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Sample records for concrete box girders

  1. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Multicell Reinforced Concrete Box Girders Subjected to Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Marya Bagherifaez; Arash Behnia; Abeer Aqeel Majeed; Chai Hwa Kian

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) box girders are a common structural member for road bridges in modern construction. The hollow cross-section of a box girder is ideal in carrying eccentric loads or torques introduced by skew supports. This study employed acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on multicell RC box girder specimens subjected to laboratory-based torsion loading. Three multicell box girder specimens with different cross-sections were tested. The aim is to acquire AE analysis data indicative fo...

  2. Acoustic emission monitoring of multicell reinforced concrete box girders subjected to torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherifaez, Marya; Behnia, Arash; Majeed, Abeer Aqeel; Hwa Kian, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) box girders are a common structural member for road bridges in modern construction. The hollow cross-section of a box girder is ideal in carrying eccentric loads or torques introduced by skew supports. This study employed acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on multicell RC box girder specimens subjected to laboratory-based torsion loading. Three multicell box girder specimens with different cross-sections were tested. The aim is to acquire AE analysis data indicative for characterizing torsion fracture in the box girders. It was demonstrated through appropriate parametric analysis that the AE technique could be utilized to effectively classify fracture developed in the specimens for describing their mechanical behavior under torsion. AE events localization was presented to illustrate the trend of crack and damage propagation in different stages of fracture. It could be observed that spiral-like patterns of crack were captured through AE damage localization system and damage was quantified successfully in different stages of fracture by using smoothed b-value analysis.

  3. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Multicell Reinforced Concrete Box Girders Subjected to Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Bagherifaez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC box girders are a common structural member for road bridges in modern construction. The hollow cross-section of a box girder is ideal in carrying eccentric loads or torques introduced by skew supports. This study employed acoustic emission (AE monitoring on multicell RC box girder specimens subjected to laboratory-based torsion loading. Three multicell box girder specimens with different cross-sections were tested. The aim is to acquire AE analysis data indicative for characterizing torsion fracture in the box girders. It was demonstrated through appropriate parametric analysis that the AE technique could be utilized to effectively classify fracture developed in the specimens for describing their mechanical behavior under torsion. AE events localization was presented to illustrate the trend of crack and damage propagation in different stages of fracture. It could be observed that spiral-like patterns of crack were captured through AE damage localization system and damage was quantified successfully in different stages of fracture by using smoothed b-value analysis.

  4. Field test on temperature field and thermal stress for prestressed concrete box-girder bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoguo CHEN; Rui DING; Junjie ZHENG; Shibiao ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    A field test was conducted to investigate the distribution of temperature field and the variation of thermal stress for a prestressed concrete (PC) box-girder bridge. The change of hydration heat temperature consists of four periods: temperature rising period, constant temperature period, rapid temperature fall period and stow temperature fall period. The peak value of hydration heat temperature increases with the increasing casting temperature of concrete; the relation between them is approximately linear. According to field tests, the thermal stress incurred by hydration heat may induce temperature cracks on the PC box-girder. Furthermore, the nonlinear distribution of temperature gradient and the fluctuation of thermal stress induced by exposure to sunlight were also obtained based on continuous in-situ monitoring. Such results show that the prevailing Chinese Code (2004) is insufficient since it does not take into account the temperature gradient of the bottom slab. Finally, some preventive measures against temperature cracks were proposed based on related studies. The conclusions can provide valuable reference for the design and construction of PC box-girder bridges.

  5. Structural Optimization of Steel Cantilever Used in Concrete Box Girder Bridge Widening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural optimization method of steel cantilever used in concrete box girder bridge widening is illustrated in this paper. The structural optimization method of steel cantilever incorporates the conceptual layout design of steel cantilever beam based on the topological theory and the determination of the optimal location of the transverse external prestressed tendons which connect the steel cantilever and the box girder. The optimal design theory and the analysis process are illustrated. The mechanical model for the prestressed steel cantilever is built and the analytical expression of the optimal position of the transverse external tendon is deduced. At last the effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by the design of steel cantilevers which are used to widen an existing bridge.

  6. Structural Health Monitoring of Precast Concrete Box Girders Using Selected Vibration-Based Damage Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjie Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Precast, prestressed concrete box girders are commonly used as superstructure components for short and medium span bridges. Their configuration and typical side-by-side placement make large portions of these elements inaccessible for visual inspection or the application of nondestructive testing techniques. This paper demonstrates that vibration-based damage detection (VBDD is an effective alternative for monitoring their structural health. A box girder removed from a dismantled bridge was used to evaluate the ability of five different VBDD algorithms to detect and localize low levels of spalling damage, with a focus on using a small number of sensors and only the fundamental mode of vibration. All methods were capable of detecting and localizing damage to a region within approximately 1.6 times the longitudinal spacing between as few as six uniformly distributed accelerometers. Strain gauges configured to measure curvature were also effective, but tended to be susceptible to large errors in near support damage cases. Finite element analyses demonstrated that increasing the number of sensor locations leads to a proportional increase in localization accuracy, while the use of additional modes provides little advantage and can sometimes lead to a deterioration in the performance of the VBDD techniques.

  7. Dynamic finite element model updating of prestressed concrete continuous box-girder bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiankun; Zhang Lingmi; Guo Qintao; Zhang Yufeng

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder bridge, called the Tongyang Canal Bridge, is built and updated based on the results of ambient vibration testing (AVT) using a real-coded accelerating genetic algorithm (RAGA). The objective functions are defined based on natural frequency and modal assurance criterion (MAC) metrics to evaluate the updated FEM. Two objective functions are defined to fully account for the relative errors and standard deviations of the natural frequencies and MAC between the AVT results and the updated FEM predictions. The dynamically updated FEM of the bridge can better represent its structural dynamics and serve as a baseline in long-term health monitoring, condition assessment and damage identification over the service life of the bridge.

  8. Finite element model updating of a prestressed concrete box girder bridge using subproblem approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. W.; Omenzetter, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an updating procedure for the finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder highway off-ramp bridge. Ambient vibration testing was conducted to excite the bridge, assisted by linear chirp sweepings induced by two small electrodynamic shakes deployed to enhance the excitation levels, since the bridge was closed to traffic. The data-driven stochastic subspace identification method was executed to recover the modal properties from measurement data. An initial FEM was developed and correlation between the experimental modal results and their analytical counterparts was studied. Modelling of the pier and abutment bearings was carefully adjusted to reflect the real operational conditions of the bridge. The subproblem approximation method was subsequently utilized to automatically update the FEM. For this purpose, the influences of bearing stiffness, and mass density and Young's modulus of materials were examined as uncertain parameters using sensitivity analysis. The updating objective function was defined based on a summation of squared values of relative errors of natural frequencies between the FEM and experimentation. All the identified modes were used as the target responses with the purpose of putting more constrains for the optimization process and decreasing the number of potentially feasible combinations for parameter changes. The updated FEM of the bridge was able to produce sufficient improvements in natural frequencies in most modes of interest, and can serve for a more precise dynamic response prediction or future investigation of the bridge health.

  9. Assessment of seismic performance of skew reinforced concrete box girder bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2013-12-01

    The seismic vulnerability of highway bridges remains an important problem and has received increased attention as a consequence of unprecedented damage observed during several major earthquakes. A significant number of research studies have examined the performance of skew bridges under service and seismic loads. The results of these studies are particularly sensitive to modeling assumptions in view of the interacting parameters. In the present study, three-dimensional improved beam-stick models of two-span highway bridges with skew angles varying from 0° to 60° are developed to investigate the seismic response characteristics of skew box girder bridges. The relative accuracy of beam-stick models is verified against counterpart finite element models. The effect of various parameters and conditions on the overall seismic response was examined such as skew angle, ground motion intensity, soil condition, abutment support conditions, bridge aspect ratio, and foundation-base conditions. The study shows that the improved beam-stick models can be used to conduct accurate nonlinear time history analysis of skew bridges. Skew angle and interacting parameters were found to have significant effect on the behavior of skewed highway bridges. Furthermore, the performance of shear keys may have a predominant effect on the overall seismic response of the skew bridges.

  10. Optimization of Post-Tensioned Box Girder Bridges with Special Reference to Use of High-Strength Concrete Using AASHTO LRFD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungik Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the Federal Highway Administration-mandated implementation of the LRFD specifications, many state departments of transportation (DOTs have already started implementing LRFD specifications as developed by the AASHTO. Many aspects of the LRFD specifications are being investigated by DOTs and researchers in order for seamless implementation for design and analysis purposes. This paper presents the investigation on several design aspects of post-tensioned box girder bridges designed by LRFD Specifications using conventional or High-Strength Concrete (HSC. A computer spreadsheet application was specifically developed for this investigation. It is capable of analysis, design, and cost evaluation of the superstructure for a cast-in-place post-tensioned box girder bridge. Optimal design of a post-tensioned box girder is achievable by correct selection of design variables. Cost evaluation of superstructures with different geometrical and material configurations has led to the development of optimum design charts for these types of superstructures. Variables used to develop these charts include, among others, span length, section depth, web spacing, tendon profile, and concrete strength. It was observed that HSC enables the achievement of significantly longer span lengths and/or longer web spacing that is not achievable when using normal strength concrete.

  11. Research on temperature field and temperature stress of prestressed concrete girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cheng

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the establishment and simplification of the temperature field and the general calculation method of temperature stress of the prestressed concrete box girders. Three kinds of sunshine temperature gradient models were loaded to a real bridge respectively, and got stress and displacement curves. Research data of several prestressed concrete box girders were selected from different regions of China to compare the relative error of the calculated and measured value. We indicate that the study of temperature field and thermal stress of prestressed concrete box girders is necessary, and will help engineers to solve the problem in structure design.

  12. Aerodynamic stability study of a long-span prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge. Aerodynamic behavior of edge box girder under uniform flow; Chodai PC shachokyo no taifu anteisei ni kansuru kenkyu. Ichiyoryuchu ni okeru edge girder keishiki no kuriki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, T. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    In recent years, the construction of long-span bridges is on the increase. Prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges are dynamically very efficient structures of relatively low cost that blend in well with the landscape. Maintenance is also easy. Consequently, the adoption of edge box girders for cable-stayed bridges is increasing worldwide, but problems related to the aerodynamic stability of the structure have emerged. The aerodynamic stability of edge box girders for a prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge was investigated under uniform flow conditions by conducting several wind tunnel experiments. As a result, the section of the bridge deck was optimized to prevent torsional flutter within an angle of attack varying from -5 to +5 degrees. It is therefore possible to guarantee the aerodynamic stability of long-span prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. (author)

  13. 预应力活性粉末混凝土箱梁抗弯性能试验%Experiment on Flexural Behaviors of Prestressed Reactive Powder Concrete Box Girders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志; 刘明; 郑辉

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the mechanical behavior of prestressed reactive powder concrete (RPC) box girders ,the flexural behavior tests of two prestressed RPC box girders were carried out .T he force characteristic of RPC box girders and the influence of transverse prestressing force to its flexural performance were studied .The results show that the prestressed RPC box girders display a good deformation capacity ,with a maximal deflection of 1/50 of its span .The crack width and the short‐time stiffness of the RPC box girders can be calculated according to the formula in Technical Specif ication for Fiber Reinforced Concrete Structures (CECS 38 :2004) , with a coefficient of 0 .4 and 0 .2 considering influence from steel fiber , respectively . The transverse prestressing force in the top plate of RPC box girders has little influence on the flexural bearing capacity , but the force can make a more uniform strain distribution of the compressive concrete so as to reduce the shear‐lag effect and increase the ductility of the specimen .By applying a transverse prestressing force of 2 .95 M Pa (only 3 .1% of the RPC prism compressive strength of 94 MPa) at the top plate ,the effective distribution width of box girder increases by 10% ,and ductility index of specimen increases by 3% .The calculated formula to evaluate the cracking moment and the ultimate moment of a prestressed RPC box girders is proposed and verified by the experimental results .%为研究预应力活性粉末混凝土(RPC )箱梁的正截面受力性能,进行了2片预应力RPC箱梁的抗弯性能试验,研究了RPC箱梁的受力变形特征以及顶板横向预应力对其抗弯性能的影响。结果表明:预应力RPC箱梁具有良好的变形能力,其极限变形可超过跨径的1/50;RPC箱梁正常使用阶段的裂缝宽度和短期刚度可参照《纤维混凝土结构技术规程》(CECS 38:2004)的相应公式计算,其中的钢纤维影响系数可分别取为0

  14. Experimental Study on Structure-Borne Noise of Railway 32 m Simply-Supported Concrete Box-Girder%铁路32 m混凝土简支箱梁结构噪声试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小珍; 张迅; 刘全民; 张志俊; 李亚东

    2013-01-01

    以32 m单线和双线单室混凝土简支箱梁为对象,通过噪声试验、结构有限元和声学有限元分析,研究箱梁结构噪声的声辐射特性、峰值频率产生的原因及评价方法.结果表明:列车通过桥梁时,离箱梁表面较远处的噪声级起伏不大,可采用稳态算法简化分析;混凝土箱梁的结构噪声主要分布在250 Hz以下,且随频率的增加而迅速衰减,因此理论预测时可将250 Hz作为截止频率;单线和双线箱梁的2个噪声峰值频率分别为63和160 Hz,以及50和315 Hz,二者均在第1个峰值频率处达到最大声压级,且此峰值频率处的噪声具有明显的有调性;不同箱室尺寸箱梁的结构噪声声辐射差异较大,车速并不是噪声的第一决定因素;混凝土箱梁结构噪声的峰值频率出现在声辐射效率和振动响应均较大处,因此应避免结构振动模态和空腔声学模态重合而导致空腔共鸣引起的噪声被放大;建议修订铁路噪声相关规范时,考虑混凝土箱梁低频结构噪声的危害.%Based on the study objects of single-and double-track simply-supported concrete box-girders with only one cell and a span of 32 m,this paper investigated the sound radiation characteristics of structure-borne noise,reasons leading to peak frequency and evaluation methods by field measurements,structural and acoustical finite element analysis.The results show that:during a train runs across bridge,the noise far away from the box-girder surface fluctuates slightly,which means that simplified steady-state acoustic analysis is feasible; structure-borne noise from concrete box-girder dominates in the frequency lower than 250 Hz and decreases rapidly with increasing frequency,accordingly,250 Hz can be regarded as the upper limiting frequency for theoretical prediction; the two frequencies of peak noise of single-and doubletrack box-girder are 63 and 160 Hz,as well as 50 and 315 Hz,respectively,and the noise reaches

  15. Bar Simulation Method for Analysis on Long-term Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Box Girder%配筋混凝土箱梁长期受力性能的比拟杆分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志; 伍琼芳; 曹国辉

    2012-01-01

    为使配筋混凝土箱梁长期受力性能的分析趋于简便,将线弹性匀质箱梁短期弯曲性能分析的比拟杆法推广应用于其长期受力性能的分析.引入按龄期调整的有效弹性模量来考虑箱梁混凝土徐变的影响,基于换算截面的原理来考虑箱梁配筋的影响,建立能综合考虑箱梁受力特征和配筋影响的混凝土箱梁长期受力性能分析的比拟杆法.对一根预应力混凝土模型箱梁进行长达l001d的徐变试验,并用其结果对所提方法的适用性进行验证.结果表明:混凝土箱梁长期受力性能的比拟杆法计算结果与试验结果之间吻合较好.与试验值相比,t0~1001d时段内箱梁顶板混凝土压应变的计算值相差7%~11%、跨中截面长期挠曲变形的计算结果相差9%~17%.随着持荷时间的增长,箱梁顶板的剪力滞系数逐渐减小,持荷1001d后剪力滞系数减小了7.1%.%In order to develop a simple method to determine the long-term behavior of the reinforced concrete box girder structure with the shear lag effect of box girder involved, a new bar simulation method was presented in which the Age-adjusted Effective Modulus was used to consider the effects of concrete creep and the principle of transformed section was used to consider the effects of reinforcement. The results of the method were testified by the long-term performance test of a prestressed concrete simply-supported box girder under sustained loading of 1001d. The results show as follows:The developed method can give a reasonable prediction to the creep reponse of the concrete box girder; compared with the measured values, the predicted compressive strain in the top plate and the long-term deflection at the mid-span of the tested box girder is of error range of (7~11)% and (9~17)% respectively;the shear lag coefficient of the top plate of the box girder reduces gradually in extension of the sustained loading period and till by 7. 1% after 1001d.

  16. Design of Prestressed Concrete Box Girder Based on Life Cycle%基于全寿命周期的预应力砼小箱梁设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余少华

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing age of bridge girders,performance degradation is an unavoidable phenomenon. In addition to the natural aging,the bridge performance degradation can be attributed to many factors,such as the bridge construction speed,short design cycle,the outdated design concepts,serious overload,lack of mainte-nance and so on. Therefore,it is significant to take into consideration the whole bridge life cycle in the scientific design of bridges. This study first collected the road area data of a newly built bridge,including environmental data,traffic data and other basic structure data,then divided the life cycle with reference to the bridge mainte-nance specification provisions of the management and maintenance unit,and finally analyzed the cycle cost. This preliminary study on the cycle life of commonly-used prestressed concrete box beam tries to provide some reference for the bridge design.%随着桥龄的增加,主梁性能老化是无法避免的现象。然而桥梁性能退化除了自然老化外,还与桥梁建设速度过快、设计周期短、理念陈旧、超载超限严重、疏于管养等因素有关。因此,科学的设计应把桥梁纳入全寿命周期考虑,本研究先搜集了新建桥梁公路干线所在地区的相关数据,如环境数据、交通量、基本及已建桥梁的结构数据,再结合管养单位执行的桥梁养护规范规定划分生命周期,进行周期成本分析,对常用的预应力砼小箱梁进行了全寿命周期设计的初步研究,以供同道参考。

  17. On analysis of construction technique of prestressed concrete continuous box girder at curve section%谈曲线段预应力混凝土连续箱梁施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺喜萍

    2011-01-01

    结合具体工程实例,针对曲线段预应力混凝土连续箱梁施工技术进行了探讨,分别阐述了桥孔平面线形处理,弦弧差调整,墩顶连续端的处理,基桩坐标的确定等内容,以期指导今后同类工程,保证曲线段预应力混凝土箱梁平面线形美观。%Combining with the factual project examples,the paper explores the construction technique of the prestressed concrete continuous box girder at curve section,illustrates the treatment of the plane alignment of bridge holes,the adjustment of chord and arc difference,and the treatment of the continuous ends of pier tops,and the identification of the coordinate of foundation piles,so as to direct the similar projects and ensure the beauty of the plane lines of the prestressed concrete continuous box girder at curve section.

  18. 预应力混凝土连续宽箱梁偏载系数研究%Research of Unbalanced Coefficient of Prestressed Concrete Continuous Wide Box Girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛慧; 赵玲

    2014-01-01

    Taking prestressed concrete single box multi-cells continuous wide box Girder Bridge at Tongqi street Nantong city as the background, the paper establishes entity unit spa-tial finite element models. There is a comparison between calculated value which is got though increasing the coefficient of normal stress in each location point of box Girder min-span calculation section and the value calculated by common sim-plified method. The paper discusses the feasibility of the simp-lified calculation method and offers a reference for the similar engineering design.%以南通通启路高架工程的预应力混凝土单箱多室连续宽箱梁桥为背景,建立实体单元空间有限元模型,将箱梁跨中截面各位置点的正应力增大系数计算值与常用简化计算方法所得值进行对比,探讨简化计算方法的可行性,供同类工程设计参考。

  19. Distortional Buckling Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders in Negative Moment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wangbao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortional buckling is one of the most important buckling modes of the steel-concrete composite girder under negative moment. In this study, the equivalent lateral and torsional restraints of the bottom flange of a steel-concrete composite girder under negative moments due to variable axial forces are thoroughly investigated. The results show that there is a coupling effect between the applied forces and the lateral and torsional restraint of the bottom flange. Based on the calculation formula of lateral and torsional restraints, the critical buckling stress of I-steel-concrete composite girders and steel-concrete composite box girders under variable axial force is obtained. The critical bending moment of the steel-concrete composite girders can be further calculated. Compared to the traditional calculation methods of elastic foundation beam, the paper introduces an improved method, which considers coupling effect of the external loads and the foundation spring constraints of the bottom flange. Fifteen examples of the steel-concrete composite girders in different conditions are calculated. The calculation results show a good match between the hand calculation and the ANSYS finite element method, which validated that the analytic calculation method proposed in this paper is practical.

  20. Stress and noises of steel box girders in Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Tao; Chen Zhijian; Dong Xuewu

    2008-01-01

    Sutong Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1 088 m.370 high-precision stress monitoring measured data show that in the process of hoisting the steel box girders,the stress of the main girders is in the fluctuant and complex state and many meteorological factors,such as sunshine radiation,temperature and wind,have important influence on the change of stress of the steel box girders.According to the real-time weather data,the stress data after the process of wavelet denoising from representative measuring points in different weather conditions is picked to estab-lish the stress response brought by meteorological factors with Layered Separation method,thereby basically eliminating the influence of meteorological factors on the stress of main girders,so that accurate and reliable stress data can be got for steel box girders adjustment and cable-tensioned construction control.

  1. 简直转连续斜箱梁桥单梁静载试验分析%PRESTRESSED REINFORCED CONCRETE SIMPLY SUPPORTED-CONTINUOUS BOX GIRDER SINGLE STATIC LOAD EXPERIMENT AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏祥; 曹岩

    2013-01-01

    The single static load experiment is one of the important means to identify whether the bridges can be normal operationed or not during the normal operation period. We can detect whether single static structure performance meets the requirements of design documents and specifications and guarantee the safety of bridge after the completion of the bridge by the single static load experiment This paper unifies some prestressed reinforced concrete box example. It introduced the experiment examination content, the testing sequence, and the test result analysis of the prestressed reinforced concrete box girder simply supported - continuous static load testing. We can make a correct evaluation of prestressed reinforced concrete box girder, and provide the basis for future tests by summarizing the results of static loading test%单梁静载试验是检验桥梁在正常运营期间能否保证桥梁正常运营的一个重要手段,通过对单梁静载试验,检测单梁的结构性能是否达到设计文件和规范要求,保证成桥后桥梁的安全.结合某预应力混凝土斜箱梁实例,介绍预应力钢筋混凝土简直转连续单梁静载试验的检测内容、试验步骤和试验结果分析.总结单梁静载试验结果,对预应力钢筋混凝土简直转连续梁桥作出正确的质量评估,为以后的试验提供理论依据.

  2. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Tepic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.

  3. Continuous rigid PC frame box girder cantilever pouring construction reasonable maintenance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, prestressed concrete continuous rigid frame box girder plate and web plate produced a large number of non-structural cracks disease caused the attention of large bridge workers, to solve the problem of continuous rigid-frame structure of the cantilever of the disease, this article briefly introduced the cantilever construction method and the performance requirements of modern concrete, through to the modern concrete composition change and keeping in good health on the impact of environment on its early performance analysis summary, points out the present problems of box girder early curing, finally combining with the characteristics of modern concrete performance and the characteristics of the cantilever construction method, puts forward "model attach +manual+automatic water spray mist stick " composite curing method in order to reduce the structural cracks, provides a new train of thought.

  4. Behaviors of Precast Fabricated Box Girder Bridge using Reactive Powder Concrete%预制装配式活性粉末混凝土箱梁桥的结构性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚雄; 方志

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of ultra-high performance cement-based material,RPC (Reactive Powder Concrete),can significantly reduce the weight of structure and decrease the inertia load,when applying to build the prefabricated beam of bridge.It has lower shrinkage and high durability after hot water cu-ring.Base on a project of a 4 ×30 m prefabricated PC continuous box girder bridge,a prefabricated box girder bridge with the same span using RPC was designed.Its mechanical properties were studied and a comparative study of the economy of the PC and RPC bridges were carried out.The results showed that, both the overall and the local mechanical properties of the RPC bridge met the specification requirements, and its stress level or deformation during service even had more safety margin.The plate section of girder became thinner,and the consumption of concrete and prestressd tendons decreased by 25.4% and 27.5%.Therefore,the prefabricated RPC box girder bridge was proven to be a favorable plan and can be applied widely in the future.%超高性能活性粉末混凝土 RPC(Reactive Powder Concrete)应用于装配式梁桥中,不仅能有效减轻结构自重、增加结构抵抗使用荷载的有效性,还能充分发挥其在热养护条件下收缩徐变小且耐久性好的优点,是一种极具应用前景的新型水泥基材料。以一座4×30 m 的普通预应力混凝土装配式连续箱梁桥为背景,提出了同等跨径的 RPC 装配式箱梁桥方案,对其结构的受力性能进行了分析,并将二者的经济性能进行了比较。结果表明:提出的 RPC 箱梁桥整体和局部受力性能均满足现行规范要求,使用阶段应力以及变形尚有较大的安全储备;采用RPC 可令主梁板件厚度减小,使混凝土和预应力筋用量分别减少25.4%和27.5%。因此,预制装配式 RPC 箱梁桥作为一种可供选择的优选方案,具有良好的推广应用前景。

  5. 某预应力混凝土箱梁桥悬臂施工中底板纵向裂缝成因分析及处理措施%Analysis of Causes Inducing Longitudinal Cracks in Base Slabs During Cantilever Construction of A Prestressed Concrete Box Girder Bridge and Treating Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志红; 王攀; 邹红丹

    2015-01-01

    The bridge cited as an example in this study is a combined prestressed concrete con-tinuous beam and rigid-frame composite box girder bridge with span arrangement of(80+2 × 150+80) m.The box girder adopts the two-cell single box cross section with straight diaphragms ,cas-ted in situ in cantilevers using form travelers.During the construction of the first 8 sections ,longi-tudinal cracks were found in the base slabs of the box girder.ANSYS was used to establish the fi-nite element models of the No.1 and No.2 box girder sections and calculate the stress distribution condition of the girder under 4 load cases.By analyzing the distributive law of the cracks in the base slabs of the girder ,the transverse stress and temperature during the curing of the box girder concrete were monitored.and the causes inducing longitudinal cracks in the base slabs of the box girder was analyzed.The results of the analysis indicate that the gradient thermal loading effect in-side the concrete takes the major responsibility for longitudinal cracks.T hen the measures for in-tensifying the transverse prestressing tendons in the base slabs of box girder were proposed.The curing of base slabs should also be given enough attention.By using the aforementioned measures , no marked longitudinal cracks were found in the base slabs of the box girder during the construc-tion monitoring of the girder sections.%某预应力混凝土连续梁-刚构组合箱梁桥跨径布置为(80+2 × 150+80 ) m ,箱梁为直腹板单箱双室截面 ,采用挂篮悬臂现浇施工 ,在前8个节段的施工过程中 ,箱梁底板出现了纵向裂缝.采用ANSYS建立1号、2号节段箱梁实体有限元模型 ,计算4种荷载工况下箱体的应力分布情况 ,并监测箱梁混凝土养护过程中的横向应力和温度 ,分析了箱梁底板纵向裂缝开裂原因.分析得出混凝土内部的梯度温度荷载效应是底板产生纵向裂缝的主要原因 ,提出加强箱梁底板的横向配筋及

  6. 铁路混凝土箱梁箱内空腔共鸣噪声及其影响研究%Study on Cavity Resonance Noise of Railway Concrete Box-Girder and Its Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迅; 王党雄; 李小珍

    2015-01-01

    为探讨铁路混凝土箱梁箱内空腔共鸣噪声及其影响,以某客运专线32 m预应力混凝土简支箱梁为研究对象,开展实桥振动与噪声试验,分析箱梁振动与噪声的时域特性及频谱特性。采用有限元法建立三维空腔声模型,分析箱内空腔声模态与腔内噪声峰值的关联性。采用边界元法分别建立两端封闭与两端开口的箱梁声学模型,验证箱内空腔共鸣噪声的来源及其影响。结果表明:在特定行车速度下,箱内噪声出现“拍”现象,显著增大箱内噪声,瞬时最大声压可达40 Pa,峰值频率为75.0 Hz;箱内噪声的“拍”现象来源于顶板的振动噪声,顶板的振动峰值频率与箱内空腔垂向声模态频率吻合时,箱内噪声显著增大;由于梁缝的声泄漏特性,箱内空腔共鸣噪声在梁缝处衰减较大,但其对桥梁两侧总体噪声的影响不可忽略。%In order to study the cavity resonance noise of concrete box-girder and its influence,a field test con-cerning vibration and noise of a 32 m PC simply-supported box-girder was carried out,to investigate the time-domain characteristics and frequency spectrum characteristics of vibration and noise of the box-girder.A 3D cavity acoustical model was established based on FEM to analyze the correlation between cavity acoustic mode and cavity noise peak.Two acoustical models for box-girders with closed ends and open ends,were built based on BEM,respectively,to verify the source and influence of cavity resonance noise.Results showed that the“beat”wave phenomenon of cavity noise appeared under a specific train speed,significantly increasing the cavi-ty noise,with the transient maximum sound pressure of cavity noise reaching 40 Pa and the noise peak frequen-cy being 75.0 Hz;The “beat”wave phenomenon of cavity noise derived from the vibration of deck.When the peak vibration frequency of deck matched with the frequency of vertical acoustic modal of the cavity

  7. Reliability Assessment for PSC Box-Girder Bridges Based on SHM Strain Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliability assessment method for prestressed concrete (PSC continuous box-girder bridges based on structural health monitoring (SHM strain measurements was proposed. First, due to the fact that measured strain was compositive and the variation periods of its components were different, a series of limit state equations under normal use limit state were given. Then, a linear fitting method was used to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the measured strain, which was aimed at extracting the vehicle load effect and the temperature load effect from the measured strain. Finally, according to the equivalent normalization method, the load effects unsatisfying the normal distribution by probability density function fitting were transformed, and the daily failure probabilities of monitored positions were calculated for evaluating the safety state of the girder. The results show that (1 the top plate of the box girder is more sensitive than the bottom plate to the high temperature, (2 the daily and seasonal strain variations induced by uniform temperature reveal an inconsistent tendency to the seasonal variation for mid-span cross sections, and (3 the generalized extreme value distribution is recommended for temperature gradient stress and vehicle induced stress fitting for box-girder bridges.

  8. Seismic response of skewed RC box-girder bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Abdel-Mohti; Gokhan Pekcan

    2008-01-01

    It is critical to ensure the functionality of highway bridges after earthquakes to provide access to important facilities.Since the 1971 San Fernando earthquake,there has been a better understanding of the seismic performance of bridges.Nonetheless,there are no detailed guidelines addressing the performance of skewed highway bridges.Several parameters affect the response of skewed highway bridges under both service and seismic loads which makes their behavior complex.Therefore,there is a need for more research to study the effect of skew angle and other related factors on the performance of highway bridges.This paper examines the seismic performance of a three-span continuous concrete box girder bridge with skew angles from 0 to 60 degrees,analytically.Finite element (FE) and simplified beam-stick (BS) models of the bridge were developed using SAP2000.Different types of analysis were considered on both models such as:nonlinear static pushover,and linear and nonlinear time history analyses.A comparison was conducted between FE and BS,different skew angles,abutment support conditions,and time history and pushover analysis.It is shown that the BS model has the capability to capture the coupling due to skew and the significant modes for moderate skew angles.Boundary conditions and pushover load profile are determined to have a major effect on pushover analysis.Pushover analysis may be used to predict the maximum deformation and hinge formation adequately.

  9. 重载交通条件下预应力混凝土预制箱梁的设计研究%The Design and Study of Precast Prestressed Concrete Box Girder on the Condition of Heavy Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方华; 包绍伦

    2013-01-01

    榆林至佳县高速公路是陕西省重要的能源运输大通道,交通量构成中的大货车、特大货车及拖挂车占相当大的比例.通过实地调研,建立两种车辆荷载模型,并在新的荷载模型下进行计算分析,与公路Ⅰ级荷载对比后,对预应力混凝土预制箱梁进行重新设计研究.%The highway from Yulin to Jiaxian is an important energy transport corridor in Shaanxi,and large trucks,heavy trucks and trailers accounte for a large proportion in the traffic composition.Through site investigation,two kinds of vehicle load model are established,under which calculations and analysis are carried out.After comparison between the new load and Highway-Ⅰ load,precast prestressed concrete box girder is re-designed.

  10. Design and test of box girder for a large wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Tesauro, Angelo; Bitsche, Robert

    This report is covering the structural design and full scale test of a box girder as a part of the project “Demonstration of new blade design using manufacturing process simulations” supported by the EUDP program. A box girder with a predetermined outer geometry was designed using new inventions......, which create an inner structure in the box girder. With a combination of advanced FEM analysis and the inventions it was possible to reduce the material thickness of the cap by up to 40%. The new design of the box girder was manufactured at SSP Technology A/S, where it was demonstrated...... that the manufacturing process could include the new inventions. Subsequently the box girder was transported to the blade test facility at DTU Wind Energy. A series of test was performed with the blade to investigate the behaviour during loading, and finally the girder was loaded to ultimate failure. The report includes...

  11. 双层桥箱内壁车辆碰撞混凝土损伤仿真研究%Simulation Study on Concrete Damage of the Inner Box Collision of the Double Decked Continuous Box Girder Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈正峰; 方金苗; 郑净

    2014-01-01

    Double-decked continuous box bridge is a new structure system and how to evaluate the structure damage caused by vehicle collision inner box has a great significance to the wide application of the new structure .This paper researches all conditions of structure damages caused by vehicle collision inner box by means of computerized simulation .The study finds out the concrete injured parts and its degree ,analysis the sensitive factor of concrete damage ,which provides suggestions for the design of double-decked bridge .%双层连续箱梁桥是一种新型结构体系,如何评价车辆撞击箱梁内部造成的结构损伤对于这种新型结构的广泛运用具有重要意义。通过计算机仿真技术研究各种工况下车辆对箱梁桥内壁撞击引起的结构损伤情况,得出混凝土损伤部位以及程度,分析影响混凝土损伤的敏感因子,为双层桥结构设计提供参考。

  12. Spatial Finite Element Analysis for Dynamic Response of Curved Thin-Walled Box Girder Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the flexural and torsional characteristics of curved thin-walled box girder with the effect of initial curvature, 7 basic displacements of curved box girder are determined. And then the strain-displacement calculation correlations were established. Under the curvilinear coordinate system, a three-noded curved girder finite element which has 7 degrees of freedom per node for the vibration characteristic and dynamic response analysis of curved box girder is constructed. The shape functions are used as the interpolation functions of variable curvature and variable height to accommodate to the variation of curvature and section height. A MATLAB numerical analysis program has been implemented.

  13. Precast Prestressed Concrete Truss-Girder for Roof Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Samir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel trusses are the most popular system for supporting long-span roofs in commercial buildings, such as warehouses and aircraft hangars. There are several advantages of steel trusses, such as lightweight, ease of handling and erection, and geometric flexibility. However, they have some drawbacks, such as high material and maintenance cost, and low fire resistance. In this paper, a precast concrete truss is proposed as an alternative to steel trusses for spans up to 48 m (160 ft without intermediate supports. The proposed design is easy to produce and has lower construction and maintenance costs than steel trusses. The truss consists of two segments that are formed using standard bridge girder forms with block-outs in the web which result in having diagonals and vertical members and reduces girder weight. The two segments are then connected using a wet joint and post-tensioned longitudinally to form a crowned truss. The proposed design optimizes the truss-girder member locations, cross-sections, and material use. A 9 m (30 ft long truss specimen is constructed using self-consolidated concrete to investigate the constructability and structural capacity of the proposed design. A finite element analysis of the specimen is conducted to investigate stresses at truss diagonals, verticals, and connections. Testing results indicate the production and structural efficiency of the developed system.

  14. Stress analysis of box girders with corrugate steel webs under distorsion%波形钢腹板箱梁畸变应力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丙文; 黎雅乐; 万水; 张建东

    2011-01-01

    According to mechanical characteristics of box girders with corrugated steel webs and theory of box girders, the warping normal stress of box girders with corrugated steel webs caused by distortion is studied. Considering that corrugated webs have fold effects, the corrugated webs are regarded as an orthotropic plate. Distortion governing differential equations of box girders with corrugated steel webs are derived under the equilibrium relation of plane force system within them. Their distortion angle and distortion bimoment are obtained using the beam elastic foundation (BEF) method , and then the longitudinal distortion stress is obtained. An analytical example is given to compare two types of box girders, concrete box girders and box girders with corrugated steel webs. The results of the example demonstrate that the box girders with corrugated steel webs have less lateral frame stiffness than concrete ones; thus, the distortional warping normal stress of box girders with corrugated steel webs is larger than that of concrete box girders.%在箱梁理论的基础上,根据波形钢腹板箱梁的力学特性,对波形钢腹板箱梁由畸变引起的翘曲正应力进行了研究.考虑到波形钢腹板具有褶皱效应,把波形钢腹板看作正交异性板,利用波形钢腹板箱梁中各板元平面力系的平衡关系,推导出波形钢腹板箱梁的畸变控制微分方程.采用弹性地基梁法解出波形钢腹板箱梁的畸变角和畸变双力矩,最终得到纵向畸变正应力.通过算例对比分析相同截面的波形钢腹板箱梁和混凝土箱梁的畸变翘曲正应力,计算结果表明,波形钢腹板箱梁相对普通混凝土箱梁的横向框架刚度较小,因此由畸变产生的翘曲正应力大于混凝土箱梁的畸变翘曲正应力.

  15. Design and test of box girder for a large wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Tesauro, A.; Bitsche, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2012-09-15

    This report is covering the structural design and full scale test of a box girder as a part of the project ''Demonstration of new blade design using manufacturing process simulations'' supported by the EUDP program. A box girder with a predetermined outer geometry was designed using new inventions, which create an inner structure in the box girder. With a combination of advanced FEM analysis and the inventions it was possible to reduce the material thickness of the cap by up to 40%. The new design of the box girder was manufactured at SSP Technology A/S, where it was demonstrated that the manufacturing process could include the new inventions. Subsequently the box girder was transported to the blade test facility at DTU Wind Energy. A series of test was performed with the blade to investigate the behaviour during loading, and finally the girder was loaded to ultimate failure. The report includes the description of the test setup, the test and an overview over the results from the test performed on the box girder. During the final test the box girder failed at 58 % of the expected ultimate load. Unfortunately, no definite conclusion could be made concerning the failure mechanism. (Author)

  16. Analysis of ultimate bearing capacity of prestressed concrete box -girder bridge with large -cantilever -wing%大悬臂展翅预应力混凝土宽箱梁桥极限承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓琳; 贾布裕; 杨铮; 颜全胜

    2015-01-01

    To study the ultimate bearing capacity of the large cantilever structure,an accurate space finite ele-ment model was built for numerical analysis with the background of a prestressed concrete box -girder bridge with large -cantilevev -wing.Taking into account of the geometric nonlinearity and the material nonlinearity, the structure ultimate bearing capacity and the distribution regularity of cracks under three load cases(eccentric concentrated load,symmetrical concentrated load and uniform distributed load)were analyzed.It is concluded that the structure ultimate bearing capacity under the load case of symmetrical load is larger than that under the case of asymmetrical load;the distributions of the stress and cracks under the load case of asymmetrical load are also asymmetrical and cracks are more likely to appear in the root of the cantilever wing.The stress condition of side span is worse than mid -span under uniformly distributed load.%针对大悬臂展翅结构的极限承载能力问题,以某大悬臂展翅预应力混凝土宽箱梁桥为实际工程背景,建立精细的空间有限元模型进行数值分析。考虑结构几何非线性和材料非线性,研究偏心集中荷载、对称集中荷载、均布荷载3种工况作用下,结构的极限承载能力及裂缝的分布规律。结果表明,对称加载形式的极限承载能力大于非对称加载形式的极限承载能力;非对称荷载作用下,桥梁应力及裂缝分布也具有较大非对称性,且悬臂板根部更加容易出现裂缝,均布荷载作用下,桥梁边跨应力状况劣于中跨。

  17. Pulling Force Analysis of Shear Studs in Steel-concrete Composite Continuous Box Girder of Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge%港珠澳大桥组合连续箱梁桥剪力钉受力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘沐宇; 王松; 张强

    2013-01-01

    show that the shear stdus between concrete deck and steel box girder of section with longitudinal beam has better connectivity than section without longitudinal beam.

  18. Study of Lining Concrete Arrangement for Multi-Cell Single Box Composite Girder with Corrugated Steel Webs%单箱多室波形钢腹板组合箱梁内衬混凝土布置方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文琴; 张建东; 刘朵; 胡隽

    2016-01-01

    为优化波形钢腹板内衬混凝土组合结构受力,以南昌朝阳大桥通航孔桥———单箱多室波形钢腹板单索面多塔斜拉桥为工程背景,通过理论计算和有限元分析研究了单箱多室波形钢腹板组合箱梁内衬混凝土布置形式对结构抗剪性能的影响。结果表明:有无设置内衬混凝土对单箱多室波形钢腹板组合箱梁腹板剪应力水平较高的波形钢腹板影响较大,对腹板剪应力水平较低的波形钢腹板影响较小;内衬混凝土单侧设置和双侧设置波形钢腹板剪应力的影响相差不大;内衬混凝土双侧设置及仅有内衬混凝土无波形钢腹板设置对混凝土剪应力的影响相差较小;对单箱多室波形钢腹板组合箱梁高剪应力水平腹板内衬混凝土可以考虑双侧布置或仅设置混凝土腹板,不设置波形钢腹板;而剪应力水平较低的腹板则考虑设置单侧内衬混凝土。%To optimize the load bearing capacity of the corrugated steel web and lining concrete composite structure ,the navigational channel bridge of Nanchang Chaoyang Bridge was taken as the study background .The bridge is a multi‐pylon multi‐cell single box girder cable‐stayed bridge with corrugated steel webs and the stay cables are fanned out in single cable plane .The influence of the arrangement of lining concrete in the multi‐cell single box composite girder with corrugated steel webs on the anti‐shearing performance of the structure was studied via theoretical calculation and finite element analysis .The results indicate that the addition of lining concrete has significant influence on the corrugated steel webs with higher shearing stress in the multi‐cell single box gird‐er with corrugated steel webs ,but slight influence on the corrugated steel webs with lower stress level .No matter the lining concrete is added to a single side of the webs or to both the two sides of the webs ,the influence exerted

  19. Research on the special lifting devices for steel box girders of Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ming; Wu Qihe; Luo Chengbin; Zhou Hanfa

    2009-01-01

    Sutong Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with a steel box girder and a main span of 1 088 m. The steel box girder of main span includes five portions: back span large unit, large block of pylon, standard girder, back span closure girder and middle span closure girder. Each back span large unit is fabricated by welding several deck segments together in factory, and is erected by floating crane. As navigational clearance of the main bridge is high, the traditional truss lifting device can' t satisfy the requirement of domestic lifting cranes for this kind of lifting height and weight. Hence, a kind of lighter lifting device for the erection of back span large units was accepted for this bridge. In this paper, the design and use of this lifting device is introduced.The upper structure used lifting gantry to install the standard girder segment by cantilever method. Because the bridge's navigation clearance is high, and the girder segment is wide and heavy, the meteorology and hydrology condition of the bridge district is abominable, and the requirements of long cable girder side pull-in, structure and performance propose high request to the lifting gantry. In this paper, the design and use key point of long cable pull-in angle adjustment device integrate into lifting gantry is introduced.

  20. Strengthening of steel–concrete composite girders using carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Mosavi; A Sadeghi Nik

    2015-02-01

    Applying composites in order to strengthen and renew the infrastructures has globally been accepted. Traditional methods to strengthen the out-of-standard structures are costly, time consuming and requires a lot of labour. Today, new techniques are hired using light and strong substances which also resist against corrosion, known as Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) plates. Regarding the high tensile strength and proper module of elasticity, CFRP plates are considered as a suitable alternative to strengthen girders. The behaviour of steel–concrete composite girders being statically loaded and strengthened by CFRP plates in this study. The CFRP plates used in this study have been stuck, with epoxy adhesive, under the tensile sections of three steel girders. The results accompanied with analytical study of moment–curvature and numerical analysis done with ANSYS, show that CFRP plates with epoxy adhesive increases the ultimate loading capacity of steel–concrete composite girder. Plastic stiffness of the girders was also increased.

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Horizontally Curved Thin-Walled Box-Girder Bridge due to Moving Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nallasivam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact on curved box-girder bridges due to vehicle moving across rough bridge deck have been analyzed using bridge-vehicle coupled dynamics. The bridge deck unevenness has been assumed to be a homogeneous random process in space specified by a PSD function. The analysis incorporates the effect of centrifugal forces due to vehicle moving on curved bridge. The curved box-girder bridge has been numerically modeled using computationally efficient thin-walled box-beam finite elements which take into account the torsional warping, distortion and distortional warping, that are important features of thin-walled box girders. Rigid vehicle with longitudinal and transverse input to the wheels giving rise to heave-pitch-roll degrees of freedom has been considered. The theoretical bridge model used in simulation study has been validated by a free vibration experiment using impact excitation. The impact factors for several response parameters such as bending moment, shear force, torsional moment, torsional bi-moment, distortional moment, distortional bi-moment and vertical deflections have been obtained for various bridge-vehicle parameters. Both constant velocity and forward acceleration of the vehicle have been considered to examine impact factor. The results highlighted that the impact factors of a curved box girder bridge corresponding to torsion, distortion and their corresponding bimoments have been observed to be generally very high, while those of the other responses are also relatively higher than that of corresponding straight box girder bridge.

  2. The Vibration Based Fatigue Damage Assessment of Steel and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC Composite Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The steel-concrete composite girder has been usually applied in the bridge and building structures, mostly consisting of concrete slab, steel girder, and shear connector. The current fatigue damage assessment for the composite girder is largely based on the strain values and concrete crack features, which is time consuming and not stable. Hence the vibration-based fatigue damage assessment has been considered in this study. In detail, a steel-steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC composite girder was tested. The steel fiber reinforced concrete is usually considered for dealing with the concrete cracks in engineering practice. The composite girder was 3.3m long and 0.45m high. The fatigue load and impact excitation were applied on the specimen sequentially. According to the test results, the concrete crack development and global stiffness degradation during the fatigue test were relatively slow due to the favourable performance of SFRC in tension. But on the other hand, the vibration features varied significantly during the fatigue damage development. Generally, it confirmed the feasibility of executing fatigue damage assessment of composite bridge based on vibration method.

  3. 活性粉末混凝土与普通混凝土组合箱梁的受力性能%The Static and Dynamic Properties of Combination Box Girders Composed of Reactive Powder Concrete and Conventioal Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖国梁; 高日; 李承根

    2004-01-01

    提出将活性粉末混凝土(Reactive Powder Concrete,以下简称RPC)与普通混凝土组合箱梁应用于实际工程的设计构想,并用有限元的方法分析了该箱梁的静力性能、破坏特征、自振周期以及在列车荷载作用下的动力响应.将分析与试验进行比较,得出该箱梁的性能良好和经济性好的结论.

  4. Lateral static and dynamic characteristics of thin-walled box girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAN Yan-an; ZHOU Guang-chun

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the static and dynamic behaviors of the thin-walled box girder in its lateral webs in consideration of shear lag effect and shear deformation, an approach based on the minimum potential principle is introduced in this paper. Both static and dynamic response equations as well as the corresponding natural boundary conditions of the box girder are deduced. Meanwhile, three generalized displacement functions:w(x), U(x) and 0(x) are employed and their differences in the calculus of variation are quantitatively investigated. The comparison of finite shell element results with analytical results of calculation examples validates the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  5. Behavior of horizontally curved steel tubular-flange bridge girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhuo

    A new type of curved steel bridge girder, called a curved tubular-flange girder, with rectangular tubes as flanges, is proposed and studied in this dissertation. A curved steel tubular-flange girder has much larger torsional stiffness than a curved I-girder and less potential for cross section distortion than a curved box-girder. Therefore, it has potential advantages compared to curved I-girders and box-girders. A theoretical analysis method for systems of curved tubular-flange girders braced by cross frames is presented. A stress analysis method for tubular-flange girders is also provided. The behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems is studied using the theoretical analysis method and compared to the behavior of the corresponding curved I-girder systems. A parametric study is performed using the theoretical analysis method to investigate the effects of geometric parameters on the behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems. The studied parameters include tubular-flange width, tubular-flange depth, cross section depth, girder curvature, and the number of cross frames. Finite element analyses are conducted to verify the theoretical analysis method, to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system under dead load, and to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system with a composite concrete deck under dead and live load. The study shows that a curved tubular-flange girder system develops much less warping normal stress and cross section rotation than a corresponding curved I-girder system. The difference is especially significant for a single curved girder under its own weight, suggesting that curved tubular-flange girders would be much easier to transport and erect than curved I-girders. As girder curvature increases, the rate of increase in the stresses and displacements for a single I-girder is much greater than for a single curved tubular-flange girder. Smaller cross frame forces develop in a tubular-flange girder

  6. Effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchart Limkatanyu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge subjected to a moving load, in this case a rapid passing trains. Literatures concerned with the design of segmental box girder bridge, the application of finite element analysis to model the segmental box girder bridge, and the minimum requirement for structural conditions of the bridge were described and discussed in detail. A series of finite element analysis was carried out using SAP2000 Nonlinear software. The effect was investigated by varying the Modulus of Elasticity by 5%, 10% and 15%. The results were then compared with the case of assumed uniform property which had already been checked for model accuracy using the Standard prEN 1991-2. The results showed that, for the uniform case, the dynamic responses of the bridge gave the highest response at the resonance speed. When considering the non-uniform material properties (non-uniform case, the effect of material uncertainties appeared to have an effect on both displacement and acceleration responses. Nonetheless, the dynamic factor provided in the design code was sufficient for designing the segmental box girder bridge with either uniform or non-uniform material properties for the train speeds considered in this study.

  7. Deflection monitoring for a box girder based on a modified conjugate beam method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Gang; Xing, Tuo

    2017-08-01

    After several years of operation, a box girder bridge would commonly experience excessive deflection, which endangers the bridge’s life span as well as the safety of vehicles travelling on it. In order to avoid potential risks, it is essential to constantly monitor the defection of box girders. However, currently, the direct deflection monitoring methods are limited by the complicated environments beneath the bridges, such as rivers or other traffic lanes, which severely impede the layouts of the sensors. The other indirect deflection monitoring methods mostly do not thoroughly consider the inherent shear lag effect and shear deformation in the box girder, resulting in a rather large error. Under these circumstances, a deflection monitoring method suiting box girders is proposed in this article, based on the conjugate beam method and distributed long-gauge fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. A lab experiment was conducted to verify the reliability and feasibility of this method under practical application. Further, the serviceability under different span-depth ratios and web thicknesses was examined through a finite element model.

  8. A new solution of measuring thermal response of prestressed concrete bridge girders for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Pengcheng; Borchani, Wassim; Hasni, Hassene; Lajnef, Nizar

    2017-08-01

    This study develops a novel buckling-based mechanism to measure the thermal response of prestressed concrete bridge girders under continuous temperature changes for structural health monitoring. The measuring device consists of a bilaterally constrained beam and a piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride transducer that is attached to the beam. Under thermally induced displacement, the slender beam is buckled. The post-buckling events are deployed to convert the low-rate and low-frequency excitations into localized high-rate motions and, therefore, the attached piezoelectric transducer is triggered to generate electrical signals. Attaching the measuring device to concrete bridge girders, the electrical signals are used to detect the thermal response of concrete bridges. Finite element simulations are conducted to obtain the displacement of prestressed concrete girders under thermal loads. Using the thermal-induced displacement as input, experiments are carried out on a 3D printed measuring device to investigate the buckling response and corresponding electrical signals. A theoretical model is developed based on the nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and large deformation assumptions to predict the buckling mode transitions of the beam. Based on the presented theoretical model, the geometry properties of the measuring device can be designed such that its buckling response is effectively controlled. Consequently, the thermally induced displacement can be designed as limit states to detect excessive thermal loads on concrete bridge girders. The proposed solution sufficiently measures the thermal response of concrete bridges.

  9. Welding of girders to insert plates of composite steel-concrete structure of tower in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lisiecki; J. Szlek; A. Klimpel

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A study of influence of preheating and MMA welding technique of tee-joints of plate girders to insert plates of a composite steel-concrete structure of the telecommunication tower, on the properties and quality of the concrete in the region of the insert plate has been carried out.Design/methodology/approach: Studies of thermo-mechanical phenomena during manual arc welding MMA of tee-joints between plate girders and insert plates were carried out to identify possible sources of the ...

  10. Welding of girders to insert plates of composite steel-concrete structure

    OpenAIRE

    A. Klimpel; A. Lisiecki; J. Szlek

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper: A study of influence of preheating and MMA welding technique of tee-joints of plate girders to insert plates of a composite steel-concrete structure of the telecommunication tower, on the properties and quality of the concrete in the region of the insert plate has been carried out.Design/methodology/approach: Studies of thermo-mechanical phenomena during manual arc welding MMA of tee-joints between plate girders and insert plates were carried out to identify possible s...

  11. Development of the applicability of simplified Henry's method for skewed multicell box-girder bridges under traffic loading conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iman MOHSENI; A.R.Khalim RASHID

    2012-01-01

    Concrete precast multicell box-girder (MCB) bridges combine aesthetics with torsional stiffness perfectly.Previous analytical studies indicate that currently available specifications are unable to consider the effect of the twisting moment (torsional moment) on bridge actions.In straight bridges the effect of torsion is negligible and the transverse reinforced design is governed by other requirements.However,in the case of skewed bridges the effect of the twisting moment should be considered.Therefore,an in-depth study was performed on 90 concrete MCB bridges with skew angles ranging from 0° to 60°.For each girder the bridge actions were determined under the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) live load conditions.The analytical results show that torsional stiffness and live load positions greatly affected the bridges' responses.In addition,based on a statistical analysis of the obtained results,several skew correction factors are proposed to improve the precision of the simplified Henry's method,which is widely used by bridge engineers to predict bridge actions.The relationship between the bending moment and secondary moments was also investigated and it was concluded that all secondary actions increase with an increase in skewness.

  12. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway systems and premature damage of these bridges is often reported, resulting in considerable maintenance and/or replacement costs. First, this paper presents a state-of-art review on the SHM of long-span PSC bridges. Monitoring strategies, methods, and previous applications for these bridges are summarized and discussed. In order to well capture the behavior of the bridge during its whole life and to maximize the use of sensors, a life-cycle monitoring strategy is proposed, in which the sensor layout is determined according to requirements for construction monitoring, completion test, and in-service monitoring. A case study is made on a three-span PSC box girder bridge in China. The system configuration, sensor layout, and data communications, and so forth, are presented. The up-to-date monitored structural responses are analyzed and compared with the design values.

  13. Performance evaluation of corrosion-affected reinforced concrete bridge girders using Markov chains with fuzzy states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M B ANOOP; K BALAJI RAO

    2016-08-01

    A methodology for performance evaluation of reinforced concrete bridge girders in corrosive environments is proposed. The methodology uses the concept of performability and considers both serviceability- and ultimate-limit states. The serviceability limit states are defined based on the degree of cracking (characterized by crack width) in the girder due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement, and the ultimate limit states are defined based on the flexural load carrying capacity of the girder (characterized in terms of rating factor using the load and resistance factor rating method). The condition of the bridge girder is specified by the assignment of a condition state from a set of predefined condition states. Generally, the classification of condition states is linguistic, while the condition states are considered to be mutually exclusive and collectivelyexhaustive. In the present study, the condition states of the bridge girder are also represented by fuzzy sets to consider the ambiguities arising due to the linguistic classification of condition states. A non-homogeneous Markov chain (MC) model is used for modeling the condition state evolution of the bridge girder with time. The usefulness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated through a case study of a severely distressed beam of the Rocky Point Viaduct. The results obtained using the proposed approach are compared with those obtained using conventional MC model. It is noted that the use of MC with fuzzy states leads to conservative decision making for the problem considered in the case study.

  14. Numerical Investigation on Aerodynamic Force of Streamlined Box Girder with Uniform Air Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Ke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the flow around a streamlined box girder with uniform air suction has been investigated numerically. Two-dimensional incompressible unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS equations are solved in conjunction with the SST k −ω turbulence model in simulations. Taking the Great Belt Bridge girder as an example, cases of different suction positions on the girder section were discussed. The effect of the suction ratio and the angle of attack (AOA of wind also were investigated. The result showed that the aerodynamic drag force was influenced by the uniform suction through either upper surface or lower surface of the box girder. The larger the suction ratio was, the more the drag-reducing could be. The suction position and AOA had a comprehensive effect on the drag force. The vortex shedding frequency was also affected by air suction. For the aerodynamic lift force and moment, air suction showed no obvious influence. If necessary, using a combined suction scheme to reduce the aerodynamic drag force or to control the flow wake would be more efficient in engineering design.

  15. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk;

    This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between...... the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds...... of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, 330 strain gauges, 24 mechanical displacement devices and two optical deformation measuring systems. The mechanical displacement devices measured both global (absolute) and local (relative) deflection and the optical systems measured...

  16. Wireless Impedance Sensor with PZT-Interface for Prestress-Loss Monitoring in Prestressed Concrete Girder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khac Duy; Lee, So Young; Kim, Jeong Tae [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Ensuring the designed prestress force is very important for the safety of prestressed concrete bridge. The loss of prestress force in tendon could significantly reduce load carrying capacity of the structure. In this study, an automated prestress-loss monitoring system for prestressed concrete girder using PZT-interface and wireless impedance sensor node is presented. The following approaches are carried out to achieve the objective. Firstly, wireless impedance sensor nodes are designed for automated impedance-based monitoring technique. The sensor node is mounted on the high-performance Imote2 sensor platform to fulfill high operating speed, low power requirement and large storage memory. Secondly, a smart PZT-interface designed for monitoring prestress force is described. A linear regression model is established to predict prestress-loss. Finally, a system of the PZT-interface interacted with the wireless sensor node is evaluated from a lab-scale tendon-anchorage connection of a prestressed concrete girder.

  17. Computer Simulation of Dynamic Interactions Between Vehicle and Long Span Box Girder Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Gong; Moe S.Cheung

    2008-01-01

    Moving vehicle loads,associated with roadway traffic can induce significant dynamic effects on the structural behaviours of bridges,especially for long-span bridges.The main objective of current research is to study traffic induced dynamic responses of long-span box-girder bridges.The finite element method has been employed in this study to obtain a three-dimensional mathematical model for the bridge system.For vehicle-bridge dynamic interaction analysis,the vehicle is modeled as a more realistic three-axle,six-wheel system,and the corresponding dynamic interaction equations have been derived.The bridge-vehicle inter- action is affected by many factors.The current study has been focused on such factors as:vehicle speed, vehicle damping ratio,multiple traffic lanes,mass ratio of vehicle and bridge,and dynamic characteristics of bridge.Case studies have been conducted to investigate these factors by using several box girder bridge examples including Confederation Bridge,the longest box girder bridge in the world.

  18. Strengthening and repair of steel-concrete composite girders using CFRP laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkolizadeh, Mohammadreza

    The use of advanced composite materials for rehabilitation and repair of deteriorating infrastructure has been embraced worldwide. The conventional techniques for strengthening of substandard bridges are costly, time consuming and labor intensive. A total of 38 specimens made of steel and carbon fibers were prepared and tested to investigate the possibility of galvanic corrosion. Two simulated aggressive environments and three different amounts of epoxy coating were used. Potentiodynamic polarization and galvanic corrosion tests were conducted. The results of the experiments showed the existence of galvanic corrosion however the rate of such corrosion could be decreased significantly by epoxy coating. A total of 21 specimens made of S 5 x 10 A36 steel beams were prepared and tested to determine the effectiveness of CFRP patch on fatigue life of notched beam. The results showed that not only CFRP patch tends to extend the fatigue life of a detail more than three times, but also it decreases the crack growth rate significantly. To investigate the effectiveness of the epoxy bonded CFRP sheets in repair and retrofit of composite girders, a total of six large-scale steel-concrete composite girders made of W 14 x 30 A36 steel beam and 7.5 cm. thick by 91 cm wide concrete slab were prepared and tested. Three different numbers of CFRP layers and three different damage level in Range were considered. The retrofitting test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP Sheet increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of composite girders and the behavior can be conservatively predicted by traditional methods. The repair test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP sheet could restore the ultimate load carrying capacity and stiffness of damaged steel-concrete composite girders. The ultimate capacity of the repaired beam was predicted by traditional methods of analysis of steel-concrete composite beams, which was fairly conservative. Guidelines and procedures for design of Steel-Concrete

  19. Shear Reinforcement Requirements for High-Strength Concrete Bridge Girders

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J. A.; Aguilar, Gerardo

    2005-01-01

    A research program was conducted on the shear strength of high-strength concrete members. The objective was to evaluate the shear behavior and strength of concrete bridge members with compressive strengths in the range of 10 000 to 15 000 psi. The goal was to determine if the current minimum amount of shear reinforcement together with maximum spacing limits in the 2004 AASHTO LRFD Specifications, and the upper limit on the nominal shear strength were applicable to concrete compressive strengt...

  20. 合蚌客专350km/h单线试验箱梁工艺试验研究%Study on Process Test for Box Girder of Hefei-Bengbu Dedicated Passenger Railway 350 km/h Single-Track Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓明

    2012-01-01

    时速350公里客运专线单线后张法单箱单室预应力混凝土简支箱梁属首次应用。为验证其各项指标,进行了4孔箱梁的试验工作;通过对箱梁的各项工艺试验进行研究,充分验证箱梁的设计。%The post-tensioning method single-cell pre-stressed concrete simple box girder for 350 km/h dedicated passenger railway single-track line is used for the first time.To verify its performance indexes,four-truss box girder test is carried out,studies on box girder process tests fully verify the design of box girder.

  1. Matrix Analysis on Flexural Behavior of Thin-walled Box Girder%薄壁箱梁挠曲性能的矩阵分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元海; 林丽霞; 李乔

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the shape function matrix which is established through assuming the homogeneous solution to the governing differential equation for shear lag of the thin-walled box girder as the element displacement function, the formula of the equivalent nodal force of the element under vertical concentrated loads is derived by applying the principle of virtual work. The reasonable warping displacement function of shear lag is proposed for the box girder with the twin-cell cross-section. The plexiglass model of the cantilever box girder with variable cross-sections is calculated, thus validating the effectiveness of the finite segment element in analysis of the box girder with variable cross-sections. The flexural behavior of the prestressed concrete continuous box girder with variable cross-sections is analyzed through a practical example. The results show as follows:The finite segment element has high computing efficiency for the box girder with variable cross-sections; under the action of vertical concentrated loads, the shear lag moment diagram of the box girder is a smooth curve and the absolute value of the shear lag moment is not greater than that of the bending moment at any cross-sections; the shear lag effect increases the mid-span deflection of the continuous box girder significantly, which shall be treated seriously in engineering practice.%在选取薄壁箱梁剪力滞控制微分方程的齐次解作为单元位移函数建立形函数矩阵基础上,运用虚功原理推导竖向集中荷载作用下单元等效节点力公式,提出双室箱梁的合理剪滞翘曲位移函数.通过对变截面悬臂箱梁有机玻璃模型进行计算,验证提出的梁段单元对分析变截面箱梁的有效性.结合实际箱梁算例,分析预应力混凝土变截面连续箱梁的挠曲性能.研究结果表明:所提出的梁段单元用于变截面箱梁分析时,具有较高的计算精度;在竖向集中荷载作用下,箱梁剪滞力矩图是一条

  2. Shear and shear friction of ultra-high performance concrete bridge girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Charles Kennan

    Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a new class of concrete characterized by no coarse aggregate, steel fiber reinforcement, low w/c, low permeability, compressive strength exceeding 29,000 psi (200 MPa), tensile strength ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 psi (8 to 17 MPa), and very high toughness. These properties make prestressed precast UHPC bridge girders a very attractive replacement material for steel bridge girders, particularly when site demands require a comparable beam depth to steel and a 100+ year life span is desired. In order to efficiently utilize UHPC in bridge construction, it is necessary to create new design recommendations for its use. The interface between precast UHPC girder and cast-in-place concrete decks must be characterized in order to safely use composite design methods with this new material. Due to the lack of reinforcing bars, all shear forces in UHPC girders have to be carried by the concrete and steel fibers. Current U.S. codes do not consider fiber reinforcement in calculating shear capacity. Fiber contribution must be accurately accounted for in shear equations in order to use UHPC. Casting of UHPC may cause fibers to orient in the direction of casting. If fibers are preferentially oriented, physical properties of the concrete may also become anisotropic, which must be considered in design. The current research provides new understanding of shear and shear friction phenomena in UHPC including: (1) Current AASHTO codes provide a non-conservative estimate of interface shear performance of smooth UHPC interfaces with and without interface steel. (2) Fluted interfaces can be created by impressing formliners into the surface of plastic UHPC. AASHTO and ACI codes for roughened interfaces are conservative for design of fluted UHPC interfaces.(3) A new equation for the calculation of shear capacity of UHPC girders is presented which takes into account the contribution of steel fiber reinforcement. (4) Fibers are shown to preferentially

  3. Research on overall assembling and welding process of steel box girder tuyere blocks of Taizhou Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shiguang; Li Hongtao; Wang Chao

    2012-01-01

    This article presents in detail the assembling and welding process technique of the steel box girder tuyere blocks of Taizhou Bridge. The application of this process technique effectively solves the problem of welding stress release in tuyere block assembling and welding without increasing the number of turns of the blocks and overhead welding, thus avoiding possible structural deformation due to excessive accumulation of internal welding stress, greatly reducing the repeated deformation and correction work during assembling and welding, and ensuring the weld seam quality and overall dimensions of tuvere blocks of Taizhou Bridze.

  4. Free vibrations of multi-girder and multi-cell box bridges with transverse deformations effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, E.; Frostig, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A general mathematical approach is developed for the free vibration behaviour analysis of multi-girder and multi-cell box bridges with a single or multi span, including the effects of the transverse deformations of the bridge cross-section. The governing equations of motion and the corresponding boundary and continuity conditions are derived via the variational principle of virtual work following Hamilton's principle. The model is general and valid for any boundary and continuity conditions, and is applicable for multi-girder bridges with longitudinal and cross beams and for multi-cell box bridges. The warping and the distortion of the bridge cross-section effects are included in the proposed model. Closed-form solutions of the governing equations are derived and the Newton-Raphson method is used to determine the eigenfrequencies. Numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed model, and are also used to examine the accuracy of other approximate models used in the analysis of bridges. The results of the proposed model are validated through comparison with three-dimensional finite element models. The results reveal that the transverse deformations decrease the magnitudes of the eigenfrequencies of the torsional mode shapes, as well as the high flexural modes.

  5. Key Technology of the Fabrication and Erection of Steel-concrete Composite Girder on Integral Span of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge%港珠澳大桥钢-混组合梁制造及安装关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳峰; 潘军

    2015-01-01

    港珠澳大桥浅水区非通航孔桥上部结构采用钢-混组合连续梁。文中主要从桥面板预制、钢主梁整孔制造、钢主梁桥面板组合、组合梁整孔运架,以及组合梁体系转换技术方面阐述了组合梁整孔制造整孔架设技术,体现了大型构件海上施工的“大型化、标准化、工厂化、装配化”理念。%The non-navigable bridge in the shallow water area of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is made of steel-concrete composite structure in the form of continuous box girder structure.This arti-cle expounded the technology of integral fabrication and erection on box girder from fabrication of the precast concrete bridge deck,fabrication of integral span on box girder,combined with steel box gird-er and bridge deck,transport and erection on composite girder,stress system transformation on com-posite girder.It shows the advanced construction concept which is″large-scale,industrialized,stand-ardized and assembled″ in the marine construction.

  6. Fatigue stress monitoring and analyses for steel box girder of Runyang Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying WANG; Zhaoxia LI; Baijian WU

    2008-01-01

    The monitoring of fatigue stress of steel bridge is a key issue of bridge health monitoring and safety assessment. This paper aims to find out the strain history features of the girder components of Runyang Suspension Bridge (RYSB) under vehicle and environmental loading during its first year of service based on the strain-history data recorded by structural health monitoring system installed in the bridge. The fatigue stress spectrums of steel box girders under normal traffic load, heavy trucks and typhoon loads were studied as well as the correlation between varying strain and temperature based on real-time monitoring of temperature histories. The results show that, monitoring on local strain in health monitoring systems of RYSB can effectively provide the information on fatigue stresses. The range of the equivalent fatigue stress on the monitoring location of the bridge is currently low, mainly due to varying traffic loading and temper-ature. There exists significant correlation between varying temperature and mean value of fatigue stress. Effect of the passing of heavy trucks on bridge fatigue is quite signifi-cant since the value of the cumulative fatigue damage generated by heavy trucks is 10 to 100 times larger than that by normal traffic. Therefore, the effect on fatigue cumulative damage due to heavy trucks or overloaded vehicles needs to be monitored and paid much attention to.

  7. Structural health monitoring of an existing PC box girder bridge with distributed HCFRP sensors in a destructive test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caiqian; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Yufeng

    2008-06-01

    The application of hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer (HCFRP) sensors was addressed to monitor the structural health of an existing prestressed concrete (PC) box girder bridge in a destructive test. The novel HCFRP sensors were fabricated with three types of carbon tows in order to realize distributed and broad-based sensing, which is characterized by long-gauge length and low cost. The HCFRP sensors were bonded on the bottom and side surfaces of the existing bridge to monitor its structural health. The gauge lengths of the sensors bonded on the bottom and side surfaces were 1.5 m and 1.0 m, respectively. The HCFRP sensors were distributed on the bridge for two purposes. One was to detect damage and monitor the structural health of the bridge, such as the initiation and propagation of new cracks, strain distribution and yielding of steel reinforcements. The other purpose was to monitor the propagation of existing cracks. The good relationship between the change in electrical resistance and load indicates that the HCFRP sensors can provide actual infrastructures with a distributed damage detection and structural health monitoring system. Corrections were made to this article on 13 May 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  8. Plastic analysis of the lateral effective width of cantilever slabs of reinforced concrete box-girders%基于塑性分析的钢筋混凝土箱梁悬臂板横向受力有效分布宽度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志; 郑辉; 刘双阳

    2012-01-01

    目前国内外相关设计规范中关于行车道板横向受力有效分布宽度的取值是基于弹性理论分析结果确定的,不能体现塑性阶段行车道板横向受力特点。通过对2个钢筋混凝土箱梁模型上的4块悬臂板进行荷载试验,得出悬臂板极限荷载和塑性铰线分布形式,并运用塑性分析方法,推导钢筋混凝土箱梁悬臂板在局部荷载作用下塑性有效分布宽度的计算公式。试验结果和理论分析比较表明:悬臂板的塑性有效分布宽度与荷载作用位置及单位板宽正、负极限弯矩值相关;满足构造配筋要求的箱梁悬臂板进行极限状态设计时,建议采用简化的三折线破坏模式进行塑性横向有效分布宽度计算,取正铰线扩散角为45°,负铰线扩散角为60°;荷载作用于悬臂板边缘时基于塑性的横向有效分布宽度是基于弹性分析的1.58倍。%According to the current design code specifications home and abroad, the values of effective width are mostly based on the results of elasticity theory, which cannot represent the characteristics of effective width in the plastic stage. The ultimate load capacity of cantilever slab and the distribution form of plastic yield-lines were acquired through loading experiments of four cantilever slabs of two reinforced concrete box-girders. The formula for calculating the effective width of the slabs under patch load was derived from plastic analysis. By comparing the experimental results with that of theoretical analysis, it is found that the plastic effective width depends on the load-bearing position and both the positive and negative values of ultimate moment, in addition, the simplified tri-linear mode could effectively determine the ultimate strength and plastic effective width of the slabs with at least the minimum reinforcement, and the desirable calculation plastic spread angle is 45~ for the positive yield-line, 60~ for the negative yield

  9. Load Test and Model Calibration of a Horizontally Curved Steel Box-Girder Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freydoon Rezaie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, full scale load test of a horizontally curved steel box-girder bridge is carried out in order to detect structural defects, which reportedly result in unwanted vibrations in nearby buildings. The bridge is tested under the passage of six heavy vehicles at different speeds, so as to determine its static and dynamic responses. A total number of one hundred and two (102 sensors are used to measure the displacements, strains, and accelerations of different points of the bridge. It is observed that the bridge vibrates at a fundamental frequency of 2.6 Hz intensively and the first mode of vibration is torsional instead of flexural. The dominant frequency of vibration of the nearby buildings is computed to be approximately 2.5Hz using rational formulas. Thus, nearness of the fundamental frequency of the bridge to those of the adjacent buildings may be causing resonance phenomenon. However, in static load tests, low ranges of strain and displacement illustrated adequate structural capacity and appropriate safety under static loads. Numerical models are created using ANSYS and SAP2000 software products, so as to design the loading test and calibrate the finite element models. The connections of the transversal elements to the girders, transversal element spacing, and changes of the stiffness values of the slabs were found to be the most influential issues in the finite elements calibration process. Finally, considering the total damage of all members, the final health score of the bridge was evaluated as 89% indicating that the bridge is in a very good situation.

  10. Comparison of Temperature Loadings of Bridge Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Římal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the effect of temperature changes on the superstructure of bridges, above all the effect of non-uniform temperature. Loadings according to standards ESN 73 6203, ENV 1991-1-5 and DIN 1072 are compared here. The paper shows a short summary of temperature loading according to each standard and shows the comparison of bending moments arisen from these temperature loadings on superstructure made from continuous girder from a steel-concrete box girder with a composite concrete slab. With respect to a variety of design processes, the comparison is made without any coefficient of loading, combination or material. 

  11. Design plan and checking calculation for the reinforcement of prestressed continuous box girder bridges%预应力连续箱梁桥加固设计及验算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜

    2016-01-01

    某预应力连续箱梁桥运营15年后,箱梁内外出现了较多的裂缝、钢筋锈蚀和台后填土沉降等病害,已影响桥梁结构的正常使用和安全。根据该桥的质量检测报告,提出了箱梁顶板采用增厚钢筋混凝土、箱室顶板内表面采用粘贴钢板和碳纤维相结合以及箱梁腹板粘贴钢板的加固方法。通过理论计算和荷载试验对加固后的桥梁承载力进行了验算和检测,结果表明,结构承载力和刚度都有明显地提高,能保证桥梁的正常使用。%A prestressed continuous box girder bridge appeared various diseases in fifteen years, for instance, cracks of the inside and outside surface of the box girder, steel corrosion and the obvious settlement of filling at back abutment. The disease has affected the normal use and safety of the bridge structure. Based on the testing reports of the bridge, a feasible strengthening method is put forward: The roof of box girder is strengthened by the thick reinforced concrete;The top plate of the box is strengthened by steel plate and carbon fiber, and box girder webs is strengthened by steel plate. The carrying capacity of the reinforced bridge is checked by the theoretical calculation and the load test. The results show that the bearing capacity and stiffness of the structure are obviously improved and can meet the requirements of normal use.

  12. 连续箱梁的日照温差应力计算研究%Study on Calculation of Sunshine Thermal Stress in Continuous Box-girders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈权; 王丽娟; 张元海; 诸昌钤

    2009-01-01

    According to the harmonious condition of deformation and the assumption of plane section, the general formula for calculating sunshine thermal stress of continuous box girders was derived. Then based on the existing experimental results and the modes of sunshine thermal gradients in the present code for design of railway and highway bridges, the practical calculating formula of thermal stress was presented. The method and formula for calculating secondary thermal bending moment were provided tnnzekew continuous box girders based on the three-moment equation of skew continuous beam. The corresponding programmaing was fulfilled. The thermal stresses in figh and skew continuous box girders were calculated through engineering practice and good agreement was achieved compared with those of ANSYS calculation. The longitudinal distribution pattern of the thermal stress in continuous box girder bridges was ascertained. It is put forward that (1) much attention should be paid to the checking calculation for nonnal stress and crack resistance at midspan cross-section of central span in the design of prestrssed concrete continuous box girder bridges; (2) the checking calculation for crack resistance of inclined cross -section near gravity axis in internal support area should also be treated seriously.%根据变形协调条件及平截面假定,首先推导了连续箱梁日照温差总应力的一般公式,并针对试验观测资料及我国铁路桥梁和公路桥梁设计规范中的不同日照温差梯度模式,给出了温度应力的实用计算公式.为了能够进一步应用于斜交连续箱梁,以斜交连续梁的三力矩方程为基础,给出了温度次弯矩的计算方法及公式.编制了相应温度应力分析程序,结合工程实例分别对正交和斜交连续箱梁的温度应力进行了计算分析,并与ANSYS有限元计算结果进行对比.通过分析连续箱梁日照温差应力沿梁跨方向的分布规律,提出在设计预应力混凝

  13. Full scale test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report; Reinforced glass fiber/expoxy used in wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Find M.; Branner, K.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risoe DTU, the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark -, SSP-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Moelholt Jensen's PhD study. This report contains the complete test data for the final test, in which the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, 330 strain gauges, 24 mechanical displacement devices and two optical deformation measuring systems. The mechanical displacement devices measured both global (absolute) and local (relative) deflection and the optical systems measured surface deformation. A prediction was made on the location of the failure of the girder. At this location the majority of the measuring equipment was concentrated. The prediction was proved to be correct and valuable information of the behaviour of the box girder prior to failure was obtained. The experimental investigation consisted of the following load configurations: -Flapwise bending -Torsion Ultrasonic scanning of the box girder was performed before, during and after the test the box girder. This was done to investigate whether the girder was damaged by the load or imperfection (productions defects) growth. (au)

  14. Model Test of Continuous Composite Box Girder in Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge%港珠澳大桥组合连续箱梁模型试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘沐宇; 毛玉东; 邓晓光; 徐镜; 张强; 卢志芳

    2014-01-01

    A two-span composite continuous box girder (2 × 8.5 m) test model was designed based on the HZMB shallow water non-navigable bridge according to principle of similitude.Gradation loading test and finite element modeling were researched based on the actual construction process and operation load.The experimental results show that under 100% and 150% normal operation loads,the measured value of each key strain and deflection measure point in steel girder and concrete is linear,and the connection between the shear studs of cluster type and concrete slab is well.In addition,the unloading spring-back strain and deflection is small.In a word,for the high safety capacity and excellent structural overall performance,the continuous composite box girder bridge should be popularized and applied.%以港珠澳大桥组合连续箱梁为研究背景,基于相似原理设计制作了2×8.5m的钢-混组合连续箱梁试验模型.根据实桥施工过程和运营荷载,对试验模型开展分级加载试验和有限元模拟.结果表明:正常运营和150%运营荷载下,集束式剪力钉和混凝土板连接良好,钢箱梁、混凝土板应变和挠度呈线性增长,且卸载回弹良好,表明钢-混组合连续箱梁桥受力安全储备高,结构整体性能好,值得推广应用.

  15. 钢桁腹预应力混凝土组合梁桥的剪滞效应%Study on Shear-lag Effect of Steel Truss-web and Pre-stressed Concrete Composite Girder Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朵; 张建东; 刘钊

    2013-01-01

    The steel truss-web and pre-stressed concrete composite girder bridge consists of two parts :steel truss-web and top-and-bottom concrete board .Because the distribution of shear deformation is non-uniform ,the composite box girder bridge has the obvious shear-lag effect under longitudinal bending .Taking a steel truss-web and pre-stressed concrete composite girder bridge for example ,the shear-lag effect and the distribution law of effective width are analyzed by the fi-nite element model of space ,and the effects of top-and-bottom thickness and steel pipe thickness on the shear-lag effect are studied here so as to provide references for the similar design in the future .%钢桁腹预应力混凝土组合梁桥在截面形式上采用桁式腹杆和混凝土顶底板,由于剪切变形的不均匀性,使得组合箱梁在纵向弯曲时产生较为明显的剪滞效应。以某钢桁腹混凝土组合梁桥为例,利用空间实体模型分析了剪滞效应和有效宽度分布规律,并研究了顶底板厚度及钢管壁厚对剪滞效应的影响,为今后同类桥型的设计提供参考。

  16. A case study of interior low-frequency noise from box-shaped bridge girders induced by running trains: Its mechanism, prediction and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xun; Li, Xiaozhen; Hao, Hong; Wang, Dangxiong; Li, Yadong

    2016-04-01

    A side effect of high-speed railway and urban rail transit systems is the associated vibration and noise. Since the use of concrete viaducts is predominant in railway construction due to scarce land resources, low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-radiated noise from concrete bridges is a principal concern. Although it is the most commonly used bridge type, the mechanism of noise emission from box-shaped bridge girders when subjected to impact forces from moving trains, which sounds like beating a drum, has not been well studied. In this study, a field measurement was first made on a simply-supported box-shaped bridge to record the acceleration of the slabs and the associated sound pressures induced by running trains. These data indicated that a significant beat-wave noise occurred in the box-shaped cavity when the train speed was around 340 km/h, which arose from the interference between two sound waves of 75.0 Hz and 78.8 Hz. The noise leakage from the bridge expansion joint was serious and resulted in obvious noise pollution near the bridge once the beat-wave noise was generated in the cavity. The dominant frequency of the interior noise at 75.0 Hz was confirmed from the spectrum of the data and the modal analysis results, and originated from the peak vibration of the top slab due to resonance and the first-order vertical acoustic mode, which led to cavity resonance, amplifying the corresponding noise. The three-dimensional acoustic modes and local vibration modes of the slab were calculated by using the finite element method. A simplified vehicle-track-bridge coupling vibration model was then developed to calculate the wheel-rail interaction force in a frequency range of 20-200 Hz. Numerical simulations using the boundary element method confirmed the cavity resonance effect and the numerical results agreed well with the data. Based on the calibrated numerical model, three noise reduction measures, i.e., adding a horizontal baffle in the interior cavity, narrowing

  17. Construction technology points for box-girder fabrication and installation engineering%箱梁预制与安装工程施工技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧萍

    2011-01-01

    Taking He-Yun highway box-girder fabrication project as the example,it summarizes the construction technology points for box-girder fabrication and installation engineering,respectively describes the fabrication plant layout,steel reinforcement preparation,pre-stressed tension,duct jacking and other critical construction procedures and attentions,which has provided certain guidance for future similar project.%以河运高速公路箱梁预制项目为例,针对箱梁预制及安装工程施工技术要点进行了总结,分别阐述了预制厂的布置,钢筋加工,预应力张拉,孔道压浆等关键工序施工步骤及注意事项,为今后同类项目提供了一定指导。

  18. Long-term monitoring of a PSC box girder bridge: Operational modal analysis, data normalization and structural modification assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Alexandre; Cremona, Christian; Dumoulin, John

    2012-11-01

    For reliable performance of vibration-based damage detection algorithms, it is important to distinguish abnormal changes in modal parameters caused by structural damage from normal changes due to environmental fluctuations. This paper firstly addresses the modeling of temperature effects on modal frequencies of a PSC box girder bridge located on the A1 motorway in France. Based on a six-month monitoring experimental program, modal frequencies of the first seven mode shapes and temperatures have been measured at three hour intervals. Neural networks are then introduced to formulate regression models for quantifying the effect of temperature on modal parameters (frequencies and mode shapes). In 2009, this bridge underwent a strengthening procedure. In order to assess the effect of strengthening on the vibration characteristics of the bridge, modal properties had to be corrected from temperature influence. Thus, the first goal is to assess the changes on the vibration signature of this bridge induced by the strengthening. For this purpose, classical statistical analysis and clustering methods are applied to the data recorded over the period after strengthening. The second goal is to evaluate the influence of temperature effects on the clustering results. It comes that the temperature correction significantly improves the confidence in the novelty detection and in the strengthening efficiency.

  19. 桥面铺装与小箱梁的共同作用试验%Experiment of Coaction of Bridge Deck Pavement and Small Box Girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱寅泉; 周正茂; 袁桂芳; 王素娟

    2012-01-01

    Load tests on a single small box girder and a bridge were carried out to evaluate the effects of deck pavement by comparing the deflections of the girders before and after the pavement surfaced. The comprehensive elastic modulus was obtained from the test before pavement surfaced, and the coaction degree of the bridge deck pavement and the girders was obtained by comparing the flexural inertia moment corresponding to the deflection in the test after pavement surfaced with the theoretical flexural inertia moment corresponding to the supposed thickness of the pavement in work. The results from these tests show that (1) the rough interface could greatly improve the coaction degree of bridge deck pavement with girders, which could reach 100% ; (2) in general cases, the extent of the coaction of bridge deck pavement with girders could reach 70% , and for a pavement with thickness of 8 cm, the thickness of the pavement in coaction could be taken as 60% or 3 cm in thickness could be substracted from the pavement in design; (3 ) the pavement could improve the uniformity of the transverse load distribution. Load tests on a single small box girder and a bridge were carried out to evaluate the effects of deck pavement by comparing the deflections of the girders before and after the pavement surfaced. The comprehensive elastic modulus was obtained from the test before pavement surfaced, and the coaction degree of the bridge deck pavement and the girders was obtained by comparing the flexural inertia moment corresponding to the deflection in the test after pavement surfaced with the theoretical flexural inertia moment corresponding to the supposed thickness of the pavement in work. The results from these tests show that (1) the rough interface could greatly improve the coaction degree of bridge deck pavement with girders, which could reach 100% ; (2) in general cases, the extent of the coaction of bridge deck pavement with girders could reach 70% , and for a pavement with

  20. review of elastic analys ew of elastic analysis of box girder bridges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    arch efforts in publis thods and experimental studies related to the elastic analysis of box girde ..... from this method were used to develop design charts to determine the ..... the analysis and design of thin-walled beams, Tech. Rep. No. 42440 ...

  1. A compilation of research on self-consolidating concrete for prestressed bridge girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eduardo S.

    This thesis is composed of three research papers, for each paper a separate chapter is used, which investigates various aspects for the production of SCC utilizing materials available in the state of Wisconsin. Chapter one provides a summary of the current state-of-the-art and practice of technical documentation and specifications related to material properties and test methods for prestressed SCC bridge girders. Chapter two provides an experimental program designed to investigate the effect of material constituents on performance of SCC mixtures. From this experimental program specific mixture parameters were recommended for the application of SCC in Wisconsin DOT projects. Finally, chapter three consisted in monitoring samples of five SCC mixtures batched at three different precast plants from Wisconsin. Creep and shrinkage readings were taken for a period of 112 days to investigate the effect of specific mixture parameters of selected mixtures with performance desired by the Wisconsin DOT and precast plants. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Geometry control of long-span continuous girder concrete bridge during construction through finite element model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Yan, Quan-sheng; Li, Jian; Hu, Min-yi

    2016-04-01

    In bridge construction, geometry control is critical to ensure that the final constructed bridge has the consistent shape as design. A common method is by predicting the deflections of the bridge during each construction phase through the associated finite element models. Therefore, the cambers of the bridge during different construction phases can be determined beforehand. These finite element models are mostly based on the design drawings and nominal material properties. However, the accuracy of these bridge models can be large due to significant uncertainties of the actual properties of the materials used in construction. Therefore, the predicted cambers may not be accurate to ensure agreement of bridge geometry with design, especially for long-span bridges. In this paper, an improved geometry control method is described, which incorporates finite element (FE) model updating during the construction process based on measured bridge deflections. A method based on the Kriging model and Latin hypercube sampling is proposed to perform the FE model updating due to its simplicity and efficiency. The proposed method has been applied to a long-span continuous girder concrete bridge during its construction. Results show that the method is effective in reducing construction error and ensuring the accuracy of the geometry of the final constructed bridge.

  3. 箱梁钢筋定位自动检测装置%The automatic detection device for box girder reinforced positioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵云

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce or eliminate the box girder quality oroblems caused by box girder reinforced orotection layer and ore-stressed oosi-tioning network reinforced deformation and installation not in olace,this oaoer researched the reinforced oositioning of reinforced orotective layer and ore-stressed oositioning network in oost tensioned ore-stressed box beam construction orocess,designed a set of automatic detection each ten-sioned oositioning detection ooint tensioned whether accuracy oositioning or not and disolayed the tensioned oositioning automatic detection de-vice,solved the oroblem of reinforced oositioning detection.%为了减少或消除因箱梁钢筋保护层及预应力定位网钢筋形变和安装不到位而引起箱梁质量问题,对后张法预应力箱梁施工工艺中的钢筋保护层及预应力定位网的钢筋定位进行了研究,设计了一套能自动检测各检测点钢筋是否定位准确并显示的钢筋定位自动检测装置,解决了钢筋定位检测的问题。

  4. Assessment and Strengthening of a Fire Damaged Prestressed Concrete Continuous Girder Bridge%某预应力混凝土连续梁桥火损评估与加固

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 高宗余; 刘其伟; 张军雷

    2015-01-01

    某大桥靠岛岸侧的5×35 m连续梁引桥于2012年某日凌晨3时左右遭受火灾。为恢复该桥的使用功能,针对火损后的桥跨进行现场检测,并结合火场温度和结构温度场的模拟分析,对结构的受损程度进行综合评定。结果表明箱梁表面有较大面积的混凝土崩落,且造成钢筋外露,受火灾影响最为严重的是内侧翼板处,因火损导致8根横向预应力钢绞线外露。在此基础上针对箱梁混凝土火损后剥落采取砂浆修补或灌注并结合粘贴锚固钢板的措施;针对翼板横向预应力火损采取增设钢结构隔板的措施;针对结构整体采用张拉粘贴预应力碳纤维板的措施进行维修加固。经试验评定,验证了加固方案实施后的桥梁承载能力得以恢复。%T he 5 × 35‐m span continuous girder approach bridge of a bridge on the island bank side caught fire at about 03 :00 in the early morning in a day in 2012 .To restore the operational function of the bridge ,the fire damaged spans of the bridge were inspected in the field ,the fire temperatures and temperature fields of the structure were simulated and analyzed and the damage degrees of the structure were comprehensively assessed .The results of the assessment show that rather great area of concrete spalling occurs on the surface of the box girder of the bridge and the concrete spalling causes the exposure of the reinforcement .The part of the box girder affected most severely by the fire damage is the inner side cantilever slab w here 8 transverse prestressing steel wire strands are exposed owing to the fire .According to the assessment ,the concrete spal‐ling of the box girder is repaired by the measure of plastering or grouting the cement mortar and binding the anchor steel plates .The damaged prestressing steel wire strands of the cantilever slab are repaired by the measure of adding the steel partition plates and the w hole structure is repaired and

  5. The delicate analysis of shear lag effect on trapezoidal box girders%梯形箱梁剪力滞后效应的精细化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘亚南; 石飞停

    2014-01-01

    引入剪滞翘曲应力自平衡条件的影响,考虑了剪切变形和剪滞效应等因素,设置了三个不同的剪滞纵向位移差函数以准确反映梯形箱梁不同宽度翼板的剪滞变化幅度,提出了一种能对工程中常用箱梁静力学特性分析的精确解法。本文以能量变分原理为基础建立了薄壁箱梁的弹性控制微分方程和自然边界条件,获得了相应广义位移的闭合解。算例中,分析了不同荷载形式、跨宽比和悬臂板长度等因素对箱梁静力学特性的影响,结果显示出引入剪滞翘曲应力自平衡条件的必要性。%In consideration of self-equilibrium condition for shear lag warping stress ,shear deformation and shear lag effect ,three different longitudinal displacement difference functions are employed to accu-rately reflect the amplitude of change of shear lag in the trapezoidal box girders with various widths of wing slabs ,and a new warping displacement mode of trapezoidal thin-walled box girders is chosen to meet the axial self-equilibrium condition for corresponding stress ,a more accurate approach is proposed to analyze the mechanical characteristics of trapezoidal box girders generally used in engineering .Based on the minimum potential principle ,the governing differential equations and related natural boundary conditions are induced ,the closed-form solutions of generalized displacements are obtained .The varia-tions of stress of trapezoidal box girders ,caused by the change of factors such as self-equilibrium condi-tion ,type of loading and ratio of span and width are discussed ,the importance about the introduction of self-equilibrium condition is proved .

  6. 武黄客专700t预制简支箱梁架设施工技术%On construction technique for erection of 700 t prestressed simply supported box girder along Wuhan-Huangshi special passenger line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏巍

    2011-01-01

    Taking the erection of 700 t prestressed simply supported box girder along Wuhan-Huangshi special passenger line as the example, the paper sums up the erection equipment and structure characteristic of the box girder and its performance, and illustrates the construction craft of the erection for the box girder and the key points for bearing' s perfusion, so as to accumulate relative experience and direct the engineering prac- tice.%以武黄客运专线700t预制简支箱梁架设为例,对箱梁架设设备及其结构特点和性能作了归纳,重点对箱梁架设施工工艺及支座灌注要点进行了阐述,以积累相关施工经验,指导工程实践。

  7. PC连续箱梁合龙束横向效应%Transverse Effect of Bottom Continuity Tendons in Continuous PC Box Girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项贻强; 唐国斌; 朱汉华; 晁春峰

    2011-01-01

    Bottom continuity tendons induce transverse additive effect while providing longitudinal compression during the construction of PC box girder. Taking a cross-sea bridge for example, the mechanism of bottom continuity tendon is investigated. The transverse effect and parameters study are conducted through a refined model. It is illustrated that the state of bottom flange is in a dynamic changeable process during the tensioning of bottom continuity tendons, and the transverse effect caused by the tendons is much more than that by dead loading and other prestressing tendons. The transverse effect is more sensitive to alignment and thickness of the bottom flange, as well as concrete cover of the ducts. Finally, based on the simplified frame analysis, the design method is proposed by introducing prestressing effect simplified factor and duct modified factor.%PC连续箱梁合龙束张拉不仅使底板纵向受压,同时在横向产生附加效应;以某跨海大桥为例,对底板合龙束作用机理进行探讨,并通过精细有限元模型,对施工过程中合龙束的横向效应进行分析和参数研究;结果表明,合龙束张拉过程中底板横向应力处于动态变化过程,其横向效应远大于恒载和其它预应力作用结果,同时,合龙束的横向效应对底板的线形、厚度及孔道保护层较为敏感;最后,基于横向框架法,通过引入预应力效应简化系数和孔道修正系数,提出合龙束横向效应的简化计算方法.

  8. 钢箱梁典型病害分析及其检测与维护技术研究%Research on Typical Defects Analysis of Steel Box Girder and Its Testing and Maintenance Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜竹生; 瞿涛; 吕磊; 吉伯海

    2011-01-01

    基于对我国钢箱梁桥的钢箱梁病害调查,总结出我国钢箱粱典型病害的类型,分析各种钢箱梁典型病害产生的机理及导致其破坏的原因,提出了钢箱梁病害的日常检测与维护技术.针对钢箱梁的涂装劣化、钢材腐蚀、结构性损伤等病害,给出了日常检测与维护的主要项目,介绍了人工目视检测、超声波检测、磁粉检测及涡流检测等主要的检测方法的工作原理、优缺点和适用范围.%Based on the survey of China steel box girder bridges' steel box girder defects, summing up the typical defects of China steel box girder, we analyse every typical defect production mechanism and the reasons of leading to destruction of steel box girder, and propose steel box girder defects' daily testing and maintenance technology. According to coating for the deterioration, steel corrosion, structural damage and other defects of steel box girder, we give the main items of the daily testing and maintenance technology and the main detection methods including manual visual inspection, ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle testing and eddy current testing. Studying the working principle of above testing methods, advantages and disadvantages, and scope of application, should be selected based on the actual requirements in the project.

  9. On construction technique of arc model at box girder web%箱梁外腹板圆弧模施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁见

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the arc model construction of the continuous box girder web at Yijiang Bridge at Wuhu, the paper undertakes the mould installation by adopting various method according to the parameters of the web arc and the field fact, and mainly introduces the technique, including the making and the consolidation of the box girder arc models with two different parameters, so as to have better reference and direction for the similar bridge construction.%结合芜湖弋江桥连续箱梁外腹板圆弧模施工技术,根据外腹板圆弧半径大小,结合现场实际情况,通过采取不同方法进行模板制安施工,详细介绍了两种不同圆弧半径的箱梁圆弧模板的制作、加固等技术,对同类型桥梁施工具有较强的借鉴和指导作用。

  10. 跨多股道钢箱梁天桥的结构设计%The Structural Design of Steel Box Girder Pedestrian Bridge Crossing Multiple Railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈耀海

    2011-01-01

    结合西部某新建火车站进站人行天桥工程实例,分析了设计和施工的多种控制条件,论证了主梁采用钢箱梁结构的合理性.通过有限元分析和动力特性计算可知,结构设计的控制因素为竖向自振频率,采用中墩与主梁固结的连接方式可以有效地调整结构竖向自振频率.%Based on the project case of one pedestrian bridge in one new constructed railway station at west China, many controlled conditions are analyzed about structural design and engineering construction, and the rationalitles of steel box girder bridge adopted in the design are also demonstrated. It is learned from finite - element analysis and dynamic characteristics calculation that the control factor of structural design is vertical vibration frequency, which can be improved effectively by means of fixed connection between central pier and steel box girder.

  11. 高铁板式轨道区段箱梁结构噪声辐射分析%Noise Radiation Analysis of Box-girder Structure in Slab Track Section of High Speed Railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石广田; 杨新文; 张小安; 杨建近

    2015-01-01

    A high speed train-track coupling dynamics model was established using Simpack software, and the wheel/rail vertical contact force excited by track irregularity spectrum was calculated. The wheel/rail vertical force was taken as a boundary condition and applied to the finite element model (FEM) of an elevated box girder structure to calculate its surface vibration response. Then, the vibration response was taken as the acoustic boundary conditions and was applied to the bound-ary element model (BEM) of the elevated box-girder structure to analyze its sound radiation. The results show that, using the finite element method and the boundary element method, the vibration noise of the concrete simply-supported box-beam structure can be effectively calculated with shell elements. The vibration noise is mainly concentrated in the low frequency range of 0-200 Hz, and the peaks mainly appear at the central frequencies of 16 Hz, 25 Hz, 80 Hz-100 Hz. The sound pres-sure level decreases with the increase of the distance from the ground in the lateral sound field and this tendency is more ob-vious for lower frequency sound field. The sound pressure level generally increases with the increase of the distance from the ground in the vertical acoustic field, and the sound pressure level in far field area does not change obviously for the fre-quencies below 31.5 Hz. In the range of 80 Hz-100 Hz, the sound pressure levels of the field points near the girder, especial-ly above the girder, are higher than those in the other regions.%利用Simpack软件建立高速列车-轨道耦合动力学模型,计算在轨道不平顺谱激励下的轮轨垂向力,以此作为载荷边界条件施加到高架箱梁结构的有限元模型。计算了高架箱梁表面的振动响应,并利用箱梁结构振动响应作为声学边界条件。进而又采用间接边界元法对其进行声辐射分析。研究结果表明,利用板壳单元,采用有限元—边界元方法能够有效

  12. 预防连续箱梁施工裂缝的温度监测与有限元分析%Temperature monitoring and finite element analysis of preventing construction cracks in a continuous box girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海源; 章龙; 张乐文; 张峰

    2011-01-01

    The features of uneven distribution temperature stress in recently poured concrete and the effective measures to prevent temperature cracks were studied. The 0# box girder in the Weihe Specially Long Bridge located in the highway from Xi' an to Tongchuan was taken as a research project, which was computed on MIDAS/FEA( multitier distributed applications services/finite element analysis) finite analysis element software. The temperature field of hydration heat of the concrete in the construction period was numerically calculated by the finite element method. The effects of three different mechanical control measures of crack control were analyzed. Combined with the results of temperature detection, the mechanical control measure was optimized. The results showed that the temperature inside the concrete rose to a peak about 52 hours after the concrete was poured, with or without cooling water pipes in the box temperature difference of the maximum temperature about 10℃. When the temperature difference between inside and outside of the concrete at 20℃ was a good time to remove the template. Temperature stress was concentrated in the junction web plate and diaphragm of the box girder, thus setting the cooling water pipes could improve the uneven distribution of temperature stress. Compared with other results, the whole process temperature monitoring and the finite element dynamic analysis by this method was better at optimizing the engineering measures of crack prevention.%研究混凝土浇筑初期内部温度应力不均匀分布特征和预防温度裂缝的有效措施,以西安至铜川高速公路渭河特大桥某0#箱梁为研究对象,以MIDAS/FEA(multitier distributed applications services/finite element analysis)有限元分析软件为计算平台,采用有限单元法对施工期混凝土水化热温度场进行了数值模拟计算,分析了3种不同防裂工程措施的理论效果,并结合温度监测进行了工程

  13. Treatment Measures for Empty Bearing of Arc Steel Box Girder with Cross Slope for Rotating Structure%旋转结构找横坡弧形钢箱梁支座托空处理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李粤东; 夏崇滔; 张翼; 巫正伟

    2014-01-01

    钢箱梁结构因其自身的特性在市政工程建设得到大量运用,钢箱梁吊装施工中空间就位及空形态的控制问题较为突出,其中带纵坡的弧形钢箱梁通过旋转结构找横坡就使得钢箱梁在施工过程中整体空间形态要有控制技术难度更高,极易造成钢箱梁支座托空。该文结合工程实例,就有纵坡且旋转结构找横坡弧形钢箱梁吊装后产生支座托空的处理措施进行论述。%Steel box girder structure is widely applied nowadays for its virtues, but the controlling problems in space location and spatial form in its con-struction are severe, and the finding of cross slope through rotating structure by arc steel box girder with longitudinal slope renders controlling technology of steel box girder over spatial form harder, easily causing empty bearing of steel box girder. The treatment measures for such problem are presented in de-tail.

  14. Discuss the Full Framing Construction of Cast-in-place Box Girder%浅谈现浇箱粱满堂支架搭设施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亮

    2013-01-01

    在进行桥梁上部结构的箱梁现浇施工时,满堂支架法的应用已经非常普遍。但是在进行满堂支架法施工时,其施工事故发生的频率也比较高。如何有效提高满堂支架法的施工安全,是值得去深入探究的问题。%During conduct the box girder cast-in-place const-ruction of upper structure in bridge, the application of ful fra-ming method has become so common. But when making ful framing construction method, its construction has a high acide-nt frequency. It is worth to delve into the problem of how to i-mprove the method of ful framing construction safety.

  15. Design of Norway HAKRDANGER Steel Box Girder Bridge Coating Process%挪威HAKRDANGER大桥钢箱梁涂装工艺设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李连缀; 李敏风

    2011-01-01

    The anti-corrosion matching scheme and performance of the Norwegian HAKRDANGER bridge steel box girder inside and outside were introduced. The design of coating process including surface treatment, arc spraying zinc process, spray construction process equipment and related technical parameters requirements were introduced in detail.%介绍了挪威HAKRDANGER大桥钢箱梁内外侧防腐配套方案及性能。着重介绍了涂装工艺设计,包括表面处理、电弧喷锌工艺、喷漆施工等工艺设备及相关技术参数要求等。

  16. 箱型桥梁结构的面板声学贡献分析%Application of panel acoustic contribution theory in study of noise fro m simply -supprted box girder in high speed rail way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林芽; 付奇川; 邵文杰; 李纪阳

    2015-01-01

    Taking the high speed railway 32 m concrete simply -supported box bridge as the research object,the theses used finite element software to set up for high speed railway track -bridge analysis model.Then,based on the theory of vehicle -track -bridge coupling vibration,this paper analyzed the vertical vibration of the struc-ture of the bridge.A vertical vibration response was finally gotten as boundary conditions,which we use in the boundary element model of box girder structure noise prediction.At the same time,based on panel acoustic con-tribution analysis theory,the box beam body panel pressure contribution analysis and panel acoustic power analy-sis were done.In this way,we determined the largest position of body radiation noise for box beam .The results of the study show that if the train speeds up to 200 km /h on the elevated rail,box beam body radiation noise mainly occur within the range of 0 -100 Hz,of which 20 Hz and 42 Hz are prominent peak.Meanwhile,by the panel acoustic contribution analysis,we come to the conclusion that the part of main radiation noise comes from the box girder roof and the two flank flange panel.%以高速铁路32 m 混凝土简支箱型桥梁为研究对象,通过有限元软件建立了轨道-桥梁分析模型,采用车辆-轨道-桥梁耦合振动理论,分析了桥梁结构的竖向振动,并将得到的竖向振动响应作为边界条件,导入到箱梁边界元模型中预测箱梁结构噪声。同时基于面板声学贡献分析理论,进行了箱梁梁体的面板声压贡献分析和声功率贡献分析,确定箱梁梁体辐射噪声的最大部位。研究结果表明:列车以200 km/h 的速度运行在高架轨道上时,箱梁梁体辐射噪声主要集中0-100 Hz 范围内,其中在20 Hz 和42 Hz 左右有比较突出峰值。同时由面板声学贡献分析可知箱梁梁体主要辐射噪声的部位是箱梁的顶板和两侧翼缘板下面板。

  17. Spatial Effect on Railway Trough Girder with Reactive Powder Concrete%铁路活性粉末混凝土槽形梁的空间作用效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志光; 余自若; 王月

    2013-01-01

    The authors carried out three-dimensional finite element analysis on a 32 m railway trough girder which was made of reactive powder concrete.After working out shear lag coefficients under different load conditions,the rule of shear lag was analyzed,and the results indicated that the shear lag effect in this reactive powder concrete trough girder was larger than that of common concrete girder.Further,the spatial effect on transversal and longitudinal bending moments was analyzed,and the study result on the influence lines of transversal bending moments indicated that,due to the spatial effect,any force on any point of the trough girder would cause transversal bending moment which should not be ignored.Finally,the study result on influence lines of longitudinal bending moments showed that,there was spatial effect on equivalent load in reactive powder concrete trough girder; the closer to the girder end the place was,the more obviously the effect became,which also should not be ignored.Therefore,in the design of this kind of railway girder,the spatial effect on the vicinity of girder end should be taken seriously.%对32 m铁路活性粉末混凝土槽形梁进行三维有限元分析,计算出不同工况下的剪力滞系数,并对剪力滞规律进行分析,研究表明该梁的剪力滞效应较普通混凝土梁更加明显;对其横向和纵向弯矩的空间效应进行分析,对横向弯矩影响线的研究表明,受空间作用的影响,梁上任意一点受力均会在某一截面产生不可忽略的横向弯矩;对纵向弯矩影响线的研究表明空间作用对活性粉末混凝土槽形梁换算荷载的影响在越靠近端部影响越明显,且该影响不可忽略,所以在设计该种梁时需要在靠近端部位置充分考虑空间作用的影响.

  18. Evaluation on Impact Interaction between Abutment and Steel Girder Subjected to Nonuniform Seismic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the impact interaction between the abutment and the girder subjected to nonuniform seismic excitation. An impact model based on tests is presented by taking material properties of the backfill of the abutment into consideration. The conditional simulation is performed to investigate the spatial variation of earthquake ground motions. A two-span continuous steel box girder bridge is taken as the example to analyze and assess the pounding interaction between the abutment and the girder. The detailed nonlinear finite element (FE model is established and the steel girder and the reinforced concrete piers are modeled by nonlinear fiber elements. The pounding element of the abutment is simulated by using a trilinear compression gap element. The elastic-perfectly plastic element is used to model the nonlinear rubber bearings. The comparisons of the pounding forces, the shear forces of the nonlinear bearings, the moments of reinforced concrete piers, and the axial pounding stresses of the steel girder are studied. The made observations indicate that the nonuniform excitation for multisupport bridge is imperative in the analysis and evaluation of the pounding effects of the bridges.

  19. 覆膜竹胶模板在现浇箱梁施工中的应用%Application of Coated Bamboo Rubber Template in Situ Box Girder Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培国

    2012-01-01

    The materials of coated bamboo rubber template is light, its processing and demolition is convenient, and it is easy to operate. So it is widely used in the external and internal model construction of situ box girder. This paper, combined with the actual situ box girder construction, discussed characteristics, scope, process, operation points of coated bamboo rubber template in more detail, for the reference in construction.%覆膜竹肢模板具有材质轻、加工及安拆方便、操作简便特点,广泛用于现浇箱梁外、内模施工,本文结合现浇箱粱施工实际,对覆膜竹胶模板的特点、适用范围、工艺流程、操作要点进行了较为详细的论述,以供施工参考.

  20. 箱型梁附加挠度与剪力滞效应的一维有限元分析%One-dimensional finite element analysis on additional deflection and shear-lag effect of box-girders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绿峰; 周月娥; 曾有凤

    2013-01-01

    当前箱型梁剪力滞效应分析的一维离散有限元法对剪力滞函数的处理存在局限性,而且剪力滞系数难以准确反映翼缘截面剪力滞效应及其变化规律.为此,利用箱梁附加挠度代替剪力滞函数建立箱梁翼缘的纵向位移函数,并根据能量变分原理建立控制微分方程并识别了其中的待定参数.以箱梁挠度、附加挠度及其一阶导数作为单元节点位移参数,提出了箱型梁剪力滞效应分析的一维离散有限元法,给出了箱梁的自然边界条件和强迫边界条件.基于箱梁挠度和附加挠度定义了新的剪力滞系数,分析了不同支撑条件对箱型梁剪力滞效应的影响.算例分析证明了该方法的有效性,且具有较高的计算精度;与传统的基于应力的剪力滞系数相比,基于挠度的剪力滞系数能够更加准确地反映箱型梁截面的剪力滞效应及其分布规律.%The shear-lag function in one-dimensional finite element method for box-girders has no definite physical interpretation, and moreover the shear-lag coefficient can not reflect correctly the shear-lag effect and its variation along the axis of box girder. In order to circumvent these problems, the additional deflection function instead of the shear-lag function is incorporated in the longitudinal displacement of the flange of the box girder. The variational principle is employed to identify the undetermined constants in the longitudinal displacement function. Furthermore, the deflection, additional deflection and their first derivatives are adopted as nodal displacement parameters in the discreted finite elements of box-girder, leading to one-dimensional finite element method for the shear-lag effect of box girders. A new shear-lag coefficient is defined in terms of the deflection of the box-girder, based on which the shear-lag effect on box girders is analysed with different boundary conditions considered. Examples show that the shear

  1. Experimental Modal Anlysis of Pedestrian Steel Box Girder Bridge%人行钢箱梁桥模态试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申杨凡; 杨斌; 何钰龙; 郭凯强; 续琦峰; 王艳琪; 贾艳敏

    2016-01-01

    为了了解人行钢桥的自振特性,运用东华测试系统对某人行钢箱梁桥进行模态测试,得到桥梁的动力特性参数,并将试验测得的固有频率、模态振型与 ANSYS 有限元模型中的模态数据进行对比分析。分析结果表明:该人行钢箱梁桥的基频的试验值与理论值的误差为3.8%,行人的附加模态质量是对试验产生误差的原因之一,但对结构基频的影响不大,这也就证明了采用峰值拾取法处理时域数据是合理的,同时结合模态判定准则所得模态数据也是可信的,通过该模态测试系统可有效地测得模态参数(固有频率、模态振型及阻尼比)。%In order to study the natural vibration characteristics of the pedestrian bridge steel,a pedestrian steel box girder bridge’s model experiment is carried out with Donghua Test System to get the dynamic characteristics of bridge,and comparing Natural frequency and mode shapes with modal data a-nalysis of ANSYS finite element model.The analysis results indicate that the error between the fundamen-tal frequency experiment value and the theoretical value of the pedestrian steel box girder bridge is 3.8%.And the additional modal mass of pedestrian is one of the reasons why the experiment have error,it’s in-fluence is little.What proved that using the Peak Picking Method to manipulation time domain data is rea-sonable.At the same time,the modal date that obtained by combining with the modal criterion is credi-ble.That modal parameters(natural frequency,modal vibration mode and damping ratio)can be measured effectively by the modal testing system.

  2. Manufacture Process of Steel Box Girder for RP Gantry in Some Nuclear Power Station%某核电站RP龙门架箱形钢结构梁制作工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展之芳

    2014-01-01

    In steel structure project, fabrication process of steel box girder is complex, so it is difficult to control welding deformation. This paper introduced the fabrication process of steel box girder for RP gantry in nuclear power station from the material, assembly, welding and correction. The fabrication process ensures the overall geometry of box girder, and guarantees the effective control of welding deformation and welding quality, achieves a certain economic benefits.%钢结构工程中,箱形钢梁制作工艺复杂,焊接变形控制困难。通过从下料、组装、焊接、矫正等方面详细介绍了核电站RP龙门架箱形钢结构梁的制作工艺过程,该过程保证了箱形钢梁的整体几何尺寸,同时又保证了焊接质量并有效控制了焊接变形,取得了一定经济效益。

  3. Construction technology of steel structure shelter with elevated platform arc variable-section box girder%高架站弧形变截面箱梁钢结构雨篷施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志峰

    2015-01-01

    Combining with urban rail transit steel structure shelter with variable section box girder as an example,the paper studies construction quality control and limited hoisting construction of steel structure shelter with elevated platform arc variable-section box girder,and solves difficul-ties occurring in quality control and field limitation hoisting process of variable section box girder installation,which has accumulated experience for similar engineering.%结合某市城市轨道交通变截面箱梁钢结构雨篷施工实例,对高架站变截面箱梁钢结构雨篷制作质量控制及场地受限吊装施工展开了技术研究,解决了变截面箱形梁制作安装过程中质量控制及场地受限时吊装过程中的难题,为其他类似工程积累了经验。

  4. Pedestrian bridge steel box girder with steel truss mechanics performance comparison and analysis%钢箱梁与钢桁架人行天桥力学性能对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申杨凡; 续琦峰; 杨斌; 王绍全; 郭凯强; 王艳琪; 贾艳敏

    2015-01-01

    为了分析并对比钢箱梁与钢桁架人行天桥的力学性能,建立了两者的ANSYS有限元计算模型,通过静力分析,得出钢桁架人行天桥的承载力更大,通过动力特性分析,钢桁架人行天桥较钢箱梁人行天桥更易产生扭转,且钢箱梁的自振频率较钢桁架的自振频率要大。%In order to analyze and contrast the steel box girder and steel truss pedestrian bridge mechanical properties,the ANSYS finite element calculation model is established,by static analysis,we can draw the steel truss of pedestrian bridge bearing capacity is larger,through the analy-sis of the dynamic characteristics of the pedestrian steel truss bridge with steel box girder footbridge reverse easier to be produced,and the natural frequency of vibration of the steel box girders for bigger than the natural frequency of vibration of steel truss.

  5. Full scale test of a SSP 34m box girder 2. Data report; Reinforced glass fiber/epoxy used in wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Find M.; Branner, K.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2008-05-15

    This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test was part of a proof of concept investigation for a patent. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2007. The tests are an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risoe National Laboratory for sustainable energy--Technical university of Denmark, SSP-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Moelholt Jensen's PhD thesis. This report is the second data report containing the complete test data for the three full-scale tests. This report deals only with the test methods and the obtained results, no conclusions are drawn. These can be found in papers and patent referenced in the data report. Various kinds of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, force transducers, strain gauges and optical deformation measuring system (DIC). The experimental investigation consisted of the following tests: 1) Flapwise bending with no reinforcement 2) Flapwise bending with wire reinforcements 3) Flapwise bending with rib reinforcements. (au)

  6. Application of TMD in Large Span Steel Box Girder Footbridge%TMD在大跨径钢箱梁人行桥上的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑翔

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) composition and operation principle of the structure, comparison of advantages and disadvantages of TMD and other control of steel box girder footbridge vibration methods, and combined with the Mianyang No.1 bridge footbridge of Sichuan Province as an example, through the use of text and graph-table combination method, describes vividly the practical application of TMD in large span footbridge.%  介绍了质量调谐阻尼器(TMD)的结构组成以及工作原理,比较了TMD与其它控制钢箱梁人行桥振动方法的优缺点,并结合四川省绵阳市一号桥人行桥为工程实例,通过采用文字与图、表相结合的方式,形象地阐述了TMD在大跨径人行桥中的实际应用。

  7. 大跨结构箱形曲梁的平面内整体稳定性能分析%Analysis of In-plane Stability Performance of Large Span Steel Structure Curved Box-girders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元清; 刘莉媛; 丁大益; 石永久; 完海鹰

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the in-plane stability performance of the arc axis both ends hinged curved box-girders, numerical method theory was carried out using finite element software ABAQUS. Two-dimensional curved girder models were established to simulate the in-plane stability of curved box-girders. Influences of different central angles, different slenderness ratio, and different initial geometric imperfections on the in-plane stability performances of the curved box-girder were considered. The differences and laws of the numerical solution and classic theoretical solution of the elastic buckling factor were gained. Effects on the stability factor and regularization slenderness ratio of the initial geometric imperfections were given, and the form of axial load-moment curve was calculated as well. The design formulae for calculating the in-plane stability of arc axis curved box-girders can provide theoretical basis and suggestions for the future design.%为研究两端铰接圆弧轴线箱形截面曲梁的平面内整体稳定性能,采用数值方法对其进行了理论研究,采用ABAQUS有限元软件建立了二维的曲梁模型,模拟曲梁的平面内稳定问题.研究了不同圆心角、不同长细比,以及不同大小的初始几何缺陷对圆弧轴线箱形截面曲梁平面内稳定性能的影响,得到了弹性屈曲系数的数值解与经典理论解的差异和规律,给出了初始几何缺陷对稳定系数和正则化长细比关系曲线的影响,并且计算得到了该形式曲梁的轴力-弯矩关系曲线.提出的圆弧轴线箱形截面曲梁平面内稳定的设计公式可为今后的设计提供理论依据和建议.

  8. CFRP板加固箱梁桥顶板在沥青面层施工高温作用后的疲劳性能%Fatigue performance of CFRP reinforced box girder bridge top slab subjected to high temperature impact during asphaltpavement construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁鑫; 张继文; 宋守坛

    2012-01-01

    In order to research the fatigue performance on CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) reinforced box girder bridge top slab influence of high temperature during asphaltpavement construction, the armoured concrete girders with and without affixed CFRP were tested in the laboratory for fatigue simulation comparsison under high temperature condition. The strains of steel bar, concrete and CFRP were adopted as parameters to research the influence of high temperature on fatigue crack evolution, deflection increment rule and the CFRP adhesive normal stress. The results show that the armoured concrete girders with affixed CFRP fatigue performance subjected to high temperature has distinctness enhance contrast to that without affixed CFRP, such as the fatigue strength, the stiffness, the resist crack evolution and the limit flexural loading capacity. As example,The limit carrying capacity is increased by 24. 6% , the stiffness is increased by 23. 0% and the mean maximize crack is decreased by 15.2% .%为了研究沥青面层施工时的高温对公铁两用CFRP板加固的箱梁桥顶板疲劳性能的影响,在室内对粘贴CFRP板前后的钢筋混凝土梁进行了高温环境下的疲劳模拟对比试验.从钢筋、混凝土、CFRP应变的角度,开展了高温对粘贴CFRP板的钢筋混凝土试验梁疲劳裂缝发展、挠度增长规律、黏结胶层及界面应力影响的研究.结果表明:经过高温阶段后粘贴CFRP板的钢筋混凝土梁在疲劳强度、刚度、阻止裂缝发展、抗弯极限承载能力等方面都比未粘贴CFRP板前有所提高.极限承载能力提高了24.6%,刚度提高了23.0%,平均最大裂缝减小了15.2%.

  9. Live-Load Testing Application Using a Wireless Sensor System and Finite-Element Model Analysis of an Integral Abutment Concrete Girder Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Fausett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of an investigation on the performance of integral abutment bridges, a single-span, integral abutment, prestressed concrete girder bridge near Perry, Utah was instrumented for live-load testing. The live-load test included driving trucks at 2.24 m/s (5 mph along predetermined load paths and measuring the corresponding strain and deflection. The measured data was used to validate a finite-element model (FEM of the bridge. The model showed that the integral abutments were behaving as 94% of a fixed-fixed support. Live-load distribution factors were obtained using this validated model and compared to those calculated in accordance to recommended procedures provided in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (2010. The results indicated that if the bridge was considered simply supported, the AASHTO LRFD Specification distribution factors were conservative (in comparison to the FEM results. These conservative distribution factors, along with the initial simply supported design assumption resulted in a very conservative bridge design. In addition, a parametric study was conducted by modifying various bridge properties of the validated bridge model, one at a time, in order to investigate the influence that individual changes in span length, deck thickness, edge distance, skew, and fixity had on live-load distribution. The results showed that the bridge properties with the largest influence on bridge live-load distribution were fixity, skew, and changes in edge distance.

  10. Design and Analysis of Simple Supported Box Girder on Ballastless Single Track of High Speed Railway%高速铁路无砟轨道单线简支箱梁结构设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏健

    2015-01-01

    结合350km/h高速铁路常用跨度无砟轨道单线简支箱梁通用参考图设计,介绍该箱梁在梁高、桥面宽度、二期恒载、支座横向中心距、梁端构造等方面的受力分析以及从景观性、经济性方面阐述腹板斜率、外轮廓圆弧倒角等细部构造,并通过计算分析选定合理值。%Based on the General Reference Drawing for Simple Supported Box Girder with Common Span on Balastless Single Track for 350 km/h High Speed Railways, this paper focuses on the analysis of stresses with respect to girder height, bridge deck width, secondary dead load, transverse center distance of bearing, girder end structure, and web slope and arc chamfering of outer contour and other micro structures are illustrated in terms of outlook and economy. Furthermore, reasonable values for these parameters are determined through calculation.

  11. Study about Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Large Steel Box Girder under the Action of Shear Force%剪力作用下大型钢箱梁极限承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙奉; 吕彭民; 徐田

    2015-01-01

    The rules about the ultimate bearing capacity of the welded box girder in the current GB5001 7-2003 “Structural Design Specification”are faulty.The influences of the material non-linearity, geometrical non-linearity and the initial defect are considered in this paper.The arc length increment method obtained by revising Newton-Raphson formula is used to solve the ultimate bearing capacity of welded box girder under the action of the shear force,and the correctness of the calculation method is validated through the model tests.The formula used to calculate the stable ultimate bearing capacity under the action of the shear force of the box girder is summarized through large of simulation calculations.The method relates di-rectly the ultimate bearing capacity to the height to thickness ratio of the web and width to thickness ratio of the wing plate,which has the reference value to calculate and design the stable ultimate bearing capacity of the welded box girder.%现行 GB50017-2003《钢结构设计规范》对焊接箱形截面梁极限承载力规定还比较粗糙,本文考虑材料非线性、几何非线性和箱梁初始缺陷的影响,采用对 Nweton-Raphson 公式进行修正的弧长增量法求解剪力作用下焊接箱梁极限承载力,并通过模型试验,验证了计算方法的正确性。通过大量的数值模拟仿真计算,归纳总结出了箱形截面梁在剪力作用下稳定极限承载力计算公式。该公式把极限承载力与腹板高厚比、翼板宽厚比直接关联起来,对焊接箱形截面梁稳定极限承载力的计算及设计具有参考价值。

  12. Experiment study on fatigue behavior of composite girders with steel plate-concrete composite bridge decks%带钢板-混凝土组合桥面板的组合梁疲劳性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 周现伟; 薛建阳; 霍旭东

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the fatigue behaviour of the steel plate-concrete composite-deck composite girders under the fatigue load, constant-amplitude fatigue tests of six specimens of the steel plate-concrete composite-deck composite beam were carried out and static loading experiments of two specimens were conducted. The influence of the main factors including the upper and lower limits of fatigue load and the stress amplitude on the failure modes and the fatigue damage extent of composite girders under fatigue load were focused on. The dynamic deflection, strains of concrete and steel plates, strains of steel beam, residual deflection and residual bearing capacity were measured and analyzed. From the tests results, the fatigue life-spans of the composite girders specimens were directly related with their stress amplitudes, but the upper and lower limits of fatigue load had little effect. With regard to the fatigue failure modes of the composite girders specimens, positive moment composite girders were all failed due to collapse of the steel beam and crush of concrete of compressive zone, but not to the negative moment of composite girders, as a result of steel-beam buckling under static tests after fatigue tests. This paper were very helpful for this type of compsite girders design.%为研究带钢板-混凝土组合桥面板的组合梁在疲劳荷载下的受力性能,对2个试件进行静力试验研究,并对6个试件进行等幅疲劳试验研究。疲劳试验试件按承受正弯矩和承受负弯矩两组类型试件分别考虑,在各组试件中均主要考察疲劳荷载上、下限值及疲劳荷载幅值等因素对带钢板-混凝土组合桥面板组合梁的疲劳破坏模式及疲劳累积损伤的影响。疲劳试验过程中对组合梁试件在各主要循环加载次数下的动挠度、残余挠度、混凝土应变、底部钢板应变、试件钢梁应变及试件受弯刚度进行试验测量和分析。疲劳试验结果表明:正

  13. Simulation of the Test Method "L-Box" for Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Szabo, Peter; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2004-01-01

    Both filling and passing ability are important properties to be considered for self-compacting concrete. This paper presents simulations of the L-box test and corresponding experiments. The assumption of a continuum mechanical approach, where the fluid rheology is described by the Bingham model...

  14. The Compare Between Steel Box Girder And Steel Truss In City Overpass%钢箱梁及钢桁架城市人行天桥对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范旭辉

    2012-01-01

    Steel box girder bridges are widely used in our city pedestrian bridge and it has the characteristic such as linear appearance and easy factory prefabricated construction. However, due to the need to control the vertical nat- ural vibration frequency, the box girder general beam steel is too high. As a result the steel truss bridge in the city pedestrian bridge is also a widely the popularity of the bridge type. The particle compares among the same span of two bridge type comprehensive comparison of the amount of structural steel, vertical natural frequency, constructa- bility, stairways climbed higher.%钢箱梁桥在我国城市人行天桥中应用广泛,其优点是线型美观,工厂预制装配式施工方便等。然而由于需要控制竖向自振频率,钢箱梁一般梁高过高,造成压抑感强,两侧梯道过长等缺点也不容忽视,因此钢桁架桥在城市人行桥中也是一种可以广泛普及的桥型,本文对相同跨径的两种桥型就结构用钢量、竖向自振频率、施工性、梯道爬高等方面进行了综合对比。

  15. Current status of research on fatigue damage in steel box girder of cable-supported bridge in China%我国缆索支承桥梁钢箱梁疲劳损伤研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉伯海

    2014-01-01

    针对钢桥运营安全亟需关注的热点问题之一---缆索支承桥梁钢箱梁的安全性、耐久性,回顾我国钢箱梁疲劳损伤相关研究概况及主要成果,分析总结过去研究中存在的难点与热点问题,并对今后的发展方向提出了展望与建议。%The safety and durability of the steel box girder of cable-supported bridges has become a compelling subject in steel bridge safety operation. This paper provides a review on the research status and main results of fatigue damage in steel box girders in China, presents an analysis of the difficulties and pressing issues in previous research, and puts forward prospects and suggestions for the future development.

  16. Local stress analysis of flat steel box girder with circular arc lower desk%圆弧形底面扁平钢箱梁局部应力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶瑞; 黄小峰; 林桢楷

    2011-01-01

    A flat steel box girder with circular arc lower desk was analyzed by two steps with two models, a whole bridge model established by larger scale elements and a segment model established by little scale elements. The whole bridge model was analyzed firstly to determine the boundary condition for the segment mod el. Then the local stress distributions of the upper desk and the lower desk were studied based on the segment model with the obtained boundary condition under the dead load and the living load. It is found that shear lag effects are significant in the upper and the lower desk and that effects of the ribs on the mid - span section are larger then that on the section near the pier. Comparisons of the lower desk stress dlstributions between two kinds of the flat steel box girder show that stress distributions of the girder with fold line lower desk are uniform than that of the girder with circular arc lower desk.%采用从整体到局部、从粗放到精细的两阶段两尺度分析方法,对国内首个圆弧形底面扁平钢箱梁在运营状态下的局部应力进行分析.用大尺度单元建立全桥模型,用小尺度单元建立梁段模型.通过分析全桥模型获得梁段模型的边界约束力.在此基础上,利用梁段模型研究钢箱梁在恒载和活载作用下项、底板的应力响应.研究表明:圆弧形底面扁平钢箱梁顶、底板均存在剪力滞现象,U肋对跨中截面应力分布的影响大于墩顶附近截面.圆弧形底面钢箱梁的底板正应力不均匀程度略大于折线形底面钢箱梁.

  17. Shear Lag Effect Analysis of Cross-prestressed Concrete Simply-supported Box Beam%横张预应力混凝土简支箱型梁剪力滞效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宇光

    2014-01-01

    结合横张预应力简支箱型梁的构造特点,根据能量变分法所推导的对称单箱单室箱梁桥剪力滞效应理论、剪力滞叠加原理及等效荷载法,分析了跨中截面的剪力滞系数。结果表明:横张预应力混凝土简支箱梁中钢束布置形式以及有效预应力是影响恒载与预应力荷载共同作用下简支箱型梁剪力滞效应的重要因素;同时在结构跨径及构造形式一定的情况下,剪力滞系数与预应力布置形状及恒载作用存在一定的规律性。%Combining with the construction features of cross-prestressed simply-supported box beam ,the shear lag coeffi-cient of mid-span section is analyzed based on the shear lag effect theory and shear lag superposition principle derived from the existing energy variation method of symmetrical single cell box girder bridge as well as the equivalent load method .The results show that the steel beam arrangement and effective prestress of cross-prestressed concrete simply-sup-ported box girder are the important factors to affect the shear lag effect of the simply-supported box beam under the joint action of dead load and prestressed load ;when the structural span and constructed form are constant ,there is a certain regularity between the shear lag coefficient and prestress layout shape form as well as the dead load .

  18. Experiments with Externally Prestressed Continuous Composite Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel-concrete composite girders have attractive potentials when applied in bridge construction. The serviceability performance of continuous composite girders is becoming more and more a deterministic parameter in the design of this type of structures. An effective method for improving this performance is to apply prestressing to control or completely eliminate concrete deck cracking caused by static and time dependent actions. Little literature has been found addressing the experimental analysis of continuous girders prestressed by means of external deviated tendons. The current research aims to investigate the behavior of a double-span steel composite beam externally prestressed by means of continuous tendons in terms of cracking characteristics, load deflection response, and load carrying capacity. The efficiency of prestressing is evaluated by comparing the results to those of a non-prestressed beam with similar cross sections and spans.

  19. 60 Meters Steel Box Girder Installation across Existing Railway with Bridge Machine Technique%采用架桥机进行跨既有铁路60m钢箱梁安装施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晋新

    2012-01-01

    Taking Shanxi Pingyang freeway LJ26 contract section of Taiyuan hub K119 + 555 overpass bridge project as an example, for problems in large span steel box girder across existing railway construction, by comparison of the schemes pro- posed, and finally the paper selects the integral installation construction method of large span steel box girder with new bridge machine across the existing double railway electrification, and accordingly independent design and manufacture of a kind of YQXZ240t-60A3 bridge erecting machine is made. The paper introduces the composition of bridge erecting machine, and summarizes the keg construction process of the bridging machine for large span steel box beam erection construction.%以山西省平阳高速公路LJ26合同段太原枢纽K119+555跨线桥工程为例,针对大跨度钢箱梁跨既有铁路施工时遇到的难题,经方案比选,提出并最终采用新型架桥机进行上跨既有双线电气化铁路的大跨度钢箱梁的整体安装施工方法,并据此自主设计制造了一种YQXZ240t一60A3架桥机。介绍了架桥机的组成,总结了采用该架桥机进行大跨度钢箱梁架设施工的关键施工工艺。

  20. An improved approach for analyzing shear lag effect of box girders%箱形梁剪力滞效应的改进分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元海; 白昕; 林丽霞

    2012-01-01

    以薄壁箱梁的弯曲理论为基础,从分析翼缘板的面内剪切变形和弯曲剪力流的分布规律入手,从理论上证明二次抛物线是箱形梁剪力滞效应分析中的合理翘曲位移函数。选取剪力滞翘曲位移函数时,对悬臂板和底板引入修正系数,并考虑翘曲正应力的平衡条件。对箱形梁横截面上新出现的广义内力给出明确定义并称之为剪滞力矩,从分析正应力在翘曲虚位移上的虚功出发,揭示所定义的剪滞力矩即为相应于剪力滞广义位移的广义内力。对简支箱梁和连续箱梁模型的应力计算表明,计算值与实测值吻合良好,从而证实该文的分析方法和建立的公式是正确的。挠度计算表明:剪力滞效应使简支箱梁和连续箱梁算例的跨中挠度分别增大12%和19%,工程实践中必须认真对待。%Based on the flexural theory for thin-walled box girders, quadratic parabola is proved to be reasonable as the warping displacement function in shear lag effect analysis of a box girder through investigating the in-plane shear deformation and the shear flow in the flanges. Modified factors for the cantilever and bottom slabs are introduced in the warping displacement function for shear lag and the equilibrium condition for warping stresses is also considered. The new generalized internal force is defined explicitly and named as shear lag moment, which is proved to be the generalized moment corresponding to the generalized displacement for shear lag, through analyzing the virtual work done by the normal stress on the virtual warping displacement. Simply supported and continuous box girder models are analyzed and the calculated results are in good agreement with the test results, which validates the proposed method and formulas. For the simply supported and continuous box girder models, shear lag effect increases the mid-span deflections by 12% and 19%, respectively, which should be treated

  1. 曲线薄壁箱梁侧向静力分析的能量变分法%ENERGY-VARIATIONAL METHOD OF LATERAL STATIC ANALYSIS OF THIN-WALLED CURVED BOX GIRDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘亚南; 周广春; 吴亚平

    2011-01-01

    以能量变分原理为基础,在曲线箱梁侧向综合考虑了剪力滞后和剪切变形效应的影响,建立了薄壁曲线箱梁的侧向弹性控制微分方程和自然边界条件,获得了相应广义位移的闭合解.论文提出了一种曲线箱梁侧向静力学特性分析的解析法,揭示了各参数之间的内在联系.算例中论文解析解与板壳有限元结果吻合较好,证明了本文方法的有效性,因而更具理论价值和工程实际意义.%Based on the energy variation principle, this paper proposes an approach of analyzing the effect of shear lag,shear deformation on the lateral static characteristic of curved thin-walled box girders generally applied in engineering. The minimum potential principle is applied to establish the lateral governing differential equations and the corresponding natural boundary conditions. The closed-form solutions of generalized displacements are obtained. The variations of shear lag effects of curved box girders,caused by the change of factors such as span-height ratio,types of loading and natural boundary conditions,are discussed. The results are compared with finite shell element solutions to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  2. Vibration Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Box Beams considering Shear Lag and Slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wangbao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate dynamic characteristics of steel-concrete composite box beams, a longitudinal warping function of beam section considering self-balancing of axial forces is established. On the basis of Hamilton principle, governing differential equations of vibration and displacement boundary conditions are deduced by taking into account coupled influencing of shear lag, interface slip, and shear deformation. The proposed method shows an improvement over previous calculations. The central difference method is applied to solve the differential equations to obtain dynamic responses of composite beams subjected to arbitrarily distributed loads. The results from the proposed method are found to be in good agreement with those from ANSYS through numerical studies. Its validity is thus verified and meaningful conclusions for engineering design can be drawn as follows. There are obvious shear lag effects in the top concrete slab and bottom plate of steel beams under dynamic excitation. This shear lag increases with the increasing degree of shear connections. However, it has little impact on the period and deflection amplitude of vibration of composite box beams. The amplitude of deflection and strains in concrete slab reduce as the degree of shear connections increases. Nevertheless, the influence of shear connections on the period of vibration is not distinct.

  3. 空间圆管桁架混凝土组合梁受力性能试验研究%Experimental Study of Mechanical Behavior of Spatial Circular Steel Tube Truss and Concrete Composite Girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建兵; 陈荣; 李强

    2014-01-01

    空间圆管桁架混凝土组合结构是一种新型组合结构,为了解其受力特点、破坏机理、变形能力、管桁架杆件的内力分布规律及界面相对滑移等,设计制作了2根弦杆未填充混凝土的不同混凝土翼板厚度的空间圆管桁架混凝土组合梁模型试件,采用三分点对称加载,对其进行受力性能试验研究。研究表明,在对称荷载作用下,组合梁的破坏形式为弯曲破坏,同时伴随有受拉腹杆节点焊缝的强度破坏;空间圆管桁架组合梁具有良好的承载能力和变形能力,相同荷载下,混凝土板厚的组合梁的承载能力高于板薄的组合梁;组合梁破坏时,其跨中挠度约为跨径的1/200;不考虑界面相对滑移的情况下,截面应变满足平截面假定;加载前期,支点截面界面相对滑移量大于 L/8截面,而加载后期,L/8截面界面相对滑移量大于支点截面;腹杆为非轴心受拉或受压杆件,且跨中位置腹杆的轴力较小,梁端位置腹杆的轴力较大。%The spatial steel truss of circular steel tubes and concrete composite structure is a new type of composite structure .In order to examine its load bearing behavior ,failure mechanism , deformability ,internal force distribution law of tubular truss members and interface relative slip -page ,a spatial steel truss of circular tubes and concrete composite girder model was designed and fabricated .The model was characterized by its two chords that are not filled with concrete as well as the concrete flange plates with variable thickness .Loads were symmetrically applied at the 1/3 and 2/3 locations of the calculated span length of the girder proposed .The mechanical behavior of the model was experimentally studied .The results of the study indicate that under the action of symmetric loads ,the composite girder succumbs to bending failure ,concurrently with strength damage at the welding joints of the tensile web

  4. Numerical simulation for local failure of a steel box girder under blast loading%钢箱梁爆炸冲击局部破坏的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志刚; 朱新明; 严波; 姚术健

    2013-01-01

    The local failure of a steel box girder under blasting loads of vehicle bomb (TNT equivalent 100-500kg)was investigated with the nonlinear finite element software LS-DYNA and the fluid-solid coupling method ALE Multimaterial formulations.The results showed that there are two local failure modes of a steel box girder,one is that the deck and bottom plates rupture locally; the other is that the deck plate ruptures locally and the bottom plate does not rupture but has a local large plastic deformation; the main failure modes of diaphragms are large bending plastic deformation and rupture; the failure parameters increase nonlinearly with increase in explosive TNT equivalent; the impact effect of shock wave within the box on the bottom plate and diaphragms is less than the impact effect of the deck's fragments,the latter is the main cause of the local large plastic deformation and rupture of the bottom plate and diaphragms.%运用LS-DYNA非线性有限元软件,采用ALE多物质流-固耦合算法,研究了汽车炸弹(TNT当量100~500 kg)桥面爆炸冲击作用下钢箱梁的局部破坏.结果表明,钢箱梁局部破坏模式有两种:(1)桥面板和底板均破口;(2)桥面板破口,底板产生局部塑性大变形.隔板的主要破坏模式为弯曲塑性大变形和破口.破坏参数随炸药当量的增加呈非线性增加.箱体内冲击波对底板、隔板的冲击作用相对较小,顶板破片的冲击作用是底板和隔板产生局部塑性大变形和破口的主要原因.

  5. 混凝土曲线梁桥双向规则性判别参数影响分析探讨%Bidirectional Regularity Discriminant Parameter Impact Analysis for Concrete Curve Girder Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠欲; 程鹏; 罗德专

    2013-01-01

    为给我国桥梁抗震设计规范的修订提供参考资料,从抗震设计反应谱理论角度,通过改变地震动的输入方向,引入抗侧力桥墩的“相对墩底剪力比”参数来判别混凝土曲线梁桥的双向规则性,探讨了圆心角、曲线半径、跨径、跨宽比和跨高比等结构参数变化对混凝土曲线梁桥横桥向和纵桥向规则性地震行为的影响规律.研究表明:圆心角是影响混凝土曲线梁桥双向规则性的主要因素,而跨径、跨宽比和跨高比等参数的影响可以忽略,曲线半径不应作为定义规则曲线梁桥的参数;曲线梁桥当满足单跨圆心角φ小于35°,且多跨一联累计圆心角φ小于55°时具有双向规则性,规则曲线梁桥的地震力可比拟为等参的直线桥进行简化抗震计算,计算结果偏于保守.%Aimed at providing references for Chinese seismic design code revision, from seismic design response spectrum theory of view, by changing input direction of ground motion, "relative pier shear ratio" parameter of resist lateral force piers is introducied to judge concrete curve girder bridge's bidirectional directions regularity.This study conducts structure parameters change affecting the lateral and longitudinal regularity seismic behavior of concrete curve girger bridge, such as central angle, curve radius, span, the span-width ratio and span-height ratio parameter, etc.Research shows: Central angle parameter is the major factor affecting the bidirectional regularity of concrete curve girder bridge, while the influences by span, span-width ratio and span-height ratio parameters can be ignored ; Curve radius should not be used to define regular curve girder bridge as one parameter; As a curve girder bridge meets the central angle φ less than 35 degrees, meanwhile the accumulative total of central angle of multispans Ψ less than 55 degrees, It satisfies bidirectional regularity,so it can be analyzed by simplified antiseismic

  6. 汽车炸弹钢箱梁内部爆炸局部破坏效应分析%Analysis on local damage of steel box girder under internal blast loading of vehicle bomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚术健; 蒋志刚; 卢芳云; 张舵; 赵楠

    2015-01-01

    采用ALE(Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian,ALE)多物质流固耦合算法,对汽车炸弹(TNT当量200 kg~1500 kg)在双层桥梁下层桥面典型位置爆炸的局部破坏效应进行了数值模拟,研究了内爆炸冲击作用下钢箱梁的响应过程、破坏模式、破坏参数及其主要影响因素。结果表明:破坏模式及破坏参数与爆炸位置和TNT当量密切相关,爆炸位置对桥梁主要受力体系的受损程度影响较为明显,加劲肋对其垂直方向的破口具有约束作用,箱体对冲击波的约束效应使破坏作用加剧。合理设置加劲肋、加强重要构件和设置防爆层等措施有利于提高桥梁结构抗爆能力。%The response process,failure modes and damage parameters of a double deck steel box girder subjected to internal blast loading of vehicle bombs (TNT equivalent 200kg&1500kg)were simulated by using the ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian)multi-material fluid-solid coupling arithmetic.In the simulation,three typical blast locations on the lower deck were considered.The results show that:the failure modes and damage parameters have a clear correlation with the TNT weight and blast location,and the explosion locations have strong effects on the damage degree of steel trusses. Stiffening ribs can restrict the crack in its vertical direction.The damage effects will be intensified by the restriction of the box-shaped girder.Some useful measurements were also proposed which can help engineers in bridge designing and protection consideration against possible explosion events.

  7. MTMDs控制高速铁路简支箱梁桥车致振动噪声的研究%Structure-borne noise control with MTMDs for a high-speed railway simply supported box-girder bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迅; 李小珍; 刘全民; 张志俊; 李亚东

    2013-01-01

    轨道不平顺性激励引起桥梁结构振动,进而向空间辐射噪声.为了探明多重调谐质量阻尼器(MTMDs)对桥梁结构噪声的影响,选取32 m双线混凝土简支箱梁为研究对象,建立了移动集中力-桥梁-MTMDs耦合振动模型,根据桥梁的挠曲频响函数,求取了MTMDs的最优控制参数.在此基础上,采用瞬态有限元法和声学边界元法研究了不同数量调谐质量阻尼器对桥梁的减振、降噪效果.研究结果表明:MTMDs能有效控制桥梁的最大振动响应;由于MTMDs仅对一阶竖弯频率处的结构振动控制有效,使得其对结构噪声的控制效果不甚明显,对近轨侧25 m处声场的平均降噪效果约0.5 dB.%When a train runs across a bridge,the bridge is excited by dynamic forces acting on it because of the track irregularities,and the structure-borne noise radiated by the bridge raises evidently.To explore the influence of multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMDs) on structure-borne noise,the dynamic behavior of a two-track simply supported box-girder bridge with a span of 32 m was simulated as a case study.Based on a moving forces-bridge-MTMDs coupling vibration model,the optimal MTMDs parameters were derived and calculated with the flexural frequency response functions of the bridge,and then,the vibration and noise control effectivenesses of the bridge with and without MTMDs were compared respectively by applying the transient FEM and the acoustic BEM.The results showed that MTMDs are an effective device in reducing dynamic responses of a box-girder bridge ; however,as the vibration control of MTMDs aims at the first flexural mode of the bridge,the structure-borne noise reduction is not as effective as the vibration reduction,and the average reduction of sound pressure level (SPL) is about 0.5 dB for the sound filed being 25 m far from the track.

  8. Experimental investigation on prestressed concrete slabs for two- or three-girders bridges; Shoshuketa kyoryoyo PC yukaban ni kansuru jikken kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, F.; Yabe, J.; Ogaki, K.; Sakugawa, K.; Ito, A.; Takeuchi, K.; Tomoda, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    Rationalization and labor-saving in the construction of bridges are the pending problems arising from the shortage of skilled construction workers, shortened time usable for construction, and demand for lower cost. Under the circumstances, experiment and study were conducted about the PC slab for two- or three-girder bridges. On the assumption of a PC slab located between two main girders, the interval 6 meters long, specimens near the real size were subjected to experiments. Springs were attached to the free sides so that load tests might be conducted under boundary conditions equivalent to those of a finite continuous slab along the direction of the bridge length as in case of a real bridge. It was found that a partial slab model of limited dimensions was usable when a long span slab experiment was necessary. A PC slab, unlike an RC slab, regained its elastic behavior when the load was removed even after the appearance of cracks. Crack producing loads fell within the range which could generally be estimated by calculation, and the PC slab was capable of restoring its original state upon unloading even after the production of cracks. The PC slab, as compared with the RC slab, demonstrated a greater ultimate strength, but the strength was not affected by the size of the prestress. In case of a PC slab on a long span, the bend fracture precedes and the ultimate strength is determined by the bend strength. 9 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. 港珠澳大桥浅水区非通航孔桥组合梁设计%Design of Composite Girders for Non-Navigable Span Bridge of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge in Shallow Water Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗扣; 王东晖; 张强

    2013-01-01

    The main part of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge is a part of the combined bridge and tunnel,of which the non-navigable span bridge in the shallow water area is the 85 m span continuous composite girder bridge that totally has 64 spans of the composite girders and is 5 440 m in length.The span arrangement of the bridge mainly includes two kinds of arrangement of 6)× 85 m and 5)× 85 m.The composite girders are the separated continuous single-cell singlebox girders with constant depth and specifically are composed of the open steel box girders and the concrete deck slabs that are connected each other via shear studs.A steel box girder is the inverted trapezoid structure,a concrete deck slab is the precast full slab in the transverse direction and the grooves are pre-reserved at the locations of the shear studs.To improve the transverse mechanical behavior of the deck slabs,the stringers are set in the sections of the composite girders and to keep the integrity of the slabs,the shear studs are arranged in a way of clustering.The composite girders are erected and installed in each full span by the large transportation and erection floating crane and the girders are closed span by span.%港珠澳大桥主体工程采用桥隧组合方案,其中浅水区非通航孔桥采用85 m连续组合梁桥形式,全长5 440m,共64孔,跨径布置主要采用6×85 m和5×85m2种形式.组合梁采用单箱单室分幅等高连续梁,由开口钢箱梁和混凝土桥面板通过剪力钉联结而成.钢箱梁为倒梯形结构;混凝土桥面板为横向整块预制,在剪力钉处设置预留槽.为改善混凝土桥面板的横向受力性能,该桥组合梁截面设置小纵梁;为保持桥面板的整体性,剪力钉采用集束式布置方式.组合梁采用大型运架一体浮吊整孔安装架设,逐孔合龙.

  10. Numerical simulation on continuous collapse of reinforced concrete girder bridge subjected to vessel collision%钢筋混凝土梁桥船舶撞击连续倒塌数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华; 王君杰; 贺拴海

    2012-01-01

    The material model and failure index of the element in numerical simulation of the collapse of reinforced concrete bridge under vessel collision were introduced, and then the delicate finite element models for bridge superstructure, substructure and support saddle were set up, where the elastoplastic damage cap model was used for concrete and the elastoplaslic kinematic hardening model was used for steel bar. The numerical simulation of the collapse process of bridge structure caused by vessel collision was carried out and the collapse mechanism of continuous girder bridge was revealed.%详细介绍了钢筋混凝土桥梁船撞倒塌模拟涉及的材料模型和单元失效指标等问题,建立某连续梁上部、下部结构、支座和船舶结构精细有限元模型,将弹塑性损伤帽盖模型用于混凝土,弹塑性随动强化模型用于钢筋,对船舶撞击钢筋混凝土连续梁引起的结构连续倒塌过程进行了数值模拟,揭示了连续梁桥结构的船撞倒塌机理.

  11. 挪威Hardanger大桥钢箱梁外侧电弧喷锌工艺设计%Design of zinc arc-spraying process for outer steel box girder of Hardanger Bridge in Norway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪德强; 钱胜杰; 金树军; 李敏风; 丁祥

    2012-01-01

    在承接挪威Hardanger大桥钢结构制作中,根据业主的要求,以电弧喷锌作为配套涂层底漆.为了适应钢结构涂装流水线以及佐敦公司的重防腐配套涂料,从钢结构缺陷处理等级、磨料拼配方案、喷砂技术条件、电弧喷锌设备及锌丝线材要求、电弧喷锌工艺参数以及喷锌层质量要求等方面对钢箱梁外侧电弧喷锌工艺进行了设计.%Based on the requirement of proprietor, arc zinc spray coating was used as a primer during the manufacturing of the Norwegian Hardanger bridge's steel structure. In order to adapt the steel structure coating flow line and Jotun's heavy corrosion protection accessory coating, the arc zinc spraying process of outer steel box girder was designed from aspects of pretreatment grade of defects in steel structure, composition for abrasives, sandblasting process conditions, arc zinc spraying equipment, zinc wire requirement, arc zinc spraying process parameters, quality requirement of arc sprayed zinc coating, etc.

  12. Analysis of vibration test for the skew box girder bridge under human-induced excitation%人群荷载作用下斜箱梁桥振动试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学; 王介修; 勾志硕; 贾艳敏

    2014-01-01

    By the actual test and theoretical analysis for vibration of the skew box girder bridge under human-induced excitation,the determina-tion of dynamic characteristic and the dynamic reaction under the effect of moving pedestrian,actual working state of the bridge under moving load have been studied,with safe bearing capacity and use condition of the whole structure determined.%通过对三跨预应力连续斜箱梁桥在人群荷载作用下的振动问题进行实桥测试和理论分析,测定其动态特性及在跑动的人群荷载作用下的动态响应,了解了该桥在动荷载作用下的实际工作状态,从而判断该桥整体结构的安全承载能力和使用条件。

  13. VIBRATION TESTING OF A SIXTEEN-STORIED BUILDING THAT HAS A PRECAST CONCRETE BOX STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyantsev Anton Andreevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the problems of theoretical assessment of the seismic stability of a 16-storied building made of precast concrete box units by full-scale experimental testing through the employment of a powerful unbalance-type vibration machine. The authors provide the results of the experimental testing and scale them to assess the effects of an earthquake. The testing procedure that consists in the assessment of the seismic stability of buildings through employment of the vibration testing performed by a powerful vibration machine installed on the soil surface, have proven its high efficiency. As a result of the vibration testing, specific values of accelerations and shifts in terms of the building height and length were identified in lateral and longitudinal directions. The results of extrapolation of the seismic effect of the vibration testing onto the 9-grade seismic load scale have proven that the buildings of this type can be considered seismically stable.

  14. Experimental Study of Anchor Tensile Plate Cable Anchorage System in Concrete Girder of Actual Bridge%锚拉板式混凝土索梁锚固体系实桥试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雪飞; 周军勇; 胡可; 阮欣

    2016-01-01

    为研究索力作用下锚拉板式混凝土索梁锚固体系的受力性能,以五河淮河大桥为工程背景进行实桥试验和有限元分析。选取该桥0号节段混凝土锚拉板进行实桥试验,测试锚拉板在分级索力作用下的应力及变形,采用ANSYS软件建立有限元模型,计算2种连接方式下(考虑混凝土主梁与钢锚拉板的固结与滑移)的应力分布与锚拉板变形。结果表明,钢锚拉板与混凝土主梁在固结或滑移连接方式下,斜拉索锚固区域的应力分布基本相同,但连接区域的应力分布及锚拉板变位差别显著;测试的锚拉板应力和位移与荷载呈现良好线性相关性,最大测点应力296 M Pa ,结构仍处于弹性工作状态;锚拉板应力分布的实测值与有限元计算值吻合,板件应力扩散和传递效果良好;连接区域的实测应力和位移与滑移方式下的有限元分析较吻合,但摩擦系数不主导滑移结果。%To study the mechanical performance of the anchor tensile plate cable anchorage system in concrete girder under the action of the cable tension ,the test and finite element analysis of the steel anchor tensile plate stay cable anchorage system in the concrete main girder of the actu‐al bridge of Wuhe Huaihe River Bridge were carried out .The anchor tensile plate in the segment No .0 of the main girder of the bridge was selected and tested .The stress and displacement of the anchor tensile plate under the different levels of the stay cable tension were measured .The finite element model for the anchor tensile plate was set up ,using the software ANSYS and the stress distribution and the anchor tensile plate displacement under the 2 kinds of the connecting ways (the rigid fixity and sliding connecting of the anchor tensile plate with the concrete main girder ) were calculated .The results show that under the connecting ways of the rigid fixity or sliding connect‐ing of the anchor

  15. Application of Welding box girder flange by Using RAPID Welding Technology%RAPID焊接工艺技术在箱型梁翼缘板焊接的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国志; 于连康

    2016-01-01

    RA PID焊接技术是目前比较先进的一项焊接工艺技术,它是利用数字控制的电弧曲线参数,进一步压缩电弧,使得电弧热量更集中、更具备熔透能力的一种高速焊接技术。由于其高速、高熔深的焊接工艺特性,被用于单面焊接双面成型的钢结构焊接上,可显著提高焊接生产效率。在铝电解多功能机组生产制造的专业厂,其天车主梁的焊接工艺技术一直是采取MAG焊接工艺技术,焊接质量及效率低。应用RAPID焊接工艺技术对箱型梁翼缘板焊接,与M AG焊接工艺技术在焊接质量、效率、经济性等方面进行对比、分析总结,可知,RAPID焊接工艺技术应用在天车主梁翼缘板的焊接中,综合经济效益较MAG焊接工艺有着显著的提高。%RAPID welding technology is an advanced high speed welding technology , the arc curve parame‐ters of w hich is controlled by digital technology , further compressed arc made the arc heat more concen‐trated , and had more penetration ability . Because of its welding technology properties of high speed and high penetration ,it is used for steel structure which is single -sided welding but double -sided molding , significantly improved the efficiency of welding production .In most aluminum electrolysis multifunctional unit manufacturing plants , the crane girder welding technology has been adopt MAG welding technology , welding quality and efficiency is low . After comparing , analyzing and summarizing the welding technology between RAPID and MAG about welding box beam wing flange , found that the RAPID welding technolo‐gy is better than MAG in welding quality , efficiency , economy and so on . RAPID welding technology used in crane girder flange plate welding , the comprehensive economic benefits is significantly improved than that of MAG welding technology .

  16. 箱桁梁断面斜拉桥涡振性能及抑振措施的研究%Research on vortex-induced vibration and its control for cable-stayed bridge with box-truss composite girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丛; 华旭刚; 胡腾飞; 陈强; 陈政清

    2016-01-01

    T he cable-stayed Dongting Lake railway bridge under construction was case-studied in this paper. A finite element modeling of the cable-stayed bridge with box-truss composite girder and its vortex-induced vibration were analyzed. T hree finite element schemes for modeling box-truss girder of the bridge,namely the spatial beam model ( SBM) ,spatial plate-beam model( SPBM ) and spatial shell model( SSM ) ,were compared in terms of modal frequency,equivalent mass and mass moment of inertia per unit length. It shows that the results from the SPBM and the SSM are basically the same,while the SBM can't accurately produce the equivalent mass unit length girder for some higher-order lateral modes. T he vortex-induce vibration of the box-truss composite girder was tested in wind tunnel by flexibly mounted rigid sectional model tests. T he results indicate that this cross-section type may experience large-amplitude vertical vortex-induced vibrations at wind attack angle of -3°,which is caused by the vortex shedding at the leading edge of the box-girder part of the cross-section. T he effects of aerodynamic appendix for suppression of vortex-induced vibrations w ere studied and it is found that tw o stabilizers beneath the open orthotropic deck dramatically reduce the vibration amplitude. T he vibration amplitude is within the limit given in design specification when the height of stabilizers is half of the box-girder height; and the vortex-induced vibrations completely diminish when the height of stabilizers is the same as the box-girder height.%以在建的洞庭湖铁路三塔斜拉桥为工程背景,分析了箱桁断面斜拉桥主梁的建模方法以及涡激共振性能。首先比较了主梁建模的空间杆系模型、梁壳组合模型以及三维壳体模型在模态频率、主梁单位长度等效质量和等效质量惯性矩的差异。结果表明,三种模型的模态分析结果基本相近,但空间杆系模型不能准确得到高阶侧弯模

  17. Design Optimization and Structural Performance Evaluation of Plate Girder Bridge Constructed Using a Turn-Over Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Ha Eom

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent trend in bridge construction has been the optimization of the cost-to-performance ratio. The most effective way to optimize the cost-to-performance ratio is to maximize the efficiency of the superstructure. Currently, many bridge engineers and designers favor two- or three- girder plate superstructures, due to their cost advantages. However, research on the performance enhancements of the I-type girder in two- or three- girder plate bridges is lacking. One of the most important performance improvement technologies for the I-type girder is the “preflex” method. In the preflex method, the specimen is inverted during the construction process to apply prestressed cambering to the specimen by using self-weight. However, a problem with the preflex construction method is difficulty with inverting the girder/plate system during the concrete curing process. Therefore, a new inverting system called Turn-Over (TO wheel was proposed. Using TO wheels, wider variations to the I-type girder design can be achieved. Using this TO construction method, various cross sectional designs of girder plate systems can be considered due to its easiness in inverting the girder/plate system. In this study, the location of concrete confinement sections between the steel I-beams and concrete plates was varied in an I-girder cross-sectional design. Design parameters included effective height, flange thickness, flange width, confining concrete section width, etc. From this study, the optimum cross-sectional design of the I-girder/concrete plate system was achieved. Then, a single 20 m TO girder/plate system and two 20 m TO girder bridges were constructed and tested to evaluate their performance. From the test, failure behavior, load carrying capacity, crack pattern, etc., are obtained. The results are discussed in detail in this paper.

  18. Analysis of Fatigue Stress Property of Steel Box Girder of Jiangyin Changjiang River Bridge%江阴长江大桥钢箱梁疲劳应力特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉伯海; 叶枝; 傅中秋; 汪锋; 孙洪滨

    2016-01-01

    为准确评估钢桥结构的疲劳损伤状态和剩余疲劳寿命,以江阴长江大桥为背景,对该桥钢箱梁疲劳裂纹产生位置进行连续疲劳应变监测,获取应变时程数据,结合雨流计数法技术建立日疲劳应力谱;分析应力幅~循环次数分布规律;研究累积损伤度分布特征,建立损伤度分布模型,计算不同车道构造细节疲劳损伤度和剩余寿命。研究结果表明:钢箱梁顶板测点、U肋与横隔板焊接末端处、弧形缺口有效截面最小处均以压应力为主,U 肋以拉应力为主;应力幅累积循环次数分布服从Weibull函数分布;疲劳累积损伤度分布服从Boltzman函数分布,顶板与U肋连接处U肋腹板沿横桥向慢车道疲劳损伤较快车道损伤大,下游车道较上游车道损伤大,其中下游慢车道U肋腹板细节疲劳损伤最大。%To accurately evaluate the fatigue damaging condition and remaining fatigue life of steel bridge structure ,the Jiangyin Changjiang River Bridge was cited as an example .Continuous fatigue strain monitoring was conducted at the locations where fatigue cracks were found on the steel box girder to gain real‐time strain data .The monitoring data ,combined with the rain flow counting method ,were used to set up the daily fatigue stress spectrum to analyze the distribution law of S~ N curve .The distribution law of fatigue accumulating damage was studied .The model of damage distribution was set up ,to calculate the fatigue damages and remaining life of different structural details of the traffic lane .T he results of the study demonstrate that compressive stress was dominant at the testing locations in the steel box girder ,ends of U‐rib and diaphragm welds and least effective cross section of the arc notches ,whereas tensile stress was found primarily on U ribs .The distribution of the accumulated stress cycle follows the way of Weibull function distribu‐tion .The distribution

  19. Probabilistic Model of Fatigue Damage in Steel Box-girder Bridge Subject to Stochastic Vehicle Loads%随机车载下钢箱梁桥疲劳损伤概率模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗媛; 颜东煌; 鲁乃唯; 汪勤用

    2016-01-01

    将具有确定性参数的典型疲劳车辆模型改进为随机疲劳车流模型,采用小样本车辆轴重与等效疲劳应力数据拟合响应面的方法解决了车流作用下桥梁有限元应力时程分析耗时过长的问题.提出钢箱梁顶板-U肋疲劳损伤概率建模方法,最后将疲劳损伤概率模型应用于可靠度评估领域,揭示了车流参数对结构疲劳可靠指标的影响规律.研究结果表明:行车道重载车辆的较高占有率是导致其顶板-U肋疲劳可靠指标远低于超车道的重要原因;车辆轴重的增长致使钢箱梁疲劳可靠指标迅速降低,车重年线性增长系数由0增长至1%时,行车道顶板-U肋处100 a的疲劳可靠指标由3.42下降至0.72.随机疲劳车流模型与疲劳损伤概率模型具有一定的应用前景.%The typical fatigue truck model with deterministic parameters is developed to be a stochastic vehicle flow model. The time-consuming problem of bridge finite element analysis under traffic flow loads is solved by using a response surface method to approximate the function between vehicle axle weight of a few training data and equivalent fatigue stresses. A probabilistic fatigue damage modeling method applies to rib-to-deck details of steel box-girder bridges is presented. Finally, the fatigue damage model is applied to the reliability assessment, and the influence of traffic flow parameters on structural fatigue reliability is revealed. The numerical result indicates that (1) the higher occupancy rate of heavy vehicle flow in the slow lane is the main reason for the decrease of the fatigue reliability of corresponding rib-to-deck details compared with the fast lane;(2) the increase of the vehicle axle weight causes a rapid decrease of the fatigue reliability index of the steel box girders, when the annual linear growth factor increases from 0 to 1%, the fatigue reliability index of rib-to-deck detail in the slow lane decreases from 3. 42 to 0. 72 . There is

  20. Influence of Aerodynamic Shape of Streamline Box Girder on Bridge Flutter and Vortex-induced Vibration%流线型箱梁气动外形对桥梁颤振和涡振的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骑; 廖海黎; 李明水; 马存明

    2012-01-01

    Taken a streamline box girder for example, the influence of aerodynamic shape on bridge flutter and vertex-induced vibration ( VIV) was studied in detail. Through wind tunnel test of a 1: 50 scale section model, the influences of railing, inspection rail, rostrum, guide wing and inclined web on the flutter and VIV were discussed respectively. The results indicate that railing and inspection rail could weaken the aerodynamic performance of bridge section, while rostrum and guide wing could be used to improve the flutter and VIV performance of bridge. Special indicating is that the increase of flutter wind speed and the vanishing of VIV were all satisfied under the same condition while the slope of inclined web was 15° The brief mechanism of this phenomenon is that the lower inclined web could restrain and delay the formation and shedding of the vertex at the downwind of streamline box girder, thus could remarkably weaken the influence of vertex shedding on VIV and flutter of bridges. But the detailed aerodynamic mechanism will be studied profoundly in future. This development would be beneficial to the wind resistant design of the bridge, and has been applied successfully in the aerodynamic shape design of several long-span bridges in China.%以某流线型钢箱梁断面为例,详细研究了主梁气动外形变化对桥梁颤振和涡振性能的影响.基于1∶50节段模型风洞试验,分别研究了箱梁的栏杆、检修车轨道、风嘴、导流板,以及斜腹板对桥梁颤振及涡振性能的影响.研究表明,栏杆和检修车轨道将弱化桥梁断面的气动性能,而风嘴和导流板则对桥梁的颤振和涡振性能有利.值得提出的是,在其他气动外形保持不变,而斜腹板倾角变为15°时,桥梁的颤振性能不仅获得了较大提升,且涡振现象还可得到消除.此现象的初步机理为:较小的斜腹板倾角可阻碍和廷后流线型箱梁下风侧漩涡的形成和脱落,从而显著削弱漩涡脱

  1. 弯扭耦合下曲线混凝土箱梁截面应力状态的受力机理分析%Analysis of Stress Mechanism of Cross Section of Curved PC Box Girder Under the Action of Bending-Torsion Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何庆华; 卫星

    2013-01-01

    曲线箱形梁兼具弯梁桥与箱形梁两者的特点,由于曲率的影响,竖向荷载作用下曲线箱梁弯矩与扭矩互相耦合同时存在.根据国内外既有研究成果,对曲线箱形梁空间受力特点及影响因素进行了总结.以60m单跨单箱形截面曲线混凝土简支梁为例,利用有限元软件TDV建立空间板单元模型,分析自重作用下,不同曲线半径下主梁截面正应力及剪应力分布,根据弯曲变形与应变的关系,比较曲线梁桥与直线梁桥正应力横向分布规律,提出用应力增大系数来表征曲线内外侧弧长不同引起的应力变化.研究结果表明,除了受剪力滞后效应影响,曲线箱梁桥截面正应力分布还与内外侧弧长不等引起的应力增大系数有关.%Curved box girder has both characters of curved girder and box girder, and the coupling effect between bending moment and torsion moment caused by the curvature under vertical load should be taken into account. Based on research results of curved girder at home and abroad, the spatial mechanical characters and influencing factors of curved box girder were summarized in this thesis. Choosing a 60m single-span curved PC simply supported girder with single cell boxed cross-section as the example, spatial plate element models were established by TDV finite element software. Then the distributions of normal stress and shear stress of cross-section of main girder with different curve radius under the action of dead load were analyzed. Afterwards, according to the relationship between bending deformation and strains, and by comparing the transverse distributions of normal stress of curved bridge with that of straight bridge, the thesis put forward a view point that the stress variation caused by the arc length difference between the internal arc and external arc of the curve can be expressed by a magnification coefficient. Analysis results show that, except the effect of shear lag, the distributions of

  2. 夹芯钢板覆盖法(SPS)在钢箱梁桥正交异性桥面板维修加固中的应用与试验%Research on Application of Sandwich Plate System (SPS) on Strengthening Orthotropic Bridge Deck of Steel Box Girder Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许传博; 胡利平

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of sandwich plate system SPS ) on strengthening of steel box girder bridge with load test being carried out to verify the effect of SPS, which can provide a reference for the similar engineering practice.%结合工程实例,介绍了夹芯钢板覆盖法(SPS)在钢箱梁桥维修加固中的应用,并通过荷载试验对其加固效果进行了检验,可为类似维修加固工程提供参考。

  3. Studies on Technical Development of Railway Steel-Concrete Composite Cirider Bridges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Steel-concrete composite girder bridge boasts the advantages of strong rigidity,low noise and low construction height.Along with the large-scale construction of passengerdedicated lines (PDL) and high-speed lines (HSL),tests and researches on steel-concrete composite girder bridges have been conducted with the main types of which including steel plate girder-concrete composite girder bridge,deck steel truss girder-concrete composite girder bridge,through steel truss girder-concrete composite girder bridge and through type tied arch composite girder bridge.Based on the application and researches on steel-concrete composite technology and in combination with the engineering construction of railway bridges,the construction of HSL and PDL and upgrading of existing lines for speed-up in China,this paper analyzes the main structural forms of through steel truss girder-concrete composite girder bridges with different spans and structure systems,carries out studies on the force acted upon these bridges and the related theory and methods for design and computation,and puts forward the solutions required in relation to the key technologies for further development of railway steel-concrete composite girder bridges.

  4. Study of Treating Schemes For Long-Term Downwarping Deterioration of Main Girder of A Bridge%某桥主梁长期下挠病害处治方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡巍; 江湧; 陈波

    2015-01-01

    某桥主桥为主跨400 m的斜拉桥,1995年建成通车。在交通量激增、荷载超载、预应力损失等因素作用下,部分桥跨主梁呈现下挠加剧,主梁混凝土出现剥落、露筋及开裂等病害。为抑制主梁下挠不断发展的趋势,采用结构自重减载方式(将混凝土人行道板置换为轻型钢人行道板)来部分减缓主梁下挠,并对箱梁顶板底面粘贴碳纤维布进行加固。采用有限元软件建立主桥模型,计算结构自重减载及粘贴碳纤维布对改善主梁下挠的作用效应。结果表明,将混凝土人行道板置换成轻型钢人行道板后,主梁下挠程度相对减小;碳纤维布与主梁共同参与受力,在一定程度上抑制了混凝土病害进一步发展,也避免了因混凝土开裂而造成的主梁下挠,验证了该加固方案的可行性。%A Bridge was opened to traffic in 1995 .Its main bridge is a cable‐stayed bridge with a main span of 400 m .According to the inspection report ,the downwarping of main girder in some spans had been exarcebated ,the main girder concrete began to spalling ,deteriations including con‐crete spalling ,reinforcement exposure and concrete cracking were also found ,the causes of which can be attributed to the surge of traffic ,over load and prestress loss .To curb the exarcerbation of main girder downwarping ,the way of relieving the self weight of the structure was used to partial‐ly slow down the main girder downwarping ,specifically by replacing the concrete slabs in the side‐walks by the ligh weight steel plates ,and the main girder was strengthened by gluing carbon fiber sheet on the base of the top plate of the box girder .The finite element software was used to estab‐lish the model of the main bridge ,to calculate the effect of structural self weight reduction and car‐bon fiber sheets strengthening on the enhancement of main girder downwarping .The results of the calculation indicate

  5. 钢箱梁电弧喷铝防腐涂层无损检测图像分析%Image analysis of arc sprayed aluminum anticorrosive coating on steel box girder based on nondestructive test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽娜; 刘涛

    2015-01-01

    为研究钢箱梁电弧喷铝防腐涂层防腐机理,预测其防腐寿命,加工制作钢板试样,表面电弧喷铝涂层,进行室内加速腐蚀试验。通过平板扫描仪采集对象图像,观测腐蚀发展过程。采用基于二值化图像的图像处理技术提取腐蚀形貌图像特征参数,并结合规范评定涂层腐蚀损伤级别。研究结果表明:基于二值化图像的图像处理技术可以有效区分涂层腐蚀与未腐蚀区域,实现涂层腐蚀面积定量化分析,为防腐涂层腐蚀等级评定提供新的思路,并估算200μm喷铝涂层实际海洋大气环境下的寿命为63.6年。%To study the anticorrosion mechanism of arc-sprayed aluminum anticorrosive coating on steel box girder and to predict the anticorrosive life of the coating,steel plates were manufactured and painted with aluminum on the surfaces to carry out indoor accelerated corrosion test. Corrosion image of the organic protection coating was collected by a flat scanner to observe its corrosion process. The blistering area was extracted through image processing technology to evaluate the corrosion grade. The results demonstrate that the image processing technology based on binary image can distinguish the corrosion areas from the non-corrosion areas so as to realize quantitative analysis for coating corrosion area. With the help of this technology,a new way has been presented for assessing the corrosion grade of anticorrosive coatings and the service life of 200μm aluminum coating has been estimated to be 63.6 years in the actual marine atmospheric environment.

  6. Evaluation Behavior of Qing Shan Concrete Bridge under Static Load Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem K. Hussain

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and evaluates the state of Qing Shang Bridge. The deterioration of bridge can be summarized due to increased internal forces may be a result of higher loading or due to the sever climatic and environmental weathers changes, bridges need reinforcement because damage due to external factors which reduced the cross-sectional resistance to external loads. The assessment of traffic loading on bridges is subject to large levels of uncertainty. While some allowance is provided in design codes for variable traffic conditions, they are conservative to allow for generalization at a safe level. Also this article identify the design demands of Qing Shan bridge which is located in China/ Heilongjiang Province, He gang - Nen Jiang Road 303 provincial highway, Wu Da Lian Chi area, is an important bridge in the urban areas. The investigation program was include the observation and evaluate the damage in T-section concrete beams , box girder bridges section in additional evaluate the whole state of bridges under static load test, the use of Finite Element Analysis was preferred method to study the behavior of concrete. Furthermore the load test program includes the main beams of bridge. The test results show that the bridge in general structural condition is good. T beam girder of the span No. 10 was tested for static load and need to be strengthening. The concrete box girder shows good state of condition, and no seriously damage effects.

  7. Study of Dynamic Performance Finite Element Modeling Methods for Box-Truss Composite Girder Railway Cable-Stayed Bridge%箱桁组合梁铁路斜拉桥动力特性有限元建模方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张无畏; 胡腾飞; 陈长胜; 荣浩

    2016-01-01

    study show that modal analysis re‐sults gained from the three model calculations are basically consistent , the frequency and main girder equivalent mass gained from the combined plate‐beam element model and spatial shell ele‐ment model are approximate ,nevertheless ,the spatial beam element model could not accurately calculate the main girder uniform equivalent mass of the high‐order lateral bending modes .As an exception ,the dynamic performance of the steel box girder cable‐stayed bridge without truss and with open cross section was analyzed independently .The results of the analysis show that the com‐bined plate‐beam element model and spatial shell element model are in good agreement ,but the in‐ertia moment of the main girder uniform equivalent mass under the first order torsional mode gained from the spatial beam element model reveal an error of 9% .T russ has slight influence on the lateral bending frequency of the main girder ,but can improve the vertical bending frequency and torsional frequency of the main girder ,w hich is favorable for the wind resistant performance of the bridge .

  8. A software prototype for assessing the reliability of a concrete bridge superstructure subjected to chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Thöns, Sebastian; Fischer, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    A software prototype is developed for assessing and updating the reliability of single-cell prestressed concrete box girders subjected to chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. The underlying system model consists of two integrated sub-models: a condition model for predicting the deterioration...... through Bayesian updating on the basis of the DBN model. To demonstrate the effect of partial inspections, the software prototype is applied to a case study of a typical highway bridge with six spans. The case study illustrates that it is possible to infer the condition of uninspected parts...... state of the box girder and a structural model for evaluating the overall system reliability. The condition model is based on a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) model which considers the spatial variation of the corrosion process. Inspection data are included in the calculation of the system reliability...

  9. Numerical Analysis on Variation of Dynamic Response of Girder Bridges with Torsional Reinforcement Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jae-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic flexural behaviour of the railway bridge is influenced by its torsional behaviour. Especially, in the case of girder railway bridges, the dynamic response tends to amplify when the natural frequency in flexure (1st vibration mode is close to that in torsion (2nd vibration mode. In order to prevent such situation, it is necessary to adopt a flexural-to-torsional natural frequency ratio larger than 120%. This study proposes a solution shifting the natural frequency in torsion to high frequency range and restraining torsion by installing concrete panels on the bottom flange of the girder so as to prevent the superposition of the responses in the girder bridge. The applicability of this solution is examined by finite element analysis of the shift of the torsional natural frequency and change in the dynamic response according to the installation of the concrete panels. The analytical results for a 30 m-span girder railway bridge indicate that installing the concrete panels increases the natural frequency in torsion by restraining the torsional behaviour and reduces also the overall dynamic response. It is seen that the installation of 100 mm-thick concrete panels along a section of 4 m at both extremities of the girder can reduce the dynamic response by more than 30%.

  10. A Simple Technique to Determine Interface Slip of Stud Connected SCC Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasankar J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple technique is proposed to compute interface slip of stud connected steel-concrete composite (SCC girders based on the results of a flexure test. The technique makes use of relative longitudinal displacement of the concrete slab and steel beam to calculate the interface slip. In the flexure test of a SCC girder, a cost-effective instrumentation arrangement consisting of mechanical dial gauges is used to measure the relative longitudinal displacement. Responses measured from experiments on SCC girders conducted by the authors are used for numerical implementation and validation of the technique. Alternatively, interface slip is also evaluated by applying an analytical model which is based on first principles of mechanics. The values of interface slip computed by using the proposed technique are found to have close correlation with those of the analytical model. The effect of edge restraint on slip due to friction between steel and concrete is also studied

  11. Optimization Method for Girder of Wind Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a recently developed numerical multidisciplinary optimization method for design of wind turbine blade. The objective was the highest possible blade weight under specified atmospheric conditions, determined by the design giving girder layer and location parameter. Wind turbine blade on box-section beams girder is calculated by ply thickness, main girder and trailing edge. In this study, a realistic 30 m blade from a 1.2 MW wind turbine model of blade girder parameters is established. The optimization evolves a structure which transforms along the length of the blade, changing from a design with spar caps at the maximum thickness and a trailing edge mass to a design with spar caps toward the tip. In addition, the cross-section structural properties and the modal characteristics of a 62 m rotor blade were predicted by the developed beam finite element. In summary, these findings indicate that the conventional structural layout of a wind turbine blade is suboptimal under the static load conditions, suggesting an opportunity to reduce blade weight and cost.

  12. 基于梁格法的预制箱梁横向刚度模拟研究%Study of Transverse Stiffness Simulaton Based on Beam Grillage Method for Prefabricated Box Girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨圣超; 夏兴佳

    2016-01-01

    To correctly simulate the transverse stiffness of the spatial beam grillage model of the prefabricated box beam ,the right deck of the Weijiacun Zhong Bridge on the Zhunxing Heavy Load Expressway was taken as the study background ,to study the influence of the type of the vir‐tual beams in the spatial beam grillage model of a prestressed box beam on the transverse stiffness . The bridge is a 4 × 20 m prestressed concrete continuous box beam bridge ,to which full loads was applied according to the static test results gained when the bridge was completed and transferred , to test the strain and deflection of the main beam .The MIDAS Civil software was used to establish the spatial beam grillage models of the main beam with three types of virtual beams ,to calculate the main beam bending moment under the design loads and testing loads ,and the strain and deflec‐tion of the main beam under the maximum positive bending moment and the related verification co‐efficients ,and the calculated results were compared with the measured ones .The results demon‐strate that the transverse stiffness of the spatial beam grillage model show s sign of increase as the increase of the length of the rigid zone of the virtual beam and the decrease of the efficient length of the virtual beam .And when the part of the virtual beam from the center of the stringers to the in‐ner edge of the stringer webs was set as the rigid zone ,the transverse stiffness simulated by the spatial beam grillage model is the closest to the transverse stiffness of the actual bridge .%为准确模拟预制箱梁空间梁格模型的横向刚度,以准兴重载高速公路魏家村中桥右幅桥为背景,研究预制箱梁空间梁格模型中虚梁形式对横向刚度的影响。该桥为4×20 m预制混凝土连续箱梁桥,按交工静载试验满载加载,测试主梁的应变和挠度;采用M IDAS Civil软件建立3种虚梁形式的主梁空间梁格模型,计算设计荷载和试验

  13. The Design and Construction of 160T Girder Station%160T提梁站设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓洪钧

    2012-01-01

      Guangshen Coastal Expressway Shenzhen Girder Station uses the steel pipe piles combined with Bailey girders in the construction.The headroom of the girder stations and the cast-in-place box girder is 7m, and the span is 17.25m. This paper makes a brief description of the installation method of the girder station%  广深沿江高速深圳段提梁站施工采用钢管桩结合贝雷梁形式。提梁站与现浇箱梁净空高度7m,跨度为17.25m,文章就提梁站的安装方法作简要介绍。

  14. Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby...

  15. Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby...

  16. Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Concrete is a component of coherent transition between a concrete base and a wooden construction. The structure is based on a quantity of investigations of the design possibilities that arise when combining digital fabrication tools and material capacities.Through tangible experiments the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect’s digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this expansion as an opportunity to connect th...

  17. Main Girder Type Selection for Maputo Bridge in Mozambique Based on Sectional Model Wind Tunnel Test%基于节段模型风洞试验的莫桑比克马普托大桥主梁选型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 樊泽民; 王骑; 孟令亮; 魏雪涛; 李元博

    2014-01-01

    为合理确定主跨680 m 的莫桑比克马普托大桥的主梁形式,利用节段模型风洞试验,分别研究了扁平钢箱梁、钢箱叠合梁和工字型叠合梁的气动性能。结果表明:扭转刚度较弱的工字型叠合梁颤振风速远低于检验风速,且涡激振动也不满足舒适性要求,在设计中不宜采用;钢箱叠合梁尽管颤振风速较高,但其在钢箱顶面凸起的混凝土桥面板会造成气流分离和漩涡脱落,可能存在较大涡激振动振幅的隐患,可在设计中选择性采用;扁平钢箱梁断面颤振临界风速高,且无明显涡激振动,为该大跨度悬索桥的优选主梁形式。试验结果还显示,若设置宽0.5 m 的风嘴导流板可进一步提高钢箱梁断面的颤振临界风速,但由于导流板直接影响造价并增加后期养护费用,而节段模型试验结果一般偏于保守,因此最后的取舍需要参考三维颤振计算或全桥气弹模型风洞试验结果。若在其斜腹板上外挂直径90 cm 的过桥水管,将显著弱化颤振性能和涡振性能,因此在设计中不宜采用。%To select a rational main girder type for the Maputo Bridge in Mozambique which is projected to have a main span of 680 m ,the aerodynamic behavior of three types of main girder ,in-cluding the flat steel box girder ,steel-concrete composite box girder and I-shaped composite girder were examined by the sectional model wind tunnel test .The results of the test indicate that the I-shaped composite girder with intrinsic low torsional stiffness is not a favorable solution in the de -sign ,for its flutter wind speed is much smaller than the testing wind speed and its vortex -induced vibration is not able to meet the requirements of physical and psychological comfort as well .The steel-concrete composite box girder can withstand higher flutter wind speed ,but the concrete deck slab humps on top of the steel box are prone to cause airflow

  18. 同步控制顶升、摩阻自平衡平移连续箱梁技术研究及其应用%Study and Application on Synchronizing Control Jacking-up and Self-equation of Friction Technology for Translation of Continuous Box Girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢朋

    2015-01-01

    某客运专线一联道岔连续梁因土堆堆载产生横向偏移,在多跨连续梁桥精确复位中,对同步控制顶升、摩阻自平衡平移技术进行研究。连续箱梁对竖向不均匀位移高度敏感,桥墩与梁底之间空间有限,横向反力台座施工困难,通过对比分析、模拟计算,采用 PLC 计算机同步控制顶升、摩阻自平衡平移技术,能保证顶升过程中的同步性,并巧妙平衡了水平千斤顶横向顶推反力。通过工程实例的应用,证明技术的安全性和可行性。%Due to the load of earth piling,the lateral deviation was occured in a continuous beam of turnout with a joint in a passenger dedicated line,the study on synchronizing control jacking-up technology and self-equation of friction technology for translation in accurate restoring of multi-span continuous beam bridge was introduced.Continuous box girder was highly sensi-tive to vertical non-uniform displacement,and the gap between top of pier and bottom of beam was limited,that caused diffi-culty in construction of lateral counterforce pedestal.By the comparative analysis and simulative calculation,the result showed that synchronizing control jacking-up technology and self-equation of friction technology by adopting PLC computer for translation of continuous box girder could not only ensure the synchronism in jacking-up process,but also subtly balance the lateral jacking counterforce of horizontal jack.The safety and feasibility of technology were proven through application of the project.

  19. Sensitive Analysis on Seismic Response of Simply Supported Box Girder Bridge on High Speed Railway Using Friction Pendulum Bearings and U-shaped Steel Combined Earthquake Protection Device%采用摩擦摆支座及U型钢防落梁装置的高速铁路简支箱梁桥地震响应敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧晓秋; 曹志峰; 吴成亮

    2016-01-01

    以高速铁路简支箱梁桥隔震研究为例,建立了采用摩擦摆支座与 U 型钢防落梁装置组合地震保护方案的全桥地震响应分析模型,针对支座位移、墩底剪力、墩底弯矩等地震响应,考虑了场地类别、桥墩高度、桥梁跨数、桥梁跨度、激励方向等影响因素,并根据各因素选定的水平级别,实施了混合正交试验,再应用极差分析方法对支座位移、墩底剪力、墩底弯矩等地震响应进行了影响因素的敏感性分析,明确了各因素对相关响应量影响的主次情况,为高速铁路简支箱梁桥隔震研究及优化设计奠定了基础。%In this paper,the seismic isolation of simply supported box girder bridges on high speed railway was studied. A bridge model with friction pendulum bearings and a U-shaped steel combined earthquake protection device was built for seismic response analysis,including the seismic response of bearing displacement,and shear and moment at the pier bottom. Multiple factors including site types,pier height,number of bridge spans,bridge span length and excitation direction were considered. A mixed orthogonal test was carried out according to the selected level of each factor. Using range analysis method,sensitivity analysis of each factor was carried out on the seismic response of bearing displacement,and shear and moment at the pier bottom. The primary and secondary cases of the impact of various factors on the relevant response were analyzed. It may provide guidelines for seismic isolation and design optimization of simply supported box girder bridges on high speed railway.

  20. 运架一体式架梁机隧道架梁技术%Tunnel Girder Skill of Transported Frame Integrated Girder Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐锋

    2013-01-01

      本文介绍了运架一体式架梁机的组成结构,施工前的各项准备工作。本文详细阐述了运架一体式架梁机进出隧道架设第一孔或最后一孔双线整孔预制箱梁的施工技术。%This article describes the structure composition of the transported frame integrated girder machine and the preparatory work before construction. This paper describes the double track prefabricated box girder construction technology of entering and going out the first or last hole of tunnel for the transported frame integrated girder machine.

  1. Construction Technology Analysis of Concrete Composite Box Net Floor%混凝土叠合箱网梁楼盖施工技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶雷杰

    2014-01-01

    Concrete composite box net floor is a special ribbed slab floor, from prefabricated composite box and cast nets (rib) beam combination, its characteristic is flat at the botom, saving materials and large cavity net beam structure stress. The author combining with practical experiences makes a simple analysis of the composite box net beamceiling te- chnique in this paper.%混凝土叠合箱网梁楼盖是一种特殊的密肋梁楼盖,由预制叠合箱和现浇网(肋)梁组合而成,特点是底部平整、节约耗材和大空腔网梁构造受力等。笔者结合实际经验,在本文中简单地分析了叠合箱网梁楼盖技术。

  2. 昌平钢-混凝土结合连续刚构桥的设计与施工%Design and Construction of Steel and Concrete Continuous Composite Rigid Frame of Changping Overpass Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立芬; 王冰

    2012-01-01

    The Changping Overpass Bridge is a steel and concrete continuous composite rigid-frame bridge arranged in two continuous units, each being (37 + 60 + 79 + 42. 5) m and (42. 5 + 79 + 42. 5) m. The main girder of the bridge is designed as a steel and concrete composite one, of which the steel box girder is of the single-cell, single-box and vertical web section and the deck slabs are the reinforced concrete structure. The box girder is rigidly fixed with the concrete pier shaft at the intermediate pier and all pier columns of the bridge are the rectangular ones. The fi-nite element program MIDAS Civil was used to establish the calculation model for spatial struc-ture of the whole bridge, the static force of the bridge was calculated and analyzed and the results of the calculation and analysis proved that the stress and structural strength of the box girder could meet the relevant requirements in the codes. To minimize the interference of construction to the traffic under the bridge, the box girder was fabricated in shop and lifted in place at the bridge site. The precast deck slabs were installed by the discontinuous method in the sequence of the parts of the bridge at the midspan first and the parts close to the supports late.%昌平跨线桥采用两联跨度为(37+60+79+42.5)m及(42.5+79+42.5)m的钢-混凝土结合连续刚构型式.该桥主梁为钢-混凝土结合梁,钢箱梁采用单箱单室直腹板截面,桥面板为钢筋混凝土结构,钢箱梁在中墩处与混凝土墩身固结,下部结构墩柱均采用矩形桥墩.采用有限元程序MIDAS Civil建立全桥空间结构计算模型,对该桥进行静力计算分析,结果表明钢箱应力及结构强度均满足规范要求.为减少对桥下交通的影响,该桥钢箱梁采用工厂预制、现场吊装的方法施工,预制桥面板按先跨中后支点的顺序施工,采用间断法安装.

  3. Utmost Protective Life of Arc Spray Al Coating and Large Area Long Term Anti-corrosion for Steel Box Girder Bridge%电弧喷铝涂层的保护极限及钢箱梁桥大面积长效防腐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建阳; 肖跃文; 李雄晖; 沈承金

    2001-01-01

    结合武汉军山长江公路大桥钢箱梁防腐,分析大气腐蚀环境和影响因素,研究电弧喷铝涂层腐蚀失效机理和耐腐蚀性,确定电弧喷铝涂层有效保护的极限涂层厚度和极限涂层破损率,并针对钢箱粱桥特点,设计制作机械化电弧喷涂设备,进行大面积长效防腐施工。%In terms of the protective for steel box girder of Wuhan Junshan Changjiang Bridge, atmospheric corrosion environment and influencing factors are analyzed, invalidation mechanism of are spray Al coating due to corrosion and ability for anti-corrosion are studied, utrnost thickness of arc spray Al coating for effective protection and utmost breakage rate of coating are determined. Automatic arc spray equipments are designed and made for large area long term anti-corrosion.

  4. New photo-thermal-synthesized polymer for self-compacting concrete to increase productivity, minimize pollution,and eliminate steam curing in precast concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. C.Lai; M. F.Mohd Zain; WANG Bao-min; K. C. Lee

    2006-01-01

    The objective in this study is to apply the sustainable chemistry and photo-thermal synthesis technology to produce the sustainable eco-superplasticiser for the sustainable high performance SCC concrete especially in hot tropical countries. A photo-thermal synthesized eco-superplasticiser (PSES) was produced by using photo-thermal catalyst in a solar chemical reactor. In this preliminary study, an unique high early strength of SCC concrete has been successfully produced by imposing an unique proportion of the photo-thermal-synthesized ecoSuperplasticiser (PSES), local fly ash, sand and aggregate. The SCC concrete is preliminary tried in the precast concrete product to produce the complicated geometries as Tunnel segment, U-shape beam, and Box girder which have the critical reinforcement and thin section concrete. Surprisingly, this SCC provide the benefits as eliminating steaming energy, increased productivity, and minimize pollution. These unique properties of sustainable SCC concrete can not be achieved by the convention concrete by using ligno, naphthalene and melamine base superplasticiser. The synthesized sustainable eco-superplasticiser is a perfect choice to fully utilized the renewable energy and improve the concrete working environment.

  5. 基于 WIM 数据的上海某大桥钢箱梁应力谱研究%Fatigue Stress Spectrum Study of the Steel Box Girder of Shanghai Certain Bridge,Based on the Analysis of WIM Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昊; 胡明敏

    2014-01-01

    斜拉桥以其自身的优点成为当今大跨度桥梁中的主流桥型,然而,投入使用一段时间后,由于运营车辆总重和交通量交替变化,钢桥所面临的疲劳问题正日趋严重。本文以上海某大桥为工程背景,利用动态称重系统采集到的车辆载荷相关数据,依据等效疲劳损伤原理,推导出代表实际运营车辆载荷谱,采用泄水法,建立南塔钢箱梁的细节应力谱,为上海某大桥疲劳损伤及寿命评估提供可靠依据。%Cable-stayed Bridge becomes the main stream bridge in the large span bridge construction because of its advantages and was built all over the world .However ,after a period of time ,the fatigue problem of the steel bridge faced with is becoming more and more serious .The representative of actual operation vehicle load spectrum is deduced with the vehicle load data collected by the dynamic weighing system and the equivalent fatigue damage theory based on the Shanghai Certain Bridge . The paper also adopted the discharge water method to build the stress spectrum of the steel box girder of The South Tower and to provide the reliable ba-sis for fatigue damage and life assessment of Shanghai Yangtze River Bridge .

  6. Proposal and study of a long-span composite cable-stayed bridge with new hybrid girder; Atarashii gosei kozo shuketa wo mochiita chodai fukugo shachokyo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Hishiki, Y.; Furuichi, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-30

    A hybrid or mixed structure (composite structures) are a matter of increasing concern which takes in each advantage of steel and concrete. A field of bridges is no exception, with the plan and construction carried out for the new type of composite bridge, such as a composite cable-stayed bridge and a composite extra dose bridge as a long span bridge, and a composite truss bridge and a corrugated steel plate web bridge as a medium-span bridge, with technological development becoming active in this field. In such a technological trend, a hybrid two-girder structure was devised, a structure consisting of a concrete filled steel pipe for a girder and a precast (PC) floor plate for a floor board, as the girder structure of a long-span cable-stayed bridge in the subject research; also, applicability was examined using, as an example, the composite cable-stayed bridge with hybrid girders employed for the span. This paper reports the result of the analysis of the entire system, the analysis made for the purpose of examining the characteristic and the feasibility of this hybrid girder. The analysis revealed the structural feasibility of the long-span composite cable-stayed bridge using two hybrid girders of concrete-filled steel pipes thus devised. (NEDO)

  7. Powell's Optimal Identification of Material Constants of Thin-Walled Box Girders Based on Fibonacci Series Search Method%基于 Fibonacci 序列寻优理论薄壁弯箱材料常数的 Powell 优化识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑; 叶见曙; 周储伟

    2011-01-01

    对于薄壁弯箱结构,推导了材料常数的动态 Bayes 误差函数,提出步长的一维 Fibonacci 序列自动寻优方案后,利用 Powell 优化理论研究了薄壁弯箱材料常数的动态识别方法,同时给出了具体的计算步骤,并研制了相应的计算程序.算例分析表明,Powell 理论用于弯箱材料常数识别时表现出良好的数值稳定性和收敛性,在迭代过程中,Powell 理论不涉及有限元偏导数处理,与以往材料常数的梯度优化方法相比,计算效率较高;建立的动态 Bayes 误差函数能同时计入系统参数的随机性和系统响应的随机性;提出的 Fibonacci 序列寻优方案无需通过试算确定最优步长所在区间,有效地解决最优步长的一维自动寻优问题.%For thin-walled curve box girders, dynamic Bayesian error function of material constants of the structure was founded. Combined with one-dimensional Fibonacci series automatic search scheme of optimal step length, the Powell' sop timization theory was utilized to perform the stochastic identification of material constants of thin-walled curve box. Then the steps of parameters' identification were presented in detail and the Powell' s identification procedure of martial constants of thin-walled curve box was compiled, in which the mechanical analysis of thin-walled curve box was completed based on finite curve strip element (FCSE) method.Through some classic examples, it is obtained that the Powell' s identification of material constants of thin-walled curve box has numerical stability and convergence, which demonstrates that the present method and the compiled procedure are correct and reliable. And during parameters' iterative processes, the Powell' s theory is irrelevant with the calculation of FCSE' s partial differentiation, which proves high computation efficiency of the studied methods. The stochastic performances of systematic parameters and systematic responses are simultaneously deliberated in

  8. Study of Parameters Influencing Load Bearing Performance of No .0 Block in PC Continuous Box Girder Bridge%PC连续箱梁桥0号块受力性能的影响参数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊敏; 胡峰强; 邱衍坚; 徐义标; 冯小毛; 刘蕙婷

    2016-01-01

    To study the load bearing performance of No .0 blocks in the superstructure of PC continuous box beam bridge ,a PC continuous box beam bridge with span arrangement of (55+90+90+55) m was taken as the study background .The spatial finite element model of the No .0 block was established to study the variation of parameters on the load bearing capacity of No .0 block ,including the height of the piers ,prestressing loss along the prestressing tendons and the constraints of the bearings .And the features of the spatial stress of the No .0 block during the lon‐gest cantilever construction stage and in the completed bridge state were analyzed .The results of the analysis indicate that the stress in the intersection of the bottom slab of the No .0 block box beam and the bearings is prone to the influence of pier height ,therefore ,the influence of piers should be taken into account during the model establishment ,and pier heights can choose one time of the beam depth to simplify the process .The surrounding prestressing distribution exerts signifi‐cant influence on the load bearing capacity of No .0 block .During the operation period ,if the stress local distortion of the No .0 block at the bearings is not considered ,the fixed constraints can be used to replace the real bearings in the stress calculation of No .0 block as a simplified treat‐ment .At the locations where constant cross section of the diaphragm showing abrupt change ,the main tensile stress in the No .0 block will exceed the values prescribed in the code .%为研究PC连续箱梁桥0号块建模参数对其受力性能的影响程度,以选取合理的建模参数,以某跨度为(55+90+90+55) m的PC连续箱梁桥为工程背景,建立0号块空间有限元模型,分析不同桥墩高度、预应力筋沿程预应力损失、支座约束等参数下0号块受力性能的变化规律,以及最大悬臂施工阶段和成桥阶段0号块的空间应力特点。分析结果表明:0

  9. 海洋环境下预应力混凝土桥梁耐久性分析与设计%Durability Analysis and Design of Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridge in Marine Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成绩; 陆春华

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the durability behavior of concrete structure caused by chloride attack in marine environment,a calculated model for chloride ingress in prestressed concrete is built,which mainly takes material property,environment,stress level of concrete and surface convection into account.Then,considering the character of durability failure for presstressed concrete bridge structure,the durability limit state is defined as the initiation of prestressing steel's corrosion.Based on the statistic results of relevant random variables,the reliability indexes under various water-binder ratio and cover thickness are studied with Monte-Carlo simulation;and the minimum cover thickness are proposed to satisfy certain target reliability index.Analytical results can provide some reference to engineering durability design.%为了研究海洋环境下氯离子侵蚀引起的混凝土结构耐久性行为,在重点考虑材料、环境、混凝土应力水平以及表层对流区影响的基础上,建立了预应力混凝土氯离子侵入扩散模型;随后,基于预应力混凝土桥梁结构耐久性失效的特点,提出了以预应力筋临界锈蚀作为耐久性极限状态的标志;并在各随机变量统计分析的基础上,采用Monte-Carlo方法研究了不同水胶比、不同保护层厚度时的可靠指标变化情况,得出了给定目标可靠指标下预应力筋的最小保护层厚度。相关研究成果可以为工程设计提供一定参考。

  10. 地震作用下中等跨径RC连续梁桥系统易损性研究%Study on system vulnerability of medium span reinforced concrete continuous girder bridge under earthquake excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立峰; 吴文朋; 黄佳梅; 王连华

    2012-01-01

    Medium span multi-span continuous RC bridges,whose main failure modes are reflected in piers,abutments or bearings,are widely used in China.One common continuous girder bridge is taken as the analytical model;uncertainties in the strength of material and the weight of superstructure are considered,then a set of 10 nominally identical but statistically different bridge samples are developed for the bridge using the Latin hypercube sampling technique.100 earthquake records are chosen from PEER according to the site condition of bridge to account for the uncertainty of ground motions,and then combined randomly with 10 bridge samples.Then,a series of nonlinear time-history analyses are conducted to obtain the responses of structure,and four limit states for different components are defined.vunerability curves of piers,abutments and bearings are obtained utilizing the traditional reliability and probability tools,and furthermore the system vulnerability of structure is studied using the joint failure probability method.The results show that the bearings,especially the active bearing of abutment,are more vulnerable than the column piers and the abutments.The failure probability of bridge system,which is calculated using the first-order and the second-order reliability principles,is larger than those of structural members,indicating that it is more reasonable to assess the seismic behavior of bridge basing on the system vulnerability.%中等跨径混凝土连续梁桥是一种广泛应用的桥梁结构形式,地震作用下该类桥梁的破坏主要体现在桥墩、桥台和支座位置。以一典型多跨连续梁桥为例,考虑材料强度和上部结构容重等不确定性因素的影响,运用拉丁超立方抽样方法建立了10个桥梁样本。根据场地类型从PEER强震数据库中选取100条地震波来模拟地震动的不确定性,并与10个桥梁样本随机组合。对结构进行非线性时程分析后得到结构的响应,并分别定义了

  11. Fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete flow simulations in comparison with l-box experiments using carbopol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Skocek, Jan; Olesen, John Forbes

    An evolution of distribution and orientation of fibres in the fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete during the casting process is an important matter as the final orientation and distribution of fibres can significantly influence mechanical properties of the structural elements. A two-way cou...

  12. 既有损伤混凝土梁桥车桥耦动力分析%Study on dynamic behavior of vehicle-bridge coupling in existing concrete injured girder bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 张笑尘; 贾杰

    2016-01-01

    In order to carry out the systematic analysis of most highway concrete bridges’dynamic work performance under moving vehicular load with structural damages and their evolution,we put forward multi-scale analysis method and feasibility of vehicle-bridge coupling vibration with structural damages and analyze mechanism and influence law of bridges’dynamic behavior in this case.%以公路混凝土梁桥为研究对象,分析了结构损伤及损伤演化的车辆作用下桥梁动力的工作性能,提出考虑结构损伤的车桥耦合振动多尺度分析方法,探讨了该情况下桥梁动力行为的作用机理和影响规律。

  13. Flexible concrete link slabs used as expansion joints in bridge decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    of water through the expansion joint and subsequent corrosion of girders and girder bearings. Investigations on joint-less superstructures using conventional steel reinforcement in so-called concrete link slabs indicate improved performance and economic feasibility. However, this concept requires...

  14. Experimental Evaluation of the Post-ultimate Strength Behavior of a Ship's Hull Girder in Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijun Xu; Kazuhiro Iijima; Ryota Wada; Masahiko Fujikubo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental investigations into the collapse behavior of a box-shape hull girder subjected to extreme wave-induced loads are presented.The experiment was performed using a scaled model in a tank.In the middle of the scaled model,sacrificial specimens with circular pillar and trough shapes which respectively show different bending moment-displacement characteristics were mounted to compare the dynamic collapse characteristics of the hull girder in waves.The specimens were designed by using finite element (FE)-analysis.Prior to the tank tests,static four-point-bending tests were conducted to detect the load-carrying capacity of the hull girder.It was shown that the load-carrying capacity of a ship including reduction of the capacity after theultimate strength can be reproduced experimentally by employing the trough type specimens.Tank tests using these specimens were performed under a focused wave in which the hull girder collapses under once and repetitive focused waves.It was shown from the multiple collapse tests that the increase rate of collapse becomes higher once the load-carrying capacity enters the reduction path while the increase rate is lower before reaching the ultimate strength.

  15. Effect of concrete creep on pre-camber of continuous rigid-frame bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺国京; 李媛媛; 邹中权; 段靓靓

    2008-01-01

    The effect of concrete creep on the pre-camber of a long-span pre-stressed concrete continuous rigid-frame bridge constructed by cantilever casting method was investigated.The difference of creep coefficients calculated with two Chinese codes was discussed.Based on the calculations,the pre-camber of a pre-stressed concrete continuous rigid-frame box bridge was computed for construction control purpose.The results show that the short-term creep coefficient and long-term creep coefficient calculated with the CC-1985 are larger than those calculated with the CC-2004,while the medium-term creep coefficient calculated with the CC-1985 is smaller than that calculated with the CC-2004.The difference of creep deformation calculated with these two codes is small,and the influences of concrete creep on the pre-camber for most of the segments are negligible.The deflections and stresses of the box girder measured during the construction stages agree very well with the predictions.

  16. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  17. Design and Construction of Box Girder Footbridge Combined with Steel and Concrete%钢-混凝土混合箱梁人行天桥的设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢源生; 徐革胜; 解冰

    2002-01-01

    顺德市新德业天桥是一座大跨度钢-预应力混凝土混合箱梁桥.该桥混合梁结合部的设计采用了预应力;钢箱梁外层防锈用钢丝网聚丙烯纤维水泥砂浆做涂装底层;全桥连续及伸缩缝设在梯脚;桥面铺装用氯丁橡胶贴片,减轻了桥梁自重.

  18. Design and Construction of Prestressed Concrete Box-girder Footbridge with Corrugated Steel Webs%波形钢腹板PC箱梁人行桥的设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟文节; 万水

    2006-01-01

    波形钢腹板PC组合箱梁结构恰当地将钢、混凝土结合起来,提高了结构的稳定性、强度及材料的使用效率.该文介绍了我国第1座波形钢腹板PC箱梁桥的设计和施工.

  19. 预应力混凝土弧形底宽箱梁受力及构造特点研究%Study of the Stress of Arc Bottom & Broad Box Girder of Prestressed Concrete & Structure Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈桂平

    2007-01-01

    通过空间及平面有限元计算分析,研究了弧形底箱梁结构的纵横向受力特点,分析了宽跨比较大的弧形底单箱多室箱梁的构造特点,得出了箱梁纵横向受力的一些规律.这些规律为宽跨比较大的弧形底大箱梁设计提供依据.

  20. 砼连续箱梁人行天桥振动特性测试与分析%Vibration characteristics test and analysis on concrete box girder continuous pedestrian bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冠华; 葛耀君

    2009-01-01

    以某座普通钢筋砼连续箱梁人行天桥为工程背景,通过对其振动特性进行大量实测试验,利用有限元理论对结构整体进行计算,深入分析其大幅度竖向、侧向振动的成因,结合实测数据探讨现行人行桥振动舒适度评价方法所存在的不足之处,评价天桥的舒适程度,为该桥的质量检测与评价提供依据,并提出了人行天桥振动舒适性评价建议.这为今后对该类桥梁的设计、维修加固具有实际参考价值.

  1. 铁路混凝土箱形梁现场蒸汽养生工艺探讨%Exploring on in-situ vacuum curing technology for railway concrete box girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春芝; 朱英磊; 朱尔玉

    2006-01-01

    为适应高速铁路的发展,工程界常采用蒸汽养生以加快混凝土的硬化,缩短养护时程.文章介绍高速铁路混凝土箱形梁现场蒸汽养生的关键技术,例如养护流程、养护包围物、蒸汽管线和锅炉配置等,以供参考.

  2. Committee VI.1. Extreme Hull Girder Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2000-01-01

    Committee Mandate. Evaluate and develop direct calculation procedures for extreme wawe loads on ship hull girders. Due consideration shall be given to stochastic and non-linear effects. The procedures shall be assessed by comparison with in-service experiences, model tests and more refined...

  3. 高速列车运行对铁路简支箱梁空气动力特性的影响%Inf luence of high speed train running on aerodynamic characteristics of railway simple-supported box-girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖军; 李小珍; 刘德军

    2015-01-01

    列车—桥梁系统的空气动力特性不仅受组合断面上的气动绕流影响,而且在顺桥向列车对桥梁的影响还呈现出非均匀性及动态变化。以高速列车通过铁路双线32 m 简支梁桥为例,分析头车前35 m至尾车后35 m范围内的桥梁三分力系数变化规律,得到了高速列车运行对该型桥梁不同位置断面空气动力特性的影响规律。研究发现,在任意时刻列车对铁路桥梁的空气动力特性影响都可划分为覆盖区、过渡区和无影响区3个区段,且随着列车在桥上的运行,列车对桥梁的影响区域在动态变化。提出了一种移动窗口模型方法来动态更新桥梁不同部位的气动力系数。该方法真正实现了列车—桥梁系统的动态气动耦合,能够更为精确地模拟风—车—桥系统耦合分析中的动态风荷载。%T he aerodynamic characteristics of train-bridge system are affected by the aerodynamic flow on a hybrid cross section and the effect of vehicle on bridge presents a non-homogeneous and dynamic variation along the bridge direction. T aking the high speed train passing through railway double line 32 m simple-supported box-girder bridge as an example,the variation law of bridge three-component aerodynamic coefficients from 35 m ahead first vehicle to 35 m behind the last vehicle was analyzed and the influence law of high speed train movement on aerodynamic characteristics of different bridge cross section was obtained. T he results indicated that effect of train on aerodynamic characteristics of railw ay bridge could be divided into 3 sections including the coverage area,the transition zone and the non-influence area at any time and the influence area changes dynamically with the train passing through the bridge. T his paper presented a moving window model to dynamically update the aerodynamic coefficients of different bridge parts and has realized the dynamic aerodynamic coupling of vehicle

  4. 钢箱梁正交异性桥面板球扁钢纵肋球头朝向和黄隔板空孔的优化%Optimization of Bulb Direction and Diaphragm Cutout of Bulb Flat Ribs in Steel Orthotropic Deck of Box Girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴臻旺; 郑凯锋; 税彦斌; 张昊

    2011-01-01

    某钢箱梁正交异性桥面板行车道范围内采用球扁钢纵肋,在横隔板对应部位设置空孔让纵肋连续通过,为研究横隔板的空孔圆弧、空孔与纵肋连接端部等两个细节部位的受力特性,以某立交桥F匝道为工程背景,建立全桥有限元模型,对称荷载作用,对比横隔板对称位置空孔应力分布,分析纵肋球头朝向和背对邻近腹板两种布置对空孔受力的影响.荷栽位于不同横向位置,分析横隔板空孔面内受力.荷载位于不同纵向位置,分析横隔板空孔面外受力.对横隔板空孔圆弧半径进行参数分析.研究表明,球扁钢纵肋球头背对邻近腹板和适当增大空孔圆弧半径等措施,可明显改善横隔板空孔圆弧部位受力,但对空孔与纵肋连接端部效果不够明显,需采取进一步措施以改善该细节部位的受力性能.%Bulb flat ribs were used in the range of driveways on the steel orthotropic deck of a box girder, and cutout was set on the diaphragm to let the longitudinal ribs to pass through continuously. In order to probe into the stress characteristics of two details of diaphragm cutout, such as arc of cutout and its joint to rib, finite element analysis was carried out based on the ramp F of an overpass. With the symmetrical vehicle load action, stress distributions of symmetrical cutouts were compared, and the influences of bulb towards and/or back against the adjacent web plate on the stress characteristics of the cutout were studied respectively. For different transverse positions of vehicle load, the in-plane stress characteristics of diaphragm cutout were studied. For different longitudinal positions of vehicle load, the out-of-plane stress characteristics of diaphragm cutout were studied. Then, the parameter optimization of arc radius of cutout was carried out. The results show that the stress along the arc of the diaphragm cutout will be more appropriate when the bulb of longitudinal ribs is back

  5. 装配箱混凝土空心楼盖结构受力性能试验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON MECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF ASSEMBLY BOX CONCRETE HOLLOW FLOOR STRUCTURE WITH ASSEMBLY STYLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵考重; 李自然; 王莉; 孙双军; 房晓朋; 王超

    2011-01-01

    Assembly Box Concrete Hollow Floor is a new-style whole structure-with a cross section of a concrete box composed of small prefabricated components (concrete superposition box) and a cast-in-place concrete rib beam. The mechanical performance of the structure is analyzed in this paper based on the experiment with the test blocks of assembly box concrete hollow floor, and the failure mechanism affected by the load of floor is obtained. The findings prove that the prefabricated box and the cast-in-place concrete rib beam could interact, and in the calculation of floor framing design, a simplified flexural computing could be used, and each rib beam is taken as one computing unit. The top floor of the box could be used as the compressed flange, and the effective width of the compressed flange could be the sum of the two smaller figures, which are of the depth of 12 times of the box floor and the width of the cross section and the net span of a rib beam. The steel bars installed in the tensile area of the bottom floor of the box could fully exert its role, which could be taken into account in the flexural computing. The rack space and width in the bottom box floor of the tensile area are different from the cracks of the rib beam. The crack of the floor should be computed in accordance with reinforced concrete axial tension components, and that of the rib beam should be done according to the flexural member.%装配箱混凝土空心楼盖是一种新型的楼盖形式,是由小型预制构件(混凝土叠合箱)与现浇混凝土肋梁结合成具有连续箱型截面的整体结构.该文通过对装配箱混凝土空心楼板试件的试验,分析了该结构的受力性能,得到了楼盖在荷载作用下的破坏机理.通过分析得到预制箱体与现浇混凝土肋梁能够共同工作,在进行楼盖设计计算时,可简化为T型截面进行抗弯计算.抗弯计算时,每根肋梁为一个计算单元,箱体的顶板(底板)可作为肋梁的受压翼缘,

  6. Theory of cyclic creep of concrete based on Paris law for fatigue growth of subcritical microcracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Zdenek P.; Hubler, Mija H.

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations prompted by a disaster in Palau revealed that worldwide there are 69 long-span segmental prestressed-concrete box-girder bridges that suffered excessive multi-decade deflections, while many more surely exist. Although the excessive deflections were shown to be caused mainly by obsolescence of design recommendations or codes for static creep, some engineers suspect that cyclic creep might have been a significant additional cause. Many investigators explored the cyclic creep of concrete experimentally, but a rational mathematical model that would be anchored in the microstructure and would allow extrapolation to a 100-year lifetime is lacking. Here it is assumed that the cause of cyclic creep is the fatigue growth of pre-existing microcracks in hydrated cement. The resulting macroscopic strain is calculated by applying fracture mechanics to the microcracks considered as either tensile or, in the form of a crushing band, as compressive. This leads to a mathematical model for cyclic creep in compression, which is verified and calibrated by laboratory test data from the literature. The cyclic creep is shown to be proportional to the time average of stress and to the 4th power of the ratio of the stress amplitude to material strength. The power of 4 is supported by the recent finding that, on the atomistic scale, the Paris law should have the exponent of 2 and that the exponent must increase due to scale bridging. Exponent 4 implies that cyclic creep deflections are enormously sensitive to the relative amplitude of the applied cyclic stress. Calculations of the effects of cyclic creep in six segmental prestressed concrete box girders indicate that, because of self-weight dominance, the effect on deflections absolutely negligible for large spans (>150m). For small spans (<40m) the cyclic creep deflections are not negligible but do not matter since the static creep causes in such bridges upward deflections. However, the cyclic creep is shown to cause

  7. Performances of super-long span prestressed cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and RPC girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Zhi; Fan Fenghong; Ren Liang

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the applicability of advanced composite carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and ultra-high performance concrete reactive powder concrete (RPC) in super-long span cable-stayed bridges , taking a 1 008 m cable-stayed bridge with steel girders and steel cables as an example,a new cable-stayed bridge in the same span with RPC girders and CFRP cables was designed,in which the cable’s cross section was determined by the principle of equivalent cable capacity and the girder’s cross section was determined in virtual of its stiffness, shear capacity and local stability. Based on the methods of finite element analysis,the comparative analysis of these two cable-stayed bridge schemes about static performances,dynamic performances,stability and wind resis-tance behavior were carried out. The results showed that it was feasible to form a highly efficient,durable concrete cable-stayed bridge with RPC girders and CFRP cables and made its applicable span range expand to 1 000 m long around.

  8. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Crack Depth and Crack Opening On the Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the effect of crack depth and opening on the girder, finite element method (FEM has been used in this paper. In FE analysis, six nodded two dimensional plane elements (PLANE-2 are considered. Each node has two degree of freedom such as UX and UY. For the plane elements, a plane stress width/thickness option is chosen. For analytical model of crack of the concrete bridge girder, crack opening was increased from 0.2 mm to 1mm at an interval 0.2 mm and crack depth also increased from 30 mm to 150 mm at an interval 30 mm. The models were discreatized by a triangular mesh and convergence test was executed to obtain satisfactory results from the Plane-2 element. From the numerical result, it is seen that the principal stress become a higher with increased the crack depth and also crack opening with respect to load increasing. But the crack depth at 90 mm and crack opening at 0.6 mm, it has more effect on the girder because the stress concentration is higher than other crack depth and opening.

  9. Self-compacting concrete for prestressed bridge girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Bulent

    The purpose of this study was to examine social mobility as a motivation for first-generation college students in reaching attainment at two-year technical colleges. The research question was to what degree has the perception of social mobility influenced first generation college students at technical colleges to complete their career educational goals. Graduates of a two-year technical college were asked a series of open-ended questions regarding their past experiences and perceptions of attending and completing a two-year technical college program; their childhood perceptions of their social status; and experiences with family members regarding their change in social class status. These questions were designed to determine their feelings, viewpoints, reflections, experiences, struggles, and thoughts about attainment (completing their post-secondary education) and the extent to which social mobility influenced their decision to complete their education. The benefits of this research include an understanding of social mobility and educational attainment. Results of this study could be used to better understand the process that first generation college students go through in order to attain their educational goals. The information from this study may be useful for technical college administrations to help design programs and processes for future first-generation college students' success and aid in retention of these students.

  10. Estimating Design Resistance of Wrought Balcony Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Karel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is focused on reliability of balcony girders of a Czech national heritage monument. As preliminary reliability assessment suggests insufficient resistance, a series of nondestructive tests supplemented by a single tensile test are performed and evaluated by the statistical methods. Values of material properties, recommended in standards for historic materials, seem to be overly conservative and it is advised to specify properties of historic metallic materials by tests.

  11. 变分原理分析混凝土箱梁的剪力滞效应%Analysis on Shear Lag Effect of Concrete Box Beam By Variational Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺鹏臻; 刘凤奎; 冀伟; 张元海

    2013-01-01

    Directing against concrete box beams with flange thicknesses varying along the orientation of cross section, the variational principle of potential energy was applied to form the shear lag effect analysis method for single-cell concrete box beams. Based on the defined warping displacement functions, the formula for calculation of generalized sectional constants of thickness varying flanges was put forward. For simplely-supported beams and cantilever beams under the action of concentrated forces and uniformly distributed loads,the formula for calculation of longitudinal normal stresses and vertical deflections was deduced in consideration of the shear lag effect. Comparing with the shell finite element solution to the shear lag effect of simply-supported concrete box beams in the numerical example,the theoretical results of the proposed formulae show good agreement. By changing the thicknesses of varying flanges,the law of varying flange thicknesses of concrete box beams influencing the shear lag effect was studied.%本文针对翼板沿截面宽度方向变厚度的混凝土箱梁,利用势能变分原理,建立单室混凝土箱梁的剪滞效应分析方法.基于选定的剪力滞翘曲位移函数,提出变厚度翼板的广义截面常数计算公式.针对常见的简支梁和悬臂梁,导出集中力和均布荷载作用下的考虑剪滞效应的纵向应力和竖向挠度计算公式.通过对算例混凝土简支箱梁的剪力滞效应采用板壳数值解和本文理论解的对比分析,验证本文分析方法的精度.通过改变翼板厚度,研究混凝土箱梁翼板厚度变化对剪力滞效应的影响规律.

  12. Behaviour of parallel girders stabilised with U-frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virdi, Kuldeep; Azzi, Walid

    2010-01-01

    Lateral torsional buckling is a key factor in the design of steel girders. Stability can be enhanced by cross-bracing, reducing the effective length and thus increasing the ultimate capacity. U-frames are an option often used to brace the girders when designing through type of bridges and where...... overhead bracing is not practical. This paper investigates the effect of the U-frame spacing on the stability of the parallel girders. Eigenvalue buckling analysis was undertaken with four different spacings of the U-frames. Results were extracted from finite element analysis, interpreted and conclusions...

  13. Girder Support Scheme for the LCLS Undulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, J.

    2005-01-31

    Differential settlement of the foundation of the LCLS Undulator Hall will cause quadrupoles to move and the electron beam trajectory to distort. The resulting phase errors will decrease the FEL power and require time consuming beam-based alignment sessions to correct. By supporting quadrupoles on girders, with three quadrupoles to a girder, the foundation motion induced phase error between the beam and the X Ray radiation can be reduced by a factor of 5 compared with supporting each quadrupole with a separate column. This comes about because the motions of three quadrupoles on a girder are linearly correlated so their effect on the beam is largely canceled out. Thus a girder support scheme can significantly help to extend the time between required beam based alignments and contribute to a more stable operation of the LCLS FEL beam.

  14. 斜拉桥主梁大型 0 号块施工技术%Construction Techniques for Massive No .0 Main Girder Block of Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付浩; 严杰; 尹振君; 潘立泉

    2015-01-01

    武汉西四环汉江特大桥主桥为(77+100+360+100+77 ) m预应力混凝土梁斜拉桥 ,主梁为π形结构 ,两边为单箱双室、中间为纵横梁加桥面板结构形式.主梁0号块宽44 m、长22 m ,采用钢管桩贝雷梁支架现浇施工.支架由底模系统、横梁(贝雷梁)、桩顶分配梁、砂筒、钢管支架组成 ,支架施工完后采用反力架预压钢管桩 ,边箱室顶板底模采用透水模板布施工.通过混凝土配合比优化 ,配制高耐久性、稳定性的C55高性能混凝土 ,并采用天泵和地泵从两个方向分层浇筑 ,桥面纵、横坡采用提浆整平机控制.在0号块混凝土强度成长期预张拉横向预应力 ,纵向预应力待1号和1′号块施工完采用连接器连接构成整束一次性张拉 ;预应力采用智能张拉系统张拉、智能压浆系统压浆.实践表明 ,该桥采用该施工技术成功克服了支架不均匀沉降 ,有效控制了裂纹的产生 ,保证了主梁0号块的施工质量与施工安全.%The main bridge of the Hanjiang River Bridge on the west Fourth Ring Road in Wu-han is a prestressed concrete girder cable-stayed bridge with span arrangement of (77+100+360+100+77) m.The two edge boxes (two-cell single box structure) together with the central lattice beam covered with deck slabs form theπ-shaped main girder.The No.0 block of the main girder , cast on scaffolds made up of steel pipe piles and bailey trusses ,is 44 m wide and 22 m long.The scaffolds are composed of the chassis ,floor beam (bailey truss) ,pile-top distributive beam ,sand bailer and steel pipe supports.After the completion of the construction of the scaffolds ,the steel pipe piles were pre-compressed using reaction frame ,and the chassis for the top plate of edge boxes are constructed by using permeable formwork cloth.During the concreting ,the concrete mixing proportion was optimized ,the C55 high-performance concrete with sound durability and stability was prepared ,and the layered

  15. Time-domain analysis of wind-induced buffet and wind-resistant measures for cable-stayed bridge with steel box girder at construction stage%大跨度钢箱梁斜拉桥施工过程风致抖振时域分析及抗风措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜; 周绪红; 狄谨; 王继承

    2013-01-01

    以杭州湾跨海大桥北通航孔斜拉桥为背景,采用ANSYS有限元分析软件对其施工中最大双悬臂及最大单悬臂状态进行了风致抖振响应时域分析.采用谐波合成法进行了随机风场模拟,对塔、梁和索承受的风荷载分别进行了简化,并给出了静风力、抖振力和自激力的时域表达式及自激力在ANSYS中的实现方法;采用“鱼骨式”模型作为斜拉桥主梁的计算模型,分析考虑了结构的几何、气动非线性.分析结果表明:在施工阶段设计风荷载下,主梁悬臂端及塔顶处位移响应较小,风荷载效应与恒载效应组合后,塔根部截面最大拉应力为0.707 MPa;根据抖振响应分析结果和其他因素综合考虑,对杭州湾跨海大桥北通航孔斜拉桥提出了施工过程中有效可行的抗风措施.%Based on the project of north channel cable-stayed bridge of Hangzhou Bay Sea-crossing Bridge, the time-domain analysis of wind-induced buffet was carried out under the double and single jib condition by ANSYS. The random wind field was simulated by WAWS. Buffeting wind loads, which were exerted on tower, girder and cables, were simplified separately. The time-domain expressions of static wind force, buffeting force and full coupled auto-excited force, and how to exert the full coupled auto-excited force in ANSYS were proposed in this paper. Single beam elements were adopted to proceed the time-domain analysis, and the geometric and aerodynamic nonlinear of the structure was considered. Time-domain analysis results show that under the design wind loads at construction stage, the displacement response is smaller at the cantilever end of main girder and the top of pylon. The maximum tensile stress of the section at the root of pylon is 0. 707 MPa after combination of wind loads and dead loads. The wind resistance measures are suggested based on the results of the time-domain analysis and the influence of other factors. 3 tabs, 7 figs, 10

  16. Embedded Electromechanical Impedance and Strain Sensors for Health Monitoring of a Concrete Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT is one of the piezoelectric smart materials, which has direct and converse piezoelectric effects and can serve as an active electromechanical impedance (EMI sensor. The design and fabrication processes of EMI sensors embedded into concrete structures are presented briefly. Subsequently, finite element modeling and modal analysis of a continuous rigid frame bridge are implemented by using ANSYS and MIDAS and validated by the field test results. Uppermost, a health monitoring technique by employing the embedded EMI and strain sensors is proposed in this paper. The technique is not based on any physical model and is sensitive to incipient structural changes for its high frequency characteristics. A practical study on health monitoring of the continuous rigid frame bridge is implemented based on the EMI and strain signatures. In this study, some EMI and strain sensors are embedded into the box-sectional girders. The electrical admittances of distributed EMI active sensors and the strains of concrete are measured when the bridge is under construction or in operation. Based on the electrical admittance and strain measurements, the health statuses of the continuous rigid frame bridge are monitored and evaluated successfully in the construction and operation stages using a root-mean-square deviation (RMSD index.

  17. numerical and numerical and experimental modeling of the static ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    flange width on the static response of these type of structural elements under service load ... walled reinforced concrete box girder bridges under .... [15] carried out a static live-load test of a ... accurately predicts the exterior girder distribution.

  18. 三跨变截面预应力混凝土双箱双室并联连续箱梁桥的空间受力分析研究%Spatial Analysis of Three-span Prestressed Concrete Continuous Box Girder Bridge with Tow Parallel Boxes Double Celles and Varying Depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菁菁; 姚永丁; 陶舍辉; 项贻强

    2003-01-01

    本文对一座典型的三跨(30+50+30)变截面预应力混凝土双箱双室并联连续箱梁桥,利用空间板壳有限元来模拟真实的桥梁,进行空间受力分析和参数研究,并进行了荷载试验研究,说明宽桥横向刚度对桥梁变形和应力的影响.

  19. How Concrete Is Concrete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravemeijer, Koeno

    2011-01-01

    If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, "manipulatives", in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own,…

  20. Wave induced extreme hull girder loads on containerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Shi, Bill;

    2009-01-01

    , forward speed and hull flexibility. The vertical hull girder loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Firstly a quadratic strip theory is presented which can give separate predictions for the hogging and sagging bending moments and shear forces and for hull girder loads. Then this procedure...... is used as a base to derive semi-analytical formulas such that approximate wave load calculations can be performed by a simple spreadsheet program. Due to the few input parameters this procedure can be used to estimate the wave-induced bending moments at the conceptual design phase. Since the procedure...

  1. 部分充填混凝土窄幅钢箱组合梁抗裂性能研究%Study on crack resistance of concrete-partial-filled narrow-width steel box composite beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    羊海林; 莫时旭; 郑艳; 李胜; 李兴科

    2014-01-01

    为了研究充填混凝土窄幅钢箱连续组合梁负弯矩区的弯曲性能,以及栓钉间距、配筋率对连续组合梁负弯矩区混凝土翼板抗裂性能、裂缝开展和宽度的影响,完成3根反向加载的简支组合梁的静力加载试验;考虑翼板混凝土收缩应力的影响,推导出连续组合梁负弯矩区翼板开裂弯矩理论计算公式。试验结果表明,在较低荷载下连续组合梁翼板负弯矩区就会开裂,而发生明显的内力重分布;箍筋间距对裂缝间距有一定的影响,且剪力连接程度和配筋率对连续组合梁负弯矩区裂缝发展以及宽度的影响较明显,适当增加配筋率可以减小组合梁负弯矩区翼板最大裂缝宽度。通过求解组合梁负弯矩区的开裂弯矩,考虑收缩应力的影响能够更准确的控制混凝土的开裂,并对计算值与试验值进行比较,证明这种理论计算式是可行的。%In order to study the bending capacity of concrete-partial-filled narrow-width steel box composite beams in negative moment regions, and the stud spacing well as the different reinforce-ment amount used to the composite beam negative moment region concrete slab the crack resistance, crack development and the width influence, three beams flexure behaviors under negative moments have been tested. A formula for calculating crack-moment relationship was established in considera-tion of the influence of concrete shrinkage stress, comparing the calculation and test results are simi-lar. Result showed, the internal force redistributes in the continuous composite beams negative mo-ment regions due to concrete cracking when the load is very small,and the crack space is influenced by the stirrup space;The factors such as connection-degree and reinforcement amount would affect the continuous composite beams crack develop and width. Appropriate increase reinforcement amount can decrease the negative moment region of the composite beams

  2. The maximum bending moment resistance of plate girders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abspoel, R.

    2014-01-01

    In many steel structures like buildings, industrial halls and bridges, standard hot-rolled sections like IPE, HEA, HEB, HEM, HED and UNP in Europe and similar profiles in other regions of the world are used. The range of hot-rolled sections is limited and therefore fabricated plate girders are used

  3. The maximum bending moment resistance of plate girders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abspoel, R.

    2014-01-01

    In many steel structures like buildings, industrial halls and bridges, standard hot-rolled sections like IPE, HEA, HEB, HEM, HED and UNP in Europe and similar profiles in other regions of the world are used. The range of hot-rolled sections is limited and therefore fabricated plate girders are used

  4. Suspension Bridge Flutter for Girder with Separate Control Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, T.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Active vibration control of long span suspension bridge flutter using separated control flaps (SFSC) has shown to increase effectively the critical wind speed of bridges. In this paper, an SFSC calculation based on modal equations of the vertical and torsional motions of the bridge girder including...

  5. Preliminary study to facilitate smart structure systems in bridge girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Thomas C.; Peterson, Danford O.; Rossi, Peter J.; Ray, Laura R.; Livingston, Richard A.

    1999-05-01

    Sensors are currently available and used to monitor structural performance and loads incurred by bridges already in service. However, there has been limited research concerning the stresses that steel bridge girders endure during transport from the manufacturer to the job site and during the installation process. This paper reports the measured stresses on steel bridge girders during transportation from Lancaster, PA to Hanover, NH and during construction of the Ledyard Bridge on the New Hampshire - Vermont border. Two different monitoring system were developed for this data acquisition in a mobile environment. The first, a fiber optic strain monitoring system, utilizing Bragg grating technology. The second utilized an electrical- resistive foil strain gage network, in conjunction with wireless telemetry equipment. Together, these two systems formed a smart structure system for monitoring bridge girders while confirming the accuracy of data gathered through redundancy. Result conclusively demonstrated for the first time, that stresses in beams during transportation are significant and approach the factor of safety margin in girder design.

  6. Virtual box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  7. How Concrete is Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, ‘manipulatives’, in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own, abstract, knowledge; in the latter, we try to find an example that the others will be familiar with. This article first looks at the tension between these tw...

  8. How Concrete is Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeno Gravemeijer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, ‘manipulatives’, in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own, abstract, knowledge; in the latter, we try to find an example that the others will be familiar with. This article first looks at the tension between these two different ways of making things concrete. Next another role of manipulatives, will be discussed, namely that of means for scaffolding and communication. In this role, manipulatives may function as means of support in a process that aims at helping students to build on their own thinking while constructing more sophisticated mathematics

  9. Life-Cycle Management Strategy on Steel Girders in Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin K. L. So

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major problems affecting the service life of bridges are related to various factors such as fatigue-sensitive details, increased service loads, corrosion deterioration, and the lack of proper maintenance. Among them, corrosion deterioration and fatigue damages of structures particularly to steel girder bridges are the most common ones. Bridges of different structural forms, at different locations or under different climates, may suffer from various degrees of deterioration. Steel girders at different positions of a bridge may also suffer from different degrees of damage. How to effectively maintain the bridge asset at a minimal cost and how to predict the time for future works are crucial, particularly when government funding sources become stretched. A comprehensive bridge management framework assisting stakeholders to appropriately and reasonably prioritize their future maintenance-related works in their bridge stocks, such that stakeholders can better allocate the limited resources, is utmost concerned. This paper proposes an integrated life-cycle management (LCM strategy on steel girders in bridges in which corrosion deterioration and fatigue damage prediction models are mapped with girders’ performance conditions. A practical example to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed LCM strategy is also illustrated.

  10. Tests and FEA of continuous concrete-partial-filled steel box beams%部分充填混凝土钢箱连续梁试验及有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 莫时旭; 陈永健; 陈丕钰; 卫士杰

    2015-01-01

    通过2个两跨部分充填混凝土钢箱连续梁和1个钢箱连续梁模型在两个集中力作用下的试验,研究其变形发展及破坏过程。试验结果表明,部分充填混凝土钢箱连续梁模型与钢箱连续梁模型相比,弹性承载能力提高45%,极限承载力提高90%,延性增大8倍。利用ANSYS对部分充填混凝土钢箱连续梁受力行为进行了非线性有限元分析,分析结果与试验实测结果吻合良好,验证了计算模型的有效性,利用有限元模型参数分析表明增大受拉区翼板厚度对承载力效果最优。%In the tests of 2 two-span continuous concrete partially filled steel box beams (CCPFSBB) and a two-span continuous steel box beam (CSBB) subjected two forces, the deformation and failure pattern of the beams were studied.The results showed that the elastic loading capacity and ultimate loading capacity of CCPFSBB model were 45%and 90%larger than those of CSBB model respectively, and the ductility also increased about 8 times.Non-linear FEA of the mechanical behavior of the CCPFSBB was conducted with ANSYS.The an-alytic results agreed with the test results, and the analytic FEM model was verified.The par-ametric analysis was carried out using the FEA model.The results showed that the optimal effect on improving the capacity was increasing the flange plate thickness.

  11. 混凝土桥梁事故成因分析及加固策略%Causes of concrete bridge accidents and bridge reinforcement strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军军

    2014-01-01

    通过回顾过去几年发生的一些影响较大的钢筋混凝土梁桥事故,分析了这些事故的原因,最后阐述了对钢筋混凝土梁桥进行加固所常用的一些方法。%By reviewing some of the reinforced concrete girder bridge accidents which have significant impact in the past few years, analyzes the causes of these accidents , and finally expounds the reinforcement of reinforced concrete girder bridge with the commonly used methods .

  12. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  13. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  14. Grey Relational Analysis on Influential Factors of Shear Bearing Capacity of RPC (Reactive Powder Concrete) Girder with High Strength Steel Bars%高强钢筋RPC梁抗剪承载力影响因素灰色关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金凌志; 陈璇

    2016-01-01

    为了研究剪跨比、配箍率、钢纤维体积掺量、纵筋率等因素对高强钢筋活性粉末混凝土(Reactivate Powder Concrete,RPC)梁抗剪承载力的影响,对4组11根高强钢筋RPC梁进行结构试验,并利用灰色关联理论进行关联度分析.结果表明:高强钢筋RPC梁的抗剪承载力随配箍率、钢纤维体积掺量和纵筋率的增大而增大,随剪跨比的增大而减小;根据计算所得的灰色关联度数值可知,4种因素对高强钢筋RPC梁的影响程度排序为纵筋率<剪跨比<钢纤维体积掺量<配箍率.

  15. Tea boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Tea Boxing Blow is a term in boxing for a punch that makes contact, and suggests a fist has landed on an opponent to bring the applier closer to victory. Boxing is a tense and often exhilarating experience: the punch, the tension of anticipation, the adrenalin from delivering and receiving, the bell dinging, the ring, and the bay of the crowd. Occasionally however, the blow of the punch does not make contact. It becomes an impossible proposition, a never to be seen, an experience left to ...

  16. 预应力混凝土梁反拱度试验和分析%PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ENGINEERING BEAM TEST AND ANALYSIS OF THE ARC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋丹; 吴桐; 宋金良; 韩永强

    2012-01-01

    Prestressed concrete beam due to strength of prestressed eccentric existence, will produce a different from common of the reinforced concrete beam up deflection , that is elastic anti-camber. In addition, after prestressing the strand, concrete beam will continue to produce an upward deflection under the creep, that is creep of the anti-camber. This article to the Fu Xing Pao bridge registered for the engineering background, to research precast prestressed concrete box girder elastic anti-camber and creep anti-camber. And use MIDAS/Civil to establish finite element model, compare the statistics of elastic anti-camber data with simulated data, and the calculated value of this creep coefficient of actual engineering modified computing type.%预应力混凝土梁由于偏心预加力的存在,梁体将产生向上的挠度,即弹性反拱度.另外,张拉预应力束后在徐变作用下梁会继续产生上挠,即徐变反拱度[1].本文以复兴泡大桥为工程背景,对预制预应力混凝土箱梁的弹性反拱度和徐变反拱度进行研究.并建立梁体的MIDAS/Civil模型,将实测反拱值与模型模拟值进行对比分析,并对徐变系数的计算式进行修正.

  17. Structural Precast Concrete Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly....

  18. Effects of vertical girder realignment in the Argonne APS storage ring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessner, E.

    1999-04-14

    The effects of vertical girder misalignments on the vertical orbit of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are studied. Partial sector-realignment is prioritized in terms of the closed-orbit distortions due to misalignments of the corresponding girders in the sectors. A virtual girder-displacement (VGD) method is developed that allows the effects of a girder realignment to be tested prior to physically moving the girder. The method can also be used to anticipate the corrector strengths needed to restore the beam orbit after a realignment. Simulation results are compared to experimental results and found to reproduce the latter quite closely. Predicted corrector strengths are also found to be close to the actual local corrector strengths after a proof-of-principle two-sector realignment was performed.

  19. Buffeting Response of Suspension Bridge Girder with Separate Control Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Truc; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    This paper presents the calculation of the root mean square (RMS) response of a suspension bridge using separate control flaps (SCF) in turbulence conditions. It is assumed that the mean wind velocity is not large enough to cause coupled vibrations and that single mode buffeting response...... is of interest. The RMS response is determined on the basis of the equation of motion, which is formulated stochastically according to the wind random turbulence components. It is further assumed that the sum of the motion-induced forces and the buffeting-induced forces from the girder and the flaps is computed...

  20. On the Influence of Hull Girder Flexibility on the Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2012-01-01

    Numerical predictions and model test results of the wave induced bending moments in a 9,400 TEU post-Panamax container vessel are presented for two regular wave scenarios. Different numerical procedures have been applied: a linear and non-linear time-domain strip theory and a direct calculation (...... (CFD) solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the free surface captured by a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. In all procedures the flexibility of the hull girder is modelled as a non-uniform Timoshenko beam. It is observed that the non-linear models agree well with the model tests...

  1. Pervious Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pervious concrete is a type of concrete with little or no fines which give a large void. This enables high permeability and because of this it enables water to percolate through the concrete. Pervious concrete have been used in many years both as pavement material and on several other applications in the U.S and in other countries in Western Europe. In Norway pervious concrete is not currently in use. This thesis aims to investigate if pervious concrete can withstand the harsh Norwegian clima...

  2. Mechanical properties of high-strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Alireza

    This report summarizes an experimental program conducted to investigate production techniques and mechanical properties of high strength concrete in general and to provide recommendations for using these concretes in manufacturing precast/prestressed bridge girders. Test variables included total amount and composition of cementitious material (portland cement, fly ash, and silica fume), type and brand of cement, type of silica fume (dry densified and slurry), type and brand of high-range water-reducing admixture, type of aggregate, aggregate gradation, maximum aggregate size, and curing. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of these variables on changes in compressive strength and modulus of elasticity over time, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, creep, shrinkage, and absorption potential (as an indirect indicator of permeability). Also investigated were the effects of test parameters such as mold size, mold material, and end condition. Over 6,300 specimens were cast from approximately 140 mixes over a period of 3 years.

  3. 高强混凝土指数型收缩徐变预测模型及工程应用%Prediction Model of Index Type Shrinkage and Creep for High-Strength Concrete and Its Engineering Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯敏勇; 刘海祥; 陈灿明; 陈松

    2011-01-01

    收缩徐变是导致大跨度预应力混凝土箱梁桥长期变形的重要因素,现有桥梁长期变形分析中通常采用CEB-FIP 90模型,计算结果会出现较大偏差.为减小预应力混凝土箱梁桥长期变形的计算误差,以某三跨预应力混凝土连续箱梁桥为背景,对该桥相同配比的高强混凝土进行了标准徐变试验,将实测数据拟合得到指数型收缩徐变模型,并根据该桥混凝土构件实际尺寸效应、湿度效应、钢筋配筋率和持荷年限对徐变系数进行修正.由此计算得到该桥的长期变形与实测数据吻合较好,验证了指数型收缩徐变模型比现有徐变模型具有更高的预测精度.%The shrinkage and creep is an important factor causing long-term deformation of long span prestressed concrete (PC) box girder bridges. In the current analysis of the long-term deformation of the bridges, the CEB-FIP 90 model is usually employed and the errors of calculation by the model are great. To minimize the errors of the calculation, a three-span PC continuous box girder bridge was cited as an example and the standard creep tests for the high-strength concrete having the same mix proportioning with that of the bridge were made. The measurement data were fitted, the index type shrinkage and creep model was obtained and the creep coefficients were modified in accordance with the actual dimension effect, humidity effect, reinforcement ratios and load holding years of concrete components of the bridge. The long-term deformation of the bridge calculated in accordance with the model is well agreeable with the measured deformation, verifying that the model has even higher prediction precision as compared to that of other existing shrinkage and creep models.

  4. Design of bridge crane girder strain acquisition system based on virtual instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue LIU

    Full Text Available Girder is an important part of the bridge crane, which is also the main force element. In order to prevent accidents, it is necessary to collect the bridge crane girder stress data to analyse the fatigue life. This paper constructs a bridge crane girder strain acquisition system. The hardware system consists of sensors, connectors, data acquisition cards, wireless data transmission groups, POE power and host computer. The software system consists of NI MAX to interface with the computer's NI hardware and software resources,and LabVIEW programming to display and storage the girder strain data. Through this system, positions and working days strain data acquisition for the 50/10 t bridge crane girder gets the key positions strain data. The results show that the girder strain data acquisition system runs stably, channel signals of acquisition task transmit accurately, and the terminal data stores competely, meeting the detection requirements, which provides an important data support for the subsequent fatigue analysis and accurate remaining service life prediction of the crane girder.

  5. Structural Precast Concrete Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly.......Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly....

  6. Full Space Bowl Shaped Support Scheme Design of Super-Large Bridge's Prestressed Concrete Continuous Box Girder%特大桥预应力混凝土连续箱梁满堂式碗口支架方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志明

    2013-01-01

    混凝土连续箱梁施工中,支架为桥梁上部提供了施工平台,同时也是重要的支撑体系,其安全性必须得到充分保证.依据设计图纸和现场实际情况,设计了满堂式碗口支架的方案,并对方案进行了验算.

  7. Glazed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Why glazed concrete? Concrete hardens and finds its strength at room temperature whereas clay products must first be fired before they achieve this strength. They are stronger and three times as durable as clay products, which is a weighty reason for choosing concrete.5 Another reason, which....... If this succeeds, it will be possible to manufacture thin, large-scale glazed concrete panels comparable in size to concrete sandwich construction and larger which, with or without back-casting, can work as load-bearing construction elements....

  8. Glazed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Why glazed concrete? Concrete hardens and finds its strength at room temperature whereas clay products must first be fired before they achieve this strength. They are stronger and three times as durable as clay products, which is a weighty reason for choosing concrete.5 Another reason, which....... If this succeeds, it will be possible to manufacture thin, large-scale glazed concrete panels comparable in size to concrete sandwich construction and larger which, with or without back-casting, can work as load-bearing construction elements....

  9. 港珠澳大桥非通航孔85 m连续组合梁桥施工关键技术%Key Construction Techniques for 85 m Non-navigational Channel Con-tinuous Composite Girder Bridge of Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘军

    2016-01-01

    into four modulus ,each being individually bonded ,then as‐sembled to a whole ,afterwards ,the automatic retractable formwork is used to cast concrete .The crack control technique and corrosion protection measures are used .The prefabricated components of the monolithic pile cap and bottom pier lift are transported by the Crane Little Swan ,then hois‐ted and lowered into the interlocked suspension steel box cofferdam ,and precisely positioned and installed by the three‐directional adjusting devices on pier tops .T he steel structure of the compos‐ite girder was firstly fabricated to plate units in the workshop ,then floated to the prefabrication yard in Zhongshan to be assembled span by span .The concrete slabs are longitudinally divided into blocks and transversely prefabricated as a w hole ,w hen the steel structures and concrete slabs are combined to form a composite girder ,the Crane Tianyi ,a ship capable of lifting and erecting gird‐ers ,is used to lift the girders section by section .

  10. Asymptotic Symmetries from finite boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a "box." This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the Anti-de Sitter and Poincar\\'e asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2+1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS$_3$ and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  11. Concrete Hinges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the 20th century concrete hinges developed by Freyssinet and Mesnager were widely tested and implemented in concrete structures. The concrete hinges were used a great deal in closed-spandrel arch bridges. Since such a bridge type has not been competitive for the past 40 years......, the research in concrete hinges has not evolved significantly in that period. But introducing a new state-of-the-art concrete arch bridge solution (Pearl-Chain arches invented at the Technical University of Denmark) creates a necessity of a concrete hinge research based on modern standards. Back when research...... in concrete hinges was more common different designs were proposed for the geometry and reinforcement. Previous research focused on fatigue, multi-axial stresses around the hinge throat, and the relation between rotation- and moment. But many different test-setups were proposed by different researchers...

  12. Concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Setareh, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    This revised, fully updated second edition covers the analysis, design, and construction of reinforced concrete structures from a real-world perspective. It examines different reinforced concrete elements such as slabs, beams, columns, foundations, basement and retaining walls and pre-stressed concrete incorporating the most up-to-date edition of the American Concrete Institute Code (ACI 318-14) requirements for the design of concrete structures. It includes a chapter on metric system in reinforced concrete design and construction. A new chapter on the design of formworks has been added which is of great value to students in the construction engineering programs along with practicing engineers and architects. This second edition also includes a new appendix with color images illustrating various concrete construction practices, and well-designed buildings. The ACI 318-14 constitutes the most extensive reorganization of the code in the past 40 years. References to the various sections of the ACI 318-14 are pro...

  13. Research on the stiffening girder erection sequence of three-tower suspension bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Runqing; Luo Xiheng

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the conventional two-tower suspension bridge, the three-tower suspension bridge has obviously different characteristics in structural performance because of the extra middle tower and main span. The construction sequence for the stiffening girder is significantly different between the three-tower suspension bridge and the two-tower suspension bridge. The tangential angle of the main cable is one of the controlling factors of the stiffening girder erection stage for a suspension bridge. According to 5 feasible cases for the stiffening girder erection scheme in Taizhou Bridge, the research about the tangential angle in each case mentioned above was made, and some factors that should be taken into account for the erection scheme of stiffening girder were pointed out.

  14. 大跨度连续下承式钢箱拱桥设计%Design of Long-Span Continuous Through Type Steel Box Arch Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国普; 李斐然

    2016-01-01

    为满足桥梁的景观和功能要求,小浪底坝后保护区交通桥上部结构采用(95+152+95) m三跨连续下承式钢箱拱结构。主梁为预应力混凝土π形梁,采用钢管桩+贝雷梁法施工。拱肋为钢箱提篮拱,结构用钢采用Q345D钢板,先工厂预制再现场焊接成型。吊索采用7根φ15.2环氧喷涂无粘结钢绞线,缠包后热挤HDPE ,抗拉强度标准值1860 M Pa。下部结构采用柱式台、倒V形实体薄壁墩、高桩承台、钻孔灌注桩基础。采用非线性程序TDV进行计算分析,结果表明,该桥的强度、刚度和稳定性以及抗震性能均满足规范要求。%To meet the landscape and function requirements proposed , the transportation bridge in the conservation area behind the Xiaolangdi Dam adopts a three‐span continuous through type steel box arch bridge structure with span arrangement of (95+152+95) m .The main girder is the prestressed concrete π‐shaped girder ,constructed by the combined use of steel tube piles and bailey truss .T he arch ribs are the steel box basket handle arches .T he predominant material used for the structure is the Q345D steel plate ,and all the components are prefabricated in the factory and transported to the bridge site for welding to take shape .Each hanger consists of 7φ15 .2 epoxy non‐binding steel strands ,extruded with HDPE after wrapping .The hanger has a standard tensile strength of 1 860 MPa .The substructure of the bridge incorporates column‐type abutments ,in‐versed V‐shaped solid thin‐wall piers ,high‐rise pile caps and bored piles .The non‐linear program TDV was used to do calculation .The results of the calculation demonstrate that the strength ,ri‐gidity ,reliability and anti‐seismic performance of the bridge all meet the code requirements .

  15. Einstein's Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Norsen, T

    2005-01-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the thought experiment was picked up and modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. In this paper we collect together several formulations of this thought experiment from the existing literature; analyze and assess it from the point of view of the Einstein-Bohr debates, the EPR dilemma, and Bell's theorem; and generally lobby for Einstein's Boxes taking its rightful place alongside similar but historically better-known quantum mechanical thought experiments such as EPR and Schroedinger's Cat.

  16. Fatigue crack detection in a plate girder using Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Peng

    2007-04-01

    We report on the application of wafer-type PZT transducers to the detection of flaws in steel plate girders. In these experiments one transducer is used to emit a pulse and the second receives the pulse and reflections from nearby boundaries, flaws, or discontinuities (pitch-catch mode). In this application there will typically be numerous reflections observed in the undamaged structure. A major challenge is to recognize new reflections caused by fatigue cracks in the presence of these background reflections. A laboratory specimen plate girder was fabricated at approximately half scale, 910 mm deep with an h/t ratio of 280 for the web and a b/t ratio of 16 for the flanges, and with transverse stiffeners fabricated with a web gap at the tension flange. Two wafer-type transducers were mounted on the web approximately 175 mm from the crack location, one on each side of the stiffener. The transducers were operated in pitch-catch mode, excited by a windowed sinusoid to create a narrowband transient excitation. The transducer location relative to the crack corresponded to a total included angle of roughly 30 degrees in the path reflecting from the crack. Cyclic loading was applied to develop a distortion-induced fatigue crack in the web at the web gap location. After appearance of the crack, ultrasonic measurements were performed at a range of center frequencies below the cutoff frequency of the A1 Lamb wave mode. Subsequently the crack was extended mechanically to simulate crack growth under primary longitudinal (bending) stress and the measurements were repeated. Direct differencing of the signals showed arrivals at times corresponding to reflection from the crack location, growing in amplitude as the crack was lengthened mechanically. These results demonstrate the utility of Lamb waves for crack detection even in the presence of numerous background reflections.

  17. Fiber optic Bragg grating sensor network installed in a concrete road bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaskant, Robert; Alavie, A. Tino; Measures, Raymond M.; Ohn, Myo M.; Karr, Shawn E.; Glennie, Derek J.; Wade, C.; Tadros, Gamil; Rizkalla, Sami

    1994-05-01

    The installation of a fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor network in a new road bridge is described. These sensors are attached to prestressing tendons embedded in prefabricated concrete girders. Three types of prestressing tendons are being monitored: conventional steel strand and two types of carbon fibers reinforced plastic tendons. Sensor durability issues are reviewed and the installation is described. Initial measurements indicate that the sensors are operational and provide some early comparison of tendon performance.

  18. Design of Concrete Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge of Wusong Bridge in Jilin City%吉林市雾凇大桥混凝土自锚式悬索桥设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 唐贺强; 宁伯伟

    2011-01-01

    The main bridge of the Wusong Bridge in Jilin City is a 5-span continuous concrete self-anchored suspension bridge with span arrangement (35+68+150+68+35) m. A summarized account of the design and calculation of the main bridge is presented herewith. On the bridge, the transverse and vertical bearings and the longitudinal dampers are arranged in between the stiffening girder and towers. The girder is of a concrete 3-cell single box section, the depth of a typical segment of the girder is 2.5 m and towards the anchorage sections at the side spans, the segments of the girder gradually change into a depth of 6.5 m. A tower of the bridge is a concrete portal frame structure that is 54 m in height and the tower columns and the cross beams on the towers are all of rectangular hollow sections. Beneath a tower pier are the pile caps of separation type and each pile cap is supported by 9 nos. of Φ2.0 m bored piles. The main cables are respectively made up of Φ5.1 mm galvanized high strength steel wires and the hanger cables are of Φ7.0 mm low relaxation galvanized high strength parallel steel wires. In the design, the finite element software MIDAS Civil 2006, the nonlinear analysis software BNLAS for suspension bridge and the plane program SCDS are employed to calculate and analyze the bridge. The results of the calculation and analysis indicate that all checking calculation made for the bridge can conform to the relevant requirements in the codes.%吉林市雾凇大桥主桥为(35+68+150+68+35)m五跨连续混凝土自锚式悬索桥,综述该桥主桥设计与计算.该桥塔梁间设置横、竖向支座和纵向阻尼器;加劲梁采用单箱三室混凝土截面,标准段梁高2.5 m,在边跨锚固段渐变至6.5 m;桥塔采用门形框架混凝土结构,高54 m,塔身及横梁均采用矩形空心截面;桥塔墩下部采用分离式承台,单个承台布置9根φ2.0 m钻孔灌注桩;主缆采用φ5.1 mm镀锌高强钢丝,吊索采用φ7.0 mm低松弛镀锌高强

  19. NANOMODIFIED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main directions in construction material science is the development of  next generation concrete that is ultra-dense, high-strength, ultra-porous, high heat efficient, extra corrosion-resistant. Selection of such direction is caused by extreme operational impacts on the concrete, namely: continuously increasing load on the concrete and various dynamics of such loads; the necessity in operation of concrete products in a wide temperature range and their exposure to various chemical and physical effects.The next generation concrete represents high-tech concrete mixtures with additives that takes on and retain the required properties when hardening and being used under any operational conditions. A differential characteristic of the next generation concrete is its complexity that presumes usage of various mineral dispersed components, two- and three fractional fine and coarse aggregates, complex chemical additives, combinations of polymer and iron reinforcement.Design strength and performance properties level of the next generation concrete is achieved by high-quality selection of the composition, proper selection of manufacturing techniques, concrete curing, bringing the quality of concrete items to the required level of technical condition during the operational phase. However, directed formation of its structure is necessary in order to obtain high-tech concrete.Along with the traditional methods for regulation of the next generation concrete structure, modification of concrete while using silica nanoparticles is also considered as a perspective one because the concrete patterning occurs due to introduction of a binder in a mineral matrix. Due to this it is possible to obtain nano-modified materials with completely new properties.The main problem with the creation of nano-modified concrete is a uniform distribution of nano-materials in the volume of the cement matrix which is particularly important in the cases of adding a modifier in

  20. Strengthening Effect Analysis of RC T-Sectional Girders Strengthened with CFRP Sheets%CFRP布加固钢筋混凝土T梁效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何广宝

    2014-01-01

    Because of many advantage, such as f being light, high strength and corrosion resistance,car-bon fiber reinforced polymer is widely used in old bridge reinforcement. However, the study on theoretical analysis and numerical simulation is relatively delayed due to its complex mechanical properties com-pared common reinforced concrete girders. The finite element software ANSYS is used to establish an nu-merical simulation model of RC T-sectional girders strengthened with CFRP sheets in the article. The problem of convergence of nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is solved in the numerical simulation analysis. The midspan deflection and maximum stress of T-sectional girder after reinforcement reduce by 11.6% and 20.7% respectively compared to initial girder, but the ultimate capacity increases by 52%, which demonstrates that CFRP sheets can improve the mechanical performance of RC beams.%碳纤维复合材料具有轻质、高强以及耐腐蚀等优点,在旧桥加固工程中得到广泛应用,但由于其力学性能和破坏模式比普通钢筋混凝土梁复杂,在理论和数值分析方面的研究相对滞后。依托某T型钢筋混凝土桥梁加固实例,运用ANSYS有限元软件建立模型进行分析,解决了CFRP布加固构件非线性数值求解难以收敛的问题。加固后T型梁的跨中挠度和最大应力相比于加固前分别下降了10.4%和17.1%了,然而极限承载力提升了52%,这表明CFRP布加固可以很好地改善钢筋混凝土梁的受力性能。

  1. FATIGUE DAMAGE MECHANISM AND ITS APPLICATION BASED ON FULL-SCALE ANALYSIS OF STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE SLAB SUBJECTED TO REPETITION OF TRAFFIC

    OpenAIRE

    OGIYAMA, Yotaro; FUJIYAMA, Chikako; TAKASUKA, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the fatigue damage process of a plate girder bridgesupporting a steel-concrete composite slab, and to propose a method for maintenance of the composite slab.To analyze a full-scale bridge subjected to heavy traffic, three-dimensional non-linear FE analyses andloading rates based on an actual bridge are used.The full-scale bridge model is a 2-lane road bridge with 30 m span length and 10.55 m width, consistingof main girders with vertical stiffeners, cro...

  2. 平大桥钢—混凝土结合段模型试验%Model Test of Steel and Concrete Joint Section of Dongping Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占玉林; 赵人达; 毛学明; 董碧霞

    2011-01-01

    To study the whole process mechanical behavior of steel and concrete joint sections, in accordance with the actual Dongping Bridge and on the principle of equivalence, the model test of a steel and concrete joint section was designed and carried out. The scale of the model is 1:2. 5. The part of the concrete girder rib is the T-shape section and the transition at the joint section is the concrete-filled steel box cross beam. At the connection interface of the steel and concrete, the PBL shear connectors were used and the longitudinal prestressing tendons were arranged as well to join in the action of the shear connectors. In the model test, three stages of the static load, fatigue load and failure load were applied. The results of the test indicate that under the designed load, the joint section has good strength and rigidity and the stress levels are low. Under the fatigue load, microcracks appear in the surface of the concrete of the joint section, however, the global rigidity of the structure is still all right and relatively to the designed load, the failure load has rather high safety margin.%为研究钢-混凝土结合段全过程受力性能,结合东平大桥实桥,根据等效原则设计并完成了一榀钢-混凝土结合段模型试验.模型比例采用1∶2.5,混凝土梁肋部分为T形截面,结合段采用钢箱混凝土横梁过渡.钢与混凝土粘结界面采用PBL剪力连接件构造,并辅以纵向预应力筋共同作用.试验过程进行了静力、疲劳和破坏3个阶段的加载.试验结果表明:设计荷载作用下,结合段具有良好的强度和刚度,应力水平较低;疲劳荷载作用下,结合段的混凝土表层会有微小裂纹出现,但结构整体刚度依然良好;破坏荷载相对于设计荷载具有较高的安全储备.

  3. 钢主梁拱桥组合桥面系力学性能分析%MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE DECK FLOOR OF ARCH BRIDGE WITH STEEL GIRDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏庆田; 李杰; 董冰

    2012-01-01

    钢-混凝土组合结构桥面系近几年开始在拱桥结构中使用,拱桥中组合桥面系受力复杂,其力学性能受钢与混凝土是否连接、是否张拉系杆以及混凝土的浇注顺序等影响.该文采用空间有限元模型,开展了钢主梁拱桥组合桥面系的力学性能研究.研究表明:在钢主梁拱桥结构中混凝土桥面板与钢主梁是否结合对桥面系的整体受力影响甚微,只对桥面系局部位置的混凝土桥面板应力分布有所影响;拱桥中是否安装系杆对桥面系的受力影响较大,而且桥面系的受力与系杆张拉力有密切关系;对于组合桥面系的拱桥采用一次浇筑混凝土桥面板施工方法的桥面系受力要明显优于采用分段浇筑混凝土桥面板的方法.%A steel-concrete composite deck has been used in acrh bridges recently. The mechanism of a composite deck is complex, and was affected by the factors of setting connections between concrete decks and steel girder or not, setting tied bars or not, different deck concrete casting sequences etc. In this paper, mechanical behaviors of a composite deck floor of an arch bridge with steel girders are analyzed by a spatial finite element model. The research results show that whether setting connections between concrete decks and a steel girder or not slightly affects the total mechanical behavior of a deck floor but influents the local stress of the deck; whether setting tied bar affects the deck floor mechanical property greatly and the deck floor stress depends on the tension force of tied bars heavily; as to arch bridge with a composite deck floor, the mechanical behavior of deck floors with casting deck concrete by one time is superior to that of deck floors with casting deck concrete by several times.

  4. 客货共线1-156m简支钢桁结构分析%Structural analysis of 156 m simply supported steel truss girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝云杉

    2012-01-01

    The simply supported steel truss girder is widely used in railway bridge, because of definite stress, lower structural height, light weight and short construction period. Huanglin Hancheng Houma railway 156 m simply supported steel truss girder is the most span length in China. The bridge uses the triangle web member system without vertical members, which main truss members are box sections, the web members are box sections and H-shape sections. In the plane of the upper chords, the crisscross top lateral bracings are arranged which use I-shape sections. MIDAS Civil 2010 is use to establish the three-dimensional finite element model, calculate internal forces of main truss elements, stress, fatigue stress range and natural vibration period.%简支钢桁梁桥因其受力明确、结构高度低、自重轻以及施工周期短等优点,在铁路桥梁中得到了越来越广泛的采用.黄韩侯铁路单线l-156m栓焊下承式简支钢桁梁是目前国内最大跨度的简支钢桁梁结构.该桥主桁采用无竖杆的三角形腹杆体系,主桁弦杆均采用箱形截面;腹杆采用箱形截面和H形截面;上、下均采用交叉式平纵联,采用工字型截面.采用MIDAS Civil 2010建立该桥三维有限元模型,计算其主桁杆件内力、应力、疲劳应力幅,及全桥自振周期.

  5. Photocatalyticpaving concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Today bituminous concrete is a conventional paving material. Among its advantages one can name dustlessness and noiselessness, fine wear (up to 1 mm a year) and fine maintainability. As the main disadvantages of this material one can name high slipperiness under humidification, low durability and weather resistance. Besides that, during placement of the bituminous concrete a lot of different air pollutants are emitted, which are harmful for environment and human’s health (they are listed in t...

  6. Photocatalyticpaving concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapidevskaya Ol'ga Borisovna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Today bituminous concrete is a conventional paving material. Among its advantages one can name dustlessness and noiselessness, fine wear (up to 1 mm a year and fine maintainability. As the main disadvantages of this material one can name high slipperiness under humidification, low durability and weather resistance. Besides that, during placement of the bituminous concrete a lot of different air pollutants are emitted, which are harmful for environment and human’s health (they are listed in the paper according to the US Environmental Protection Agency materials. As an alternative, one can use cement-concrete pavement, which is in many ways more efficient than the bituminous concrete. It is proposed to enhance environmental performance of the cement-concrete pavement via usage of photocatalysis. The mechanism of different photocatalytic reactions is described in the paper, namely heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysis, photo-induces, photoactivated catalysis and catalytical photoreactions. It is pro-posed to use heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst. The mechanism of photo oxidation of air contaminants, with the usage of titanium dioxide is2described. The paper sets problems, connected with the sensibilization of TiOto thevisible light (it is proposed to use titanium dioxide, doped with the atoms of certain elements to increase its sensibility to the visible light and with the development of a new photocatalytic paving concrete, which will meet the requirements, specified for paving in the climatic and traffic conditions of the Russian Federation.

  7. 咸阳地区夏季混凝土刚构桥温度梯度分析%Concrete Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge Temperature Gradient Analysis of Xianyang Area in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯旋; 高大峰; 董旭; 路军

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain the reasonable concrete beam bridge temperature gradient in Xian-yang area,this article established the ANSYS model based on the classical thermodynamics theory via 24hours temperature monitoring of the concrete box girder against the background of Extra-large Bridge on XianXun Highway across the Sanshui River,calculating the theoretical thermal field at the most unfavor-able moment of the bridge in summer(15 o’clock)by means of transient thermal analysis,the value of which was compared with the measured temperature value so as to get the suitable summer concrete beam bridge temperature field distribution;finally,it can be seen that the temperature gradient is rather reasona-ble through comparison between the domestic and foreign highway code.%为了得出咸阳地区合理的混凝土箱梁温度梯度,本文以咸旬高速三水河特大桥为背景,通过对混凝土箱梁进行24 h 温度监控,基于经典热力学理论,建立 ANSYS 模型,采用瞬态热分析,求出该桥梁夏季最不利时刻(15时)的理论的温度场;并用实测温度值与求得的理论温度值比较,得出适合该地区的夏季混凝土箱梁温度场分布图;最后对比国内外公路规范,可知该温度梯度较为合理。

  8. Self-Placing Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Certain concrete pours have areas where the congestion of reinforcing bars make placement of concrete almost impossible. Using conventional placing and vibration techniques, the resulting concrete can have considerable honeycombing due to the development of voids. Self-placing concrete is a possible solution to the problem. Also known as self-compactable concrete, self-consolidating concrete, flowable concrete, and non-vibration concrete. These concretes eliminate the need for vibration in a ...

  9. Closure technique for the hybrid girder cable stayed bridge of Edong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Minghu; Tan Hao; Xu GuoPing; Zhao Canhui

    2012-01-01

    Based on Edong Yangtze River Bridge, which is the second longest hybrid girder cable stayed bridge with 926 m long main span, the influencing factors and crucial techniques of the main span closure method for long span hybrid girder cable stayed bridge are studied. After theoretical analysis, numerical evaluation and practical test, the loading assistant closure method is employed in Edong Yangtze River Bridge. The loading assistant closure method, with better thermal adaptability and less influence on bridge line and the forced status, can meet the requirements of the unstressed state control method. Based on the mentioned advantages, the loading assistant closure method is applicable to long span hybrid girder cable stayed bridges. The conclusion can provide a reference for the further design of the similar brid~es.

  10. Damage identification of a large-span concrete cable-stayed bridge based on genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jinsong; XIAO Rucheng

    2007-01-01

    The global stability of a structure, the stiffness of its main girder and concrete tower, and the variation of the forces of its stay cables are key issues to the safety assessment of an in-service cable-stayed bridge. The efficiency and ratio- nality of local elaborate non-damage-identification could be enhanced by the primary damage identification of cable- stayed bridges on the basis of periodic detection of the cable force and strain monitor in key sections of the main girder. The genetic algorithms of damage identification for cable- stayed bridges were investigated in this paper on the basis of the monitor data of the cable force and strain in a key section of the main girder. A damage detection program for complex civil structure was generated to implement the identification of damage location and extent. The deterioration of the struc- ture was calculated according to the variation of monitor data. It is demonstrated that the results of damage identification from the parametric finite element method are accurate. The method had been verified using a long-span concrete cable- stayed bridge in Ningbo, which has been in use for the past four years.

  11. Structural Aspects of Railway Truss Bridges Affecting Transverse Shear Forces in Steel-Concrete Composite Decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekierski, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    At the steel-concrete interface, the horizontal shear forces that are transverse to cross beams occur due to joint action of the steel-concrete composite deck and the truss girders. Numerical analysis showed that values of the forces are big in comparison to the longitudinal shear forces. In both cases extreme force values occur near side edges of a slab. The paper studies possibilities of reduction of these shear forces by structural alterations of the following: rigidity of a concrete slab, arrangement of a wind bracing, arrangement of concrete slab expansion joints. An existing railway truss bridge span has been analysed. Numerical analysis shows that it is possible to reduce the values of shear forces transverse to cross beams. It may reach 20% near the side edges of slabs and 23% in the centre of slab width.

  12. Structural Aspects of Railway Truss Bridges Affecting Transverse Shear Forces in Steel-Concrete Composite Decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekierski Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At the steel-concrete interface, the horizontal shear forces that are transverse to cross beams occur due to joint action of the steel-concrete composite deck and the truss girders. Numerical analysis showed that values of the forces are big in comparison to the longitudinal shear forces. In both cases extreme force values occur near side edges of a slab. The paper studies possibilities of reduction of these shear forces by structural alterations of the following: rigidity of a concrete slab, arrangement of a wind bracing, arrangement of concrete slab expansion joints. An existing railway truss bridge span has been analysed. Numerical analysis shows that it is possible to reduce the values of shear forces transverse to cross beams. It may reach 20% near the side edges of slabs and 23% in the centre of slab width.

  13. 连续梁底板混凝土缺陷检测及治理措施%Detection and Treatment Measures of Concrete Defect in Continuous Beam Floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锡银

    2016-01-01

    预应力混凝土连续箱梁具有结构稳定、外形美观、施工方便等优点,被广泛应用于城市桥梁、互通立交及跨路桥梁建设中。但是,由于受生产技术及管理水平影响,往往在梁体支座及周边产生麻面、空洞等缺陷,如果不及时加以有效治理,极易造成损害。结合向莆铁路连续梁梁底缺陷治理案例,重点讲述缺陷检测及治理措施。%Prestressed concrete continuous box girder has the advantages of stable structure,beautiful appearance,conven-ient construction and so on.It is widely used in the construction of urban bridges,interchange and bridge construction.But due to the influence of the production technology and management level,pits,voids and other defects are produced in the beam of the support body and the surrounding.If the treatments are not effective,the damage would be occurred easily.Accord-ing to Xiangtang-Putian Railway continuous beam bottom defects,the paper focuses on defect detection and control measures.

  14. Historic Concrete: From Concrete Repair to Concrete Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Concrete like materials were already applied during the Roman Empire. After the decline of the Roman Empire, a wide scale application of concrete only reappeared in the 19th century. Here lies also the origin of modern (reinforced) concrete. Since then, both concrete application and composition have

  15. Behaviors of super-long span prestressed cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and UHPC girder%CFRP拉索预应力超高性能混凝土斜拉桥力学性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志; 任亮; 凡凤红

    2012-01-01

    To discuss the applicability of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cables and reactive powder concrete ( RPC) in super-long span cable-stayed bridges, taking a 1 008 m cable-stayed bridge using steel girder and steel cables as example, a cable-stayed bridge with the same span using RPC (reactive powder concrete) as the girder and advanced composite material CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) as the cable was designed, in which the cable cross section was determined by the principles of equivalent cable strength and the beam cross section was determined considering the stiffness, shear capacity and local stability. Based on the method of finite element analysis, the comparative study of these two structures on their static properties, dynamic properties, stability and wind resistance were carried out. The results show that it is feasible for using RPC as the girder and CFRP as the cable so as to form a highly efficient, durable cable-stayed bridge of concrete structure and make its applicable span reach about 1 000 m long.%为了探讨碳纤维复合材料(carbon fiber reinforced polymer,CFRP)和超高性能活性粉末混凝土(reactive powder concrete,RPC)在超大跨度斜拉桥中应用的可行性,以主跨1008m的大跨度钢主梁斜拉桥设计方案为例,采用拉索的等强度原则将原桥钢索替换成CFRP索,考虑截面刚度、截面应力和局部稳定等要求,将原桥钢主梁替换成RPC主梁,拟订了一座等跨度的CFRP拉索、RPC主梁斜拉桥方案.采用有限元法分别对两种方案结构的静力特性、动力特性、稳定性能以及抗风性能等进行了分析与比较.结果表明:从结构受力性能角度而言,采用超高性能混凝土主梁和CFRP拉索构成千米级跨度混凝土斜拉桥的结构体系是可行的.

  16. Maintained ship hull girder ultimate strength reliability considering corrosion and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yong; Cui, W.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    The prupose of this paper is to propose a methodology to assess the time-variant ultimate strength of ship hull girder under the degradations of corrosion and fatigue. The effects of fatigue cracks on the tensile and compressive residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels and unstiffened plate...

  17. 异型钢箱混凝土索塔锚固区空间力学行为研究%Spatial Mechanical Behavior Research of Cable-pylon Anchorage Zone of Steel Box Concrete Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党栋; 贺拴海; 赵煜; 李世安

    2012-01-01

    In order to grasp the force performance and stress distribution of shaped pylon steel anchor box under the action of the cable tension, with a main span of 555 m length of three towers cable-stayed and self-anchored suspension combined system bridge as the engineering background, through the ANSYS APDL command stream parametric programming, the different finite element models of pylon steel anchor box is established by the spatial solid element and shell element, the mechanical properties of cable-pylon anchorage zone were studied under the most unfavorable load combination, considering the stress state and distribution characteristics of steel anchor box under different orthodontic force. The results showed that;under the most unfavorable combination of loads, the stress was concentrated at the position of the anchor plate and pressure plate using the initial strain mode; the calculation results of solid element and shell element were consistent by uniform loading mode, which could reflect the real stress state of steel anchor box, but the shell element corner contact area prone to stress calculation distortion. The results provide the basis for the design and have some design reference value for the design of the same type bridge.%为了掌握异型索塔钢锚箱在索力作用下的受力性能和应力分布,以某主跨555 m 长的三塔斜拉-自锚式悬索组合体系桥为工程背景,通过 ANSYS 中 APDL 命令流参数化编程,分别采用空间实体单元与壳单元建立了不同的索塔钢锚箱有限元模型,对索塔锚固区在最不利荷载组合作用下的受力性能进行了研究,并考虑了在不同加力方式下钢锚箱应力状态和分布特点.结果表明:在最不利荷载组合作用下,采用初应变加力方式,在锚垫板与承压板位置处应力较集中;采用均布力加载方式下,实体单元与壳单元计算结果较为吻合,能真实反映钢锚箱受力状态,但壳单元角点接触部位易出现应

  18. High Performance Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  19. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  20. Concrete spirituality

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on a number of liturgical innovations in the worship of Melodi ya Tshwane, an inner-city congregation of the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA). The focus of the innovations was to implement the understanding of justice in Article 4 of the Confession of Belhar, a confessional standard of the URCSA. The basic contention of the article is that well designed liturgies that facilitate experiences of beauty can nurture a concrete spirituality to mobilise urba...

  1. A Study on Ductility of Prestressed Concrete Pier Based on Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H.; Zhang, Y; Qin, S.

    2016-01-01

    The ductility of prestressed concrete pier is studied based on response surface methodology. Referring to the pervious prestressed concrete pier, based on Box-Behnken design, the ductility of 25 prestressed concrete piers is calculated by numerical method. The relationship between longitudinal reinforcement ratio, shear reinforcement ratio, prestressed tendon quantity, concrete compressive strength and ductility factor is gotten. The influence of the longitudinal reinforcement ratio, the shea...

  2. Air conditioning boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Technical data, layout and function of air conditioning boxes by 6 German producers are described. The boxes cover a volume flow range of 1000 to 100000 m/sup 3//h. All boxes are equipped with heat exchangers, moisturizers, filters, and control elements.

  3. An innovative steel-concrete joint for integral abutment bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Briseghella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integral abutment bridges are becoming rather common, due to the durability problems of bearings and expansion joints. At the same time, among short- and medium-span bridges, multi-beam steel-concrete composite deck with hot-rolled girder is an economical and interesting alternative to traditional pre-stressed concrete solutions. The two concepts can be linked together to design integral steel-concrete composite bridges with the benefits of two typologies. The most critical aspect for these bridges is usually the joints between deck and piers or abutments. In this paper, an innovative beam-to-pier joint is proposed and a theoretical and experimental study is introduced and discussed. The analyzed connection is aimed at combining general ease of construction with a highly simplified assembly procedure and a good transmission of hogging and sagging moment at the supports in continuous beams. For this purpose, the traditional shear studs, used at the interface between steel beam and upper concrete slab, are also used at the ends of steel profiles welded horizontally to the end plates. To better understand the behaviour of this kind of joints and the roles played by different components, three large-scale specimens were tested and an FE model was implemented. The theoretical and experimental results confirmed the potential of the proposed connection for practical applications and indicated the way to improve its structural behaviour.

  4. Quick concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Olaya Beracasa, Santiago Eduardo; Flórez Gutiérrez, Richard Daniel

    2016-01-01

    QUICK CONCRETE es un emprendimiento el cual se planteó como una empresa prestadora de servicios en el sector de la construcción en la ciudad de Ibagué, Colombia. Con ayuda de empresas ya reconocidas a nivel regional como lo son: la distribuidora de materiales y ferretería La Española, A&C y la ladrillera Ladrillos Roma. Se espera impactar en el mercado con un método diferente y un precio competitivo de servicio. El mayor impulso de la construcción puede estar asociado a una mayor demanda de v...

  5. Nonlinear Analysis of External Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Beams with BFRP and CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem K. Hussain

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional strengthening methods for concrete structure (girders, beams, columns…. consuming time and could be an economical, a new modern repair methods using the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP and Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP as a laminate strips or bars,and considered a competitive solution that will increase the life-cycle of repaired structures. This study investigated the strengthen reinforced concrete girder. Nonlinear analysis have been adopted to the models using FEM analysis (ANSYS to simulate the theoretical results compared with experimental results.Using finite element packages, more efficient and better analyses can be made to fully understand the response of individual structural components and their contribution to a structure as a whole.Three type of material are used in this study as an external prestressed wire (steel, CFRP and BFRP. The prestressed beam is modeled as simply supported beam with two concentrated point load. The results showed that all tested strengthening beam increased the load carryingcapacity of the beams depend on prestressing force. Obtained Result was compared for different type of beam.This study also was enlarged to include using CFRP and BFRPbarwhich are light weight and moredurable, lead to ease of handling and maintenance. The research conducted analytical work to evaluate the effectiveness of concrete beams reinforced normally by the use of CFRP and BFRP bars. The results showed a significant gain in the beam’s ultimate capacities using CFRP bars comparing with beam reinforced with BFRP bar and reference beam

  6. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  7. Design and Construction of a 50m Single Span Ultra High Performance Ductile Concrete Composite Road Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voo - Yen Lei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A single span 50m long prestressed road bridge was constructed under Public Works Department in the State of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia contract recently. The bridge was constructed at a small village, Kampung Linsum, crossing a river, Sungai Linggi. To date, this bridge is the Malaysia first and may also be the world longest composite road bridge which made from ultra-high performance ductile concrete (UHPdC. This paper presents the feature of the UHPdC precast girder; brief in-sight of the manufacturing of the girder; the construction sequence of the bridge; the design method and lastly the environmental impact calculation. The midspan deflections of the bridge at different construction history were compared against the collected field data and it showed that the calculated values generally agree well with the field data.

  8. Damage investigation of girder bridges under the Wenchuan earthquake and corresponding seismic design recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianzhong; Peng Tianbo; Xu yan

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of girder bridges on National Highway 213 and the Doujiangyan-Wenchuan expressway after the Wenchuan earthquake showed that typical types of damage included:span collapses due to unseating at expansion joints;shear key failure;and damage of the expansion joint due to the slide-induced large relative displacement between the bottom of the girder and the top of the laminated-rubber bearing.This slide,however,can actually act as a form of isolation for the substructure,and as a result,the piers and foundation of most of the bridges on state route 213 suffered minor damage.The exception was the Baihua Bridge,which suffered severe damage.Corresponding seismic design recommendations are presented based on this investigation.

  9. HULL GIRDER PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE ANALYSIS USING IACS PRESCRIBED AND NLFEM DERIVED LOAD - END SHORTENING CURVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kitarović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the hull girder ultimate strength of a bulk carrier at its midship section, as determined by an incremental-iterative progressive collapse analysis method prescribed by the International Association of Classification Societies Common Structural Rules for Bulk Carriers. In addition to the originally prescribed load – end shortening curves, curves determined by the nonlinear finite element method analysis (considering the influence of the idealized initial geometrical imperfections are also considered. Results obtained by both sets of curves are compared and discussed on both local (structural components load – end shortening curve and global (hull girder ulti-mate bending capacity and collapse sequence level, for both sagging and hogging cases.

  10. Numerical Simulation for Progressive Collapse of Continuous Girder Bridge Subjected to Ship Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田力; 黄飞

    2014-01-01

    The three-stage simulation method based on LS-DYNA was introduced in this study to simulate the pro-gressive collapse of a continuous girder bridge after a ship-bridge collision. The pile-soil dynamic interaction and the initial stress and deformation of the whole bridge before the collision were considered. By analyzing the damage, de-formation, stress distribution and collapse process of the whole bridge, the results show that the displacement response of the cap beam lags behind the pile cap. The response order of the whole bridge’s components depends on their dis-tances from the collision region. The plastic deformation of soil around piles has a positive effect on delaying the fur-ther increase in the displacement of piles. The impacted pier’s losing stability and its superstructure’s excessive defor-mation are the main reasons leading to the progressive collapse of the continuous girder bridge.

  11. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......, making them different from typical, existing box shaping techniques. The basis of the proposed techniques is a new algorithm for constructing a full box from just three of its corners. The evaluation of the new techniques compares their precision and completion times in a 9 degree-of-freedom (Do......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...

  12. Multi-scale investigation of tensile creep of ultra-high performance concrete for bridge applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garas Yanni, Victor Youssef

    Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is relatively a new generation of concretes optimized at the nano and micro-scales to provide superior mechanical and durability properties compared to conventional and high performance concretes. Improvements in UHPC are achieved through: limiting the water-to-cementitious materials ratio (i.e., w/cm ≤ 0.20), optimizing particle packing, eliminating coarse aggregate, using specialized materials, and implementing high temperature and high pressure curing regimes. In addition, and randomly dispersed and short fibers are typically added to enhance the material's tensile and flexural strength, ductility, and toughness. There is a specific interest in using UHPC for precast prestressed bridge girders because it has the potential to reduce maintenance costs associated with steel and conventional concrete girders, replace functionally obsolete or structurally deficient steel girders without increasing the weight or the depth of the girder, and increase bridge durability to between 75 and 100 years. UHPC girder construction differs from that of conventional reinforced concrete in that UHPC may not need transverse reinforcement due to the high tensile and shear strengths of the material. Before bridge designers specify such girders without using shear reinforcement, the long-term tensile performance of the material must be characterized. This multi-scale study provided new data and understanding of the long-term tensile performance of UHPC by assessing the effect of thermal treatment, fiber content, and stress level on the tensile creep in a large-scale study, and by characterizing the fiber-cementitious matrix interface at different curing regimes through nanoindentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in a nano/micro-scale study. Tensile creep of UHPC was more sensitive to investigated parameters than tensile strength. Thermal treatment decreased tensile creep by about 60% after 1 year. Results suggested the possibility of

  13. The vibration research of the AC dipole-girder system for CSNS/RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Renhong, Liu; Huamin, Qu; Ling, Kang; Motuo, Wang; Guangyuan, Wang; Haijing, Wang

    2013-01-01

    China spallation neutron source(CSNS) is a high intensity proton accelerator based facility, and its accelerator complex includes two main parts: an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron(RCS). The rcs accumulates the 80MeV proton beam, and accelerates it to 1.6GeV, with a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The AC dipole of the RCS is operated at a 25Hz sinusoidal alternating current which causes severe vibration. The vibration will influence the long-term safety and reliable operation of the magnet. The dipole magnet of RCS is active vibration equipment which is different with ground vibration accelerator. It is very important to design and research the dynamic characteristic of the dipole-girder system. This paper takes the dipole and girder as a specific model system, a method for researching the dynamic characteristic of the system is put forward by combining theoretical calculation with experimental testing. The ansys simulation method plays a very important role in the girder structure design stage. With the m...

  14. Study the vibration and dynamic response of the dipole girder system for CSNS/RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Renhong, Liu; JunSong, Zhang; GuangYuan, Wang

    2015-01-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source is a high intensity proton accelerator based facility, and its accelerator complex includes two main parts an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron. The RCS accumulates the 80MeV proton beam, and accelerates it to 1.6GeV, with a repetition rate of 25Hz. The dipole of the CSNS RCS is operated at a 25 Hz sinusoidal alternating current which causes severe vibrate. The vibration will influence the long term safety and reliable operation of the magnet. The dipole of the CSNS RCS is an active vibration equipment which is different from the ground vibration accelerator. It is very important to design and study the dynamic characteristics of the dipole girder system. This paper takes the dipole and girder as a specific model system, a method for studying the dynamic characteristics of the system is put forward by combining theoretical calculation with experimental testing. The modal parameters with and without vibration isolator of the dipole girder system are obtain through ANSYS s...

  15. Locally Corroded Stiffener Effect on Shear Buckling Behaviors of Web Panel in the Plate Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwon Huh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The shear buckling failure and strength of a web panel stiffened by stiffeners with corrosion damage were examined according to the degree of corrosion of the stiffeners, using the finite element analysis method. For this purpose, a plate girder with a four-panel web girder stiffened by vertical and longitudinal stiffeners was selected, and its deformable behaviors and the principal stress distribution of the web panel at the shear buckling strength of the web were compared after their post-shear buckling behaviors, as well as their out-of-plane displacement, to evaluate the effect of the stiffener in the web panel on the shear buckling failure. Their critical shear buckling load and shear buckling strength were also examined. The FE analyses showed that their typical shear buckling failures were affected by the structural relationship between the web panel and each stiffener in the plate girder, to resist shear buckling of the web panel. Their critical shear buckling loads decreased from 82% to 59%, and their shear buckling strength decreased from 88% to 76%, due to the effect of corrosion of the stiffeners on their shear buckling behavior. Thus, especially in cases with over 40% corrosion damage of the vertical stiffener, they can have lower shear buckling strength than their design level.

  16. Concrete durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Tébar, Demetrio

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available The evidence that the concrete is not a material for ever was noticed from the beginning of its industrial use. In the present work, the author describes the studies carried out during the last century and the early ages of the present one, mainly devoted to the study of the durability in sea water. At the present days, and in spite of the numerous papers published from then, the study of the concrete durability continues focusing the research priorities and economical resources of researchers and industries related with this material. Moreover, the new laboratory techniques are allowing to understand old problems and even to open again the discussion on reaction mechanisms which were believed to be completely understood. The article finalizes with a brief description of the numerous studies carried out at the Institute Eduardo Torroja on concrete durability, mainly those related with the resistance against gypsum attack (so abundant in our country land and against sea water attack.

    La realidad de que el hormigón no es un material eterno y es susceptible de sufrir ataques por agentes químicos, fue constatada desde el comienzo mismo de su uso industrial. En el presente trabajo el autor enumera los estudios realizados el siglo pasado y a comienzos del presente sobre la durabilidad del hormigón en agua de mar. En la actualidad y a pesar de los numerosos trabajos desarrollados desde entonces, el estudio de la durabilidad del hormigón sigue centrando la atención prioritaria y los recursos económicos de los investigadores e industrias relacionadas con este material. Además las nuevas técnicas de estudio están permitiendo comprender antiguos problemas e incluso reabrir la discusión sobre mecanismos de reacción que se creían completamente explicados. Finaliza el artículo con una descripción somera de los múltiples trabajos realizados en el Instituto Eduardo Torreja sobre la materia, en especial los estudios realizados sobre

  17. Self Compacting Concrete And Its Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC, which flows under its own weight and doesn’t require any external vibration for compaction, has revolutionized concrete placement. Such concrete should have relatively low yield value to ensure high flow ability, a moderate viscosity to resists segregation and bleeding and must maintain its homogeneity during transportation, placing and curing to ensure adequate structural performance and long term durability. Self-compacting concrete (SCC can be defined as a fresh concrete which possesses superior flow ability under maintained stability (i.e. no segregation thus allowing self-compaction that is, material consolidation without addition of energy. Self-compacting concrete is a fluid mixture suitable for placing in structures with Congested reinforcement without vibration and it helps in achieving higher quality of surface finishes. However utilization of high reactive Metakaolin and Flyash asan admixtures as an effective pozzolan which causes great improvement in the porestructure. The relative proportions of key components are considered by volumerather than by mass. self compacting concrete (SCC mix design with 29% of coarse aggregate, replacement of cement with Metakaolin and class F flyash, combinations of both and controlled SCC mix with 0.36 water/cementitious ratio(by weight and388 litre/m3 of cement paste volume. Crushed granite stones of size 16mm and12.5mm are used with a blending 60:40 by percentage weight of total coarse aggregate. Self-compacting concrete compactibility is affected by the characteristics of materials and the mix proportions; it becomes necessary to evolve a procedure formix design of SCC. The properties of different constituent materials used in this investigation and its standard tests procedures for acceptance characteristics of self compacting concrete such as slump flow, V-funnel and L-Box are presented.

  18. Design of a Maglev Vibration Test Platform for the Research of Maglev Vehicle-girder Coupled Vibration Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Danfeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The maglev vehicle-girder coupled vibration problem has been encountered in many maglev test or commercial lines, which significantly degrade the performance of the maglev train. In previous research on the principle of the coupled vibration problem, it has been discovered that the fundamental model of the maglev girder can be simplified as a series of mass-spring resonators of different but related resonance frequencies, and that the stability of the vehicle-girder coupled system can be investigated by separately examining the stability of each mass-spring resonator – electromagnet coupled system. Based on this conclusion, a maglev test platform, which includes a single electromagnetic suspension control system, is built for experimental study of the coupled vibration problem. The guideway of the test platform is supported by a number of springs so as to change its flexibility. The mass of the guideway can also be changed by adjusting extra weights attached to it. By changing the flexibility and mass of the guideway, the rules of the maglev vehicle-girder coupled vibration problem are to be examined through experiments, and related theory on the vehicle-girder self-excited vibration proposed in previous research is also testified.

  19. Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  20. Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  1. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  2. The mirror box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gene; Mathieson, Don

    2001-11-01

    The mirror box is an old standby in magic shows and an impressive demonstration of the law of reflection for the physics instructor. The box creates the illusion of an object floating in space by the use of a plane mirror.

  3. Straw in a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrard, Richard; Schneider, Joel; Smallberg, Ralph; Wetzel, John

    2006-01-01

    A problem on a state's high school exit exam asked for the longest straw that would fit in a box. The examiners apparently wanted the length of a diagonal of the box, but the figure accompanying the question suggested otherwise--that the radius of the straw be considered. This article explores that more general problem.

  4. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  5. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D. J.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables ``boxes'' because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the CP- or T-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the CP- or T-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that CP violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n>=3 flavors.

  6. Effect of Coarse Aggregate and Slag Type on the Mechanical Behavior of High and Normal Weight Concrete Used at Barrage Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sanaullah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study is an effort to assess the composite effect of limestone aggregate and blast furnace slag on the mechanical characteristics of normal and high weight concrete at various structural units (barrage girders, main weir and block apron of New Khanki Barrage Project, Punjab. Mix designs for different concrete classes falling under the domain of high and normal weight concrete were prepared after aggregate quality testing. On attaining satisfactory results of quality testing nine concrete mixes were designed (three for each class: A1, A and B by absolute volume method (ACI- 211.1. The required compressive strength of normal and high strength was set at 6200, 5200 and 4200 Psi for the concrete types A1, A and B respectively after 28 days (ACI -318. For compressive strength assessment, a total 27 concrete cylinders were casted (9-cylinders for each mix and were water cured. The achieved average UCS of cylinder concrete specimens at 3, 7 and 28 days are 5170, 6338 and 7320 Psi for A1 – type, 3210, 4187 and 5602 Psi for A-type and 2650, 3360 and 4408 Psi for B- type mix. It has been found that all concrete mixes for suggested classes attained target strength at age of 7-days. The coarse aggregate (Margala Hill limestone and fine aggregates (from Lawrancepur /Qibla Bandi quarries used in all concrete mix designs have demonstrated a sound mechanical suitability for high and normal weight concrete.

  7. A Study on Ductility of Prestressed Concrete Pier Based on Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ductility of prestressed concrete pier is studied based on response surface methodology. Referring to the pervious prestressed concrete pier, based on Box-Behnken design, the ductility of 25 prestressed concrete piers is calculated by numerical method. The relationship between longitudinal reinforcement ratio, shear reinforcement ratio, prestressed tendon quantity, concrete compressive strength and ductility factor is gotten. The influence of the longitudinal reinforcement ratio, the shear reinforcement ratio, the prestressed tendon quantity and concrete compressive strength to curvature ductility is discussed. Then the ductility regression equation is deduced. The result showed that the influence of the prestressed tendon quantity to the ductility of prestressed concrete pier is significant. With the increasing of the prestressed tendon quantity, the curvature ductility curved reduces. With the increasing of shear reinforcement ratio and compressive strength of concrete, the curvature ductility increases linearly. And the influence of the longitudinal reinforcement ratio to ductility of the prestressed concrete pier is insignificant.

  8. Methods for determination of ultimate load of eccentrically patch loaded steel I-girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanović, B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests show that most eccentrically patch loaded steel I-girders have a collapse mode quite different from that of centrically loaded girders. Concerning engineering practice, the most important difference between collapse modes is in ultimate load. The reduction in ultimate load with an increase in load eccentricity is obvious in some eccentrically loaded girders. Under certain circumstances, for a certain combination of influential parameters, eccentrically loaded girders behave as if loaded in the web plane, with no or no significant reduction in ultimate load due to load eccentricity. Dealing with such a big number of mutually dependant parameters that influence collapse mode and level of ultimate load reduction due to load eccentricity, still without theoretical formulation of collapse mechanism, two approaches for ultimate load determination are analysed: empirical mathematical expressions and artificial neural networks forecast models. Results of two procedures are compared. Recommendations for application in engineering practice are given.Las pruebas experimentales muestran que la mayoría de vigas en I de acero cargadas excéntricamente tienen un modo de colapso muy diferente del de las vigas cargadas centradas. En cuanto a la práctica de ingeniería, la diferencia más importante entre los modos de colapso es la carga final. La reducción de la carga última con un aumento de la excentricidad de carga es evidente en algunas vigas cargadas excéntricamente, mientras que bajo ciertas circunstancias, para una determinada combinación de parámetros influyentes, las vigas cargadas excéntricamente se comportan como si se carga en el plano del alma, con ninguna reducción significativa en la carga última debido a la carga excéntrica. Se analizan dos métodos para la determinación de la carga máxima: expresiones matemáticas empíricas y redes neuronales artificiales. Los resultados de ambos procedimientos se comparan. Se

  9. INVESTIGATION OF CONDITIONS FOR SIMPLE INSULATION CURING CORRESPONDING TO TEMPERATURE HISTORY OF CONCRETE STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    劉, 宏涛; 濱, 幸雄; 友澤, 史紀; 桑原, 隆司

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, conditions of simple insulation curing of test specimens were studied, for purposes of strength control of concrete structures in cold weather. The temperature histories of the specimens in the simple insulation curing boxes corresponding to those of the concrete structures were researched by means of concrete experiments and temperature analysis by finite element method. Based on the result of the experiments and the analysis, the conditions of simple insulation curing of test...

  10. Connection Capacity of the Transition Zone in Steel-Concrete Hybrid Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozioł Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of transition zone of structural steel element connected to concrete is discussed in the following paper. This zone may be located for instance in specific bridge composite girder. In such case the composite beam passes smoothly into concrete beam. Because of several dowels usage in the transition zone, the problem of uneven force distribution were discussed through analogy to bolted and welded connections. The authors present innovative solution of transition zone and discuss the results, with emphasis put on the transition zone structural response in term of bending capacity, failure model and force distribution on the connection length. The article wider the already executed experimental test and presents its newest results.

  11. APPLICATION OF ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE TO PEDESTRIAN CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHI-DONG LEE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC, which enables reducing the cross sectional dimension of the structures due to its high strength, is expected in the construction of the super-long span bridges. Unlike conventional concrete, UHPC experiences less variation of material properties such as creep and drying shrinkage and can reduce uncertainties in predicting time-dependent behavior over the long term. This study describes UHPC’s material characteristics and benefits when applied to super-long span bridges. A UHPC girder pedestrian cable-stayed bridge was designed and successfully constructed. The UHPC reduced the deflections in both the short and long term. The cost analysis demonstrates a highly competitive price for UHPC. This study indicates that UHPC has a strong potential for application in the super-long span bridges.

  12. Recycling of demolished concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagataki, S. [Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Iida, K. [Technology Centre of Taisei Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    There is a significant amount of research being conducted in Japan on ways to recycle demolished concrete. The material is already being used for road bases and foundations, but in the future, the concrete will have to be recycled as concrete aggregate. Recycling may also include the cement in the concrete in order to address the issue of global warming and carbon dioxide reductions. This initiative is in response to predictions that in the future there will be tremendous quantities of demolished concrete to deal with. Recycling of cement is also necessary in terms of resolving environmental problems and promoting sustainable development. The properties of concrete made with recycled aggregates were described and were compared with original concrete made of known materials. The paper also proposed an approach that should be taken to recycling concrete in the twenty-first century in which reduced limestone was used to reclaim cement. Recycled concrete with cement requires more energy, but uses less resources and discharges less carbon dioxide. Currently, recycled aggregate does not meet the Japanese Industrial Standard for concrete aggregate. The resistance to freeze/thaw cycles was not adequate. The amount of mortar adhered to the recycled aggregate had little affect on the strength and durability of recycled concrete. It was concluded that the quality of recycled concrete aggregate depends on the quality of original concrete. 11 refs., 12 tabs., 11 figs.

  13. 侵蚀性环境下桥梁CFRP/BFRP加固后的长期性能试验%Experiment for Long-term Performance of Bridge Girders Strengthened with CFRP/BFRP Sheets and Subjected to Erosion Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓燕; 董伟伟; 王海龙; 何世钦

    2013-01-01

    为了研究侵蚀性环境下服役桥梁构件采用纤维材料加固后的长期性能,对11根具有初始锈蚀损伤的钢筋混凝土梁式构件采用碳纤维布(CFRP)和玄武岩纤维布(BFRP)加固后继续退化的承载力及服役性能进行试验.通过对加固后构件进行电化学加速锈蚀和盐液浸润干湿循环模拟不同程度的后续服役性能退化,研究侵蚀性环境对CFRP和BFRP加固构件在不同后续服役期的承载力、刚度等性能影响规律,同时对比了2种加固材料的耐久性能和成本效益.结果表明:侵蚀性环境下加固后的桥梁构件承载能力评估需综合考虑钢筋锈蚀引起的承载力降低和侵蚀性环境对纤维利用效率的降低;CFRP对刚度提高显著,而BFRP加固具有更好的延性;考虑加固后长期服役性能,CFRP加固后具有较好的耐久性,而BFRP具有较高的成本效益.%To investigate the long-term performance of existing bridge girders strengthened with fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) sheets and subjected to erosion environment, the bearing capacity and service performance experiments of 11 reinforced concrete (RC) girders, which were strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) and basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sheets after initial corrosion damage, were conducted. Different subsequent performance degradations for strengthened girders were simulated through electrochemical accelerated corrosion together with wet/dry cycles of salt solution. The effect of environmental erosion on capacity, stiffness and other parameters of CFRP/BFRP strengthened girders in different follow-up service time was tested. The durabilities and costs of the two strengthening materials were also investigated. The results show that the capacity evaluation of bridge girders strengthened with FRP sheets should consider the effect of rebar corrosion together with the environmental reduction of FRP strengthening; the CFRP strengthening improves

  14. Microscopic examination of deteriorated concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Larbi, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Concrete petrography is the integrated microscopic and mesoscale (hand specimen size) investigation of hardened concrete, that can provide information on the composition of concrete, the original relationships between the concrete's various constituents, and any changes therein, whether as a result

  15. Special Concrete with Polymers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicolae Angelescu; Ioana Ion; Darius Stanciu; José Barroso Aguiar; Elena Valentina Stoian; Vasile Bratu

    2016-01-01

    .... They were prepared epoxy resin polymer concrete, Portland cement, coarse and fine aggregate and to evaluate the influence of resin dosage on microstructures and density of such structures reinforced concrete mixtures...

  16. Sustainable Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.

  17. Voice box (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  18. Pion in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W; Horsley, R; Nakamura, Y; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Zanotti, J M

    2010-01-01

    The residual mass of the pion in a finite spatial box at vanishing quark masses is computed with two flavors of dynamical clover fermions. The result is compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory in the delta regime.

  19. Boxes and Shelves

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Dean

    2008-01-01

    The Boxes and Shelves series from 2008 are are all made from the backing card from discarded writing pads. Boxes and Shelves extended my investigation of quotidian materials and their relationship to the origins of creative toil. Since 1996 my research has sought to identify and locate instances where the 'unmeasurable' meets the measurable. I have consistently employed a range of utilitarian materials such as bus seats, bus tickets, puddles, A4 writing paper, to present a series of 'problem ...

  20. Box Culvert Design

    OpenAIRE

    Susong, John; Beakley, Josh; Smart, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Precast box culverts can be used to quickly solve many challenging drainage problems. This presentation will review how box culverts are specified and designed. Various examples will be used to demonstrate the proper installation techniques and multiple applications for a successful project. Topics will include standard specifications; considerations for live, dead and construction loadings; installation (site preparation, bedding, placement, joint treatment and backfill); and applications (c...

  1. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger

    2010-10-01

    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).

  2. Infectious disease and boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  3. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  4. Concrete Pavement Joint Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in INDOT specification, pavement materials, designs and construction practices, and current de-icing materials were examined and related to the durability of concrete at the joints of existing pavements. A survey of concrete pavements across the state ...

  5. Double Girder Bridge Crane with Double Cycling: Scheduling Strategy and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel quay crane design, double girder bridge crane (DGBC. DGBC is capable of handling containers of two adjacent bays simultaneously, avoiding crane collisions, saving travelling and reposition cost, and eventually improving terminal efficiency. This problem is formulated as a resource-constrained project scheduling with objective to minimize the maximum completion time. A two-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed in which an operating sequences on each bay is obtained by double cycling, and the integrated timetable for both bays is constructed by solving resource conflicts using the proposed minimum cost strategy. We examine effectiveness and performance of applying DGBC with double cycling. A case study is presented to illustrate how DGBC works with the two-stage method. Three extreme cases with respective conflict types are investigated to develop the performance bounds of DGBC with double cycling. The results show that DGBC can significantly improve terminal productivity, and outperforms single girder crane in both makespan and the lift operation percentage. The highest DGBC efficiency does not require maximum double cycles in two bay schedules; rather the integrated timetable for two bays is the main contribution to the DGBC performance as it yields better cooperation between two spreaders and the driver.

  6. Nonlinear Stability Analysis of a Composite Girder Cable-Stayed Bridge with Three Pylons during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the nonlinear stability analysis method, the 3D nonlinear finite element model of a composite girder cable-stayed bridge with three pylons is established to research the effect of factors including geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity, static wind load, and unbalanced construction load on the structural stability during construction. Besides, the structural nonlinear stability in different construction schemes and the determination of temporary pier position are also studied. The nonlinear stability safety factors are calculated to demonstrate the rationality and safety of construction schemes. The results show that the nonlinear stability safety factors of this bridge during construction meet the design requirement and the minimum value occurs in the maximum double cantilever stage. Besides, the nonlinear stability of the structure in the side of edge-pylon meets the design requirement in the two construction schemes. Furthermore, the temporary pier can improve the structure stability, effectively, and the actual position is reasonable. In addition, the local buckling of steel girder occurs earlier than overall instability under load in some cable tension stages. Finally, static wind load and the unbalanced construction load should be considered in the stability analysis for the adverse impact.

  7. Coupled Vibration of Long-Span Railway Curved Girder Bridges and Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Deshan; Li Qiao

    2005-01-01

    The structure of a long curved girder bridge is represented with a three-dimensional curved finite element model. Each 4-axle vehicle is modeled by a dynamic system of 35 degrees of freedom. The random irregularities of the track are generated from a power spectral density function under the given track condition. The dynamic interaction between the bridge and train is realized through the contact forces between the wheels and track. Then based on these models, the coupled equations of motion are solved by applying the time-integration and iteration techniques to the coupled system. The proposed formulation and the associated computer program are then applied to a real curved girder bridge. The dynamic responses of the bridge-vehicle system and the derailments and offload factors related to the riding and running safeties of vehicles are computed. The results show that the formulation presented in this paper can well predict dynamic behaviors of both bridge and train with reasonable computation efforts.

  8. A Cyber-Physical System for Girder Hoisting Monitoring Based on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruicong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Guan, Quanhua; Hu, Weitong; Li, Mingchu

    2016-01-01

    Offshore design and construction is much more difficult than land-based design and construction, particularly due to hoisting operations. Real-time monitoring of the orientation and movement of a hoisted structure is thus required for operators’ safety. In recent years, rapid development of the smart-phone commercial market has offered the possibility that everyone can carry a mini personal computer that is integrated with sensors, an operating system and communication system that can act as an effective aid for cyber-physical systems (CPS) research. In this paper, a CPS for hoisting monitoring using smartphones was proposed, including a phone collector, a controller and a server. This system uses smartphones equipped with internal sensors to obtain girder movement information, which will be uploaded to a server, then returned to controller users. An alarming system will be provided on the controller phone once the returned data exceeds a threshold. The proposed monitoring system is used to monitor the movement and orientation of a girder during hoisting on a cross-sea bridge in real time. The results show the convenience and feasibility of the proposed system. PMID:27399710

  9. A Cyber-Physical System for Girder Hoisting Monitoring Based on Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruicong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Guan, Quanhua; Hu, Weitong; Li, Mingchu

    2016-07-07

    Offshore design and construction is much more difficult than land-based design and construction, particularly due to hoisting operations. Real-time monitoring of the orientation and movement of a hoisted structure is thus required for operators' safety. In recent years, rapid development of the smart-phone commercial market has offered the possibility that everyone can carry a mini personal computer that is integrated with sensors, an operating system and communication system that can act as an effective aid for cyber-physical systems (CPS) research. In this paper, a CPS for hoisting monitoring using smartphones was proposed, including a phone collector, a controller and a server. This system uses smartphones equipped with internal sensors to obtain girder movement information, which will be uploaded to a server, then returned to controller users. An alarming system will be provided on the controller phone once the returned data exceeds a threshold. The proposed monitoring system is used to monitor the movement and orientation of a girder during hoisting on a cross-sea bridge in real time. The results show the convenience and feasibility of the proposed system.

  10. Deterioration of Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Chloride ingress is a common cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete bridges. Concrete may be exposed to chloride by seawater or de-icing salts. The chloride initiates corrosion of the reinforcement, which through expansion disrupts the concrete. In addition, the corrosion reduces the cross...

  11. Deterioration of Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Chloride ingress is a common cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete bridges. Concrete may be exposed to chloride by seawater or de-icing salts. The chloride initiates corrosion of the reinforcement, which through expansion disrupts the concrete. In addition, the corrosion reduces the cross...

  12. concrete5 for developers

    CERN Document Server

    Uzayr, Sufyan bin

    2014-01-01

    Whether you have had some previous experience with concrete5 or are entirely new to it, this book will help you understand all that you need to know in order to get started with concrete5 development. A background in PHP is required; some knowledge of HTML/CSS is needed in order to fully grasp the concepts underlying concrete5 theme development.

  13. 钢锚梁式钢-混组合索塔锚固体系设计与分析%Design and Analysis of Steel-concrete Composite Anchorage Structure with Steel Anchor Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗通; 孙蕊鑫

    2015-01-01

    A bridge is a twin towers and double cable plane prestressed concrete girder cable -stayed bridge with a span arrangement of (130 +300 +130)m,and the tower type is inverted Y and the Steel -concrete Composite anchorage structure with Steel Anchor Beam is used to anchorage the cable of end of the tower.Among this type anchorage system,the anchor boxes have been welded on both sides of the steel anchor beam,at the same time, using steel bracket to replace traditional concrete corbel structure.In this paper,the characteristics of this kind of anchor system has been introduced and the stress situation of this kind of anchor system has been analyzed u-sing the finite element method.The research conclusion can provide a reference for the design of this type of ca-ble pylon anchorage system.%某斜拉桥主桥是一座跨径布置为(130m +300m +130m)的双塔双索面预应力混凝土梁斜拉桥,索塔采用倒 Y 型,斜拉索在桥塔端采用新型空间索面钢锚梁式钢-混组合索塔锚固体系进行锚固。该型锚固体系将锚箱焊在钢锚梁两侧,同时采用钢牛腿替换传统的混凝土牛腿结构,提高了施工速度,改善了结构受力。介绍了该种锚固体系的特点,并采用有限元方法对改型索塔锚固体系的受力情况进行了分析,可为该类型索塔锚固体系设计提供参考。

  14. Cable Tester Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  15. Effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Changfeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During an earthquake, the nonlinearity of the bridge structure mainly occurs at the supports, bridge piers and restrainers. When entering nonlinear stage, members of the bridge structure affect the elasto-plastic seismic response of the whole structure to a certain extent; for multi-span continuous bridges, longitudinal restrainers can be installed on the movable piers to optimise the distribution of seismic force and enable the movable piers to bear a certain amount of seismic effect. In order to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge, analytical models of continuous girder bridge structure considering the nonlinearity of movable supports, restrainers and bridge piers were built and the nonlinear time history analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restraining devices and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge. Relevant structural measures and recommendation were made to reduce the seismic response of the fixed piers of the continuous girder bridge.

  16. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  17. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  18. Durability Properties of Palm Oil Fuel Ash Self Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ofuyatan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Self Compacting Concrete (SCC is a new innovation in technology that can flow readily into place under its own self weight and fill corner areas of reinforcement structures without the need to vibrate and without segregation of its constitute. The problem of durability of concrete structures due to inadequate compaction by skilled workers has become a source of concern globally. The shortage of skilled manpower, noise and vibration of equipment on construction sites has led to the development of self compacting concrete. This paper presents an experimental study on the durability properties of Self Compacting Concrete with partial placement of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA. Twelve POFA self-compacting concretes of various strength grades were designed at varying percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%. The concrete with no placement of ash served as control. Conplast SP432MS was used as superplasticiser in the mix. The experiments are carried out by adopting a water-powder ratio of 0.36. Workability of the fresh concrete is determined by using tests such as: slump flow, T50, V-funnel and L-Box tests. The durability of concrete is tested by acid resistance, sulphate attack and saturated water absorption at the age of 14, 28, 56 and 90 days.

  19. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  20. Depth in box spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Sylvia C; Nefs, Harold T; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Te Pas, Susan F; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Human observers adjust the frontal view of a wireframe box on a computer screen so as to look equally deep and wide, so that in the intended setting the box looks like a cube. Perspective cues are limited to the size-distance effect, since all angles are fixed. Both the size on the screen, and the viewing distance from the observer to the screen were varied. All observers prefer a template view of a cube over a veridical rendering, independent of picture size and viewing distance. If the rendering shows greater or lesser foreshortening than the template, the box appears like a long corridor or a shallow slab, that is, like a 'deformed' cube. Thus observers ignore 'veridicality'. This does not fit an 'inverse optics' model. We discuss a model of 'vision as optical user interface'.

  1. Lunar concrete: Prospects and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitab, Anwar; Anwar, Waqas; Mehmood, Imran; Kazmi, Syed Minhaj Saleem; Munir, Muhammad Junaid

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of using concrete as a construction material at the Moon surface is considered. Dissimilarities between the Earth and the Moon and their possible effects on concrete are also emphasized. Availability of constituent materials for concrete at lunar surface is addressed. An emphasis is given to two types of materials, namely, hydraulic concrete and sulfur concrete. Hydraulic concrete necessitates the use of water and sulfur concrete makes use of molten sulfur in lieu of cement and water.

  2. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  3. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  4. Structural health and dynamic behavior of residential buildings: field challenges in the rehab of damaged reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalhoub M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete buildings require special consideration under dynamic excitations due to their anisotropic material properties. Strain compatibility equations are used in concrete analysis and design with assumptions about the stress and strain field across member section and member length. However, these assumptions fall short of describing real life behavior when concrete elements deteriorate, age or undergo cyclic loading. This paper addresses the structural health of reinforced concrete buildings and proposes an analytical model to account for concrete damage through loss of bond. The proposed model relates steel loading that causes bond distress to design parameters such as development length and bar properties, and therefore could be complemented by field measurement. The paper proposes a diagnosis method and discusses the sustainability of the structure by assisting in a simplistic decision rule as to whether to perform minor fixes, major rehabilitation, or disposal. Emphasis is placed on the difference between reversible and irreversible effects of cyclic loading on structural behaviour, and draws a distinction between damage to the girder and damage to the column in the overall structural system. The model is compared to empirical results to address field challenges faced when the structure is subjected to severe conditions in its ambient environment, or to unusual loading. Deterioration in concrete causes alteration in its composite behavior with the reinforcing steel. This affects the fundamental period of the structure, and its response to seismic loading.

  5. Analysis of the hull girder vibration by dynamic stiffness matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ping; ZHAO De-you

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic stiffness matrix method is applied to compute vibration of hull girder in this paper.This method can not only simplify the computational model, but also get much higher frequencies and responses accurately. The analytical expressions of dynamic stiffness matrix of a Timoshenko beam for transverse vibration are presented in this paper. All effects of rotatory inertia and shear deformation are taken into account in the formulation. The resulting dynamic stiffness matrix combined with the Wittrick-Williams algorithm is used to compute natural frequencies and mode shapes of the 299,500 DWT VLCC, and then the vibrational responses are solved by the mode superposition method. The computational results are compared with those obtained from other approximate methods and experiment,and it indicates that the method is accurate and efficient.

  6. Prediction of Fatigue Life of a Continuous Bridge Girder Based on Vehicle Induced Stress History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Rao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue damage assessment of bridge components by conducting a full scale fatigue testing is often prohibitive. A need, therefore, exists to estimate the fatigue damage in bridge components by a simulation of bridge-vehicle interaction dynamics due to the action of the actual traffic. In the present paper, a systematic method has been outlined to find the fatigue damage in the continuous bridge girder based on stress range frequency histogram and fatigue strength parameters of the bridge materials. Vehicle induced time history of maximum flexural stresses has been obtained by Monte Carlo simulation process and utilized to develop the stress range frequency histogram taking into consideration of the annual traffic volume. The linear damage accumulation theory is then applied to calculate cumulative damage index and fatigue life of the bridge. Effect of the bridge span, pavement condition, increase of vehicle operating speed, weight and suspension characteristics on fatigue life of the bridge have been examined.

  7. Time-Variant Reliability Analysis of FPSO Hull Girder Considering Corrosion Based on Statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dao-kun; TANG Wen-yong; ZHANG Sheng-kun

    2007-01-01

    FPSO is a kind of important exploitation platform used in ocean oil and gas industry, which has the unique character of mooring at outsea for a long time. Since it can not be inspected and maintained thoroughly at dock like other kinds of ships, the reliability of FPSO hull girder during the whole service should be focused. Based on latest corrosion database and rational corrosion model, the ultimate strength of one FPSO is calculated under the conditions of slight, moderate and severe corrosion. The results not only provide the reliability under different corrosion conditions, but also do well for further inspection and maintenance research. The results provide necessary foundation for deciding inspection intervals and maintenance measures, which has practical sense to improve the general safety level of ocean engineering.

  8. Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %, low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

  9. Teaching with Box Tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  10. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  11. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  12. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  13. Ocular complications of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A S; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P F

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15-36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p< or =0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance.

  14. Ocular complications of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  15. Reactive Powder Concrete advantages and applications situation%RPC 混凝土的优越性能和应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方磊

    2015-01-01

    介绍了活性粉末混凝土的力学性能,以某一景区简支人行梁桥为例,通过计算分析得出以下结论:RPC混凝土的力学性能远远高于高强混凝土,使用RPC混凝土桥梁具有足够的安全储备。%This paper introduced the mechanical properties of Reactive Powder Concrete,taking a scenic area simply supported humanoid girder bridge for example,through the calculation and analysis,obtained the following conclusions:the mechanical properties of RPC was higher than high strength concrete,using RPC concrete bridges had enough safety storage.

  16. Concrete portable handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Woodson, R Dodge

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not, you are on the job site or back in the office, this book will help you to avoid mistakes, code violations, and wasted time and money. The book's four part treatment begins with constituent materials followed by self contained parts on Concrete Properties, Processes, and Concrete Repair and Rehabilitation. Designed to be an ""all in one"" reference, the author includes a wealth information for the most popular types of testing. This includes: Analysis of Fresh Concrete; Testing Machines; Accelerated Testing Methods; Analysis of Hardened Concrete and Mortar; Core Sampl

  17. Prototype steel-concrete LEP dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic field needed in the LEP dipole magnets was rather low, of a fraction of tesla. This lead to the conception of a novel yoke structure consisting of stacks of 1.5 mm thick low-carbon steel laminations spaced by 4.1 mm with the spaces filled with concrete. The excitation coils were also very simple: aluminium bars insulated by polyester boxes in this prototype, by glass-epoxy in the final magnets. For details see LEP-Note 118,1978 and LEP-Note 233 1980. See also 8111529,7908528X.

  18. Assessment of vehicular live load and load factors for design of short-span bridges according to the new Egyptian Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem M. Seliem

    2015-04-01

    The study shows that concrete box-girders designed according to ECP-201:2012 and ECP-201:2003 using the ultimate limit state method yield almost the same demand. Despite the increase in the VLL of ECP-201:2012, and consequently the live load forces, concrete I-shaped girder bridges will be subjected to less total factored internal forces in comparison to ECP-201:2003 This is attributed to the interaction between the live to dead loads ratio and the load combinations. Design of composite steel plate girder bridges according to ECP-201:2012 using the allowable stress design method yields over designed sections.

  19. Development of a Skewed Pipe Shear Connector for Precast Concrete Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hyo; Choi, Jae-Gu; Park, Sejun; Lee, Hyunmin; Heo, And Won-Ho

    2017-05-13

    Joint connection methods, such as shear key and loop bar, improve the structural performance of precast concrete structures; consequently, there is usually decreased workability or constructional efficiency. This paper proposes a high-efficiency skewed pipe shear connector. To resist shear and pull-out forces, the proposed connectors are placed diagonally between precast concrete segments and a cast-in-place concrete joint part on a girder. Design variables (such as the pipe diameter, length, and insertion angle) have been examined to investigate the connection performance of the proposed connector. The results of our testing indicate that the skewed pipe shear connectors have 50% higher ductility and a 15% higher ratio of maximum load to yield strength as compared to the corresponding parameters of the loop bar. Finite element analysis was used for validation. The resulting validation indicates that, compared to the loop bar, the skewed pipe shear connector has a higher ultimate shear and pull-out resistance. These results indicate that the skewed pipe shear connector demonstrates more idealized behavior than the loop bar in precast concrete structures.

  20. Articularities of Analysis and Behaviour of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fibrous Polymer Composite Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ţăranu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional steel based reinforcement systems for concrete elements are facing with serious problems mainly caused by corrosion due to chemically aggressive environments and salts used in deicing procedures, especially in case of bridge steel reinforced concrete girders. Also in some cases special applications require structural members with magnetic transparency. An alternative to this major problem has recently become the use of fiber reinforced polymer (FPR composite bars as internal reinforcement for concrete beams. The particularities of their mechanical properties are making the design process a difficult task for engineers, numerous research centers being involved in correcting this situation. The general aspects concerning the conceiving of FR.P reinforced concrete beams are firstly analyzed, compared to those reinforced with steel bars. Some results of a Finite Element Analysis, as part of a complex program which also implies full scale testing of FRP reinforced beams subjected to bending, are given and discussed in the paper. The low elasticity modulus presented by glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars does not justify its use from structural point of view when deflection is the limiting condition but for corrosive resistance reasons and special electromagnetic properties this system can be promoted.

  1. Cohesive Zone Model Based Numerical Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Structure Push-Out Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Push-out tests were widely used to determine the shear bearing capacity and shear stiffness of shear connectors in steel-concrete composite structures. The finite element method was one efficient alternative to push-out testing. This paper focused on a simulation analysis of the interface between concrete slabs and steel girder flanges as well as the interface of the shear connectors and the surrounding concrete. A cohesive zone model was used to simulate the tangential sliding and normal separation of the interfaces. Then, a zero-thickness cohesive element was implemented via the user-defined element subroutine UEL in the software ABAQUS, and a multiple broken line mode was used to define the constitutive relations of the cohesive zone. A three-dimensional numerical analysis model was established for push-out testing to analyze the load-displacement curves of the push-out test process, interface relative displacement, and interface stress distribution. This method was found to accurately calculate the shear capacity and shear stiffness of shear connectors. The numerical results showed that the multiple broken lines mode cohesive zone model could describe the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the interface between steel and concrete and that a discontinuous deformation numerical simulation could be implemented.

  2. LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BASED GRANSHLAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NETESA M. I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Concrete advisable to obtain a low strength with local secondary resources for recycling and reduce the environmental burden on the environment. But it is important to design such concrete compositions with a reduced flow of cement. It is known that the coefficient of efficiency of use of cement in the concrete of the heavy and B10 is less than about 0.5, which is almost two times smaller than in class B15 concrete and above. Even lower coefficient of efficiency in light concrete cement low strength. Therefore, it is important to find patterns determining the composition of lightweight concrete based on local-products industry with more efficient use of cement in them. Purpose.. Based on the analysis of earlier research results, including with the use of methods of mathematical planning of experiments to determine the concrete contents, which can provide the requirements for the underlying layers of the floor, the compressive strength of which should correspond to the class B5. It is important to provide the required strength at minimum flow of the cement, which is the most expensive and energy-intensive part of concrete. Conclusion. Analysis of the test results of control samples of concrete in 28-day-old, the following laws. The required tensile strength of concrete compressive strength of 7.0 MPa can be obtained in the test range when used in formulations as a filler as the Dnieper hydroelectric power station fly ash and tailings Krivoy Rog iron ore YuGOK. To ensure providing the required characteristic strength of the concrete in the underlying layers of the floor is advisable to use a nominal composition per cubic meter of concrete: cement 160 kg granshlaka Plant named after Petrovsky, 675 kg of fly ash Dnieper HPP 390 kg, 400 kg of sand, 230 liters of water. Thus, while ensuring rational grain composition components can obtain the desired strength lightweight concrete based granshlaka plant Petrovsky, using as fillers

  3. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  4. Concrete, hardened: Self desiccation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Persson, Bertil

    1999-01-01

    The test method covers the determination of internal relative humidity (RH) in hardened concrete and cement mortar using RH instruments. The determination of RH is done on crushed samples of concrete or cement motar. This test method is only for measuring equipment which gives off or takes up...

  5. Polymer concrete patching materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, J.J.

    1977-09-01

    The increased use of deicing salts is causing rapid deterioration of portland cement concrete bridge decks. Soluble chlorides cause corrosion of the steel reinforcing rods with a corresponding increase in volume of the rods. This expansion causes stresses in the concrete which result in delaminations and surface spalling. The repair of surface spalls with portland cement concrete can only be made if traffic can be avoided for several days. A patching material which would allow traffic to resume over the repaired area in a few hours was needed. Polymer concrete (PC) was developed to repair deteriorated portland cement concrete. Polymer concrete is defined as a composite material in which the aggregate is bound together in a dense matrix with a polymer binder. The aggregate is mixed with a monomer mixture and subsequently cured in place. Polymer concrete combines the premix characteristics of portland cement concrete with high strength, long term durability properties and fast cure times. PC placed at temperatures between 35/sup 0/F and 95/sup 0/F attains strengths greater than 5000 psi in 2 hours. The high early strength of PC is suitable for use in the repair of highway structures where traffic conditions allow closing of the area for only a few hours.

  6. Concrete-Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leczovics Péter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Present paper introduces a new interpretation of concrete, demonstrating some extreme possibilities of this rigid material such as a design element. In the first part a brief overview of the previous achievements are shown. The second part of this paper focuses on the relationship between concrete and fashion.

  7. concrete5 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laubacher, Remo

    2011-01-01

    This book is part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series. You will be guided through the set up of a Concrete5 site with step-by-step practical examples. This book is ideal for developers who would like to build their first site with Concrete5. Some k

  8. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  9. Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...

  10. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  11. The Electronic Battle Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Denis; Turcotte, Guy; Lebel, Eric; Gilbert, Annie

    2000-08-01

    The Electronic Battle Box is an integrated suite of planning and decision-aid tools specially designed to facilitate Canadian Armed Force Officers during their training and during their tasks of preparing and conducting military operations. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, the Directorate of Army Doctrine (DAD), the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR), the G4 staff of 1Cdn Div HQ and CGI Information and Management Consultants Inc. Distributed on CD-ROM, the Electronic Battle Box contains efficient and user-friendly tools that significantly reduce the planning time for military operations and ensure staff officers a better focus on significant tasks. Among the tools are an OrBat Browser and an Equipment Browser allowing to view and edit military organizations, a Task Browser providing facilities to prepare plans using Gantt charts, a Logistic Planner allowing to estimate supply requirements applying complex calculations, and Road, Air and Rail Movement Planners. EBB also provides staff officers with a large set of doctrinal documents in an electronic format. This paper provides an overview of the various tools of the Electronic Battle Box.

  12. Preformed beading and boxing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J Sashi Deepth; Padmanabhan, T V; Veerareddy, Chandrika; Chandrasekhar, M; Narendra, R

    2013-03-01

    Conventional beading and boxing procedure is time consuming and involves application of heat that might distort green stick compound used for border molding. Earlier studies regarding beading and boxing methods have shown usage of various materials that were disposable and that cannot be recycled. To reduce the time consumed for beading and boxing procedure and to make this procedure cost-effective by using recyclable beading material, "Preformed boxing appliance" with moldable clay meant for beading the secondary impression was used. Secondary impression was supported by 3 studs provided on the floor of the boxing appliance. The cast was poured. The duration for the entire procedure was much less than the conventional procedure.

  13. Dynamic Response of Concrete and Concrete Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-30

    Strain Rate Effects on Fracture (ed. S. Mindess and S. P. Shah), Symposium ’- S, Boston, Dec. 1985, Materials Research Society Symp. Proceedings, ". Vol...Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Impact Loading," in Cement-Based Composites: Strain-Rate Effects on Fracture (ed. S. Mindess and S.P. Shah) Materials

  14. Concrete sample point: 304 Concretion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollison, M.D.

    1995-03-10

    This report contains information concerning the analysis of concretes for volatile organic compounds. Included are the raw data for these analysis and the quality control data, the standards data, and all of the accompanying chains-of-custody records and requests for special analysis.

  15. Antifouling marine concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as to their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete for OTEC plants. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6-1/2 years in seawater.

  16. Antifouling marine concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as the their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6 1/2 years in seawater.

  17. Performance of Waterless Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutanji, Houssam; Evans, Steve; Grugel, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    The development of permanent lunar bases is constrained by performance of construction materials and availability of in-situ resources. Concrete seems a suitable construction material for the lunar environment, but water, one of its major components, is an extremely scarce resource on the Moon. This study explores an alternative to hydraulic concrete by replacing the binding mix of concrete (cement and water) with sulfur. Sulfur is a volatile element on the lunar surface that can be extracted from lunar soils by heating. Sulfur concrete mixes were prepared to investigate the effect of extreme environmental conditions on the properties of sulfur concrete. A hypervelocity impact test was conducted, having as its target a 5-cm cubic sample of sulfur concrete. This item consisted of JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant (65%) and sulfur (35%). The sample was placed in the MSFC Impact Test Facility s Micro Light Gas Gun target chamber, and was struck by a 1-mm diameter (1.4e-03 g) aluminum projectile at 5.85 km/s. In addition, HZTERN code, provided by NASA was used to study the effectiveness of sulfur concrete when subjected to space radiation.

  18. Estimation of Curvature Changes for Steel-Concrete Composite Bridge Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoon Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the verification of the key idea of a newly developed steel-concrete composite bridge. The key idea of the proposed bridge is to reduce the design moment by applying vertical prestressing force to steel girders, so that a moment distribution of a continuous span bridge is formed in a simple span bridge. For the verification of the key technology, curvature changes of the bridge should be monitored sequentially at every construction stage. A pair of multiplexed FBG sensor arrays is proposed in order to measure curvature changes in this study. They are embedded in a full-scale test bridge and measured local strains, which are finally converted to curvatures. From the result of curvature changes, it is successfully ensured that the key idea of the proposed bridge, expected theoretically, is viable.

  19. Vibration analysis of the Second Saikai Bridge—a concrete filled tubular (CFT) arch bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mistuhiro; Wu, Qingxiong; Takahashi, Kazuo; Nakamura, Shozo; Furukawa, Kazuyoshi

    2006-02-01

    Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFT) arch bridges have been rapidly developing in China since 1990. Research has focused on the static behavior, thermal stress and erection technique, however, and there has been very little research of natural vibrations and dynamic responses of these bridges. Japan's first CFT arch bridge in highway bridges, the Second Saikai Bridge, is now under construction in Nagasaki Prefecture. Furthermore, this bridge has a pedestrian bridge that is suspended under the girder, which is rare. Therefore, the natural vibration properties are examined, and the influence of pedestrian bridge structure on the natural vibration of main bridge is discussed first. Response analysis under a moving vehicle and pedestrian is carried out, and the response characteristics and response level are clarified. The natural vibrations and responses are compared to those of CFT arch bridges that have been constructed in China. Results show the fine performance of both main bridge and pedestrian bridge of the Second Saikai Bridge.

  20. concrete5 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Strack, David

    2013-01-01

    The Cookbook-style recipes allow you to go both directly to your topic of interest or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain in-depth knowledge. This practical Cookbook will cater to the needs of both intermediate and advanced concrete5 developers.This book is geared towards intermediate to advanced PHP developers who would like to learn more about the concrete5 content management system. Developers already familiar with concrete5 will learn new time-saving tricks and will find the book to be a great reference tool.

  1. Electrokenitic Corrosion Treatment of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry E (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for strengthening cementitious concrete by placing a nanoparticle carrier liquid in contact with a first surface of a concrete section and inducing a current across the concrete section at sufficient magnitude and for sufficient time that nanoparticles in the nanoparticle carrier liquid migrate through a significant depth of the concrete section.

  2. Effect of Inert and Pozzolanic Materials on Flow and Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mahoutian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the fresh behaviour and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC containing high volume of limestone, metakaolin, silica fume, zeolite, and viscosity modifying admixture. Two fine aggregates with different fineness modulus were also utilized to evaluate the effect of sand’s gradation on the mechanical and flow properties of SCC containing inert and pozzolanic powder. Slump flow, V-funnel for fresh concrete and 5-minute-old concrete, J-ring, Orimet with and without J-ring, and L-box and U-box tests were performed on all 14 fresh concrete mixtures to examine the fresh properties of self-compacting concrete. Compressive strength of hardened specimens was measured at 7 and 35 days and tensile strength was also determined at the age of 28 days. The results show that sand grading significantly affects the fresh properties of SCC. It is also concluded that high volume of active powders including metakaolin, zeolite, and silica fume could not improve both the flow and mechanical properties of SCC at the same time. Limestone can be effectively used as filler in SCC in high volume content. A new set of limits for the L-box and U-box tests for SCC containing silica fume is also recommended as the existing criteria are not satisfactory.

  3. Corrosion-resistant sulfur concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1983-04-01

    Sulfur concretes have been developed by the Bureau of Mines as construction materials with physical and mechanical properties that suit them for use in acid and salt corrosive environments where conventional concretes fail. Mixture design methods were established for preparing sulfur concretes using different types of aggregates and recently developed mixed-modified sulfur cements. Bench-scale testing of the sulfur concretes has shown their potential value. Corrosion resistance, strength, and durability of sulfur concrete are superior to those of conventional materials. Field in situ evaluation tests of the sulfur concretes as replacement for conventional concrete materials are in progress in corrosive areas of 24 commercial chemical, fertilizer, and metallurgical plants.

  4. Effect of sensor placement on operational modal analysis of steel girder bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Matthew J.; Gangone, Michael V.; Janoyan, Kerop D.

    2011-04-01

    With the advent and development of low-cost wireless structural health monitoring systems, the task of routinely assessing the in-service condition of highway bridges through distributed sensor-based measurements is an increasingly feasible component of bridge safety and management practice. Bridge monitoring encompasses placement of often a limited number of distributed sensors across a relatively large and complex structural system. Consequently, the selection of proper sensor locations is imperative to extraction of the most value from the recorded measurements. An experimental investigation is presented wherein sensor placement on the superstructure girders or primary beams is contrasted to the response measured on the surface of the bridge deck. The effect on the dataset richness, as evidenced by the modal content, is presented and conclusions regarding optimal placement for this structure type are presented. To affirm the plausibility of the observed responses and conclusions drawn, a finite element analysis is also performed on a model developed from the as-built drawings.

  5. A Damage Prognosis Method of Girder Structures Based on Wavelet Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumian Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the basic theory of wavelet neural networks and finite element model updating method, a basic framework of damage prognosis method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a damaged I-steel beam model testing is used to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed damage prognosis method. The results show that the predicted results of the damage prognosis method and the measured results are very well consistent, and the maximum error is less than 5%. Furthermore, Xinyihe Bridge in the Beijing-Shanghai Highway is selected as the engineering background, and the damage prognosis is conducted based on the data from the structural health monitoring system. The results show that the traffic volume will increase and seasonal differences will decrease in the next year and a half. The displacement has a slight increase and seasonal characters in the critical section of mid span, but the strain will increase distinctly. The analysis results indicate that the proposed method can be applied to the damage prognosis of girder bridge structures and has the potential for the bridge health monitoring and safety prognosis.

  6. Safety Analysis of the Patch Load Resistance of Plate Girders: Influence of Model Error and Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shahabian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to undertake a statistical study to evaluate the accuracy of nine models that have been previously proposed for estimating the ultimate resistance of plate girders subjected to patch loading. For each model, mean errors and standard errors, as well as the probability of underestimating or overestimating patch load resistance, are estimated and the resultant values are compared one to another. Prior to that, the models are initially calibrated in order to improve interaction formulae using an experimental data set collected from the literature. The models are then analyzed by computing design factors associated with a target risk level (probability of exceedance. These models are compared one to another considering uncertainties existed in material and geometrical properties. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate random variables. The statistical parameters of the calibrated models are calculated for various coefficients of variations regardless of their correlation with the random resistance variables. These probabilistic results are very useful for evaluating the stochastic sensitivity of the calibrated models.

  7. Wire position system to consistently measure and record the location change of girders following ground changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. J.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, H. G.; Y Back, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2017-07-01

    Several parts that comprise the large scientific device should be installed and operated at the accurate three-dimensional location coordinates (X, Y, and Z) where they should be subjected to survey and alignment. The location of the aligned parts should not be changed in order to ensure that the electron beam parameters (Energy 10 GeV, Charge 200 pC, and Bunch Length 60 fs, Emittance X/Y 0.481 μm/0.256 μm) of PAL-XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) remain stable and can be operated without any problems. As time goes by, however, the ground goes through uplift and subsidence, which consequently deforms building floors. The deformation of the ground and buildings changes the location of several devices including magnets and RF accelerator tubes, which eventually leads to alignment errors (∆X, ∆Y, and ∆Z). Once alignment errors occur with regard to these parts, the electron beam deviates from its course and beam parameters change accordingly. PAL-XFEL has installed the Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) to measure and record the vertical change of buildings and ground consistently and systematically and the Wire Position System (WPS) to measure the two dimensional changes of girders. This paper is designed to introduce the operating principle and design concept of WPS and discuss the current situation regarding installation and operation.

  8. Anchorage in concrete construction

    CERN Document Server

    Eligehausen, Rolf; Silva, John F

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of current fastening technology using inserts (anchor channels, headed stud), anchors (metal expansion anchor, undercut anchor, bonded anchor, concrete screw and plastic anchor) as well as power actuated fasteners in concrete. It describes in detail the fastening elements as well as their effects and load-bearing capacities in cracked and non-cracked concrete. It further focuses on corrosion behaviour, fire resistance and characteristics with earthquakes and shocks. It finishes off with the design of fastenings according to the European Technical Approval Guideline (ETAG 001), the Final Draft of the CEN Technical Specification 'Design of fastenings for use in concrete' and the American Standards ACI 318-05, Appendix D and ACI 349-01, Appendix B.

  9. Clay and concrete brick

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, MN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available are manufactured from raw clay as their primary ingredient. However concrete brick has also become a favoured material in recent times. This review will adumbrate the impact of these building materials on energy use and the environment....

  10. Concrete Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is a 20,000-sq ft laboratory that supports research on all aspects of concrete and materials technology. The staff of this facility offer wide-ranging expertise...

  11. Stone-hard concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    A polymer prepared from waste water extends the useful life of concrete. It also appears to be suitable as a protective coating for offshore applications. Chemistry professor Stephen Picken predicts that this ‘alginate’ could become huge.

  12. Self-Healing Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Although concrete is an excellent building material because of its abili-ty to withstand stress and compression, it is susceptible to cracking. Car-olyn Dry, an associate professor of architecture at the University of Illinois

  13. Prestressed concrete design

    CERN Document Server

    Hurst, MK

    1998-01-01

    This edition provides up-to-date guidance on the detailed design of prestressed concrete structures. All major topics are dealt with, including prestressed flat slabs, an important and growing application in the design of buildings.

  14. Projection optics box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  15. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  16. Performance of "Waterless Concrete"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutanji, H. A.; Grugel, R. N.

    2009-01-01

    Waterless concrete consists of molten elementary sulfur and aggregate. The aggregates in a lunar environment will be lunar rocks and soil. Sulfur is present on the Moon in Troilite soil (FeS) and, by oxidation of the soil, iron and sulfur can be produced. Sulfur concrete specimens were cycled between liquid nitrogen (approx.]91 C) and room temperature (^21 C) to simulate exposure to a lunar environment. Cycled and control specimens were subsequently tested in compression at room temperatures (^21 C) and ^-101 C. Test results showed that due to temperature cycling, the compressive strength of cycled specimens was 20% of those non-cycled. This reduction in strength can be attributed to the large differences in thermal coefficients of expansion of the materials constituting the concrete which promoted cracking. Similar sulfur concrete mixtures were strengthened with short and long glass fibres. The lunar regolith simulant was melted in a 25 cc Pt- Rh crucible in a Sybron Thermoline high temperature MoSi2 furnace at melting temperatures of 1450 to 1600 C for times of 30 min to i hour. Glass fibres and small rods were pulled from the melt. The glass fibres were used to reinforce sulfur concrete plated to improve the flexural strength of the sulfur concrete. Beams strengthened with glass fibres showed to exhibit an increase in the flexural strength by as much as 45%.

  17. New generation concretes including reactive powder concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Grzeszczyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a broad literature review, this paper presents characteristics of new generation composites on the basis of cements which are applied in engineering structures and in rehabilitation of structures. The role of cement, microfillers, superplasticizers and fibers in the above stated composites i.e. factors which allow for the maximum packing of particles in the cement matrix and a minimum pore volume, and the increase in composite bending strength, have been discussed. Special attention was paid to Reactive Powder Concrete in which coarse aggregate was replaced by ground quartz and sand. Such composites contain active microfillers and the applied new-generation superplasticizers allow us to decrease the water-cement ratio in the composite up to 0.2. Whereas, steel fibre additive allows us to significantly improve the bending strength.The paper presents the properties of the excellent Ductal — a composite from Reactive Powder Concrete, which at compressive strength from 180 to 230 MPa achieves the tensile strength of 30 to 50 MPa. Its application allows us to create slim profiles and tall light and slender, and simultaneously durable and corrosion-resistant structural elements of considerable span. This paper gives a few examples of Ductal application in practice.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, composite materials, reactive powder concrete

  18. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  19. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  20. Recycled Concrete as Aggregate for Structural Concrete Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Malešev

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the experimental results of the properties of fresh and hardened concrete with different replacement ratios of natural with recycled coarse aggregate is presented in the paper. Recycled aggregate was made by crushing the waste concrete of laboratory test cubes and precast concrete columns. Three types of concrete mixtures were tested: concrete made entirely with natural aggregate (NAC as a control concrete and two types of concrete made with natural fine and recycled coarse aggregate (50% and 100% replacement of coarse recycled aggregate. Ninety-nine specimens were made for the testing of the basic properties of hardened concrete. Load testing of reinforced concrete beams made of the investigated concrete types is also presented in the paper. Regardless of the replacement ratio, recycled aggregate concrete (RAC had a satisfactory performance, which did not differ significantly from the performance of control concrete in this experimental research. However, for this to be fulfilled, it is necessary to use quality recycled concrete coarse aggregate and to follow the specific rules for design and production of this new concrete type.

  1. Estimation of in-situ stresses in concrete members using polarized ultrasonic shear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew; Schumacher, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic testing is commonly used to detect flaws, estimate geometries, and characterize properties of materials and structures. Acoustoelasticity refers to the dependency of stress wave velocity with applied stresses and is a phenomenon that has been known by geophysicists since the 1960s. A way to capitalize on this effect for concrete applications is by using ultrasonic shear waves which are particularly sensitive to applied stresses when polarized in the direction of the applied stress. The authors conducted an experiment on a 150 mm (6 in.) diameter concrete cylinder specimen with a length of 305 mm (12 in.) that was loaded in discrete load steps to failure. At each load step two ultrasonic shear waves were transmitted through the specimen, one with the polarization perpendicular and the other transverse to the applied stress. The velocity difference between the two sets of polarized shear waves was found to correlate with the applied stress in the specimen. Two potential applications for this methodology include estimation of stresses in pre-stressed concrete bridge girders and investigation of load redistribution in structural support elements after extreme events. This paper introduces the background of the methodology, presents an analysis of the collected data, and discusses the relationship between the recorded signals and the applied stress.

  2. Static design of steel-concrete lining for traffic tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtasik, Karel; Mohyla, Marek; Hrubesova, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Article summarizes the results of research focused on the structural design of traffic tunnel linings that have been achieved in the framework of a research project TE01020168 that supports The Technology Agency of Czech Republic. This research aim is to find and develop a process for design structure parameters of tunnel linings. These are now mostly build up by a shotcrete technology. The shotcrete is commonly endorsed either with steel girders or steel fibres. Since the installation a lining structure is loaded while strength and deformational parameters of shotcrete start to rise till the setting time elapses. That’s reason why conventional approaches of reinforced concrete are not suitable. As well as there are other circumstances to step in shown in this article. Problem is solved by 3D analysis using numerical model that takes into account all the significant features of a tunnel lining construction process inclusive the interaction between lining structure with rock massive. Analysis output is a view into development of stress-strain state in respective construction parts of tunnel lining the whole structure around, including impact on stability of rock massive. The proposed method comprises all features involved in tunnel fabrication including geotechnics and construction technologies.

  3. ACSYS in a box

    CERN Document Server

    Briegel, C; Hendricks, B; King, C; Lackey, S; Neswold, R; Nicklaus, D; Patrick, J; Petrov, A; Rechenmacher, R; Schumann, C; Smedinghoff, J

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a "box" such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the "online" control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  4. ACYSYS in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briegel, C.; Finstrom, D.; Hendricks, B.; King, C.; Lackey, S.; Neswold, R.; Nicklaus, D.; Patrick, J.; Petrov, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Schumann, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a 'box' such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the 'online' control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  5. Polymers in Curved Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Yaman, K; Solis, F J; Witten, T A

    1996-01-01

    We apply results derived in other contexts for the spectrum of the Laplace operator in curved geometries to the study of an ideal polymer chain confined to a spherical annulus in arbitrary space dimension D and conclude that the free energy compared to its value for an uncurved box of the same thickness and volume, is lower when $D < 3$, stays the same when $D = 3$, and is higher when lowers the effective bending elasticity of the walls, and might induce spontaneous symmetry breaking, i.e. bending. (Actually, the above mentioned results show that {\\em {any}} shell in $D = 3$ induces this effect, except for a spherical shell). We compute the contribution of this effect to the bending rigidities in the Helfrich free energy expression.

  6. Perpendicular construction of bridge girder for long span suspension bridge under a rapid stream; Kyuchoryuka ni okeru chodai tsuribashi no hokoketa chokka tsuri koho no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakao, T.; Koga, N. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-20

    Perpendicular construction of bridge girder for a long span suspension bridge, which is to be constructed over the Kurushima Channel, an international route, has been investigated. For the construction of suspension bridge over channels, the overhang construction is generally employed. Bridge girder perpendicular construction, in which unit girder block is lifted from a carrier barge and directly constructed by means of lifting beams located at main cable, is a superb method in terms of cost, time, and safety. It is necessary to stay the carrier barge during the anchoring of girder block and lifting beams. Mooring of the carrier barge is required under a rapid stream, which results in the trouble of under way ships. A propulsion positioning system has been developed for the bridge girder carrier barge, by which the position/propulsion of four thrusters equipped at each corner of the barge can be automatically controlled. Thus, the perpendicular construction of bridge girder has been developed, in which mooring is not required even under the rapid stream. The position of barge can be maintained within a range of {plus_minus}2.5 m even under a rapid stream with a speed of 3 kn. The quick joint can be certainly connected for about one minute in the horizontal movement within {plus_minus}2.5 m and vertical movement within 0.5 m. For this perpendicular construction, the construction time can be shortened to around 16 to 17 minutes, which has been usually taken for three hours. 2 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Box-and-Whisker Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Russell D.

    1985-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  8. Three Nucleons in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Luu, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    I calculate finite-volume effects for three identical spin-1/2 fermions in a box assuming short-ranged repulsive interactions of `natural size'. This analysis employs standard perturbation theory in powers of 1/L, where L^3 is the volume of the box. I give results for the ground states in the A_1, T_1, and E cubic representations.

  9. FRP 加固 RC 连续梁桥抗震性能试验研究%Tests for aseismic performances of a RC continuous girder bridge retrofitted by FRP jacket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林元铮; 田石柱

    2016-01-01

    Taking a reinforced concrete continuous girder bridge as the study object,retrofitting the plastic region of piers with FRP jacket,the aseismic performances of the bridge structure were studied with hybrid tests.The fixed pier bearing most seismic action was taken as a test element and physically tested in a lab while the other parts of the bridge structure were taken as calculation elements and simulated numerically with OpenSees.After integrating and combining different parts with the hybrid test platform--OpenFresco,the dynamic responses of the overall bridge structure under seismic action were obtained.At last,the test results and Open Sees finite element analysis ones were compared.The results showed that the aseismic performances of the RC continuous girder bridge can be improved effectively after retrofitted with FRP jacket,and the test results agree well with those of finite element analysis.%以某钢筋混凝土连续梁桥作为研究对象,对其桥墩进行了塑性铰区的 FRP 抗震加固,采用混合试验技术研究了该桥梁结构的抗震性能。将连续梁桥结构承担主要地震作用的固定墩作为试验单元,进行真实的物理试验;将桥梁结构其余部分作为计算单元通过有限元软件 OpenSees 进行模拟,通过 OpenFresco 混合试验平台集成协调,完成了该连续梁桥的抗震混合试验。最后将试验结果与 OpenSees 有限元分析结果进行了对比。研究结果表明,FRP 抗震加固能够有效改善桥梁的抗震性能;试验结果与有限元分析结果吻合较好。

  10. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Misra; Renu Mathur

    2007-06-01

    The scope of magnesium oxychloride (MOC) cement in concrete works has been evaluated. MOC cement concrete compositions of varying strengths having good placing and finishing characteristics were prepared and investigated for their compressive and flexural strengths, -values, abrasion resistance etc. The durability of MOC concrete compositions against extreme environmental conditions viz. heating–cooling, freezing–thawing, wetting–drying and penetration and deposition of salts etc were investigated. The results reveal that MOC concrete has high compressive strength associated with high flexural strength and the ratio of compressive to flexural strength varies between 6 and 8. The elastic moduli of the compositions studied are found to be 23–85 GPa and the abrasion losses between 0.11 and 0.20%. While alternate heating–cooling cycles have no adverse effect on MOC concrete, it can be made durable against freezing–thawing and the excessive exposure to water and salt attack by replacing 10% magnesium chloride solution by magnesium sulphate solution of the same concentration.

  11. Study on Fatigue Behavior of Anchorage of Cable and Girder of Long Span Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A full scale model test is done and a FEM model is established toinvestigate the fatigue behavior of the Nancha cable-stayed bridge of the Nanjing Second Yangtz River Bridge, a long span steel bridge with a main span of 628 m. The results of test and FEM are analyzed and compared. It is shown that they are in good agreement. It is verified that the fatigue characteristic of the anchorage structure of cable and girder of the bridge satisfies the requirements specified by Chinese, British and American codes.

  12. Girder deformation related phase errors on the undulators for the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In long gap tunable undulators, strong magnetic forces always lead to some amount of gap-dependent girder deformation and resulting gap-dependent phase errors. For the undulators for the European XFEL, this problem has been investigated thoroughly and quantitatively. Using the different gap dependencies of suitable shims and pole height tuning, a method is presented which can be applied to reduce the overall gap dependence of the phase error if needed. It is exemplified by tuning one of the undulator segments for the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser back to specs.

  13. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn;

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  14. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  15. Water Entrainment in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    This report gives a survey of different techniques for incorporation of designed, water-filled cavities in concrete: Water entrainment. Also an estimate of the optimum size of the water inclusions is given. Water entrainment can be used to avoid self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage...... during hydration [1,26]. What is needed is some sort of container which retains the shape of the water when mixed into the concrete. The container may function based on several different physical or chemical principles. Cells and gels are examples of containers found in nature. A cell membrane provides...... a boundary to water, whereas a polymer network incorporates water in its intersticious space with its affinity due to interaction energy and polymer entropy. Such containers allow water to be stored as an entity. In relation to concrete the water encapsulation may be accomplished either before or after start...

  16. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomasney, H. [ISOTRON Corp., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  17. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  18. Ancient concrete works

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  19. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  20. The Black Box QGP

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    According to the extensive ab initio calculations of lattice QCD, the much large energy density available in the heavy-ion collisions at SPS and now at RHIC should be enough to create the quark-gluon plasma (QGP); a new state of matter in form plasma of free quarks and gluons. The new matter discovered at RHIC is a ''nearly perfect'' fluid rather than a plasma. The shear viscosity is too small. We should then ask about the theoretical and phenomenological consequences and why we simply assumed that the deconfined hadronic matter should be an ideal gas. Finally, I will address five questions; about the properties of the new phases at high temperatures and the orders of phase transitions. Before we clarify such questions, the QGP will remain a kind of black box. One sends a signal via new experiments or simulations and gets another one out if it. Then one try to explain what is going on. I will show that some promising ideas already have been suggested long time ago, but it seems that community didn't care. Is ...

  1. Black Box QGP

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    According to extensive ab initio calculations of lattice QCD, the very large energy density available in heavy-ion collisions at SPS and now at RHIC must be sufficient to generate quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a new state of matter in the form of plasma of free quarks and gluons. The new state of matter discovered at RHIC seems to be perfect fluid rather than free plasma. Its shear viscosity is assumed to be almost zero. In this work, I first considered the theoretical and phenomenological consequences of this discovery and finally asked questions about the nature of phase transition and properties of matter. It is important to answer these questions, otherwise QGP will remain a kind of black box; one sends a signal via new experiments or simulations or models and gets another one from it. I will show that some promising ideas have already been suggested a long time ago. I will also suggest a new phase diagram with separated deconfinement and freeze-out boundaries and a mixed state of thermal quark matter and bub...

  2. Corrosion Inhibitors for Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Steel corrosion in reinforced concrete structures has been a major problem across the U.S. Steel-reinforced concrete structures are continually subject to attack by corrosion brought on by naturally occurring environmental conditions. FerroGard, a corrosion inhibitor, developed by Sika Corporation, penetrates hardened concrete to dramatically reduce corrosion by 65% and extend the structure's service life.

  3. Numerical analysis of dynamic response of vehicle–bridge coupled system on long-span continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To systematically study the vehicle–bridge coupled dynamic response and its change rule with different parameters, a vehicle model with seven degrees of freedom was built and the total potential energy of vehicle space vibration system was deduced. Considering the stimulation of road roughness, the dynamic response equation of vehicle–bridge coupled system was established in accordance with the elastic system principle of total potential energy with stationary value and the “set-in-right-position” rule. On the basis of the self-compiled Fortran program and bridge engineering, the dynamic response of long-span continuous girder bridge under vehicle load was studied. This study also included the calculation of vehicle impact coefficient, evaluation of vibration comfort, and analysis of dynamic response parameters. Results show the impact coefficient changes with lane number and is larger than the value calculated by the “general code for design of highway bridges and culverts (China”. The Dieckmann index of bridge vibration is also related to lane number, and the vibration comfort evaluation is good in normal conditions. The relevant conclusions from parametric analyses have practical significance to dynamic design and daily operation of long-span continuous girder bridges in expressways. Safety and comfort are expected to improve significantly with further control of the vibration of vehicle–bridge system.

  4. 孟庙至平顶山铁路钢管混凝土拱加劲连续梁桥设计%Design of Continuous Beam Bridge Stiffened by Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Arch on Mengmiao-Pingdingshan Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫华; 龙俊贤

    2016-01-01

    孟庙至平顶山铁路跨311国道特大桥主桥为(32+100+32) m钢管混凝土拱加劲连续梁桥,平面位于R=1600 m的曲线上。主梁为预应力混凝土双纵箱梁结构,纵梁间桥面结构采用纵、横梁体系格子梁,纵梁为单箱单室截面,沿纵向等宽、变高度;在100 m 主跨上方,对应于双纵梁设2道变高度钢管混凝土拱肋加劲,2道拱肋间采用空心钢管组成的3道横撑实现横向连接,每道拱肋由2根钢管组成,拱肋钢管及实腹段内填筑C50微膨胀混凝土;每道拱肋下设13组吊杆,每组吊杆的纵向间距为6 m。采用有限元程序MIDAS建立主桥有限元模型,进行静、动力特性分析,采用ANSYS建立拱脚处空间实体模型对拱脚处局部应力进行分析,分析结果表明该桥各项静、动力特性均满足要求。%The main bridge of the Bridge crossing the No .311 National Highway on the Meng‐miao‐Pingdingshan Railway is a (32+100+32) m continuous beam bridge stiffened by concrete‐filled steel tubular arch .T he plan curvature of the bridge is 1 600 m .T he main girder consists of two longitudinal prestressed concrete box structures ,on which the lattice bridge deck system that is formed of longitudinal and transverse beams rests .The longitudinal beams adopt the single cell single box section ,with constant width and varying height along the bridge length .Above the 100 m long main span ,just over the two longitudinal box beam structures ,two varying‐height con‐crete‐filled steel tubular arch ribs were installed ,aiming to stiffen the longitudinal box beams .Be‐tween the two arch ribs ,three pairs of lateral bracings made of void steel tubes were added to form transverse connection .Each arch rib consists of two steel tubes ,which together with the solid‐spandrel section were filled with C50 micro‐expansive concrete .13 pairs of hangers were tensioned from each arch rib ,spaced by 6 m along the

  5. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...

  6. Designing concrete for durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd, A. J.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Some of the factors affecting the durability of modern concrete structures are discussed, with an emphasis on the problems caused by modern portland cements. This is followed by a description of some concrete durability issues of current interest, such as plastic shrinkage, seawater attack, and sulfate attack. The strategies for testing for durability are also discussed. It is concluded that, to produce durable concretes, a holistic approach to concrete construction must be adopted.

    Se discuten algunos de los factores que influyen en la durabilidad de las estructuras de hormigón modernas, haciendo énfasis en los problemas causados por el cemento Portland. A esto sigue una descripción de algunas cuestiones de interés general de la durabilidad del hormigón tales como la retracción plástica, el ataque por agua de mar y el ataque por sulfatos. Se discuten también las estrategias de los ensayos de durabilidad. Se concluye que para producir hormigones durables se debe adoptar un enfoque holístico de la construcción con hormigón.

  7. Teaching concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of concrete structures has been revised and a number of new approaches have been developed, implemented and evaluated. Inductive teaching, E-learning and “patches” have been found to be improvements and may be an inspiration and help for others development of the teaching and learning...

  8. Micromechanics of Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-25

    reflects the dispersion of the coarse aggregates on the mesoscale. Specifically, the experimental measure- ments indicate ( Mindess and Young 1981, Zaitsev...Mecanique des Materiaux Solides, Dunod, Paris. Mindess , S. and J. Young (1981), Concrete, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Mura, T. (1982

  9. Mechanics of Concrete II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-18

    Mindess (1981) also agrees with the first of the two reactions but allows for transformation of the ettringite to monosulphate in the case when all...Comp. Materials, 23, pp. 163-194. 3 Mindess , S. and J. F. Young (1981), Concrete, Prentice Hall, Englewood Clifs, N.J. * 74 I Moavenzadeh, F.(1971

  10. Structural concrete and sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grieve, G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available the typical specific CO2 per ton of cementitious binder is about 765 kg. However, the effect of this is significantly diluted by the addition of aggregates (around 80% of the mass of a cubic meter of concrete) and cement extenders, of which many are industrial...

  11. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  12. Forterra Concrete Products, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Forterra Concrete Products, Inc., a business located at 511 E. John Carpenter Freeway, Irving, TX, 75062, for alleged violations at its facility located at 23600 W. 40th St

  13. Electrical pulses protect concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Even concrete is not as hard as it looks. Sea water, salt on icy roads, and indirectly even carbon dioxide from the air can corrode the steel of the reinforcing bars and so threaten the strength and integrity of a bridge pier, jetty, or viaduct. Dessi Koleva, a chemical engineer from Bulgaria, spent

  14. Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    1967, Cedergren 1974, Federal Highway .’,U .. V,47 -’":: 37 Administration 1980). Block pavements have essentially the same prob- lems with moisture...Vicksburg, Miss. Cedergren , H. R. 1974. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, John Wiley and Sons, New VOk. I Cement and Concrete Association

  15. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  16. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the maintenance policy of the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Civil Engineering Division, hydrophobic treatment of concrete was considered as an additional protective measure against penetration of aggressive substances, for instance deicing salts in bridge decks. A set of tests was designed

  17. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.de; Polder, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the maintenance policy of the dutch Ministry of Transport, Civil Engineering Division, hydrophobic treatment of concrete was considered as an additional protective measure against penetration of aggressive substances, for instance deicing salts in bridge decks. A set of tests was designed

  18. Fracture Mechanics of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, Jens Peder

    Chapter 1 Chapter l contains the introduction to this thesis. The scope of the thesis is partly to investigate different numerical and analytical models based on fracture mechanical ideas, which are able to predict size effects, and partly to perform an experimental investigation on high-strength......Chapter 1 Chapter l contains the introduction to this thesis. The scope of the thesis is partly to investigate different numerical and analytical models based on fracture mechanical ideas, which are able to predict size effects, and partly to perform an experimental investigation on high......-strength concrete. Chapter 2 A description of the factors which influence the strength and cracking of concrete and high strength concrete is made. Then basic linear fracture mechanics is outlined followed by a description and evaluation of the models used to describe concrete fracture in tension. The chapter ends...... with a description of the different types of size effects. Three examples which discuss the two terms 'size effect' and 'brittleness' and the importance of a stiff test rig. Finally some brittleness numbers are defined. Chapter 3 In chapter 3 the most well-known numerical methods which use the fictitious crack...

  19. Precast Concrete Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Gorsuch 1962, Kruse 1966, Jacoby 1967, and Hargett 1970). The final slab design used in construction is shown in Figure 2. These slabs were 6 ft wide, 24...Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Miss. Gorsuch , R. F. 1962. "Preliminary Investigation of Precast Prestressed Concrete Pavements," MS Thesis, South Dakota

  20. From concrete repair to concrete conservation: How to preserve the heritage values of historic concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, H.A.; Zijlstra, H.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Nijland, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of historic concrete is an increasing task, challenging both concrete repair specialists and conservation specialists. In practice, too often repair strategies are followed where conservation strategies would have been necessary. The application of repair techniques poses two threat

  1. ABAQUS箱型桥梁的GUI二次开发%Secondary Development for GUI of Box Girder Bridge Based on ABAQUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家林; 李平

    2009-01-01

    介绍了大型通用有限元软件ABAQUS的二次开发功能和利用面向对象语言Python编制参数化建模插件的原理和步骤.以变截面箱型桥梁参数化有限元建模为背景,通过ABAQUS提供的API函数和AFX GUI Toolkit工具包开发了箱梁桥参数化建模菜单和工具条,提高了箱型桥梁的有限元建模速度,为箱型桥梁的精细有限元分析提供了有力的支持.

  2. 箱梁极限承载力破坏仿真分析%Simulation Analysis of Failure of Box Girder Under Ultimate Bearing Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹冠生; 刘晓伟; 张小慧

    2013-01-01

    以J-H-C作为混凝土材料模型,以PLASTIC-KINEMATIC作为钢筋材料模型,用数值模拟箱梁在极限承载力下的破坏.实践证明,这两种材料模型能够较好地模拟箱梁在极限承载力下的破坏.

  3. Applied Research of Shaped Box Girder for Urban Grade Separation%城市立交异型箱梁应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑鹏宇

    2011-01-01

    以日前城市立交桥中常用的混凝土异形箱梁桥为背景,从结构分析方法、设计方法及建模等方面进行了详细介绍,并针对某工程实例,结合相应的空间计算理论进行分析,为该类型桥梁的设计和施工研究提供参考.

  4. On construction and inspection of prestressed continuous rigid box girder%预应力连续刚构箱梁桥施工与监控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛亚兵

    2016-01-01

    Taking Xushui Bridge as the example,the paper illustrates the construction technique for the upper and lower structures of bridges,in-troduces the main content and methods for the construction control,observes the elevation and main beam stress,and proves by the result that the upper structure can meet the demands for various indexes in the construction process.%以溆水大桥工程为例,阐述了桥梁下部结构与上部结构的施工技术,介绍了施工控制的主要内容与方法,并对标高及主梁应力进行了观测,结果表明,上部结构在施工过程中的各项指标均满足要求。

  5. Experimental test investigation on one continuous steel box girder footbridge%某连续钢箱梁人行桥的检测试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何江燕; 张银华

    2006-01-01

    某连续梁人行桥,经过多年的运营该桥部分出现了一些病害.为检测该桥的承载能力以及使用性能,基于通用有限元程序软件对该桥进行理论计算,同时根据理论计算结果作为控制内力进行现场检测试验.试验结果表明该桥使用性能较好,承载能力满足有关规范的要求.

  6. 波形钢腹板PC箱梁人行桥结构设计%Structure Design of PC Box - Girder Footbridge with Corrugated Steel Webs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朦朦

    2005-01-01

    针对我国在建的波形钢腹板PC组合连续箱梁人行桥的主梁及波形钢腹板的结构设计,对结构设计参数合理取值进行了分析,指出了该类桥梁结构在施工中应注意的问题.

  7. Computing out of the Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Baidu unveils "box computing/’ which it hopes will lead to a number of innovations on the InternetBaidu, China’s most popular search engine, held its Technology Innovation Conference 2009 at the China World

  8. Energy expenditure in women boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, P; Banerjee, A K; Majumdar, P; Chatterjee, P

    2006-01-01

    Women boxing have got recognition recently and so far no work has been reported on energy expenditure of national women boxers in India. This study was aimed to estimate the energy expenditure in Indian female boxers during sparring. A total of 20 female boxers were subjected. Energy expenditure was estimated using the same individual's HR-VO2 regression equation. Heart rate was recorded through radiotelemetry. Results reveal that average and maximum energy expenditure considering the total duration of boxing are 12.7 +/- 1.3 and 14.4 +/- 1.6 kcal/min. It is concluded that depending on the severity of energy expenditure female boxing comes under heavy category and as it is a pioneer attempt in India, further studies in this aspect are really required which will guide the coaches regarding the energy expenditure pattern in women boxing.

  9. Study on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Single-pylon Cable-stayed Bridge Girder by Numerical Simulation and Wind Tunnel Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longqi Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The wind induced vibration is one of the key technical problems for long-span bridge design. Therefore, a study on the aerodynamic characteristics of a single-pylon cable-stayed bridge girder is carried out in this paper. The aerostatic coefficient of the bridge girder, including both construction state and service state, is investigated by wind tunnel test with varying wind attack angle. Then based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method, the flow field around the bridge girder is visualized numerically. The risk of vortex-induced vibration (VIV is qualitatively evaluated by analyzing the flow features and by considering the Scruton number (Sc. Later a dynamic section model is tested in wind tunnel and the VIV phenomenon is observed subsequently. Results show that the aerodynamic stability is assured by the positive slope of the lift coefficient. The VIV response is influenced by the structural damping and the bridge accessory. The amplitude of VIV response can be lower by increasing the structural damping. The maintenance track rail of the bridge girder also does some good for suppressing the VIV as long as the track rail is located at the appropriate place.

  10. Self-compacting concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    In many aspects Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC, “Self-Consolidating Concrete” in North America) can be considered the concrete of the future. SCC is a family of tailored concretes with special engineered properties in the fresh state. SCC flows into the formwork and around even complicated...... reinforcement arrangements under its own weight. Thus, SCC is not vibrated like conventional concrete. This drastically improves the working environment during construction, the productivity, and potentially improves the homogeneity and quality of the concrete. In addition SCC provides larger architectural...

  11. Early Property Development in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Gitte; Munch-Petersen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The Freiesleben Maturity function is widely used for planning of execution. We tested if for concrete with and without fly ash. The test showed surprisingly that the maturity function in general is not valid. We found that curing at high temperature gave a significant decrease in strength. Fly ash...... appears to reduce this decrease somewhat. We also examined the resistance against chloride penetration for the different concrete types. The resistance was reduced at high temperatures for concrete without fly ash. For concrete with fly ash, it was the opposite; concrete with fly ash obtained higher...

  12. 桥式起重机轻量化主梁结构模型试验研究%Structural Model Test of Lightweight Girder of Bridge Crane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦洪宇; 周奇才; 李英; 陈庆樟; 许广举

    2015-01-01

    针对桥式起重机主梁的轻量化设计方案对主梁强度、静态刚度的影响问题,基于相似理论和弹性静力学,采用方程分析法推导出原型主梁与相似主梁应力场相似的相似准则.依据主梁结构形式及受力特点,设计切实可行的主梁结构模型试验方案,开展轻量化主梁结构模型试验研究.结果表明,轻量化主梁在跨中截面腹板下半部分的弯曲正应力有一定程度的增加,腹板上半部分的弯曲正应力(绝对值)有小幅度下降;轻量化主梁在跨端截面的切应力增加幅度较大;轻量化主梁的最大挠度有所下降.依据《起重机设计规范》对轻量化主梁进行强度和静态刚度校核.在满足主梁强度、静态刚度要求的前提下,周期性去除腹板上的部分材料实现主梁轻量化设计具有一定的可行性.%In order to research the influence of girder's lightweight plan on strength and static rigidity, similarity criterions between prototype girder and similarity girder are derived from equational analysis based on similarity theory and elastostatics. The scheme of structural model test is designed reasonably and the study of structural model test is carried out. Results show that bending normal stress of upper half of web at midspan of lightweight girder increases to some extent and bending normal stress of bottom half of web decreases within a narrow range. Shear stress at the end-span declines by a great margin. The maximum deflection of lightweight girder comes down. The strength and static rigidity of lightweight girder are checked based on design rules for cranes. It is feasible to wipe off some material periodically in order to realize the lightweight design of girder on the premise of satisfying the strength and static rigidity.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjunnesson, Jeannette

    2005-09-15

    This is an environmental study on concrete that follows the standard protocol of life cycle assessment (LCA). The study is done for two types of concrete, ordinary and frost-resistant concrete, and has an extra focus on the superplasticizers used as admixtures. The utilization phase is not included in this study since the type of construction for which the concrete is used is not defined and the concrete is assumed to be inert during this phase. The results show that it is the production of the raw material and the transports involved in the life cycle of concrete that are the main contributors to the total environmental load. The one single step in the raw material production that has the highest impact is the production of cement. Within the transportation operations the transportation of concrete is the largest contributor, followed by the transportation of the cement. The environmental impact of frost-resistant concrete is between 24-41 % higher than that of ordinary concrete due to its higher content of cement. Superplasticizers contribute with approximately 0.4-10.4 % of the total environmental impact of concrete, the least to the global warming potential (GWP) and the most to the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP). Also the toxicity of the superplasticizers is investigated and the conclusion is that the low amount of leakage of superplasticizers from concrete leads to a low risk for the environment and for humans.

  14. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  15. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....

  16. Grey Target Optimization of Waterproof Adhesive Material for Concrete Bridge Deck Pavement Based on Mechanical Analysis%基于力学分析的桥面铺装防水粘结层材料灰靶优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新; 李英涛; 刘云

    2012-01-01

    为了优选与混凝土箱梁桥防水粘结层实际受力状态相匹配的材料,以沪杭高速公路拓宽改建工程高架桥为例,采用有限元法建立了全桥模型,在分析刹车、超载、随机动荷载等因素对防水粘结层力学响应的基础上,利用灰靶理论优选室内实测典型防水粘结层的相关技术参数.研究结果表明:刹车超载使防水粘结层产生的剪应力大于由桥面不平度引起的防水粘结层剪应力,最大可达0.397 MPa;橡胶沥青和SBS改性沥青防水粘结层综合性能较优,可作为混凝土桥防水粘结层材料.%In order to select the optimal waterproof adhesive material that meets the stress needs of concrete box girder bridge deck pavement, taking the viaduct in widening project of the Shanghai-Hangzhou Expressway as an example, a composite structure model of the whole bridge was established using the finite element method, and the influence of braking, overloading, random dynamic loading on the mechanical response of the waterproof adhesive layer was analyzed. The technique parameters of some typical materials for waterproof adhesive layer were tested in lab, and then analyzed by the grey target theory. The result shows that braking plus overloading has a larger effect on the shear stress of adhesive layer than the random dynamic loading caused by bridge deck roughness, and may produce a maximum shear stress of 0. 397 MPa. The rubber asphalt and SBS modified asphalt both have good performance, and can be used as the material of waterproof adhesive layer.

  17. Injury risk in professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Gregory H; Li, Guohu; Levy, Fred

    2005-10-01

    Although a popular endeavor, boxing has fallen under increased scrutiny because of its association with traumatic brain injury. However, few studies have investigated the overall epidemiology of boxing injuries from representative samples, and no study has ever documented the incidence of injuries in female boxers. This study is a review of professional boxing data from the state of Nevada from September 2001 through March 2003. Medical and outcome data for all professional boxing matches occurring in Nevada between September 2001 and March 2003 (n = 524 matches) were analyzed on the basis of a pair-matched, case-control design. Cases were boxers who received an injury during the boxing matches. Boxers who were not injured served as control subjects. Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. The overall incidence rate of injury was 17.1 per 100 boxer-matches, or 3.4 per 100 boxer-rounds. Facial laceration accounted for 51% of all injuries, followed by hand injury (17%), eye injury (14%), and nose injury (5%). Male boxers were significantly more likely than female boxers to receive injuries (3.6 versus 1.2 per 100 boxer-rounds, P = 0.01). Male boxing matches also ended in knockouts and technical knockouts more often than did female matches (P boxing matches is high, particularly among male boxers. Superficial facial lacerations are the most common injury reported. Male boxers have a higher rate of knockout and technical knockouts than female boxers. Further research is necessary to determine the outcomes of injury, particularly the long-term neurologic outcome differences between sexes.

  18. Micro Environmental Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanez, M.; Oudjit, M. N.; Zenati, A.; Arroudj, K.; Bali, A.

    Reactive powder concretes (RPC) are characterized by a particle diameter not exceeding 600 μm and having very high compressive and tensile strengths. This paper describes a new generation of micro concrete, which has an initial as well as a final high physicomechanical performance. To achieve this, 15% by weight of the Portland cement have been substituted by materials rich in Silica (Slag and Dune Sand). The results obtained from the tests carried out on the RPC show that compressive and tensile strengths increase when incorporating the addition, thus improving the compactness of mixtures through filler and pozzolanic effects. With a reduction in the aggregate phase in the RPC and the abundance of the dune sand (southern of Algeria) and slag (industrial by-product of the blast furnace), the use of the RPC will allow Algeria to fulfil economical as well as ecological requirements.

  19. Tonsil concretions and tonsilloliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruet, C W; Duplan, D A

    1987-05-01

    Although infrequently seen in many clinical practices, tonsillar concretions can be the source of both fetor oris and physical and social concern for the patient. Though stones rarely form in the tonsil or peritonsillar area, the findings of calcified objects or stones anywhere within the body has long been a subject of interest. The salient features of these entities and their relevance to clinical practice are discussed in this article.

  20. Design of ultra-lightweight concrete: towards monolithic concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qing Liang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the development of ultra-lightweight concrete. A moderate strength and an excellent thermal conductivity of the lightweight concrete are set as the design targets. The designed lightweight aggregates concrete is targeted to be used in monolithic concrete façade structure, performing as both load bearing element and thermal insulator. The developed lightweight concrete shows excellent thermal properties, with a low thermal conductivity of about 0.12 W/(m·K; and moderate mechanical properties, with 28-day compressive strengths of about 10-12 N/mm . This combination of values exceeds, to the researchers’ knowledge, the performance of all other lightweight building materials. Furthermore, the developed lightweight concrete possesses excellent durability properties.

  1. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  2. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-04-01

    Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial) toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU (5) by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  3. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  4. Medical and Safety Reforms in Boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The continued existence of boxing as an accepted sport in civilized society has been long debated. The position of the American Medical Association (AMA) has evolved from promoting increased safety and medical reform to recommending total abolition of both amateur and professional boxing. In response to the AMA opposition to boxing, the boxing community has attempted to increase the safeguards in amateur and professional boxing. The United States of America Amateur Boxing Federation, which is the national regulatory agency for all amateur boxing in the United States, has taken several actions to prevent the occurrence of acute brain injury and is currently conducting epidemiologic studies to assess the long-term neuropsychologic consequences of amateur boxing. In professional boxing, state regulatory agencies such as the New York State Athletic Commission have introduced several medical interventions to prevent and reduce neurologic injury. The lack of a national regulatory agency to govern professional boxing has stimulated the formation of the Association of Boxing Commissions and potential legislation for the federal regulation of professional boxing by a federally chartered organization called the United States Boxing Commission. The AMA's opposition to boxing and the medical and safety reforms implemented by the proponents of boxing are discussed. PMID:3385788

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Self-Compacting Reinforced Concrete Including Synthetics and Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Tavakoli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of combining fibers with self-consolidating concrete (SCC. 12 series of test specimens were prepared using three kinds of fibers including steel, polyphenylene sulfide (PPS and glass fibers with four different volumes fractions and one specimen without fibers as a reference sample. All plans were subjected to fresh concrete tests. For mechanical behavior of concrete, compressive, tensile and flexural strength, toughness, fracture energy and force-displacement curves has been studied. Fresh (rheological properties were assessed using L-Box, Slump flow and T-50 tests. results show that concrete workability is reduced by increasing fiber volume fraction; among different fibers the PPS fibers have less negative effects on rheology. On the contrary, these fibers can improve the splitting tensile, flexural strength, toughness and fracture energy of SCC significantly; however strength of compressive is decreased by increasing the amount of fibers. Adding steel fibers to SCC increases energy absorption eminently.

  6. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  7. Let’s Get Concrete!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Candace; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Scholars emphasize the cognitive or ideational aspects of institutional logics. Less clear is the role of materiality, which is a key aspect of institutional logics, and aesthetic responses to material objects. This study focuses on the introduction of a new building material—concrete— during 1890......-legitimated not only concrete but also stone. Concrete was perceived as merely imitative and thus inauthentic. For concrete to become a legitimate and widely adopted material, architects had to theorize concrete as unique material with distinctive aesthetic possibilities, which led to new kinds of buildings and new...... to 1939 in the architectural profession. Our findings reveal that how professional logics were enacted drove different process for incorporating concrete as a legitimate building material: in France professional and state logics combined to create regulations that governed architects’ use of concrete...

  8. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method.

  9. Experimental study of self-compacted concrete in hardened state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Costa, Carlos Jose

    The main aim of this work is to investigate the hardened behaviour of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Self compacting Concrete is a special concrete that can flow in its gravity and fill in the formwork alone to its self-weight, passing through the bars and congested sections without the need of any internal or external vibration, while maintaining adequate homogeneity. SCC avoids most of the materials defects due to bleeding or segregation. With regard to its composition, SCC consists of the same components as traditional vibrated concrete (TC), but in different proportions. Thus, the high amount of superplasticizer and high powder content have to taken into account. The high workability of SCC does not allow to use traditional methods for measuring the fresh state properties, so new tests has developed (slump-flow, V-funnel, L-box, and others). The properties of the hardened SCC, which depend on the mix design, should be different from traditional concrete. In order to study the possible modifications of SCC hardened state properties, a review of the bibliography was done. The state of art was focused on the mechanical behaviour (compressive strength, tension strength and elastic modulus), on bond strength of reinforcement steel, and on material durability. The experimental program consisted in the production of two types of concretes: Self-Compacting Concrete and Traditional Concrete. Four different dosages was made with three different water/cement ratio and two strength types of Portland cement, in order to cover the ordinary strength used in construction. Based on this study it can be concluded that compressive strength of SCC and TC are similar (the differences are lesser than 10%), whereas the tensile strength of TC are up to 18% higher. The values of elastic modulus of both concrete are similar. On the other hand, in the ultimate state the bond strength of SCC and TC is similar, although SCC shows higher bond stiffness in the serviceability state (initial

  10. Neurochemical aftermath of amateur boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Hietala, M Albert; Jonsson, Michael; Andreasen, Niels; Styrud, Ewa; Karlsson, Ingvar; Edman, Ake; Popa, Cornel; Rasulzada, Abdullah; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Mehta, Pankaj D; Rosengren, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Wallin, Anders

    2006-09-01

    Little solid information is available on the possible risks for neuronal injury in amateur boxing. To determine whether amateur boxing and severity of hits are associated with elevated levels of biochemical markers for neuronal injury in cerebrospinal fluid. Longitudinal study. Referral center specializing in evaluation of neurodegenerative disorders. Fourteen amateur boxers (11 men and 3 women) and 10 healthy male nonathletic control subjects. The boxers underwent lumbar puncture 7 to 10 days and 3 months after a bout. The control subjects underwent LP once. Neurofilament light protein, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, phosphorylated tau, and beta-amyloid protein 1-40 (Abeta([1-40])) and 1-42 (Abeta([1-42])) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid were measured. Increased levels after a bout compared with after 3 months of rest from boxing were found for 2 markers for neuronal and axonal injury, neurofilament light protein (mean +/- SD, 845 +/- 1140 ng/L vs 208 +/- 108 ng/L; P = .008) and total tau (mean +/- SD, 449 +/- 176 ng/L vs 306 +/- 78 ng/L; P = .006), and for the astroglial injury marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (mean +/- SD, 541 +/- 199 ng/L vs 405 +/- 138 ng/L; P = .003). The increase was significantly higher among boxers who had received many hits (>15) or high-impact hits to the head compared with boxers who reported few hits. In the boxers, concentrations of neurofilament light protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein, but not total tau, were significantly elevated after a bout compared with the nonathletic control subjects. With the exception of neurofilament light protein, there were no significant differences between boxers after 3 months of rest from boxing and the nonathletic control subjects. Amateur boxing is associated with acute neuronal and astroglial injury. If verified in longitudinal studies with extensive follow-up regarding the clinical outcome, analyses of cerebrospinal fluid may provide a scientific basis for

  11. Finite element model updating of multi-span steel-arch-steel-girder bridges based on ambient vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tsung-Chin; Gao, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Sheng; Zhu, Guan-Rong; Su, Yu-Min

    2017-04-01

    The three-span steel-arch-steel-girder Jiaxian Bridge was newly constructed in 2010 to replace the former one that has been destroyed by Typhoon Sinlaku (2008, Taiwan). It was designed and built to continue the domestic service requirement, as well as to improve the tourism business of the Kaohsiung city government, Taiwan. This study aimed at establishing the baseline model of Jiaxian Bridge for hazardous scenario simulation such as typhoons, floods and earthquakes. Necessities of these precaution works were attributed to the inherent vulnerability of the sites: near fault and river cross. The uncalibrated baseline bridge model was built with structural finite element in accordance with the blueprints. Ambient vibration measurements were performed repeatedly to acquire the elastic dynamic characteristics of the bridge structure. Two frequency domain system identification algorithms were employed to extract the measured operational modal parameters. Modal shapes, frequencies, and modal assurance criteria (MAC) were configured as the fitting targets so as to calibrate/update the structural parameters of the baseline model. It has been recognized that different types of structural parameters contribute distinguishably to the fitting targets, as this study has similarly explored. For steel-arch-steel-girder bridges in particular this case, joint rigidity of the steel components was found to be dominant while material properties and section geometries relatively minor. The updated model was capable of providing more rational elastic responses of the bridge superstructure under normal service conditions as well as hazardous scenarios, and can be used for manage the health conditions of the bridge structure.

  12. Inspection Strategies for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an optimal inspection strategy for concrete bridges based on periodic routine and detailed inspections is presented. The failure mode considered is corrosion of the reinforcement due to chlorides. A simple modelling of the corrosion and of the inspection strategy is presented....... The optimal inspection strategy is determined from an optimization problem, where the design variables are time intervals between detailed inspections and the concrete cover. The strategy is illustrated on a simple structure, namely a reinforced concrete beam....

  13. Inspection Strategies for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an optimal inspection strategy for concrete bridges based on periodic routine and detailed inspections is presented. The failure mode considered is corrosion of the reinforcement due to chlorides. A simple modelling of the corrosion and of the inspection strategy is presented....... The optimal inspection strategy is determined from an optimization problem, where the design variables are time intervals between detailed inspections and the concrete cover. The strategy is illustrated on a simple structure, namely a reinforced concrete beam....

  14. Optimization of reinforced concrete slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferritto, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Reinforced concrete cells composed of concrete slabs and used to limit the effects of accidental explosions during hazardous explosives operations are analyzed. An automated design procedure which considers the dynamic nonlinear behavior of the reinforced concrete of arbitrary geometrical and structural configuration subjected to dynamic pressure loading is discussed. The optimum design of the slab is examined using an interior penalty function. The optimization procedure is presented and the results are discussed and compared with finite element analysis.

  15. Optimization of reinforced concrete slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferritto, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Reinforced concrete cells composed of concrete slabs and used to limit the effects of accidental explosions during hazardous explosives operations are analyzed. An automated design procedure which considers the dynamic nonlinear behavior of the reinforced concrete of arbitrary geometrical and structural configuration subjected to dynamic pressure loading is discussed. The optimum design of the slab is examined using an interior penalty function. The optimization procedure is presented and the results are discussed and compared with finite element analysis.

  16. BOX: One Minute Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Rose

    2009-01-01

    BOX is a digital short originally developed in 2004 documented on a 1920’s box camera. This early moving image work formed the basis of a practice which interrogates our experience of moving image through the remediation of analogue technology with new media. In 2009 it was included in One Minute Volume 3; a programme of artists moving image curated by Kerry Baldry including work by: Tony Hill, Tina Keane, Katherine Meynell, Kayla Parker and Stuart Moore, Dave Griffiths, Marty St Jam...

  17. Black holes in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witek, Helvi; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica - CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gualtieri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' and Sezione INFN Roma1, P.A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy); Herdeiro, Carlos; Zilhao, Miguel [Centro de Fisica do Porto e Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Sperhake, Ulrich, E-mail: helvi.witek@ist.utl.p, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.p, E-mail: Leonardo.Gualtieri@roma1.infn.i, E-mail: crherdei@fc.up.p, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.p, E-mail: sperhake@tapir.caltech.ed, E-mail: mzilhao@fc.up.p [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of BHs in 'confining boxes' is interesting for a number of reasons, particularly because it mimics some aspects of anti-de Sitter spacetimes. These admit no Cauchy surface and are a simple example of a non-globally hyperbolic spacetime. We are here interested in the potential role that boundary conditions play in the evolution of a BH system. For that, we imprison a binary BH in a box, at which boundary we set mirror-like boundary conditions.

  18. Seismic Material Properties of Reinforced Concrete and Steel Casing Composite Concrete in Elevated Pile-Group Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Mi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the material mechanics properties of reinforced concrete and steel casing composite concrete under pseudo-static loads and their application in structure. Although elevated pile-group foundation is widely used in bridge, port and ocean engineering, the seismic performance of this type of foundation still need further study. Four scale-specimens of the elevated pile-group foundation were manufactured by these two kinds of concrete and seismic performance characteristic of each specimen were compared. Meanwhile, the special soil box was designed and built to consider soil-pile-superstructure interaction. According to the test result, the peak strength of strengthening specimens is about 1.77 times of the others and the ultimate displacement is 1.66 times of the RC specimens. Additionally, the dissipated hysteric energy capability of strengthening specimens is more than 2.15 times of the others as the equivalent viscous damping ratio is reduced by 50%. The pinching effect of first two specimens is more obvious than latter two specimens and the hysteretic loops of reinforced specimens are more plumpness. The pseudo-static tests also provided the data to quantitatively assessment the positive effect of steel casing composite concrete in aseismatic design of bridge.

  19. A Comparative Study of White Box, Black Box and Grey Box Testing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Ehmer Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is the process to uncover requirement, design and coding errors in the program. It is used to identify the correctness, completeness, security and quality of software products against a specification. Software testing is the process used to measure the quality of developed computer software. It exhibits all mistakes, errors and flaws in the developed software. There are many approaches to software testing, but effective testing of complex product is essentially a process of investigation, not merely a matter of creating and following route procedure. It is not possible to find out all the errors in the program. This fundamental problem in testing thus throws an open question, as to what would be the strategy we should adopt for testing. In our paper, we have described and compared the three most prevalent and commonly used software testing techniques for detecting errors, they are: white box testing, black box testing and grey box testing.

  20. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...... at the limit state of serviceability is in some simple cases determined by setting up the statical and the compatibility conditions.With these moment distributions, the maximum deflection and the reinforcement stresses at the span middle and at a support are calculated.The results are compared with results...

  1. Reference: AT1BOX [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AT1BOX Ueda T, Pichersky E, Malik VS, Cashmore AR The level of expression of the to...mato rbcs-3A gene is modulated by a far-upstream promoter element in a developmentary regulated manner. Plant Cell 1:217-227 (1989) PubMed: 2535544; GenBank: S44160; ...

  2. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...

  3. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  4. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  5. EPA-Expo-Box Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases,

  6. A Box Full of Kisses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔增印

    2008-01-01

    The story goes that some time ago,a man pun- ished his 3-year-old daughter for wasting a roll of gold wrapping paper.Money was tight and he became infuriated when the child tried to decorate a box to put under the Christmas tree.Nevertheless,the little girl brought the gift to

  7. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  8. Back office to box office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haigh, Matthew

    sees a mounting unsecured debt where its members see practical value. Between the two, a steward who may not profit from its office delegates it to back-office agents whose fiduciary management is engendered by box office-sized bonuses. Standard theorisation has foundered. The architecture...

  9. Expo-Box Contact Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  10. Breaking Out of the Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    2000-01-01

    Deplores inconsistencies between the realities of today's technologically driven, information-age world and the static, constraining boxes in which state-initiated, accountability- focused reforms hold American education. We must reconceptualize schooling, curriculum content, time, grade levels, and achievement to allow more informal,…

  11. The influence of recycled concrete aggregates in pervious concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. TAVARES

    Full Text Available The expansion of urban areas under constant changes in the hydrological cycle directly affects the drainage of rainwater. The problems of urban drainage become major engineering problems to be solved in order to avoid negative consequences for local populations. Another urban problem is the excessive production of construction and demolition waste (CDW, in which , even with a increasingly policy of waste management , have been an end up being thrown in inappropriate disposal sites. Alternatively aiming to a minimization of the problems presented, we propose the study of permeable concrete using recycled concrete aggregate. In this study, there were evaluated the performance of concrete by means of permeability, consistency, strength, and interface conditions of the materials . Satisfactory relationships of resistance/permeability of concrete with recycled aggregate in relation to the concrete with natural aggregates was obtained, showing their best potential.

  12. Carbon-based tendons in the Dintelhaven Bridge, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.; Kaptijn, N.; Grundlehner, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    In mid-2001 the final two bridges over the River Dintelhaven in the harbour area of Rotterdam were put into use. Both bridges are concrete box girder bridges and have been erected using the balanced cantilever method. In the first bridge, with a main span of about 185 m, four (external) tendons each

  13. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  14. Fatigue of Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N. B.; Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed.......In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed....

  15. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.;

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  16. Seals, Concrete Anchors, and Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    the system the cable sizes can be changed even after concreting work _ is finished. i W The structure is also suitable for modern concrete formwork ...1 ruiinn 0i all 3up-H-Stud is a heavy-duty, all steel, expansion wedge anchor types of equipment. Typical applications: tunnel liner panels, air

  17. Fatigue of Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N. B.; Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed.......In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed....

  18. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  19. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  20. The steel–concrete interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angst, Ueli M.; Geiker, Mette Rica; Michel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Although the steel–concrete interface (SCI) is widely recognized to influence the durability of reinforced concrete, a systematic overview and detailed documentation of the various aspects of the SCI are lacking. In this paper, we compiled a comprehensive list of possible local characteristics...

  1. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  2. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  3. 轻型钢结构吊车梁优化设计%Optimization Design of Crane Girder in Portal Frame Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石永久

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the design method of crane girders applied in portal frame buildings.An optimal design approach was proposed to reduce the grider weight and fabricate the crane girder economically.Finally some design examples were given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.%通过分析和研究单层门式刚架轻型钢结构厂房中的吊车梁设计,总结了轻型钢结构吊车梁的优化设计方法和节点连接构造,对合理设计吊车梁,降低用钢量提出了设计建议。

  4. 铜陵公铁两用长江大桥桁片式钢桁梁立体试拼装工艺%Techniques for Trial Vertical Assembly of Steel Truss Girder of Tongling Changjiang River Rail-cum-Road Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵天吉; 余本俊

    2014-01-01

    铜陵公铁两用长江大桥为五跨连续钢桁梁三索面斜拉桥,钢桁梁采用板桁结合形式,由3片主桁、上层正交异性公路板式桥面、下层正交异性铁路钢箱桥面及横联构成。钢桁梁采用整体焊接式桁片结构,每2个节间的主桁上、下弦杆,斜杆,竖杆通过整体节点焊接成桁片上桥安装。为验证制造工艺和精度并指导实桥施工,选取3.5个连续节间钢桁梁在工厂内一次完成立体试拼装。由于主桁桁片采用水平拼装制作工艺,采用800 t龙门吊机2×200 t吊钩提升加横移对桁片进行90°转体翻身后试拼装。试拼装过程中设置了抗推拉刚性斜撑增强桁片与铁路桥面的稳定性;在斜杆件加垫片,通过调整间隙控制桥梁预拱度。试拼装过程中设置了测量控制网,检测结果满足设计和验收标准,达到了立体试拼装目的。%The Tongling Changjiang River Rail‐cum‐Road Bridge is a five‐span continuous steel truss girder cable‐stayed bridge with three cable planes .The steel truss girder is the combined or‐thotropic steel plates and steel trusses structure ,containing three main trusses ,the upper ortho‐tropic steel plate deck for vehicles ,the lower orthotropic railway steel box deck and lateral brac‐ings .The steel truss girder is a integrally‐welded truss structure ,the upper and lower chords ,di‐agonal struts and vertical struts of the main trusses in every two blocks are welded by integral nodes to be truss block for assembling on the bridge .In order to verify the manufacturing tech‐nique and precision and to direct the construction of the real bridge ,the steel truss girder in 3 .5 continuous blocks were selected to conduct one‐time trial vertical assembly in the factory .The main truss blocks were fabricated by the horizontal assembling technique ,the 800 t overhead lift‐ing gantry with two lifting hooks of 200 t was adopted to lift and horizontally

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulating Concrete Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project investigated insulating concrete forms—rigid foam, hollow walls that are filled with concrete for highly insulated, hurricane-resistant construction.

  6. Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different combinat......Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different...

  7. Numerical Analysis of Heat Storage and Heat Conductivity in the Concrete Hollow Core Deck Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;

    2011-01-01

    the overall heat transfer and heat storage in the hollow-core decks. The presented results allow comparison between detailed results from 2D-COMSOL simulations and simple 1D calculations from the whole building simulation tool such as BSim program and moreover, it is possible to validate the calculation...... method in BSim for the concrete deck element with air voids. Finally, this paper presents a comparison of the calculated heat conductivity of the hollow-core concrete deck and the measured heat conductivity for the same deck by using hot box apparatus....

  8. Novel techniques for concrete curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovler, Konstantin; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    It is known that some high-strength/high-performance concretes (HSC/HPC) are prone to cracking at an early age unless special precautions are taken. The paper deals with the methods of curing as one of the main strategies to ensure good performance of concrete. Curing by both external (conventional......) and internal methods is reviewed and analyzed, among other methods of mitigating shrinkage and cracking of concrete. The focus is on the mitigation of autogenous shrinkage of low water to binder ratio (w/b) concrete by means of internal curing. The concepts of internal curing are based on using lightweight...... aggregate, superabsorbent polymers or water-soluble chemicals, which reduce water evaporation (so called "internal sealing"). These concepts have been intensively researched in the 90s, but still are not widespread among contractors and concrete suppliers. The differences between conventional methods...

  9. Study on healthcare magnetic concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yushan; DONG Faqin; FENG Jianjun

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic concrete was prepared by adding SrFe12O9 magnetic functional elementary material into concrete, and its magnetism was charged by magnetizing machine. The effect of SrFe12O9 content on magnetic field intensity and the attenuation of magnetic field intensity were investigated in different medium. The blood viscosity of rats kept in magnetic concrete was carried out. The results show that magnetic concrete can be prepared by adding SrFe12O9, and magnetic fields intensity increases with the augment of ferrite content. The attenuation of magnetic fields is mainly related with the density of medium, but it is secondary to the properties of medium. The blood viscosity of rats decreases under magnetic condition, but the blood cells remain the same as before. Experimental results support that magnetic concrete has great healthcare function.

  10. The Tectonic Potentials of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    with the industrial paradigm of standardization, have been put forward. This development is carried forward by computers and digital fabrication, but has yet to find its way into the production of building components. With regards to concrete casting, however, existing research do offer advancement towards...... of geometric forms in concrete. The former was referred to as mould tectonics, the latter concrete tectonics. A study of the concepts of ‘New Production Philosophy’, ‘Mass-customization’, and Digital Tectonics is presented as a basis for investigating their use in concrete casting. Digital modelling....... However, a single concrete casting material, given the use of the right technique that is able to address all these problems, has not been identified, neither in state-of-the-art nor in the case studies. It follows that due to today’s demands for resource optimization and competitiveness it is unlikely...

  11. Basic principles of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xianglin; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the latest version of designing codes both for buildings and bridges (GB50010-2010 and JTG D62-2004), this book starts from steel and concrete materials, whose properties are very important to the mechanical behavior of concrete structural members. Step by step, analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete members under basic loading types (tension, compression, flexure, shearing and torsion) and environmental actions are introduced. The characteristic of the book that distinguishes it from other textbooks on concrete structures is that more emphasis has been laid on the basic theories of reinforced concrete and the application of the basic theories in design of new structures and analysis of existing structures. Examples and problems in each chapter are carefully designed to cover every important knowledge point. As a basic course for undergraduates majoring in civil engineering, this course is different from either the previously learnt mechanics courses or the design courses to be learnt. Compa...

  12. Rubberized Concrete Durability Against Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Noor Nurazuwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Durability performance of rubberized concrete against abrasion is presented in this paper. Surface depth loss was measured when abrasion load was constantly applied on concrete surface at each 500 interval rotation. Specimen with water-to cement ratio of 0.50 and 0.35 was prepared and tested at 28 days of curing age. In addition, 10% silica fume, SF was added to provide denser concrete and to understand its effectiveness against wear when added with crumb rubber. Results showed that crumb rubber shows good potential in providing abrasion resistance to concrete mix. However, in the case of rubberized concrete with silica fume, abrasion resistance was found to be slightly decreased with compressive strength more than 50N/mm2 due to the lack of low elastic modulus of CR particles to accommodate with denser cement matrix.

  13. Self-compacting concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    In many aspects Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC, “Self-Consolidating Concrete” in North America) can be considered the concrete of the future. SCC is a family of tailored concretes with special engineered properties in the fresh state. SCC flows into the formwork and around even complicated...... reinforcement arrangements under its own weight. Thus, SCC is not vibrated like conventional concrete. This drastically improves the working environment during construction, the productivity, and potentially improves the homogeneity and quality of the concrete. In addition SCC provides larger architectural...... freedom in structural design. The present Chapter describes selected properties of SCC. The properties and use of SCC are illustrated through a few case histories and future trends are briefly described. The Chapter concludes with a list of sources of further information....

  14. 矿用汽车车架纵梁成形模开发研究%Mine Car Frame Girder Mold Development Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向小汉

    2013-01-01

    To mine car frame girder for forming process analysis, with AutoForm software rebound calculation, the results of the analysis according to the rebound in ThinkDesign to girder local for the springback compensation, in the mold structure design also takes into account to springback control. Through the forming process of the optimization and reasonable die structure design, got to meet quality requirements of the girder products, and meet the needs of the mass production.%对矿用汽车车架纵梁进行成形工艺分析,用AutoForm软件进行回弹计算,根据回弹分析结果用ThinkDesign对纵梁局部进行回弹补偿,在模具结构设计中也考虑到对回弹的控制。通过成形工艺的优化和合理的模具结构设计,得到了满足质量要求的纵梁产品,并满足了批量生产的需要。

  15. High performance polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the performance of concrete whose chief components are natural aggregate and an organic binder —a thermosetting polyester resin— denominated polymer concrete or PC. The material was examined macro- and microscopically and its basic physical and mechanical properties were determined using mercury porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX, X-ray diffraction (XRD and strength tests (modulus of elasticity, stress-strain curves and ultimate strengths. According to the results of these experimental studies, the PC exhibited a low density (4.8%, closed pore system and a concomitantly continuous internal microstructure. This would at least partially explain its mechanical out-performance of traditional concrete, with average compressive and flexural strength values of 100 MPa and over 20 MPa, respectively. In the absence of standard criteria, the bending test was found to be a useful supplement to compressive strength tests for establishing PC strength classes.Este trabajo de investigación aborda el estudio de un hormigón de altas prestaciones, formado por áridos naturales y un aglomerante orgánico constituido por una resina termoestable poliéster, denominado hormigón polimérico HP. Se describe el material a nivel microscópico y macroscópico, presentando sus propiedades físicas y mecánicas fundamentales, mediante diferentes técnicas experimentales, tales como: porosimetría de mercurio, microscopía electrónica (SEM-EDAX, difracción de rayos X (DRX y ensayos mecánicos (módulo de elasticidad, curvas tensión- deformación y resistencias últimas. Como consecuencia del estudio experimental llevado a cabo, se ha podido apreciar cómo el HP está formado por porosidad cerrada del 4,8%, proporcionando una elevada continuidad a su microestructura interna, lo que justifica, en parte, la mejora de propiedades mecánicas respecto al hormigón tradicional, con unos valores medios de resistencia a compresión de 100

  16. Main: BOX2PSGS2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PSGS2 S000204 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi Box 2 in glutamine synthetase (GS...2) gene in pea (P.s.); Repeated in tandem with a partial palindrome located between the repeats; Located at ca. -300 of pea GS...2; Box 2; glutamine synthetase; GS2; pea (Pisum sativum); TCTAAGCAAAG ...

  17. Main: BOX2PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PVCHS15 S000209 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 2 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; SBF-1 binding site; For a compilation of related GT elements and factors, see Villain et al. (1996); Box 2; chs; chs1

  18. Main: BOX3PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX3PVCHS15 S000210 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 3 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; SBF-1 binding site; For a compilation of related GT elements and factors, see Villain et al. (1996); Box 3; chs; chs1

  19. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  20. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006... Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a disconnecting device for each branch circuit... visual observation when such a device is open and that the circuit is deenergized, the distribution...