, an efficient separation method such as membrane filtration is required to harvest the cultivated microalgae cell to avoid organic matter release into water bodies.

  11. Transport-induced shifts in condensate dew-point and composition in multicomponent systems with chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.; Nagarajan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Partial heterogeneous condensation phenomena in multicomponent reacting systems are analyzed taking into consideration the chemical element transport phenomena. It is demonstrated that the dew-point surface temperature in chemically reactive systems is not a purely thermodynamic quantity, but is influenced by the multicomponent diffusion and Soret-mass diffusion phenomena. Several distinct dew-points are shown to exist in such systems and, as a result of transport constraints, the 'sharp' locus between two chemically distinct condensates is systematically moved to a difference mainstream composition.

  12. Hydrologic modeling of aquatic plant treatment systems polishing dairy lagoon effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothren, G M; Chen, S; Rahman, M; Malone, R

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a mathematical model of the hydrologic balance of an aquatic plant treatment system (APTS) has been developed. The mass balance approach has been adopted and the major components of the water balance, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET) and percolation have been incorporated into the model. For estimation of ET for duckweed and water hyacinth plants, mathematical relationships were established between ET and pan evaporation using data collected at the site. The observed ET rates of water hyacinths were up to 66% higher than the pan evaporation rates. But for duckweed, the observed ET rates were 10 to 20% lower than the pan evaporation rates. Using the available historic precipitation and pan evaporation data, several computer simulations of the model were run to estimate the HLR and HRT of the ponds under different design requirements. The results indicate that aquatic ponds with water hyacinths can operate at greater HLR's than ponds supporting duckweed. For a zero discharge system, the allowable HLR for a water hyacinth pond was found to be 5 times that of a pond containing duckweed.

  13. Communicating in Polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Bernard; Malinowska, Krystyna T.

    This Polish textbook consists of a series of narrations and dialogs based on photographs depicting typical activities in the daily lives of Polish citizens. Two sets of questions follow each selection; the first set is intended to stimulate communication on what has been seen and heard, while the second set asks the students to compare what they…

  14. Monitoring of Robot Assisted Polishing through parameters of acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Bilberg, Arne

    The polishing process is essential for the surface generation of machine tooling components in advanced manufacturing. While robot assisted polishing is faster and more consistent than manual polishing, it can still consume a significant part of ma- chining time and operator presence time....... The determination of the point in time to change a polishing media or stop the process is needed for computer controlled functional surface generation. During the last years, several research works have been done in order to build grinding/polishing monitoring systems to determine process characteristics...

  15. Dynamic Analysis of Condenser Assembly of Automobile Air Conditioning System Using CAE Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Singh, D.; Saini, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    With the automotive air-conditioning industry aiming at higher levels of quality, cost effectiveness and a short time to market, the need for simulation is at an all time high. In the present work, the use of dynamics analysis is proposed in the simulation of the automobile air conditioning condenser assembly for the vibration loads. The condenser assembly has been analyzed using the standard testing conditions. The results revealed that the components of condenser assembly may fail due to resonance in dynamic analysis. Thereafter, the condenser assembly was optimized, resulting in a 2 % reduction in mass.

  16. Controlling a class of chaotic quantum system under disturbances and noisy measurements: Application to 1D Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-López, Ricardo; López-Pérez, Pablo A.; Lara-Cisneros, Gerardo; Femat, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a robust nonlinear feedback control scheme with adaptive gain is proposed to control the chaotic behavior in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The control goal concerns the track or regulation purposes. The BEC system is represented as stochastic ordinary differential equations with measured output perturbed by Gaussian noise, which represents the nature of the quantum systems. The convergence of the BEC control law is analyzed under the frame of the Lyapunov stability theory. Numerical experiments show an adequate performance of the proposed methodology under the required conditions. The results are applicable when the shape of the condensate is sufficiently simple.

  17. The effectiveness of polishing kits: influence on surface roughness of zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Verena; Grumser, Katharina; Schneider-Feyrer, Sibylle; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of intraoral and technical polishing kits. Zirconia specimens were sintered, ground, and polished with 14 different two-step or three-step polishing kits. Surface roughness (Ra, Rz) after each treatment step was determined, and scanning electron micrographs were made. Except for one system, all polishing kits were effective in reducing the surface roughness of ground zirconia. Differences in surface roughness were high after the first polishing step but were reduced to Ra/Rz values similar to or lower than those of the sintered reference after the final polishing step. Achieving smooth surfaces depended on a sequential application of all polishing steps.

  18. Miniature Bose-Einstein condensate system design based on a transparent atom chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jingfang; Xu, Xinping; Jiang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Haichao; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new miniature Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) system based on a transparent atom chip with a compact external coil structure. A standard six-beam macroscopic magneto-optical trap (MOT) is able to be created near the chip surface due to the chip’s transparency. A novel wire pattern consisting of a double-z wire and a z-shaped wire is designed on the transparent atom chip. With a vertical bias magnetic field, the double-z wire can create the quadrupole magnetic field of an intermediate chip MOT, which is suitable for transporting atoms from the macroscopic MOT to the chip z-wire trap efficiently. The compact external coil structure is designed with a rectangular frameless geometry consisting of only four coil pairs and its volume is less than 0.3 liters. The maximum system power consumption during the BEC generation procedure is about 45 W. The miniature system is evaluated, and about 3 × 106 atoms can be loaded into the chip z-wire trap. The miniature chip BEC system has the advantages of small volume and low power consumption, and it has great potential for practical applications of BEC.

  19. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  20. Formation of embryos of the Earth-Moon system as a result of a collision of two rarefied condensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ipatov, S I

    2014-01-01

    The angular momentum of the present Earth-Moon system could be acquired at the collision of two identical rarefied condensations with sizes of Hill spheres which total mass was about 0.1 of the mass of the Earth. Solid embryos of the Earth and the Moon could be originated as a result of contraction of the condensation formed at the collision. Depending on eccentricities of planetesimals that collided with solid embryos of the Earth and the Moon, the Moon could acquire 0.04-0.3 of its mass at the stage of accumulation of solid bodies while the mass of the growing Earth increased by a factor of ten.

  1. CHINESE RE POLISHING POWDER INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Due to its high polishing efficiency, long working life and wide application range, RE polishing powder has become the most popular fine polishing material. In recent years, accompanying the rapid development of electronic information technology, the demand for polishing powder is

  2. Preventing freezing of condensate inside tubes of air cooled condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Jeong A; Hwang, In Hwan; Lee, Dong Hwan [Chonbuk Nat' l Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Il [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia (United States)

    2012-08-15

    An air cooled condenser is a device that is used for converting steam into condensate by using ambient air. The air cooled condenser is prone to suffer from a serious explosion when the condensate inside the tubes of a heat exchanger is frozen; in particular, tubes can break during winter. This is primarily due to the structural problem of the tube outlet of an existing conventional air cooled condenser system, which causes the backflow of residual steam and noncondensable gases. To solve the backflow problem in such condensers, such a system was simulated and a new system was designed and evaluated in this study. The experimental results using the simulated condenser showed the occurrence of freezing because of the backflow inside the tube. On the other hand, no backflow and freezing occurred in the advanced new condenser, and efficient heat exchange occurred.

  3. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity. Condensing surfaces must be...

  4. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity in manned modules. Condensing surfaces...

  5. Polishing X-ray Mirror Mandrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. MSFC's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC) has grinding and polishing equipment ranging from conventional spindles to custom-designed polishers. These capabilities allow us to grind precisely and polish a variety of optical devices, including x-ray mirror mandrels. This image shows Charlie Griffith polishing the half-meter mandrel at SOMTC.

  6. 复杂型面洁具机器人磨削抛光系统%Robotic grinding and polishing system for complex surface workpiece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐立哲; 甘中学; 孙云权; 汤青; 贠超; 吴水华

    2011-01-01

    In order to allow the flexible machining of the complex surface workpieces, a set of robot flexible manufacturing system was developed to achieve the automatic grinding and polishing procoss of the faucet with complex surface. A grinding unit with force cantrol function and conlact wheel online error real time adjustment was designed, allowing online error real time compensation and automatic exchange robot TCP( Tool Center Point); a polishing unit with force control function and wheel radius online detection and compensation function was desigued, it can not only comopensale various kinds of errors of the robot system, but also keep the contact between contact workpiece and polishing wheel even when the polishing wheel radius changes a lot; by applying the robot offline. programming technology, the off-line programming package was developed, improving the programming efficiency and accuracy of the robot; the 3D laser scanming technology was introduced, causing it possible to automatically realize workpice alignment ,online clamping error detection and compensation and assuring the conformity in product manufacturing. This system technology is adyanced and simple to use, and meets the production requirement of the products.%为了实现复杂型面工件的柔性加工,研制了一套机器人柔性加工系统,完成了具有复杂型面水龙头的自动化磨削抛光过程.设计了具有力控制功能及接触轮在线调整功能的磨削单元,可以实现在线误差实时补偿及自动更换机器人TCP(Tool Center Point);设计了具有力控制功能及轮径在线检测与补偿功能的抛光单元,不仅能够实时补偿机器人系统各种误差,而且当抛光轮半径变化很大时,仍能够保证工件与抛光轮接触;采用机器人离线编程技术,设计了离线编程软件,提高了机器人编程效率及精度;采用三维激光扫描技术,能够自动实现工件校准及在线装卡误差检测与补偿,保证产品加工一致

  7. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  8. OPTIMAL SYSNTHESIS PROCESSES OF LOW-TEMPERATURE CONDENSATION ASSOCIATED OIL GAS PLANT REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ostapenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of modern high-efficient systems is a key priority for the Energy Sector of Ukraine. The cooling technological streams of gas and oil refineries, including air coolers, water cooling and refrigeration systems for specific refrigerants are the objectives of the present study. Improvement of the refrigeration unit with refrigerant separation into fractions is mandatory in order to increase cooling capacity, lowering the boiling point of coolant and increasing the coefficient of target hydrocarbons extraction from the associated gas flow. In this paper it is shown that cooling temperature plays significant role in low-temperature condensation process. Two operation modes for refrigeration unit were proposed: permanent, in which the concentration of the refrigerant mixture does not change and dynamic, in which the concentration of refrigerant mixtures depends on the ambient temperature. Based on the analysis of exergy losses the optimal concentration of refrigerant mixtures propane/ethane for both modes of operation of the refrigeration unit has been determined. On the basis of the conducted pinch-analysis the modification of refrigeration unit with refrigerant separation into fractions was developed. Additional recuperative heat exchangers for utilization heat were added to the scheme. Several important measures to increase the mass flow rate of refrigerant through the second section of the refrigeration centrifugal compressor from 22.5 to 25 kg/s without violating the agreed operational mode of the compressor sections were implemented.

  9. A temperature condensation trend in the debris-disk binary system Zet2 Ret

    CERN Document Server

    Saffe, C; Arancibia, M Jaque; Buccino, A; Jofre, E

    2016-01-01

    We explore condensation temperature Tc trends in the unique binary system Zet1 Ret - Zet2 Ret, to determine whether there is a depletion of refractories, which could be related to the planet formation process. The star Zet2 Ret hosts a debris disk which was detected by an IR excess and confirmed by direct imaging and numerical simulations, while Zet1 Ret does not present IR excess nor planets. We carried out a high-precision abundance determination in both components of the binary system via a line-by-line, strictly differential approach. The stellar parameters Teff , log g, [Fe/H] and vturb were determined by imposing differential ionization and excitation equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines, with an updated version of the program FUNDPAR. The star Zet1 Ret resulted slightly more metal rich than Zet2 Ret by 0.02 dex. In the differential calculation of Zet1 Ret using Zet2 Ret as reference, the abundances of the refractory elements resulted higher than the volatile elements, and the trend of the refractory ele...

  10. Assemblage of Presolar Materials and Early Solar System Condensates in Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Kloeck, W.

    2015-01-01

    Anhydrous chondritic porous inter-planetary dust particles (CP IDPs) contain an assortment of highly primitive solar system components, molecular cloud matter, and presolar grains. These IDPs have largely escaped parent body processing that has affected meteorites, advocating cometary origins. Though the stardust abundance in CP IDPs is generally greater than in primitive meteorites, it can vary widely among individual CP IDPs. The average abundance of silicate stardust among isotopically primitive IDPs is approx. 375 ppm while some have extreme abundances up to approx. 1.5%. H and N isotopic anomalies are common in CP IDPs and the carrier of these anomalies has been traced to organic matter that has experienced chemical reactions in cold molecular clouds or the outer protosolar disk. Significant variations in these anomalies may reflect different degrees of nebular processing. Refractory inclusions are commonly observed in carbonaceous chondrites. These inclusions are among the first solar system condensates and display 16O-rich isotopic compositions. Refractory grains have also been observed in the comet 81P/Wild-2 samples re-turned from the Stardust Mission and in CP IDPs, but they occur with much less frequency. Here we conduct coordinated mineralogical and isotopic analyses of CP IDPs that were characterized for their bulk chemistry by to study the distribution of primitive components and the degree of nebular alteration incurred.

  11. A Novel Modelling Approach for Condensing Boilers Based on Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Satyavada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Condensing boilers use waste heat from flue gases to pre-heat cold water entering the boiler. Flue gases are condensed into liquid form, thus recovering their latent heat of vaporization, which results in as much as 10%–12% increase in efficiency. Modeling these heat transfer phenomena is crucial to control this equipment. Despite the many approaches to the condensing boiler modeling, the following shortcomings are still not addressed: thermal dynamics are oversimplified with a nonlinear efficiency curve (which is calculated at steady-state; the dry/wet heat exchange is modeled in a fixed proportion. In this work we cover these shortcomings by developing a novel hybrid dynamic model which avoids the static nonlinear efficiency curve and accounts for a time-varying proportion of dry/wet heat exchange. The procedure for deriving the model is described and the efficiency of the resulting condensing boiler is shown.

  12. SOLAR WATER DESALINATION SYSTEM WITH CONDENSER WITHOUT USING ELECTRICITY FOR RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Auti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic desalination is a process in which salt water is heated and converted to steam by using parabolic solar concentrator. Solar radiations incident on concentrator are focused at the absorber which contains salt water. The steam is then condensed by the condenser which is designed on the basis of the thermal analysis. Condenser is a basically a water tank with copper tubes immersed in it. The steam flows through the tubes and heat exchange takes place between steam and tank water which absorbs the heat from the steam by converting it to purified water. No electricity is used for the condensation and the equipment is suitable for a small family, having no or limited access to electricity.

  13. Hanford Tank Ventilation System Condensates and Headspace Vapors: An Assessment of Potential Dermal Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, James L.; Springer, David L.

    2006-04-24

    This study considers the question of whether potential dermal exposures to Hanford high-level radioactive waste tank headspace vapors and their condensates could result in significant exposure to workers. Three types of potential exposures were evaluated; dermal contact with aqueous condensate, organic condensate, and direct contact with head space vapors. The dermal absorption rates from aqueous and organic condensates were estimated for selected chemicals using a model described by EPA (1992) with a modified correlation for dermal permeability suggested by Wilschut et al. (1995). Dermal absorption rates of vapors were estimated using a model given by AIHA (2000). Results were compared to an ''equivalent inhalation dose'' calculated by multiplying the inhalation occupational exposure limit by a nominal daily inhalation rate. The results should provide guidance for industrial hygienists to prepare specific recommendations based on specific scenarios.

  14. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  15. The heated condensation framework as a convective trigger in the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardi, Rodrigo J.; Tawfik, Ahmed B.; Manganello, Julia V.; Marx, Lawrence; Shin, Chul-Su; Halder, Subhadeep; Schneider, Edwin K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Kinter, James L.

    2016-09-01

    An updated version of the Heated Condensation Framework (HCF) is implemented as a convective triggering criterion into the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2). The new trigger replaces the original criteria in both the deep (Simplified Arakawa-Schubert - SAS) and shallow (SAS based) convective schemes. The performance of the original and new triggering criteria is first compared against radiosonde observations. Then, a series of hindcasts are performed to evaluate the influence of the triggering criterion in the CFSv2 representation of summer precipitation, the diurnal cycle of precipitation, and hurricanes that made landfall. The observational analysis shows that the HCF trigger better captures the frequency of convection, where the original SAS trigger initiates convection too often. When implemented in CFSv2, the HCF trigger improves the seasonal forecast of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, including the representation of the onset dates of the rainy season over India. On the other hand, the HCF trigger increases error in the seasonal forecast of precipitation over the eastern United States. The HCF trigger also improves the representation of the intensity of hurricanes. Moreover, the simulation of hurricanes provides insights on the mechanism whereby the HCF trigger impacts the representation of convection.

  16. 19th Polish Control Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Oprzędkiewicz, Krzysztof; Skruch, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the KKA 2017 – the 19th Polish Control Conference, organized by the Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland on June 18–21, 2017, under the auspices of the Committee on Automatic Control and Robotics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Commission for Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Part 1 deals with general issues of modeling and control, notably flow modeling and control, sliding mode, predictive, dual, etc. control. In turn, Part 2 focuses on optimization, estimation and prediction for control. Part 3 is concerned with autonomous vehicles, while Part 4 addresses applications. Part 5 discusses computer methods in control, and Part 6 examines fractional order calculus in the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Part 7 focuses on modern robotics. Part 8 deals with modeling and identification, while Part 9 deals with problems related to security, fault ...

  17. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  18. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  19. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce losses in the cooling source (condenser and to increase effectiveness of fuel-and-power resources utilization, the authors present a modern automatic ball-cleaning system for the pipes of condenser 180-KTsS-1 of turbine unit Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ of Gomel CHP-2. The article examines exploitation challenges of the steam turbine condensers and methods of clearing them from sedimentations. Depending on the sedimentation character and composition, and the quality of cooling water at the power plant, they apply various methods of the condenser tubes clearing: heat drying, vacuum dehydration, acid-washing, pipes-shooting with water and water-air pistols, ablution with high-pressure water jet etc. All the applied cleaning methods are the periodical means to fight the sedimentations and require the turbine halting or unloading, predetermine the equipment operating between clearings with constantly smearing cooling surfaces of the condensers, i.e. with reduced efficiency of equipment operation.The installation of the ball-cleaning system practically excludes defects of the chemical and mechanical cleaning methods, which leads to the condenser pipes life-in-service increase, the full-flow condensate quality improvement, reliability and efficient performance enhancement of the steam turbines equipment. The authors consider developed algorithms of data processing and designed system control of the condenser cleaning that allowed realizing its operation in automatic mode.

  20. Dropwise condensation: experiments and simulations of nucleation and growth of water drops in a cooling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, R N; Stevens, F; Langford, S C; Dickinson, J T

    2006-10-10

    Dropwise condensation of water vapor from a naturally cooling, hot water reservoir onto a hydrophobic polymer film and a silanized glass slide was studied by direct observation and simulations. The observed drop growth kinetics suggests that smallest drops grow principally by the diffusion of water adsorbed on the substrate to the drop perimeter, while drops larger than about 50 microm in diameter grow principally by direct deposition from the vapor onto the drop surface. Drop coalescence plays a critical role in determining the drop-size distribution and stimulates the nucleation of new, small drops on the substrates. Simulations of drop growth incorporating these growth mechanisms provide a good description of the observed drop-size distribution. Because of the large role played by coalescence, details of individual drop growth make little difference to the final drop-size distribution. The rate of condensation per unit substrate area is especially high for the smallest drops and may help account for the high heat transfer rates associated with dropwise condensation relative to filmwise condensation in heat exchange applications.

  1. Vortices with scalar condensates in two-component Ginzburg-Landau systems

    CERN Document Server

    Forgacs, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In a class of two-component Ginzburg-Landau models (TCGL) with a U(1)$\\times$U(1) symmetric potential, vortices with a condensate at their core may have significantly lower energies than the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) ones. On the example of liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH) above the critical temperature for protons we show that the ANO vortices become unstable against core-condensation, while condensate-core (CC) vortices are stable. For LMH the ratio of the masses of the two types of condensates, $M=m_2/m_1$ is large, and then as a consequence the energy per flux quantum of the vortices, $E_n/n$ becomes a non-monotonous function of the number of flux quanta, $n$. This leads to yet another manifestation of neither type 1 nor type 2, (type 1.5) superconductivity: superconducting and normal domains coexist while various "giant" vortices form. We note that LMH provides a particularly clean example of type 1.5 state as the interband coupling between electronic and protonic Cooper-pairs is forbidden.

  2. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  3. Nasalization in Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, Jerzy

    1977-01-01

    This paper gives a complete account of vowel nasalization in Standard Polish. A distinction is made between obligatory and phonostylistic processes. Phonostylistic evidence may serve as a basis for making unambiguous decisions about the structure of underlying representations, intermediate phonological forms, and assimilation of borrowings to the…

  4. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of o

  5. Aspectual Pairing in Polish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Młynarczyk, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The received view on Slavic aspect is that it is intrinsically complex, and that there is little hope of discerning any substantial regularity. We argue that this view is mistaken. We argue that the vast majority of Polish verbs really do come in aspectual pairs and that far from being a mysterious

  6. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of

  7. Lexical Server of Polish Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gajecki

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Lexical Server of Polish Language, the tool that aids natural language processing (NLP. Database of the server consists of dictionary units enriched by lexical information. The lexical server should be able to perform identification of word forms and generations of all inflected forms of the word. The server is dedicated to the people who are looking for NLP algorithms or implement them. The algorithms can be implemented in different kinds of programming languages and different operating systems. There are some examples of problems when lexical server can be useful: automatic text correction, tcxt indexing, keywords extraction, text profile building.

  8. The Mott localization and magnetic properties in condensed fermions systems; Lokalizacja Motta i wlasnosci magnetyczne skondensowanych ukladow fermionowych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, W. [Politechnika Krakowska, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the present thesis the Mott localization and magnetic properties in condensed fermions system are considered. The Hubbard model has been used to strongly correlated electron systems and the Skyrme potential to a dense neutron matter with small concentration of protons. A variational approach to the metal-insulator transition is proposed which combines the Mott and Gutzwiller-Brinkman-Rice aspects of the localization. Magnetic properties of strongly correlated electrons are analyzed within the modified spin-rotation-invariant approach in the slow-boson representation. The theoretical prediction for considered systems are presented. 112 refs, 39 figs.

  9. [Study of the possibility of utilizing the transpired mositure condensate from sweet potato for growing plants in biological life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derendiaeva, T A

    1976-01-01

    The effect of nonpurified condensate obtained during prolonged cultivation of batata in a sealed chamber upon batata cuttings and seedlings of garden cress, radish and Chinese cabbage was studied. It was shown that nonpurified condensate produced an inhibitory effect on the formation of roots in batata cuttings and on the growth of previously developed roots of batata cuttings and seedlings. The studies which used a chemical model of 3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine indicated that the condensate contained biologically active substance of organic origin. However, only experiments with the real continuous culture of batata, using real dilutions of the condensate that depend on the size of the greenhouse and the amount of the nutrient solution would clarify wheather condensate of transpiration water of batata plants can be repeatedly utilized in life support systems.

  10. 半导体制冷空气取水系统的优化研究%Optimization Study on Semiconductor Refrigeration Condensed Water Extraction from Condensed Air System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹旦; 邹钺

    2016-01-01

    Air is full of water. Water Extraction from air technology is developing day by day. Semiconductor refrigeration condensed water extraction from condensed air technology is based on semiconductor refrigeration and changed into water extraction from air technology. It uses P-N junctions consisting of special semiconductor materials to form thermocouple pair and result in Peltier effect to achieve refrigeration effect to condense air to extract condensed water. It analyzes and builds up model to conduct semiconductor refrigeration condensed water extraction from condensed air technology and improves all aspects of the system. It controls semiconductor refrigeration current and refrigeration temperature to obtain the best energy saving and most optimal system condition.%空气中蕴含着大量的水分,空气取水技术日益发展。其中,半导体制冷空气取水技术是基于半导体制冷技术发展而来的空气取水技术,主要利用特种半导体材料构成的P-N结,形成热电偶对,产生珀尔帖效应,从而达到冷端制冷的效果,冷凝空气制取冷凝水。针对半导体制冷空气取水技术进行分析模型搭建,对系统各个环节进行改进,对半导体制冷电流,制冷温度进行控制,获取最节能最优化的系统工况。

  11. Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD): The Polish version of a dual-axis system for the diagnosis of TMD.* RDC/TMD form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osiewicz, M.A.; Lobbezoo, F.; Loster, B.W.; Wilkosz, M.; Naeije, M.; Ohrbach, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study. To describe steps taken to conduct a formal forward translation/back-translation from English to Polish, and to establish the cultural equivalence of the Polish version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). This will be preceded by a brief h

  12. POLISHING EFFLUENT FROM A PERCHLORATE-REDUCING ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency undertook at 3 ½ year pilot-scale biological perchlorate treatment study that included two long (311 and 340 days) examinations of anaerobic effluent polishing. The polishing system consisted of hydrogen peroxide addition and aeration, fo...

  13. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors elaborate the economical efficiency evaluation technique that could be universal and applied for technical-and-economic feasibility study of the ball-cleaning system installation on the steam turbines of the electric power plants. Besides the effect from reducing the exhaust steam pressure in the condenser by means of the ball-cleaning system implementation, this technique also accounts for the effect of lowering the condenser hydraulic pressure.The article refers to the practical results of the ball-cleaning system introduction on the steam turbines of Gomel CHP-2. As a result of regular application of the ball-cleaning system the temperature difference of the condensers of all blocks Т-180/210-130-1 confined into the regulatory values and the cleanness coefficient of all three turbine units reached 0,85. The authors consider the working results, implementation experience of the ball-cleaning system at Gomel CHP-2 and its efficiency evaluation technique to be worth disseminating when introducing the analogous systems at the plants of Belarusian power network.The authors suggest measures on the condenser automatic-cleaning system improvement with the turbine mathematical-simulation model employment that will make it possible to optimize the condenser cleaning regimes and to increase the ball-cleaning system effectiveness with the condenser cleanness coefficient growing up to 0,90–0,92.

  14. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogienko Olena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization. It has been found out that forming of economic competency is based on the competency-based and personality-based approaches that allow to direct the educational process at a student as an active subject of learning, to create conditions for his/her creative potential development, to educate a competent specialist possessing all the competencies needed in professional activity. The influence of Polish universities’ integration into European system of student exchange on the quality of future specialists’ training has been revealed. Flexibility and variety of syllabi and curricula of economists’ professional training at Polish universities have been emphasized. Among perspective teaching methods we have singled out situational modeling as it allows to create situations at most approximated to those in professional activity, is oriented at co-creation and teamwork. It has been found out that the peculiarities of economists’ professional training at Polish universities are flexibility, diversification, standardization, personalization and adaptation to modern labour market. It has been proved that the result of economists’ professional training at Polish universities is a highly qualified specialist able to adapt to dramatic changes in economy and society.

  15. An Analysis of the Condensation Temperature of Elements of Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong Huang; Gang Zhao; Hua-Wei Zhang; Yu-Qin Chen

    2005-01-01

    Using high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of extrasolar planet-hosting stars, we obtained the atmospheric parameters, accurate metallicities and the differential abundance for 15 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn,Ni and Ba). In a search for possible signatures of metal-rich material accreting onto the parent stars, we found that, for a given element, there is no significant trend of increasing [X/H] with increasing condensation temperature Tc. In our sample of planet-harboring stars, the volatile and refractory elements behave similarly, and we can not confirm if there exists any significant dependence on the condensation temperature Tc.

  16. Energy analysis of a central domestic hot water heating system equipped with condensing boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Caliari, R. (Servizio Energia, Provincia Autonoma di Trento (IT))

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out on a central plant for the heating of domestic hot water for a block of 143 flats and 15 offices. The behaviour of the condensing boilers serving the plant was examined and the energy costs of recirculation and distribution were analysed. Since the losses due to recirculation are of the same order as the useful energy, the influence of the various parameters on the losses has been studied, and some methods of lowering them are proposed. (author).

  17. 电容器表面清灰系统%The surface of the condenser ash removal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐少琴

    2014-01-01

    The condenser surface film adhesion is the key to affect the capacitor good paint coating.Good capacitor surface treatment is a key to capacitor surface film adhesion.At present,the condenser surface shot dozen hair is one of the capacitor surface treatment commonly used method,but the shot after hair left on the surface of the condenser,the ashes and affect surface adhesion of capacitor can not be ignored.The traditional surface soot cleaning method,time-consuming,and the quality is not high.Capacitor surface ash removal system, uniform it clean,leave no dead Angle,greatly improve the quality of the condenser surface dust.%电容器表面漆膜附着力是影响电容器良好的喷漆涂装的关键。良好的电容器表面处理方法又是影响电容器表面漆膜附着力的关键。目前,电容器表面抛丸打毛是电容器表面处理的常用方法之一,但是抛丸打毛后遗留在电容器表面的残灰又是影响电容器表面附着力的不可忽视的原因。传统的表面清灰方法,耗时耗力,且质量不高。电容器表面清灰系统,它清扫均匀,不留死角,大大提高了电容器表面清灰质量。

  18. Developing the Polish Educational Needs Assessment Tool (Pol-ENAT) in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis: a cross-cultural validation study using Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska, Matylda; Sierakowski, Stanisław; Sierakowska, Justyna; Horton, Mike; Ndosi, Mwidimi

    2015-03-01

    To undertake cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the educational needs assessment tool (ENAT) for use with people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) in Poland. The study involved two main phases: (1) cross-cultural adaptation of the ENAT from English into Polish and (2) Cross-cultural validation of Polish Educational Needs Assessment Tool (Pol-ENAT). The first phase followed an established process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The second phase involved completion of the Pol-ENAT by patients and subjecting the data to Rasch analysis to assess the construct validity, unidimensionality, internal consistency and cross-cultural invariance. An adequate conceptual equivalence was achieved following the adaptation process. The dataset for validation comprised a total of 278 patients, 237 (85.3 %) of which were female. In each disease group (145, RA and 133, SSc), the 7 domains of the Pol-ENAT were found to fit the Rasch model, X (2)(df) = 16.953(14), p = 0.259 and 8.132(14), p = 0.882 for RA and SSc, respectively. Internal consistency of the Pol-ENAT was high (patient separation index = 0.85 and 0.89 for SSc and RA, respectively), and unidimensionality was confirmed. Cross-cultural differential item functioning (DIF) was detected in some subscales, and DIF-adjusted conversion tables were calibrated to enable cross-cultural comparison of data between Poland and the UK. Using a standard process in cross-cultural adaptation, conceptual equivalence was achieved between the original (UK) ENAT and the adapted Pol-ENAT. Fit to the Rasch model, confirmed that the construct validity, unidimensionality and internal consistency of the ENAT have been preserved.

  19. Developing free morphological data for Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Radziszewski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing free morphological data for Polish A limiting factor in construction of Natural Language Processing (NLP systems is often the availability of morphological resources. This indeed happens for Polish: the freely available corpus with manual morpho-syntactic annotation (part of the IPI PAN Corpus is not coupled with any free morphological analyser. There exists a very large morphological dictionary of Polish available under a free licence – Morfologik. Unfortunately, its tagset differs significantly from the tagset of the corpus and, what is more, its morphological description lacks desired rigour. We amend this situation by performing a massive conversion of the dictionary into the tagset compliant with the corpus. The conversion results in a free dictionary containing entries for almost 3.5 million different word forms. In this article we report on our methodology, discuss some morphological and syntactic issues related to both tagsets and present the characteristics of the resulting dictionary.

  20. Preliminary Design of Compact Condenser in an Organic Rankine Cycle System for the Low Grade Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a thermodynamic cycle for the production of electrical power in the 2–5 kW range, suitable for all types of thermally propelled vehicles. The sensible heat recovered from the exhaust gases feeds the energy recovery system, which is able to produce sufficient power to sustain the air conditioning system or other auxiliaries. The working fluids R134a and R245fa have been used in the ORC system, and the systems are simulated by CAMEL-ProTM software. The cycles are generated starting from the same heat source: the exhaust gas of a typical 2.0 L Diesel engine (or from a small size turbine engine. The design of the condenser has been performed to obtain a very compact component, evaluating the heat exchanger tube and fins type design. Through empirical formulas, the area of heat exchange, the heat required to exchange and the pressure drop in the element have been calculated. A commercial software package is used to build the model of the condenser, then a thermal and mechanical analysis and a CFD analysis are realized to estimate the heat exchange. Finally the evaluations, the possible future studies and possible improvements of the system are shown.

  1. Polish Migrant Parents of Secondary School Boys in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Daria; McGhee, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the parents of secondary school Polish boys and their capacity to realise their educational and professional aspirations for their children. Our primary finding is that although many Polish parents face considerable challenges in manoeuvring through the educational system, some Polish parents display a level of agency…

  2. Hydraulic supports for polishing TMT M3MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haifei; Qi, Erhui; Cole, Glen; Hu, Haixiang; Luo, Xiao; Ford, Virginia; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-10-01

    For polishing the ultra-thin TMT M3MP, a polishing support system with 18 hydraulic supports (HS) is introduced. This work focuses on the designing and testing of these HSs. Firstly the design concept of HS system is discussed; then mechanical implementation of the HS structure is carried out, with special consideration of fluid cycling, work pressurization and the weight component. Afterward the piping installation and the de-gas process for the working fluid are implemented. Pressurization and stiffness are well checked before system integration for the single HS unit. Finally the support system is integrated for the polishing process.

  3. Fluid jet polishing of optical surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fähnle, O.W.; Brug, H. van; Frankena, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    We present a new finishing process that is capable of locally shaping and polishing optical surfaces of complex shapes. A fluid jet system is used to guide a premixed slurry at pressures less than 6 bars to the optical surface. We used a slurry comprising water and 10% #800 SiC abrasives (21.8 μm to

  4. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  5. Neurocognitive Dimensions of Lexical Complexity in Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlachta, Zanna; Bozic, Mirjana; Jelowicka, Aleksandra; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of English suggest that speech comprehension engages two interdependent systems: a bilateral fronto-temporal network responsible for general perceptual and cognitive processing, and a specialised left-lateralised network supporting specifically linguistic processing. Using fMRI we test this hypothesis in Polish, a Slavic…

  6. Experimental characterization of the COndensation PArticle counting System for high altitude aircraft-borne application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of the ultra-fine aerosol particle counter COPAS (COndensation PArticle counting System for operation on board the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysika is presented. The COPAS instrument consists of an aerosol inlet and two dual-channel continuous flow Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs operated with the chlorofluorocarbon FC-43. It operates at pressures between 400 and 50 hPa for aerosol detection in the particle diameter (dp range from 6 nm up to 1 μm. The aerosol inlet, designed for the M-55, is characterized with respect to aspiration, transmission, and transport losses. The experimental characterization of counting efficiencies of three CPCs yields dp50 (50% detection particle diameter of 6 nm, 11 nm, and 15 nm at temperature differences (ΔT between saturator and condenser of 17°C, 30°C, and 33°C, respectively. Non-volatile particles are quantified with a fourth CPC, with dp50=11 nm. It includes an aerosol heating line (250°C to evaporate H2SO4-H2O particles of 11 nm<dp<200 nm at pressures between 70 and 300 hPa. An instrumental in-flight inter-comparison of the different COPAS CPCs yields correlation coefficients of 0.996 and 0.985. The particle emission index for the M-55 in the range of 1.4–8.4×1016 kg−1 fuel burned has been estimated based on measurements of the Geophysika's own exhaust.

  7. Specific interactions versus counterion condensation. 1. Nongelling ions/polyuronate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Ivan; Cesàro, Attilio; Paoletti, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the interaction between nongelling divalent cations (typically Mg(2+)) and polyuronates have been explored by means of isothermal calorimetry. In particular, three polyuronates mimicking separately guluronan (polyguluronate, polyG), mannuronan (polymannuronate, polyM), and polyalternating (polyMG), the three block-components of natural alginate samples, have been treated with divalent ions, and the enthalpy of mixing was determined for different values of the [M(2+)]/[Polym](rep.unit) ratio. Despite the absence of a site-specific chemical bonding between the two, as confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, a substantial deviation of the experimental enthalpy of mixing from the theoretical behavior, as predicted by the classical counterion condensation (CC) theory, was observed. Such deviation has been interpreted in terms of a "generic" nonbonding affinity of the condensed divalent counterion for the polyelectrolytes. The mathematical formalism of the CC theory was extended to include a contribution to the (reduced) free energy and enthalpy arising from the counterion affinity, g(aff,0) and h(aff,0), and allowed the parametrical calculation of the fraction of divalent counterions condensed as function of the reduced thermodynamic quantity g(aff,0). A best fit procedure of the experimental enthalpy of mixing allowed the g(aff,0) and h(aff,0) pair to be estimated for each of the different polyuronates considered, revealing differences in the three samples. In qualitative terms, the results obtained seem to suggest a notable contribution of the desolvation process (i.e., release of structured water as a consequence of the interaction between the divalent counterion and the uronate group) to the enthalpy of affinity for polyM which is counterbalanced and overcome by an ion pairing term (i.e., partial formation of ion-ion and/or ion-dipole bonds) for polyG and polyMG, respectively.

  8. Analytical multisoliton solutions for multicomponent Bose–Einstein condensate systems with time- and space-controlled potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun, E-mail: chenjun.sun@gmail.com; Liu, Yun-xian, E-mail: liuyx@cjlu.edu.cn

    2014-09-05

    We construct explicit multisoliton complex solutions for multicomponent Bose–Einstein condensate systems with time- and spatial-coordinate-dependent atomic potentials and interactions. The exact solutions are used to analyze the important solitary matter wave properties such as the profiles of temporal and spatial multimode beams as well as focusing effects. Results demonstrate that soliton complexes can be controlled nonlinearly during the interaction by modulating the external potentials and nonlinearities. - Highlights: • An algebraic approach is proposed for the dynamics of multicomponent BECs. • External potentials and nonlinearities are time and space-dependent. • Analytical solutions are constructed. • Multisoliton complexes are predicted.

  9. Graphene-based side-polished optical fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Vahid; Ghezelsefloo, Masoud

    2016-12-20

    We demonstrate a novel design for optical fiber amplifiers, utilizing side-polished fibers with a single-layer graphene overlay as the active medium and carrier injection in the graphene layer to provide the required inversion. We study the effects of an electrically induced graphene p-i-n heterojunction in the forward bias regime on optical modes of side-polished fibers and show that gain values of 0.51, 1.81, and 1.79 dB/cm for wavelengths 1064, 1330, and 1550 nm can be obtained for single-mode side-polished fibers. Our results show that in multi-mode side-polished fibers, higher order modes experience higher values of gain, and gain can be increased by increasing polished depth. The proposed system is a tunable wideband optical amplifier that can operate for wavelengths larger than 1000 nm.

  10. Design and development of low pressure evaporator/condenser unit for water-based adsorption type climate control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramanan, Arjun; Rios Perez, Carlos A.; Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    2016-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are the future of clean transportation and driving range is one of the important parameters which dictates its marketability. In order to increase driving range, electrical battery energy consumption should be minimized. Vapor-compression refrigeration systems currently employed in EVs for climate control consume a significant fraction of the battery charge. Thus, by replacing this traditional heating ventilation and air-conditioning system with an adsorption based climate control system one can have the capability of increasing the drive range of EVs.The Advanced Thermo-adsorptive Battery (ATB) for climate control is a water-based adsorption type refrigeration cycle. An essential component of the ATB is a low pressure evaporator/condenser unit (ECU) which facilitates both the evaporation and condensation processes. The thermal design of the ECU relies predominantly on the accurate prediction of evaporation/boiling heat transfer coefficients since the standard correlations for predicting boiling heat transfer coefficients have large uncertainty at the low operating pressures of the ATB. This work describes the design and development of a low pressure ECU as well as the thermal performance of the actual ECU prototype.

  11. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  12. Condensation Polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramakrishnan

    2017-04-01

    The very idea that large polymer molecules can indeed existwas hotly debated during the early part of the 20th century.As highlighted by Sivaram in his articles on Carothersand Flory, Staudinger’s macromolecular hypothesis was finallyaccepted, and the study of polymers gained momentumbecause of the remarkable efforts of the these two individualswho laid down the foundations concerning the processes thatled to the formation of large polymer molecules, and to thosethat led to an understanding of many of their extraordinaryphysical properties. Condensation polymerizations, as thename suggests, utilizes bond-forming reactions that generatea small molecule condensate, which often needs to be continuouslyremoved to facilitate the formation of the polymer. Inthis article, I shall describe some of the essential principles ofcondensation polymerizations or more appropriately calledstep-growth polymerizations; and I will also describe someinteresting extensions that lead to the formation of polymernetworks and highly branched polymers.

  13. The influence of finishing/polishing time and cooling system on surface roughness and microhardness of two different types of composite resin restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminedi, Raja Rajeswari; Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Priya, Tulasi; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of finishing time and polishing time on surface roughness and microhardness of nanofilled and hybrid resin composites. Materials and Methods: Hundred disk composite specimens from micro hybrid composite and nanohybrid composite were prepared, 50 for each type of composite. The specimens were divided into five groups according to the time of finishing and polishing (immediate, 15 min, 24 h and dry). Composite under the Mylar strip wit...

  14. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  15. Review on Application of Rare Earth Polishing Powders in Glass Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xueshun; Yang Guosheng

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviewed different explanations to the mechanism of glass polishing, the practices of glass polishing and the preparation of polishing powders, addressed the growth mechanism of CeO2 crystals, summarized the roles of rare earth elements in glass polishing and the factors that may influence the polishing effects, and specified the existing problems in glass polishing.

  16. Linearized Semiclassical Initial Value Time Correlation FunctionsUsing the Thermal Gaussian Approximation: Applications to Condensed PhaseSystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Miller, William H.

    2007-07-10

    The linearized approximation to the semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR) has been used together with the thermal Gaussian approximation (TGA) (TGA/LSC-IVR) to simulate quantum dynamical effects in realistic models of two condensed phase systems. This represents the first study of dynamical properties of the Ne13 Lennard-Jones (LJ) cluster in its liquid-solid phase transition region (temperature from 4 K to 14 K). Calculation of the force autocorrelation function shows considerable differences from that given by classical mechanics, namely that the cluster is much more mobile (liquid-like) than in the classical case. Liquid para-hydrogen at two thermodynamic state points (25 K and 14 K under nearly zero external pressure) has also been studied. The momentum autocorrelation function obtained from the TGA/LSC-IVR approach shows very good agreement with recent accurate path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) results at 25 K. The self-diffusion constants calculated by the TGA/LSC-IVR are in reasonable agreement with those from experiment and from other theoretical calculations. These applications demonstrate the TGA/LSC-IVR to be a practical and versatile method for quantum dynamics simulations of condensed phase systems.

  17. LTCS (Laser Thermal Control System) Test Supporting the Improvement of DeCoM (Deepak Condenser Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop, Cleveland OH. NCTS 19701-14. On Dec 2013 a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) test was performed as part of the integral Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS). During the balance portion of this testing it was noticed that the LHP was not going to be able to maintain temperature on the operational thermal mass. The test was stopped. After multiple meetings with the LTCS designers, LHP experts (in house and external) it was concluded that gravity was preventing the control heaters to maintain control on the reservoir. A heater was installed onto the liquid return line as part of the fix. After implementing the fix on the liquid return line, the test on May 2014 proved that the system works in vertical orientation using the liquid line heater. Through this testing, the correlation of the Deepak Condenser Model (DeCoM) was possible. This paper describes how well DeCoM predicts the condenser behavior in comparison to the test results of LTCS test.

  18. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  19. Surface roughness of a novel dental porcelain following different polishing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Chen, Ji-Hua; Wang, Hui

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the surface roughness of a novel dental porcelain following different polishing procedures. One hundred twenty Imagine Reflex porcelain disks were prepared and randomly assigned into six groups according to different treatments: Group 1: CeraMaster polishing system (CP); Group 2: CP + diamond polishing paste (DP); Group 3: Sof-Lex polishing system (SS); Group 4: SS + DP; Group 5: SiC paper polishing; Group 6: reglazing (control). After the respective treatments, surface roughness values were measured using a profilometer. Qualitative analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy. Results demonstrated that a combination of the CeraMaster polishing system and a diamond polishing paste could produce similar superficial smoothness to that of the reglazed surface of the tested porcelain.

  20. Outgassing Properties of Chemically Polished Titanium Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Hiroki; Kimoto, Gou; Fujii, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Setsuo; Matsuura, Mitsuru; Ishizawa, Katsunobu; Nomura, Takeru; Murashige, Nobuyuki

    We developed a chemical polishing (CP) for titanium materials applicable to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and extremely high vacuum (XHV) systems. The surface roughness, Ra, of the chemically polished titanium is obtained to be 25 nm by the atomic force microscopy measurement. This value is smaller than those of the base metal (BM) and the buff-polished (BP) samples. The thickness of the surface oxide layer of CP sample is estimated to be 7 nm by the cross section of transmission electron micrograph. Amount of desorption gas of CP sample obtained by the thermal desorption measurement is smaller than those of BM and BP sample, and is the same as that of the mechanochemically polished (MCP) sample. The outgassing rate of CP sample after baking at 150°C×20 h is obtained to be 7×10-13 Pa•m•s-1. This value is lower than that of standard vacuum materials by two orders of magnitude after the ordinary baking.

  1. Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kocoń

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr This article presents the result of the recent research in the interpretation of Polish expressions that refer to time. These expressions are the source of information when something happens, how often something occurs or how long something lasts. Temporal information, which can be extracted from text automatically, plays significant role in many information extraction systems, such as question answering, discourse analysis, event recognition and many more. We prepared PLIMEX — a broad description of Polish temporal expressions with annotation guidelines, based on the state-of-the-art solutions for English, mainly TimeML specification. We also adapted the solution to capture the local semantics of temporal expressions, called LTIMEX. Temporal description also supports further event identification and extends event description model, focusing at anchoring events in time, ordering events and reasoning about the persistence of events. We prepared the specification, which is designed to address these issues and we annotated all documents in Polish Corpus of Wroclaw University of Technology (KPWr using our annotation guidelines.

  2. Optical instrumentation systems for environmental and structural health monitoring based on the molecular condensation nuclei (MCN) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptsov, Vladimir D.; Katelevsky, Vadim Ya.; Valyukhov, Vladimir P.; Aladov, Andrei V.

    2016-04-01

    The foundation of measurement systems for environmental and structural health monitoring based on molecular condensation nuclei (MCN) detector is the measurement of the intensity of light scattered by aerosol particles. Aerosol particles are formed in the condensation chamber around single molecules of detected impurities (harmful and dangerous substances in the case of environmental monitoring and biomarkers in the case of structural health monitoring). The size of an aerosol particle is about 106 times larger than the size of the original impurity molecule. The ability of the aerosol particle to scatter incident light also increases 1014÷1016 times compared with the original molecule. By measuring the light scattering intensity the concentration of chemical impurities in the air is determined. The paper investigates many aspects of the detection process - the optical scattering by aerosol particles inside the photometer of MCN detector; signal conditioning, processing of light scattering measurements results, determination of the criteria for making a decision about the presence of detected impurities in the environment; multi-component sensing of detected impurities and graphical user interface design. Experimental results of the detection of toxic substances in micro-concentrations in the environment are presented.

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  4. Dispersive and dissipative effects in quantum field theory in curved space-time to model condensed matter systems

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The two main predictions of quantum field theory in curved space-time, namely Hawking radiation and cosmological pair production, have not been directly tested and involve ultra high energy configurations. As a consequence, they should be considered with caution. Using the analogy with condensed matter systems, their analogue versions could be tested in the lab. Moreover, the high energy behavior of these systems is known and involves dispersion and dissipation, which regulate the theory at short distances. When considering experiments which aim to test the above predictions, there will also be a competition between the stimulated emission from thermal noise and the spontaneous emission out of vacuum. In order to measure these effects, one should thus compute the consequences of UV dispersion and dissipation, and identify observables able to establish that the spontaneous emission took place. In this thesis, we first analyze the effects of dispersion and dissipation on both Hawking radiation and pair particle...

  5. Polishing technique for beryllium mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Performance tests, accomplished by inserting entire X ray telescope and polished mirror into vacuum line 67 m long and taking photographs of an X ray resolution source, indicate that polishing increases mirror efficiency from 0.06 percent for X rays at 0.8 nm and increases resolution from 15 to 3.75 arc-seconds.

  6. Polish Americans. Second, Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Helen Znaniecka

    This book examines Polonia, the Polish ethnic community in America created by three giant waves of immigration between 1880 and 1990. The complicated history of this ethnic group is reflected in the lives of increasing numbers of Polish Americans, including recent immigrants brought by political and economic changes, as they achieve middle class…

  7. Notions Catalog. Polish Functional Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woytak, Lidia

    The Polish notions catalog systematizes a variety of informational codes used in Polish, resulting in lists of notions, each presented from a structural perspective. Where applicable, they are accompanied by a morphological component, structural chart, semantic description, frequentative expressions, and related vocabulary items. The notions…

  8. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  9. Modeling and energy simulation of the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system with water-cooled condenser under cooling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yueming; Wu, Jingyi [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics (China); Shiochi, Sumio [Daikin Industries Ltd. (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    As a new system, variable refrigerant flow system with water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) can offer several interesting characteristics for potential users. However, at present, its dynamic simulation simultaneously in association with building and other equipments is not yet included in the energy simulation programs. Based on the EnergyPlus's codes, and using manufacturer's performance parameters and data, the special simulation module for water-cooled VRF is developed and embedded in the software of EnergyPlus. After modeling and testing the new module, on the basis of a typical office building in Shanghai with water-cooled VRF system, the monthly and seasonal cooling energy consumption and the breakdown of the total power consumption are analyzed. The simulation results show that, during the whole cooling period, the fan-coil plus fresh air (FPFA) system consumes about 20% more power than the water-cooled VRF system does. The power comparison between the water-cooled VRF system and the air-cooled VRF system is performed too. All of these can provide designers some ideas to analyze the energy features of this new system and then to determine a better scheme of the air conditioning system. (author)

  10. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism in Poland was never an autonomous phenomenon. The whole array of reasons for which it appeared in Polish science would require a separate study--here it only needs to be pointed out that the major reasons included terror on the part of the security service, lawlessness, the ubiquitous atmosphere of intimidation and terror, censorship, the diminishing sphere of civil liberties, political show trials, propaganda and denunciations. An important role in facilitating the introduction of Lysenkoism was played also by the reorganization of science after World War Two, the isolation of Polish science from science in the West, as well as the damage it had suffered during the war. At first, Lysenkoism was promoted in Poland by a small group of enthusiastic and uncritical proponents. A overview of the events connected with the ten years of Lysenkoism in Poland (end of 1948--beginning of 1958) shows a two-tier picture of how the 'idea' was propagated. The first tier consisted in the activities of the Association of Marxist Naturalists [Koło Przyrodników-Marksistów], which it engaged in since the end of 1948. The Association was later transformed into a Union of Marxist Naturalists, and this in turn merged, in 1952, with the Copernican Society of Polish Naturalists [Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodników im. Kopernika]. It was that society which promoted Lysenkoism longest, until the end of 1956. The propaganda and training activities of the circle and the society prepared ground for analogous activities of the newly formed Polish Academy of Science (PAN), which--since its very establishment in 1952--engaged in promoting Lysenkoism through its Second Division. These activities were aimed at naturalists, initially at those who were prominent scientists (eg. the conference at Kuźnice, 1950/1951), and then at those who were only starting their academic career (including national courses in new biology at Dziwnów, 1952, or Kortowo, 1953 and 1955). The end to promoting

  11. Monitoring of Robot Assisted Polishing through parameters of acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Bilberg, Arne

    , the duration of each process stage and predict the end of process in a precise and unmanned way. This paper presents and analyses the utilization of acoustic emission for generation of control signals in the stone polishing process for achieving these control objectives in an industrial set-up prototype........ The determination of the point in time to change a polishing media or stop the process is needed for computer controlled functional surface generation. During the last years, several research works have been done in order to build grinding/polishing monitoring systems to determine process characteristics...

  12. Hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish Zone of the Baltic Sea - an overview of Polish achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jasińska

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a general overview of Polish experience and achievements with regard to hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish zone of the Baltic Sea. The first work started already at the end of the sixties when the first 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models were set up. With the development of numerical methods and increasing computational power a number of 1D, 2D and 3D models were set up and tested. Global, regional and local models cover the most important water bodies,i.e. the Pomeranian Bay - Szczecin Lagoon and Gulf of Gdansk - Vistula Lagoon systems.

  13. Subjective Quality of Life of Polish, Polish-Immigrant, and Polish-American Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdes, Celia; Zych, Adam A.

    2000-01-01

    Compares subjective quality of life of elderly Poles living in Poland, and Polish immigrants and Polish-American ethnics living in Chicago as part of a secondary data analysis of a study initially conducted in Poland. Conclusions lend support to the idea that U.S.-born elderly people and elderly immigrants to the United States have a significantly…

  14. Consequence of condensed-phase formation in transient burning of TiH/sub x//KClO/sub 4/ in a closed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razani, A.; Shahinpoor, M.; Hingorani-Norenberg, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Transient burning of TiH/sub X//KClO/sub 4/ in a closed system is formulated including the effect of condensed species. Thermodynamic properties are evaluated using both BLAKE and TIGER computer codes. Three different equations of state for gaseous species are used and their effect on the burning rate is evaluated. For more accurate transient burning analysis, a pressure dependent covolume for gaseous species is generated. The effect of pressure dependent covolume as well as the condensed species on transient burning is evaluated. Both parameters are found to be important when the burning rate at high loading densities in a closed system is considered. At high loading densities, condensed species become important not only because of the their effect on thermodynamic properties but also due to the volume occupied by these species. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. THE DETECTION OF THE NECESSARY CONDITIONS OF EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF THE BALL CLEANING SYSTEM OF THE TUBES OF STEAM TURBINE CONDENSERS. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gerasimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of an increase of the power of turbine by improving heat transfer in condensers of steam turbines is considered in the article as a topical one. The analysis of contamination of the internal surfaces of cooling tubes and of the influence of pollution on the process of heat transfer in turbine condensers has been fulfilled. The existing method of cleaning of condenser tubes with the use of porous elastic balls of sponge rubber that is implemented on a number of large thermal power plants and state region power plants of the Republic of Belarus is examined. In the operation of the ball cleaning system a significant drawback has been revealed, viz. a low efficiency of this method due to the failure to comply with preparation the system of circulating water for operation. Also, a certain imperfection of ball cleaning system technology has been determined. One of the prerequisites for the effective functioning of the ball cleaning system is a certain degree of purity of the pipe system of the condenser, characterized by the coefficient of purity. To determine the effectiveness of ball cleaning system a series of experiments on the launching of porous rubber balls in the pipe system of the main and the embedded bunches of the T-250/300-240 UTMZ turbine has been produced. Immediately before the experiments hydraulic cleaning of the tubes of the condenser by a high-pressure installation were carried out. During the experiments, records of the number of downloaded porous rubber balls, of the number of rubber balls captured in a loading chamber, and of the number of rubber balls that remained in a calibration device were kept. A large proportion of default of the balls caused by the presence of residues of the carbonate sediments, that obstruct the movement of porous rubber balls in the tubes of the condenser, was determined. The presence of carbonate deposits in the tubes of the condenser indicates a lack of effectiveness of antiscale treatment

  16. Polishing of denture base acrylic resin with chairside polishing kits: an SEM and surface roughness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzivasileiou, Konstantinos; Emmanouil, Ioannis; Kotsiomiti, Eleni; Pissiotis, Argirios

    2013-01-01

    Heat-cured acrylic resin specimens were polished using either conventional laboratory polishing, sandpaper, or three commercial chairside kits. The surface roughness of the polished specimens was measured with a contact profilometer. Scanning electron microscopy was used to obtain microphotographs of the polished surfaces. Laboratory polishing produced the smoothest surfaces in all cases, while sandpaper application produced the roughest. Use of the chairside polishing kits resulted in significantly rougher surfaces compared to those produced by laboratory polishing. Nonetheless, polishing of trimmed denture bases using chairside polishing kits is an effective alternative procedure for cases in which the laboratory procedure is not applicable.

  17. Promotion of dropwise condensation of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, and acetone by polytetrafluoroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Coating condensing surfaces with thin layer of nonpolar Teflon results in dropwise condensation of polar organic vapor. Greater heat transfer coefficients are produced increasing effectiveness of condensing system. Investigation shows that vapors with strong dipole moment tend to condense dropwise.

  18. Polishing gold and gold-alloy crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Sawed cross-section samples are rough polished at minimum pressure with 14 micron grit. After saw marks are polished away, polishing grit is changed to 0.05 micron. When smooth appearance is attained, surface is then chemically polished by hand in dust free room.

  19. [Quack medicine--a continual problem in Polish rural communities. Illnes occurring within the musculo-sceletal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotela, Ireneusz; Bednarenko, Marcin; Wilk-Frańczuk, Magdalena; Kotela, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The work presents the results of a survey that was conducted amongst the inhabitants of the parish of Dabrowa Tarnowska concerning quack medical practices noted in the treatment of the musculo-sceletal system, as well as comments on the subject of the harm caused by the application of folk remedies. Within the group of those surveyed a startling 79% evaluated this form of treatment as satisfactory despite the appearance later of many medical complications.

  20. The Great Époque of the Consumption of Imported Broadcasts. West European Television Channels and Polish Audiences during the System Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasiak, Patryk

    2014-01-01

    abstractThis article shows how Polish audiences “domesticated” West European television content available with satellite dishes and semi legal cable TVs during the turnover of the 1980s and 1990s. Based on analysis of viewers’ memoirs and content of magazines dedicated to satellite television, this

  1. Parameter investigation of air-driving fluid jet polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zong-Ru; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Pham, Loc Huu; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Shiou, Fang-Jung

    2012-10-01

    Air-driving fluid jet polishing (FJP) technique was first presented in 2011. Slurry was drop out due to Venturi effect inside the atomizer which is the main component of air-driving FJP system, and was guided to mix with air flow by the nozzle. The Venturi effect and the added high speed air flow provide slurry more kinetic energy to impact the optical surface. Therefore, the air-driving FJP system has a rotational symmetrical Gaussian-like removal profile with lower air pressure and normal incidence configuration. In this paper, we investigate oblique incidence polishing to find the optimal material removal performance of the technique, including removal shape and depth and surface roughness. Different oblique angles ranged from 80 to 20 degree were tested. The air-driving FJP system was adapted upon a CNC machine, so not only single point polishing but also straight line polishing with constant feed rate can be carried out. We report on the performance of oblique air-driving FJP in different air pressure and processing time, and also the material removal of dynamic polishing for N-BK7, Fused Silica and ZERODUR®. The results indicate oblique incidence can get a Gaussian-like removal shape, and improve the surface roughness. The air-driving FJP not only has the advantages of conventional fluid jet polishing, such as no tool wears, cutter interference and debris deposition problems, but also has excellent material removal rate with lower energy.

  2. Linear concentrating collector as an air heater in the heating system of building in Polish climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemś Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the performance of a concentrating collector in the heating system of a residential building. Air was used as the working fluid. The heating requirements of the building were determined for each day of the year. The amount of direct irradiation reaching the absorber’s surface on all the days of the year was determined with the use of hourly meteorological data for Wroclaw, shared by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Growth. It was assumed that the collector is equipped with a tracking system working in one axis. Calculations and comparisons were made for the amount of solar irradiation for three values of the receiver’s inclination angle: β1=60°, β2=90° and β3=30°. Statistical method was used in order to determine the optimum inclination of the mirror and the amount of flowing air. This method involves creating a plan of experiment with three levels of changeability for two input factors. In the last stage, the amount of heat obtained from the installation during all the days of the year was analysed. The gains were juxtaposed on the diagram with the building’s heat demand. The analysis has shown that the heat requirements can be met only partially.

  3. Advanced Electronic Systems for HEP Experiments, Astroparticle Physics, Accelerator Technology, FELs and Fusion; 2013 WILGA January Symposium (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The cycle of WILGA conferences [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] on Photonics and Web Engineering, Advanced Electronic Systems, under the auspices of IEEE, SPIE, KEiT PAN and WEiTI PW was initiated in 1998 by a Research Team PERG/ELHEP ISE PW. The WILGA conferences take place two times a year and the participants are young scientists from this country and abroad. This paper debates chosen topical tracks and some papers presented during the 31 WILGA Conference, which took place on 8-10 February 2013 at the Faculty of WEiTI PW. The conference was attended by over 60 persons. Here we discuss closer the subjects of biomedical electronics and informatics, as well as chosen aspects of applications of advanced electronic circuits and systems. The next 32 WILGA Conference will take place on 27 May – 02 June 2013 in WUT WILGA resort near Warsaw. Proposed conference papers are submitted via the WILGA Conference web page. Email for the correspondence is: photonics@ise.pw.edu.pl. The papers are published in journals Elektronika, I...

  4. Condensation heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J. W.

    The paper gives a brief description of some of the better understood aspects of condensation heat transfer and includes discussion of the liquid-vapour interface, natural and forced convection laminar film condensation and dropwise condensation.

  5. Tooth polishing: The current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Madhuri Alankar; Bhardwaj, Ashu; Jafri, Zeba; Sultan, Nishat; Daing, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients' need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  6. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  7. Fused-Polished Fiber Couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sien; Chi; Shiao-Min; Tseng

    2003-01-01

    We report on fused-polished fiber couplers with a new fabrication method. This structure so fabricated is promising while achieving high-performance all-fiber WDM devices. Potential advantages and prospects of our works are presented.

  8. Astronarium - Filmography of Polish Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radajewski, Bogumił; Mikołajewski, Maciej; Czart, Krzysztof; Guz, Iwona; Rubaszewski, Adam; Stelmach, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    ``Astronarium'' is a series of TV programs about astronomy and space research co-produced by the Polish Astronomical Society and Polish Television. It has been planned for three seasons and 34 episodes in total (8, 13 and 13 per season). The first season was presented in March and April 2015 and the second started in September 2015. The third one is planned for 2016. ``Astronarium'' has been broadcast on the nationwide channel TVP Regionalna, which later changed its name to TVP 3.

  9. PPOOLEX experiments on wall condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2009-08-15

    This report summarizes the results of the wall condensation experiments carried out in December 2008 and January 2009 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Altogether five experiments, each consisting of several blows, were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study wall condensation phenomenon inside the dry well compartment while steam is discharged through it into the condensation pool and to produce comparison data for CFD calculations at VTT. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. For the wall condensation experiments the test facility was equipped with a system for collecting and measuring the amount of condensate from four different wall segments of the dry well compartment. A thermo graphic camera was used in a couple of experiments for filming the outside surface of the dry well wall. The effect of the initial temperature level of the dry well structures and of the steam flow rate for the accumulation of condensate was studied. The initial temperature level of the dry well structures varied from 23 to 99 deg. C. The steam flow rate varied from 90 to 690 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 115 to 160 deg. C. During the initial phase of steam discharge the accumulation of condensate was strongly controlled by the temperature level of the dry well structures; the lower the initial temperature level was the more condensate was accumulated. As the dry well structural temperatures increased the condensation process slowed down. Most of the condensate usually accumulated during the first 200 seconds of the discharge. However, the condensation process never completely stopped because a small temperature difference remained between the dry well atmosphere and inner wall

  10. Random-lattice models and simulation algorithms for the phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles with coupled internal and translational degrees of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Miao, Ling; Ipsen, John Hjorth;

    1996-01-01

    In this work we concentrate on phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles where both translational and internal degrees of freedom are present and coupled through microscopic interactions, with a focus on the manner of the macroscopic coupling between the two types...

  11. Application of biocompounds for the purification of regenerates containing nitrogen taken from condensate cleaning systems; Einsatz von Biocompounds zur Reinigung stickstoffhaltiger Regenerate aus Kondensatreinigungsanlagen (KRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, R.; Buesching, K.; Boettger, C.; Oswald, N. [HS Merseburg (F.H.) (Germany). Fachbereich Ingenieur- und Naturwissenschaften; Ochmann, C. [VertUm GmbH, Markkleeberg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Using the Biocompound technique, it is possible to biologically purify the regenerates of condensate cleaning systems to ensure direct discharger quality. In this process simultaneous nitrification and denitrification can take place temporally and locally using a completely aerated fluidised bed reactor. The biofilm carriers used for this purpose contain two different readily bio-degradable bio-polymers, the so-called Biocompounds. (orig.)

  12. Potentiodynamic behaviour of mechanically polished titanium electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, O.R.; DePauli, C.P.; Giordano, M.C.

    1984-08-01

    The behaviour of titanium electrodes mechanically polished and/or anodically polarized at low positive potential in solutions at constant ionic strength between pH 0.3 and 11.0 is reported. The oxide electroformation potential on a mechanically polished electrode shows a complex dependence on the bulk solution pH. This dependence is similar to that obtained through acid-base titration with titanium as the indicating electrode. The formation of hydroxo-complexes on the spontaneously formed titanium oxide offers a possible explanation for the oxide electroformation potential dependence on pH. Anodic and cathodic wide current peaks are obtained between the potential of the hydrogen evolution and that of the massive oxide electroformation; the corresponding redox system becomes evident at pH 4.0 from the first potentiodynamic cycle. An interpretation of these processes involving the participation of non stoichiometric oxides and hydrogen ions is attempted.

  13. Electrochemical polishing of notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Alan R.; Alberts, Alfred H.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the selective electrochemical polishing of a lateral tip of a deep longitudinal notch in a work piece used to test crack initiation properties of materials. A DC power source is connected to the work piece and to an electrode disposed laterally along the distal end of an insulated body which is inserted in the longitudinal notch. The electrode and distal end of the body are disposed along the tip of the notch, but are spaced from the notch so as to provide a lateral passage for an electrolyte. The electrolyte is circulated through the passage so that the electrolyte only contacts the work piece adjacent the passage. Conveniently, the electrolyte is circulated by use of an inlet tube and an outlet tube provided at opposite ends of the passage. These tubes are preferably detachably located adjacent the ends of the passage and suitable seals are provided. A holding device including arms to which the tubes are attached is conveniently used to rapidly and easily locate the test specimen with the passage aligned with the tubes. The electrode is preferably a wire which is located in grooves along the distal end of the insulated body and up one side of the body or a plastic sheath insulated thin metal strip.

  14. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  15. Applicationof Computer Visionfor Polishing RobotinAutomotive Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rachmat Anom Besari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polishing is a highly skilled manufacturing process with a lot of constraints and interaction with environment. In general, the purpose of polishing is to get the uniform surface roughness distributed evenly throughout part’s surface. In order to reduce the polishing time and cope with the shortage of skilled workers, robotic polishing technology has been investigated. This paper studies about vision system to measure surface defects that have been characterized to some level of surface roughness. The surface defects data have learned using artificial neural networks to give a decision in order to move the actuator of arm robot. Force and rotation time have chosen as output parameters of artificial neural networks. Results shows that although there is a considerable change in both parameter values acquired from vision data compared to real data, it is still possible to obtain surface defects characterization using vision sensor to a certain limit of accuracy. The overall results of this research would encourage further developments in this area to achieve robust computer vision based surface measurement systems for industrial robotic, especially in polishing process. Keywords: polishing robot, vision sensor, surface defects, and artificial neural networks

  16. Nutrient removal through autumn harvest of Phragmites australis and Thypha latifolia shoots in relation to nutrient loading in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Sylvia; Bouwman, Meike; Cevaal, Annechien; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy and feasibility of annual harvesting of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia shoots in autumn for nutrient removal was evaluated in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. Aboveground biomass and nutrient dynamics nutrient removal through harvest were studied in parallel ditches with stands of Phragmites or Typha that were mown in October during two successive years. The inflow rate of STP effluent to the ditches was experimentally varied, resulting in pairs of ditches with mean hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 0.3, 0.8, 2.3, and 9.3 days, corresponding to N and P mass loading rates of 122-4190 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 28.3-994 g P m(-2) yr(-1). Nitrogen and P removal efficiency by harvest of Phragmites and Typha shoots in October increased with increasing HRT, despite the opposite HRT effect on N and P standing stocks. This removal through harvest appeared to be useful in treatment wetlands with N and P mass loading rates lower than approximately 120 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 30 g P m(-2) yr(-1), corresponding to a HRT of roughly 9 days in the ditches of this wetland system. At the HRT of 9.3 days, the annual mass input to the ditches was reduced through the harvest by 7.0-11% and 4.5 -9.2% for N and P, respectively. At the higher nutrient mass loading rates, the nutrient removal through harvest was insignificant compared to the mass inputs. The vitality of Phragmites and Typha, measured as maximum aboveground biomass, was not affected by the annual cutting of the shoots in autumn over two years. The Typha stands yielded higher N and P removal efficiencies through shoot harvest than the Phragmites stands, which was largely the result of lower decreases in N and P standing stocks between August and October. This difference in nutrient standing stocks between the two species was caused by a combined effect of greater decreases in nutrient concentrations largely due to higher nutrient retranslocation efficiencies of

  17. The Impact of the Condenser on Cytogenetic Image Quality in Digital Microscope System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimizing operational parameters of the digital microscope system is an important technique to acquire high quality cytogenetic images and facilitate the process of karyotyping so that the efficiency and accuracy of diagnosis can be improved.

  18. OPTIMAL SYSNTHESIS PROCESSES OF LOW-TEMPERATURE CONDENSATION ASSOCIATED OIL GAS PLANT REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ostapenko; O. Yakovleva; M. Khmelniuk; Zimin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Design of modern high-efficient systems is a key priority for the Energy Sector of Ukraine. The cooling technological streams of gas and oil refineries, including air coolers, water cooling and refrigeration systems for specific refrigerants are the objectives of the present study. Improvement of the refrigeration unit with refrigerant separation into fractions is mandatory in order to increase cooling capacity, lowering the boiling point of coolant and increasing the coefficient of target hy...

  19. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  20. Troubleshooting vacuum systems steam turbine surface condensers and refinery vacuum towers

    CERN Document Server

    Lieberman, Norman P

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum systems are in wide spread use in the petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries and power generation plants. The existing texts on this subject are theoretical in nature and only deal with how the equipment functions when in good mechanical conditions, from the viewpoint of the equipment vendor.  In this much-anticipated volume, one of the most well-respected and prolific process engineers in the world takes on troubleshooting vacuum systems, and especially steam ejectors, an extremely complex and difficult subject that greatly effects the profitability of the majority of the world'

  1. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  2. The use of processes evaporation and condensation to provide a suitable operating environment of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolková, Zuzana; Holubčík, Michal; Malcho, Milan

    2016-06-01

    All electronic components which exhibit electrical conductor resistance, generates heat when electricity is passed (Joule - Lenz's Law). The generated heat is necessary to take into surrounding environment. To reduce the operating temperature of electronic components are used various types of cooling in electronic devices. The released heat is removed from the outside of the device in several ways, either alone or in combination. Intensification of cooling electronic components is in the use of heat transfer through phase changes. From the structural point of view it is important to create a cooling system which would be able to drain the waste heat converter for each mode of operation device. Another important criterion is the reliability of the cooling, and it is appropriate to choose cooling system, which would not contain moving elements. In this article, the issue tackled by the phase change in the heat pipe.

  3. EFFECTS OF CONDENSATION HEATING AND SURFACE FLUXES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SOUTH CHINA MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEM (MCS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Wei-guang; LI Jiang-nan; WANG An-yu; FENG Rui-quan; GU Zhi-ming; YAN Jing-hua

    2005-01-01

    A sensitive numerical simulation study is carried out to investigate the effects of condensation heating and surface fluxes on the development of a South China MCS that occurred during 23 - 24 May 1998.The results reveal the following: (1) Condensation heating plays an important role in the development of MCS. In every different stage, without condensation heating, MCS precipitation is significantly reduced, and quickly dissipates. (2) Condensation heating demonstrates most importantly during the early development stages of MCS vortex; as the vortex develops stronger, the condensation heating effects reduces. (3) By affecting the MCS development processes, condensation heating also influences the formation of MCS mesoscale environment structure features such as low-level jet (mLLJ), upper-level divergence. (4) By changing the antecedent environmental circulation, the surface fluxes also play an important role in the development of MCS. Because of the surface heating, pressure declines over the heavy rainfall and MCS happening regions, which results in the intensification of southerly flows from the ocean along the South China coastline areas, and leads to the enhancement of horizontal convergence and increase of vapor amount in the lower layer. All of these make the atmosphere more unstable and more favorable for the convection.

  4. A Condensed Introduction to the Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Mwaniki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in wind power penetration, at 456 GW as of June 2016, has resulted in more stringent grid codes which specify that the wind energy conversion systems (WECS must remain connected to the system during and after a grid fault and, furthermore, must offer grid support by providing reactive currents. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG WECS is a well-proven technology, having been in use in wind power generation for many years and having a large world market share due to its many merits. Newer technologies such as the direct drive gearless permanent magnet synchronous generator have come up to challenge its market share, but the large number of installed machines ensures that it remains of interest in the wind industry. This paper presents a concise introduction of the DFIG WECS covering its construction, operation, merits, demerits, modelling, control types, levels and strategies, faults and their proposed solutions, and, finally, simulation. Qualities for the optimal control strategy are then proposed. The paper is intended to cover major issues related to the DFIG WECS that are a must for an overview of the system and hence serve as an introduction especially for new entrants into this area of study.

  5. Photon Stimulated Desorption and the Effect of Cracking of Condensed Molecules in a Cryogenic Vacuum System

    CERN Document Server

    Anashin, V V; Gröbner, Oswald; Malyshev, O B

    2000-01-01

    The design of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) vacuum system requires a complete understanding of all processes which may affect the residual gas density in the cold bore of the 1.9 K cryomagnets. A wealth of data has been obtained which may be used to predict the residual gas density inside a cold vacuum system exposed to synchrotron radiation. In this study the effect of cracking of cryosorbed molecules by synchrotron radiation photons has been included. Cracking of the molecular species CO2 and CH4 has been observed in recent studies and these findings have been incorporated in a more detailed dynamic gas density model for the LHC. In this paper, we describe the relevant physical processes and the parameters required for a full evaluation. It is shown that the dominant gas species in the LHC vacuum system with its beam screen are H2 and CO. The important result of this study is that while the surface coverage of cryosorbed CH4 and CO2 molecules is limited due to cracking, the coverage of H2 and CO molecules...

  6. Polish-German bilingualism at school. A Polish perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulaczewska, Hanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the institutional frames for the acquisition of Polish literacy skills in Germany and the maintenance of Polish-German bilingualism after the repatriation of bilingual children to Poland. These processes are examined in the context of recent developments in the European domestic job market. While the European Union has placed proficiency in several languages among its educational objectives, and foreign languages have been made obligatory school subjects in all member countries, the potential advantages of internal European migrations for producing high-proficiency bilinguals are being ignored. Bilingualism resulting from migration and biculturalism enjoys little social prestige in the host countries. In Germany, there is significant regional variation in how school authorities react to challenges posed by the presence of minority languages. In many cases, the linguistic potential of many second-generation migrants and re-emigrants gets largely wasted because of lacking interest and incentives from German and Polish institutions alike.

  7. Modeling and simulation of evaporative condensation cooling water system for subway%地铁蒸发冷凝冷水系统建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超

    2016-01-01

    针对某地铁车站的空调水系统,描述系统中各主要组件的数学模型,在 EASY5平台上建立空调水系统仿真模型,将冷却塔系统与蒸发冷凝系统进行对比。结果表明:蒸发冷凝系统的COP 明显高于风冷系统,且系统动态响应更快,建立的仿真模型能够为蒸发冷凝冷水系统的模拟提供参考。%The mathematical model of the main components is described according to the air-conditioning water system for subway.The simulation model of air-conditioning water system is established based on EASY5 .The evaporative condensation system is compared with the cooling tower system.The results show that the COP of the evapora-tive condensation cooling water system is higher than that of the air cooling system and its dynamic response is faster.The simulation model can provide valuable reference for the simulation of evaporative condensation cooling water system.

  8. LOCA steam condensation loads in BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukita, Y.; Namatame, K.; Takeshita, I.; Shiba, M.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrodynamic loads induced in the BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment system during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) were investigated using a large scale test facility. The maximum-bounding loading conditions on the pressure suppression pool-boundary structures were defined by conducting experiments for a wide range of parameters. The maximum-bounding loads occurred when steam, with air concentration less than 1% in weight, was injected at moderate rates (approx. = 30 kg/m/sup 2/.s) into a low-temperature (below 310 K) pool. Such conditions are most likely to be encountered during LOCAs with intermediate break sizes.

  9. Duality methods in networks, computer science models, and disordered condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joseph Dan

    In this thesis, I explore lattice independent duality and systems to which it can be applied. I first demonstrate classical duality on models in an external field, including the Ising, Potts, and x -- y models, showing in particular how this modifies duality to be lattice independent and applicable to networks. I then present a novel application of duality on the boolean satsifiability problem, one of the most important problems in computational complexity, through mapping to a low temperature Ising model. This establishes the equivalence between boolean satisfiability and a problem of enumerating the positive solutions to a Diophantine system of equations. I continue by combining duality with a prominent tool for models on networks, belief propagation, deriving a new message passing procedure, dual belief propagation. In the final part of my thesis, I shift to propose and examine a semiclassical model, the two-component Coulomb glass model, which can explain the giant magnetoresistance peak present in disordered films near a superconductor-insulator transition as the effect of competition between single particle and localized pair transport. I numerically analyze the density of states and transport properties of this model.

  10. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, M. L.; Olesen, A. S.; Larsen, H. E.; Stubager, J.; Hanson, S. G.; Pedersen, T. F.; Pedersen, H. C.

    2016-04-01

    As a part of the work carried out on a project supported by the Danish council for technology and innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost and time consumption can become relatively large numbers in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, but then the object needs to be manually polished. During the polishing process the operator needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduces by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid complications during the casting process. In this work we present a method for measuring the RMS-values of the surface roughness while simultaneously determining the polishing direction. We are mainly interested in the RMS-values in the range from 0 - 100 nm, which corresponds to the finish categories of A1, A2 and A3. Based on simple intensity measurements we estimates the RMS-value of the surface roughness, and by using a sectioned annual photo-detector to collect the scattered light we can determine the direction of polishing and distinguish light scattered from random structures and light scattered from scratches.

  11. Experimental Studies for the VVER-440/213 Bubble Condenser System for Kola NPP at the Integral Test Facility BC V-213

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Blinkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of Tacis Project R2.01/99, which was running from 2003 to 2005, the bubble condenser system of Kola NPP (unit 3 was qualified at the integral test facility BC V-213. Three LB LOCA tests, two MSLB tests, and one SB LOCA test were performed. The appropriate test scenarios for BC V-213 test facility, modeling accidents in the Kola NPP unit 3, were determined with pretest calculations. Analysis of test results has shown that calculated initial conditions and test scenarios were properly reproduced in the tests. The detailed posttest analysis of the tests performed at BC V-213 test facility was aimed to validate the COCOSYS code for the calculation of thermohydraulic processes in the hermetic compartments and bubble condenser. After that the validated COCOSYS code was applied to NPP calculations for Kola NPP (unit 3. Results of Tacis R2.01/99 Project confirmed the bubble condenser functionality during large and small break LOCAs and MSLB accidents. Maximum loads were reached in the LB LOCA case. No condensation oscillations were observed.

  12. 地板辐射供冷结露问题的理论研究%Theory study on condensation problem of floor radiant cooling system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路诗奎; 张双迎

    2011-01-01

    In view of condensation problem of floor radiant cooling system, the factors affecting condensation are found out through researching condensation mechanism theoretically and discussing formation course and condition of dew. The relations among various factors including super-cooling degree, surface roughness, thickness of thermal boundary layer, floor surface temperature and formation course of dew are analyzed. The result shows that condensation can be prevented by some measures, including adopting material with low thermal conductivity and smooth surface, raising temperature of supplied water.%针对地板辐射供冷中出现的结露问题,通过对地板辐射供冷表面结露机理的理论研究,讨论液滴形成的过程和条件,研究系统中影响结露的因素,分析了过冷度、壁面粗糙度、热边界层厚度、地板表面温度等因素与液滴形成的关系.理论研究结果表明:采用导热系数小、表面光滑的材料,增加入水温度,增大管间距,将辐射供冷与其他送风系统结合使用等方法可以防止结露.

  13. Magnetorheology of xanthan-gum-coated soft magnetic carbonyl iron microspheres and their polishing characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seung Hyuk; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Lee, Jung Won; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Myeong Woo

    2013-06-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are colloidal suspensions of soft magnetic particles dispersed in a non-magnetic liquid. Among their applications, MR polishing has attracted considerable attention owing to its smart control of the polishing characteristics for dedicated microelectromechanical system applications. To improve the polishing characteristics of MR fluids, we fabricated carbonyl iron (CI) microspheres coated with xanthan gum (XG) by using a solvent casting method. The morphologies and densities of both pure CI and CI/XG particles were characterized using a scanning electron microscope and a pycnometer, respectively. In addition, the rheological characteristics of the MR fluids under various applied magnetic field strengths were examined using a rotational rheometer. The MR polishing characteristics were conducted using an MR polishing machine to examine the surface roughness and the material removal by MR polishing with added nano-ceria slurry abrasives.

  14. Polishing of dental porcelain by polycrystalline diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Sato, Hideaki; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Hojo, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) exhibits excellent abrasive characteristics and is commonly used as loose grains for precision machining of hard ceramics and other materials that are difficult to grind and polish. In the present study, we investigated using bonded PCD for polishing dental porcelain, for which a lustrous surface is difficult to obtain by polishing. We compared the surface texture and characteristics of dental porcelain after polishing with bonded PCD with that obtained using bonded monocrystalline diamond (MCD), which is commonly used for this purpose. Polishing was performed at various pressures and rotational speeds on a custom-built polishing apparatus using bonded PCD or MCD with grain sizes of 3.92 μm on specimens consisting of VITA Omega 900 dentin porcelain after firing and then glazing to a specified surface roughness. The surface roughness of the polished porcelain and the abrasion quantity in terms of its polishing depth were measured, and its surface texture and characteristics were investigated. At low polishing pressures, PCD yielded a finer polished surface than MCD. The polishing depth after polishing for 20-30 min was approximately 2-3 μm with PCD and 1-2 μm with MCD. The polished surface was more uniform and smooth with PCD than with MCD.

  15. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht;

    2016-01-01

    needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...... complications during the casting process. In this work we present a method for measuring the RMS-values of the surface roughness while simultaneously determining the polishing direction. We are mainly interested in the RMS-values in the range from 0 – 100 nm, which corresponds to the finish categories of A1, A2...... and A3 (Finishing guide, Bales). Based on simple intensity measurements, we estimate the RMS-value of the surface roughness, and by using a sectioned annually shaped photo-detector to collect the scattered light, we can determine the direction of polishing and distinguish light scattered from random...

  16. Graphite Composite Panel Polishing Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Strojny, Carl; Budinoff, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The use of high-strength, lightweight composites for the fixture is the novel feature of this innovation. The main advantage is the light weight and high stiffness-to-mass ratio relative to aluminum. Meter-class optics require support during the grinding/polishing process with large tools. The use of aluminum as a polishing fixture is standard, with pitch providing a compliant layer to allow support without deformation. Unfortunately, with meter-scale optics, a meter-scale fixture weighs over 120 lb (.55 kg) and may distort the optics being fabricated by loading the mirror and/or tool used in fabrication. The use of composite structures that are lightweight yet stiff allows standard techniques to be used while providing for a decrease in fixture weight by almost 70 percent. Mounts classically used to support large mirrors during fabrication are especially heavy and difficult to handle. The mount must be especially stiff to avoid deformation during the optical fabrication process, where a very large and heavy lap often can distort the mount and optic being fabricated. If the optic is placed on top of the lapping tool, the weight of the optic and the fixture can distort the lap. Fixtures to support the mirror during fabrication are often very large plates of aluminum, often 2 in. (.5 cm) or more in thickness and weight upwards of 150 lb (68 kg). With the addition of a backing material such as pitch and the mirror itself, the assembly can often weigh over 250 lb (.113 kg) for a meter-class optic. This innovation is the use of a lightweight graphite panel with an aluminum honeycomb core for use as the polishing fixture. These materials have been used in the aerospace industry as structural members due to their light weight and high stiffness. The grinding polishing fixture consists of the graphite composite panel, fittings, and fixtures to allow interface to the polishing machine, and introduction of pitch buttons to support the optic under fabrication. In its

  17. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  18. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  19. Effect of polishing on the microleakage of three different restorative materials: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Sengupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of polishing systems on the microleakage of three different restorative materials (Ketac Molar Easymix, Ketac N100 and Filtek P90. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared at the cemento-enamel junction of 60 freshly extracted premolars. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into three groups and restored with the three materials. The restored teeth were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 1 week. The restored teeth were then divided into two subgroups (polished and not polished of 10. Finishing and polishing of the polished group was done using the Sof-Lex polishing system. Furthermore, all the restorations were subjected to dye penetration testing. Results: Results showed that maximum microleakage was observed for the not polished group of Filtek P90 and least levels of microleakage were seen for the polished group of Ketac Molar Easymix. Conclusion: There was a significant difference seen when Ketac Molar Easymix was compared with Ketac N100 and Filtek P90 in terms of the extent of microleakage exhibited on polishing of the three materials; with the former exhibiting the least microleakage scores.

  20. Effect of polishing on the microleakage of three different restorative materials: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Arnab; Gupta, Anil; Dagur, Renu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of polishing systems on the microleakage of three different restorative materials (Ketac Molar Easymix, Ketac N100 and Filtek P90). Class V cavities were prepared at the cemento-enamel junction of 60 freshly extracted premolars. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into three groups and restored with the three materials. The restored teeth were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 1 week. The restored teeth were then divided into two subgroups (polished and not polished) of 10. Finishing and polishing of the polished group was done using the Sof-Lex polishing system. Furthermore, all the restorations were subjected to dye penetration testing. Results showed that maximum microleakage was observed for the not polished group of Filtek P90 and least levels of microleakage were seen for the polished group of Ketac Molar Easymix. There was a significant difference seen when Ketac Molar Easymix was compared with Ketac N100 and Filtek P90 in terms of the extent of microleakage exhibited on polishing of the three materials; with the former exhibiting the least microleakage scores.

  1. Semiological analysis of Polish theater posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Nikolić; Uroš Nedeljković

    2016-01-01

    Through the application of semiological analysis to theater posters made by two Polish authors, the paper uncovers signs, meanings, codes and specifics of the „Polish school of poster-making“ and contemporary Polish posters. Aside from this, I suggest a methodological framework for studying the issue of coding and shaping a theater poster as a culturally specific form of visual communication. The aesthetic and semiotic outlook of the Polish theater posters which were chosen is analyzed using ...

  2. Polish and European SST Assets: the Solaris-Panoptes Global Network of Robotic Telescopes and the Borowiec Satellite Laser Ranging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konacki, M.; Lejba, P.; Sybilski, P.; Pawłaszek, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Suchodolski, T.; Litwicki, M.; Kolb, U.; Burwitz, V.; Baader, J.; Groot, P.; Bloemen, S.; Ratajczak, M.; Helminiak, K.; Borek, R.; Chodosiewicz, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present the assets of the Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Space Research Center (both of the Polish Academy of Sciences), two Polish companies Sybilla Technologies, Cillium Engineering and a non-profit research foundation Baltic Institute of Technology. These assets are enhanced by telescopes belonging to The Open University (UK), the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and in the future the Radboud University. They consist of the Solaris-Panoptes global network of optical robotic telescopes and the satellite laser ranging station in Borowiec, Poland. These assets will contribute to the Polish and European Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) program. The Solaris component is composed of four autonomous observatories in the Southern Hemisphere. Solaris nodes are located at the South African Astronomical Observatory (Solaris-1 and Solaris-2), Siding Spring Observatory, Australia (Solaris-3) and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, Argentina (Solaris-4). They are equipped with 0.5-m telescopes on ASA DDM-160 direct drive mounts, Andor iKon-L cameras and housed in 3.5-m Baader Planetarium (BP) clamshell domes. The Panoptes component is a network of telescopes operated by software from Sybilla Technologies. It currently consists of 4 telescopes at three locations, all on GM4000 mounts. One 0.36-m (Panoptes-COAST, STL- 1001E camera, 3.5 BP clamshell dome) and one 0.43-m (Panoptes-PIRATE, FLI 16803 camera, 4.5-m BP clamshell dome, with planned exchange to 0.63-m) telescope are located at the Teide Observatory (Tenerfie, Canary Islands), one 0.6-m (Panoptes-COG, SBIG STX 16803 camera, 4.5-m BP clamshell dome) telescope in Garching, Germany and one 0.5-m (Panoptes-MAM, FLI 16803 camera, 4.5-m BP slit dome) in Mammendorf, Germany. Panoptes-COAST and Panoptes-PIRATE are owned by The Open University (UK). Panoptes-COG is owned by the Max Planck Institute

  3. The Great Époque of the Consumption of Imported Broadcasts. West European Television Channels and Polish Audiences during the System Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Wasiak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how Polish audiences “domesticated” West European television content available with satellite dishes and semi legal cable TVs during the turnover of the 1980s and 1990s. Based on analysis of viewers’ memoirs and content of magazines dedicated to satellite television, this article discusses how Poles considered channels available with Astra satellite as an attractive entertainment juxtaposed with dull national broadcaster TVP. As this article shows, they primarily “domesticated” German late night erotic shows symbolized by Tutti Frutti and music video available with MTV Europe.

  4. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  5. Predicting the influence of compressibility and thermal and flow distribution asymmetry on the frequency-response characteristics of multitube two-phase condensing flow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobus, C.J.; Wedekind, G.L.; Bhatt, B.L.

    2000-02-01

    An equivalent single-tube model concept was extended to predict the frequency-response characteristics of multitube two-phase condensing flow systems, complete with the ability to predict the influence of compressibility and thermal and flow distribution asymmetry. The predictive capability of the equivalent single-tube model was verified experimentally with extensive data that encompassed a three-order-of-magnitude range of frequencies, and a wide range of operating parameters.

  6. Substrate preparation by contactless mechanochemical polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, S.; Lachish, U.; El-Hanany, U.

    1985-10-01

    A simple, yet effective, polishing technique for substrate preparation is presented. It is contactless chemical polish which does not introduce any defects into the substrate during the process. The method can be readily adopted in all cases where chemical polishing is practical for substrate preparation. Results similar to those obtained by the more sophisticated hydroplaning method can be achieved.

  7. New examples of small Polish structures

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We answer some questions from a paper of Krupi\\'nski by giving suitable examples of small Polish structures. First, we present a class of small Polish group structures without generic elements. Next, we construct a first example of a small non-zero-dimensional Polish $G$-group.

  8. An Investigation on a Tin Fixed Abrasive Polishing Pad with Phyllotactic Pattern for Polishing Wafer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玉山; 刘电飞; 寇智慧

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the polishing ability of polishing pads, a kind of polishing pad with the tin fixed abrasive blocks, which are arranged based on the phyllotaxis theory of biology, was designed and fabricated by the use of electroplating technology, and also its polishing ability for JGS-2 wafer was investigated by polishing experiments. The research resuits show that the phyllotactic parameters of the polishing pad influence the arrangement density of the tin fixed abrasive blocks, the polishing pad with phyllotactic pattern is feasibly fabricated by the use of electroplating technology, and the good polishing result can be obtained by using the polishing pad with pbyllotactic pattern to polish a wafer when the diameter D of the tin fixed abrasive block is between Φ. 3 mm and Φ1. 4 mm, and the phyllotactic coefficient k between 1.0 and 1.1, respectively.

  9. [Effect of infiltration technique and polishing on the roughness of artificial carious enamel surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chang-qing; Dou, Guo-wen; Deng, Jing; Geng, Guo-liang; Sun, Pei; Cao, Ying-xiu

    2013-08-01

    To study the surface roughness of early carious lesions which were treated with resin infiltration and polished with different materials, and to provide reference for selection of appropriate polishing system. Fifty-four labial surface specimens of mandibular incisors were created out of bovine teeth. They were randomly divided into 6 groups. One group was sound enamel group. Another group was early enamel carious group. Other specimens were treated with a partially saturated acidic buffer solution for preparation of initial artificial enamel caries. These initial artificial enamel caries were treated with resin infiltration. Then they were randomly divided into 4 groups according to polishing or not and type of polishing tool (rubber cups, polishing discs, HiLuster polishers). The surface roughness of specimens in all groups were measured with Form Talysurf PGI 800. Arithmetical mean deviation of the assessed profile (Ra) and the maximum height of the profile(Rz) were used as measurement parameter. SPSS 17.0 software package was used for data analysis. Comparison of sound enamel surfaces and early carious surfaces revealed no significant difference in surface roughness(P>0.05), but the mean value of the latter one was higher. After infiltration, the roughness of surfaces without polishing was significantly higher than that of early carious surfaces(P0.05). The roughness of polishing groups after infiltration was significantly smaller than that of group without polished after infiltration (Pcarious surfaces revealed no significant difference in surface roughness (P>0.05). After early caries being treated with infiltration technique, the roughness of teeth surfaces increases significantly. Those surfaces should be polished. Rubber cup and polishing discs with smaller granularity are more effective and reasonable as the surface polishing materials.

  10. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  11. Development of Application of RE Polishing Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xueshun; Huang Shaodong; Yang Guosheng

    2004-01-01

    The manufacturing method and functions of the RE polishing powder and comparation of the current situation of its production and application home and abroad were introduced.By analyzing the development of the liquid crystal (plate) display, the wide application of the RE polishing powder in the field of the liquid crystal display and predicts the development direction of the market of the RE polishing powder was presented.In addition, the development trends of the RE polishing powder industry and forecasts the application prospect of the RE polishing powder was analyzed.

  12. Information Competencies and Their Implementation in the Educational Process of Polish Universities Exploratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonakiewicz-Kolosowska, Anna; Socik, Iwona; Gajewska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the development and perspectives of improving the quality of Information Literacy programmes in Polish technical universities, considering the Bologna Process and the general conditions of the Polish higher education system. The survey conducted in selected technical and medical universities provided an overview of changes…

  13. The Ranking of Global Environmental Issues and Problems by Polish Secondary Students and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael; Trojok, Tomasz; Norwisz, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Identifies and discusses Polish student and teacher priorities of Bybee's 12 environmental problems in two cities in Katowice Province. Provides pertinent background on the Polish educational system. Presents reasons why the current science teaching model must be changed if the science curriculum is to provide more understanding of Bybee's 12…

  14. Condensed Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kabe, Koustubh

    2010-01-01

    A spin (dependent) system treatment of gravity is adopted akin to the Sen-Ashtekar treatment. Time is reinserted into the space ``fluid'' at the quantum Level. This time - the Lorentzian one- is shown to be a vorticity of a ``fluid particle'' of the space and the effect is integrated over all the fluid particles to incorporate time in quantum gravity. This spacetime is viewed as a fluid of future light cones called the SU(2) dipoles of causality here in the paper.The future light cone structure is soldered internally to the new variables derived in this paper to accomodate a background free physics of quantum strings. The emergence of spacetime is shown to be a first order phase transition and that of separation of gravity from the unified field to be a second order phase transition. For the former case the cosmic time is chosen as the order parameter and for the latter case the angular momentum is chosen as the order parameter. A quantum blackhole thus nucleates at transition temperature which is the Planck ...

  15. Lorentz violation and Condensed Matter Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaib, Muhammad Adeel

    2014-01-01

    We present heuristic arguments that hint to a possible connection of Lorentz violation with observed phenomenon in condensed matter physics. Various references from condensed matter literature are cited where operators in the Standard Model Extension (SME) appear to be enhanced. Based on this we propose that, in the non-relativistic limit, Lorentz violation in the context of the SME exhibits itself in various condensed matter systems.

  16. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  17. Use of sorption technology for treatment of humidity condensate for potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjarapu, Sundara R. M.; Symons, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    This research focused on the testing of the original potable water processor aboard Space Station Freedom that was to produce potable water from the humidity condensate and additional water generated by carbon dioxide reduction. Humidity condensate was simulated by an influent water model 'Ersatz'. The humidity condensate was treated with multifiltration (MF) beds that consisted of a train of sorption beds (referred to as 'Unibed') designed to remove specific contaminants. For the complete simulated MF system runs tested for 100 bed volumes (BV) (volume processed/total column volume), 0.6 percent of the TOC was removed by the SAC/IRN 77 (Strong Acid Cation exchange resin), 39.6 percent of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed by the WBA/IRA 68 (Weak Base Anion exchange resin), 13.2 percent of the TOC was removed by activated carbon adsorption (580-26), and the remaining sorbent media acted as polishing units to remove an additional 1.6 percent of the TOC at steady state. At steady state, 45 percent of the influent TOC passed through the MF bed.

  18. Condensation in insulated homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, R A

    1978-05-28

    A research proposal on condensation in insulated homes is presented. Information is provided on: justification for condensation control; previous work and present outlook (good vapor barrier, condensation and retrofit insulation, vapor barrier decreases condensation, brick-veneer walls, condensation in stress-skin panels, air-conditioned buildings, retrofitting for conservation, study on mobile homes, high indoor relative humidity, report on various homes); and procedure (after funding has been secured). Measures are briefly described on opening walls, testing measures, and retrofitting procedures. An extensive bibliography and additional informative citations are included. (MCW)

  19. Polish as a Foreign Language: New Context, Regulations and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popławska Anna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the developments in Poland after the collapse of communism in 1989 from the point of view of foreign language teaching, including a swift reorientation and transition from a public school system with Russian as the main foreign language, to a diversified language teaching market focused on teaching English and other languages. A particular stress is placed on a relatively new phenomenon, being an increased demand and new opportunities for teaching Polish as a foreign language to be further promoted as a result of anticipated amendments to legal regulations governing the status and certification of the Polish language.

  20. Bicomponent Condensation Heat Transfer Experiment System%双组份凝结换热实验系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔春华; 胡申华; 马小晶

    2013-01-01

    正系统特征的双组份混合工质,具有Marangoni效应,即出现类似珠状凝结,提高传热效率,可减少换热器的金属消耗和减小其尺寸.本项目研制的双组份凝结换热实验台,通过改变蒸汽浓度、压力和流速等因素,研究了对具有正系统特征的二元混合工质的水平管外凝结换热的特性.%Binary mixture of positive Systems,with Marangoni effect,which appears similar to dropwise condensation,improves the heat transfer efficiency,can reduce the heat exchanger metal consumption and reduce its size.This project developed bicomponent condensation heat transfer experiment,by varying the concentration of steam pressure and flow,including factors such as,for experiment on Marangoni condensation of binary mixtures was made on non-isothermal horizontal surface.

  1. The physics of exciton-polariton condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Lagoudakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 researchers created the first polariton Bose-Einstein condensate at 19K in the solid state. Being inherently open quantum systems, polariton condensates open a window into the unpredictable world of physics beyond the “fifth state of matter”: the limited lifetime of polaritons renders polariton condensates out-of-equilibrium and provides a fertile test-bed for non-equilibrium physics. This book presents an experimental investigation into exciting features arising from this non-equilibrium behavior. Through careful experimentation, the author demonstrates the ability of polaritons to synchronize and create a single energy delocalized condensate. Under certain disorder and excitation conditions the complete opposite case of coexisting spatially overlapping condensates may be observed. The author provides the first demonstration of quantized vortices in polariton condensates and the first observation of fractional vortices with full phase and amplitude characterization. Finally, this book investigate...

  2. CMS brochure (Polish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    CMS is the heaviest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. A multi-purpose detector, CMS is composed of several systems built around a powerful superconducting magnet.

  3. Polishing and toothbrushing alters the surface roughness and gloss of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface roughness and gloss of composite resins after using two polishing systems and toothbrushing. Six composite resins (Durafill VS, Filtek Z250, Filtek Z350 XT, Kalore, Venus Diamond, and Venus Pearl) were evaluated after polishing with two polishing systems (Sof-Lex, Venus Supra) and after toothbrushing up to 40,000 cycles. Surface roughness (Ra) and gloss were determined for each composite resin group (n=6) after silicon carbide paper grinding, polishing, and toothbrushing. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences in both Ra and gloss between measuring stages for the composite resins tested, except Venus Pearl, which showed significant differences only in gloss. After polishing, the Filtek Z350 XT, Kalore, and Venus Diamond showed significant increases in Ra, while all composite resin groups except the Filtek Z350 XT and Durafill VS with Sof-Lex showed increases in gloss. After toothbrushing, all composite resin demonstrated increases in Ra and decreases in gloss.

  4. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  5. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  6. Research progress of control of condensate depression for condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liang, Run; Li, Fengyu

    2017-08-01

    It is introduced that significance and structure of the condensate depression control system. In accordance with controller devised procedure, we analyze and elaborate how to construct the lumped parameter and dynamic mathematical model which possesses distinct physics significance. Neural network model being called black-box model is also introduced. We analyze and contrast the control technique of condensate depression as conventional PI control, fuzzy PI control and fuzzy control. It is indicated that if the controller of condensate depression were devised inappropriate, while the steam discharged of turbine varying by a large margin, would result in the rotation rate of cooling water circulating pump accelerating at a great lick even to trigger the galloping danger which is less impressive for the units operating safely.

  7. ZERODUR for stress mirror polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Stress mirror polishing is considered as one of several polishing technologies for the generation of the aspherical shaped primary mirror segments of the thirty meter telescope (TMT). For stress mirror polishing it is essential to precisely know the elastic response of glass ceramic substrate materials under a given deformation load. In the past it was experimentally shown that glass ceramics do not respond instantaneously to loading and unloading conditions, this effect was called "delayed elasticity." Recently SCHOTT has shown that it is possible to use a model to predict the characteristic thermal expansion behaviour of individual ZERODUR® batches for a given temperature profile. A similar approach will be used to predict the delayed elastic behavior of ZERODUR® under time dependent loads. In this presentation the delayed elasticity effect of ZERODUR® is reviewed. The delayed elastic response of the material to load conditions is shown and discussed. First results of a model approach based on experimental results and tools that have been built up for the modelling of the delayed elasticity effect of ZERODUR® will be presented.

  8. Polariton condensates at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Thierry; Brimont, Christelle

    2016-10-01

    We review the recent developments of the polariton physics in microcavities featuring the exciton-photon strong coupling at room temperature, and leading to the achievement of room-temperature polariton condensates. Such cavities embed active layers with robust excitons that present a large binding energy and a large oscillator strength, i.e. wide bandgap inorganic or organic semiconductors, or organic molecules. These various systems are compared, in terms of figures of merit and of common features related to their strong oscillator strength. The various demonstrations of polariton laser are compared, as well as their condensation phase diagrams. The room-temperature operation indeed allows a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic and out-of-equilibrium regimes of the condensation process. The crucial role of the spatial dynamics of the condensate formation is discussed, as well as the debated issue of the mechanism of stimulated relaxation from the reservoir to the condensate under non-resonant excitation. Finally the prospects of polariton devices are presented.

  9. Comparison of Methane Drainage Methods Used in Polish Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Borowski, Marek; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkień, Justyna; Korzec, Marek

    2014-10-01

    Methane drainage is used in Polish coal mines in order to reduce mine methane emissions as well as to keep methane concentration in mine workings at safe levels. This article describes methods of methane drainage during mining used in Polish coal mines. The first method involves drilling boreholes from tailgate roadway to an unstressed zone in roof or floor layers of a mined seam. It is the main method used in Polish mining, where both the location of drilled boreholes as well as their parameters are dependent on mining and ventilation systems of longwalls. The second method is based on drilling overlying drainage galleries in seams situated under or over the mined seam. This article compares these methods with regard to their effectiveness under mining conditions in Polish mines. High effectiveness of methane drainage of longwalls with different ventilation and methane drainage systems has been proven. The highest effectiveness of methane drainage has been observed for the system with overlying drainage gallery and with the parallel tailgate roadways. In case of classic U ventilation system of longwall panel, boreholes drilled from the tailgate roadway behind the longwall front are lost.

  10. Diamond turning and polishing tests on new RSP aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R. ter; Haan, M. de; Gubbels, G.P.H.; Senden, R.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Hoogstrate, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    For years now conventional aluminium 6061 T6 has widely been used for mirrors in astronomical instruments, being diamond turned or since a few years also being optically polished. This allows the development of optical systems that can be tested and operated at any temperature, without being affecte

  11. Stress polishing demonstrator for ELT M1 segments and industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Bernard, Anaïs.; Laslandes, Marie; Floriot, Johan; Dufour, Thibaut; Fappani, Denis; Combes, Jean Marc; Ferrari, Marc

    2014-07-01

    After two years of research and development under ESO support, LAM and Thales SESO present the results of their experiment for the fast and accurate polishing under stress of ELT 1.5 meter segments as well as the industrialization approach for mass production. Based on stress polishing, this manufacturing method requires the conception of a warping harness able to generate extremely accurate bending of the optical surface of the segments during the polishing. The conception of the warping harness is based on finite element analysis and allowed a fine tuning of each geometrical parameter of the system in order to fit an error budget of 25nm RMS over 300μm of bending peak to valley. The optimisation approach uses the simulated influence functions to extract the system eigenmodes and characterise the performance. The same approach is used for the full characterisation of the system itself. The warping harness has been manufactured, integrated and assembled with the Zerodur 1.5 meter segment on the LAM 2.5meter POLARIS polishing facility. The experiment consists in a cross check of optical and mechanical measurements of the mirrors bending in order to develop a blind process, ie to bypass the optical measurement during the final industrial process. This article describes the optical and mechanical measurements, the influence functions and eigenmodes of the system and the full performance characterisation of the warping harness.

  12. Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.

    2002-01-01

    A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.

  13. Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willmann, L

    1999-01-01

    The recent creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of atomic hydrogen has added a new system to this exciting field, The differences between hydrogen and the alkali metal atoms require other techniques for the initial trapping and cooling of the atoms and the subsequent detection of the condensate. T

  14. Effect of CEFR Condenser Pressure on Thermal Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Tong-wei; ZHANG; Huan-qi

    2012-01-01

    <正>China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) use two horizontal dual-flow condensers, circulating watersystem and vacuum system using fixed-speed pumps, therefore, thermal efficiency depends largely on thelevel of condenser pressure.

  15. Mathematical modelling of a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Weinell, Claus Erik; Pedersen, M. S.;

    2002-01-01

    A Fundamental mathematical model for a self-polishing antifouling paint was used to conduct a parameter study. The aims were to show how a mathematical model can reduce the amount of experimental work needed to estimate the behaviour of self-polishing antifouling paints at different conditions......, and to suggest ways of controlling biocide release rates. A case study with an antifouling paint based on the well-known tributyltin self-polishing copolymer system showed that the rate of paint polishing was influenced, to various degrees, by the following parameters: seawater pH and concentration of Na......Cl, pigment particle size. pigment volume concentration of the paint, the rate of pigment dissolution, and the pore size distribution of the leached layer. The modelling approach can be applied to any type of self-polishing antifouling paint provided that kinetic, solubility and diffusivity data are available...

  16. An Overview of Polish Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech J. Cynarski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain the revival of Polish martial arts from the perspectives of cultural sociology, the sciences of physical culture, and the humanistic theory of martial arts. The Polish Martial Arts (Polskie Sztuki Walki are a subject still requiring serious scientific examination, even in Poland. There are few works concerning the history of Polish weapons, and most only describe techniques for wielding specific types of edged weapons. Nevertheless, there is a large group of enthusiasts trying to restore and cultivate the old Polish tradition, a tradition with heavy emphasis on the art of fencing. The author knows many of the people and facts presented here, from personal observation and from direct participation in these arts. As a disciple of the late Master Yoshio Sugino (10th-dan Kobudo Katori Shinto-ryu, he fought against the Polish saber champion, and he has taken part in joint exhibitions of Polish and Japanese fencing.

  17. Coal prep in Brazil: the Polish approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilli, C.B.

    1988-02-01

    With one exception, all coal mined in Brazil is washed at the pit head because of its high dirt content. Since the early 1970s five complete coal preparation plants have been designed and constructed by a consortium, using Polish technology. Among the changes effected by the Polish engineers was the introduction of Polish designed equipment. These have led to several small modifications on the usual flowsheet design, which have increased recoveries. 4 figs.

  18. Polish-Chinese Economic Relations after Polish Accession to European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinowska, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analize polish-chinese economic relations after polish accession to the European Union structures. Studies carried out in the first part of the article concern trade rates between the two countries. Results show that polish import from China exceed export. The negative trends persist for many years and are continually deepening. From the geographical side, polish import from China flows mainly from the east coast part of China including Peking an...

  19. Laser polishing of niobium for SRF applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang; Klopf, J. Michael [JLAB; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Kelley, Michael [W& M

    2013-09-01

    Smooth interior surfaces are desired for niobium SRF cavities, now obtained by buffered chemical polish (BCP) and/or electropolish (EP). Laser polishing is a potential alternative, having advantages of speed, freedom from chemistry and in-process inspection. Here we show that laser polishing can produce smooth topography with Power Spectral Density (PSD) measurements similar to that obtained by EP. We studied the influence of the laser power density and laser beam raster rate on the surface topography. These two factors need to be combined carefully to smooth the surface without damaging it. Computational modeling was used to simulate the surface temperature and explain the mechanism of laser polishing.

  20. Polish in the light of grammaticalization theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Hansen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish in the light of grammaticalization theory The paper is concerned with grammaticalization, a type of language change whereby lexical items, in specifi contexts, come to serve grammatical functions, and grammatical items acquire new grammatical functions. The aim is twofold: to shed light at the main properties of grammaticalization, and to demonstrate its applicability to Polish data. Some prominent examples in Polish are discussed: the grammaticalization of modals, imperative and avertive constructions. The paper closes with a non-exhaustive list of leads for further research into grammaticalization in Polish.

  1. When does lasing become a condensation phenomenon?

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    We present a generic classical light condensation (LC) phenomenon in linear photonic mode systems, such as cw laser cavities, in a noisy environment (spontaneous emission, etc.), based on weighting the modes in a loss-gain scale rather than in photon energy. It is characterized by a sharp transition from multi- to single-mode oscillation. The study uses a linear multivariate Langevin formulation which gives a mode occupation hierarchy that functions like Bose-Einstein statistics. We find that condensation occurs when the spectral filtering has near the lowest loss mode a power law dependence with exponent smaller than 1. We then discuss how and when condensation occurs in photon systems, how it relates to lasing, and the difficulties to observe regular photon Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in laser cavities. We raise the possibility that recent experiments on photon condensation in optical cavities fall in a classical LC or lasing category rather than being a thermal-quantum BEC phenomenon.

  2. Evaluation of one-step micro polishers for residual resin removal after debonding on fluorosed teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmalatha Challa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of one step micro polishers for residual resin removal on fluorosed teeth using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Methods and Material: 55 teeth with mild to moderate fluorosis were selected with five teeth as control. Metal brackets were bonded onto 50 teeth which were divided into 5 groups. The finishing and polishing methods which were tested include tungsten carbide burs (TCB, multistep finishing system (Sof-Lex, one step polishers (PoGo and combination of TCB with multistep and one step polishing systems. After resin removal, all the samples were examined under SEM for assessment of the enamel surface. Results: The enamel surface was closest to untouched enamel in samples finished with the PoGo one step polishers followed by Sof-Lex multistep finishing system. However, they took the longest time to finish. TCB required the shortest time for residual resin removal. Conclusions: All polishing systems produce a certain degree of damage to the enamel surface with the smoothest surface being produced by one step polishers on fluorosed teeth.

  3. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  4. An in vitro study to identify a ceramic polishing protocol effecting smoothness superior to glazed surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjuran, Noxy George; Sreelal, T

    2014-09-01

    Polishing is taken up as an alternative to reglazing after adjustments of glazed ceramic prosthesis. An in vitro study was carried out to evaluate three different ceramic polishing systems and their combinations to identify a method that would achieve surface smoothness superior to the glazed surface. 77 glazed feldspathic porcelain disc surfaces, of diameter 12.5 mm and thickness 2 mm were constituted into seven groups of 11 specimen surfaces each. The glazed surfaces in the first group served as control (C). They were not subjected to deglazing or polishing. The remaining 66 surfaces underwent deglazing. The deglazed surfaces in the second group (D) were retained as such and did not undergo polishing. The deglazed surfaces in the third group (Wh), were polished using a polishing wheel (CeraMaster). In the fourth group (K), an adjustment kit (Porcelain Adjustment kit) was used for polishing the deglazed surfaces. The fifth group (Wx) was polished with diamond particle-impregnated wax (Dura-Polish Dia). In all these three groups, polishing was done for 40 s. The deglazed surfaces of the sixth group (WhWx) were polished initially with polishing wheel for 40 s and then with diamond particle-impregnated wax for 40 s. In the seventh group (KWx), the deglazed surfaces were polished with an adjustment kit (Porcelain Adjustment kit) for 40 s followed by diamond particle-impregnated wax (Dura-Polish Dia) for 40 s. In the sixth and seventh groups, the total polishing time was 80 s each. From each group, one specimen was set aside for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The remaining ten specimens in each group underwent colorimetry and profilometry. Colorimeter (Minolta CR-200b ChromaMeter; Minolta, Osaka, Japan) was used to measure parameters according to CIE L*a*b* colour system and colour difference (ΔE) between control and other groups were calculated. Profilometer (Talysurf CLI 2000) was used to measure the surface roughness (Ra). The data were statistically

  5. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  6. SELECTED FEATURES OF POLISH FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Spychalski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research carried out among farm owners in Wielkopolskie voivodeship referring to selected features of social capital. The author identifies and estimates impact of some socio-professional factors on social capital quality and derives statistical conclusion. As a result there is a list of economic policy measures facilitating rural areas development in this aspect. The level of education, civic activity and tendency for collective activity are main conditions of social capital quality in Polish rural areas.

  7. Condensation Energy of a Spacetime Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto

    2010-01-01

    Starting from an analogy between the Planck-Einstein scale and the dual length scales in Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, and assuming that space-time is a condensate of neutral fermionic particles with Planck mass, we derive the baryonic mass of the universe. In that theoretical framework baryonic matter appears to be associated with the condensation energy gained by spacetime in the transition from its normal (symetric) to its (less symetric) superconducting-like phase. It is shown however that the critical transition temperature cannot be the Planck temperature. Thus leaving open the enigma of the microscopic description of spacetime at quantum level.

  8. Magnetofermionic condensate in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, L. V.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Dickmann, S.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Schmult, S.

    2016-11-01

    Coherent condensate states of particles obeying either Bose or Fermi statistics are in the focus of interest in modern physics. Here we report on condensation of collective excitations with Bose statistics, cyclotron magnetoexcitons, in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the dense non-equilibrium ensemble of long-lived triplet magnetoexcitons exhibits both a drastic reduction in the viscosity and a steep enhancement in the response to the external electromagnetic field. The observed effects are related to formation of a super-absorbing state interacting coherently with the electromagnetic field. Simultaneously, the electrons below the Fermi level form a super-emitting state. The effects are explicable from the viewpoint of a coherent condensate phase in a non-equilibrium system of two-dimensional fermions with a fully quantized energy spectrum. The condensation occurs in the space of vectors of magnetic translations, a property providing a completely new landscape for future physical investigations.

  9. Implementation of Sub-Cooling of Cryogenic Propellants by Injection of Non-condensing Gas to the Generalized Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Daniel J.; Majumdar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants are readily heated when used. This poses a problem for rocket engine efficiency and effective boot-strapping of the engine, as seen in the "hot" LOX (Liquid Oxygen) problem on the S-1 stage of the Saturn vehicle. In order to remedy this issue, cryogenic fluids were found to be sub-cooled by injection of a warm non-condensing gas. Experimental results show that the mechanism behind the sub-cooling is evaporative cooling. It has been shown that a sub-cooled temperature difference of approximately 13 deg F below saturation temperature [1]. The phenomenon of sub-cooling of cryogenic propellants by a non-condensing gas is not readily available with the General Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) [2]. GFSSP is a thermal-fluid program used to analyze a wide variety of systems that are directly impacted by thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. In order to model this phenomenon, additional capabilities had to be added to GFSSP in the form of a FORTRAN coded sub-routine to calculate the temperature of the sub-cooled fluid. Once this was accomplished, the sub-routine was implemented to a GFSSP model that was created to replicate an experiment that was conducted to validate the GFSSP results.

  10. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  11. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  12. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tian, Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Corcoran, Sean [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  13. Scope of Nursing Care in Polish Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wysokiński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The TISS-28 scale, which may be used for nursing staff scheduling in ICU, does not reflect the complete scope of nursing resulting from varied cultural and organizational conditions of individual systems of health care. Aim. The objective of the study was an attempt to provide an answer to the question what scope of nursing care provided by Polish nurses in ICU does the TISS-28 scale reflect? Material and Methods. The methods of working time measurement were used in the study. For the needs of the study, 252 hours of continuous observation (day-long observation and 3.697 time-schedule measurements were carried out. Results. The total nursing time was 4125.79 min. (68.76 hours, that is, 60.15% of the total working time of Polish nurses during the period analyzed. Based on the median test, the difference was observed on the level of χ2=16945.8, P<0.001 between the nurses’ workload resulting from performance of activities qualified into the TISS-28 scale and load resulting from performance of interventions within the scopes of care not considered in this scale in Polish ICUs. Conclusions. The original version of the TISS-28 scale does not fully reflect the workload among Polish nurses employed in ICUs.

  14. Pool boiling and condensation analysis for a vertical tube bundle condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, W.; Wolf, B., E-mail: zhouw@purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana (United States); Revankar, S.T., E-mail: shripad@ecn.purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana (United States); POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    An experimental and theoretical study is performed for the steam condensation in a vertical tube bundle passive condenser simulating PCCS condenser in the ESBWR. Four condenser tubes are submerged in a water pool where the heat from the condenser tube is removed through boiling heat transfer. Condenser tubes with a full length/diameter scale are used to obtain the condensation data with various process parameters. The comparison of tube bundle experimental data with the single tube data by both the experiments and models shows that the single tube secondary heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is between 25% - 35% less than what was recorded for the tube bundle, and the tube bundle condensation rates are slightly higher than the data from the single tube test sections due to turbulent mixing effect which increases the condensation heat removal. The turbulent mixing on the secondary side decreases the DT between pool water and condenser tube outer wall, causing an increase in secondary HTC. This increase in secondary HTC thus results in higher condensate mass flow rates. Tube bundle boundary layer model and heat and mass analogy model were then developed for the prediction of the filmwise steam condensation with noncondensable (NC) gas in a vertical tube bundle. The predictions from the models are compared with the experimental data for various complete condensation and through flow conditions and the agreement is satisfactory. The local parameters predicted by the boundary layer model and heat and mass analogy model with tube bundle pool boiling can also be predicted with the axial distance from entrance for different NC gas fractions and system pressures. (author)

  15. Monitoring and diagnosis of condensation systems in thermoelectric power stations: behavior indicators; Monitoreo y diagnostico de sistemas de condensacion en centrales termoelectricas: indicadores de comportamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Martinez, Hugo; Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this article are described the basic characteristics, capacities and benefits of a computer system for the monitoring and operation diagnosis of the main equipment of a condensation system of thermoelectric power plants. The system monitors the process variables in real time and, with base in these variables, it can realize a diagnosis of the cooling tower, the condenser, the circulation water and the circulating water pumps, deducting the possible problems (deficiency causes) and raising alternatives to improve the system performance or to solve the problem. It is important to mention that with base in the raised alternatives, the user can take decisions to diminish or eliminate the problem. The essential content of the article focuses in the description of the basic procedures for the calculation of the performance and diagnosis indicators of the condensation system of the equipment. The equipment evaluation is carried out by means of the comparison between the indicators values and the expected ones, whereas the diagnosis is realized by means of an expert system. [Spanish] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas principales, capacidades y beneficios de un sistema computacional para el monitoreo y diagnostico del funcionamiento de los equipos principales de un sistema de condensacion de plantas termoelectricas. El sistema monitorea las variables del proceso en tiempo real y, con base en dichas variables, puede realizar un diagnostico de la torre de enfriamiento, el condensador y las bombas de agua de circulacion, deduciendo los posibles problemas (causas de las deficiencias) y planteando alternativas para mejorar el desempeno del sistema o solucionar el problema. Es importante mencionar que con base en las alternativas planteadas, el usuario puede tomar decisiones para reducir o eliminar el problema. El contenido esencial del articulo se enfoca en la descripcion de los procedimientos basicos para el calculo de los indicadores de desempeno y

  16. The fate of ukrainians in Polish Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dashko

    2015-06-01

    Particular attention is devoted to the analysis of the list of polish officers and policemen, who were executed by NKVD and buried in Katyn, Midne and Kharkiv, and also the list of Polish citizens, from the so­called Ukrainian Katyn list. A huge layer of various matters relating to Ukrainians in this tragedy still waits to be studied by historians.

  17. The Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Duškin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus The Semantics Laboratory Team of Institute of Slavic Studies of Polish Academy of Sciences is planning to begin work on the creation of a Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus. The three selected languages are representatives of the main groups of Slavic languages: Bulgarian represents the southern group of Slavic languages, Polish – the western group of Slavic languages, Russian – the eastern group of Slavic languages. Our project will be the first parallel corpus of these three languages. The planned corpus will be based on material, dating from one period (the 20th century and will have a synchronous nature. The project will not constitute the sum of the separate corpora of selected languages. One of the problems with creating multilingual parallel corpora are different proportions of translated texts between the selected languages, for example, Polish literature is often translated into Bulgarian, but not vice versa. Bulgarian, Russian and Polish differ typologically – Bulgarian is an analytic language, Polish and Russian are synthetic. The parallel corpus should have compatible annotation, while taking into account the characteristic features of the selected languages. We hope that the Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus will serve as a source of linguistic material of contrastive language studies and may prove to be a big help for linguists, translators, terminologists and students of linguistics. The results of our work will be available on the Internet.

  18. Effect of the geometry of workpiece on polishing velocity in free annular polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quantang Fan; Jianqiang Zhu; Bao'an Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Base on Coulomb friction model, the workpieces with different geometry rotating in free annular polishing are simulated. From simulation, the following conclusions are drawn. The angular velocity of workpiece is higher than that of polishing pad if the ring rotates uncontrolled in free annular polishing. The circular workpiece can synchronize with polishing pad through controlling the rotation of ring, which depends on the radii of ring and workpiece, the friction coefficients of polishing pad-workpiece and ring-workpiece,and the angular velocity of polishing pad. The workpiece with sharp corner cannot contact with the ring contiguously, which causes the contact state changing and the angular velocity of workpiece fluctuating ceaselessly, and this type of workpiece should be controlled with clamp to rotate synchronistically with the polishing pad.

  19. Effect of polishing techniques and time on surface roughness, hardness and microleakage of resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Daniela; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Camacho, Guilherme Brião; Powers, John M

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of immediate and delayed polishing on the surface roughness, microhardness and microleakage of a microfilled (Filtek A110) and a hybrid (Filtek Z250) resin composite. Standardized preparations were made on the buccal surfaces of 256 bovine teeth; half were restored with each composite (128 teeth per composite). Immediately after curing, gross finishing was carried out with #280 sandpaper. The specimens restored with each composite were divided into two subgroups. The first group (IM) was polished immediately after gross finishing, using three different systems (n=16): Sequence A, Sof-Lex; Sequence B, Flexicups and Sequence C, Flexicups + Jiffy Polishing Brush + Flexibuffs. The specimens were then stored for three weeks in saline 37 degrees C. The second group (DE) was stored for two weeks, then polished with the same systems and stored for one additional week. The controls (n=16) were analyzed without polishing. Five readings per specimen were taken for surface roughness and hardness. After immersion in basic fuchsin, microleakage was evaluated (40x) using standardized scores. The data were analyzed at a significance level of 0.05, with analysis of variance and an SNK test (surface roughness and microhardness) or with Kruskal-Wallis (microleakage). In both composites, only for the sequential technique was there an influence of delay in polishing on roughness (Ra). Flexicups exhibited the highest Ra of the three systems. The IM and Filtek Z-250 groups showed higher hardness than the DE and Filtek A-110 groups, respectively. Dentin margins showed more leakage than enamel margins; the sequential technique produced more leakage than the other techniques in dentin (pcomposite, time and polishing technique--had a significant influence on surface roughness, hardness and microleakage. Generally, immediate polishing produced no detrimental effect compared to delayed polishing.

  20. Numerical Study of Condensation Heat Exchanger Design in a Saturated Pool: Correlation Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Generally the condensation heat exchanger has higher heat transfer coefficient compared to the single phase heat exchanger, so has been widely applied to the cooling systems of fissile power plant. Recently vertical or horizontal type condensation heat exchangers are being studied for the application to secondary passive cooling system of nuclear plants. To design vertical condensation heat exchanger in a saturated water pool, a thermal sizing program of condensation heat exchanger, TSCON(Thermal Sizing of CONdenser) was developed. In this study, condensing heat transfer correlation of TSCON is evaluated with the existing experimental data set to design condensation heat exchanger without noncondensable gas effect (pure steam condensation)

  1. Tools for system validation. Dynamic modelling of the direct condenser at Sandvik II in Vaexjoe; Hjaelpmedel foer systemvalidering. Dynamisk modellering av direktkondensorn paa Sandvik II i Vaexjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaberg, Martin [Dynasim AB, Lund (Sweden); Tuszynski, Jan [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The project reported here aimed to test the suitability of existing computer tools for modelling of energy processes. The suggested use for the models are at the early tests and validations of new, refurbished or modernised thermal plants. The technique presented in this report should be applicable for clarification of the scope of delivery and testing for both the process and tile control system. The validation process can thus be simplified, allowing risk reduction and predictability of the commissioning. The main delays and economical misfortune often occurs during commissioning. This report should prove the feasibility of the purchase routines where purchaser, vendor and quality inspection will use a common model of the process to validate system requirements and specifications. Later on it is used to validate structure and predefine testing. Thanks to agreement on the common model, early tests can be conducted on complex systems, minimizing the investment risks. The modelling reported here concerns the direct condenser at Sandvik 11, power and heating plant owned by Vaexjoe Energi AB in Sweden. We have chosen the direct condenser because it is an existing, well-documented and well-defined subsystem of high complexity in both structure and operation. Heavy transients made commissioning and test runs of similar condensers throughout Sweden costly and troublesome. The work resulted in an open, general, and physically correct model. The model can easily be re-dimensioned through physical parameters of common use. The control system modelled corresponds to the actual control system at the Sandvik II plant. Any improvement or deep validation of the controllers was not included in this work. The suitability is shown through four simulation cases. Three cases are based on a registered plant operation during a turbine trip. The first test case uses present plant data, the second an old steam valve actuator and the third uses the old actuator and an error in level

  2. Polish Industry and Art at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    On 17 October 2000 the second Polish industrial and technological exhibition opened at CERN. The first one was held five years ago and nine of the companies that were present then have come back again this year. Six of those companies were awarded contracts with CERN in 1995. Three Polish officials were present at the Opening Ceremony today: Mrs Malgorzata Kozlowska, Under-secretary of State in the State Committee for Scientific Research, Mr Henryk Ogryczak, Under-secretary of State in Ministry of Economy and Prof. Jerzy Niewodniczanski, President of National Atomic Energy Agency. Professor Luciano Maiani welcomed the Polish delegation to CERN and stressed the important contribution of Polish scientists and industrialists to the work of the laboratory. Director General Luciano Maiani (back left) and head of SPL division Karl-Heinz Kissler (back right) visit the Poland at CERN exhibition… The exhibition offers Polish companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. Nineteen companies...

  3. Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, G.

    1997-09-22

    This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.

  4. Operation of the Airmodus A11 nano Condensation Nucleus Counter at various inlet pressures, various operation temperatures and design of a new inlet system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kangasluoma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring sub-3 nm particles outside of controlled laboratory conditions is a challenging task, as many of the instruments are operated at their limits and are subjected to changing ambient conditions. In this study, we advance the current understanding on the operation of Airmodus A11 nano Condensation Nucleus Counter (nCNC, which consists of a A10 Particle Size Magnifier (PSM and A20 condensation particle counter (CPC. We explore the effect of the inlet line pressure on the measured particle concentration. We identify two different regions inside the instrument where supersaturation of working fluid can take place. We show the possibility of varying the cut-off of the instrument from 1 to 6 nm, a wider size range than the one usually covered by the PSM. We also present a new inlet system, which allows automated measurements of the background, minimizes the diffusion losses in the sampling line and is equipped with an electrostatic filter to remove ions. Finally, our view of the guidelines for optimal use of the Airmodus nCNC are provided.

  5. Operation of the Airmodus A11 nano Condensation Nucleus Counter at various inlet pressures and various operation temperatures, and design of a new inlet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Duplissy, Jonahtan; Ahonen, Lauri; Korhonen, Frans; Attoui, Michel; Mikkilä, Jyri; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Vanhanen, Joonas; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka

    2016-07-01

    Measuring sub-3 nm particles outside of controlled laboratory conditions is a challenging task, as many of the instruments are operated at their limits and are subject to changing ambient conditions. In this study, we advance the current understanding of the operation of the Airmodus A11 nano Condensation Nucleus Counter (nCNC), which consists of an A10 Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) and an A20 Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The effect of the inlet line pressure on the measured particle concentration was measured, and two separate regions inside the A10, where supersaturation of working fluid can take place, were identified. The possibility of varying the lower cut-off diameter of the nCNC was investigated; by scanning the growth tube temperature, the range of the lower cut-off was extended from 1-2.5 to 1-6 nm. Here we present a new inlet system, which allows automated measurement of the background concentration of homogeneously nucleated droplets, minimizes the diffusion losses in the sampling line and is equipped with an electrostatic filter to remove ions smaller than approximately 4.5 nm. Finally, our view of the guidelines for the optimal use of the Airmodus nCNC is provided.

  6. Apparatus and method for deterministic control of surface figure during full aperture polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Feit, Michael Dennis; Steele, William Augustus

    2013-11-19

    A polishing system configured to polish a lap includes a lap configured to contact a workpiece for polishing the workpiece; and a septum configured to contact the lap. The septum has an aperture formed therein. The radius of the aperture and radius the workpiece are substantially the same. The aperture and the workpiece have centers disposed at substantially the same radial distance from a center of the lap. The aperture is disposed along a first radial direction from the center of the lap, and the workpiece is disposed along a second radial direction from the center of the lap. The first and second radial directions may be opposite directions.

  7. Semantic relations between verbs in Polish WordNet 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Maziarz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic relations between verbs in Polish WordNet 2.0 The noun dominates wordnets. The lexical semantics of verbs is usually under-represented, even if it is essential in any semantic analysis which goes beyond statistical methods. We present our attempt to remedy the imbalance; it begins by designing a sufficiently rich set of wordnet relations for verbs. We discuss and show in detail such a relation set in the largest Polish wordnet. Our design decisions, while as general and language-independent as possible, are mainly informed by our desire to capture the nature and peculiarities of the verb system in Polish.

  8. Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Luchyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography The article proves the necessity and possibility of compiling dictionaries with intermediate existence status glossary units, to which the word equivalents belong. In order to form the Ukrainian-Polish dictionary glossary of this type the form and meaning analysis of Ukrainian and Polish word equivalents is done, the common and distinctive features of these language system elements are described, the compiling principles of such dictionary are clarified.

  9. [POLISH EXPEDITION TO SPITSBERGEN IN 1934].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Polish expedition to Spitsbergen in 1934 was already the second Polish polar expedition to the Arctic. It was scientific-mountaineering in character. 7 persons took part in it: Witold Biernawski (1898-1957)--film-maker and radiotelegraph operator, Stefan Bernadzikiewicz (1907-1939)--expedition leader, Henryk Mogilnicki (1906-1999)--photographer and radiotelegraph operator, Stefan Zbigniew Różycki (1906-1988)--geologist, Stanisław Siedlecki (1912-2002)--meteorological observer, Sylweriusz Bohdan Zagrajski (1892-1940)--triangulator, Antoni Rogal-Zawadzki (1896-1974)--topographer and photogrammetrist. The purpose of this expedition was to collect data in geology and cartography, and to a lesser degree--in glaciology, botany, zoology and meteorology. It lasted from May 20 to September 16, 1934. The time between June 20 - August 28 the group spent on Spitsbergen's Torell Land. The outcome: an area of app. 300 square kilometres of previously undiscovered land was marked by triangular system, covered by photogrammetric photos and surveyed. Geological research covered the land of app. 500 square kilometres and the group collected geological specimens of app. 800 kg in weight. On the basis of their research, two maps (at a scale of 1:50 000 and 1:200 000) were published. The participants collected also botanical and zoological material. Meteorological observations were carried out at the base over Van Keulen fjord throughout the whole expedition. Different objects on Torell Land were named by the expedition, their names referring largely to Poland (Annex I). Approximately 200 photographs and a film were shot by the expedition. Apart from scientific research, the participants published also diaries of the expedition.

  10. The effects of different polishing techniques on the staining resistance of CAD/CAM resin-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Tevfik; Demirci, Gamze; Sagsoz, Nurdan Polat; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purposes of this study were to evaluate the staining resistance of CAD/CAM resin-ceramics polished with different techniques and to determine the effectiveness of the polishing techniques on resin-ceramics, comparing it with that of a glazed glass-ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four different CAD/CAM ceramics (feldspathic ceramic: C-CEREC Blocs, (SIRONA) and three resin-ceramics: L-Lava Ultimate, (3M ESPE), E-Enamic, (VITA) and CS-CeraSmart, (GC)) and one light cure composite resin: ME-Clearfil Majesty Esthetic (Kuraray) were used. Only C samples were glazed (gl). Other restorations were divided into four groups according to the polishing technique: nonpolished control group (c), a group polished with light cure liquid polish (Biscover LV BISCO) (bb), a group polished with ceramic polishing kit (Diapol, EVE) (cd), and a group polished with composite polishing kit (Clearfil Twist Dia, Kuraray) (kc). Glazed C samples and the polished samples were further divided into four subgroups and immersed into different solutions: distilled water, tea, coffee, and fermented black carrot juice. Eight samples (8 × 8 × 1 mm) were prepared for each subgroup. According to CIELab system, four color measurements were made: before immersion, immersion after 1 day, after 1 week, and after 1 month. Data were analyzed with repeated measures of ANOVA (α=.05). RESULTS The highest staining resistance was found in gl samples. There was no difference among gl, kc and cd (P>.05). Staining resistance of gl was significantly higher than that of bb (P<.05). Staining resistances of E and CS were significantly higher than those of L and ME (P<.05). CONCLUSION Ceramic and composite polishing kits can be used for resin ceramics as a counterpart of glazing procedure used for full ceramic materials. Liquid polish has limited indications for resin ceramics. PMID:28018558

  11. Sedimentary condensation and authigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Most marine authigenic minerals form in sediments, which are subjected to condensation. Condensation processes lead to the formation of well individualized, extremely thin ( 100ky), and which experienced authigenesis and the precipitation of glaucony, verdine, phosphate, iron and manganese oxyhydroxides, iron sulfide, carbonate and/or silica. They usually show complex internal stratigraphies, which result from an interplay of sediment accumulation, halts in sedimentation, sediment winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass. They may include amalgamated faunas of different origin and age. Hardgrounds may be part of condensed beds and may embody strongly condensed beds by themselves. Sedimentary condensation is the result of a hydrodynamically active depositional regime, in which sediment accumulation, winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass are processes, which alternate as a function of changes in the location and intensity of currents, and/or as the result of episodic high-energy events engendered by storms and gravity flow. Sedimentary condensation has been and still is a widespread phenomenon in past and present-day oceans. The present-day distribution of glaucony and verdine-rich sediments on shelves and upper slopes, phosphate-rich sediments and phosphorite on outer shelves and upper slopes, ferromanganese crusts on slopes, seamounts and submarine plateaus, and ferromanganese nodules on abyssal seafloors is a good indication of the importance of condensation processes today. In the past, we may add the occurrence of oolitic ironstone, carbonate hardgrounds, and eventually also silica layers in banded iron formations as indicators of the importance of condensation processes. Besides their economic value, condensed sediments are useful both as a carrier of geochemical proxies of paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental change, as well as the product of episodes of paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental change themselves.

  12. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-05-31

    Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  13. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  14. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  15. Furnace Brazing Parameters Optimized by Taguchi Method and Corrosion Behavior of Tube-Fin System of Automotive Condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guía-Tello, J. C.; Pech-Canul, M. A.; Trujillo-Vázquez, E.; Pech-Canul, M. I.

    2017-06-01

    Controlled atmosphere brazing has a widespread industrial use in the production of aluminum automotive heat exchangers. Good-quality joints between the components depend on the initial condition of materials as well as on the brazing process parameters. In this work, the Taguchi method was used to optimize the brazing parameters with respect to corrosion performance for tube-fin mini-assemblies of an automotive condenser. The experimental design consisted of five factors (micro-channel tube type, flux type, peak temperature, heating rate and dwell time), with two levels each. The corrosion behavior in acidified seawater solution pH 2.8 was evaluated through potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to analyze the microstructural features in the joint zone. The results showed that the parameters that most significantly affect the corrosion rate are the type of flux and the peak temperature. The optimal conditions were: micro-channel tube with 4.2 g/m2 of zinc coating, standard flux, 610 °C peak temperature, 5 °C/min heating rate and 4 min dwell time. The corrosion current density value of the confirmation experiment is in excellent agreement with the predicted value. The electrochemical characterization for selected samples gave indication that the brazing conditions had a more significant effect on the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction than on the kinetics of the metal dissolution reaction.

  16. Condensate of excitations in moving superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomeitsev, E E

    2016-01-01

    A possibility of the condensation of excitations with a non-zero momentum in rectilinearly moving and rotating superfluid bosonic and fermionic (with Cooper pairing) media is considered in terms of a phenomenological order-parameter functional at zero and non-zero temperature. The results might be applicable to the description of bosonic systems like superfluid $^4$He, ultracold atomic Bose gases, charged pion and kaon condensates in rotating neutron stars, and various superconducting fermionic systems with pairing, like proton and color-superconducting components in compact stars, metallic superconductors, and neutral fermionic systems with pairing, like the neutron component in compact stars and ultracold atomic Fermi gases. Order parameters of the "mother" condensate in the superfluid and the new condensate of excitations, corresponding energy gains, critical temperatures and critical velocities are found.

  17. Radiative corrections to Bose condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A. (Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, La Habana. Inst. de Matematica, Cibernetica y Computacion)

    1985-04-01

    The Bose condensation of the scalar field in a theory behaving in the Coleman-Weinberg mode is considered. The effective potential of the model is computed within the semiclassical approximation in a dimensional regularization scheme. Radiative corrections are shown to introduce certain ..mu..-dependent ultraviolet divergences in the effective potential coming from the Many-Particle theory. The weight of radiative corrections in the dynamics of the system is strongly modified by the charge density.

  18. The Problems of Semantic Equivalence in Different Types of Ukrainian-Polish and Polish-Ukrainian Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kononenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Problems of Semantic Equivalence in Different Types of Ukrainian-Polish and Polish-Ukrainian Dictionaries This article deals with the problems of semantic equivalence that authors of various types of dictionaries, including bilingual ones, are faced with. Words and phraseological units of common Polish and Ukrainian origin separately developed their systems of meanings in both languages, making it difficult to identify analogues that adequately reflect the semantic structure of linguistic units. In general, the author’s assumptions are based on experience of publishing Polish-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-Polish dictionaries of various types.   Problemy ekwiwalencji semantycznej w ukraińsko-polskich i polsko-ukraińskich słownikach różnych typów Artykuł porusza problem ekwiwalencji semantycznej, który napotykają autorzy słowników różnych typów, w tym dwujęzycznych. Polskie i ukraińskie wyrazy i jednostki frazeologiczne o wspólnym pochodzeniu rozwijają w każdym języku swoje własne systemy znaczeń, utrudniając określenie odpowiedników i adekwatne odzwierciedlenie struktury semantycznej jednostek. Ogólne założenia autorki są oparte na jej doświadczeniu w publikowaniu polsko-ukraińskich i ukraińsko-polskich słowników różnych typów.

  19. Arnold Sommerfeld and Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, Christian; Eckert, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Arnold Sommerfeld (1868-1951), one of the founders of modern theoretical physics and a pioneer of quantum theory, was no condensed matter physicist. He nevertheless played a crucial role for the history of the field. Besides his important contributions to the study of condensed matter systems, among which his seminal electron gas theory of metallic conduction probably stands out, he influenced the field through his very approach to science, through his way of “doing” physics. Sommerfeld's specific style permeated not only his research but also his teaching and his promoting of physics. This has had a lasting influence on the practices of physicists to this day, and not only, but importantly, on those of condensed matter physicists. This article aims to provide a concise account of Sommerfeld's influence on the study of condensed matter systems, with regard to both his research and his practice.

  20. The Polish experience with bank and enterprise restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    Montes-Negret, Fernando; Luca PAPI

    1997-01-01

    Among transitional economies, Poland was a pioneer in bank and enterprise restructuring, tackling it through innovative pro tempore legislation which linked bank recapitalization to improvements in the bank's operating systems, aiming at increasing efficiency and loan recovery. The approach encouraged banks to play a central role in enterprise restructuring. In this paper, the authors critically and comprehensively analyze the Polish approach, presenting and discussing its pros and cons, desc...

  1. Macroeconomic Reasons of Debts in Polish Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Szymańska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of debts in polish health service. Author analyzes the macroeconomic reasons of this situation. As a main reasons are indicated: a specificity of the health service market, which leads to a inefficient allocation of health services, lack of reliable data on health care system, too low level of public expenditure on a health care, inappropriate allocation of public capital and a monopolistic position of the payer.

  2. Enhancing dropwise condensation through bioinspired wettability patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aritra; Beaini, Sara; Zhang, Bong June; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2014-11-01

    Dropwise condensation (DWC) heat transfer depends strongly on the maximum diameter (Dmax) of condensate droplets departing from the condenser surface. This study presents a facile technique implemented to gain control of Dmax in DWC within vapor/air atmospheres. We demonstrate how this approach can enhance the corresponding heat transfer rate by harnessing the capillary forces in the removal of the condensate from the surface. We examine various hydrophilic-superhydrophilic patterns, which, respectively, sustain and combine DWC and filmwise condensation on the substrate. The material system uses laser-patterned masking and chemical etching to achieve the desired wettability contrast and does not employ any hydrophobizing agent. By applying alternating straight parallel strips of hydrophilic (contact angle ∼78°) mirror-finish aluminum and superhydrophilic regions (etched aluminum) on the condensing surface, we show that the average maximum droplet size on the less-wettable domains is nearly 42% of the width of the corresponding strips. An overall improvement in the condensate collection rate, up to 19% (as compared to the control case of DWC on mirror-finish aluminum) was achieved by using an interdigitated superhydrophilic track pattern (on the mirror-finish hydrophilic surface) inspired by the vein network of plant leaves. The bioinspired interdigitated pattern is found to outperform the straight hydrophilic-superhydrophilic pattern design, particularly under higher humidity conditions in the presence of noncondensable gases (NCG), a condition that is more challenging for maintaining sustained DWC.

  3. Dynamics of condensation on lubricant impregnated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sushant; Paxson, Adam; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Beysens, Daniel; Varanasi, Kripa

    2013-03-01

    Replacing the filmwise condensation mode with dropwise condensation promises large improvements in heat transfer that will lead to large cost savings in material, water consumption and decreased size of the systems. In this regards, use of superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by texturing surfaces with nano/microstructures has been shown to lead decrease in contact line pinning of millimetric drops resulting in fast shedding. However, these useful properties are lost during condensation where droplets that nucleate within texture grow by virtue of condensation to large sized droplets while still adhering to the surface. Recently we have shown that liquid impregnated surfaces can overcome many limitations of conventional superhydrophobic surfaces during condensation. Here we discuss aspects related to condensation on lubricant surfaces, such as behavior of growing droplets. We compare the characteristics of droplets condensing on these surfaces with their behavior on conventional un-impregnated superhydrophobic surfaces and show how use of lubricant impregnated surfaces may lead to large enhancement in heat transfer and energy efficiencies.

  4. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  5. Chemical mechanical polishing of freestanding GaN substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜怀跃; 修向前; 刘战辉; 张荣; 华雪梅; 谢自力; 韩平; 施毅; 郑有炓

    2009-01-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been used to produce smooth and scratch-free surfaces for GaN. In the aqueous solution of KOH, GaN is subjected to etching. At the same time, all surface irregularities, including etch pyramids, roughness after mechanical polishing and so on will be removed by a polishing pad. The experiments had been performed under the condition of different abrasive particle sizes of the polishing pad. Also the polishing results for different polishing times are analyzed, and chemical mechanical polishing resulted in an average root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of 0.565 nm, as measured by atomic force microscopy.

  6. Inhibitory effects of the phorbolester TPA and cigarette smoke condensate on the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene in a co-cultivation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, W.M.; Hakkert, B.C.; van de Poll, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    The transport of reactive intermediates was studied in a co-cultivation system of primary chick embryo hepatocytes and V79 Chinese hamster cells. Two test systems with different genetic endpoints--sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and gene mutation at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus--were used. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was positive in both test systems. When the V79 cells were co-cultivated with the hepatocytes at a distance of 1 mm, only a slight increase in the number of SCEs was observed after exposure to benzo(a)pyrene. When the two cell types were in direct contact, addition of the phorbolester TPA or cigarette smoke condensate inhibited the mutagenic effects of B(a)P in both assays by 50%. No influence of TPA on the number of SCEs induced by B(a)P was observed in a preincubation assay using Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate. The results indicate that metabolic co-operation may play a role in the transport of reactive intermediates in this co-cultivation system. The mutagenic potential of compounds may be underestimated in systems using intact cells for metabolic activation if the compounds or their metabolites are capable of inhibiting metabolic co-operation.

  7. Dropwise condensation dynamics in humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Chacon, Julian Eduardo

    Dropwise condensation of atmospheric water vapor is important in multiple practical engineering applications. The roles of environmental factors and surface morphology/chemistry on the condensation dynamics need to be better understood to enable efficient water-harvesting, dehumidication, and other psychrometric processes. Systems and surfaces that promote faster condensation rates and self-shedding of condensate droplets could lead to improved mass transfer rates and higher water yields in harvesting applications. The thesis presents the design and construction of an experimental facility that allows visualization of the condensation process as a function of relative humidity. Dropwise condensation experiments are performed on a vertically oriented, hydrophobic surface at a controlled relative humidity and surface subcooling temperature. The distribution and growth of water droplets are monitored across the surface at different relative humidities (45%, 50%, 55%, and 70%) at a constant surface subcooling temperature of 15 °C below the ambient temperature. The droplet growth dynamics exhibits a strong dependency on relative humidity in the early stages during which there is a large population of small droplets on the surface and single droplet growth dominates over coalescence effects. At later stages, the dynamics of droplet growth is insensitive to relative humidity due to the dominance of coalescence effects. The overall volumetric rate of condensation on the surface is also assessed as a function of time and ambient relative humidity. Low relative humidity conditions not only slow the absolute rate of condensation, but also prolong an initial transient regime over which the condensation rate remains significantly below the steady-state value. The current state-of-the-art in dropwise condensation research indicates the need for systematic experimental investigations as a function of relative humidity. The improved understanding of the relative humidity

  8. Stabilization of the photogrammetric system for a gyrocopter in terms of the LiDAR data quality. (Polish Title: Stabilizacja systemu pomiarowego dla wiatrakowca w aspekcie jakości danych LiDAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecki, J.; Prochaska, M.; Piątek, P.; Baranowski, J.; Kurczyński, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The definition of the quality parameters of a point cloud acquired using the airborne laser scanning is the element of almost every terms of reference involving airborne spatial data acquisition. The quality of the LiDAR data should not be identified only with accuracy and should be examined in a wider aspect taking into account other parameters of the point cloud that was acquired as a result of a flight. For instance the Polish legal regulations provide the requirements concerning the coverage of the strips and the point density. The above mentioned parameters of the LiDAR data can be influenced to some extent by many factors concerning the flight itself such as a varying speed as well as the horizontal and vertical deflections from the planned flight line. However, vibrations and angular deflections seem to influence the point cloud quality to the highest extent. LiDAR data acquisition without required stabilizing system makes keeping the required quality parameters very hard. Within the research project which aimed to develop the prototype of the ultralight, stabilized mapping platform for the gyrocopter, a number of analyses concerning the optimal stabilization scenario were carried out. Tools including scripts and computer programs for analyzing the impact of the deflections on the data quality have been developed. The proper stabilization variant has been established taking into account three separate deflection components, i.e.: roll, pitch and yaw.

  9. Technological Advances of Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Grønbæk, Jens

    The efficient polishing of surfaces is very important in mould and die industry. Fine abrasive processes are widely used in industry for the first steps for the production of tools of high quality in terms of finishing accuracy, form and surface integrity. While manufacturing of most components...... requires surface finishing in terms of roughness values, the nature of material removal and process mechanics is not clear by fine abrasive finishing on the polishing roughness level. The knowledge and an understanding of the material removal mechanism in fine abrasive processes is a crucial prerequisite....... In this study, the influence of polishing parameters and type of polishing media on fine abrasive surface finishing is investigated. Experimental study is covering 2D rotational surfaces that is widespread used in mould and dies industry. Application of it is essential for process intelligent control, condition...

  10. New Environmental Practices in Polish Production Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmer, Trine Pipi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five case studies in Poland, the paper discusses, how a specific environmental policy influences the firms? industrial environmental practices. The study illustrates, how the Polish environmental policy, dominated by environmental charges on emissions, is extremely effective in improving...

  11. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland.

  12. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  13. Surface roughness of composite resins after finishing and polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagem Filho Halim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of surface finishing methods on the average surface roughness of resin composites. Seven composites and two polishing systems were used. One hundred and twenty-six conical specimens of each material were prepared in stainless steel molds against a polyester strip. Forty-two of them remained intact and were used as controls. Each half of the remaining samples was polished with either diamond burs or diamond burs + aluminum oxide discs. The results showed no statistical difference in average surface roughness (Ra, mm between the polyester strip and aluminum oxide discs (p>0.05. However, finishing with diamond burs showed a statistically higher average roughness for all composites (p<0.05. Statistical differences were detected among materials (p<0.05 in the use of diamond burs.

  14. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  15. 压水堆核电站凝结水精处理系统设置方案研究%SETTING SCHEME OF CONDENSATE POLISHING SYSTEM IN NUCLEAR POWER STATION WITH PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建中; 蔡冠萍

    2012-01-01

    基于核电机组的设计和运行经验分析各种工况下压水堆核电站凝结水精处理系统运行的技术和经济效益,提出了凝结水精处理系统的设计原则为:核电机组凝结水精处理系统功能应满足机组起动和凝汽器发生冷却水泄漏时凝结水的净化需要,以便在机组正常运行时可不投运该系统;以海水作为冷却水时,应设置全流量的凝结水精处理系统;以淡水作为冷却水时,应根据冷却水含盐量、凝汽器泄漏允许值、二回路水质控制标准、蒸汽发生器排污量等相关因素经综合计算确定设计容量.凝结水精处理系统应采用“阳床-混床”工艺.

  16. STUDY ON SELECTING CONDENSATE POLISHING SYSTEM FOR PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS%压水堆核电站凝结水精处理系统选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱玲; 潘振波; 马跃华; 贾重阳

    2011-01-01

    在总结国内核电站凝结水精处理系统配置及运行状况的基础上,结合亚临界参数以上火电厂均设置凝结水精处理系统的情况,指出压水堆核电站设置凝结水精处理系统的必要性.由于国内对于压水堆核电站凝结水精处理系统进出水水质无相应规范标准,给出了美国凝结水精处理系统实际数据.针对核电站凝结水精处理系统的运行情况,建议内陆核电站设置50%额定凝结水量的凝结水精处理系统,滨海核电站设置100%额定凝结水量的凝结水精处理系统.

  17. Influences of polishing on return loss of optical fiber connectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Ji-an; LIU De-fu; ZHONG Jue

    2005-01-01

    With Al2O3 and SiO2 as polishing medium, under different polishing conditions, e.g. with different polishing pressure, polishing time and polishing fluid, the influences of polishing treatment on the return loss of optical fiber connectors were investigated. The return loss of optical fiber connectors is 32 - 38 dB before polishing. The results show that dry polishing(i. e. no polishing fluid) with Al2O3 has less influence on return loss of optical fiber connectors, while dry polishing with SiO2 reduces return loss to about 20 dB because of the end-face of optical fiber contaminated. The wet polishing(i. e. using distilled water as polishing fluid) with Al2O3 or SiO2 can increase return loss to 45 -50 dB, but wet polishing with Al2 O3 may produce optical fiber undercut depth of 80 - 140 nm. Wet polishing with SiO2 should be preferentially selected for optical fiber connectors and polishing time should be controlled within 20 - 30 s.

  18. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without modification of the objectives and learning outcomes of the course. Evaluation carried out at the end of the project indicates that both groups perceived the task as a significant linguistic, cultural and personal experience. They stressed the importance of sharing “culture for culture” as the partner culture was new for most of them. The ability to talk and respond to information which was often strange, from the point of view of their own culture, allowed for learning intercultural competence ̔in action’.

  19. Theory of laminar film condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Tetsu

    1991-01-01

    Since the petroleum crisis in the 1970s, a lot of effort to save energy was made in industry, and remarkable achievements have been made. In the research and development concerning thermal energy, however, it was clar­ ified that one of the most important problems was manufacturing con­ densing systems with smaller size and higher performance. To solve this problem we need a method which synthesizes selections_ of the type of con­ denser, cooling tube and its arrangement, assessment of fouling on the cooling surfaces, consideration of transient characteristics of a condenser, etc. The majority of effort, however, has been to devise a surface element which enhances the heat transfer coefficient in condensation of a single or multicomponent vapor. Condensation phenomena are complexly affected by a lot of physical property values, and accordingly the results of theo­ retical research are expressed with several dimensionless parameters. On the other hand, the experimental research is limited to those with som...

  20. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation by designing surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and be shed as quickly as possible is fundamental to water harvesting systems, thermal power generation, distillation towers, etc. However, cutting-edge approaches based on micro/nanoscale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants that synergistically couples both aspects of condensation and outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bump geometry in promoting condensation, we show how to maximize vapor diffusion flux at the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing curvature and shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope analogous to cactus spines couples rapid drop growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free energy profile that drives the drop down the slope. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher plant-inspired coating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion. We further observe an unprecedented six-fold higher exponent in growth rate and much faster shedding time compared to other surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be applied to a wide range of phase change applications.

  1. Bimodal condensation silicone elastomers as dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    unimodal refers to that there is one polymer only in the system. As an alternative to unimodal networks there are the bimodal networks where two polymers with significantly different molecular weights are mixed with one crosslinker. [2]Silicone rubber can be divided into condensation type and addition type...... according to the curing reaction. The advantages of condensation silicones compared to addition are the relatively low cost, the curing rate largely being independent of temperature, the excellent adhesion, and the catalyst being nontoxic. [3]In this work, a series of bimodal condensation silicone......, the top and bottom surfaces of the elastomer (7:3) prepared at 23oC and 50% humidity were tested by water contact angle and optical microscope. The results show the bimodal condensation elastomer possesses structural heterogeneity, which may lead to favourable properties for DE applications....

  2. Quantum tunnelling in condensed media

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yu

    1992-01-01

    The essays in this book deal with of the problem of quantum tunnelling and related behavior of a microscopic or macroscopic system, which interacts strongly with an ""environment"" - this being some form of condensed matter. The ""system"" in question need not be physically distinct from its environment, but could, for example, be one particular degree of freedom on which attention is focussed, as in the case of the Josephson junction studied in several of the papers. This general problem has been studied in many hundreds, if not thousands, of articles in the literature, in contexts as diverse

  3. Surface Evaluation of Polishing Techniques for New Resilient CAD/CAM Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasbinder, Dennis J; Neiva, Gisele F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the surface roughness of milled chairside computer-assisted design/computer assisted machining (CAD/CAM) restorations using several contouring/polishing systems as to their effectiveness for creating a clinically acceptable surface. One hundred onlays were milled from monolithic CAD/CAM blocks with an MCXL milling chamber (Sirona Dental) as follows: 30 resin nano-ceramic (Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE), 30 hybrid ceramic (Enamic, Vita) and 40 leucite-reinforced ceramic (EmpressCAD, Ivoclar). A single group of EmpressCAD onlays was glazed-fired in a porcelain oven (Programat CS2, Ivoclar). Finishing and polishing systems consisted of either an abrasive-polish technique or a brush-polish technique. Roughness values were measured using a three-dimensional measuring laser microscope (OLS4000 LEXT by Olympus). There was a significant difference in the baseline surface roughness of the CAD/CAM materials (p ≤ 0.05), with the resin nano-ceramic (Lava Ultimate) being smoother than the hybrid ceramic (Enamic), and both being smoother than the leucite-reinforced ceramic (EmpressCAD). All polishing techniques resulted in a smoother surface compared with the baseline surface for the leucite-reinforced ceramic (p ≤ 0.05), with both techniques resulting in a significantly smoother surface than glazing in a porcelain oven (p ≤ 0.05). Both polishing techniques resulted in a smoother surface compared with the baseline surface for both the nano-ceramic and hybrid ceramic materials (p ≤ 0.05). It is possible to create an equally smooth surface for chairside CAD/CAM resilient materials compared with milled ceramics using several finishing and polishing techniques. In general, the polished ceramic surfaces were smoother than the glazed ceramic surfaces. The results of the study indicate that it is possible to create an equally smooth surface for chairside CAD/CAM resilient materials compared with milled ceramics using several

  4. Tissue banking training courses: Polish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Artur; Gut, Grzegorz; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, Izabela; Olender, Ewa

    2013-03-01

    Personnel directly involved in the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells should be appropriately qualified and provided with timely and relevant training according to EU directives. In the time of new tissue and cells regulations implementation such a training system existed in Poland only at a local level. The first training programme outlines for various groups of health professionals engaged in tissue banking practice was created in co-operation with the Institute for LifeLong Learning at University of Barcelona in 2006. This initial training courses were financially supported by EU Transition Facility Programme 2004. Then, starting from 2006, based on previous experience, system of advanced training courses was created. This training programme was financially supported by the National Programme for the Development of Transplantation Medicine 2006-2009-POLGRAFT financed by Polish Ministry of Health. During 2006 and 2007 first set of tissue banking initial training courses were provided according to TF 2004 project. Over 200 pathologists, forensic medicine specialists and other medical doctors responsible for donor screening and classification, medical directors of tissue establishments, technical staff; tissue graft users: orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, cardiosurgeons and ophthalmologists were trained. Between 2006 and 2009 there were organized 8 advanced tissue banking training courses according to POLGRAFT programme. There were organized both theoretical and practical courses on various aspects of tissue for over 350 persons. We present our experience in organisation of international and national tissue banking training courses.

  5. Comparison of Heat Transfer Coefficients of Silver Coated and Chromium Coated Copper Tubes of Condenser in Dropwise Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Shivesh Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries steam is being used in power generating system. The steam leaving the power unit is reconverted into water in a condenser designed to transfer heat from the steam to the cooling water as rapidly and as efficiently as possible. The efficiency of condenser depends on rate of condensation and mode of condensation of steam in the condenser. The increase in efficiency of the condenser enhances the heat transfer co-efficient which in turn results in economic design of condenser and reduced pumping power for a desired output. Higher heat transfer coefficient in condensers is beneficial in the industrial applications e.g., Sugar industry, ships propulsion, nuclear power reactor, power generating system, production of Liquefied petroleum gases, liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen. In the present experimental study, comparison of heat transfer coefficients of silver coated and chromium coated copper tubes of condenser have been performed. it has been observed that inside heat transfer coefficient (hᵢ, outside heat transfer coefficient (h₀ and overall heat transfer coefficient (U associated with silver coated condenser made of copper is more than that of chromium coated condenser made of copper. It is also observed that all the three types of heat transfer coefficient increases with increase of steam pressure [1].

  6. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  7. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  8. Simple Analysis of Equipment and Operating Performance of the AP1000 Condenser Air Removal System%AP1000凝汽器抽真空系统设备及运行性能浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施佳

    2015-01-01

    One of the important methods to improve the thermal efficiency of nuclear power plant is to reduce the turbine backpressure, and there are two efficient paths to maintain the turbine backpressure:one is to strengthen seal to reduce leakage,and the other is to maintain the vacuum extraction capability of the Condenser.Condenser air removal systemremoves noncondensable gases and air from the main condenser,and establishes and maintains a vacuum in the main condenser,thereby provides a suitable backpressure for the turbine.The equipment and modes of operation of the Condenser air removal system of the third generation nuclear technology AP1000 is introduced in this paper,and the advantage and disadvantage of operation of the AP1000 Condenser air removal system is analyzed briefly.%降低汽轮机背压是核电厂提高循环热效率的重要手段之一,而维持汽轮机背压有两个有效途径:一是加强密封减少泄漏,二是维持凝汽器的抽真空能力.凝汽器抽真空系统用来抽出凝汽器里的空气和不凝性气体,建立并维持凝汽器里的真空,从而为汽轮机提供一个合适的背压.该文主要介绍了三代核电技术AP1000的凝汽器抽真空系统设备及运行方式,并简要分析了AP1000抽真空系统运行特性及其优缺点.

  9. Thermodynamic integration based on classical atomistic simulations to determine the Gibbs energy of condensed phases: Calculation of the aluminum-zirconium system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.-P.; Gheribi, A. E.; Chartrand, P.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, an in silico procedure to generate a fully coherent set of thermodynamic properties obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is proposed. The procedure is applied to the Al-Zr system because of its importance in the development of high strength Al-Li alloys and of bulk metallic glasses. Cohesive energies of the studied condensed phases of the Al-Zr system (the liquid phase, the fcc solid solution, and various orthorhombic stoichiometric compounds) are calculated using the modified embedded atom model (MEAM) in the second-nearest-neighbor formalism (2NN). The Al-Zr MEAM-2NN potential is parameterized in this work using ab initio and experimental data found in the literature for the AlZr3-L12 structure, while its predictive ability is confirmed for several other solid structures and for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic integration (TI) method is implemented in a general MC algorithm in order to evaluate the absolute Gibbs energy of the liquid and the fcc solutions. The entropy of mixing calculated from the TI method, combined to the enthalpy of mixing and the heat capacity data generated from MD/MC simulations performed in the isobaric-isothermal/canonical (NPT/NVT) ensembles are used to parameterize the Gibbs energy function of all the condensed phases in the Al-rich side of the Al-Zr system in a CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) approach. The modified quasichemical model in the pair approximation (MQMPA) and the cluster variation method (CVM) in the tetrahedron approximation are used to define the Gibbs energy of the liquid and the fcc solid solution respectively for their entire range of composition. Thermodynamic and structural data generated from our MD/MC simulations are used as input data to parameterize these thermodynamic models. A detailed analysis of the validity and transferability of the Al-Zr MEAM-2NN potential is presented throughout our work by comparing the predicted properties obtained

  10. Internet Use of Polish by Polish Melburnians: Implications for Maintenance and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Michael; Debski, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Internet has become an important communication medium and it is having a significant impact on language use. The present study takes a "snapshot" of how the Polish language is currently used with modern communications technologies by Polish-Australians living in Melbourne. Through a questionnaire, it surveys which communications…

  11. Polish electoral geography and its methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rykiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the understanding of electoral geography between social sciences are discussed in the article. Main fields and spatial scales of Polish electoral geography are identified. Main methods of multidimensional statistics are discussed. A necessity of a proper choice, based on theories of voting behaviour, of explaning variables to statistical models are emphasised. Regression analysis indicates only a formal usefulness in electoral geography, for quantitative relationships between variables in the model can be evidenced, which may be meaningless not only essentially, but even statistically. The application of canonical analysis in electoral geography brought a methodological turning-point to the statistical approach. This method allowed to combine: (1 the foundation of the selection of input variables on theories of voting behaviour; (2 the analysis of dependence of the electoral results on socio-economic characteristics of areas; (3 an identification of electoral options; (4 a quantification of the role of the historical heritage in the contemporary voting behaviour; and (5 the analysis of the stability of the electoral space. A well grounded opinion was weakened about the general competitiveness of right- and left-wing parties in Poland’s political space. Parties with similar rather than different programmes compete in given areas. It was indicated that elections have only formal influence on the structure of Parliament while the electoral system is decisive. Electoral, including territorial, manipulations also play their part. The empirical analysis indicated that Poland’s political space is polarised between the right-wing-oriented areas of the south-eastern half of the country and the left-wing-oriented areas of the north-western half. The political competition between the left and the right operates merely on the national scale, while it is not reflected territorially.The quantification of the influence of the nineteenth

  12. Adjusting dental ceramics: An in vitro evaluation of the ability of various ceramic polishing kits to mimic glazed dental ceramic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, René; Beier, Ulrike S; Heiss-Kisielewsky, Irene; Engelmeier, Robert; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Dhima, Matilda

    2015-06-01

    During the insertion appointment, the practitioner is often faced with the need to adjust ceramic surfaces to fit a restoration to the adjacent or opposing dentition and soft tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess the ceramic surface smoothness achieved with various commercially available ceramic polishing kits on different commonly used ceramic systems. The reliability of the cost of a polishing kit as an indicator of improved surface smoothness was assessed. A total of 350 ceramic surfaces representing 5 commonly available ceramic systems (IPS Empress Esthetic, IPS e.max Press, Cergo Kiss, Vita PM 9, Imagine PressX) were treated with 5 types of ceramic polishing systems (Cerapreshine, 94006C, Ceramiste, Optrafine, Zenostar) by following the manufacturers' guidelines. The surface roughness was measured with a profilometer (Taylor Hobson; Precision Taylor Hobson Ltd). The effects of ceramic systems and polishing kits of interest on surface roughness were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, paired t test, and Bonferroni corrected significance level. The ceramic systems and polishing kits statistically affected surface roughness (Pceramic surface. No correlation could be established between the high cost of the polishing kit and low surface roughness. None of the commonly used ceramic polishing kits could create a surface smoother than that of glazed ceramic (Pceramic polishing kits is not recommended as a reliable indicator of better performance of ceramic polishing kits (P>.30). Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface roughness of zirconia for full-contour crowns after clinically simulated grinding and polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rim Hmaidouch; Wolf-Dieter Mu ller; Hans-Christoph Lauer; Paul Weigl

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled intraoral grinding and polishing on the roughness of full-contour zirconia compared to classical veneered zirconia. Thirty bar-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated and divided into two groups (n515). Fifteen specimens (group 1) were glazed and 15 specimens (group 2) were veneered with feldspathic ceramic and then glazed. Prior to grinding, maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were measured using a profilometer, 5 times per specimen. Simulated clinical grinding and polishing were performed on the specimens under water coolant for 15 s and 2 N pressure. For grinding, NTI diamonds burs with grain sizes of 20 mm, 10 mm, and 7.5 mm were used sequentially. The ground surfaces were polished using NTI kits with coarse, medium and fine polishers. After each step, Rmax values were determined. Differences between groups were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The roughness of group 1 was significantly lower than that of group 2. The roughness increased significantly after coarse grinding in both groups. The results after glazing were similar to those obtained after fine grinding for non-veneered zirconia. However, fine-ground veneered zirconia had significantly higher roughness than venerred, glazed zirconia. No significant difference was found between fine-polished and glazed zirconia, but after the fine polishing of veneered zirconia, the roughness was significantly higher than after glazing. It can be concluded that for full-contour zirconia, fewer defects and lower roughness values resulted after grinding and polishing compared to veneered zirconia. After polishing zirconia, lower roughness values were achieved compared to glazing;more interesting was that the grinding of glazed zirconia using the NTI three-step system could deliver smooth surfaces comparable to untreated glazed zirconia surfaces.

  14. Forming a health culture of future teachers in Polish educational establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IERMAKOVA T.S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the experience of the structure and system of training of future teachers in Polish schools. Material: content analysis of domestic and foreign authors. Used data from the survey of students of Polish universities. Also were used survey results through polish service ANKIETKA. For comparison, a questionnaire survey 35 students of the Faculty of Physical Education (future teachers of physical training and 30 students - the future teachers of elementary school of Ukrainian university. Results: the study of Polish teachers consider health culture of a person as the ability to assess individual and community health needs using in everyday life hygiene and health regulations. There have been some differences among Ukrainian and Polish students in their health and health culture. Among the respondents, Polish students - the future teachers of physical culture, is dominated motives such as the improvement of the physical condition, strengthen self-esteem, as well as improved health. Polish students from other disciplines believe that the most important motive for the adoption of physical activity is a concern for the physical well-being and mental health. The majority of Ukrainian students (future teachers of physical culture believe an important part of building health culture of their direct participation in various sports clubs, as well as the ability to organize physical culture, sports and educational work with students outside the classroom. Ukrainian students (other specialty noted the need to improve health, enhance knowledge in specific subjects humanities and promoting healthy lifestyles. Conclusions: It is recommended to use the experience of preparing students of Polish schools in modern Ukrainian higher education.

  15. Surface roughness of zirconia for full-contour crowns after clinically simulated grinding and polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Weigl, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled intraoral grinding and polishing on the roughness of full-contour zirconia compared to classical veneered zirconia. Thirty bar-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated and divided into two groups (n=15). Fifteen specimens (group 1) were glazed and 15 specimens (group 2) were veneered with feldspathic ceramic and then glazed. Prior to grinding, maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were measured using a profilometer, 5 times per specimen. Simulated clinical grinding and polishing were performed on the specimens under water coolant for 15 s and 2 N pressure. For grinding, NTI diamonds burs with grain sizes of 20 µm, 10 µm, and 7.5 µm were used sequentially. The ground surfaces were polished using NTI kits with coarse, medium and fine polishers. After each step, Rmax values were determined. Differences between groups were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The roughness of group 1 was significantly lower than that of group 2. The roughness increased significantly after coarse grinding in both groups. The results after glazing were similar to those obtained after fine grinding for non-veneered zirconia. However, fine-ground veneered zirconia had significantly higher roughness than venerred, glazed zirconia. No significant difference was found between fine-polished and glazed zirconia, but after the fine polishing of veneered zirconia, the roughness was significantly higher than after glazing. It can be concluded that for full-contour zirconia, fewer defects and lower roughness values resulted after grinding and polishing compared to veneered zirconia. After polishing zirconia, lower roughness values were achieved compared to glazing; more interesting was that the grinding of glazed zirconia using the NTI three-step system could deliver smooth surfaces comparable to untreated glazed zirconia surfaces.

  16. Infestation of Polish Agricultural Soils by Plasmodiophora Brassicae Along The Polish-Ukrainian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędryczka Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid, worldwide increase in oilseed rape production that has resulted in enormous intensification of oilseed rape cultivation, leading to tight rotations. This in turn, has caused an accumulation of pests as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases. Recently, clubroot has become one of the biggest concerns of oilseed rape growers. Clubroot is caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. The pathogen may be present in groundwater, lakes, and irrigation water used in sprinkling systems. It can be easily transmitted from one field to another not only by water, but also by soil particles and dust transmitted by wind and on machinery. The aim of our overall study was to check for P. brassicae infestation of Polish agricultural soils. This paper presents the 2012 results of a study performed along the Polish-Ukrainian border in two provinces: Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship and the Carpathian Foothills (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, in south-east Poland. Monitoring was done in 11 counties, including nine rural and two municipal ones. In total, 40 samples were collected, out of which 36 were collected from fields located in rural areas and four from municipal areas, with two per municipal region. Each sample was collected at 8-10 sites per field, using a soil auger. The biotest to detect the presence of P. brassicae was done under greenhouse conditions using seedlings of the susceptible Brassicas: B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and the Polish variety of oilseed rape B. napus cv. Monolit. Susceptible plants grown in heavily infested soils produced galls on their roots. A county was regarded as free from the pathogen, if none of the bait plants became infected. The pathogen was found in three out of 40 fields monitored (7.5% in the Carpathian Foothill region. The fields were located in two rural counties. The pathogen was not found in Lublin province, and was also not detected in any of the municipal counties. The detection with

  17. 核电凝结水精处理系统回收水处理单元的应用%AppIication of recycIed water treatment unit to the condensate poIishing system in nucIear power pIants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洋

    2016-01-01

    Based on detailed analysis on the principle s of recycled water circulating treatment and utilization ,the configurations and main control indexes in the recycled water treatment ,as well as the application situation of recycled water treatment unit to the condensate polishing system in nuclear power plants in the process of resin regeneration the first time are introduced. By means of adjusting the time of ART loop flushing and CRT loop flushing,and based on the comparison of regenerator residue amount,the proportion of optimum circulating cleaning time of the two of them is obtained. At the end ,the water saving effect possibly obtained from the recycling water treatment unit is analyzed.%在详细分析回收水循环处理利用原理的基础上,介绍了回收水处理的配置和主要控制指标,以及回收水处理单元首次在核电凝结水精处理系统树脂再生过程中的应用情况。通过阴树脂再生塔和阳树脂再生塔循环清洗时间调整,并根据再生剂残留量的对比,得到两者最佳的循环清洗时间比例。最后进行了回收水处理单元所能取得的节水效果分析。

  18. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined two main hypotheses: a) Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b) Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (>\\/= 20 cigarettes a day) when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of \\'current\\' smoking (some days and everyday) among the Polish immigrants. METHODS: Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545) completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July-August, 2007). The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484). RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0%) among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4%) among the general Irish population (p < 0.001). Of the 57% of smokers (n = 345\\/606) who purchased cigarettes solely from Poland and the 33% (n = 198\\/606) who purchased only from Ireland, 42.6% (n = 147\\/345) and 41.4% (n = 82\\/198) were "heavy" smokers, respectively (p = 0.79). Employment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.25-6.69), lower education (OR: 3.76; 95%CI: 2.46-5.74), and a longer stay in Ireland (>24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  19. The pharmaceutical care in asthma - Polish and global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swieczkowski, Damian; Poniatowski, Patryk; Merks, Piotr; Jaguszewski, Milosz

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical care is a pharmacist's contribution to the care of individual patients and leads to optimize the use of drugs. The pharmaceutical care may improve adherence, clinical effectiveness of providing therapy and improve the health-related quality of life. The conducted literature review confirmed that pharmaceutical care and advanced pharmaceutical services are clinical effective in asthma. The implementation of pharmaceutical care under Polish conditions is currently insufficient and remains challenging for the future. Herein we should admit, that the polish government has recently put an effort to appoint specially dedicated team establishing a program of reimbursed pharmaceutical care. This move should be considered as a new phase for amendments community pharmacy in Poland. The experience of different health care systems, including for instance United Kingdom, Australia or Canada, might be used in the process of changing Polish perspective. Herein, we have reviewed the literature and highlighted the services creating the program of pharmaceutical care in asthma. This unique work describes the complex nature of optimal pharmaceutical services emphasizing the strong necessity of multidimensional approach in this field.

  20. Replacement of traditional seawater-soluble pigments by starch and hydrolytic enzymes in polishing antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Martin; Pedersen, L. T.; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2010-01-01

    The use of starch and hydrolytic enzymes as replacement for traditional polishing pigments (e.g., Cu2O and ZnO) in antifouling coatings has been investigated. The enzymes facilitate a slow conversion of water-insoluble starch into water-soluble glucose, and dissolution of glucose causes the devel......The use of starch and hydrolytic enzymes as replacement for traditional polishing pigments (e.g., Cu2O and ZnO) in antifouling coatings has been investigated. The enzymes facilitate a slow conversion of water-insoluble starch into water-soluble glucose, and dissolution of glucose causes...... the development of a leached (porous) layer in the wetted, outermost part of the coating. Subsequent water-binder interaction at the pore walls gives rise to polishing, in a manner similar to that of conventional antifouling coatings. Different starch types have been evaluated and classified as potential coating...... the starch-enzyme coatings tested; however, polishing is only detected for two out of four binder systems investigated. Suitable polishing rates of 7-10 mu m/month, based on the enzymatic starch-degradation, have been measured. Controls containing only starch (no enzyme) did not polish....

  1. Evaluation of physical properties of enamel after microabrasion, polishing, and storage in artificial saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, L S M; Lima, D A N L; De Alexandre, R S; Bertoldo, C E S; Aguiar, F H B; Lovadino, J R, E-mail: deboralima@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental School, PO BOX 52 University of Campinas-UNICAMP 13414-903, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    This study evaluated the effect of microabrasion and polishing on the microhardness and roughness of bovine enamel, and the effect of artificial saliva on the hardness of enamel. Bovine enamel blocks were used, forming the groups (n = 48): GI-37% phosphoric acid and pumice, GII--Opalustre, and GIII--Whiteness RM. The groups were divided into different subgroups: (a) diamond paste, (b) fluoride prophylactic paste, and (c) without polishing. Hardness tests were carried out at the following set times: (T1) initial, (T2) after microabrasion and polishing, (T3) after immersion in artificial saliva for 24 h; and (T4) after seven days of immersion. Surface roughness tests were performed. The obtained data were analyzed by two-factor ANOVA and Tukey's test with significance of 5%. Microhardness increased in T2; without polishing, only groups GII and GIII showed an increased microhardness. T3 did not differ from T4; GI, GII and GIII did not provide surface roughness that differed from each other; and all microabrasive systems followed by polishing showed a higher surface smoothness compared with the control groups. It is concluded that microabrasion followed by polishing provided higher hardness and better surface smoothness of the enamel. However, immersion in artificial saliva was not able to increase the enamel hardness.

  2. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Vitamin B{sub 4}-Based Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wixtrom, Alex I. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Buhler, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Modern particle accelerators require minimal interior surface roughness for Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Polishing of the Nb is currently achieved via electrochemical polishing with concentrated mixtures of sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids. This acid-based approach is effective at reducing the surface roughness to acceptable levels for SRF use, but due to acid-related hazards and extra costs (including safe disposal of used polishing solutions), an acid-free method would be preferable. This study focuses on an alternative electrochemical polishing method for Nb, using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride, also known as Vitamin B{sub 4} (VB{sub 4}). Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also performed on the VB4-based system. Nb polished using the VB4-based method was found to have a final surface roughness comparable to that achieved via the acid-based method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These findings indicate that acid-free VB{sub 4}-based electrochemical polishing of Nb represents a promising replacement for acid-based methods of SRF cavity preparation.

  3. Chemical mechanical polishing of tantalum and tantalum nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjam, Sathish Babu S. V.

    these slurries. So other additives (Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate (ADS)/Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid (DBSA)/Benzotriazole (BTA)) were used to suppress Cu removal rates (polish/dissolution) further, thus minimizing dishing. Hence the proposed solution that relies on a single dispersion to remove both Cu and barrier layer by simply varying the pH should prove very attractive. The objective of this investigation is to design a single dispersion slurry that could be used to polish not only the bulk of Cu but also to polish residual Cu along with barrier layers (Ta/TaN). Polishing properties (removal rate, post polish surface roughness etc.,) of Ta/TaN using various complexing agents, particularly dicarboxylic acids were evaluated. Slurry chemistry was varied using different pH and complexing agents, and the polishing characteristics were studied with particular interest to understand the mechanism of Ta/TaN polishing. The effect of a passivating system containing additives (ADS/DBSA/BTA) in suppressing the excessive dissolution of copper from recessed regions, and obtaining uniform planarization on the Cu surface will also be discussed. The other main objective of this work is to design a single dispersion slurry that could not only be used for removing bulk Cu but also to remove residual Cu along with barrier layer (Ta/TaN). Patterned films were polished using these single dispersion slurries, and it was shown that the dishing and erosion profiles for these polished wafers are close to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) specifications.

  4. Polish parliament liberalizes abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-22

    On October 24, the Sejm (Poland's lower house of parliament) voted 228 to 195 (with 16 abstentions) to amend Poland's March 1993 ban on abortions. The amendment legalizes abortion until the 12th week of pregnancy for women who face financial hardship or difficult personal circumstances. Client counseling by a doctor who will not perform the abortion and a 3-day wait are required. Abortions will be permitted in licensed private clinics, as well as in public hospitals. Anyone performing an illegal abortion can receive 2 years' imprisonment. The government will subsidize contraceptive pills, and a sex education curriculum will be developed for schools. Abortion had been legal and widely available under communist rule; however, a Catholic-aligned government limited abortion to cases where a woman's life or health was endangered, where the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest, or where the fetus had a severe anomaly. The Catholic Church opposed the new measure, and the Senat (Poland's upper house), on October 3, had voted 40 to 52 (with 2 abstentions) against the amendment. Although the Sejm had previously voted 208 to 61 (with 15 abstentions) in favor of the amendment, 120 of those opposed to the measure, primarily members of the Polish Peasants Party (part of Poland's ruling coalition), had walked out in protest just before an August tally. The Democratic Left Alliance, the other coalition partner, supports the amendment. The most recent vote in the Sejm overturns the Senat veto; however, before the law can go into effect in 1997, it must be signed by President Aleksandr Kwasniewski (a supporter) after a review by Poland's conservative constitutional tribunal.

  5. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). Part IV. Novel self-ignition system incorporating metallic microwave condensing cones to activate MDELs in photochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sato, Susumu; Serpone, Nick

    2009-11-01

    A metallic condensing cone that concentrates microwave radiation (equivalent to an optical lens) has been developed and used as part of a system to activate a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) in the oxidative treatment of wastewaters by aiding the novel self-ignition of the lamp on irradiation at low microwave power levels. This approach to self-ignition can potentially lead to considerable energy savings in such treatments. System performance was examined for the ignition power of microwaves of such MDEL devices in water, whose usefulness was assessed by investigating the photolytic transformation of aqueous solutions of representatives of three classes of contaminants: chlorinated phenols, herbicides and endocrine disruptors, specifically 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol (bisphenol-A; BPA), respectively, taken as model wastewaters in air-equilibrated, in oxygen-saturated and in TiO2-containing aqueous media. The results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of the photo-induced degradation processes.

  6. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  7. Numerical simulation of condensation on structured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowu; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2014-11-25

    Condensation of liquid droplets on solid surfaces happens widely in nature and industrial processes. This phase-change phenomenon has great effect on the performance of some microfluidic devices. On the basis of micro- and nanotechnology, superhydrophobic structured surfaces can be well-fabricated. In this work, the nucleating and growth of droplets on different structured surfaces are investigated numerically. The dynamic behavior of droplets during the condensation is simulated by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which has the ability to incorporate the microscopic interactions, including fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-surface interaction. The results by the LBM show that, besides the chemical properties of surfaces, the topography of structures on solid surfaces influences the condensation process. For superhydrophobic surfaces, the spacing and height of microridges have significant influence on the nucleation sites. This mechanism provides an effective way for prevention of wetting on surfaces in engineering applications. Moreover, it suggests a way to prevent ice formation on surfaces caused by the condensation of subcooled water. For hydrophilic surfaces, however, microstructures may be submerged by the liquid films adhering to the surfaces. In this case, microstructures will fail to control the condensation process. Our research provides an optimized way for designing surfaces for condensation in engineering systems.

  8. Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    A modern, unified treatment of condensed matter physics This new work presents for the first time in decades a sweeping review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching "not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, electron interference in nanometer-sized channels, and the quantum Hall effect." Six major areas are covered---atomic structure, electronic structure, mechanical properties, electron transport, optical properties, and magnetism. But rather than defining the field in terms of particular materials, the author focuses on the way condensed matter physicists approach physical problems, combining phenomenology and microscopic arguments with information from experiments. For graduate students and professionals, researchers and engineers, applied mathematicians and materials scientists, Condensed Matter Physics provides: * An exciting collection of new topics from the past two decades. * A thorough treatment of classic topics, including band theory, transport theory, and semiconductor physics. * Over 300 figures, incorporating many images from experiments. * Frequent comparison of theory and experiment, both when they agree and when problems are still unsolved. * More than 50 tables of data and a detailed index. * Ample end-of-chapter problems, including computational exercises. * Over 1000 references, both recent and historically significant.

  9. Soft condensed matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.

    2002-01-01

    These lectures illustrate some of the concepts of soft-condensed matter physics, taking examples from colloid physics. Many of the theoretical concepts will be illustrated with the results of computer simulations. After a brief introduction describing interactions between colloids, the paper focuses

  10. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    . This paper addresses the question of whether the sensation of landscape can be condensed in function or to the size of an urban building. It also discusses the benefits and potentials of the amalgamate, by underlining the unique qualities of such a hybrid. In an attempt to define the experience of landscape...

  11. Forces and stress in second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for condensed phase systems within the resolution-of-identity Gaussian and plane waves approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-09-01

    The forces acting on the atoms as well as the stress tensor are crucial ingredients for calculating the structural and dynamical properties of systems in the condensed phase. Here, these derivatives of the total energy are evaluated for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation energy (MP2) in the framework of the resolution of identity Gaussian and plane waves method, in a way that is fully consistent with how the total energy is computed. This consistency is non-trivial, given the different ways employed to compute Coulomb, exchange, and canonical four center integrals, and allows, for example, for energy conserving dynamics in various ensembles. Based on this formalism, a massively parallel algorithm has been developed for finite and extended system. The designed parallel algorithm displays, with respect to the system size, cubic, quartic, and quintic requirements, respectively, for the memory, communication, and computation. All these requirements are reduced with an increasing number of processes, and the measured performance shows excellent parallel scalability and efficiency up to thousands of nodes. Additionally, the computationally more demanding quintic scaling steps can be accelerated by employing graphics processing units (GPU's) showing, for large systems, a gain of almost a factor two compared to the standard central processing unit-only case. In this way, the evaluation of the derivatives of the RI-MP2 energy can be performed within a few minutes for systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions. With good time to solution, the implementation thus opens the possibility to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in various ensembles (microcanonical ensemble and isobaric-isothermal ensemble) at the MP2 level of theory. Geometry optimization, full cell relaxation, and energy conserving MD simulations have been performed for a variety of molecular crystals including NH3, CO2, formic acid, and benzene.

  12. Forces and stress in second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for condensed phase systems within the resolution-of-identity Gaussian and plane waves approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Ben, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.delben@chem.uzh.ch; Hutter, Jürg, E-mail: hutter@chem.uzh.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); VandeVondele, Joost, E-mail: Joost.VandeVondele@mat.ethz.ch [Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-14

    The forces acting on the atoms as well as the stress tensor are crucial ingredients for calculating the structural and dynamical properties of systems in the condensed phase. Here, these derivatives of the total energy are evaluated for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation energy (MP2) in the framework of the resolution of identity Gaussian and plane waves method, in a way that is fully consistent with how the total energy is computed. This consistency is non-trivial, given the different ways employed to compute Coulomb, exchange, and canonical four center integrals, and allows, for example, for energy conserving dynamics in various ensembles. Based on this formalism, a massively parallel algorithm has been developed for finite and extended system. The designed parallel algorithm displays, with respect to the system size, cubic, quartic, and quintic requirements, respectively, for the memory, communication, and computation. All these requirements are reduced with an increasing number of processes, and the measured performance shows excellent parallel scalability and efficiency up to thousands of nodes. Additionally, the computationally more demanding quintic scaling steps can be accelerated by employing graphics processing units (GPU’s) showing, for large systems, a gain of almost a factor two compared to the standard central processing unit-only case. In this way, the evaluation of the derivatives of the RI-MP2 energy can be performed within a few minutes for systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions. With good time to solution, the implementation thus opens the possibility to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in various ensembles (microcanonical ensemble and isobaric-isothermal ensemble) at the MP2 level of theory. Geometry optimization, full cell relaxation, and energy conserving MD simulations have been performed for a variety of molecular crystals including NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, formic acid, and benzene.

  13. Forces and stress in second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for condensed phase systems within the resolution-of-identity Gaussian and plane waves approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-09-14

    The forces acting on the atoms as well as the stress tensor are crucial ingredients for calculating the structural and dynamical properties of systems in the condensed phase. Here, these derivatives of the total energy are evaluated for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation energy (MP2) in the framework of the resolution of identity Gaussian and plane waves method, in a way that is fully consistent with how the total energy is computed. This consistency is non-trivial, given the different ways employed to compute Coulomb, exchange, and canonical four center integrals, and allows, for example, for energy conserving dynamics in various ensembles. Based on this formalism, a massively parallel algorithm has been developed for finite and extended system. The designed parallel algorithm displays, with respect to the system size, cubic, quartic, and quintic requirements, respectively, for the memory, communication, and computation. All these requirements are reduced with an increasing number of processes, and the measured performance shows excellent parallel scalability and efficiency up to thousands of nodes. Additionally, the computationally more demanding quintic scaling steps can be accelerated by employing graphics processing units (GPU's) showing, for large systems, a gain of almost a factor two compared to the standard central processing unit-only case. In this way, the evaluation of the derivatives of the RI-MP2 energy can be performed within a few minutes for systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions. With good time to solution, the implementation thus opens the possibility to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in various ensembles (microcanonical ensemble and isobaric-isothermal ensemble) at the MP2 level of theory. Geometry optimization, full cell relaxation, and energy conserving MD simulations have been performed for a variety of molecular crystals including NH3, CO2, formic acid, and benzene.

  14. Impact of APEX Ile64val Gene Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Ber System on Modulation of the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Polish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabziński Jacek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the deadliest cancers which lie in the incidence of morbidity in second place. Intensive research is to determine and confirm the genetic basis of this disease, which is believed may have a direct relationship with the reduced efficiency of DNA repair systems.

  15. Performance of a passive emergency heat removal system of advanced reactors in two-phase flow and with high concentration of non-condensable; Atuacao de um sistema passivo de remocao de calor de emergencia de reatores avancados em escoamento bifasico e com alta concentracao de nao-condensaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Luiz Alberto

    2008-07-01

    The research and the development of passive emergency cooling systems are necessary for the new generation of thermo-nuclear systems. Some basic information on the operation of these systems require the research of some relative processes to the natural circulation, mainly in conditions of two-phase flow involving processes of condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases, because many found situations are new. The experimental facility called Bancada de Circulacao Natural (BCN) was used for the realization of tests with diverse concentrations of non-condensable and power levels. The non-condensable gas present in the circuit decreases the rate of heat transfer for the secondary of the heat exchanger, determining low efficiency of the heat exchanger. High concentration of non-condensable in the vapor condensation, determines negative pressure, and cause the inversion of the flow in the circuit. The initial concentration of non-condensable and the geometry of the circuit, in the inlet of the heat exchanger, determines the establishment of transitory with two-phase flow. The BCN was performed with the computational code of Analysis of Accidents and Thermal-Hydraulics RELAP5/MOD 3.3 and, the calculated values had been compared with the experimental data, presenting good agreement for small non-condensable concentrations. The values calculated for high concentrations of non-condensable had been satisfactory after the circuit to have reached the temperature of saturation in the electric heater. (author)

  16. The geometric phase in quantum systems foundations, mathematical concepts, and applications in molecular and condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, Arno; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Niu, Qian; Zwanziger, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Aimed at graduate physics and chemistry students, this is the first comprehensive monograph covering the concept of the geometric phase in quantum physics from its mathematical foundations to its physical applications and experimental manifestations It contains all the premises of the adiabatic Berry phase as well as the exact Anandan-Aharonov phase It discusses quantum systems in a classical time-independent environment (time dependent Hamiltonians) and quantum systems in a changing environment (gauge theory of molecular physics) The mathematical methods used are a combination of differential geometry and the theory of linear operators in Hilbert Space As a result, the monograph demonstrates how non-trivial gauge theories naturally arise and how the consequences can be experimentally observed Readers benefit by gaining a deep understanding of the long-ignored gauge theoretic effects of quantum mechanics and how to measure them

  17. Theory of non-equilibrium critical phenomena in three-dimensional condensed systems of charged mobile nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovkov, V N; Zvejnieks, G; Kotomin, E A

    2014-07-21

    A study of 3d electrostatic self-assembly (SA) in systems of charged nanoparticles (NPs) is one of the most difficult theoretical problems. In particular, the limiting case of negligible or very low polar media (e.g. salt) concentration, where the long-range NP interactions cannot be reduced to commonly used effective short-range (Yukawa) potentials, remains unstudied. Moreover, the present study has demonstrated that unlike the Debye-Hückel theory, a complete screening of the charges in SA kinetics (dynamic SA) is not always possible. Generally speaking, one has to take into account implicitly how each NP interacts with all other NPs (the true long-range interactions). Traditional theoretical methods allow us to monitor such electrostatic 3d system kinetics only for very short times, which is far from sufficient for understanding the dynamic SA. In this paper, combining an integrated analytical approach (the non-linear integro-differential kinetic equation for correlation functions) and reverse Monte Carlo in the 3d case, we have obtained a self-consistent solution of this challenging problem. We demonstrate, in particular, the existence of critical points and critical phenomena in the non-equilibrium kinetics in a 3d system of oppositely charged mobile NPs.

  18. Photon-stimulated desorption and the effect of cracking of condensed molecules in a cryogenic vacuum system [of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Anashin, V V; Collins, I R; Gröbner, Oswald

    2001-01-01

    The design of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) vacuum system requires a complete understanding of all processes which may affect the residual gas density in the cold bore of the 1.9 K cryomagnets. A wealth of data has been obtained which may be used to predict the residual gas density inside a cold vacuum system exposed to synchrotron radiation. In this study, the effect of cracking of cryosorbed molecules by synchrotron radiation photons has been included. Cracking of the molecular species CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ has been observed in recent studies and these findings have been incorporated in a more detailed dynamic gas density model for the LHC. In this paper, we describe the relevant physical processes and the parameters required for a full evaluation. It is shown that the dominant gas species in the LHC vacuum system with its beam screen are H/sub 2/ and CO. The important result of this study is that, while the surface coverage of cryosorbed CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/ molecules is limited due to cracking, the...

  19. Superfluid stiffness of a driven dissipative condensate with disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Alexander; Hyart, Timo; Eastham, Paul R; Rosenow, Bernd

    2013-12-01

    Observations of macroscopic quantum coherence in driven systems, e.g. polariton condensates, have strongly stimulated experimental as well as theoretical efforts during the last decade. We address the question of whether a driven quantum condensate is a superfluid, allowing for the effects of disorder and its nonequilibrium nature. We predict that for spatial dimensions d<4 the superfluid stiffness vanishes once the condensate exceeds a critical size, and treat in detail the case d=2. Thus a nonequilibrium condensate is not a superfluid in the thermodynamic limit, even for weak disorder, although superfluid behavior would persist in small systems.

  20. Surface roughness and morphology of dental nanocomposites polished by four different procedures evaluated by a multifractal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Stach, Sebastian; Lainović, Tijana; Vilotić, Marko; Blažić, Larisa; Alb, Sandu Florin; Kakaš, Damir

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dental polishing methods on surface texture parameters of dental nanocomposites. The 3-D surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and multifractal analysis. Two representative dental resin-based nanocomposites were investigated: a nanofilled and a nanohybrid composite. The samples were polished by two dental polishing protocols using multi-step and one-step system. Both protocols were then followed by diamond paste polishing. The 3-D surface roughness of samples was studied by AFM on square areas of topography on the 80 × 80 μm2 scanning area. The multifractal spectrum theory based on computational algorithms was applied for AFM data and multifractal spectra were calculated. The generalized dimension Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of dental nanocomposites polished by four different dental polishing protocols at nanometer scale. The results showed that the larger the spectrum width Δα (Δα = αmax - αmin) of the multifractal spectra f(α), the more non-uniform was the surface morphology. Also, the 3-D surface topography was described by statistical parameters, according to ISO 25178-2:2012. The 3-D surface of samples had a multifractal nature. Nanofilled composite had lower values of height parameters than nanohybrid composites, due to its composition. Multi-step polishing protocol created a better finished surface, for both tested materials, than one-step polishing protocol, even when it was followed by diamond paste polishing. Diamond paste polishing created smooth surface and reduced roughness of tested materials.

  1. Design and implementation of constant temperature machining fluid supply system in ultra-smooth optical polishing%超光滑加工中抛光液恒温供给系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洋; 彭吉; 闫丰

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on design and implementation of constant temperature fluid supply system used in ultra-smooth optical elements machining. Firstly, the system requirements from functionality and performance are analyzed. Secondly, the overall system design is given, which uses deionized water as the heat transfer medium, the temperature of fluid is changed indirectly, slowly and uniformly, and a constant cooling capacity is introduced by compressor cooling. The temperature is controlled at a constant value by PID algorithm. The simulation result validates that the design accuracy meets the requirements of ultra-smooth optical machining. Finally, the built system is tested, the result show that the temperature stability is better than ± 0.02℃ with/without the loop disturbance. The system can operate in stability,insures the stability of polishing models and removal function, thereby the machining accuracy of optical element is more improved.%围绕用于超光滑光学元件加工的抛光液恒温供给系统的设计和实现而展开,首先,从功能及性能上对系统进行需求分析.然后,给出了系统整体设计方案:采用去离子水作为热媒,使抛光液间接、被动、缓慢、均匀升温,并采用压缩机制冷方式,引入恒定的制冷量,使用PID控制算法使得抛光液的温度控制在恒定值,仿真结果表明该设计方案满足加工工艺提出的精度要求.最后,对搭建后的系统进行测试,在有/无外循环扰动的情况下温度稳定性均优于±0.02℃.系统运行稳定,确保抛光模型和加工去除函数的稳定性,从而进一步提升光学元件的加工精度.

  2. Domains of Disoriented Chiral Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Amado, R D; Lu, Yang

    1996-01-01

    The probability distribution of neutral pion fraction from independent domains of disoriented chiral condensate is characterized. The signal for the condensate is clear for a small number of domains but is greatly reduced for more than three.

  3. THE INTEGRATION OF BUSINESS MODELS AS PART OF PRE-MERGER AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE POLISH SECTOR OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Wartini-Twardowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology of assessing opportunities and threats related to the combining of heterogeneous business models in complex organizations (enterprise groups from the point of view of added value. The main objective was to develop a methodology for assessing the risk of including a company with a specific business model within a complex organization. The authors carried out an in-depth analysis of mutual influences for fifteen typical business models. Guided by their original approach to classifying business models in the sector for management information systems, the authors used the cross-impact method to rank models in the value chain of this sector. The operational processes of the business models were also identified. The proposed methodology allows for a relatively accurate assessment of the impact of particular operational processes of one model upon the strategic objectives of another. The study established a set of data enabling the determination of the potential risks of combining two distinct sector models, the ‘integrator’ and the ‘added value reseller’, as an enterprise group. The methodology presented in this paper could be used to develop a computer system supporting strategic decisions regarding the allocation of resources in complex organizations.

  4. Basic concept for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be used as a long-pulse neutron source for Condensed Matter research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivanco, R., E-mail: raul.vivanco.sanchez@gmail.com [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Ghiglino, A.; Vicente, J.P. de; Sordo, F.; Terrón, S.; Magán, M. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Bermejo, F.J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-11

    A model for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be operated as a source of cold neutrons for Condensed Matter research is developed at the conceptual level. Its baseline layout relies upon proven accelerator, spalattion target and fuel array technologies, and consists in a proton accelerator able to deliver some 67.5 mA of proton beam with kinetic energy 0.6 GeV, a pulse length of 2.86 ms, and repetition rate of 14 Hz. The particle beam hits a target of conventional design that is surrounded by a multiplicative core made of fissile/fertile material, composed by a subcritical array of fuel bars made of aluminium Cermet cooled by light water poisoned with boric acid. Relatively low enriched uranium is chosen as fissile material. An optimisation of several parameters is carried out, using as components of the objective function several characteristics pertaining the cold neutron pulse. The results show that the optimal device will deliver up to 80% of the cold neutron flux expected for some of the ongoing projects using a significantly lower proton beam power than that managed in such projects. The total power developed within the core rises up to 22.8 MW, and the criticality range shifts to a final k{sub eff} value of around 0.9 after the 50 days cycle.

  5. Napoleon Cybulski--Polish pioneer in developing of the device for measuring blood flow velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, W W; Konturek, S J; Bilski, R

    2006-04-01

    Napoleon Cybulski (1854-1919) was the most prominent Polish physiologist who chaired the Department of Physiology at the Faculty of Medicine of Jagiellonian University between 1885 and 1919. One of his greatest achievements was the construction of a device for precise measurements of blood movement in the vessels - the photohemotachometer, which provided a better insight into the physiology and pathophysiology of the circulatory system. In the field of endocrinology Cybulski together with Szymonowicz, found out that adrenal extracts contain biologically active substances that elevate blood pressure. He was also a constructor of an extremely clever microcalorimeter to measure the quantity of heat produced during isolated muscle contraction. He applied, for the first time, condensator discharges to stimulate nerves and analyzed changes in the excitability of the muscles. Cybulski proved that the cause of the electrical excitability of tissue depends on the electrical energy and the time of its duration. Together with Beck, he performed the experiments on the sensory centers in the central nervous system by means of the observations of the electrical evoked potentials. They discovered the continuous electrical oscillations in the brain - the brain waves and recorded the negative electrical potentials in certain brain areas induced by sensory impulses coming from the periphery. Using this technique Beck and Cybulski localized various centers in the brain of dogs and Macaccus rhesus monkeys. The names of Beck and Cybulski were quoted in many publications on neurophysiology and electroencephalography. The present paper describes Napoleon Cybulski as a constructor of an original instrument for studying the movement of blood under various experimental conditions an emphasizes the contribution of this invention to the development of physiology.

  6. Preliminary study of disc hydrodynamic polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Lin, Bin; Zhang, XiaoFeng; Liu, PengFei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a developed polishing method based on elastic emission machining and Jules Verne-a variation on fluid jet polishing-is presented. This method is named disc hydrodynamic polishing (DHDP). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model that consists of a CFD model and an erosion model is introduced to predict the surface roughness obtained by DHDP. The performance of DHDP is studied by experiments. The slurry used in the experiments comprises 95% deionized water and 5% cerium oxide particles. Fused-silica glass is chosen as the workpiece. After the experiments, an ultrasmooth surface without cracks is obtained. The simulation results principally coincide with the experimental results. The experimental results show that the actual roughness is slightly less than the prediction and smaller particles are more favorable for obtaining a better surface roughness.

  7. Removal Of Optical Coatings Without Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Helen

    1980-11-01

    A process for removing antireflection, mirror and polarizer coatings has been developed at ILC, based on work begun by LLL (Applied Optics Vol. 17, No. 12, 15 June 1978 - "Notes on Optical Coating Removal", N.J. Brown). Because of the danger (personnel hazard) involved in the hydrofluoric acid process, we employed an ammonium bifluoride solution, combined with various polishing components. The substrates, generally BK7, are fairly soft and also sensitive to chemical action. Therefore we have limited our polishing materials to aluminum oxide powder graded at 0.1 pm or smaller. For some coatings, no polishing material is used, as the ammonium bifluoride solution is adequate to remove the coating. The resulting clean surface is washed and neutralized, and is then ready for recoating.

  8. High temperature microbial corrosion in the condenser of a geothermal electric power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Sanchez, R.; Magana-Vazquez, A.; Sanchez-Yanez, J.M. [Univ. Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Gomez, L.M. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico). Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico]|[Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-03-01

    Field and experimental growth of microbiologically influenced corrosion at high temperatures in a geothermal electric power unit condenser is discussed. Four chambers containing polished and disinfected 304L stainless steel tubes were exposed for two, four, six, and eight months to the condenser environment at temperatures ranging from 150 C at the inlet to 40 C at the outlet. The tubes developed pitting where Desulfotomaculum Nigrificans and Desulfotomaculum Acetoxidans colonies were clearly identified by biochemical tests. There were also some indications of the presence of genus Desulfovibrio and genus Thermodesulfobacterium. The characteristics of pitting were studied employing SEM-EDS techniques and optical microscopy.

  9. Vortices in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haljan, Paul C.

    2004-05-01

    Since the advent of Bose-Einstein condensation in the dilute alkalis, there has been considerable interest in observing effects in atomic condensates akin to the hallmark effects associated with superfluidity and superconductivity. In particular, the study of quantized vortices and vortex lattices represents an important connection between the traditional ``super" systems such as liquid Helium and this new atomic system. This thesis explores some of the first vortex experiments in a condensate of magnetically trapped Rubidium-87. Single vortex lines and rings are created using a wavefunction engineering technique, which is an ideal starting point to study the dynamical behavior of vortices within the condensate. An entirely different approach of ``intrinsic nucleation" has been developed to create rapidly rotating condensates with large amounts of vorticity. A novel variation of forced evaporation is used to simultaneously cool and spin up an ultracold gas. In this way, condensates can be formed that are rotating in excess of 95% of the centrifugal limit and contain large, extraordinarily regular lattices of well over 100 vortices. Direct detection of the vortex cores makes it possible to study the microscopic structure of the vortex arrangements both at equilibrium and under dynamical conditions where severe applied stresses distort the lattice far from its equilibrium configuration. In conclusion, the techniques developed in this work have helped to open up a new area of rotating condensate physics and, in the future, may lead to regimes of extreme rotation and quantum Hall physics. This work was performed at the University of Colorado, Boulder, under the supervision of Prof. Eric A. Cornell.

  10. Effect of non-condensable gas on thermal stratification and flow patterns in suppression pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jiejin, E-mail: chiven77@hotmail.com [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China); Jo, Byeongnam; Erkan, Nejdet; Okamoto, Koji [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura 319-1188, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Effect of the non-condensable gas on the direct contact condensation in suppression pool was studied. • Both particle image velocimetry and high speed camera are used for the experiments. • Influence of non-condensable gas on thermal stratification, condensation behavior, and velocity was obtained. - Abstract: This work analyzes the effect of the non-condensable gas on the direct contact condensation in suppression pool with thermal stratification. Both the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system and high speed camera are used for the experiments. The influences of the non-condensable gas on the thermal stratification, the condensation behavior, and the velocity field are obtained in detail through the experiments. What is more, the experimental quantitative results about the direct contact condensation of vapor mixing with the non-condensable gas in the suppression pool would be used as benchmarking for the CFD simulation of relevant phenomena.

  11. An Elementary Proof of Dodgson's Condensation Method for Calculating Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Main, Mitch; Donor, Micah; Harwood, R. Corban

    2016-01-01

    In 1866, Charles Ludwidge Dodgson published a paper concerning a method for evaluating determinants called the condensation method. His paper documented a new method to calculate determinants that was based on Jacobi's Theorem. The condensation method is presented and proven here, and is demonstrated by a series of examples. The condensation method can be applied to a number of situations, including calculating eigenvalues, solving a system of linear equations, and even determining the differ...

  12. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding

  13. Overestimating hybrid layer quality in polished adhesive/dentin interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Spencer, Paulette

    2004-03-15

    The most popular techniques for determining the quality of the hybrid layer (HL) have relied on morphologic characterization of the polished adhesive/dentin (a/d) interfaces before and after acid-bleach chemical treatment. Using these techniques, the existence of smooth, acid-resistant layers has been consistently reported for most adhesive systems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether popular specimen preparation techniques that include polishing and acid-bleach treatment modify the a/d interface, mask the complexity of the HL, and lead to inaccurate assessment of the quality of the HL. To understand the impact of specimen preparation techniques on the morphology of the resin-dentin interface, polished and unpolished specimens from the same tooth were closely compared after different acid-bleach chemical treatment procedures. Two one-bottle adhesives, that is, 3M Single Bond and Pulpdent UNO, exhibiting distinct differences in hydrophilic/hydrophobic composition, were used in this investigation. Using specimens from the same tooth, the effect of chemical treatments on the morphology of the resin-dentin interdiffusion zone and the differences in the morphology of polished and unpolished specimens after these same treatments were studied with scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that conventional specimen preparation techniques that include polishing and acid-bleach treatment can adversely affect and even obscure the structural detail of the a/d interface in specimens that possess a porous HL. The results indicated that the Pulpdent UNO/dentin interface had better quality than the 3M Single Bond/dentin interface. The difference in the quality of HL can be attributed to factors such as compositional differences that impact the adhesive interaction with water, that is present within the substrate during wet bonding. The inability of the conventional acid-bleach procedure to reveal the differences in the scanning electron microscopy interfacial

  14. Yield of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and efficiency of weed management systems with glyphosate and conventional herbicides under German and Polish crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichterlein, Henrike; Matzk, Anja; Kordas, Leszek; Kraus, Josef; Stibbe, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    In sugar beet production, weed control is one of the most important and most expensive practices to ensure yield. Since glyphosate-resistant sugar beets are not yet approved for cultivation in the EU, little commercial experience exists with these sugar beets in Europe. Experimental field trials were conducted at five environments (Germany, Poland, 2010, 2011) to compare the effects of glyphosate with the effects of conventional weed control programs on the development of weeds, weed control efficiency and yield. The results show that the glyphosate weed control programs compared to the conventional methods decreased not only the number of herbicide applications but equally in magnitude decreased the dosage of active ingredients. The results also showed effective weed control with glyphosate when the weed covering was greater and sugar beets had a later growth stage of four true leaves. Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets applied with the glyphosate herbicide two or three times had an increase in white sugar yield from 4 to 18 % in comparison to the high dosage conventional herbicide systems. In summary, under glyphosate management sugar beets can positively contribute to the increasingly demanding requirements regarding efficient sugar beet cultivation and to the demands by society and politics to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products in the environment.

  15. Renormalisation Group Flow and Kaon Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Krippa, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Functional renormalisation group approach is applied to a system of kaons with finite chemical potential. A set of approximate flow equations for the effective couplings is derived and solved. At high scale the system is found to be at the normal phase whereas at some critical value of the running scale it undergoes the phase transition (PT) to the phase with a spontaneously broken symmetry with the kaon condensate as an order parameter. The value of the condensate turns out to be quite sensitive to the kaon-kaon scattering length.

  16. Composition of gases vented from a condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, R.N.

    1980-08-01

    Designers of systems that involve condensers often need to predict the amount of process vapor that accompanies the noncondensable gases that are vented from the condensers. An approximation is given that appears to provide, in many cases, reasonably accurate values for the mole ratio of process vapor to noncondensable gases in the vented mixture. The approximation is particularly applicable to flash and direct-contact power systems for geothermal brines and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). More regorous relationships are available for exceptional cases.

  17. Tribology analysis of chemical-mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runnels, S.R.; Eyman, L.M. (Sematech, Austin, TX (United States))

    1994-06-01

    To better understand the variation of material removal rate on a wafer during chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP), knowledge of the stress distribution on the wafer surface is required. The difference in wafer-surface stress distributions could be considerable depending on whether or not the wafer hydroplanes during polishing. This study analyzes the fluid film between the wafer and pad and demonstrates that hydroplaning is possible for standard CMP processes. The importance of wafer curvature, slurry viscosity, and rotation speed on the thickness of the fluid film is also demonstrated.

  18. POLISH-RUSSIAN COOPERATION OF POMORSKIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina GOMULKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Russian Cooperation of Pomorskie Province commenced in 1999 and was based on the intergovernmental agreements. The new agreement, executed between the authorities of the Pomeranian Province and Kaliningrad Oblast in 2002, provided for cooperation in many areas. The contacts between the partners were dominated by economic cooperation. The Polish–Russian cooperation stopped with Polish accession to the Schengen zone. Cooperation resumed when in 2011 and agreement on small cross-border traffic was signed and then ratified in 2012. 

  19. Photon condensation: A new paradigm for Bose-Einstein condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Renju; Ramesh Babu, P.; Senthilnathan, K.

    2016-10-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation is a state of matter known to be responsible for peculiar properties exhibited by superfluid Helium-4 and superconductors. Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in its pure form is realizable with alkali atoms under ultra-cold temperatures. In this paper, we review the experimental scheme that demonstrates the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. We also elaborate on the theoretical framework for atomic Bose-Einstein condensation, which includes statistical mechanics and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. As an extension, we discuss Bose-Einstein condensation of photons realized in a fluorescent dye filled optical microcavity. We analyze this phenomenon based on the generalized Planck's law in statistical mechanics. Further, a comparison is made between photon condensate and laser. We describe how photon condensate may be a possible alternative for lasers since it does not require an energy consuming population inversion process.

  20. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  1. The NSF Condensed Matter Physics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Paul

    The Condensed Matter Physics (CMP) program in the NSF Division of Materials Research (DMR) supports experimental, as well as combined experiment and theory projects investigating the fundamental physics behind phenomena exhibited by condensed matter systems. CMP is the largest Individual Investigator Award program in DMR and supports a broad portfolio of research spanning both hard and soft condensed matter. Representative research areas include: 1) phenomena at the nano- to macro-scale including: transport, magnetic, and optical phenomena; classical and quantum phase transitions; localization; electronic, magnetic, and lattice structure or excitations; superconductivity; topological insulators; and nonlinear dynamics. 2) low-temperature physics: quantum fluids and solids; 1D & 2D electron systems. 3) soft condensed matter: partially ordered fluids, granular and colloid physics, liquid crystals, and 4) understanding the fundamental physics of new states of matter as well as the physical behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions e.g., low temperatures, high pressures, and high magnetic fields. In this talk I will review the current CMP portfolio and discuss future funding trends for the program. I will also describe recent activities in the program aimed at addressing the challenges facing current and future principal investigators.

  2. Muonic Chemistry in Condensed Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    When polarized muons (@m|+) stop in condensed matter, muonic atoms are formed in the final part of their range, and direct measurements of the @m|+-spin polarization are possible via the asymmetric decay into positrons. The hyperfine interaction determines the characteristic precession frequencies of the @m|+ spin in muonium, @w(Mu). Such frequencies can be altered by the interactions of the muonium's electron spin with the surrounding medium. The measurement of @w(Mu) in a condensed system is known often to provide unique information regarding the system. \\\\ \\\\ In particular, the use of muonium atoms as a light isotope of the simple reactive radical H|0 allows the investigation of fast reactions of radicals over a typical time scale 10|-|9~@$<$~t~@$<$~10|-|5~sec, which is determined by the instrumental resolution at one end and by the @m|+ lifetime at the other. \\\\ \\\\ In biological macromolecules transient radicals, such as the constituents of DNA itself, exist on a time scale of sub-microseconds, acco...

  3. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach—based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants—that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle’s bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  4. Chaos of chiral condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-01-01

    Assigning a chaos index for vacua of generic quantum field theories is a challenging problem. We find chaotic behavior of chiral condensates of a quantum gauge theory at strong coupling limit, by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We evaluate the time evolution of homogeneous quark condensates and in an N=2 supersymmetric QCD with the SU(N_c) gauge group at large N_c and at large 't Hooft coupling lambda. At an equivalent classical gravity picture, a Lyapunov exponent is readily defined. We show that the condensates exhibit chaotic behavior for energy density E > (6x10^2) (N_c/lambda^2) (m_q)^4 where m_q is the quark mass. The energy region of the chaotic vacua of the N=2 supersymmetric QCD increases for smaller N_c or larger lambda. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated as a function of the theory (N_c,lambda,E), showing that the N=2 supersymmetric QCD is more chaotic for smaller N_c.

  5. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...

  6. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  7. Modeling the Phase Composition of Gas Condensate in Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, S. M.; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shabarov, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    Gas condensate fields demonstrate a number of thermodynamic characteristics to be considered when they are developed, as well as when gas condensate is transported and processed. A complicated phase behavior of the gas condensate system, as well as the dependence of the extracted raw materials on the phase state of the deposit other conditions being equal, is a key aspect. Therefore, when designing gas condensate lines the crucial task is to select the most appropriate methods of calculating thermophysical properties and phase equilibrium of the transported gas condensate. The paper describes a physical-mathematical model of a gas-liquid flow in the gas condensate line. It was developed based on balance equations of conservation of mass, impulse and energy of the transported medium within the framework of a quasi-1D approach. Constitutive relationships are given separately, and practical recommendations on how to apply the research results are provided as well.

  8. Nonresonant optical control of a spinor polariton condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askitopoulos, A.; Kalinin, K.; Liew, T. C. H.; Cilibrizzi, P.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, P. G.; Berloff, N. G.; Lagoudakis, P. G.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the spin dynamics of polariton condensates spatially separated from and effectively confined by the pumping exciton reservoir. We obtain a strong correlation between the ellipticity of the nonresonant optical pump and the degree of circular polarization (DCP) of the condensate at the onset of condensation. With increasing excitation density we observe a reversal of the DCP. The spin dynamics of the trapped condensate are described within the framework of the spinor complex Ginzburg-Landau equations in the Josephson regime, where the dynamics of the system are reduced to a current-driven Josephson junction. We show that the observed spin reversal is due to the interplay between an internal Josephson coupling effect and the detuning of the two projections of the spinor condensate via transition from a synchronized to a desynchronized regime. These results suggest that spinor polariton condensates can be controlled by tuning the nonresonant excitation density offering applications in electrically pumped polariton spin switches.

  9. Enhanced tubes for steam condensers. Volume 1, Summary of condensation and fouling; Volume 2, Detailed study of steam condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, R.L.; Chamra, L.; Jaber, H.

    1992-02-01

    Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This ``enhanced`` tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to the test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes.

  10. Surface roughness and morphology of dental nanocomposites polished by four different procedures evaluated by a multifractal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ţălu, Ştefan, E-mail: stefan_ta@yahoo.com [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of AET, Discipline of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics, 103-105 B-dul Muncii St., Cluj-Napoca 400641, Cluj (Romania); Stach, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.stach@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, Institute of Informatics, Department of Biomedical Computer Systems, Będzińska 39, 41-205 Sosnowiec (Poland); Lainović, Tijana, E-mail: tijana.lainovic@gmail.com [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Vilotić, Marko, E-mail: markovil@uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department for Production Engineering, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Blažić, Larisa, E-mail: larisa.blazic@gmail.com [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Clinic of Dentistry of Vojvodina, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Alb, Sandu Florin, E-mail: albflorin@yahoo.com [“Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology, 8 Victor Babeş St., 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Kakaš, Damir, E-mail: kakasdam@uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department for Production Engineering, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Multifractals are good indicators of polished dental composites 3-D surface structure. • The nanofilled composite had superior 3-D surface properties than the nanohybrid one. • Composite polishing with diamond paste created improved 3-D multifractal structure. • Recommendation: polish the composite with diamond paste if using the one-step tool. • Multifractal analysis could become essential in designing new dental surfaces. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dental polishing methods on surface texture parameters of dental nanocomposites. The 3-D surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and multifractal analysis. Two representative dental resin-based nanocomposites were investigated: a nanofilled and a nanohybrid composite. The samples were polished by two dental polishing protocols using multi-step and one-step system. Both protocols were then followed by diamond paste polishing. The 3-D surface roughness of samples was studied by AFM on square areas of topography on the 80 × 80 μm{sup 2} scanning area. The multifractal spectrum theory based on computational algorithms was applied for AFM data and multifractal spectra were calculated. The generalized dimension D{sub q} and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of dental nanocomposites polished by four different dental polishing protocols at nanometer scale. The results showed that the larger the spectrum width Δα (Δα = α{sub max} − α{sub min}) of the multifractal spectra f(α), the more non-uniform was the surface morphology. Also, the 3-D surface topography was described by statistical parameters, according to ISO 25178-2:2012. The 3-D surface of samples had a multifractal nature. Nanofilled composite had lower values of height parameters than nanohybrid composites, due to its composition. Multi-step polishing protocol

  11. Copper chemical mechanical polishing using a slurry-free technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.H.; Hof, A.J.; Kranenburg, van H.; Woerlee, P.H.; Weimar, F.

    2001-01-01

    A study of the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of thin copper films using fixed-abrasive pads is presented. The composition of the polishing solution is optimized by investigating the impact of both the oxidizer concentration and the pH of the solution on the polishing characteristics of copper.

  12. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  13. Influence of polishing procedures on the surface roughness of dental ceramics made by different techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Junior, Osmir Batista; Buso, Leonardo; Fujiy, Fábio Hiroshi; Lombardo, Geraldo Henrique Leao; Campos, Fernanda; Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Souza, Rodrigo Othavio Assuncao

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 different surface polishing procedures-glazing and manual polishing-on the roughness of ceramics processed by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and conventional systems (stratification technique). Eighty ceramic discs (diameter: 8 mm, thickness: 1 mm) were prepared and divided among 8 groups (n = 10) according to the type of ceramic disc and polishing method: 4 GZ and 4 MP. Specimens were glazed according to each manufacturer's recommendations. Two silicone polishing points were used on the ceramic surface for manual polishing. Roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester. The roughness measurements were made along a distance of 2 mm on the sample surface and the speed of reading was 0.1 mm/s. Three measurements were taken for each sample. The data (μm) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Qualitative analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean (± SD) roughness values obtained for GZ were: 1.1 ± 0.40 μm; 1.0 ± 0.31 μm; 1.6 ± 0.31 μm; and 2.2 ± 0.73 μm. For MP, the mean values were: 0.66 ± 0.13 μm; 0.43 ± 0.14 μm; 1.6 ± 0.55 μm; and 2.0 ± 0.63 μm. The mean roughness values were significantly affected by the ceramic type (P = 0.0001) and polishing technique (P = 0.0047). The SEM images confirmed the roughness data. The manually polished glass CAD/CAM ceramics promoted lower surface roughness than did the glazed feldspathic dental ceramics.

  14. Polishing Difficult-To-Reach Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1990-01-01

    Springy abrasive tool used to finish surfaces of narrow cavities made by electrical-discharge machining. Robot arm moves vibrator around perimeters of cavities, polishing walls of cavities as it does so. Tool needed because such cavities inaccessible or at least difficult to reach with most surface-finishing tools.

  15. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  16. Analysis of Polish Vowels of Tracheoesophageal Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mięsikowska, Marzena

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acoustical differences between normal and tracheoesophageal Polish speakers during Polish vowel production. Formant frequencies, namely, the first (F1) and second (F2) formant frequencies for 6 Polish vowels produced by 11 normal and 11 tracheoesophageal speakers, were analyzed using statistical analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Spectral analysis showed that the F1 and F2 values of Polish vowels produced by tracheoesophageal speakers were significantly higher than those produced by normal speakers, with the exception of the F2 value of /i/ produced by tracheoesophageal speakers. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between speeches based on the F1 and F2 formant frequencies. Discriminant analysis based on the formant frequencies for F1 and F2 exhibited 73.33% of the mean classification score for tracheoesophageal speakers and 96.36% for normal speakers. Tracheoesophageal speakers exhibit higher F1 and F2 formant frequencies, with the exception of the F2 value for the vowel /i/ than normal speakers. Discriminant analysis showed that the classification process for TE speech exhibits lower accuracy due to the poorer classification of the vowels /i/, /u/, and /y/. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Technological Advances of Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Grønbæk, Jens

    The efficient polishing of surfaces is very important in mould and die industry. Fine abrasive processes are widely used in industry for the first steps for the production of tools of high quality in terms of finishing accuracy, form and surface integrity. While manufacturing of most components r...

  18. Towards an event annotated corpus of Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Marcińczuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards an event annotated corpus of Polish The paper presents a typology of events built on the basis of TimeML specification adapted to Polish language. Some changes were introduced to the definition of the event categories and a motivation for event categorization was formulated. The event annotation task is presented on two levels – ontology level (language independent and text mentions (language dependant. The various types of event mentions in Polish text are discussed. A procedure for annotation of event mentions in Polish texts is presented and evaluated. In the evaluation a randomly selected set of documents from the Corpus of Wrocław University of Technology (called KPWr was annotated by two linguists and the annotator agreement was calculated. The evaluation was done in two iterations. After the first evaluation we revised and improved the annotation procedure. The second evaluation showed a significant improvement of the agreement between annotators. The current work was focused on annotation and categorisation of event mentions in text. The future work will be focused on description of event with a set of attributes, arguments and relations.

  19. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogienko, Olena

    2016-01-01

    Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization.…

  20. HOW STRONG IS POLISH FOOTBALL? "HOST PARADOX" IN FIFA'S RANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek M. Kamiński

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes unintiutive properties (paradoxes of the FIFA's ranking of national football teams. The most surprising phenomenon is underrating the teams of the main championship tournament hosts. This "host effect" follows the absence of hosts in preliminaries and the resulting restriction of hosts' pre-tournament matches to friendlies that enter the FIFA system with low weights. Various models built with the FIFA data allow to estimate that the place of the Polish team as a host of Euro 2012 was lowered from 16 to 35 positions.

  1. The effect of polishing technique on 3-D surface roughness and gloss of dental restorative resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereifej, N S; Oweis, Y G; Eliades, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare surface roughness and gloss of resin composites polished using different polishing systems. Five resin composites were investigated: Filtek Silorane (FS), IPS Empress Direct (IP), Clearfil Majesty Posterior (CM), Premise (PM), and Estelite Sigma (ES). Twenty-five disk specimens were prepared from each material, divided into five groups, each polished with one of the following methods: Opti1Step (OS), OptiDisc (OD), Kenda CGI (KD), Pogo (PG), or metallurgical polishing (ML). Gloss and roughness parameters (Sa, Sz, Sq, and St) were evaluated by 60°-angle glossimetry and white-light interferometric profilometry. Two-way analysis of variance was used to detect differences in different materials and polishing techniques. Regression and correlation analyses were performed to examine correlations between roughness and gloss. Significant differences in roughness parameters and gloss were found according to the material, type of polishing, and material/polishing technique (ppolishing procedure and the type of composite can have significant impacts on surface roughness and gloss of resin composites.

  2. 集中空调冷凝热回收技术在生活热水供应系统中的应用%Application of central air conditioning condense heat recovery technology to domestic hot water supply system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璞洁; 李艳霞; 何耀炳; 许伊那

    2011-01-01

    介绍\t了空调冷凝热回收技术的工作原理,计算确定了冷凝热回收机组和蓄热水箱的容量,并与传统的空调和生活热水供应系统进行比较.探讨了空调冷凝热回收技术在生活热水供应系统中的设计应用.%Based on the working principle, calculates the capacity of the condense heat recovery unit and heat storage water tank, and compares with the traditional air conditioning and domestic hot water supply system. Discusses the application of air conditioning condense heat recovery technology to the design of domestic hot water supply system.

  3. Coolants for a closed-cycle cooling system of device for removing the condensation heat of teh waste steam from steam-turbine power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, D.; Heeren, H.

    1976-03-25

    A series of demands are made on the coolant for the purpose mentioned. They should (a) have a large heat of evaporation, a low freezing point, a high vapor density at evaporation-condensation temperature, high heat transfer numbers with bubble vapors and condensation and a low saturated vapor pressure at operational temperature, (b) not be poisonous and inflammable, and (c) be economical compared to forced-water circulation. According to the invention, an azeotropic mixture of water and methyl-propylene glycol fulfills these requirements.

  4. DNA condensation in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardatscher, Günther; Bracha, Dan; Daube, Shirley S.; Vonshak, Ohad; Simmel, Friedrich C.; Bar-Ziv, Roy H.

    2016-12-01

    DNA can be programmed to assemble into a variety of shapes and patterns on the nanoscale and can act as a template for hybrid nanostructures such as conducting wires, protein arrays and field-effect transistors. Current DNA nanostructures are typically in the sub-micrometre range, limited by the sequence space and length of the assembled strands. Here we show that on a patterned biochip, DNA chains collapse into one-dimensional (1D) fibres that are 20 nm wide and around 70 µm long, each comprising approximately 35 co-aligned chains at its cross-section. Electron beam writing on a photocleavable monolayer was used to immobilize and pattern the DNA molecules, which condense into 1D bundles in the presence of spermidine. DNA condensation can propagate and split at junctions, cross gaps and create domain walls between counterpropagating fronts. This system is inherently adept at solving probabilistic problems and was used to find the possible paths through a maze and to evaluate stochastic switching circuits. This technique could be used to propagate biological or ionic signals in combination with sequence-specific DNA nanotechnology or for gene expression in cell-free DNA compartments.

  5. Tuning Complexity by Lithiation: A Family of Intergrowth Structures Using Condensed hypho-Icosahedra in the Li-Doped Ca-Zn System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qisheng; Zhu, Ran; Miller, Gordon J

    2016-05-16

    Cluster chemistry of intermetallics with valence electron counts (VECs) in the range of 2.0-3.0 is intriguing. Lithiation of polar intermetallics in this VEC region is found to be an effective chemical route to produce new complex structures with different stability mechanisms. In this work, two new complex intermetallic structures have been discovered in the Ca-Li-Zn system: Ca12LixZn59-x and Ca15LixZn75-x. Ca12LixZn59-x, x ≈ 5.65(3)-14.95(3), forms in the trigonal space group R3̅m, with a = 9.074(1)-9.1699(2) Å, c = 53.353(1)-53.602(1) Å, and Z = 3. In comparison, Ca15LixZn75-x, x ≈ 19.07(2), crystallizes in the space group P63/mmc, with a ≈ 9.183(1) Å, c ≈ 45.191(5) Å), and Z = 2. Both structures are members of a large intergrowth family featuring slabs of dimers (D) and trimers (T) stacking along [001], with the sequences DTDDTDDTD for Ca12LixZn59-x and TDDDTDDD for Ca15LixZn75-x. Each dimer consists of two face-sharing Zn-centered hypho-icosahedra, and each trimer comprises a Li-centered icosahedron sandwiched by two hypho-icosahedra. This intergrowth family includes several known intermetallic structure types involving very electropositive metals, e.g., SrMg5.2, Ba2Li4.21Al4.79, and Sr9Li17.5Al25.5. Because of cluster defects and condensation, both Ca12LixZn59-x and Ca15LixZn75-x are electronically akin to close-packed metals, and their structural stabilities can be interpreted by a Hume-Rothery mechanism rather than the Zintl-Klemm concept.

  6. Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tymoshuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological Dictionary When compiling bi- and multilingual phraseological lexicons it is necessary to address such theoretical issues as the formulation linguistically grounded principles of selection of phraseological units and their translation, semantic interpretation based on differentiation of pictures of the world of the linguistic systems, comprehensive combination of elements of the structure and presentation of various linguistic ambiguities, rational form of dictionary entries and building of user-friendly interface in electronic dictionary systems, etc. The article addresses the principles of Ukrainian-Polish electronic phraseological dictionary, which is one of the first attempts of complex and systematic presentation of Ukrainian and Polish phraseology. The main attention is paid to the lexicographic representation of phraseological units, their semantic characterization and selection problem idiomatic equivalents.

  7. Design Considerations of Polishing Lap for Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The future X-ray observatory missions, such as International X-ray Observatory, require grazing incidence replicated optics of extremely large collecting area (3 m2) in combination with angular resolution of less than 5 arcsec half-power diameter. The resolution of a mirror shell depends ultimately on the quality of the cylindrical mandrels from which they are being replicated. Mid-spatial-frequency axial figure error is a dominant contributor in the error budget of the mandrel. This paper presents our efforts to develop a deterministic cylindrical polishing process in order to keep the mid-spatial-frequency axial figure errors to a minimum. Simulation studies have been performed to optimize the operational parameters as well as the polishing lap configuration. Furthermore, depending upon the surface error profile, a model for localized polishing based on dwell time approach is developed. Using the inputs from the mathematical model, a mandrel, having conical approximated Wolter-1 geometry, has been polished on a newly developed computer-controlled cylindrical polishing machine. We report our first experimental results and discuss plans for further improvements in the polishing process.

  8. Between Polish Positivism and American Capitalism: The Educational Agents' Experiment in the Polish-American Community, 1889-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D.

    2008-01-01

    "Ameryka-Echo" was one of the most popular Polish-language weeklies, published in the United States between 1889 and 1972. Its founder and owner, Antoni A. Paryski, consciously sought to transplant ideas of Polish Positivism to the Polish-American immigrant communities in the United States. Reading was a central concept of…

  9. Aldol condensations of a variety of different aldehydes and ketones under ultrasonic irradiation using poly(N-vinylimidazole) as a new heterogeneous base catalyst under solvent-free conditions in a liquid-solid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nader Ghaffari Khaligh; Taraneh Mihankhah

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted aldol condensation reaction has been developed for a range of ketones with a variety of aromatic aldehydes using poly(N-vinylimidazole) as a solid base catalyst in a liquid-solid system. The catalyst can be recovered by simple filtration and reused at least 10 times without any significant reduction in its activity. The reaction is also amenable to the large scale, making the pro-cedure potentially useful for industrial applications.

  10. Field theories of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fradkin, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Presenting the physics of the most challenging problems in condensed matter using the conceptual framework of quantum field theory, this book is of great interest to physicists in condensed matter and high energy and string theorists, as well as mathematicians. Revised and updated, this second edition features new chapters on the renormalization group, the Luttinger liquid, gauge theory, topological fluids, topological insulators and quantum entanglement. The book begins with the basic concepts and tools, developing them gradually to bring readers to the issues currently faced at the frontiers of research, such as topological phases of matter, quantum and classical critical phenomena, quantum Hall effects and superconductors. Other topics covered include one-dimensional strongly correlated systems, quantum ordered and disordered phases, topological structures in condensed matter and in field theory and fractional statistics.

  11. Avaliação da rugosidade superficial de três resinas compostas submetidas a diferentes técnicas de polimento Evaluation of the superficial roughness of three composite resins submitted to different polishing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benícia Carolina Iaskieviscz RIBEIRO

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliou-se a rugosidade superficial de resinas classificadas como compactáveis e uma híbrida tradicional comparando-se diferentes técnicas de polimento. Confeccionaram-se corpos-de-prova, que foram armazenados em água destilada por 24 horas e posteriormente submetidos a duas técnicas de tratamento superficial, em que foram empregados dois sistemas de discos de acabamento e polimento e pontas siliconizadas. Os resultados revelaram maior rugosidade superficial da resina AlertTM em relação a Solitaire® e Degufill Mineral®, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as últimas citadas. A rugosidade superficial das restaurações cujo polimento foi executado com as pontas Enhance® foi maior que o polimento obtido com os sistemas de discos, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significante entre esses.In this study, the superficial roughness of two composite resins classified as condensable and of a traditional hybrid composite resin was analyzed after different polishing techniques. Test specimens were confected, immersed in distilled water for 24 hours and submitted to two different techniques of superficial treatment, in which disc systems (Sof-LexTM and Super Snap® and silicon tips (Enhance® were utilized. The results revealed the greater superficial roughness of AlertTM, when compared with Solitaire® and Degufill Mineral® - no statistically significant differences were observed between the last two materials. The superficial roughness of the specimens polished with Enhance® tips was greater than that of the specimens polished with discs and there were no statistically significant differences between both disc systems.

  12. In-process measurements of material removal in fluid jet polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, H. van; Groeneveld, M.; Booij, S.M.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of a system for in-process monitoring of material removal in fluid jet polishing (FJP) is presented. The measurements make use of temporal phase unwrapping (TPU) allowing for a large working range. The measurement system will be discussed, with all problems that had to be overcome like w

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condensate pumps. 56.50-35 Section 56.50-35 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be... independent of the main propelling machinery. If one of the independent feed pumps is fitted with a...

  14. Motor-driven compressor-condenser group for cooling cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuffrida, G.G.

    1984-07-17

    A motor-driven compressor condenser group for equipment actuating cooling-cycles, such as for example cooling apparatuses and heat pumps, enclosed in a single container. The cooling fluid of the heat-exchanger connected to the condenser passing to and from the container is to be used in domestic cooling systems to heat water.

  15. Some remarks on pion condensation in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, C; Müller, B

    1993-01-01

    Recently it was pointed out that coherent or condensated states of pions may account for the explanation of the Centauro events observed in cosmic ray showers. We argue that an occurrence of condensed pions requires that the system evolves far out of thermal equilibrium. Besides an unusual charge ratio distribution we show that such a produced state also would lead to strong isospin correlations.

  16. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  17. Tooth polishing: Relevance in present day periodontal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Charu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Time has seen the emergence of more efficient and effective devices like jet abrasives. However, the role of rubber cups with prophy angles cannot be overlooked as they are still being widely used and provide an economical alternative. Owing to several shortcomings associated with the air polishing device using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 , trends are shifting towards the usage of low abrasive powders. Recent demonstration of Glycine Powder Air Polishing (GPAP in removing subgingival biofilm results in less gingival erosion than hand instrumentation or NaHCO 3 air-polishing. Despite the emergence of latest advances in polishing, data suggesting selective polishing of teeth is compelling.

  18. Convective condensation heat transfer in a horizontal condenser tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, P.K. [College of Engineering, GITAM, Visakhapatnam (India); Sastry, C.V.N.; Rao, V.D. [Andhra Univ., College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam (India); Kakac, S.; Liu, H. [Miami Univ., College of Engineering, FL (United States)

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to solve analytically the problem of convective condensation of vapors inside a horizontal condenser tube. Homogeneous model approach is employed in the estimation of shear velocity, which is subsequently, made use of in predicting local convective condensation heat transfer coefficients. The resulting analysis of the present study is compared with some of the available equations in the literature. It is observed that the agreement is reasonably satisfactory validating the assumptions and the theory presented. (authors)

  19. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial capi....... The theory can be applied to the description of flocculations in two-dimensional systems of colloids....

  20. Polariton condensation in a disordered potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antón, C.; Tosi, G.; Lingg, C. A.;

    2011-01-01

    We study polariton condensation under OPO (Optical Parametric Oscillator) out-of-equilibrium conditions [1] in the presence of linear and point defects. Because of the simultaneous presence of pump, signal and idler emitting at different wave vectors, as well as of photonic disorder, the system i...