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Sample records for concise oxford dictionary

  1. The Dictionary Unit for South African English. South African Concise Oxford Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Rajend Mesthrie

    2011-01-01

    The South African Concise Oxford Dictionary (henceforth SACOD) is a South Af-rican version of the Concise Oxford Dictionary, the first time that this particular hybrid has been prepared. It is testimony to the enduring success of the work of the Dictionary Unit for South African English at Rhodes University, headed by teams that included Jean and William Branford in the 1970s, Penny Silva in the 1990s and now, Kathryn Kavanagh. The lexicographical work from the unit saw the publication of fou...

  2. The Dictionary Unit for South African English. South African Concise Oxford Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajend Mesthrie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The South African Concise Oxford Dictionary (henceforth SACOD is a South Af-rican version of the Concise Oxford Dictionary, the first time that this particular hybrid has been prepared. It is testimony to the enduring success of the work of the Dictionary Unit for South African English at Rhodes University, headed by teams that included Jean and William Branford in the 1970s, Penny Silva in the 1990s and now, Kathryn Kavanagh. The lexicographical work from the unit saw the publication of four editions of the Dictionary of Southern African English (1978, 1980, 1987, 1991, a South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary (SAPOD and the Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles (DOSAEHP (1995. SACOD differs from the rest in several ways. It is larger in scope than SAPOD, smaller than DOSAEHP, and unlike DOSAE and DOSAEHP, does not deal with South African words alone. Based on the 10th edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary SACOD has excised some words from the parent, whilst adding many new words of general English as well as of South Africa.

  3. Oxford dictionary of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Alan

    The dictionary is derived from the Concise Science Dictionary, first published by Oxford University Press in 1984 (third edition, 1996). It consists of all the entries relating to physics in that dictionary, together with some of those entries relating to astronomy that are required for an understanding of astrophysics and many entries that relate to physical chemistry. It also contains a selection of the words used in mathematics that are relevant to physics, as well as the key words in metal science, computing, and electronics. For this third edition a number of words from quantum field physics and statistical mechanics have been added. Cosmology and particle physics have been updated and a number of general entries have been expanded.

  4. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  5. The Making of the "Oxford English Dictionary."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes remarks made to open the Gallaudet University conference on Dictionaries and the Standardization of languages. It concerns the making of what is arguably the world's greatest dictionary, "The Oxford English Dictionary." (VWL)

  6. News from the Library: You need never be lost for words again - Oxford Reference Online and Oxford Dictionaries Pro

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    Whether you are looking for an English word definition or want to check the correct usage of a word, we can offer you a solution: Oxford Reference Online.   It includes a wide range of monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, but also subject-specific reference books on physics, astronomy or mathematics. All these works are fully indexed and cross-searchable. Two highlights from this vast collection of reference works are the Concise Oxford English Dictionary and the Oxford Dictionary of English, which is the online counterpart of the compact, single-volume dictionary of current English language. As the name says, Oxford Dictionaries Pro focuses on language dictionaries. Particularly noteworthy are the dictionaries for writers and editors. On a dedicated web page you will find access to: - The "New Hart's Rules", providing information on all aspects of writing and preparing copy for publication, whether in print or electronically - The New Oxford Dictionary for Wri...

  7. The Oxford English Dictionary: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Ronald H.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the development of English dictionaries in general and the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) in particular. The discussion covers the decision by the Philological Society to create the dictionary, the principles that guided its development, the involvement of James Augustus Henry Murray, the magnitude and progress of the project, and the…

  8. The Oxford Picture Dictionary. Beginning Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Marjorie

    The beginning workbook of the Oxford Picture Dictionary is in full color and offers vocabulary reinforcement activities that correspond page for page with the dictionary. Clear and simple instructions with examples make it suitable for independent use in the classroom or at home. The workbook has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700…

  9. Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine provides reliable definitions of sports science and medicine terms. It provides an invaluable reference book for anyone interested in the captivating subject of sport. PURPOSE This dictionary aims to include almost every sports science, anatomy, physiology, biomechanical, injuries description, and psychological term as related to sports medicine and science and support the explanations by illustrations wherever necessary. AUDIEN...

  10. The "New Oxford English Dictionary" Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Heather

    1993-01-01

    Describes the conversion of the 22,000-page Oxford English Dictionary to an electronic version incorporating a modified Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) syntax. Explains that the database designers chose structured markup because it supports users' data searching needs, allows textual components to be extracted or modified, and allows…

  11. OXFORD DICTIONARY OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine provides reliable definitions of sports science and medicine terms. It provides an invaluable reference book for anyone interested in the captivating subject of sport. PURPOSE This dictionary aims to include almost every sports science, anatomy, physiology, biomechanical, injuries description, and psychological term as related to sports medicine and science and support the explanations by illustrations wherever necessary. AUDIENCE As a comprehensive dictionary of sports science and medicine, it will be of particular help to medical specialists and general practitioners, as well as students of PE, coaches, and athletes who need to understand the anatomical structures and physiological processes which affect athletic performance. Any member of public interested in health and fitness; exercise and sport or wants to understand what the obscure terms mean, like jogger's nipple, social loafing, and Zatopek phenomenon will also benefit from this book. FEATURES The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine features terms in A to Z fashion at all the major areas of sports science and medicine including: anatomy, physiology/exercise physiology, biomechanics, training principles and techniques, nutrition, sports psychology and sociology, sports injuries and rehabilitation. A team of prominent contributors and advisers put together this dictionary in the first edition. The third edition includes around 8000 cross-referenced terms which have been updated or added since the first edition. There are plenty of illustrations wherever appropriate to make the terms easily understandable. ASSESSMENT A must-have dictionary for all medics practising in sports and exercise medicine, as well as students of medicine, physical education, nursing and physiotherapy. Even coaches, trainers, biomechanical experts; in fact anyone who has a special interest in this area will find this dictionary useful.

  12. The new Oxford dictionary of English

    CERN Document Server

    Hanks, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    This dictionary focuses on English as it is really used in the late 20th century, informed by available evidence and thinking. Its defining style makes it possible to give the most complete picture of English as it is used today, providing authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the language. Compiled after in-depth analysis of computerized databases of current English, this dictionary is the first to base its coverage on the evidence of real English. Accessibility is one of the dictionary's key aims; a rapid-reference page design separates out parts of speech, word histories, phrases, and derivatives to make information easy to find, and the most modern meaning of each word, as used by the majority of people, is placed first within each entry. Contemporary rules are given on question of usage, providing relevant advice on problems old and new. Word history notes not only explain the linguistic roots of words, but also tell the story of how a word's meaning and form have changed over time. Oxford's worldw...

  13. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern Sotho and English (De Schryver 2007) is a welcome addition to dictionaries that have been compiled for school use in particular. Its novelty and appeal lie in the fact that the lemmas and Northern Sotho mini-grammar are based on a corpus of general language usage and ...

  14. Classic Classroom Activities: The Oxford Picture Dictionary Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Renee; Adelson-Goldstein, Jayme; Shapiro, Norma

    This teacher resource book offers over 100 reproducible communicative practice activities and 768 picture cards based on the vocabulary of the Oxford Picture Dictionary. Teacher's notes and instructions, including adaptations for multilevel classes, are provided. The activities book has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700 words. The…

  15. The Japanese Words Adopted into The Pocket Oxford Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    今里, 智晃

    1993-01-01

    This paper aims to give a comparative analysis of the six POD editions on the basis of the Japanese words adopted into them. There have been many words borrowed from Japanese into English. For example, bonze and sake2 were naturalized in English a long time ago.The new 1992 edition of The Pocket Oxford Dictionary contains 39 Japanese words, some of which are futon, ikebana and sumo. But, needless to say, karaoke must be one of the latest examples we can see in English dictionaries that are of...

  16. G.-M. de Schryver (Editor. Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Zulu and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Prinsloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Zulu and English (henceforth OZSD is the latest addition to the bidirectional English–isiZulu bilingual dictionary market and is based on the same successful and prize-winning formula used for the Oxford Northern Sotho School Dictionary (ONSD published in 2007.

  17. Grammar Coding in the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekker, Herman

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on the revised system of grammar coding for verbs in the fourth edition of the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English" (OALD4), comparing it with two other similar dictionaries. It is shown that the OALD4 is found to be more favorable on many criteria than the other comparable dictionaries. (16 references) (VWL)

  18. The New Oxford Picture Dictionary, English/Navajo Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnwell, E. C.

    This picture dictionary illustrates over 2,400 words. The dictionary is organized thematically, beginning with topics most useful for the survival needs of students in an English speaking country. However, teachers may adapt the order to reflect the needs of their students. Verbs are included on separate pages, but within topic areas in which they…

  19. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "extra" as the learner's active vocabulary is reinforced during look-up activities. As pointed out by Potgieter (2012: ... become part and parcel of the Northern Sotho vocabulary. Through this the dictionary is ..... ising the acquisition and fostering of a deeper knowledge of Northern Sotho in the future. In the words of Landau ...

  20. Juta's Concise Dictionary of Accounting Terms with their Afri- kaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice, a large part of the terms in the dictionary is outdated. Because .... word: "The amount for which an asset could be exchanged or a ... Holding company Houermaatskappy. ... Source and application of funds statement Staat van bron en aanwending .... Short-term, highly liquid invest-.

  1. Concise dictionary of engineering a guide to the language of engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hanifan, Ron

    2014-01-01

    This reference defines the principle and most commonly used terms found in engineering documents and drawings across multiple disciplines and explains them in plain, unambiguous English. Concise Dictionary of Engineering: A Guide to the Language of Engineering also distinguishes how some terms take on different meanings in different engineering contexts—critical knowledge when working on collaborative projects with diverse elements and colleagues. Based on an edition developed for researchers and technicians at Lockheed Martin, each entry in this volume is written in clear, everyday English without confusing jargon and “techno-speak.” The book is ideal for students, professional engineers, industrial personnel, managers, and anyone else who requires a solid understanding of the language of engineers. This dictionary also: ·         Clarifies technical terms often intermixed or misused ·         Spans a range of engineering disciplines, including mechanical, electrical, materials, and c...

  2. Tradurre nel contesto pluriglosso dell'arabo con l'aiuto di un nuovo dizionario bilingue. Riflessioni sull'Oxford Arabic Dictionary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Tresso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating in the Arabic Plurilingual Context with the Help of a New Bilingual Dictionary. Some remarks on the Oxford Arabic Dictionary. A bilingual dictionary from English, the International language for communication, to Arabic nowadays represents one of the major challenges in the fields of translation studies and teaching. The Oxford Arabic Dictionary, with is corpus-based word list represents a good point of departure for future lexicographical works and for the development of teaching of Modern Standard Arabic.

  3. The Words First Attested in Shakespeare and Their Later Obsolescence : A Study Based on the Oxford English Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    鉄村, 明美

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to classify the words that first attested in Shakespeare’s works and to investigate the characteristics of ‘obsolete’ words in the texts with reference to the Oxford English Dictionary. The words first attested in Shakespeare’s works were selected using the Oxford English Dictionary Online. Next, these words were divided into two groups: ‘obsolete lexical items’ and ‘current lexical items’. The results for each of Shakespeare’s works and for sources of neologisms(der...

  4. G.-M. de Schryver (Editor). Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Zulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Text or shade(d) boxes is an innovative feature for isiZulu dictionaries and enhance the ... The second argument is that identification of the lemma entails the selec- tion of a ... up in a traditional isiZulu dictionary. In OZSD the .... rently caught up in a triangulation of number of lemmas versus exhaustiveness of treatment ...

  5. What Dictionary to Use? A Closer Look at the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary," the "Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English" and the "Longman Lexicon of Contempory English."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Three dictionaries are compared for their usefulness to teachers of English as a foreign language, teachers in training, students, and other users of English as a foreign language. The issue of monolingual versus bilingual dictionary format is discussed, and a previous analysis of the two bilingual dictionaries is summarized. Pronunciation…

  6. The Generalist versus the Specialist: The New Oxford Dictionary Reveals a Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Martin Lyon

    1981-01-01

    There is a gap, it is suggested, separating the generally cultured person, not just from the scientist, but from specialists in many fields. Dictionary definitions are seen as one means of seeing the extent to which specialists and those in the general culture speak the same language. (MLW)

  7. Phillip Louw: Oxford Afrikaans-Engels / English-Afrikaans Skoolwoordeboek / School Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton F. Prinsloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Die Oxford Afrikaans–Engels/English–Afrikaans Skoolwoordeboek is as skoolwoor-deboek 'n puik hulpbron vir leerders. Dit is egter meer as net 'n woordeboek, soos wat 'n oorsig dadelik toon.

  8. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  9. A Concise Dictionary of Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Misun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an essay collection by Marek Bieńczyk, Przeźroczystość [Transparency]. The concept, placed in various context, shows various aspects and is seen in various shades. The author does not put forward a statement, but rather proposes a work to be done: to determine the modality of transparency. The concept initially seems to be mainly epistemological: the cognizant subject would like to make the world transparent, to discover all possible mysteries. Before that, however, the subject must know itself, and here the dream of trans­parency also plays the key role. Lack of epistemological transparency is the main cause of melancholy and its reverse — hysteria. The concept turns out to be important in the domain of love — the loer thinks that (she knows the desired person more better anybody else, that (she has entirely penetrated the subjectivity of the Other. Ultimately, however, the dream of transparency goes down to a slow demise of the subject: as self-discovery progresses, there is less and less of the discoverer. In conclusion of this work, the border of modality of the concept turns out to be horrifyingly obvious. The desire for transparency consequently searches not for knowledge, but for an escape whose name is death.

  10. The Oxford History of English Lexicography. Volume I: General ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.P. Cowie (Editor). The Oxford History of English Lexicography. Volume I: General-purpose Dictionaries. Volume II: Specialized Dictionaries. 2009. Volume I: xviii + 467 pp., Volume II: xix + 551 pp. ISBN Volume I–II: 978-0-19-928562-4. Volume I: 978-0-19-928560-0. Volume II: 978-0-19-928561-7. Oxford: Oxford University ...

  11. Dictionaries: British and American. The Language Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, James Root

    An account of the dictionaries, great and small, of the English-speaking world is given in this book. Subjects covered include the origin of English dictionaries, early dictionaries, Noah Webster and his successors to the present, abridged dictionaries, "The Oxford English Dictionary" and later dictionaries patterned after it, the…

  12. Which Dictionary? A Review of the Leading Learners' Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Hilary

    Three major dictionaries designed for learners of English as a second language are reviewed, their elements and approaches compared and evaluated, their usefulness for different learners discussed, and recommendations for future dictionary improvement made. The dictionaries in question are the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary," the…

  13. Do Dictionaries Help Students Write?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Hilary

    Examples are given of real lexical errors made by learner writers, and consideration is given to the way in which three learners' dictionaries could deal with the lexical items that were misused. The dictionaries were the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary," the "Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English," and the "Chambers Universal Learners'…

  14. W. J. Johnson, Oxford Dictionary of Hinduism

    OpenAIRE

    Clémentin-Ojha, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Avec l'élévation du niveau de nos connaissances sur l'hindouisme et le développement spectaculaire des études en tout genre le concernant, nous assistons actuellement à la multiplication d'ouvrages de référence, de manuels, d'encyclopédies et de collections d'essais, qui tous sont destinés à faire le point du savoir sur les différents aspects de ce vaste phénomène. La plupart de ces ouvrages sont toutefois volumineux. Restait donc à mettre l'hindouisme dans un petit dictionnaire. Tel a été le...

  15. Review: G.-M. de Schryver et al. (Eds.). Oxford Bilingual School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. G.-M. de Schryver et al. (Eds.). Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: IsiXhosa and English. 2014, 562 pp. ISBN 978-0-19-576682-0. Cape Town: Oxford University Press Southern Africa. Price R129.95.

  16. Booksearch: What Dictionary (General or Specialized) Do You Find Useful or Interesting for Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents classroom teachers' recommendations for a variety of dictionaries that may heighten students' interest in language: a reverse dictionary, a visual dictionary, WEIGHTY WORD BOOK, a collegiate desk dictionary, OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY, DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN REGIONAL ENGLISH, and a dictionary of idioms. (ARH)

  17. The New Unabridged English-Persian Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpur, Abbas; Saleh, Jahan Shah

    This five-volume English-Persian dictionary is based on Webster's International Dictionary (1960 and 1961) and The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1959); it attempts to provide Persian equivalents of all the words of Oxford and all the key-words of Webster. Pronunciation keys for the English phonetic transcription and for the difficult Persian…

  18. Dictionary as Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Derrick

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of dictionaries as databases focuses on the digitizing of The Oxford English dictionary (OED) and the use of Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language (SGML). Topics include the creation of a consortium to digitize the OED, document structure, relational databases, text forms, sequence, and discourse. (LRW)

  19. Review: Julie Coleman: A History of Cant and Slang Dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Julie Coleman. A History of Cant and Slang Dictionaries. Volume I: 1567– 1784. 2004, xii + 259 pp. ISBN 0 19 925471 0 (Hb.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Price: £115. Julie Coleman. A History of Cant and Slang Dictionaries. Volume II: 1785– 1858. 2004, xiv + 338 pp. ISBN 0 19 925470 2 (Hb.). Oxford: Oxford ...

  20. Information on Quantifiers and Argument Structure in English Learner's Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas Hun-tak

    1993-01-01

    Lexicographers have been arguing for the inclusion of abstract and complex grammatical information in dictionaries. This paper examines the extent to which information about quantifiers and the argument structure of verbs is encoded in English learner's dictionaries. The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (1989), the Longman Dictionary of…

  1. Radiological sciences dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Dowsett, David

    2009-01-01

    The Radiological Sciences Dictionary is a rapid reference guide for all hospital staff employed in diagnostic imaging, providing definitions of over 3000 keywords as applied to the technology of diagnostic radiology.Written in a concise and easy to digest form, the dictionary covers a wide variety of subject matter, including:· radiation legislation and measurement · computing and digital imaging terminology· nuclear medicine radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals· radiographic contrast agents (x-ray, MRI and ultrasound)· definitions used in ultrasound and MRI technology· statistical exp

  2. Concise nuclear isobar charts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucka, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the Concise Nuclear Isobar Charts, data on binding energies of protons and neutrons in the ground state and excitation energies for low-lying nuclear energy levels are displayed, both of which are of great interest for transition processes as well as for questions of nuclear structure. Also, quantum numbers for angular momentum and parity are shown for these energy levels. For the stable nuclei, data for the relative abundances, and for unstable nucleon configurations, the transition probabilities are included in the data displayed. Due to the representation chosen for the atomic nuclei, in many cases a very clear first survey of systematic properties of nuclear energy states as well as spontaneous decay processes is achieved.

  3. The Compilation of Electronic Dictionaries for the African Languages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    English language on an ongoing basis" (OED Online, Introduction). ... games. In LIED and LIAD the user searching one section of the database will also be .... Some electronic dictionaries such as the Oxford English Dictionary (second.

  4. Detailed Facility Report Data Dictionary | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Detailed Facility Report Data Dictionary provides users with a list of the variables and definitions that have been incorporated into the Detailed Facility Report. The Detailed Facility Report provides a concise enforcement and compliance history for a facility.

  5. Women Leaders in Oxford House

    OpenAIRE

    Timpo, Phyllis; Price, Temple; Salina, Doreen; Witek, Caroline; Pommer, Nicole; Jason, Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined women assuming leadership roles in Oxford Houses, which are communal, democratically run recovery settings for substance use disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women Oxford House leaders who shared their thoughts and experiences on leadership. Several themes emerged from qualitative data analysis, most notably that stepping up and accepting a leadership role in Oxford House had a positive effect on self-esteem, which is vital to women w...

  6. Learner features in a new corpus-based Swahili dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    We analyse log files from the new Swahili–Polish dictionary to investigate why ..... a similar case in a Sepedi–Afrikaans–English dictionary, where the entry for reka and its ..... The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography. Oxford/New York:.

  7. Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Zulu and English. First Edition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    muntu , bomuntu , omuntu , kungumuntu , kunomuntu , kwa- kungumuntu , zamuntu , wumuntu , nalomuntu , umunt , ingu- muntu , kulomuntu . So, although the many virtues of lemmatisation of full nominal forms is not disputed, it does not mean that a golden ...

  8. Simon Hornblower, Antony Spawforth et al., The Oxford Classical Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Caracciolo Conicet, Tomás Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Les éditeurs de l’ocd déclarent – dès la troisième édition – que « as an authoritative one-volume guide to all aspects of the ancient world, ocd has no competitor in any language » (Preface to the third edition, p. ix), ainsi que « no other single-volume work of reference remotely approaches ocd in the sheer quality of factual detail contained » (ibid.). Qu’est-ce qu’une recension pourrait ajouter, si les éditeurs eux-mêmes sont aussi emphatiques dans les louanges de leur ouvrage ? La troisiè...

  9. Women Leaders in Oxford House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpo, Phyllis; Price, Temple; Salina, Doreen; Witek, Caroline; Pommer, Nicole; Jason, Leonard A

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined women assuming leadership roles in Oxford Houses, which are communal, democratically run recovery settings for substance use disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women Oxford House leaders who shared their thoughts and experiences on leadership. Several themes emerged from qualitative data analysis, most notably that stepping up and accepting a leadership role in Oxford House had a positive effect on self-esteem, which is vital to women with a history of substance abuse. Barriers to leadership were also identified such as negative interpersonal relationships with other women. A number of methods mentioned to increase the number of women leaders included: developing workshops, providing positive encouragement, and accessing existing female role models. The implications of this study are discussed.

  10. Differential equations a concise course

    CERN Document Server

    Bear, H S

    2011-01-01

    Concise introduction for undergraduates includes, among other topics, a survey of first order equations, discussions of complex-valued solutions, linear differential operators, inverse operators and variation of parameters method, the Laplace transform, Picard's existence theorem, and an exploration of various interpretations of systems of equations. Numerous clearly stated theorems and proofs, examples, and problems followed by solutions.

  11. The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Dodge, Yadolah

    2008-01-01

    The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics presents the essential information about statistical tests, concepts, and analytical methods in language that is accessible to practitioners and students of the vast community using statistics in medicine, engineering, physical science, life science, social science, and business/economics. The reference is alphabetically arranged to provide quick access to the fundamental tools of statistical methodology and biographies of famous statisticians. The more than 500 entries include definitions, history, mathematical details, limitations, examples, references,

  12. Computer science a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Computer Science: A Concise Introduction covers the fundamentals of computer science. The book describes micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers and their uses; the ranges and types of computers and peripherals currently available; applications to numerical computation; and commercial data processing and industrial control processes. The functions of data preparation, data control, computer operations, applications programming, systems analysis and design, database administration, and network control are also encompassed. The book then discusses batch, on-line, and real-time systems; the basic

  13. Linguistic Features of English and Russian Dictionaries (A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leščinskij

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish differences and similarities between linguistic characteristics of English and Russian dictionaries. Two dictionaries were selected for the study – electronic version of the 8th edition of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (OALD and the online version of Ozhegov’s explanatory dictionary. The methods chosen for the study were descriptive, comparative and contrastive analysis. Linguistic characteristics of the dictionaries were analysed and compared. The research showed that both reference books provided different linguistic information on the headwords. OALD provided exhaustive phonetic information, which Ozhegov’s dictionary lacked. The two dictionaries provided different orthographic information. OALD disclosed semantic information via various tools available in the electronic version; these were unavailable in Ozhegov’s dictionary. Both dictionaries used similar stylistic labels.

  14. Tensor Dictionary Learning for Positive Definite Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Ravishankar; Boley, Daniel; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Sparse models have proven to be extremely successful in image processing and computer vision. However, a majority of the effort has been focused on sparse representation of vectors and low-rank models for general matrices. The success of sparse modeling, along with popularity of region covariances, has inspired the development of sparse coding approaches for these positive definite descriptors. While in earlier work, the dictionary was formed from all, or a random subset of, the training signals, it is clearly advantageous to learn a concise dictionary from the entire training set. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for dictionary learning over positive definite matrices. The dictionary is learned by alternating minimization between sparse coding and dictionary update stages, and different atom update methods are described. A discriminative version of the dictionary learning approach is also proposed, which simultaneously learns dictionaries for different classes in classification or clustering. Experimental results demonstrate the advantage of learning dictionaries from data both from reconstruction and classification viewpoints. Finally, a software library is presented comprising C++ binaries for all the positive definite sparse coding and dictionary learning approaches presented here.

  15. Review of the Oxford Cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Oxford Cryocooler incorporates a linear drive compressor operating close to resonance. All dynamic seals are noncontacting clearance seals maintained by mounting the piston and displacer on mechanical suspension systems with infinite fatigue life. The displacer is pneumatically driven but controlled by a miniature linear motor. The cooler is therefore nonwearing and performance can be maintained even in adverse environments by servo control of piston and displacer strokes and relative phase. Split and integral, single- and two-stage coolers have been produced with operating temperatures between 30 K and 200 K, refrigeration powers between 50 mW and several watts and capable of operating in ambient temperatures from -40 C to 70 C. A current project aims to extend the refrigeration power to 500 watts at 80 K. Experimental optimisation techniques have been devised for rapid development of high efficiency coolers

  16. Dictionary of Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Julian

    2005-10-01

    The past decade has seen huge advances in the application of microscopy in all areas of science. This welcome development in microscopy has been paralleled by an expansion of the vocabulary of technical terms used in microscopy: terms have been coined for new instruments and techniques and, as microscopes reach even higher resolution, the use of terms that relate to the optical and physical principles underpinning microscopy is now commonplace. The Dictionary of Microscopy was compiled to meet this challenge and provides concise definitions of over 2,500 terms used in the fields of light microscopy, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, x-ray microscopy and related techniques. Written by Dr Julian P. Heath, Editor of Microscopy and Analysis, the dictionary is intended to provide easy navigation through the microscopy terminology and to be a first point of reference for definitions of new and established terms. The Dictionary of Microscopy is an essential, accessible resource for: students who are new to the field and are learning about microscopes equipment purchasers who want an explanation of the terms used in manufacturers' literature scientists who are considering using a new microscopical technique experienced microscopists as an aide mémoire or quick source of reference librarians, the press and marketing personnel who require definitions for technical reports.

  17. CRC concise encyclopedia of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Weisstein, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    Upon publication, the first edition of the CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics received overwhelming accolades for its unparalleled scope, readability, and utility. It soon took its place among the top selling books in the history of Chapman & Hall/CRC, and its popularity continues unabated. Yet also unabated has been the dedication of author Eric Weisstein to collecting, cataloging, and referencing mathematical facts, formulas, and definitions. He has now updated most of the original entries and expanded the Encyclopedia to include 1000 additional pages of illustrated entries. The accessibility of the Encyclopedia along with its broad coverage and economical price make it attractive to the widest possible range of readers and certainly a must for libraries, from the secondary to the professional and research levels. For mathematical definitions, formulas, figures, tabulations, and references, this is simply the most impressive compendium available.

  18. A concise introduction to analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stroock, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the basic ideas and tools used in mathematical analysis. It is a hybrid cross between an advanced calculus and a more advanced analysis text and covers topics in both real and complex variables. Considerable space is given to developing Riemann integration theory in higher dimensions, including a rigorous treatment of Fubini's theorem, polar coordinates and the divergence theorem. These are used in the final chapter to derive Cauchy's formula, which is then applied to prove some of the basic properties of analytic functions. Among the unusual features of this book is the treatment of analytic function theory as an application of ideas and results in real analysis. For instance, Cauchy's integral formula for analytic functions is derived as an application of the divergence theorem. The last section of each chapter is devoted to exercises that should be viewed as an integral part of the text. A Concise Introduction to Analysis should appeal to upper level undergraduate math...

  19. The effectiveness of using a bilingualized dictionary for determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the use of a bilingualized dictionary, namely Oxford Advanced Learner's English–Chinese Dictionary 8 (OALECD8), by advanced Hong Kong Cantonese ESL learn-ers in the determination of noun countability and associated article use. A homogenous group of 30 English majors in a local university ...

  20. Dictionary criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    Dictionary criticism is part of the lexicographical universe and reviewing of electronic and printed dictionaries is not an exercise in linguistics or in subject fields but an exercise in lexicography. It does not follow from this that dictionary reviews should not be based on a linguistic approach......, but that the linguistic approach is only one of several approaches to dictionary reviewing. Similarly, the linguistic and factual competences of reviewers should not be relegated to an insignificant position in the review process. Moreover, reviewers should define the object of their reviews, the dictionary, as a complex...... information tool with several components and in terms of significant lexicographical features: lexicographical functions, data and structures. This emphasises the fact that dictionaries are much more than mere vessels of linguistic categories, namely lexicographical tools that have been developed to fulfil...

  1. BKSTS illustrated dictionary of moving image technology

    CERN Document Server

    Uren, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The fourth edition of the BKSTS dictionary provides clear and concise explanations of the terminology and acronyms encountered in the broadcasting and moving image industries.Convergence of these industries means that those practising within them are increasingly faced with unfamiliar terminology. Martin Uren has reflected this change in his extended choice of industry terms, acronyms and colloquialisms. He provides:- Over 3300 definitions covering film, television, sound and multimedia technologies, together with technical terms from the computing, networks and telecommunications industries.-

  2. Book Review: Die Oxford Kortspelgids | Ponelis | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Die Oxford Kortspelgids. Book Author: A.S. Coetser. 1ste uitgawe 1993, ix + 379 pp. ISBN 0-19-570802-4. Kaapstad: Oxford University Press. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  3. Insurance dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lutz, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Leadership Styles of Oxford House Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A; Harvey, Ronald; Olson, Brad

    Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire. Results showed that participants were more likely to use person-oriented behaviors above task-oriented actions. Transformational leadership was associated with higher outcomes than Transactional leadership. Implications for future research are discussed.

  5. Some Dictionary Descriptions of Grammatical Structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : ... cept of valency: ''Valency is the term used in dependency theory to refer to the ... were a major strength of Johnson's Dictionary, making it, like Oxford English ... this has to be gleaned from the illustrative quotations and is not spelled out.

  6. The Oxford Handbook of Applied Ethnomusicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Talam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In July 2015, Oxford University Press published a substantial volume titled The Oxford Handbook of Applied Ethnomusicology, co-edited by two eminent ethnomusicologists, Svanibor Pettan and Jeff Todd Titon. The book is an impressive collection of different approaches in applied ethnomusicology, developed through a combination of ethnographic research (personal experiences and fieldwork in different parts of the world and contemporary scholarship.

  7. Electrochemical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Bard, Allen J; Scholz, Fritz 0

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive dictionary includes some 3000 common terms in electrochemistry and energy research, and related fields. Offers clear, precise definitions, references and more than 600 illustrations. The new edition adds more than 300 new and revised terms.

  8. Dictionary Snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2014-01-01

    for image segmentation that operates without training data. Our method is based on a probabilistic dictionary of image patches coupled with a deformable model inspired by snakes and active contours without edges. We separate the image into two classes based on the information provided by the evolving curve......, which moves according to the probabilistic information obtained from the dictionary. Initially, the image patches are assigned to the nearest dictionary element, where the image is sampled at each pixel such that patches overlap. The curve divides the image into an inside and an outside region allowing...... us to estimate the pixel-wise probability of the dictionary elements. In each iteration we evolve the curve and update the probabilities, which merges similar texture patterns and pulls dissimilar patterns apart. We experimentally evaluate our approach, and show how textured objects are precisely...

  9. Online dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a panoramic overview and a preliminary typologization of present and future online dictionaries based upon their application of the available technologies and suggests that the future of lexicography will be the development of highly sophisticated tools which may......, need, consultation, and data. The article then proceeds to the discussion of some advanced information science techniques that may contribute to the desired individualization. Upon this basis, it finally discusses the interaction between online dictionaries and external sources like the Internet...

  10. Using dictionaries to study the mental lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshen, F; Aronoff, M

    The notion of a mental lexicon has its historical roots in practical reference dictionaries. The distributional analysis of dictionaries provides one means of investigating the structure of the mental lexicon. We review our earlier work with dictionaries, based on a three-way horserace model of lexical access and production, and then present the most recent results of our ongoing analysis of the Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition on CD-ROM, which traces changes in productivity over time of the English suffixes -ment and -ity, both of which originate in French borrowings. Our results lead us to question the validity of automatic analogy from a set of existing words as the driving force behind morphological productivity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  11. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šuštaršič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003, with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001, this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and consonants, the paper also deals with the different representations of word accentuation and the issue of consistency regarding application of phonemic (systemic, broad, rather than phonetic (allophonic, narrow transcription. The different transcriptions are assessed from the points of view of their departures from the International Phonetic Alphabet, their overlapping with orthographic representation (spelling and their appropriateness in terms of reflecting actual pronunciation in standard British and/or American pronunciation.

  12. A concise synthesis of the cortistatin core

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Mingji; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a concise and convergent route to the core matrix of the cortistatin steroidal alkaloids. The salient features of the synthesis are the Snieckus cascade methodology and the Masamune alkylative dearomatization. This chemistry lends itself to a total synthesis of the cortistatins and to the development of a SAR program based on diverted total synthesis.

  13. A.P. Cowie. English Dictionaries for Foreign Learners: A History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Louw

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 1990s the evolution of the English learner's dictionary reached a zenith with the appearance on the market of four advanced-level monolingual learners' dictionaries. Three of these were existing works, i.e. the Oxford Ad-vanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English (henceforth ALD, the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (henceforth LDOCE and the Collins CO-BUILD English Language Dictionary (henceforth COBUILD, which marked, to differing extents, significant departures from the lexicographical procedures followed by their predecessors. The last one, the Cambridge International Dic-tionary of English (henceforth CIDE, was a completely new dictionary. This highly productive burst of lexicographical energy was also the catalyst for an even more productive and sustained body of metalexicographical research and writing that dealt with the topic of learners' dictionaries.

  14. Internet accounting dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Mourier, Lise

    2005-01-01

    An examination of existing accounting dictionaries on the Internet reveals a general need for a new type of dictionary. In contrast to the dictionaries now accessible, the future accounting dictionaries should be designed as proper Internet dictionaries based on a functional approach so they can...

  15. The Oxford handbook of economic inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Smeeding, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The essential guide for students and researchers interested in economic inequality Contains 27 original research contributions from the top names in economic inequality. The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality presents a new and challenging analysis of economic inequality, focusing primarily on

  16. Dictionary Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    in different projects. The same steps can be applied to lexicographic projects. In this field, by looking at finished and not finished dictionary projects, we find that: many are started but never finished; and many are planned to be carried out within a certain time frame, but it takes much longer than...... anticipated until the project is completed with the publication of one or more dictionaries. The reason for that is normally an unrealistic and much too optimistic planning. But it is also due to a missing knowledge about management planning according to a relevant overall lexicographic theory....... There is a long tradition of understanding lexicography as the compiling of dictionaries, especially among British scholars. But there is also a tradition of focusing on theoretical lexicography, especially among German scholars. In this contribution, I consider lexicography a discipline with two legs: (1...

  17. Concise encyclopedia of history of energy

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    "The Concise Encyclopedia of the History of Energy" draws together in a single volume a comprehensive account of the field from the prestigious and award-winning "Encyclopedia of Energy" (2004). This volume covers all aspects of energy history with authoritative articles authoritatively contributed and edited by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Extensively revised since the original publication of the "Encylopedia of Energy", this work describes the most interesting historical developments of the past five years in the energy sector. It is a concise desk reference for researchers and those interested in any aspect of the history of energy science. It provides eminently cost-effective access to some of the most interesting articles in "Encyclopedia of Energy". It is significantly revised to accommodate the latest trends in each field of enquiry.

  18. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Dictionaries for Text Production are information tools that are designed and constructed for helping users to produce (i.e. encode) texts, both oral and written texts. These can be broadly divided into two groups: (a) specialized text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that only offer...... a small amount of lexicographic data, most or all of which are typically used in a production situation, e.g. synonym dictionaries, grammar and spelling dictionaries, collocation dictionaries, concept dictionaries such as the Longman Language Activator, which is advertised as the World’s First Production...... Dictionary; (b) general text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that offer all or most of the lexicographic data that are typically used in a production situation. A review of existing production dictionaries reveals that there are many specialized text production dictionaries but only a few general...

  19. Compiling Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently ... standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin- .... part of speech, noun class, the plural form of each noun, and a simple gloss. ... But these mental links tend to cluster around a ... group, duet, trio, ensemble.

  20. Using Bilingual Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Geoff

    1987-01-01

    Monolingual dictionaries have serious disadvantages in many language teaching situations; bilingual dictionaries are potentially more efficient and more motivating sources of information for language learners. (Author/CB)

  1. Oxford House Recovery Homes: Characteristics and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the largest examples of a community-based, mutual-help residential community for high risk substance abuse individuals is Oxford House. In the U.S., over 9,800 people live in these self-run dwellings where they obtain jobs, pay utility bills, and learn to be responsible citizens. Beginning with one single rented residence in the mid 1970s, Oxford Houses now number over 1,300. These rented homes are helping to deal with drug addiction and community re-entry by providing stable housing without any limits on length of stay, a network of job opportunities, and support for abstinence. An exploration of the research on these unique settings highlights the strengths of such a community-based approach to addressing addiction. New roles for psychologists in working with these types of support systems are identified. PMID:20577571

  2. Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Conradie, Willem

    2015-01-01

    A concise yet rigorous introduction to logic and discrete mathematics. This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade.  The chapters on logic - propositional and first-order - provide a robust toolkit for logical reasoning, emphasizing the conceptual understanding of the language and the semantics of classical logic as well as practical applications through the easy

  3. Development of thermoluminescence dating techniques at Oxford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    The two-decade long history of thermoluminescene as a pottery dating method is surveyed with particular reference to the various problems that have been encountered in the Oxford Laboratory's research programme. Effects, such as supralinearity and radon emanation, are explained in terms of how they are measured and how their existence influences thermoluminescence (TL) dating accuracy (currently close to plus minus 7% per analysis). Illustrations of Thermoluminescence (TL) applications include a Nok culture terracotta from Nigeria and a Cambodia bronze Buddha figure of the Khmer period, dated ising the ceramic-like casting-core retained within it. (author)

  4. Recent results from the Oxford EBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, David N [Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Ezekiel, Toleme Z [Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Green, Felicia M [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Smith, Claire J [Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Silver, Joshua D [Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Here we summarise the present status of the experimental programme of the Oxford electron beam ion trap. Most notably this research has recently culminated in the successful measurement of the 2s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} transition in hydrogenlike nitrogen by a laser resonance method. We also introduce preliminary results from some computational investigations of both electron beam transport and the trapped ion ensemble. In particular, we show that the contribution of the magnetic field to ion confinement has a potentially measurable effect on the ion phase space distribution.

  5. Oxford CyberSEM: remote microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M; Kirkland, A; Cockayne, D; Meyer, R

    2008-01-01

    The Internet has enabled researchers to communicate over vast geographical distances, sharing ideas and documents. e-Science, underpinned by Grid and Web Services, has enabled electronic communications to the next level where, in addition to document sharing, researchers can increasingly control high precision scientific instruments over the network. The Oxford CyberSEM project developed a simple Java applet via which samples placed in a JEOL 5510LV Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) can be manipulated and examined collaboratively over the Internet. Designed with schoolchildren in mind, CyberSEM does not require any additional hardware or software other than a generic Java-enabled web browser. This paper reflects on both the technical and social challenges in designing real-time systems for controlling scientific equipments in collaborative environments. Furthermore, it proposes potential deployment beyond the classroom setting.

  6. Basic theoretical physics a concise overview

    CERN Document Server

    Krey, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    This concise treatment embraces, in four parts, all the main aspects of theoretical physics (I . Mechanics and Basic Relativity, II. Electrodynamics and Aspects of Optics, III. Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, IV. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics). It summarizes the material that every graduate student, physicist working in industry, or physics teacher should master during his or her degree course. It thus serves both as an excellent revision and preparation tool, and as a convenient reference source, covering the whole of theoretical physics. It may also be successfully employed to deepen its readers' insight and add new dimensions to their understanding of these fundamental concepts. Recent topics such as holography and quantum cryptography are included, thus making this a unique contribution to the learning material for theoretical physics.

  7. Development of the Concise Data Processing Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Day

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Concise Data Processing Assessment (CDPA was developed to probe student abilities related to the nature of measurement and uncertainty and to handling data. The diagnostic is a ten question, multiple-choice test that can be used as both a pre-test and post-test. A key component of the development process was interviews with students, which were used to both uncover common modes of student thinking and validate item wording. To evaluate the reliability and discriminatory power of this diagnostic, we performed statistical tests focusing on both item analysis (item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and point-biserial coefficient and on the entire test (test reliability and Ferguson’s delta. Scores on the CDPA range from chance (for novices to about 80% (for experts, indicating that it possesses good dynamic range. Overall, the results indicate that the CDPA is a reliable assessment tool for measuring targeted abilities in undergraduate physics students.

  8. Generating Concise Rules for Human Motion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tomohiko; Wakisaka, Ken-Ichi; Kuriyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for retrieving human motion data with concise retrieval rules based on the spatio-temporal features of motion appearance. Our method first converts motion clip into a form of clausal language that represents geometrical relations between body parts and their temporal relationship. A retrieval rule is then learned from the set of manually classified examples using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP automatically discovers the essential rule in the same clausal form with a user-defined hypothesis-testing procedure. All motions are indexed using this clausal language, and the desired clips are retrieved by subsequence matching using the rule. Such rule-based retrieval offers reasonable performance and the rule can be intuitively edited in the same language form. Consequently, our method enables efficient and flexible search from a large dataset with simple query language.

  9. Concise expression of a classical radiation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present a concise expression of the classical electromagnetic radiation spectrum of a moving charge. It is shown to be equivalent to the often used and much more complicated form derived from the Lienard-Wiechert potentials when the observation distance R satisfies the condition R much-gt γλ. The expression reveals a relationship between the radiation spectrum and the motion of the radiation source. It also forms the basis of an efficient computing approach, which is of practical value in numerical calculations of the spectral output of accelerated charges. The advantages of this approach for analytical and numerical applications are discussed and the bending-magnet synchrotron radiation spectrum is calculated according to the approach

  10. The Oxford SWIFT integral field spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser; Goodsall, Timothy; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Davies, Roger L.

    2006-06-01

    We present the design of the Oxford SWIFT integral field spectrograph, a dedicated I and z band instrument (0.65μm micron - 1.0μm micron at R~4000), designed to be used in conjunction with the Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics system (PALAO, and its planned upgrade PALM-3000). It builds on two recent developments (i) the improved ability of second generation adaptive optics systems to correct for atmospheric turbulence at wavelengths less than or equal to 1μm micron, and (ii) the availability of CCD array detectors with high quantum efficiency at very red wavelengths (close to the silicon band edge). Combining these with a state-of-the-art integral field unit design using an all-glass image slicer, SWIFT's design provides very high throughput and low scattered light. SWIFT simultaneously provides spectra of ~4000 spatial elements, arranged in a rectangular field-of-view of 44 × 89 pixels. It has three on-the-fly selectable pixel scales of 0.24", 0.16" and 0.08'. First light is expected in spring 2008.

  11. The First Steps to a New Comprehensive Slovenian-Hungarian Dictionary: The Analysis of Relevant Bilingual Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Bálint Čeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of existing bilingual Slovenian-Hungarian dictionaries, which was made as part of the project aiming to design a concept for a new comprehensive Slovenian-Hungarian dictionary. First, a short historical overview of Slovenian-Hungarian lexicography is provided, including first collections of dialect vocabulary, glossaries, and collections and dictionaries of idioms. Then, an overview of Slovenian-Hungarian and Hungarian-Slovenian dictionaries is made, the first one being published in 1961. The paper then focuses on a comparison on three Slovenian-Hungarian dictionaries, which are currently used by majority of users, namely Slovenian-Hungarian part of the dictionary by Elizabeta Bernjak (1995, Slovenian-Hungarian dictionary by Jože Hradil (1996, and Slovenian-Hungarian part of the Hradil’s bidirectional dictionary. The dictionaries are compared in terms of size, headword list, coverage, headword presentation, grammar information, as well as in terms of other elements of dictionary microstructure such as translations and examples. The discussion section includes an analysis of the coverage offered by the dictionaries of the vocabulary compilled by teachers at bilingual schools in Prekmurje. The results indicate that the coverage of various levels of vocabulary, frequent or rare, is rather poor; as dictionaries are medium-sized and outdated, this is to be expected, however as the analysis shows, some basic concepts are also often not covered (e.g. research, death, allergy. The second part of the discussion is dedicated to the presentation of selected examples of good practice in bilingual lexicography, such as Comprehensive English-Slovenian dictionary Oxford-DZS as the first bilingual dictionary in Slovenia to use the corpus-based approach, as well as offer much more contextual information on the headwords. Also presented are English-Spanish online dictionaries by Oxford University Press and Collins, the focus

  12. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  13. A Concise Review of Amyloidosis in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moges Woldemeskel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis refers to a group of protein misfolding diseases characterized by deposition of a particular amyloid protein in various organs and tissues of animals and humans. Various types and clinical forms of amyloidosis, in which the pathology and pathogenesis is diverse depending upon the underlying causes and species affected, are reported in domestic and wild animals. The clinical findings are also quite variable consequent to the variation of the tissues and organs involved and the extent of functional disruption of the affected organs in various animal species. The affected organs may be enlarged and exhibit variable pallor grossly, or the amyloid deposit may be discernible only after microscopic examination of the affected tissues. Amyloid appears as a pale eosinophilic homogenous extracellular deposit in tissues. However, microscopic examination and Congo red staining with green birefringence under polarized light are needed to confirm amyloid and differentiate it from other apparently similar extracellular deposits such as collagen and fibrin. Identifying the type of amyloid deposit needs immunohistochemical staining, ultrastructural characterization of the amyloid fibril, and if feasible also genetic studies of the involved species for clinical and prognostic purposes. This paper provides a concise review of the occurrence of amyloidosis in domestic and wild animals.

  14. G.-M. de Schryver et al. (Eds.). Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    tors, with three stars for the top 500, two stars for the next 500 and one star for the third 500 words. However, not only the highly frequent words are in- cluded. Words that are not even in the corpora are said to have been included on the basis of their importance in the educational situation of the learners (pp. ix; xi). From this ...

  15. Dictionary Visions, Research and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is about dictionaries and dictionary making. In six thematic sections it presents nineteen contributions covering a wide field within lexicography: Online Lexicography, Dictionary Structure, Phraseology in Dictionaries, LSP Lexicography, Dictionaries and the User, plus Etymology, History...... and Culture in Lexicography. Some chapters focus on theoretical aspects, others report on dictionary work in the making, and still others compare and analyze existing dictionaries. Common to all authors, however, is the concern for the dictionary user. Trivial as it may seem, the fact that dictionaries...

  16. Teaching Dictionary Skills through a Slang Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Stanley M.

    A unit for teaching dictionary skills through the compilation of a slang dictionary was written with the purpose of providing an inductive learning situation. The students are to begin by defining slang usage and bringing in slang words and definitions on cards. Small groups are to be formed to evaluate the definitions and make additions. In…

  17. A Concise Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark S.

    2018-02-01

    Assuming a background in basic classical physics, multivariable calculus, and differential equations, A Concise Introduction to Quantum Mechanics provides a self-contained presentation of the mathematics and physics of quantum mechanics. The relevant aspects of classical mechanics and electrodynamics are reviewed, and the basic concepts of wave-particle duality are developed as a logical outgrowth of experiments involving blackbody radiation, the photoelectric effect, and electron diffraction. The Copenhagen interpretation of the wave function and its relation to the particle probability density is presented in conjunction with Fourier analysis and its generalization to function spaces. These concepts are combined to analyze the system consisting of a particle confined to a box, developing the probabilistic interpretation of observations and their associated expectation values. The Schrödinger equation is then derived by using these results and demanding both Galilean invariance of the probability density and Newtonian energy-momentum relations. The general properties of the Schrödinger equation and its solutions are analyzed, and the theory of observables is developed along with the associated Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Basic applications of wave mechanics are made to free wave packet spreading, barrier penetration, the simple harmonic oscillator, the Hydrogen atom, and an electric charge in a uniform magnetic field. In addition, Dirac notation, elements of Hilbert space theory, operator techniques, and matrix algebra are presented and used to analyze coherent states, the linear potential, two state oscillations, and electron diffraction. Applications are made to photon and electron spin and the addition of angular momentum, and direct product multiparticle states are used to formulate both the Pauli exclusion principle and quantum decoherence. The book concludes with an introduction to the rotation group and the general properties of angular momentum.

  18. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  19. From Data to Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Almind, Richard

    2011-01-01

    definitions, thereby creating both monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. Users access the data through online dictionaries that allow them to make structured searches. The dictionaries mainly provide help in communicative situations such as understanding, producing and translating accounting texts, but also......Most online dictionaries are based on printed dictionaries or specially developed databases. However, these dictionaries do not fully satisfy the needs for help and knowledge users have, so a re-assessment of the practical and theoretical foundation is necessary. Based on the work on the Accounting...... help users acquire knowledge about general or specific accounting matters in cognitive user situations. This theoretical foundation allows lexicographers to develop dictionaries that search in structured data sets and then present data types selected because they provide help in specific situations...

  20. The SMAP Dictionary Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin A.; Swan, Christoper A.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Dictionary Management System is a web-based tool to develop and store a mission dictionary. A mission dictionary defines the interface between a ground system and a spacecraft. In recent years, mission dictionaries have grown in size and scope, making it difficult for engineers across multiple disciplines to coordinate the dictionary development effort. The Dictionary Management Systemaddresses these issues by placing all dictionary information in one place, taking advantage of the efficiencies inherent in co-locating what were once disparate dictionary development efforts.

  1. The Islamic Entries in Three Major English Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrosyid Abdurrosyid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to analyze Islamic entries in three major English dictionaries; Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE, Merriam-Webster’s Advanced Learners’Dictionary (MWALED, and Macquarie Australian National Dictionary (MAND. The three dictionaries are used the object of this study because they represent the major varieties of English besides the existence of a great number of new Englishness emerges around the globe. The selected entries are in accordance to Islamic sciences such as theology, Islamic  Jurisprudence,  Quranic  exegesis,  hadith  Science,  Islamic  mysticism  and  Islamic  History. Inappropriate and inaccurate or misleading definitions given by the dictionaries are identified and analyzed, then they will be examined according to definitions from each Islamic science so that accurate and appropriate definitions can be delivered as the alternatives and in turn more acceptable definitions and understandings of Islam will be given to not only the Muslim communities but also the greater readers.DOI: 10.15408/insaniyat.v2i1.6588

  2. Joyce M. Hawkins (Compiler). The South African Oxford School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Masturbate is no longer defined with tones of judgement ("self-abuse" as my school dictionary had it); homosexual is defined quite simply as "attracted to people of the same sex", but lesbian is defined as "a homosexual woman", a definition lesbians are likely to take exception to. There are no swear words. Their inclusion is ...

  3. Improving the dictionary lookup approach for disease normalization using enhanced dictionary and query expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Jue, Toni Rose; Chang, Nai-Wen; Dai, Hong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly increasing biomedical literature calls for the need of an automatic approach in the recognition and normalization of disease mentions in order to increase the precision and effectivity of disease based information retrieval. A variety of methods have been proposed to deal with the problem of disease named entity recognition and normalization. Among all the proposed methods, conditional random fields (CRFs) and dictionary lookup method are widely used for named entity recognition and normalization respectively. We herein developed a CRF-based model to allow automated recognition of disease mentions, and studied the effect of various techniques in improving the normalization results based on the dictionary lookup approach. The dataset from the BioCreative V CDR track was used to report the performance of the developed normalization methods and compare with other existing dictionary lookup based normalization methods. The best configuration achieved an F-measure of 0.77 for the disease normalization, which outperformed the best dictionary lookup based baseline method studied in this work by an F-measure of 0.13.Database URL: https://github.com/TCRNBioinformatics/DiseaseExtract. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Women leadership in Oxford House: examining their strengths and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret I; Dziekan, Marta M; Horin, Elizabeth V; Jason, Leonard A; Ferrari, Joseph R; Olson, Bradley D

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives and definition of leadership by women and mothers with children (n = 40) affiliated with Oxford Houses, a communal mutual-help recovery setting. Participants were asked questions relating to their experiences living in an Oxford House including the strengths and challenges encountered and how leadership impacted the stability in their house. Results illustrated the value of female leadership and highlighted the characteristics deemed important for women leaders in Oxford House, as well as some differences between these women's perception of leadership and the standard definition of leadership. The implications of the findings and how they may be useful to women's and mothers' with children houses are discussed.

  5. The ABCs of Data Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Tate; Nicholas, Amy; Blandford, William; Ruggiero, Tony; Peters, Mary; Thayer, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This overview of the basic components of a data dictionary is designed to educate and inform IDEA Part C and Part B 619 state staff about the purpose and benefits of having up-to-date data dictionaries for their data systems. This report discusses the following topics: (1) What Is a Data Dictionary?; (2) Why Is a Data Dictionary Needed and How Can…

  6. Resensies / Reviews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    latest updated computerized databases of the Oxford English dictionaries. This has enabled the compilers to include such topical entries as ethnic cleansing, karaoke, pixel, toy boy and virtual reality. Comparing this 'pocket' dictionary with myoid 1964 edition of the Concise. Oxford Dictionary (whicI:t is about the same size), ...

  7. Neue Lautzeichen im Advanced Learners Dictionary (ALD). Stellungnahmen zum Pro und Kontra (New Sound Symbols in the Advanced Learners Dictionary [ALD]. Considerations Pro and Con)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielsprache Englisch, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The phonetic symbols in the "Advanced Learners Dictionary" (Oxford University Press, London) are discussed critically in articles by L. Alfes, H. Arndt, E. Bauch, G. Dahlmann-Resing, W. Friedrich, E. Germer, B. Haycraft, H. P. Kelz. Reference is made to an earlier article "Neue Zeichen", by H. G. Hoffmann. (Text is in German.)…

  8. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-04-01

    The actualized version (April 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear facilities, and radiation protection.

  9. Dictionary of Multicultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A., Ed.; Ladson-Billings, Gloria, Ed.

    The focus of this dictionary is the meanings and perspectives of various terms that are used in multicultural education. Contributors have often addressed the literal meanings of words and terms as well as contextual meanings and examples that helped create those meanings. Like other dictionaries, this one is arranged alphabetically, but it goes…

  10. Dictionary of Marketing Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    A listing of words and definitions compiled from more than 10 college and high school textbooks are presented in this dictionary of marketing terms. Over 1,200 entries of terms used in retailing, wholesaling, economics, and investments are included. This dictionary was designed to aid both instructors and students to better understand the…

  11. Oxford engineering students to study new solutions for vacuum chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Department of Engineering Science - University of Oxford

    2012-01-01

    In April, eleven engineering science students in their third year at Oxford University were invited here to present their design ideas for new vacuum chamber materials to be used in accelerators. We publish below an abstract of the article that the University of Oxford featured on its website.   The 11 Oxford students who worked at CERN on alternatives to beryllium in vacuum chambers. (Photo courtesy of the Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford.) Engineering Science students invited to design for CERN’s Large Hadron Collider In April, eleven Engineering Science students in their third year were invited to the CERN laboratory in Geneva to present their ideas for new vacuum chamber designs for the experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Their design objectives were to propose alternatives to beryllium – the material used for some of the existing experimental vacuum chambers. Beryllium (chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4) is to...

  12. Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674

  13. RUNTIME DICTIONARIES FOR ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Wind, David Kofoed

    2013-01-01

    ROOT is the LHC physicists' common tool for data analysis; almost all data is stored using ROOT's I/O system. This system benefits from a custom description of types (a so-called dictionary) that is optimised for the I/O. Until now, the dictionary cannot be provided at run-time; it needs to be prepared in a separate prerequisite step. This project will move the generation of the dictionary to run-time, making use of ROOT 6's new just-in-time compiler. It allows a more dynamic and natural access to ROOT's I/O features especially for user code.

  14. A new grading for easy and concise description of functional status after spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluvshtein, V; Front, L; Itzkovich, M

    2012-01-01

    Disability scales do not enable the transmission of concise, meaningful and daily function description for clinical purposes.......Disability scales do not enable the transmission of concise, meaningful and daily function description for clinical purposes....

  15. Comparing the Effect of Using Monolingual versus Bilingual Dictionary on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Saeideh; Dogolsara, Shokoufeh Abbasi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of using two types of dictionaries (monolingual and bilingual) on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary learning. An OPT (Oxford placement test, 2001) was administered among 90 students 60 of whom were selected as the participants of this study. They were sophomore students studying English as a…

  16. Early recovery after fast-track Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stig; Dalsgaard, Jesper; Bjerggaard, Karin

    2012-01-01

    trauma. We investigated changes in leg-extension power (LEP) in the first month after MIS Oxford UKA and its relation to pain, knee motion, functional performance, and knee function. Patients and methods In 35 consecutive Oxford UKA patients, LEP was measured 1 week before and 1 month after surgery...... together with knee motion, knee swelling, the 30-second chair-stand test, and Oxford knee score. Assessment of knee pain at rest and walking was done using a visual analog scale. Results 30 patients were discharged on the day after surgery, and 5 on the second day after surgery. LEP and functional...... performance reached the preoperative level after 1 month. Only slight postoperative knee swelling was observed with rapid restoration of knee flexion and function. A high level of pain during the first postoperative night and day fell considerably thereafter. None of the patients needed physiotherapy...

  17. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Resensies / Reviews. 309 ... and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers from the International ... "Cambridge, Trinity College Library MS 0.5.4: A Fifteenth-century ... There are among others ten types of manuscript collections that need attention, ..... The collection is rounded off by a selective index, supplementing the Table.

  18. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Laborda, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    La reseña presenta el libro que K. Allan ha editado, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Linguistics (2013), en la colección de la Oxford University Press sobre Lingüística. En la obra participan más de treinta especialistas, que tratan de la historia en Occidente y, en menor medida, en Oriente. Los ámbitos de estudio respetan un orden tradicional: el sonido, la sintaxis y el significado y, como relativa novedad, la lingüística aplicada. Un interés complementario de la obr...

  19. Validation of the Danish version of Oxford Shoulder Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Noergaard, Peter Moensted; Brorson, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) is a patient-administered condition-specific questionnaire for patients with degenerative or inflammatory shoulder disease. The purpose of this study was to validate a Danish translation of the OSS and to compare it with the Constant Score (CS).......The Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) is a patient-administered condition-specific questionnaire for patients with degenerative or inflammatory shoulder disease. The purpose of this study was to validate a Danish translation of the OSS and to compare it with the Constant Score (CS)....

  20. Navajo-English Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Leon; Morgan, William

    A brief summary of the sound system of the Navajo language introduces this Navajo-English dictionary. Diacritical markings and an English definition are given for each Navajo word. Words are listed alphabetically by Navajo sound. (VM)

  1. Online Law Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Online dictionaries that assist users in writing legal texts in English as a foreign language are important lexicographic tools. They can help law students bridge the factual and linguistic gaps between the two legal universes involved. However, existing online law dictionaries with English...... as the target language primarily focus on terms, but students also need to write the remainder of the texts in factually and linguistically correct English. It is therefore important to have a sound theoretical foundation before embarking on a dictionary project that aims to help law students communicate...... in English as a foreign language. The function theory of lexicography offers an appropriate basis as it focuses on three key concepts: user needs, user competences, and user situations. It is proposed that online dictionaries should be designed to satisfy the lexicographically relevant user needs...

  2. A timeless music dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: A music dictionary for the Internet fulfils the same functions as printed .... This does not mean that there cannot be a cognitive gain through a communi- ... 2006, and has, since its completion in August 2006, been accessible free of.

  3. Multilingualism and Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilingualism and Dictionaries The Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that we (Wojciech Sosnowski, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Anna Kisiel are currently developing has no precedent as far as its theoretical foundations and its structure are concerned. The dictionary offers a unique combination of three Slavic languages that belong to three different groups: a West Slavic language (Polish, a South Slavic language (Bulgarian and an East Slavic language (Russian. The dictionary describes semantic and syntactic equivalents of words between the languages. When completed, the dictionary will contain around 30,000 entries. The principle we build the dictionary on is that every language should be given equal status. Many of our data come from the Parallel Polish-Bulgarian-Russian corpus developed by us as part of the CLARIN-PL initiative. In the print version, the entries come in the order of the Cyrillic alphabet and they are not numbered (except for homonyms, which are disambiguated with Roman numbers. We selected the lemmas for the dictionary on the basis of their frequency in the corpus. Our dictionary is the first dictionary to include forms of address and most recent neologisms in the three languages. Faithful to the recent developments in contrastive linguistics, we begin with a form from the dictionary’s primary language and we define it in Polish. Subsequently, based on this definition, we try to find an equivalent in the second and the third language. Therefore, the meaning comes first and only then we look for the form (i.e. the equivalent that corresponds to this meaning. This principle, outlined in Gramatyka konfrontatywna języków polskiego i bułgarskiego (GKBP, allows us to treat data from multiple languages as equal. In the dictionary, we draw attention to the correct choice of equivalents in translation; we also provide categorisers that indicate the meaning of verbal tenses and aspects. The definitions of states, events and

  4. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-06-01

    The actualized version (June 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, nuclear physics, reactor physics, isotope production, biological radiation effects, and radiation protection.

  5. Dictionary descent in optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Temlyakov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The problem of convex optimization is studied. Usually in convex optimization the minimization is over a d-dimensional domain. Very often the convergence rate of an optimization algorithm depends on the dimension d. The algorithms studied in this paper utilize dictionaries instead of a canonical basis used in the coordinate descent algorithms. We show how this approach allows us to reduce dimensionality of the problem. Also, we investigate which properties of a dictionary are beneficial for t...

  6. Calculus of variations and optimal control theory a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liberzon, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This textbook offers a concise yet rigorous introduction to calculus of variations and optimal control theory, and is a self-contained resource for graduate students in engineering, applied mathematics, and related subjects. Designed specifically for a one-semester course, the book begins with calculus of variations, preparing the ground for optimal control. It then gives a complete proof of the maximum principle and covers key topics such as the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theory of dynamic programming and linear-quadratic optimal control. Calculus of Variations and Optimal Control Theory also traces the historical development of the subject and features numerous exercises, notes and references at the end of each chapter, and suggestions for further study. Offers a concise yet rigorous introduction Requires limited background in control theory or advanced mathematics Provides a complete proof of the maximum principle Uses consistent notation in the exposition of classical and modern topics Traces the h...

  7. An Analysis of The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography (Atkins and Rundell 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Since at least a decade ago, the lexicographic community at large has been demandingthat a modern textbook be designed — one that would place corpora at the centre of the lexicographicenterprise. Written by two of the most respected practising lexicographers, this book hasfinally arrived, and delivers on very many levels. This review article presents a critical analysis ofits features.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, LEARNERS' DICTIONARY, MONOLINGUAL, BILINGUAL,CORPUS, FRAME SEMANTICS, ENGLISH, FRENCH, TEXTBOOK

    Samenvatting: Een analyse van The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography(Atkins en Rundell 2008. Al minstens tien jaar lang eist de volledige lexicografischegemeenschap dat een modern tekstboek zou worden ontworpen — één dat corpora in het centrumvan de lexicografische belangstelling zou plaatsen. Geschreven door twee van de meest gerespecteerdepraktiserende lexicografen, is dit boek er nu eindelijk, en het ontgoochelt niet. Dit recensieartikelanalyseert de kenmerken ervan kritisch.

    Sleutelwoorden: LEXICOGRAFIE, LEERWOORDENBOEK, VERKLAREND (MONOLINGUAAL,VERTALEND (BILINGUAAL, CORPUS, FRAME SEMANTICS, ENGELS, FRANS,TEKSTBOEK

  8. Weakly Supervised Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zeyu; Raich, Raviv; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Kim, Jinsub

    2018-05-01

    We present a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for discriminative analysis dictionary learning under a weak supervision setting. Dictionary learning approaches have been widely used for tasks such as low-level signal denoising and restoration as well as high-level classification tasks, which can be applied to audio and image analysis. Synthesis dictionary learning aims at jointly learning a dictionary and corresponding sparse coefficients to provide accurate data representation. This approach is useful for denoising and signal restoration, but may lead to sub-optimal classification performance. By contrast, analysis dictionary learning provides a transform that maps data to a sparse discriminative representation suitable for classification. We consider the problem of analysis dictionary learning for time-series data under a weak supervision setting in which signals are assigned with a global label instead of an instantaneous label signal. We propose a discriminative probabilistic model that incorporates both label information and sparsity constraints on the underlying latent instantaneous label signal using cardinality control. We present the expectation maximization (EM) procedure for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the proposed model. To facilitate a computationally efficient E-step, we propose both a chain and a novel tree graph reformulation of the graphical model. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated on both synthetic and real-world data.

  9. Concise encyclopedia of semiconducting materials and related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, S M

    1992-01-01

    The development of electronic materials and particularly advances in semiconductor technology have played a central role in the electronics revolution by allowing the production of increasingly cheap and powerful computing equipment and advanced telecommunications devices. This Concise Encyclopedia, which incorporates relevant articles from the acclaimed Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering as well as newly commissioned articles, emphasizes the materials aspects of semiconductors and the technologies important in solid-state electronics. Growth of bulk crystals and epitaxial layer

  10. The Courtrai chest from New College, Oxford, re-examined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the age estimation of the Courtrai chest from New College Oxford, using the accelerator mass spectrometer method. Radiocarbon dating of the wood in the chest revealed a date around 1280, which is in agreement with dates determined using the dendrochronological technique. (UK)

  11. Validation of the Danish version of the Oxford Elbow Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaschke, Hans Christian; Jørgensen, Andreas Møller; Thillemann, Theis Muncholm

    2013-01-01

    The Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-related outcome measure quantifying quality of life in relation to elbow disorders. This 12-item patient-administered English questionnaire comprises three domains: function, social-psychological status and pain. The purpose of this study was to examine...

  12. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Interview with Scott Durow, Software Engineer, Oxford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Conducted by Paul

    1998-05-01

    Scott Durow was educated at Bootham School, York. He studied Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry to A-level and went on to Nottingham University to read Medical Physics. After graduating from Nottingham he embarked on his present career as a Software Engineer based in Oxford. He is a musician in his spare time, as a member of a band and playing the French horn.

  13. Changing Traditions: Automation and the Oxford College Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automation in the Oxford College Libraries (England) begins with background on the university library system, which consists of numerous independent libraries. Centralized and decentralized automation activities are described, and hardware and software for the microcomputer-based system at the University College Library are…

  14. Dictionary quality and dictionary design: a methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although recent dictionaries for the ESL market have been praised for their innovative design features, the prime concern of users, lexicographers and metalexicographers is the functional quality of the dictionary products provided for the market. The functional quality of dictionaries and the scientific assessment thereof ...

  15. Reviewing printed and electronic dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Dictionary reviewing is an integral part of the lexicographic universe. However, lexicographers have called for generally applicable principles embracing both printed and electronic dictionaries. I propose that scholarly reviews contain information that is useful to their intended audiences...

  16. PHRASEOLOGY IN CHAKAVIAN DIALECTOLOGICAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Bogović

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the presentation and processing of idioms in eight dictionaries of chakavian organic language systems. According to the systematicality of their presentation and elaboration, the dictionaries are divided into three groups: systematic, partially systematic and non-systematic. Their analysis has shown the prevalence of dictionaries with partially systematic presentation and processing of idioms. Based on the results of the analysis, the paper presents procedures for a systematic presentation of idioms in organic language dictionaries.

  17. The concept of 'dictionary usage'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Tarp, Sven

    2004-01-01

    that users that might have a bad dictionary culture feel that the dictionaries meet their needs. In doing so, you generate inbreeding and block the necessary innovation. This is the unavoidable result of a practice that pays excessive attention to the study of existing dictionaries and doesn't endeavour...... to produce new concepts and to introduce a new dictionary culture. It is, in other words, a poor lexicography....

  18. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Considine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The lexicographical record of English in Canada began with wordlists of the late eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. From the beginning of the twentieth century onwards, the general vocabulary of English in Canada has been represented in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries, often adapted from American or British dictionaries. In the 1950s, several important projects were initiated, resulting in the publication of general dictionaries of English in Canada, and of dictionaries of Canadianisms and of the vocabulary of particular regions of Can-ada. This article gives an overview of these dictionaries and of their reception, contextualizing them in the larger picture of the lexicography of Canada's other official language, French, and of a number of its non-official languages. It concludes by looking at the future of English-language lexicography in Canada, and by observing that although it has, at its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken.

    Keywords: DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHY, CANADIAN ENGLISH, CANADIANISMS, NATIONAL DICTIONARIES, CANADIAN FRENCH, CANADIAN FIRST NATIONS LAN-GUAGES, BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, REGIONAL DICTIONARIES, UNFINISHED DICTIONARY PROJECTS

    Opsomming: Woordeboeke van Kanadese Engels. Die leksikografiese optekening van Engels in Kanada begin met woordelyste van die laat agtiende, neëntiende en vroeë twintigste eeue. Van die begin van die twintigste eeu af en verder, is die algemene woordeskat van Engels weergegee in tweetalige en eentalige woordeboeke, dikwels met wysiginge ontleen aan Ameri-kaanse en Britse woordeboeke. In die 1950's is verskeie belangrike projekte onderneem wat gelei het tot die publikasie van algemene woordeboeke van Engels in Kanada, en van woordeboeke van Kanadeïsmes en van die woordeskat van bepaalde streke van Kanada. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van dié woordeboeke, en van hul ontvangs, deur

  19. Kirkeby's English–Swahili Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    largest Swahili dictionary is the Swahili–French dictionary of Sacleux (1939) with 1 112 pages. Kirkeby ... An entry in this dictionary could be a basic form, a derived or inflectional form of the ...... Cf. cook, boil, fry, roast, bake, etc. (cookery); ugali ...

  20. LZ-Compressed String Dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Arz, Julian; Fischer, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    We show how to compress string dictionaries using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ78) data compression algorithm. Our approach is validated experimentally on dictionaries of up to 1.5 GB of uncompressed text. We achieve compression ratios often outperforming the existing alternatives, especially on dictionaries containing many repeated substrings. Our query times remain competitive.

  1. Improving Dictionary Skills in Ndebele

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: This article proposes ways of improving dictionary skills amongst the Ndebele. One way of accomplishing this is incorporating the teaching of dictionary skills into teacher training syllabi. Teachers can impart their knowledge to students and a dictionary culture can develop for enhancing effective use of current ...

  2. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries...... the needs of learners, it is proposed that specialised translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. It is argued that electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative documents...

  3. The Role of Dictionaries in Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines assumptions about dictionaries, especially the bilingual dictionary, and suggests ways of integrating the monolingual dictionary into the second-language instructional process. Findings indicate that the monolingual dictionary can coexist with bilingual dictionaries within a foreign-language course if the latter are appropriately used as…

  4. Dictionaries of Canadian English | Considine | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken. keywords: dictionary, lexicography, canadian english, canadianisms, national dictionaries, canadian french, canadian first nations lan-guages, bilingual dictionaries, regional dictionaries, unfinished diction-ary projects ...

  5. A Concise Introduction to Multiagent Systems and Distributed Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Vlassis, Nikos

    2007-01-01

    Multiagent systems is an expanding field that blends classical fields like game theory and decentralized control with modern fields like computer science and machine learning. This monograph provides a concise introduction to the subject, covering the theoretical foundations as well as more recent developments in a coherent and readable manner. The text is centered on the concept of an agent as decision maker. Chapter 1 is a short introduction to the field of multiagent systems. Chapter 2 covers the basic theory of singleagent decision making under uncertainty. Chapter 3 is a brief introductio

  6. A Concise and Direct Proof of "Fermat's Last Theorem"

    OpenAIRE

    Ellman, Roger

    1998-01-01

    The recently developed proof of Fermat's Last Theorem is very lengthy and difficult, so much so as to be beyond all but a small body of specialists. While certainly of value in the developments that resulted, that proof could not be, nor was offered as being, possibly the proof Fermat had in mind. The present proof being brief, direct and concise is a candidate for being what Fermat had in mind. It is also completely accessible to any one trained in common algebra. That critical suggestions o...

  7. Mathematical foundations of time series analysis a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Beran, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to the mathematical foundations of time series analysis, with an emphasis on mathematical clarity. The text is reduced to the essential logical core, mostly using the symbolic language of mathematics, thus enabling readers to very quickly grasp the essential reasoning behind time series analysis. It appeals to anybody wanting to understand time series in a precise, mathematical manner. It is suitable for graduate courses in time series analysis but is equally useful as a reference work for students and researchers alike.

  8. The geometry of special relativity a concise course

    CERN Document Server

    Dragon, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    In this concise primer it is shown that, with simple diagrams, the phenomena of time dilatation, length contraction and Lorentz transformations can be deduced from the fact that in a vacuum one cannot distinguish physically straight and uniform motion from rest, and that the speed of light does not depend on the speed of either the source or the observer. The text proceeds to derive the important results of relativistic physics and to resolve its apparent paradoxes. A short introduction into the covariant formulation of electrodynamics is also given. This publication addresses, in particular, students of physics and mathematics in their final undergraduate year.

  9. Interior structure of rotating black holes. I. Concise derivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Polhemus, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a concise derivation of a new set of solutions for the interior structure of accreting, rotating black holes. The solutions are conformally stationary, axisymmetric, and conformally separable. Hyper-relativistic counter-streaming between freely-falling collisionless ingoing and outgoing streams leads to mass inflation at the inner horizon, followed by collapse. The solutions fail at an exponentially tiny radius, where the rotational motion of the streams becomes comparable to their radial motion. The papers provide a fully nonlinear, dynamical solution for the interior structure of a rotating black hole from just above the inner horizon inward, down to a tiny scale.

  10. A concise introduction to image processing using C++

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Meiqing

    2008-01-01

    Image recognition has become an increasingly dynamic field with new and emerging civil and military applications in security, exploration, and robotics. Written by experts in fractal-based image and video compression, A Concise Introduction to Image Processing using C++ strengthens your knowledge of fundamentals principles in image acquisition, conservation, processing, and manipulation, allowing you to easily apply these techniques in real-world problems. The book presents state-of-the-art image processing methodology, including current industrial practices for image compression, image de-noi

  11. Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction : solutions manual

    CERN Document Server

    Conradie, Willem; Robinson, Claudette

    2015-01-01

    Solutions manual to accompany Logic and Discrete Mathematics: A Concise Introduction This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade. Written in a clear and reader-friendly style, each section ends with an extensive set of exercises, most of them provided with complete solutions which are available in this accompanying solutions manual.

  12. Transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids a concise primer

    CERN Document Server

    Olsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    This short primer provides a concise and tutorial-style introduction to transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids , in particular the transport of mass, energy and momentum.  The reader will find detailed derivations of the transport equations for these phenomena, as well as selected analytical solutions to the transport equations in some simple geometries. After a brief introduction to the basic mathematics used in the text, Chapter 2, which deals with momentum transport, presents a derivation of the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equation describing the basic flow in a Newtonian fluid.  Also provided at

  13. Comparative Nivkh Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    This dictionary undertakes to reconstruct the lexis and morphology of the Nivkh proto-language by marshaling and organizing all the data available in published form on the contemporary dialects. It builds upon a considerable body of descriptive and comparative work carried out by scholars who have...... World is a subject of continuing interest to both linguists and anthropologists. The dictionary does not address this question directly. Reconstructing the proto-language is an essential step, however, to any further comparative work – in particular to sorting out the relationship between Nivkh...

  14. Clinical dictionary of MRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herborn, C.U.; Zink, C.

    2007-01-01

    MRT is the method of choice in many clinical problems. It is also one of the most complex imaging procedures, requiring much technical and physical knowledge and also detailed knowledge of the signal response of physiological and pathological tissues in the many variants of contrast enhancement, image reconstruction and image processing. In 2006, the pocket dictionary of MRT was published by the same publisher. It met with much positive response, which induced the publication of this new dictionary. With more than 3000 terms and definitions elaborated in cooperation with an excellent practician, the clinical applications of MRT are illustrated by typical findings and examples. (orig.)

  15. A dictionary of astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This revised edition contains 4,000 up-to-date entries written by an expert team of contributors, under the editorship of Ian Ridpath, renowned author and broadcaster. Covering the most recent space exploration missions and latest technological development, this authoritative dictionary covers everything from astrophysics to galaxies and time. World-wide coverage of observatories and telescopes, and major entries on supernova, Big Bang theory, and stellar evolution, make this an invaluable reference source for students, professionals, and amateur astronomers. Appendices include tables of Apollo lunar landing missions and the constellations. The entries are supported by numerous tables and diagrams, and the dictionary also features biographical entries on eminent astronomers.

  16. Example sentences in bilingual specialised dictionaries assisting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Specialised lexicography, online dictionaries, printed dictionaries, technical dictionaries, specialised communication, examples, lexicographical functions, text production, user needs, writing, translation. Voorbeeldsinne in tweetalige vakwoordeboeke help met kommunikasie in 'n vreemde taal. Praktisyns ...

  17. Dr.Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature

    OpenAIRE

    Imazato, Chiaki

    1988-01-01

    More than hundred 'Johnson's' dictionaries have so far been published not only in English but in other countries, and there are numerous books and articles on Johnson's Dictionary. But few have referred to Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature; nor were there any books or articles on it. Fortunately, however, I've got one copy of Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature, which was published in 1806. Johnson's Dictionary (1755) has 41,677 entries, whereas Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature 23,439 entr...

  18. The Effectiveness of Dictionary Examples in Decoding: The Case of Kuwaiti Learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashan Al-Ajmi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This study tries to shed light on the role of dictionary examples in the comprehension of word meanings. An experimental procedure has been devised whereby two groups of students with English as major subject at Kuwait University were asked to provide the Arabic equivalents for ten English headwords. The first group was given a list of entries for these words copied from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (OALD while the second group had to read the same list but without illustrative examples. Results indicate that the students' decoding performance was negatively affected by the presence of illustrative examples in the dictionary entry.

    Keywords: ARABIC, BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, COMPREHENSION, EFL DICTIONARY,ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, TRANSLATION

    Opsomming: Die doeltreffendheid van woordeboekvoorbeelde by dekodering:Die geval van Koeweiti-aanleerders van Engels. Hierdie studie probeer ligwerp op die rol van woordeboekvoorbeelde by die verstaan van woordbetekenisse. 'n Eksperimentelemetode is ontwerp waarby twee groepe studente met Engels as hoofvak by die Universiteit vanKoeweit gevra is om Arabiese ekwivalente vir tien Engelse trefwoorde te verskaf. Aan die eerstegroep is 'n lys inskrywings van hierdie woorde oorgeneem uit die Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary(OALD gegee, terwyl die tweede groep dieselfde lys moes lees, maar sonder verduidelikendevoorbeelde. Resultate het aangedui dat die studente se dekoderende prestasie negatiefbeïnvloed is deur die teenwoordigheid van verduidelikende voorbeelde in die woordeboekinskrywing.

    Sleutelwoorde: ARABIES, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, BEGRIP, EVT-WOORDEBOEK,VERDUIDELIKENDE VOORBEELD, EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, VERTALING

  19. Translation Dictionaries and Bilingual Dictionaries. Two Different Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2002-01-01

    of dictionaries - and in some cases even not the best ones - to assist the translator who runs into problems in the translation process. In my paper, I will argue that monolingual dictionaries - together with bilingual dictionaries «the other way around«, e.g. L2-L1 dictionaries when translating from L1 into L2...... in relation to translation and what types of problems pop up during the translation process in order to clarify up to which point lexicography can assist translator. Finally, I will discuss in which types of dictionary (monolingual or bilingual) the assistance to the translator should be provided and......The starting point in any scientific process is always the formulation of the problem and then the search for a solution. In my opinion the question on the relaton between lexicography and translation should be put in this way: How can dictionaries assist translators in finding solutions...

  20. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  1. Dictionary of machine terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book has introduction of dictionary of machine terms, and a compilation committee and introductory remarks. It gives descriptions of the machine terms in alphabetical order from a to Z and also includes abbreviation of machine terms and symbol table, way to read mathematical symbols and abbreviation and terms of drawings.

  2. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  3. Hashing, Randomness and Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    to the similarity to a bookshelf dictionary, which contains a set of words and has an explanation associated with each word. In the static version of the problem the set is fixed, whereas in the dynamic version, insertions and deletions of elements are possible. The approach taken is that of the theoretical...

  4. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  5. Accessing the ANW dictionary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk, F.; Tiberius, C.; Niestadt, J.; Zock, M.; Huang, C.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the functional design of an interface for an online scholarly dictionary of contemporary standard Dutch, the ANW. One of the main innovations of the ANW is a twofold meaning description: definitions are accompanied by ‘semagrams’. In this paper we focus on the strategies that

  6. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  7. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  8. Dictionary of Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, R. A.

    A wide range of terms used in the telecommunications industry are defined in this dictionary. Many of the terms and definitions are either reproduced from, or based on, the "Glossary of Terms Used in Telecommunications (including Radio) and Electronics" prepared by the British Standards Institute. The principal entry for each term is found under…

  9. Sparse dictionary learning of resting state fMRI networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eavani, Harini; Filipovych, Roman; Davatzikos, Christos; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2012-07-02

    Research in resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) has revealed the presence of stable, anti-correlated functional subnetworks in the brain. Task-positive networks are active during a cognitive process and are anti-correlated with task-negative networks, which are active during rest. In this paper, based on the assumption that the structure of the resting state functional brain connectivity is sparse, we utilize sparse dictionary modeling to identify distinct functional sub-networks. We propose two ways of formulating the sparse functional network learning problem that characterize the underlying functional connectivity from different perspectives. Our results show that the whole-brain functional connectivity can be concisely represented with highly modular, overlapping task-positive/negative pairs of sub-networks.

  10. Making a dictionary without words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the particular problems connected with lemma representation and lemmatization in a sign language dictionary. The paper is mainly based on the authors' work experience from the Danish Sign Language Dictionary project. In a sign language dictionary sign representation...... constitutes a problem. as there is - at least for Danish Sign Language - no conventional notation used by native signers and the various other sign user groups. We look into the different possibilities of representing signs and present the solution that we chose for the Danish Sign Language Dictionary....... Defining the criteria for lernmatization is another area where sign language dictionaries differ from written language dictionaries. The criteria should obviously include the manual expression of the signs, but a sign's manual expression has features from several categories (e.g. handshape, place...

  11. Data-Dictionary-Editing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Access to data-dictionary relations and attributes made more convenient. Data Dictionary Editor (DDE) application program provides more convenient read/write access to data-dictionary table ("descriptions table") via data screen using SMARTQUERY function keys. Provides three main advantages: (1) User works with table names and field names rather than with table numbers and field numbers, (2) Provides online access to definitions of data-dictionary keys, and (3) Provides displayed summary list that shows, for each datum, which data-dictionary entries currently exist for any specific relation or attribute. Computer program developed to give developers of data bases more convenient access to the OMNIBASE VAX/IDM data-dictionary relations and attributes.

  12. Considerations for Providing Etymological Information in the Advanced Ndebele Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langa Khumalo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article discusses the presentation of etymological information in the prospective Advanced Ndebele Dictionary (henceforth the AND which is still in its planning stage. The AND will be a successor to Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele (henceforth the ISN, a medium-sized, general-purpose, monolingual Ndebele dictionary published in 2001. The AND will not just be larger than the ISN, but will be more advanced with regard to the depth and scope of its lexical items and definitions. Whereas the ISN was based on a corpus size of about a million running words, the AND is envisaged to have as basis a corpus size of about five million. To this end, corpus expansion is an ongoing process. Again, unlike its forerunner, the AND will provide additional grammatical information for ach lexical item, including phonetic transcription, tone marking and etymology. It is the inclusion of etymological information in the AND that is critically examined in this article. There is a long tradition of providing etymological information in modern dictionaries from Oxford's New English Dictionary to ALRI's Duramazwi Guru reChiShona.

    Keywords: ETYMOLOGY, ADVANCED NDEBELE DICTIONARY, CULTURE, HERITAGE, LANGUAGE CONTACT

    Opsomming: Oorwegings vir die verskaffing van etimologiese inligting in die Gevorderde Ndebelewoordeboek. Hierdie artikel bespreek die aanbieding van etimo-logiese inligting in die toekomstige Gevorderde Ndebelewoordeboek (voortaan die GNW wat nog in sy beplanningstadium is. Die GNW sal 'n opvolger wees van die Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele (voortaan die ISN, 'n middelgroot, meerdoelige, eentalige Ndebelewoordeboek wat in 2001 gepubliseer is. Die GNW sal nie net groter as die ISN wees nie, maar sal meer gevorderd wees wat betref die diepte en omvang van sy leksikale items en definisies. Waar die ISN gebaseer was op 'n korpus-grootte van ongeveer 'n miljoen woordoptekeninge, word voorsien dat die GNW 'n korpusgrootte van ongeveer vyf miljoen as

  13. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....

  14. The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Morley, Sarah Dummett, Laura Kelly, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, Crispin JenkinsonNuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKBackground: With an ageing population and increasing demands on health and social care services, there is growing importance attached to the management of long-term conditions, including maximizing the cost-effectiveness of treatments. In line with this, there is increasing emphasis on the need to keep people both active and participating in daily life. Consequently, it is essential that well developed and validated instruments that can meaningfully assess levels of participation and activity are widely available. Current measures, however, are largely focused on disability and rehabilitation, and there is no measure of activity or participation for generic use that fully meets the standards set by regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration. Here we detail a protocol for the development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM for assessment of participation and activity in people experiencing a variety of health conditions, ie, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ. The stages incorporated in its development are entirely in line with current regulations and represent best practice in the development of PROMs.Methods: Development of the Ox-PAQ is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The project incorporates a new strategy of engaging with stakeholders from the outset in an attempt to identify those characteristics of PROMs considered most important to a range of potential users. Items will be generated through interviews with patients from a range of conditions. Pretesting of the instrument will be via cognitive interviews and focus groups. A postal survey will be conducted, with data subject to factor and Rasch analysis in order to

  15. Validation of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available David Morley, Sarah Dummett, Laura Kelly, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, Crispin Jenkinson Health Services Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Purpose: There is growing interest in the management of long-term conditions and in keeping people active and participating in the community. Testing the effectiveness of interventions that aim to affect activities and participation can be challenging without a well-developed, valid, and reliable instrument. This study therefore aims to develop a patient-reported outcome measure, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ, which is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF and fully compliant with current best practice guidelines. Methods: Questionnaire items generated from patient interviews and based on the nine chapters of the ICF were administered by postal survey to 386 people with three neurological conditions: motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Participants also completed the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and EQ-5D-5L. Results: Thus, 334 participants completed the survey, a response rate of 86.5%. Factor analysis techniques identified three Ox-PAQ domains, consisting of 23 items, accounting for 72.8% of variance. Internal reliability for the three domains was high (Cronbach's α: 0.81–0.96, as was test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation: 0.83–0.92. Concurrent validity was demonstrated through highly significant relationships with relevant domains of the MOS SF-36 and the EQ-5D-5L. Assessment of known-groups validity identified significant differences in Ox-PAQ scores among the three conditions included in the survey. Conclusion: Results suggest that the Ox-PAQ is a valid and reliable measure of participation and activity. The measure will now be validated in

  16. Yeni Redhouse Lugati; Ingilizce-Turkce (Revised Redhouse Dictionairy; English-Turkish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Church Board for World Ministries, Istanbul (Turkey). Near East Mission.

    The general plan of this dictionary, first prepared by Sir James Redhouse in 1861 and revised in 1950 and 1953, has been to include all words which appear in the Oxford Concise Dictionary and Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. In addition, a great number of idioms have been added; the volume now contains between 60,000 and 70,000 definitions.…

  17. A concise course on stochastic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Prévôt, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    These lectures concentrate on (nonlinear) stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE) of evolutionary type. All kinds of dynamics with stochastic influence in nature or man-made complex systems can be modelled by such equations. To keep the technicalities minimal we confine ourselves to the case where the noise term is given by a stochastic integral w.r.t. a cylindrical Wiener process.But all results can be easily generalized to SPDE with more general noises such as, for instance, stochastic integral w.r.t. a continuous local martingale. There are basically three approaches to analyze SPDE: the "martingale measure approach", the "mild solution approach" and the "variational approach". The purpose of these notes is to give a concise and as self-contained as possible an introduction to the "variational approach". A large part of necessary background material, such as definitions and results from the theory of Hilbert spaces, are included in appendices.

  18. A Concise Introduction to the Statistical Physics of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This concise primer (based on lectures given at summer schools on complex systems and on a masters degree course in complex systems modeling) will provide graduate students and newcomers to the field with the basic knowledge of the concepts and methods of statistical physics and its potential for application to interdisciplinary topics.  Indeed, in recent years, statistical physics has begun to attract the interest of a broad community of researchers in the field of complex system sciences, ranging from biology to the social sciences, economics and computer science. More generally, a growing number of graduate students and researchers feel the need to learn some basic concepts and questions originating in other disciplines without necessarily having to master all of the corresponding technicalities and jargon. Generally speaking, the goals of statistical physics may be summarized as follows: on the one hand to study systems composed of a large number of interacting ‘entities’, and on the other to predict...

  19. Quantum spin systems on infinite lattices a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Naaijkens, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    This course-based primer offers readers a concise introduction to the description of quantum mechanical systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom – and quantum spin systems in particular – using the operator algebraic approach. Here, the observables are modeled using elements of some operator algebra, usually a C*-algebra. This text introduces readers to the framework and the necessary mathematical tools without assuming much mathematical background, making it more accessible than advanced monographs. The book also highlights the usefulness of the so-called thermodynamic limit of quantum spin systems, which is the limit of infinite system size. For example, this makes it possible to clearly distinguish between local and global properties, without having to keep track of the system size. Together with Lieb-Robinson bounds, which play a similar role in quantum spin systems to that of the speed of light in relativistic theories, this approach allows ideas from relativistic field theories to be implemen...

  20. A concise summary of experimental facts about the Soai reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Timo; Busch, Mark; Schlageter, Martin; Weingand, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The Soai reaction amplifies small enantiomeric excesses in a spectacular manner. Being known for 20 years, it has drawn the attention of many scientists in different fields as it is to date the only chemical reaction offering the chance to study the phenomenon of asymmetric autocatalysis in conjunction with high amplification of enantiomeric excess (ee). This mini-review comprises an introduction to the discovery of asymmetric autocatalysis with amplification of ee and a concise summary of published experimental results showing which starting materials and reaction parameters play an important role in this reaction and which influences are understood. It is addressed especially to scientists entering the field of the Soai reaction to get a quick overview of important aspects. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The second demographic transition: a concise overview of its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesthaeghe, Ron

    2014-12-23

    This article gives a concise overview of the theoretical development of the concept of the "second demographic transition" since it was coined in 1986, its components, and its applicability, first to European populations and subsequently also to non-European societies as well. Both the demographic and the societal contrasts between the first demographic transition (FDT) and the second demographic transition (SDT) are highlighted. Then, the major criticisms of the SDT theory are outlined, and these issues are discussed in the light of the most recent developments in Europe, the United States, the Far East, and Latin America. It turns out that three major SDT patterns have developed and that these evolutions are contingent on much older systems of kinship and family organization.

  2. A concise wall temperature model for DI Diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torregrosa, A.; Olmeda, P.; Degraeuwe, B. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Reyes, M. [Centro de Mecanica de Fluidos y Aplicaciones, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

    2006-08-15

    A concise resistor model for wall temperature prediction in diesel engines with piston cooling is presented here. The model uses the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure and some usually measured operational parameters to predict the temperature of the structural elements of the engine. The resistor model was adjusted by means of temperature measurements in the cylinder head, the liner and the piston. For each model parameter, an expression as a function of the engine geometry, operational parameters and material properties was derived to make the model applicable to other similar engines. The model predicts well the cylinder head, liner and piston temperature and is sensitive to variations of operational parameters such as the start of injection, coolant and oil temperature and engine speed and load. (author)

  3. Dictionary learning in visual computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed fast development on dictionary learning approaches for a set of visual computing tasks, largely due to their utilization in developing new techniques based on sparse representation. Compared with conventional techniques employing manually defined dictionaries, such as Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform, dictionary learning aims at obtaining a dictionary adaptively from the data so as to support optimal sparse representation of the data. In contrast to conventional clustering algorithms like K-means, where a data point is associated with only one cluster c

  4. The INL Dictionary Writing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The INL-DWS is a Dictionary Writing System (DWS for compiling monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. It has been developed at the Institute of Dutch Lexicology (INL since 2007 and is now being used for the production of a monolingual dictionary at INL and a bilingual dictionary at the Fryske Akademy. This paper describes the functionalities of the system, on the one hand, from a lexicographical point of view, and on the other hand, from a more technical perspective. The paper concludes with a short evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of in-house systems versus off-the-shelf systems.

  5. The Treatment of Terms Relating to Islam and the Arab World in English Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashan Al-Ajmi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article investigates the treatment of vocabulary items relating to Islam and the Arab world in three major English dictionaries: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Oxford Dictionary of English, and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. The three dictionaries are compared with regard to their inclusion of 73 Arabic items (including loanwords used in texts on Islam and the Middle East at the Google news file. With religion as theme, eight of these terms have been examined and compared across their entries in these three dictionaries to determine the closeness of the lexicographic description of these terms to their original meanings among native speakers of Arabic and to detect, from these speakers' viewpoint, any deficiencies in the defining language of their respective entries. The examination of the definitions of terms relating to Islam and the Arab world in the three dictionaries has revealed a number of pitfalls that may require editorial reconsideration. These include circularity, insufficient information, negative contexts, very general definitions, ambiguity, incomplete information, narrow definitions and encyclopedic re-dundancy.

    Keywords: ARABIC LOANWORDS, CULTURAL TERMS, DEFINITION, ISLAM, REPRE-SENTATION, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Die behandeling van terme betreffende Islam en die Arabie-se wêreld in Engelse woordeboeke. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die behandeling van woordeskatitems betreffende Islam en die Arabiese wêreld in drie vooraanstaande Engelse woor-deboeke: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Oxford Dictionary of English, en Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Die drie woordeboeke word vergelyk met betrekking tot hul opname van 73 Arabiese items (insluitende leenwoorde wat in tekste oor Islam en die Midde-Ooste in die Google-nuuslêers gebruik word. Met godsdiens as tema, is agt van hierdie terme ondersoek en vergelyk met hul inskrywing in dié drie woordeboeke om

  6. How Dictionary Users Choose Senses in Bilingual Dictionary Entries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advanced Polish learners of English, consulted 26 Polish-to-English dictionary pages prompted with a sentence translation task. ... structural involvedness of dictionaries themselves, the quality of the data returned is questionable. In contrast ...... scans patterned differently. They tended to be more rapid and the landing.

  7. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  8. Energy dictionary. 1992 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This dictionary seeks to link the definitions of the various forms of energy in the different languages but makes no effort to be exhaustive, notably in the field of economics where only concepts related to energy have been included. This edition contains nearly 2000 defined concepts and an index of several thousands keywords selected from the concept definitions. Either as a dictionary or a glossary, it is given in four languages: English, French, German and Spanish. This new edition is based on the one published in 1986 which has been considerably expanded by including observations and suggestions received since 1986. Two sections have been added: one section dealing with ''district heating'' and one on ''units''. Internationally recognized, officially adopted and accepted definitions have been used in this edition. A short introduction to each section specifies the scope of its contents

  9. Oxford Guide to British and American Culture for Learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Jonathan, Ed.; Kavanagh, Kathryn, Ed.

    The guide to American and British culture, for upper secondary- and university-level students, is intended for use by learners of English as a second language. It is designed to explain specific aspects of British and American life and traditions not generally included in English language dictionaries. The guide has a dictionary format, with terms…

  10. Improving dictionary skills in Ndebele | Hadebe | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article proposes ways of improving dictionary skills amongst the Ndebele. One way of accomplishing this is incorporating the teaching of dictionary skills into teacher trainingsyllabi. Teachers can impart their knowledge to students and a dictionary culture can develop for enhancing effective use of current dictionaries ...

  11. Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Lexikos 25 (AFRILEX-reeks/series 25: 2015): 246-261 ... attention to the link between dictionary functions, corpora and the data presented in dictionaries, ... technical words) in general language dictionaries is sparse and concerns terms .... civil procedure terms to focus on and in which dictionaries to look, I will go on.

  12. Nuclear energy dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-15

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  13. Nuclear energy dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  14. Nuclear operations dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In less than fifty years, a sophisticated technical language has developed worldwide around broad-ranging operations in the field of nuclear technology. In South Africa the need to adapt this new technical language in an orderly and acceptable manner for common use was identified. The aim of this dictionary is to promote the use of correct nuclear technology in both English and Afrikaans, and to aid in the translation of nuclear terms from English into Afrikaans

  15. Nuclear operations dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In less than fifty years, a sophisticated technical language has developed worldwide around broad-ranging operations in the field of nuclear technology. In South Africa the need to adapt this new technical language in an orderly and acceptable manner for common use was identified. The aim of this dictionary is to promote the use of correct nuclear terminology in both Afrikaans and English, and to aid in the translation of nuclear terms from Afrikaans into English

  16. Dictionary of materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedecke, W.

    1992-01-01

    This trilingual dictionary contains about 12000 terms from the field of non-destructive and destructive materials testing; the English and French terms can be looked up in two separate, alphabetical indexes. The compilation also presents terms from related fields such as quality control, production control, environmental protection and radiological protection, and wherever appropriate in the context from the fields of physics, chemistry, mathematics and electronic data processing. (HP) [de

  17. Sparse decompositions in 'incoherent' dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, R.; Nielsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    a unique sparse representation in such a dictionary. In particular, it is proved that the result of Donoho and Huo, concerning the replacement of a combinatorial optimization problem with a linear programming problem when searching for sparse representations, has an analog for dictionaries that may...

  18. Trying Out a New Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Morton; Benson, Evelyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes the BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English and demonstrates its usefulness for advanced learners of English by administering a monolingual completion test, first without a dictionary and then with the BBI, to Hungarian and Russian English teachers. Both groups' scores improved dramatically on the posttest. (LMO)

  19. Oxford Nanopore MinION Sequencing and Genome Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyun Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The revolution of genome sequencing is continuing after the successful second-generation sequencing (SGS technology. The third-generation sequencing (TGS technology, led by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio, is progressing rapidly, moving from a technology once only capable of providing data for small genome analysis, or for performing targeted screening, to one that promises high quality de novo assembly and structural variation detection for human-sized genomes. In 2014, the MinION, the first commercial sequencer using nanopore technology, was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT. MinION identifies DNA bases by measuring the changes in electrical conductivity generated as DNA strands pass through a biological pore. Its portability, affordability, and speed in data production makes it suitable for real-time applications, the release of the long read sequencer MinION has thus generated much excitement and interest in the genomics community. While de novo genome assemblies can be cheaply produced from SGS data, assembly continuity is often relatively poor, due to the limited ability of short reads to handle long repeats. Assembly quality can be greatly improved by using TGS long reads, since repetitive regions can be easily expanded into using longer sequencing lengths, despite having higher error rates at the base level. The potential of nanopore sequencing has been demonstrated by various studies in genome surveillance at locations where rapid and reliable sequencing is needed, but where resources are limited.

  20. The 'gender gap' in final examination results at Oxford University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellanby, J; Martin, M; O'Doherty, J

    2000-08-01

    A lower proportion of women than men obtain first class degrees at British universities (the so-called gender gap). At Oxford University, this difference is not seen in all degree subjects but is found both in some Arts and in some Science subjects. We have used a questionnaire administered under supervision to undergraduates 2 to 3 months before their final examination to assess factors which might be expected to affect examination performance. These included measures of verbal and non-verbal reasoning (Alice Heim AH6 test), self-esteem, motivation, responses to stresses of examinations and of personal relationships, happiness, risk-taking and working patterns. We have also obtained a detailed breakdown of the marks the students were given in the examination. Women scored higher on negative emotions while men scored higher on self-esteem, their perception of their own academic efficacy and on risk-taking strategies, but none of these factors predicted outcome. Verbal reasoning ability did predict outcome but there was no gender difference. Hence, it is concluded that the gender gap is not due to any of these individual differences and is more likely to be related to the nature of the academic assessment system.

  1. Mediostructures in bilingual LSP dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that the lexicographic mediostructure is a network structure that deals with a set or sets of relations that exist between different parts of data by way of cross-referencing, dictionary-internal as well as dictionary, external. The abstract mediostructure consists of all...... the possible sets of cross-referential relations, whether realised by concrete sets or not in the dictionary. The actual realisation of these referential networks may be function-related and the primary function of the dictionary may then be given priority. The actual cross-references at this level...... are then the concrete sets of relations depending on the function of the dictionary, the distribution structure and the search path involved in retrieving the information. The paper introduces a distinction between use-related and funtion-related corss-references and focuses on cross-references supporting...

  2. The influence of marine biofilms on corrosion: A concise review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Brenda J.; Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.

    2008-01-01

    The following is a concise review of the literature that addresses the impact of marine biofilms on two phenomena-ennoblement of corrosion potential and sulfide derivitization due to sulfate-reducing bacteria. A universally defined mechanism of potential ennoblement has not been established. Extent of ennoblement varies among locations and the extent of ennoblement for a particular material cannot be used to predict an increased likelihood of localized corrosion. There is some controversy as to the susceptibility of low- and medium-grade stainless steels. Carbon steel and copper alloys are susceptible to sulfide derivitization but thermodynamic models cannot predict the susceptibility of these materials. Laboratory experiments designed to provide data on susceptibility to sulfide derivitization have produced conflicting results because of the following: (1) laboratory media can contain anions that inhibit localized corrosion, (2) laboratory media can contain yeast extract that interferes with electrochemical measurements, and (3) deaeration procedures can produce environments that are not conducive for the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. In general, alloys that undergo ennoblement are not vulnerable to sulfide derivitization and conversely, alloys that are subject to sulfide derivitization do not become ennobled

  3. The influence of marine biofilms on corrosion: A concise review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Brenda J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, Code 7303, 228-688-5494 (United States)], E-mail: blittle@nrlssc.navy.mil; Lee, Jason S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, Code 7332, 228-688-4494 (United States)], E-mail: jlee@nrlssc.navy.mil; Ray, Richard I. [Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, Code 7332, 228-688-4690 (United States)], E-mail: ray@nrlssc.navy.mil

    2008-12-01

    The following is a concise review of the literature that addresses the impact of marine biofilms on two phenomena-ennoblement of corrosion potential and sulfide derivitization due to sulfate-reducing bacteria. A universally defined mechanism of potential ennoblement has not been established. Extent of ennoblement varies among locations and the extent of ennoblement for a particular material cannot be used to predict an increased likelihood of localized corrosion. There is some controversy as to the susceptibility of low- and medium-grade stainless steels. Carbon steel and copper alloys are susceptible to sulfide derivitization but thermodynamic models cannot predict the susceptibility of these materials. Laboratory experiments designed to provide data on susceptibility to sulfide derivitization have produced conflicting results because of the following: (1) laboratory media can contain anions that inhibit localized corrosion, (2) laboratory media can contain yeast extract that interferes with electrochemical measurements, and (3) deaeration procedures can produce environments that are not conducive for the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. In general, alloys that undergo ennoblement are not vulnerable to sulfide derivitization and conversely, alloys that are subject to sulfide derivitization do not become ennobled.

  4. PURE OR HYBRID? THE DEVELOPMENT OF MIXED DICTIONARY GENRES

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard R. K. Hartmann

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores 'hybrid' genres of dictionaries and other reference works. Against the tradition of general dictionaries becoming ever more specialised, there has also been a growing trend of mixing two or more 'pure' dictionary types for achieving specific purposes, e.g. the combination of alphabetic and thematic dictionary,general dictionary and technical glossary, dictionary and thesaurus, dictionary and encyclopedia, monolingual and bilingual dictionary, etc. Examples of these various...

  5. Validation of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, David; Dummett, Sarah; Kelly, Laura; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the management of long-term conditions and in keeping people active and participating in the community. Testing the effectiveness of interventions that aim to affect activities and participation can be challenging without a well-developed, valid, and reliable instrument. This study therefore aims to develop a patient-reported outcome measure, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ), which is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and fully compliant with current best practice guidelines. Questionnaire items generated from patient interviews and based on the nine chapters of the ICF were administered by postal survey to 386 people with three neurological conditions: motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Participants also completed the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and EQ-5D-5L. Thus, 334 participants completed the survey, a response rate of 86.5%. Factor analysis techniques identified three Ox-PAQ domains, consisting of 23 items, accounting for 72.8% of variance. Internal reliability for the three domains was high (Cronbach's α: 0.81-0.96), as was test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation: 0.83-0.92). Concurrent validity was demonstrated through highly significant relationships with relevant domains of the MOS SF-36 and the EQ- 5D-5L. Assessment of known-groups validity identified significant differences in Ox-PAQ scores among the three conditions included in the survey. Results suggest that the Ox-PAQ is a valid and reliable measure of participation and activity. The measure will now be validated in a range of further conditions, and additional properties, such as responsiveness, will also be assessed in the next phase of the instrument's development.

  6. Book review: Dexter Hoyos, Mastering the West. Rome and Carthage at War, Oxford-New York, Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. XXI, 337; ISBN 9780199860104

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Demurtas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers a critical review of the volume by Dexter Hoyos «Mastering the West. Rome and Carthage at War», published in 2015 in Oxford-New York by the Oxford University Press, focused on the conflicts that involved Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC for the supremacy in the western Mediterranean.

  7. Dictionary of dissuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodka-Gallien, P.

    2011-09-01

    With more than 300 head words, this dictionary covers, at the worldwide scale, the history of men (from Curie and Einstein to Barack Obama), the issues (secrecy and information, weapons rush, proliferation and counter-proliferation..), the strategies (massive or gradual counter-attacks), the organisations (IAEA, CEA, Greenpeace etc.) and the equipments in relation with nuclear dissuasion. If the main part of the book is devoted to military equipments and topics, some other aspects of the nuclear domain are also presented, like radioactivity, civil nuclear accidents, thermonuclear fusion, laboratory equipments, disarmament and others. (J.S.)

  8. Dictionary of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel-Marie

    2006-01-01

    This book comes out of need and urgency (expressed especially in areas of Information Retrieval with respect to Image, Audio, Internet and Biology) to have a working tool to compare data.The book will provide powerful resource for all researchers using Mathematics as well as for mathematicians themselves. In the time when over-specialization and terminology fences isolate researchers, this Dictionary try to be ""centripedal"" and ""oikoumeni"", providing some access and altitude of vision but without taking the route of scientific vulgarisation. This attempted balance is the main philosophy

  9. Modern dictionary of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1999-01-01

    Included in this fully revised classic are well over 28,000 terms, phrases, acronyms, and abbreviations from the ever-expanding worlds of consumer electronics, optics, microelectronics, computers, communications, and medical electronics. From the basic elements of theory to the most cutting-edge circuit technology, this book explains it all in both words and pictures.For easy reference, the author has provided definitions for standard abbreviations and equations as well as tables of SI (International System of Units) units, measurements, and schematic symbolsModern Dictionary of Electronics is

  10. The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, David; Dummett, Sarah; Kelly, Laura; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin

    2013-01-01

    With an ageing population and increasing demands on health and social care services, there is growing importance attached to the management of long-term conditions, including maximizing the cost-effectiveness of treatments. In line with this, there is increasing emphasis on the need to keep people both active and participating in daily life. Consequently, it is essential that well developed and validated instruments that can meaningfully assess levels of participation and activity are widely available. Current measures, however, are largely focused on disability and rehabilitation, and there is no measure of activity or participation for generic use that fully meets the standards set by regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration. Here we detail a protocol for the development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for assessment of participation and activity in people experiencing a variety of health conditions, ie, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ). The stages incorporated in its development are entirely in line with current regulations and represent best practice in the development of PROMs. Development of the Ox-PAQ is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The project incorporates a new strategy of engaging with stakeholders from the outset in an attempt to identify those characteristics of PROMs considered most important to a range of potential users. Items will be generated through interviews with patients from a range of conditions. Pretesting of the instrument will be via cognitive interviews and focus groups. A postal survey will be conducted, with data subject to factor and Rasch analysis in order to identify appropriate dimensions and redundant items. Reliability will be assessed by Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlations. A second, large-scale postal survey will follow, with the Ox-PAQ being

  11. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  12. Seismic classification through sparse filter dictionaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickmann, Kyle Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Srinivasan, Gowri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-13

    We tackle a multi-label classi cation problem involving the relation between acoustic- pro le features and the measured seismogram. To isolate components of the seismo- grams unique to each class of acoustic pro le we build dictionaries of convolutional lters. The convolutional- lter dictionaries for the individual classes are then combined into a large dictionary for the entire seismogram set. A given seismogram is classi ed by computing its representation in the large dictionary and then comparing reconstruction accuracy with this representation using each of the sub-dictionaries. The sub-dictionary with the minimal reconstruction error identi es the seismogram class.

  13. Factors Affecting Preparers’ and Auditors’ Judgements about Materiality and Conciseness in Integrated Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, M.; Tarca, A.; Krug, L.; Aerts, Walter; Pink, P.; Tilling, M.

    This report provides timely evidence about emerging practice among corporate report preparers around the world in determining materiality and achieving conciseness. It investigates how corporate report preparers make decisions about what to report with reference to the International Framework,

  14. Integrated Rudder/Fin Concise Control Based on Frequency Domain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    W. Guan; Z. J. Su; G. Q. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a concise robust controller design of integrated rudder and fin control system in use of the closed loop gain shaping algorithm (CGSA) strategy. Compared with the arbitrary selection of weighting function in integrated rudder and fin H∞ mixed sensitivity control design procedures, the CGSA methods provided a relatively more straightforward and concise design method. Simulations were described that the overall performance of each CGSA rudder and fin control loop and the in...

  15. Bootstrapping pronunciation dictionaries: practical issues

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Bootstrapping techniques are an efficient way to develop electronic pronunciation dictionaries, but require fast system response to be practical for medium-to-large lexicons. In addition, user errors are inevitable during this process...

  16. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  17. A Dictionary of Disaster Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier; Dahlberg, Rasmus

    A Dictionary of Disaster Management offers over 200 terms covering different disasters from a social science perspective, brining together insights from many different disciplines including sociology, political science, history, anthropology, and natural science. It also features practical terms...

  18. NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dictionary of more than 150 genetics-related terms written for healthcare professionals. This resource was developed to support the comprehensive, evidence-based, peer-reviewed PDQ cancer genetics information summaries.

  19. Kirkeby's English?Swahili Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Mdee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Kirkeby's English–Swahili Dictionary is a bilingual dictionary of more than 50 000entries. The most laudable feature of the dictionary is its attempt to be user-friendly especially inthe way the entry words have been arranged and the amount of information given. However, aclear objective for the compilation of the ditionary is lacking. The compilers do not seem to knowthe lexicographical gap they want to fill, the users they are targeting, and their dictionary-usingskills. In discussing the strong and weak points of the dictionary, the article will refer to theories ofdictionary criticism. Three criteria set by McMillan (1949 will guide this review article: (1 thequantity of the information in the dictionary; (2 the quality of the information presented; and (3the effectiveness of the presentation of the information. Questions posed in the course of this articlewill include: Does the dictionary give the information required by the user? Is the informationtransparently accessible? How is the information presented?

    Keywords: DICTIONARY EVALUATION, USER-FRIENDLY, DICTIONARY-USINGSKILLS, LEXICOGRAPHICAL ENTRIES, GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES, SUBGRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, WORD COMBINATIONS, COLLOCATIONS, TRANSLATION EQUIVALENTS

    Opsomming: Kirkeby se English–Swahili Dictionary. Kirkeby se English–SwahiliDictionary is 'n tweetalige woordeboek met meer as 50 000 inskrywings. Die mees prysenswaardigekenmerk van die woordeboek is sy poging om gebruikersvriendelik te wees, veral deur die manierwaarop die trefwoorde gerangskik is en die hoeveelheid inligting wat verskaf word. 'n Duidelikedoelwit vir die samestelling van die woordeboek ontbreek egter. Die samestellers is skynbaaronseker oor die leksikografiese leemte wat hulle wil vul, en die gebruikers vir wie dit bedoel is enhul woordeboekgebruikersvaardighede. In die bespreking van die sterk en die swak eienskappevan die woordeboek sal die artikel verwys na teorieë van

  20. The concept of a bilingual dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2005-01-01

    The term bilingual dictionary is widely used, not only by librarians and dictionary users en general but also by professional lexicographers dedicated to the theory and practice of dictionary making. For this reason it should be expected that there were a common and well-established definition...... of the concept of a bilingual dictionary. It is evident that most people has an intuitive idea of what is meant by «bilingual dictionary». But science-based lexicographic theory - at least if it wants to be considered as such - must go beyond intuition and furnish precise definitions of the concepts used...... chapters, various definitions will be discussed and related to dictionary practice and, subsequently, the very concept of a bilingual dictionary will be examined in the light of a dictionary typology based upon the modern theory of lexicographic functions....

  1. The Pocket Dictionary: A Textbook for Spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Maran

    1982-01-01

    Reports on a productive approach to secondary-school spelling instruction--one that emphasizes how and when to use the dictionary. Describes two of the many class activities that cultivate student use of the dictionary. (RL)

  2. Cheap Words: A Paperback Dictionary Roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Ken

    1979-01-01

    Surveys currently available paperback editions in three classes of dictionaries: collegiate, abridged, and pocket. A general discussion distinguishes among the classes and offers seven consumer tips, followed by an annotated listing of dictionaries now available. (SW)

  3. Namibian University Entrants' Concepts of 'a Dictionary'*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    , nor is it ..... Rather, it indicates the effect of OUP's marketing efforts ..... tionary pedagogy it might not be sufficient to merely state that a dictionary ... To determine if the variables of exposure to dictionary pedagogy at school, fre-.

  4. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  5. Economic Evaluation of Concise Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and/or Pharmacotherapy for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuldijk, Denise; Carlier, Ingrid V E; van Vliet, Irene M; van Hemert, Albert M; Zitman, Frans G; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2015-12-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders cause great suffering and disability and are associated with high health care costs. In a previous conducted pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we have shown that a concise format of cognitive behavioural- and/or pharmacotherapy is as effective as standard care in reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms and in improving subdomains of general health and quality of life in secondary care psychiatric outpatients. In this economic evaluation, we examined whether a favourable cost-utility of concise care compared to standard care was attained. The economic evaluation was performed alongside a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire. Cost of healthcare utilization and productivity loss (absenteeism and presenteeism) were assessed using the Trimbos/iMTA questionnaire for Costs associated with Psychiatric Illness (TiC-P). A cost-utility analysis, using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, comparing differences in societal costs and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) at 1 year was performed. One year after study entry, the difference in mean cost per patient of the two primary treatments was not significant between both groups. No significant differences in other healthcare and non- healthcare costs could be detected between patients receiving concise care and standard care. Also, QALYs were not statistically different between the groups during the study period. From both the societal and healthcare perspective, the probability that concise care is more cost-effective compared to standard care remains below the turning point of 0.5 for all acceptable values of the willingness to pay for a QALY. The economic evaluation suggests that concise care is unlikely to be cost-effective compared to standard care in the treatment for depressive- and anxiety disorders in secondary mental health care during a one year follow up period. Total costs and QALYs

  6. Dictionary of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Counihan, M

    1981-01-01

    Every aspect of energy - production, conversion and use - is discussed and explained. Comprehensive and well-illustrated entries cover fossil and other types of chemical fuel; hydroelectric and nuclear power; energy conservation; solar energy of every kind; wind, wave and tidal power. Every type of nuclear reactor is described, with emphasis on the energy technologies that have the greatest present relevance and future promise. The first section is devoted to an explanation of the units used, with conversion tables; key concepts are defined. The closing sections comprise tables of international energy statistics and a short bibliography. This dictionary is an introduction and reference book for general readers, students and all workers in energy and energy-related fields. It is fully metricated.

  7. Dictionary of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    This dictionary covers nuclear engineering defined in its general sense as applied nuclear physics: industrial and other applications of nuclear power, isotopes and ionizing radiation, nuclear materials, nuclear facilities and nuclear weapons together with their scientific and technological fundamentals. During the compilation of terms, great attention was only given to generally valid basic expressions and to special terms where these occurred in all four languages. A great number of textbooks and monographs, as well as specialist journals covering many years, have been evaluated. Detailed attention has been paid to standards. Of importance in nuclear engineering are the international standards of the International Atomic Energy Organization (including the terminology employed by the International Nuclear Information System INIS), the International Organization of Standardization, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, the World Energy Conference, the International Electrical Engineering Commission, and also a great many national standards which, unfortunately, frequently deviate from one another as regards definition and, in particular, designation. (orig.)

  8. THE PROPOSED NDEBELE-SHONA DICTIONARY: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Ndebele and Shona reflect the intentions of Zimbabwean language planners from different periods. .... The inclusion of the bilingual dictionary in the ALLEX master plan for dictionaries implies that the importance of the dictionary was already felt at that very early .... among others, patriotism, moral values and national unity.

  9. Elaboration of a dictionary for radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Roberto A.; Huff, Stanley M.; Haug, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    The process for creating a dictionary to represent chest radiologic findings is summarized. The dictionary is built from different sources of terms, including medical vocabularies and chest X-ray reports. The relevance of each source is estimated using the proportions with which they can be found in the final edition of the dictionary

  10. Methods in Lexicography and Dictionary Research | Schierholz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods are used in every stage of dictionary-making and in every scientific analysis which is carried out in the field of dictionary research. This article presents some general considerations on methods in philosophy of science, gives an overview of many methods used in linguistics, in lexicography, dictionary research as ...

  11. Expectation Levels in Dictionary Consultation and Compilation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionary consultation and compilation is a two-way engagement between two parties, namely a dictionary user and a lexicographer. How well users cope with looking up words in a Bantu language dictionary and to what extent their expectations are met, depends on their consultation skills, their knowledge of the structure ...

  12. Klein Woordeboek / Little Dictionary | Louw | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilingual translation dictionaries play an important part in modern user orientated lexicography in South Africa. An affordable bidirectional pocket translation dictionary, such as Klein Woordeboek/Little Dictionary, with English and Afrikaans as language pair, is growing in value as a carrier of necessary everyday linguistic ...

  13. Expectation Levels in Dictionary Consultation and Compilation*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Dictionary consultation and compilation is a two-way engagement between two par- ties, namely a dictionary user and a lexicographer. How well users cope with looking up words in a Bantu language dictionary and to what extent their expectations are met, depends on their con- sultation skills, their knowledge of ...

  14. PURE OR HYBRID? THE DEVELOPMENT OF MIXED DICTIONARY GENRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard R. K. Hartmann

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores 'hybrid' genres of dictionaries and other reference works. Against the tradition of general dictionaries becoming ever more specialised, there has also been a growing trend of mixing two or more 'pure' dictionary types for achieving specific purposes, e.g. the combination of alphabetic and thematic dictionary,general dictionary and technical glossary, dictionary and thesaurus, dictionary and encyclopedia, monolingual and bilingual dictionary, etc. Examples of these various sub-types are discussed (admitting that dictionary research has neglected their study,with the aim of determining overall trends and implications, particularly with regard to the possibility of their further development with the means of information technology.

  15. Learning Category-Specific Dictionary and Shared Dictionary for Fine-Grained Image Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Ma, Yi

    2014-02-01

    This paper targets fine-grained image categorization by learning a category-specific dictionary for each category and a shared dictionary for all the categories. Such category-specific dictionaries encode subtle visual differences among different categories, while the shared dictionary encodes common visual patterns among all the categories. To this end, we impose incoherence constraints among the different dictionaries in the objective of feature coding. In addition, to make the learnt dictionary stable, we also impose the constraint that each dictionary should be self-incoherent. Our proposed dictionary learning formulation not only applies to fine-grained classification, but also improves conventional basic-level object categorization and other tasks such as event recognition. Experimental results on five data sets show that our method can outperform the state-of-the-art fine-grained image categorization frameworks as well as sparse coding based dictionary learning frameworks. All these results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  16. On the timelessness of music dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bergenholtz, Inger

    2007-01-01

    A music dictionary for the Internet serves the same functions as printed music dictionaries. An old music dictionary is as useful as a new one if its information is correct. But the fact that an Internet dictionary can at any time be corrected according to modern practices makes it, if not timeless...... reception rather than translation or text production. It is described what was the starting point of the dictionary and in what way the possibilities of the Internet has influenced the concept and the content of the articles and the outer texts....

  17. Compressed Sensing with Rank Deficient Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Johansen, Daniel Højrup; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    In compressed sensing it is generally assumed that the dictionary matrix constitutes a (possibly overcomplete) basis of the signal space. In this paper we consider dictionaries that do not span the signal space, i.e. rank deficient dictionaries. We show that in this case the signal-to-noise ratio...... (SNR) in the compressed samples can be increased by selecting the rows of the measurement matrix from the column space of the dictionary. As an example application of compressed sensing with a rank deficient dictionary, we present a case study of compressed sensing applied to the Coarse Acquisition (C...

  18. On the timelessness of music dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bergenholtz, Inger

    2007-01-01

    A music dictionary for the Internet serves the same functions as printed music dictionaries. An old music dictionary is as useful as a new one if its information is correct. But the fact that an Internet dictionary can at any time be corrected according to modern practices makes it, if not timeless......, at any rate more up to date. Besides, the possibilities of illustrating with picture and sound open a wide field of usefulness. Nevertheless the lexicographer has to be aware of the different needs for different user types in different user situations. The dictionary in question is made for text...

  19. Bilingualized Dictionaries with Special Reference to the Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a type of dictionary with huge popularity among EFL learners in China, the bilingualized dictionary (BLD) deserves more academic and pedagogical attention than it receives nowadays. This article gives an overview of the BLD within the framework of dictionary research, including dictionary history, dictionary typology, ...

  20. Internal consistency reliability and validity of the Hebrew translation of the Oxford Happiness Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, L J; Katz, Y J

    2000-08-01

    The Hebrew translation of the Oxford Happiness Inventory and the short form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire were completed by 298 undergraduate women in Israel. The findings confirm the internal reliability of the Hebrew translation of the Oxford Happiness Inventory and support the construct validity according to which "happiness is a thing called stable extraversion."

  1. Dictionary criticism and lexicographical function theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses dictionary criticism in the light of the function theory. It starts analyzing the objective of dictionary criticism and lists eight of the most important purposes with which criticism has been made by supporters of the function theory. It then discusses the two main...... types of dictionary criticism, namely criticism of other authors’ dictionaries and self-criticism of one’s own dictionaries. Based on this discussion, it proceeds to a definition of the concept of dictionary criticism which is above all considered a theory-based activity, the outcome of which may...... by the supporters of the function theory, and the way it could be presented in order to create debate. Finally, the contribution indicates the important role dictionary criticism has had in the development of the function theory and endorses an open and critical discussion culture within lexicography....

  2. Sentiment Polarity Analysis based multi-dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Zhou, Yanquan

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for Chinese online reviews, which identifies sentiment polarity. To determine the sentence is negative or positive, we extracted opinion words and identified their opinion targets by CRFs and establish the absolute emotional dictionary (AbED), the relative emotional dictionary (ReED), the field of emotional dictionary (FiED) and the field of targets and opinion words dictionary (TfED). With those emotional dictionary, negative dictionary and modified dictionary, we achieved an effective algorithm to discriminate sentiment polarity by multi-string pattern matching algorithm. For evaluation, we used car online reviews, hotel online reviews and computer online reviews which annotated positive or negative. Experimental results show that our proposed method has made a higher precision and recall rate.

  3. The Danish Sign Language Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The entries of the The Danish Sign Language Dictionary have four sections:  Entry header: In this section the sign headword is shown as a photo and a gloss. The first occurring location and handshape of the sign are shown as icons.  Video window: By default the base form of the sign headword...... forms of the sign (only for classifier entries). In addition to this, frequent co-occurrences with the sign are shown in this section. The signs in the The Danish Sign Language Dictionary can be looked up through:  Handshape: Particular handshapes for the active and the passive hand can be specified...... to find signs that are not themselves lemmas in the dictionary, but appear in example sentences.  Topic: Topics can be chosen as search criteria from a list of 70 topics....

  4. The Latent Structure of Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Lamarre, Philippe; Massé, Alexandre Blondin; Lopes, Marcos; Lord, Mélanie; Marcotte, Odile; Harnad, Stevan

    2016-07-01

    How many words-and which ones-are sufficient to define all other words? When dictionaries are analyzed as directed graphs with links from defining words to defined words, they reveal a latent structure. Recursively removing all words that are reachable by definition but that do not define any further words reduces the dictionary to a Kernel of about 10% of its size. This is still not the smallest number of words that can define all the rest. About 75% of the Kernel turns out to be its Core, a "Strongly Connected Subset" of words with a definitional path to and from any pair of its words and no word's definition depending on a word outside the set. But the Core cannot define all the rest of the dictionary. The 25% of the Kernel surrounding the Core consists of small strongly connected subsets of words: the Satellites. The size of the smallest set of words that can define all the rest-the graph's "minimum feedback vertex set" or MinSet-is about 1% of the dictionary, about 15% of the Kernel, and part-Core/part-Satellite. But every dictionary has a huge number of MinSets. The Core words are learned earlier, more frequent, and less concrete than the Satellites, which are in turn learned earlier, more frequent, but more concrete than the rest of the Dictionary. In principle, only one MinSet's words would need to be grounded through the sensorimotor capacity to recognize and categorize their referents. In a dual-code sensorimotor/symbolic model of the mental lexicon, the symbolic code could do all the rest through recombinatory definition. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Learning multimodal dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaci, Gianluca; Jost, Philippe; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Mailhé, Boris; Lesage, Sylvain; Gribonval, Rémi

    2007-09-01

    Real-world phenomena involve complex interactions between multiple signal modalities. As a consequence, humans are used to integrate at each instant perceptions from all their senses in order to enrich their understanding of the surrounding world. This paradigm can be also extremely useful in many signal processing and computer vision problems involving mutually related signals. The simultaneous processing of multimodal data can, in fact, reveal information that is otherwise hidden when considering the signals independently. However, in natural multimodal signals, the statistical dependencies between modalities are in general not obvious. Learning fundamental multimodal patterns could offer deep insight into the structure of such signals. In this paper, we present a novel model of multimodal signals based on their sparse decomposition over a dictionary of multimodal structures. An algorithm for iteratively learning multimodal generating functions that can be shifted at all positions in the signal is proposed, as well. The learning is defined in such a way that it can be accomplished by iteratively solving a generalized eigenvector problem, which makes the algorithm fast, flexible, and free of user-defined parameters. The proposed algorithm is applied to audiovisual sequences and it is able to discover underlying structures in the data. The detection of such audio-video patterns in audiovisual clips allows to effectively localize the sound source on the video in presence of substantial acoustic and visual distractors, outperforming state-of-the-art audiovisual localization algorithms.

  6. Monolingual and Bilingual Learners' Dictionaries*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus H. Gouws

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specificsituation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners'dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in moderndaylexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingualand bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a newlanguage, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especiallyin closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionarycould assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevantlexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function mergingare introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-basedapproach to dictionary usage.

    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, FALSE FRIENDS, FUNCTION CONDENSATION,FUNCTION MERGING, GENUINE PURPOSE, LEARNERS' DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, TEXT PRODUCTION, TEXT RECEPTION,TYPOLOGICAL HYBRID, TYPOLOGY.

    Opsomming: Eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke. Wanneerbesluit moet word oor die beste aanleerderwoordeboek vir 'n spesifieke gebruiker en 'n spesifiekegebruiksituasie moet daar dikwels gekies word tussen 'n eentalige en 'n tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboek.Hierdie artikel bespreek bepaalde aspekte van die gebruikersgedrewe benaderingwat kenmerkend is van die moderne leksikografiese denke, fokus breedweg op woordeboektipologieen gee in meer besonderhede aandag aan sekere aspekte van eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke.Bepaalde probleme wat gebruikers ervaar by die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal,bv. taalversteuring en probleme verwant aan die verskynsel van valse vriende, veral in nou verwantetale, kry aandag

  7. Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Kreines, David

    2003-01-01

    If you work with Oracle, then you don't need to be told that the data dictionary is large and complex, and grows larger with each new Oracle release. It's one of the basic elements of the Oracle database you interact with regularly, but the sheer number of tables and views makes it difficult to remember which view you need, much less the name of the specific column. Want to make it simpler? The Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference puts all the information you need right at your fingertips. Its handy and compact format lets you locate the table and view you need effortlessly without stoppin

  8. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    in conditional clauses. When translating into languages not allowing such structures, for instance, English and French, learners need their legal translation dictionaries to help them with both the legal terms and the syntactic structures. The uses of textual conventions that characterise the legal genre vary....... Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...

  9. A Translation Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs: An Ongoing Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Translation Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs: An Ongoing Project. ... Abstract. The paper centres on a plan for an English-Arabic phrasal verb dictionary for Arab trainee translators. Such a dictionary ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  10. South Africa's new African language dictionaries and their use for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    printed dictionaries, electronic dictionaries, online and cell phone ... which "25 are living languages, 3 are second languages without mother-tongue speakers ..... planners to distribute dictionaries easily, as they could, like ring tones or games.

  11. South Africa's new African language dictionaries and their use for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    Having dictionaries, and especially technical, online or cell phone dic- ..... guage. Nevertheless, this can be a disadvantage as well, if the dictionary con- ... planners to distribute dictionaries easily, as they could, like ring tones or games.

  12. The dictionary of lexicography and dictionary research | Gouws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents a brief explanation of the current state of the work on the Wörterbuch zur Lexikographie und Wörterbuchforschung. It is done in a way that gives a general impression of the structure of this multivolume specialised dictionary. Keywords: alphabetical equivalent index, functional cross-reference article ...

  13. National Lexicography Units: Past, Present, Future

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mariëtta Alberts, Research Unit for Languages and Literature in SA Context,. Northwest ..... NLUs were also assisted with the marketing of the units and the obtaining .... each dictionary project, and developing an editorial style guide for each dic- .... The DSAE edited the South African Concise Oxford Dictionary that was.

  14. A Weighted Block Dictionary Learning Algorithm for Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zhongrong

    2016-01-01

    Discriminative dictionary learning, playing a critical role in sparse representation based classification, has led to state-of-the-art classification results. Among the existing discriminative dictionary learning methods, two different approaches, shared dictionary and class-specific dictionary, which associate each dictionary atom to all classes or a single class, have been studied. The shared dictionary is a compact method but with lack of discriminative information; the class-specific dict...

  15. Lexicographic Approaches to Sense Disambiguation in Monolingual Dictionaries and Equivalent Differentiation in Bilingual Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Vrbinc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses methods of sense disambiguation in monolingual dictionaries and equivalent differentiation in bilingual dictionaries. In current dictionaries, sense disambiguation and equivalent differentiation is presented in the form of specifiers or glosses, collocators or indications of context, (domain labels, metalinguistic and encyclopaedic information. Each method is presented and illustrated by actual samples of dictionary articles taken from mono and bilingual dictionaries. The last part of the article is devoted to equivalent differentiation in bilingual decoding dictionaries. In bilingual dictionaries, equivalent differentiation is often needed to describe the lack of agreement between the source language (SL and target language (TL. The article concludes by stating that equivalent differentiation should be written in the native language of the target audience and sense indicators in a monolingual learner’s dictionary should be words that the users are most familiar with.

  16. Concepts for monofunctional accounting dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2012-01-01

    up to now. They are normally constructed as polyfunctional tools trying to give help by different kind of cognitive and communicative problems. Outgoing from one database I discuss the conception for this database and for 22 different accounting dictionaries with the languages Danish, English...

  17. Comprehensive dictionary of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Philip A

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Dictionary of Electrical Engineering is a complete lexicon covering all the fields of electrical engineering.Areas examined include:applied electrical engineeringmicrowave engineeringcontrol engineeringpower engineeringdigital systems engineeringdevice electronicsand much more! The book provides workable definitions for practicing engineers, serves as a reference and research tool for students, and offers practical information for scientists and engineers in other disciplines.

  18. Dictionary of the fuel trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A dictionary of liquid and solid fuels and applications for thermal engineering and heating, in understandable terms and explanations with a broad range of terminology, special aspects and definitions Annex: 1. International trade conditions, 2. tables of conversion relations, not calorific value, division of solids fuels etc.

  19. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  20. Pocket dictionary of laboratory equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junge, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    This pocket dictionary contains the 2500 most common terms for scientific and technical equipment in chemical laboratories. It is a useful tool for those who are used to communicating in German and English, but have to learn the special terminology in this field. (orig.) [de

  1. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  2. Marketing and Communications Media Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigrolio, Tom; Zahler, Jack

    The authors have compiled a dictionary of terms used in marketing, advertising, public relations, and radio/television, photography/filmmaking, and graphics. Included in the volume are articles of a general and historical interest regarding the various media covered in the definitions. A list of trade publications is appended. (JY)

  3. Kokugo Dictionaries as Tools for Learners: Problems and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom GALLY

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For second-language learners, monolingual dictionaries can be useful tools because they often provide more detailed explanations of meanings and more extensive vocabulary coverage than bilingual dictionaries do. While learners of English have access to many monolingual dictionaries designed specifically to meet their needs, learners of Japanese must make do with Kokugo dictionaries, that is, monolingual dictionaries intended for native Japanese speakers. This paper, after briefly describing Kokugo dictionaries in general, analyzes a typical entry from such a dictionary to illustrate the advantages and challenges of the use of Kokugo dictionaries by learners of Japanese.

  4. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML): dictionaries and conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The semantic architecture of CML consists of conventions, dictionaries and units. The conventions conform to a top-level specification and each convention can constrain compliant documents through machine-processing (validation). Dictionaries conform to a dictionary specification which also imposes machine validation on the dictionaries. Each dictionary can also be used to validate data in a CML document, and provide human-readable descriptions. An additional set of conventions and dictionaries are used to support scientific units. All conventions, dictionaries and dictionary elements are identifiable and addressable through unique URIs. PMID:21999509

  5. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML): dictionaries and conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Townsend, Joe A; Adams, Sam E; Phadungsukanan, Weerapong; Thomas, Jens

    2011-10-14

    The semantic architecture of CML consists of conventions, dictionaries and units. The conventions conform to a top-level specification and each convention can constrain compliant documents through machine-processing (validation). Dictionaries conform to a dictionary specification which also imposes machine validation on the dictionaries. Each dictionary can also be used to validate data in a CML document, and provide human-readable descriptions. An additional set of conventions and dictionaries are used to support scientific units. All conventions, dictionaries and dictionary elements are identifiable and addressable through unique URIs.

  6. Saying more with less? Disclosure conciseness, completeness and balance in Integrated Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Melloni (Gaia); A. Caglio (Ariela); P.M. Perego (Paolo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe Integrated Reporting Framework of 2013 represents the latest international attempt to connect a firm's financial and sustainability (i.e., environmental, social and governance) performance in one company report. An Integrated Report (IR) should communicate "concisely" about how a

  7. A concise synthesis of the potent inflammatory mediator 5-oxo-ETE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyagi, Rahul; Shimpukade, Bharat; Blättermann, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    A concise and practical method for synthesis of the potent inflammatory mediator 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE, 1) from arachidonic acid in four steps and 70% overall yield is reported. Stability studies indicate that 1 can be safely handled without rigorous precautions...

  8. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... environmental issues. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these procedures, the Administrator may... United States is a member or participant; or (b) Concise reviews of the environmental issues involved...

  9. Translation, cross-culturally adaptation and validation of the Danish version of Oxford Hip Score (OHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    there was no properly translated, adapted and validated Danish language version available, a translation to Danish, cross-culturally adaptation and validation of the Danish Oxford Hip Score was warranted. Material and Methods: We translated and cross-culturally adapted the Oxford Hip Score into Danish, in accordance......Objective: The Oxford Hip Score is a patient reported outcome questionnaire designed to assess pain and function in patients undergoing total hip arthroplaty (THA). The Oxford Hip Score is valid, reliable and consistent, and different language versions have been developed. Since.......9 % ceiling effect on this cohort of postoperative patients. Only in 1.2 % of the patients no sum score could be calculated, due to missing items. In relation to construct validity 80 % of predefined hypothesis were confirmed. The different items had an intraclass correlation in the range of 0...

  10. Annotated catalogue of the types of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) in the Oxford University Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; O'Toole, C.

    1993-01-01

    An annotated catalogue of the types of Braconidae in the Hope Entomological Collections, University Museum, Oxford, is given. The following new combinations are proposed: Aleiodes rothneyi (Shenefelt, 1975); Aniphiaulax agraensis (Cameron, 1897); Balcemena ruficollis (Cameron, 1899); Bicarinibracon

  11. Students' Understanding of Dictionary Entries: A Study with Respect to Four Learners' Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Abhra; Amritavalli, Vijaya; Amritavalli, R.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of definitional information in the form of dictionary entries, on second language learners' vocabulary learning in an instructed setting. Indian students (Native Hindi speakers) of English received monolingual English dictionary entries of five previously unknown words from four different learner's dictionaries. Results…

  12. Dictionary Networking in an LSP Learning Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    text production, but discusses an individual dictionary for a particular function. It is shown that in a general context of learning accounting and its relevant LSP with a view to writing or translating financial reporting texts, the modern theory of dictionary functions provides a good theoretical...... and usage of a subject-field, particularly when they have to read, write or translate domain-specific texts. The modern theory of dictionary functions presented in Bergenholtz and Tarp (2002) opens up exciting new possibilities for theoretical and practical lexicography and encourages lexicographers......-lexicographic environment, i.e. what happens outside the dictionary when users write or translate texts, and relate these findings to the lexicographic environment represented by the theoretical basis and the dictionary itself. Nielsen (2006) gives a preliminary discussion of monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL...

  13. Dictionary Approaches to Image Compression and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyad, Nigel A.; Gilmore, Erwin T.; Chouikha, Mohamed F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes using a collection of parameterized waveforms, known as a dictionary, for the purpose of medical image compression. These waveforms, denoted as phi(sub gamma), are discrete time signals, where gamma represents the dictionary index. A dictionary with a collection of these waveforms is typically complete or overcomplete. Given such a dictionary, the goal is to obtain a representation image based on the dictionary. We examine the effectiveness of applying Basis Pursuit (BP), Best Orthogonal Basis (BOB), Matching Pursuits (MP), and the Method of Frames (MOF) methods for the compression of digitized radiological images with a wavelet-packet dictionary. The performance of these algorithms is studied for medical images with and without additive noise.

  14. Cultural notions in Spanish Dictionaries for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pablo-Núñez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although later than in English, Linguistics applied to the teaching of Spanish language has produced several didactic dictionaries for foreigners in the last two decades. This dictionaries include grammatical information in order to facilitate pronunciation, and morphological or syntactical comprehension; cultural notions, however, are more difficult to include because they go beyond the scope of the lexicon. Through the analysis of some terms related to folk music and gastronomy, we analyse the inclusion of Spanish and Latin American cultural notions in the three main dictionaries of Spanish for foreigners: the dictionary for the teaching of the Spanish language published by Vox-Alcalá University (Diccionario para la enseñanza de la lengua española, the Salamanca Dictionary (Diccionario Salamanca de la lengua española and the Spanish dictionary for foreigners of SM publishing house (Diccionario de español para extranjeros.

  15. Dynamic concision for three-dimensional reconstruction of human organ built with virtual reality modelling language (VRML)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng-yang; Zheng, Shu-sen; Chen, Lei-ting; He, Xiao-qian; Wang, Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    This research studies the process of 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision based on 2D medical digital images using virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and JavaScript language, with a focus on how to realize the dynamic concision of 3D medical model with script node and sensor node in VRML. The 3D reconstruction and concision of body internal organs can be built with such high quality that they are better than those obtained from the traditional methods. With the function of dynamic concision, the VRML browser can offer better windows for man-computer interaction in real-time environment than ever before. 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision with VRML can be used to meet the requirement for the medical observation of 3D reconstruction and have a promising prospect in the fields of medical imaging. PMID:15973760

  16. Dictionary-Based Tensor Canonical Polyadic Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy Emile; Gillis, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    To ensure interpretability of extracted sources in tensor decomposition, we introduce in this paper a dictionary-based tensor canonical polyadic decomposition which enforces one factor to belong exactly to a known dictionary. A new formulation of sparse coding is proposed which enables high dimensional tensors dictionary-based canonical polyadic decomposition. The benefits of using a dictionary in tensor decomposition models are explored both in terms of parameter identifiability and estimation accuracy. Performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated on the decomposition of simulated data and the unmixing of hyperspectral images.

  17. Dictionary Usage in English Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rohmatillah, Rohmatillah

    2016-01-01

    This article examined about the important of using dictionary in English language learning. We cannot deny in learning a foreign language, we need to consult a dictionary. It is supported by Laufer in Koca believes that when word looks familiar but the sentence in which it is found or its wider context makes no sense at all, the learner should be encouraged to consult a dictionary. Sometimes the learners are reluctant to find out the other meaning of word from dictionary, as a result the mea...

  18. Learning Dictionaries of Discriminative Image Patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    using dictionaries of image patches with associated label data. The approach is based on ideas from sparse generative image models and texton based texture modeling. The intensity and label dictionaries are learned from training images with associated label information of (a subset) of the pixels based...... on a modified vector quantization approach. For new images the intensity dictionary is used to encode the image data and the label dictionary is used to build a segmentation of the image. We demonstrate the algorithm on composite and real texture images and show how successful training is possible even...

  19. System specifications for the NDS Dictionary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attree, P.M.; Smith, P.M.

    1979-09-01

    The NDS Dictionary System is a computerized system for maintaining and distributing the EXFOR dictionaries and for preparing internal versions of these dictionaries for use in the NDS EXFOR System and other NDS systems. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS Dictionary System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. This manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made; this is the version of January 1979

  20. Alternatively Constrained Dictionary Learning For Image Superresolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Yuan, Yuan; Yan, Pingkun

    2014-03-01

    Dictionaries are crucial in sparse coding-based algorithm for image superresolution. Sparse coding is a typical unsupervised learning method to study the relationship between the patches of high-and low-resolution images. However, most of the sparse coding methods for image superresolution fail to simultaneously consider the geometrical structure of the dictionary and the corresponding coefficients, which may result in noticeable superresolution reconstruction artifacts. In other words, when a low-resolution image and its corresponding high-resolution image are represented in their feature spaces, the two sets of dictionaries and the obtained coefficients have intrinsic links, which has not yet been well studied. Motivated by the development on nonlocal self-similarity and manifold learning, a novel sparse coding method is reported to preserve the geometrical structure of the dictionary and the sparse coefficients of the data. Moreover, the proposed method can preserve the incoherence of dictionary entries and provide the sparse coefficients and learned dictionary from a new perspective, which have both reconstruction and discrimination properties to enhance the learning performance. Furthermore, to utilize the model of the proposed method more effectively for single-image superresolution, this paper also proposes a novel dictionary-pair learning method, which is named as two-stage dictionary training. Extensive experiments are carried out on a large set of images comparing with other popular algorithms for the same purpose, and the results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sparse representation model and the corresponding dictionary learning algorithm.

  1. Book Review: A.N. Tkachev. Archaeologists of Kuban and the North-West Caucasus (1917–1991. ABibliographic Dictionary and Reference Book. Krasnodar, 2016. 346 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaveliov Sergei P.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The book review commemorates the publication of one of the first dictionaries by Russian archaeologists. With regard to the selected region of antiquity investigations in our country the author and compiler of the dictionary mentioned virtually all of his colleagues who performed excavations in the region and published the corresponding findings over the last hundred years. He thereby concisely but rather informatively characterized all generations of scientists who have worked with Kuban and North-Caucasus archaeological monuments from pre-revolutionary archaeologists to those continuing their work in the present time. The reviewer noted individual shortcomings of the publication in terms of its content and printing, and advanced his proposals with respect to the continuation of works on the lexicon of Russian archaeologists.

  2. How to Find Optimal National Model of Pension System: the Projection on Russia (Book Review: Barr, N. Pension reform: A short guide [Text] / N. Barr, P. Diamond. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2010. – 261 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Avakovich Tumanyants

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Find Optimal National Model of Pension System: the Projection on Russia (Book Review: Barr, N. Pension reform: A short guide [Text] / N. Barr, P. Diamond. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2010. – 261 p.

  3. Dictionary of electrochemistry. Lexikon Elektrochemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbert, D B; James, A M

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemistry, officially a branch of physical chemistry, is an interdisciplinary field bordering on biology, physics, metallurgy and other fields of engineering. This glossary and dictionary presents information and basic knowledge on recent developments in electrochemistry, i.e. fuel cells, corrosion, energy conversion, electrode kinetics, ion-selective electrodes, and bioelectrochemistry. The user is given a short and precise definition of each term, its importance in different fields of science and, in case of measuring units, a description of the method of measurement. Electrochemical and thermodynamic equations are presented without formal proof, but with an indication of their applications and limitations. Access to relevant information is facilitated by drawings and tables. Bibliographic data are many, and SI units are used throughout the book. A dictionary in the annex makes it easier for the user to find English-language literature. The book may be a useful reference book for biologists, microbiologists, biochemists, chemists, pharmacists, geologists, physicists, technicians, and especially metallurgists.

  4. Explanatory Notes in LSP Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise

    2010-01-01

    Translators of LSP texts often have to face the problem of not being subject-field experts and not being able to make sufficient research of the domain in question because of short delivery deadlines. The common denominator often seems to be cognitive shortcomings.   Rita Temmerman (2000......) challenges the traditional terminology concept of 'definition' and suggests 'templates of understanding' with a varying number of modules of information for different units of understanding and different perspectives. The theory of lexicographic functions likewise operates with flexible dictionary concepts...... for specific users and user situations (Tarp 2004) advocating user-oriented subject-matter information as a natural category of translation dictionaries. Via further operational tools for selection and specification of subject-matter data, like the recommendations for adapting definitions to non-experts made...

  5. The pocket dictionary of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlhaus, O.; Boldt, G.; Gonsior, B.; Klein, K.; Ziburske, H.

    1981-01-01

    The pocket dictionary of energy does not only address the interested amateur but also students, pupils, teachers, scientists, technicians, and polititcians in like manner. The dictionary contains ca. 900 key-words from the fields of energy, consumption, energy types, energy deposits, energy programmes, energy industry, thermal insulation, governmental aids for energy conservation measures, heating cost calculation, energy utilization and energy conservation. The problems of the costs and efficiency of energy conversion, energy pricing, the promotion of research projects, the rentability of heating devices or insulation, the sanitation of old buildings, governmental aids by subsidies or tax abatement according to the modernization and energy conservation law etc., as well as the problem of pollution and the endangering of the environment by exhaust air, waste heat, ash and litter are emphasized particularly. Considering the space available the criterion for the selection of the key-words was not a scientific completeness but the provision of a fundamental understanding of the matter. (orig.) [de

  6. Dictionary of applied energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kut, D

    1982-01-01

    The escalating cost of energy is drawing an ever increasing number of people into the planning and execution of energy conservation measures and programs and confronts them with the specialist terminology of the conservationist. The object of this illustrated dictionary is to list the generality of terms employed in energy conservation practice and to explain, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the basic definitions and underlying techniques.

  7. Dictionary materials engineering, materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This dictionary contains about 9,500 entries in each part of the following fields: 1) Materials using and selection; 2) Mechanical engineering materials -Metallic materials - Non-metallic inorganic materials - Plastics - Composites -Materials damage and protection; 3) Electrical and electronics materials -Conductor materials - Semiconductors - magnetic materials - Dielectric materials - non-conducting materials; 4) Materials testing - Mechanical methods - Analytical methods - Structure investigation - Complex methods - Measurement of physical properties - Non-destructive testing. (orig.) [de

  8. One Database, Four Monofunctional Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Inger; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    on musical terms mainly from the world of classical music, but also from commercial music and the so-called world music. The music dictionaries intend to be tools for music students in universities and music schools, for both amateurs and professional musicians and for every interested person who wants aid...... when reading texts on music or who wishes to get further information on musical terms and topics....

  9. Log files as a tool for improving Internet dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Bergenholtz.; Johnsen, Mia

    2005-01-01

    are not related to concrete examples of dictionary use. The surveys, which have always been concerned with printed dictionaries, have therefore not contributed to substantial improvements of dictionary conception. In the case of internet dictionaries, on the other hand, technical possibilities enable...... in the dictionary. Furthermore, log files allow lexicographers to see the types of information which have not, or not yet, been searched for. All in all, log files may thus be used as a tool for improving internet dictionaries - and perhaps also printed dictionaries - quite considerably....

  10. Getting the Most out of the Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckwardt, Albert H.

    2012-01-01

    The usefulness of the dictionary as a reliable source of information for word meanings, spelling, and pronunciation is widely recognized. But even in these obvious matters, the information that the dictionary has to offer is not always accurately interpreted. With respect to pronunciation there seem to be two general pitfalls: (1) the…

  11. Review of "A Dictionary of Global Huayu"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the first Huayu dictionary published by the Commercial Press, "A Dictionary of Global Huayu" (Chinese Language) did a pioneer work in many aspects. It did expand the influence of Chinese and provided Chinese speaker abroad a valuable reference book for study and communication. Nevertheless, there are still some demerits. First of all,…

  12. Dictionary criticism in Scandinavian lexicographic journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Dictionary criticism has a long tradition in the Nordic countries in for instance academic journals and newspapers. In order to limit the scope of the paper, the examination of dictionary reviews in the Nordic countries is restricted to the Nordic lexicographic journal LexicoNordica. The examinat......Dictionary criticism has a long tradition in the Nordic countries in for instance academic journals and newspapers. In order to limit the scope of the paper, the examination of dictionary reviews in the Nordic countries is restricted to the Nordic lexicographic journal Lexico......Nordica. The examination shows that there is great variation in the way reviewers write their critiques, and reviewers address many relevant topics and do not focus on one or two topics. Another characteristic of dictionary criticism in LexicoNordica is that reviewers often compare the dictionary under review with other...... dictionaries and previous editions and where relevant compare print and online editions. Furthermore, many reviewers address outside matter and meta-texts, thereby treating dictionaries as complex lexicographic products that consist of several distinct but interrelated components. A final characteristic...

  13. Bilingualised Dictionaries: How Learners Really Use Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; Kimmel, Michal

    1997-01-01

    Seventy native Hebrew-speaking English-as-a-Second-Language students participated in a study that investigated what part of an entry second-language learners read when they look up an unfamiliar word in a bilingualised dictionary: the monolingual, the bilingual, or both. Results suggest the bilingualised dictionary is very effective because it is…

  14. Linguistic and Cultural Strategies in ELT Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrius, Montse; Pujol, Didac

    2010-01-01

    There are three main types of ELT dictionaries: monolingual, bilingual, and bilingualized. Each type of dictionary, while having its own advantages, also hinders the learning of English as a foreign language and culture in so far as it is written from a homogenizing (linguistic- and culture-centric) perspective. This paper presents a new type of…

  15. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  16. The large dictionary on chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book mentions the large dictionary on chemical engineering. It starts the preface. It mentions introduction for publish committee. It also has signature of publish committee. It introduces explanatory notes. It gives descriptions of glossary on chemical engineering. This has appendixes and index. This book consists of seven part to explain chemical engineering glossary. It was written by chemical engineering dictionary publish committee.

  17. Monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries | Gouws | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevant lexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function merging are introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-based approach to dictionary usage. Keywords: bilingual dictionary ...

  18. Translating Culture in Bilingual Dictionaries | Kotze | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to the act of translation, transculturalisation and strategies of textuality come into playas interacting factors in the compilation of interlingual dictionaries. In this article, some conclusions resulting from a comparative survey of some South African dictionaries are drawn, specifically with regard to bi- and trilingual ...

  19. The Dictionary On Environment and Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This book is the dictionary for environment and pollution, which puts the words in alphabetical order. It includes words such as street refuse, powdered soap, sodium hydroxide, waste caustics, causticization, vibration acceleration level, gasoline, and processed fuel. This dictionary gives descriptions on each word which is related the environment and pollution.

  20. Dictionary of nuclear power. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2010-10-01

    The dictionary on nuclear energy is the revised version (status 20110) of the dictionary edited in 1980, with revision in 1997 and 2001 with alphabetically ordered descriptions and definitions of nuclear energy and radioactivity related terms, items, units, institutions, notions etc.

  1. Bilingual Dictionaries, the Lexicographer and the Translator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: This article focuses on the problems, and advantages and disadvantages of the bilin- gual dictionary from both the lexicographer's and the translator's point of view, with specific refer- ence to bilingual Zulu dictionaries. It is shown that there are many and varying problems the lexi- cographer has to deal with and ...

  2. On development of “smart” dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available On development of “smart” dictionaries The paper discusses the need for development of intelligent dictionaries that allow for two-way interaction with its users. Theoretical ground for such development is suggested. Practical implementation as LexSite lexical resource is shown, concepts for further improvement of the efficiency are proposed.

  3. From Polyfunctional to Monofunctional Accounting Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the theoretical foundation of the accounting dictionaries as well as its practical results. Furthermore, the implementation of the project shows how the constant interaction of lexicographical theory with practical dictionary work over a period of 10 years has led to lexicographical development and ...

  4. The Etymological Dictionary as a Teaching Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Donald

    1977-01-01

    The etymological dictionary is a useful tool for language students; this article presents three series of homework problems whose solutions are to be found in a German etymological dictionary. Regular assignment of such problems will teach students both vocabulary skills and knowledge and curiosity about the German language. (CHK)

  5. Concise Neural Nonaffine Control of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles Subject to Parametric Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Bu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel simplified neural control strategy is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV directly using nonaffine models instead of affine ones. For the velocity dynamics, an adaptive neural controller is devised based on a minimal-learning parameter (MLP technique for the sake of decreasing computational loads. The altitude dynamics is rewritten as a pure feedback nonaffine formulation, for which a novel concise neural control approach is achieved without backstepping. The special contributions are that the control architecture is concise and the computational cost is low. Moreover, the exploited controller possesses good practicability since there is no need for affine models. The semiglobally uniformly ultimate boundedness of all the closed-loop system signals is guaranteed via Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the investigated control methodology in the presence of parametric uncertainties.

  6. Dynamic concision for three-dimensional reconstruction of human organ built with virtual reality modelling language (VRML)*

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zheng-yang; Zheng, Shu-sen; Chen, Lei-ting; He, Xiao-qian; Wang, Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    This research studies the process of 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision based on 2D medical digital images using virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and JavaScript language, with a focus on how to realize the dynamic concision of 3D medical model with script node and sensor node in VRML. The 3D reconstruction and concision of body internal organs can be built with such high quality that they are better than those obtained from the traditional methods. With the function of dynamic c...

  7. A concise guide to effective management of the public works equipment fleet

    OpenAIRE

    De Armas, Vicente.

    1996-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this report is to present in a concise form the principles and fundamentals of managing the public works equipment fleet, providing a basis from which to develop an effective fleet management program. The report begins with a review of today's trends in fleet management, including, organization, privatization, effects of environmental regulations and a discussion on info...

  8. Concise Review: Inner Ear Stem Cells—An Oxymoron, But Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaghi, Mohammad; Nasr, Marjan; Heller, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Hearing loss, caused by irreversible loss of cochlear sensory hair cells, affects millions of patients worldwide. In this concise review, we examine the conundrum of inner ear stem cells, which obviously are present in the inner ear sensory epithelia of nonmammalian vertebrates, giving these ears the ability to functionally recover even from repetitive ototoxic insults. Despite the inability of the mammalian inner ear to regenerate lost hair cells, there is evidence for cells with regenerativ...

  9. Concise Redox Deracemization of Secondary and Tertiary Amines with a Tetrahydroisoquinoline Core via a Nonenzymatic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yue; Shi, Lei; Chen, Mu-Wang; Feng, Guang-Shou; Zhou, Yong-Gui

    2015-08-26

    A concise deracemization of racemic secondary and tertiary amines with a tetrahydroisoquinoline core has been successfully realized by orchestrating a redox process consisted of N-bromosuccinimide oxidation and iridum-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation. This compatible redox combination enables one-pot, single-operation deracemization to generate chiral 1-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines with up to 98% ee in 93% yield, offering a simple and scalable synthetic technique for chiral amines directly from racemic starting materials.

  10. Book Review: MACBETH, Danielle. Realizing Reason: A Narrative of Truth and Knowing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, 494 pp., $99.00 (hbk, ISBN 9780198704751

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Valente

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We review Danielle Macbeth's book Realizing Reason, published by Oxford University Press in 2014. This extensive book is composed by nine chapters in which Macbeth critically presents the development of mathematical practices in the Western world - from its founding in Ancient Greece's diagrammatic practices to the apogee of mathematical logic in the nineteenth and twentieth-centuries - while offering a revaluation of its present stage by means of a reconsideration of Gottlob Frege's philosophical contributions. In this review, we present a summary of each chapter's contents and make general considerations about them.

  11. Long term effects on potential repository sites: the alteration of the Lower Oxford Clay during weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milowdowski, A.E.; Bloodworth, A.J.; Wilmot, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The report is one of a short series describing work carried out to investigate the long-term effects of various geological processes on the performance of both shallow and deep repositories for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the alteration as a result of weathering of the Lower Oxford Clay, a potential host rock for shallow disposal of wastes. A description of the Lower Oxford Clay is given, along with the weathering of argillaceous rocks. Investigations of the weathering at the Elstow Storage Depot are described, as well as the implications for radioactive waste disposal. (U.K.)

  12. This is my neighborhood: comparing United States and Australian Oxford House Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R; Jason, Leonard A; Blake, Ron; Davis, Margaret I; Olson, Bradley D

    2006-01-01

    The number of Oxford Houses, communal-living, mutual help settings for persons in recovery of alcohol and substance abuse, has spread across the United States and recently in and around Melbourne, Australia. In this study 55 US and 6 AU Houses were compared descriptively for their neighborhood characteristics. Across settings, there were greater similarities than significant differences in the locations. Results imply that Australian Oxford Houses are "safe and sober" settings for persons in recovery consistent with the original United States model in physical dwelling settings.

  13. The Construction of Online Specialized Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    the needs of translators (primary user group), accountants and financial experts (secondary user group), and students of accountancy, students of translation, journalism and interested laypersons (tertiary user group). It addresses the issue as a lexicographical problem and makes comments on the decisions...... laypersons, and use situations, typically cognitive-oriented and communicative-oriented types (Bergenholtz/Tarp 2003, 2004). This paper follows suit and elaborates on the selection of Spanish lemmas in a particular dictionary project: the Accounting Dictionaries. This dictionary project aims to satisfy...... taken by a lemma selection team who based their decisions on the principle of relevance. This principle states that the selection and treatment of dictionary data are directly related with the nature of the data to be included, the function(s) of the dictionary and the user situation in which...

  14. Terminology and Labelling Words by Subject in Monolingual Dictionaries – What Do Domain Labels Say to Dictionary Users ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nová Jana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on labelling words by subject in a non-specialized dictionary. We compare the existing monolingual dictionaries of Czech and their ways of labelling terms of medicine and related fields; besides apparent differences between dictionaries, there are also inconsistencies within one dictionary. We consider pros and cons of domain labels as such and their usability in the light of needs and limits of dictionary users, with the aim to motivate further discussion on related issues.

  15. Concise Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, M. Joana; Rowitch, David H.; Tesar, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked disorder caused by mutation in the proteolipid protein-1 (PLP1) gene, which encodes the proteolipid protein of myelinating oligodendroglia. PMD exhibits phenotypic variability that reflects its considerable genotypic heterogeneity, but all forms o...

  16. Concise review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Jonathan I; Kanczler, Janos; Tare, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    of diseases associated with an increasingly aged population. This review describes the state of the field and current steps to translate and apply skeletal stem cell biology in the clinic and the problems therein. Challenges are described along with key strategies including the isolation and ex vivo expansion...

  17. Concise Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Jørgensen, Mads Gustaf; Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh

    2017-01-01

    The popularity of adipose-derived cell therapy has increased over the last decade, and the number of studies published annually is growing. However, concerns regarding safety in the setting of previous malignancy or the use of allogeneic cells have been raised. We therefore aimed to systematically...... therapy studies, where the production of specific antibodies towards donor cells was examined, it was noted that 19%-34% of patients develop antibodies, but the consequence of this is unknown. With regards to oncological safety, only one case of breast cancer recurrence was identified out of 121 patients...

  18. Factors Affecting Applications to Oxford and Cambridge--Repeat Survey. Executive Summary with Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Kate; White, Kerensa; Styles, Ben; Morrison, Jo

    2005-01-01

    This research follows up a study conducted in 1998 by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to investigate teachers' and students' views on the factors affecting students' choices of whether or not to apply to Oxford and Cambridge universities. It identifies what has changed since 1998 and areas in which the universities could…

  19. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model for Kinematic Gait Analysis of the Foot and Ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeve, S.; Vos, J.; Weijers, P.; Verbruggen, J.; Willems, P.; Poeze, M.; Meijer, K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kinematic gait analysis via the multi-segmental Oxford foot model (OFM) may be a valuable addition to the biomechanical examination of the foot and ankle. The aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the OFM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects, without a

  20. Software for relativistic atomic structure theory: The grasp project at oxford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parpia, F.A.; Grant, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    GRASP is an acronym for General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Program. The objective of the GRASP project at Oxford is to produce user-friendly state-of-the-art multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) software packages for rleativistic atomic structure theory

  1. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    Introduction The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in

  2. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) into Persian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavian, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to translate and test the validity and reliablity of the Persian version of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire in foot and ankle patients. We translated the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire to Persian language according to the accepted guidelines, then assessed the psychometric properties including the validity and reliability on 308 patients with long-standing foot and ankle problems. To test the reliability, we calculated the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and measured Cronbach's alpha to test the internal consistency. To test the construct validity of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire we also administered the Short-Form 36 to patients. Construct validity was supported by significant correlation with SF36 subscales except for pain subscale of the persian MOXFQ with mental health of the SF36 (r=0.207). Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.79 for the total MOXFQ and ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 for the three subscales. Cronbach's alpha for pain, walking/standing, and social interaction was 0.86, 0.88, and 0.89, respectively, and was 0.79 for the total MOXFQ showing good internal consistency in each domain. The Persian Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire health scoring system is a valid and reliable patient-reported instrument for foot and ankle problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Developing a Structured Teaching Plan for Psychiatry Tutors at Oxford University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taiar, Hasanen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to examine the teaching ways I undertook in teaching medical students and to examine the use of a structured teaching plan for the academic and clinical tutors in psychiatry. The teaching plan was developed for use, initially by Oxford University Academic tutors at the Department of Psychiatry. In addition,…

  4. The Why, What, and Impact of GPA at Oxford Brookes University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the introduction at Oxford Brookes University of a Grade Point Average (GPA) scheme alongside the traditional honours degree classification. It considers the reasons for the introduction of GPA, the way in which the scheme was implemented, and offers an insight into the impact of GPA at Brookes. Finally, the paper considers…

  5. Data Presentation Structures in Specialised Dictionaries: Law Dictionaries with Communicative Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    data stand out, lexicographers should prioritize functional data that are directly related to and support the function(s) of dictionaries on a need-to-have/nice-to have basis, because data presentation structures with functional focus may better help users achieve their intended goals, i.e. finding......Theoretical lexicographers have developed a range of elaborate structures to describe the arrangement of data inside dictionaries, in particular in dictionary articles. However, most of these structures have been developed on the basis of detailed analyses of print dictionaries and relatively...... little has been said about the arrangement of data in e-dictionaries. The relevant data types are lexicographical data providing help concerning the function(s) and use of dictionaries on search results pages. In order to create a visual hierarchy on screen that makes the most important search result...

  6. Discriminative Bayesian Dictionary Learning for Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Shafait, Faisal; Mian, Ajmal

    2016-12-01

    We propose a Bayesian approach to learn discriminative dictionaries for sparse representation of data. The proposed approach infers probability distributions over the atoms of a discriminative dictionary using a finite approximation of Beta Process. It also computes sets of Bernoulli distributions that associate class labels to the learned dictionary atoms. This association signifies the selection probabilities of the dictionary atoms in the expansion of class-specific data. Furthermore, the non-parametric character of the proposed approach allows it to infer the correct size of the dictionary. We exploit the aforementioned Bernoulli distributions in separately learning a linear classifier. The classifier uses the same hierarchical Bayesian model as the dictionary, which we present along the analytical inference solution for Gibbs sampling. For classification, a test instance is first sparsely encoded over the learned dictionary and the codes are fed to the classifier. We performed experiments for face and action recognition; and object and scene-category classification using five public datasets and compared the results with state-of-the-art discriminative sparse representation approaches. Experiments show that the proposed Bayesian approach consistently outperforms the existing approaches.

  7. Seismic Signal Compression Using Nonparametric Bayesian Dictionary Learning via Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a seismic signal compression method based on nonparametric Bayesian dictionary learning method via clustering. The seismic data is compressed patch by patch, and the dictionary is learned online. Clustering is introduced for dictionary learning. A set of dictionaries could be generated, and each dictionary is used for one cluster’s sparse coding. In this way, the signals in one cluster could be well represented by their corresponding dictionaries. A nonparametric Bayesian dictionary learning method is used to learn the dictionaries, which naturally infers an appropriate dictionary size for each cluster. A uniform quantizer and an adaptive arithmetic coding algorithm are adopted to code the sparse coefficients. With comparisons to other state-of-the art approaches, the effectiveness of the proposed method could be validated in the experiments.

  8. Lamjung Yolmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Gawne, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    pdf of book Lamjung Yolmo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Nepal. It is closely related to Helambu Sherpa and Kyirong. This small dictionary is part of an ongoing project to document the language of Lamjung Yolmo. This is the first time that Lamjung Yolmo has appeared in print, and is accessible to Lamjung Yolmo, Nepali and English speakers alike. The hardcopy is retailing at the Uni Bookshop: http://www.bookshop.unimelb.edu.au/cbc/?IS.9781921775697 (accessed week of 21...

  9. Dictionary corrosion and corrosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This dictionary has 13000 entries in both languages. Keywords and extensive accompanying information simplify the choice of word for the user. The following topics are covered: Theoretical principles of corrosion; Corrosion of the metals and alloys most frequently used in engineering. Types of corrosion - (chemical-, electro-chemical, biological corrosion); forms of corrosion (superficial, pitting, selective, intercrystalline and stress corrosion; vibrational corrosion cracking); erosion and cavitation. Methods of corrosion control (material selection, temporary corrosion protection media, paint and plastics coatings, electro-chemical coatings, corrosion prevention by treatment of the corrosive media); Corrosion testing methods. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Emo, love and god: making sense of Urban Dictionary, a crowd-sourced online dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dong; McGillivray, Barbara; Yasseri, Taha

    2018-05-01

    The Internet facilitates large-scale collaborative projects and the emergence of Web 2.0 platforms, where producers and consumers of content unify, has drastically changed the information market. On the one hand, the promise of the 'wisdom of the crowd' has inspired successful projects such as Wikipedia, which has become the primary source of crowd-based information in many languages. On the other hand, the decentralized and often unmonitored environment of such projects may make them susceptible to low-quality content. In this work, we focus on Urban Dictionary, a crowd-sourced online dictionary. We combine computational methods with qualitative annotation and shed light on the overall features of Urban Dictionary in terms of growth, coverage and types of content. We measure a high presence of opinion-focused entries, as opposed to the meaning-focused entries that we expect from traditional dictionaries. Furthermore, Urban Dictionary covers many informal, unfamiliar words as well as proper nouns. Urban Dictionary also contains offensive content, but highly offensive content tends to receive lower scores through the dictionary's voting system. The low threshold to include new material in Urban Dictionary enables quick recording of new words and new meanings, but the resulting heterogeneous content can pose challenges in using Urban Dictionary as a source to study language innovation.

  11. Image fusion using sparse overcomplete feature dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, Steven P.; Bettencourt, Luis; Kenyon, Garrett T.; Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2015-10-06

    Approaches for deciding what individuals in a population of visual system "neurons" are looking for using sparse overcomplete feature dictionaries are provided. A sparse overcomplete feature dictionary may be learned for an image dataset and a local sparse representation of the image dataset may be built using the learned feature dictionary. A local maximum pooling operation may be applied on the local sparse representation to produce a translation-tolerant representation of the image dataset. An object may then be classified and/or clustered within the translation-tolerant representation of the image dataset using a supervised classification algorithm and/or an unsupervised clustering algorithm.

  12. A General Framework for Reviewing Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    in specific types of situations in the real (extra-lexicographic) world. I propose a basis for a framework that contains an outline of general theoretical and practical principles that underlie the true nature of dictionary reviews, and places the reviews in a lexicographic universe with the dictionary...... and lexicography at its centre. This seems to be in line with the modern understanding of lexicography as a separate academic discipline concerned with the compilation, design, evaluation and use of dictionaries. Moreover, a set of generally applicable principles may lead the discourse community to accept...

  13. Theology amongst the sciences: A personal view from the University of Oxford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Gillingham

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on two individuals who have each made a seminal contribution to the debates between theology and the sciences in Oxford - Charles Darwin (in the mid�19th century, and Richard Dawkins (from the 1990s to the present day. It introduces Darwin by way of a more personal and visual view from Worcester College Chapel. The restoration of the chapel took place at about the same time as the debates between Huxley and Wilberforce in the Oxford University Museum over Charles Darwin�s On the Origin of the Species. The first part of the paper then traces these debates back: first to an earlier period of disputation represented by Galileo Galilei (c. 1564�1642, and then to a period of greater accommodation represented by Isaac Newton (1643�1727. Darwin represents a third, more controversial, stage. The paper then looks at a fourth period, from the mid�20th century onwards, which is marked by more eirenical attempts to demarcate science and theology by seeing the former again as asking the �how� questions and the latter, the �why� questions. It then focuses on a fifth, more disputatious stage, which was initiated by Richard Dawkins, professor in the Public Understanding of Science until 2008. Professor Dawkins challenges the idea that theology cannot be studied, because its focus is a non-existent object, �God�.The second part of the paper looks at various Oxford projects and Oxford theologians who have risen to this contemporary challenge. They include the work of the Ian Ramsey Centre; Justin Barret�s and John Trigg�s joint � 2 million project, supported by the John Templeton foundation, which examines scientific ideas about religion and the mind; Richard Harries, Bishop of Oxford from 1987 to 2006, who has conducted a number of media interviews with Richard Dawkins; Keith Ward, who has written several books engaging not only with Dawkins but is also the Cambridge Professor of Mathematics, Stephen Hawking; and

  14. Aerosol trace metals, particle morphology and total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere of Oxford, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M. L. I.; Meheran, N.; Mather, T. A.; de Hoog, J. C. M.; Pyle, D. M.

    2010-04-01

    An investigation of atmospheric trace metals was conducted in Oxford, UK, a small city ˜60 miles northwest of London, in 2007 and 2008. Concentrations of Sr, Mo, Cd, Pb, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn in aerosol were measured in bulk and size segregated samples. In addition, total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were monitored semi-continuously by cold vapour-atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Metal concentrations in Oxford were intermediate between previously reported levels of UK rural and urban areas for most metals studied and levels of Cd, Ni and Pb were within European guidelines. Metal concentrations appeared to be influenced by higher traffic volume on a timescale of hours. The influence of traffic on the aerosols was also suggested by the observation of carbonaceous particles via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Air mass back trajectories suggest air masses arriving in Oxford from London and mainland Europe contained the highest metal concentrations. Aerosol samples collected over Bonfire Weekend, a period of intense firework use and lighting of bonfires in the UK, showed metal concentrations 6-46 times higher than at other times. Strontium, a tracer of firework release, was present at higher concentrations and showed a change in its size distribution from the coarse to fine mode over Bonfire Weekend. The presence of an abundance of spherical Sr particles was also confirmed in SEM images. The average TGM concentration in Oxford was 3.17 ng m -3 (st. dev. 1.59) with values recorded between 1.32 and 23.2 ng m -3. This is a higher average value than reported from nearby rural locations, although during periods when air was arriving from the west, similar concentrations to these rural areas were seen in Oxford. Comparison to meteorological data suggests that TGM in Oxford's air is highest when wind is arriving from the east/southeast. This may be due to emissions from London/mainland Europe with a possible contribution from emissions from a local

  15. International dictionary of geophysics : S. K. Runcorn (editor-in-chief). Pergamon, Oxford, 1967, 2 volumes, 1,728 pp., 730 fig., £ 45.0.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1968-01-01

    The reader is informed about a large number of subjects in a generally brief, elucidating manner. No single source contains such a large number of short review articles. That the general framework in which the contributions are contained is weak, is no reflection on the authors, but the

  16. Subject-field components as integrated parts of LSP dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    The dividing line between specialised lexicography and terminography is non-existent. The focus of preparing dictionaries for a particular subject-field should be the needs of its user group in specific situations. This is catered for by the modern theory of dictionary functions and includes...... the introduction of subject-field components in dictionaries. Dictionary functions are communication-orientated or cognition-orientated, and the lexicographers must identify the relevant functions and select and present the data so that the dictionary satisfies the needs of the users. The optimal dictionary...

  17. Topological structure of dictionary graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, Henryk; Krzeminski, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the topological structure of the subgraphs of dictionary graphs constructed from WordNet and Moby thesaurus data. In the process of learning a foreign language, the learner knows only a subset of all words of the language, corresponding to a subgraph of a dictionary graph. When this subgraph grows with time, its topological properties change. We introduce the notion of the pseudocore and argue that the growth of the vocabulary roughly follows decreasing pseudocore numbers-that is, one first learns words with a high pseudocore number followed by smaller pseudocores. We also propose an alternative strategy for vocabulary growth, involving decreasing core numbers as opposed to pseudocore numbers. We find that as the core or pseudocore grows in size, the clustering coefficient first decreases, then reaches a minimum and starts increasing again. The minimum occurs when the vocabulary reaches a size between 10 3 and 10 4 . A simple model exhibiting similar behavior is proposed. The model is based on a generalized geometric random graph. Possible implications for language learning are discussed.

  18. A Concise Equation of State for Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes Incorporating Thermodynamic Laws and Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Heyrovská

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Recently, the author suggested a simple and composite equation of state by incorporating fundamental thermodynamic properties like heat capacities into her earlier concise equation of state for gases based on free volume and molecular association / dissociation. This work brings new results for aqueous solutions, based on the analogy of the equation of state for gases and solutions over wide ranges of pressures (for gases and concentrations (for solutions. The definitions of entropy and heat energy through the equation of state for gases, also holds for solutions.

  19. Concise synthesis and PTP1B inhibitory activity of (R)- and (S)-dihydroresorcylide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng-Shi; Zhang, Li; Gong, Jing-Xu; Li, Jing-Ya; Yao, Li-Gong; Li, Jia; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2017-12-01

    The present study was designed to develop a concise synthetic route for macrolide, with the purpose of confirming the absolute configuration of natural dihydroresorcylide (1) and making it more easily accessible for biological evaluation. The absolute configuration of C-3 in natural 1 was revised to be R by comparison of the rotation sign of synthetic (R)- and (S)-1. The synthetic (R)-1 was found to be a novel highly specific PTP1B inhibitor with an IC 50 value of 17.06 μM.

  20. Concise method for evaluating the probability distribution of the marginal cost of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.H.; Li, Y.Z.

    2000-01-01

    In the developing electricity market, many questions on electricity pricing and the risk modelling of forward contracts require the evaluation of the expected value and probability distribution of the short-run marginal cost of power generation at any given time. A concise forecasting method is provided, which is consistent with the definitions of marginal costs and the techniques of probabilistic production costing. The method embodies clear physical concepts, so that it can be easily understood theoretically and computationally realised. A numerical example has been used to test the proposed method. (author)

  1. Radiocarbon facility at the Research Laboratory for Archaeology in Oxford - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.R.; Hedges, R.E.M.; Wand, J.O.; Hall, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    The Oxford accelerator mass spectrometry facility is primarily intended for radiocarbon work. It has been designed and built within the department, except for the 3 MV tandem, which is being purchased from General Ionex and is still awaited. This system has been described many times before, so this paper will not give a comprehensive description of the facility, but only cover in detail areas of recent progress, or areas where our approach differs from other labs

  2. Parsing and Tagging of Binlingual Dictionary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Huanfeng; Karagol-Ayan, Burcu; Doermann, David S; Oard, Doug; Wang, Jianqiang

    2003-01-01

    Bilingual dictionaries hold great potential as a source of lexical resources for training and testing automated systems for optical character recognition, machine translation, and cross-language information retrieval...

  3. Parsing and Tagging of Bilingual Dictionary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Huanfeng; Karagol-Ayan, Burcu; Doermann, David S; Oard, Doug; Wang, Jianqiang

    2003-01-01

    Bilingual dictionaries hold great potential as a source of lexical resources for training and testing automated systems for optical character recognition, machine translation, and cross-language information retrieval...

  4. Dictionnaires et encyclopedies (Dictionaries and Encyclopedias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, Pierre

    1988-01-01

    Eight French dictionaries and encyclopedic reference books are reviewed, focusing on their formats, characteristics, and intended uses. They include references for language, geopolitics and economics, economic history, signs and symbols, and an almanac. (MSE)

  5. Dictionary of nuclear power. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2011-10-01

    The updated dictionary on nuclear power contains definitions and explanations on nuclear physics, nuclear engineering, nuclear power, radiation effects and radiation protection in alphabetic order. Attachments on units, their conversion and physical constants are included.

  6. Verifying pronunciation dictionaries using conflict analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a new language-independent technique for automatically identifying errors in an electronic pronunciation dictionary by analyzing the source of conflicting patterns directly.They evaluate the effectiveness of the technique in two...

  7. Hyperspectral Image Classification Using Discriminative Dictionary Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zongze, Y; Hao, S; Kefeng, J; Huanxin, Z

    2014-01-01

    The hyperspectral image (HSI) processing community has witnessed a surge of papers focusing on the utilization of sparse prior for effective HSI classification. In sparse representation based HSI classification, there are two phases: sparse coding with an over-complete dictionary and classification. In this paper, we first apply a novel fisher discriminative dictionary learning method, which capture the relative difference in different classes. The competitive selection strategy ensures that atoms in the resulting over-complete dictionary are the most discriminative. Secondly, motivated by the assumption that spatially adjacent samples are statistically related and even belong to the same materials (same class), we propose a majority voting scheme incorporating contextual information to predict the category label. Experiment results show that the proposed method can effectively strengthen relative discrimination of the constructed dictionary, and incorporating with the majority voting scheme achieve generally an improved prediction performance

  8. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types...... text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items...... of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...

  9. Monolingual Accounting Dictionaries for EFL Text Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types...... text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items...... of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...

  10. A critical analysis of multilingual dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (ANNA) attempts to make a case for the value of reading a dictionary for recreation ... This assumption, however, should be supported by actual user studies and ...... inexperienced user can incorrectly conclude that ka is the word for power in.

  11. (CEPTSA) — Translating and Explanatory Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phases of the project, consisting of different translating and explanatory versions, are discussed. ... already published, namely the Dictionary category of the South African Translators' Institute (SATI) (2003), ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. Some Features of Monolingual LSP Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    119 tion. Therefore, an important product of lexicography is a dictionary or word- .... graphic language description, focusing on the set of eventual questions from ..... (3) "Absence" (Matrimonial Causes Act 1950 (c. 25), s. 14 (3)) means "physi-.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Turkish version of Oxford hip score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuğay, Baki Umut; Tuğay, Nazan; Güney, Hande; Hazar, Zeynep; Yüksel, İnci; Atilla, Bülent

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate the Oxford hip score (OHS) into Turkish and to evaluate the psychometric properties by testing the internal consistency, reproducibility, construct validity, and responsiveness in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). Oxford hip score was translated and culturally adapted according to the guidelines in the literature. Seventy patients (mean age 61.45 ± 9.29 years) with hip osteoarthritis participated in the study. Patients completed the Turkish Oxford hip score (OHS-TR), the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index (WOMAC). Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach's α coefficient. Patients completed OHS-TR questionnaire twice in 7 days for determining the reproducibility. Correlation between the total results of both tests was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Validity was assessed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the OHS-TR and WOMAC and SF-36 scores. Floor and ceiling effects were analyzed. The internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α 0.93). The construct validity showed a significant correlation between the OHS-TR and WOMAC and related SF-36 domains (p < 0.001). The ICC's ranged between 0.80 and 0.99. There was no floor or ceiling effect in total OHS-TR score. The OHS-TR questionnaire is valid, reliable, and responsive for the Turkish-speaking patients with hip OA.

  14. Rubidium-strontium ages from the Oxford Lake-Knee Lake greenstone belt, northern Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.S.; Cheung, S.-P.

    1980-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole-rock ages have been determined for rocks from the Oxford Lake-Knee Lake-Gods Lake geenstone belt in the Superior Province of northeastern Manitoba. The age of the Magill Lake Pluton is 2455 +- 35 Ma(lambda 87 Rb = 1.42 x 10 -11 yr -1 ), with an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.7078 +- 0.0043. This granite stock intrudes the Oxford Lake Group, so it is post-tectonic and probably related to the second, weaker stage of metamorphism. The age of the Bayly Lake Pluton is 2424 +- 74 Ma, with an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.7029 +- 0.0001. This granodioritic batholith complex does not intrude the Oxford Lake Group. It is syn-tectonic and metamorphosed. The age of volcanic rocks of the Hayes River Group, from Goose Lake (30 km south of Gods Lake Narrows), is 2680 +- 125 Ma, with an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.7014 +- 0.0009. The age for the Magill Lake and Bayly Lake Plutons can be interpreted as the minimum ages of granite intrusion in the area. The age for the Hayes River Group volcanic rocks is consistent with Rb-Sr ages of volcanic rocks from other Archean greenstone belts within the northwestern Superior Province. (auth)

  15. The Heart of the Matter: Methodological Challenges in Developing a Contemporary 257-269 Reading Programme for Monolingual Lexicography, from the Perspective of the Dictionary Unit for South African English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Pienaar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article argues the importance of the reading programme as the pivotal issue inthe lexicographic process. It is essentially a practical article which outlines strategies for developingand implementing a reading programme for monolingual lexicography. The arguments are informedby theory, together with an examination of the data-collection procedures followed by theDictionary Unit for South African English (DSAE and a survey of current practice in major Englishdictionary units around the world, namely the Oxford English Dictionary, the Canadian OxfordDictionary, the Australian National Dictionary Centre and the New Zealand Dictionary Centre.The reading programme for the DSAE is first defined and contextualized within its mission statement.The article then explores the challenges inherent in sampling contemporary written and spokenEnglish in the South African multilingual context. It is intended to inform the DSAE's intakepolicy, in terms of the following critical issues:

    — the definition of South African English,

    — the monitoring and selection of print, oral and electronic sources,

    — the excerpting of citations and relevant bibliographic information, and

    — the recruiting and training of readers.

    These interlinked aspects of the reading programme have crucial implications for the quality andauthority of the monolingual dictionary on historical principles.

    Keywords: READING PROGRAMME, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, HISTORICAL PRINCIPLES, CONTEMPORARY, INTAKE, CITATIONS, STRATEGIES

    Opsomming: Die kern van die saak: Metodologiese uitdagings by die ontwikkelingvan 'n eietydse leesprogram vir eentalige leksikografie, uit dieperspektief van die Dictionary Unit for South African English. Hierdie artikelbepleit die belangrikheid van die leesprogram as die kernsaak in die leksikografiese proses. Dit ishoofsaaklik 'n praktiese artikel wat stategieë vir die ontwikkeling en implementering van 'n

  16. An electronic dictionary of Danish Sign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Compiling sign language dictionaries has in the last 15 years changed from most often being simply collecting and presenting signs for a given gloss in the surrounding vocal language to being a complicated lexicographic task including all parts of linguistic analysis, i.e. phonology, phonetics......, morphology, syntax and semantics. In this presentation we will give a short overview of the Danish Sign Language dictionary project. We will further focus on lemma selection and some of the problems connected with lemmatisation....

  17. Dictionary of nuclear power. January 2013 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2013-01-01

    The actualized version (January 2013) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, nuclear physics, reactor physics, isotope production, biological radiation effects, and radiation protection.

  18. The need for an electronic multilingual dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kisiel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for an electronic multilingual dictionary The paper analyses the issue of providing adequate equivalents in multilingual dictionaries. If equivalents are adequate, it means that: (1 the scope of meaning of one item is identical to its equivalent (cf. drive: drive a nail vs. drive a car; and (2 the collocations of the equivalents overlap. Two significant problems arise when searching for adequate equivalents: the lack of equivalents whose meanings are identical (narrower/wider meanings, partial overlap of meanings, more than equally good equivalent, and equivalents with homographs in a given language. Because such issues are difficult to resolve in a printed dictionary, we put forward some methods of addressing the problems in an electronic dictionary. The paper offers an example entry from such a dictionary, which presents a suggestion of a layout. We also took into consideration the potential problems which may appear if the entry is presented in this manner: first, one must set a limit for the description (a defined number of lexical units; second, one must avoid circularity, but at the same time also strive for an exhaustive description. Electronic dictionaries offer greater possibilities of presenting modern vocabulary and adding new classifiers (e.g. a classifier of politeness.

  19. Dictionaries and distributions: Combining expert knowledge and large scale textual data content analysis : Distributed dictionary representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Justin; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Boghrati, Reihane; Iskiwitch, Carol; Dehghani, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    Theory-driven text analysis has made extensive use of psychological concept dictionaries, leading to a wide range of important results. These dictionaries have generally been applied through word count methods which have proven to be both simple and effective. In this paper, we introduce Distributed Dictionary Representations (DDR), a method that applies psychological dictionaries using semantic similarity rather than word counts. This allows for the measurement of the similarity between dictionaries and spans of text ranging from complete documents to individual words. We show how DDR enables dictionary authors to place greater emphasis on construct validity without sacrificing linguistic coverage. We further demonstrate the benefits of DDR on two real-world tasks and finally conduct an extensive study of the interaction between dictionary size and task performance. These studies allow us to examine how DDR and word count methods complement one another as tools for applying concept dictionaries and where each is best applied. Finally, we provide references to tools and resources to make this method both available and accessible to a broad psychological audience.

  20. Making the Dictionary of the Frisian Language available in the Dutch historical dictionary portal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depuydt, Katrien; de Does, Jesse; Duijff, P.; Sijens, H.; Odijk, Jan; van Hessen, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the GTB-WFT project was to publish the the monumental Dictionary of the Frisian Language GTB-WFT (Wurdboek fan 'e Fryske Taal, WFT) in the CLARIN research infrastructure, according to open, CLARIN-compliant standards. This has been achieved by 1) curation of the dictionary data,

  1. Emo, love and god: making sense of Urban Dictionary, a crowd-sourced online dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The Internet facilitates large-scale collaborative projects and the emergence of Web 2.0 platforms, where producers and consumers of content unify, has drastically changed the information market. On the one hand, the promise of the ‘wisdom of the crowd’ has inspired successful projects such as Wikipedia, which has become the primary source of crowd-based information in many languages. On the other hand, the decentralized and often unmonitored environment of such projects may make them susceptible to low-quality content. In this work, we focus on Urban Dictionary, a crowd-sourced online dictionary. We combine computational methods with qualitative annotation and shed light on the overall features of Urban Dictionary in terms of growth, coverage and types of content. We measure a high presence of opinion-focused entries, as opposed to the meaning-focused entries that we expect from traditional dictionaries. Furthermore, Urban Dictionary covers many informal, unfamiliar words as well as proper nouns. Urban Dictionary also contains offensive content, but highly offensive content tends to receive lower scores through the dictionary’s voting system. The low threshold to include new material in Urban Dictionary enables quick recording of new words and new meanings, but the resulting heterogeneous content can pose challenges in using Urban Dictionary as a source to study language innovation. PMID:29892417

  2. Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A dictionary is (a learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provides much data about language to its readers such as telling them about: the word spelling, phonology, phonetics, etymology, stylistics and definitions among other aspects. This paper sheds light on how the dictionary can teach its readers with special focus on monolingual dictionary. Hence, the discussion of this paper will centre on how dictionaries can teach students rather than on how students can learn from them.

  3. Use of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries among Students of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kavalir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of dictionary use in 32 firstyear students of English at the University of Ljubljana in the academic year 2009/2010 shows that students use a variety of dictionaries with a slight preponderance of monolingual dictionaries over bilingual ones. The bilingual dictionaries listed do not include some of the most recent and most comprehensive dictionaries while some of the most frequently used resources are quite modest sized. The students are already predominantly users of electronic and online dictionaries with a lower frequency of printed resources – a trend which is only likely to accelerate with the advent of new bilingual online dictionaries. These results have practical relevance for teachers in all sectors, from primary and secondary schools to universities, as they point towards a need for additional training in the use of bilingual dictionaries. The transition from printed to electronic and online resources can also be expected to induce changes in EFL methodology at all levels.

  4. Making an Online Dictionary of New Zealand Sign Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is n example of a contemporary sign language dictionary that leverages the 21st ... informed development of this bilingual, bi-directional, multimedia dictionary. ... and dealing with sociolinguistic variation in the selection and performance of ...

  5. Bilingual Dictionaries for Communication in the Domain of Economics: Function-Based Translation Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    With their focus on terms, bilingual dictionaries are important tools for translating texts on economics. The most common type is the multi-fi eld dictionary covering several related subject fi elds; however, multi-fi eld dictionaries treat one or few fi elds extensively thereby neglecting other fi...... elds in contrast to single-fi eld and sub-fi eld dictionaries. Furthermore, recent research shows that economic translation is not limited to terms so lexicographers who identify and analyse the needs of translators, usage situations and stages in translating economic texts will have a sound basis...... for designing their lexicographic tools. The function theory allows lexicographers to study these basics so that they can offer translation tools to the domain of economics. Dictionaries should include data about terms, their grammatical properties, and their combinatorial potential as well as language...

  6. Den Engelske Regnskabsordbog/English Dictionary of Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Mourier, Lise; Bergenholtz, Henning

    The English Dictionary of Accounting contains about 5.600 accounting terms, both British, American and international (IFRS). The terms are defined and the dictionary gives language information about the terms. The dictionary can be used when writing and reading English accounting texts and when y...... want to learn more about accounting and financial reporting. The dictionary is designed for accountants, auditors, translators, students communication officers and others interested in financial reporting....

  7. Dictionary of radiology. Radiologisches Woerterbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freye, K; Lammers, W

    1982-01-01

    The dictionary of radiology is based on practical experience in diagnostic radiology. Following a brief clinical introduction, radiological methods including nuclear medicine and the increasingly important field of sonography are presented in alphabetic order, each term with a short definition. The most favourable order of application is determined by the diagnostic value, technical requirements and discomfort of the various methods. Preparative measures, the duration of the examinations, and problems of radiation hygiene are discussed. Illustrative drawings supplement the text. The fields of application given for the various methods are based on the latest state of knowledge. Other methods, e.g. endoscopy in all its variants and thermography, are mentioned whereever they are of diagnostic value. The book has a brief appendix in which the fundamental physical and technical context are explained, also in alphabetic order. Detailed cross-references establish a connection between diseases and diagnostic methods, thus facilitating access to the desired information.

  8. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  9. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Moe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

    Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die

  10. Compiling a Sign Language Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    As we began working on the Danish Sign Language (DTS) Dictionary, we soon realised the truth in the statement that a lexicographer has to deal with problems within almost any linguistic discipline. Most of these problems come down to establishing simple rules, rules that can easily be applied every...... – or are they homonyms?" and so on. Very often such questions demand further research and can't be answered sufficiently through a simple standard formula. Therefore lexicographic work often seems like an endless series of compromises. Another source of compromise arises when you set out to decide which information...... this dilemma, as we see DTS learners and teachers as well as native DTS signers as our target users. In the following we will focus on four problem areas with particular relevance for the sign language lexicographer: Sign representation Spoken languague equivalents and mouth movements Example sentences Partial...

  11. The Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries by Thai University Students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Ed.). 1998. Using. Dictionaries. Studies of Dictionary Use by Language Learners and Translators: 83-122. Lexicogra- phica. Series Maior 88. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. Boonmoh, A. and H. Nesi. 2008. A Survey of Dictionary Use by Thai ...

  12. Implementing a dictionary culture for South Africa: attempt at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    This information should mainly be distributed through dictionary aware- .... could co-operate and share the costs of developing a marketing strategy which could be ... Pro (Sesotho sa Leboa Dictionary Project) online dictionary in South African ... Examples of teaching lexicographic theory are workshops at certain lexi-.

  13. Research Timeline: Dictionary Use by English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    The history of research into dictionary use tends to be characterised by small-scale studies undertaken in a variety of different contexts, rather than larger-scale, longer-term funded projects. The research conducted by dictionary publishers is not generally made public, because of its commercial sensitivity, yet because dictionary production is…

  14. Evaluating Bilingual and Monolingual Dictionaries for L2 Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Alan

    1997-01-01

    A discussion of dictionaries and their use for second language (L2) learning suggests that lack of computerized modern language corpora can adversely affect bilingual dictionaries, commonly used by L2 learners, and shows how use of such corpora has benefitted two contemporary monolingual L2 learner dictionaries (1995 editions of the Longman…

  15. Online English-English Learner Dictionaries Boost Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmukhamedov, Ulugbek

    2012-01-01

    Learners of English might be familiar with several online monolingual dictionaries that are not necessarily the best choices for the English as Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) context. Although these monolingual online dictionaries contain definitions, pronunciation guides, and other elements normally found in general-use dictionaries, they are…

  16. The Use of Hyper-Reference and Conventional Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Ronald; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of 80 undergraduate foreign language learners that compared the use of a hyper-reference source incorporating an electronic dictionary and a conventional paper dictionary. Measures of consultation frequency, study time, efficiency, and comprehension are examined; bilingual and monolingual dictionary use is compared; and further…

  17. Innovation and compromise in K. Endemann's dictionary of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to highlight some lexicographic features of the dictionary of the Sotho language by K.Endemann against the backdrop of best practices of dictionary compilation today. Over the last centurythe dictionary, entitled Wörterbuch der Sotho-Sprache (1911), has elicited mixed reactions from Bantuscholars, some ...

  18. South Africa's new African language dictionaries and their use for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionaries are useful tools for language documentation and standardization, as they try to cover and docu-ment the general vocabulary (general dictionaries) or the specialized vocabulary (technical diction-aries). They empower the language users because they help to improve communication by pro-viding users with the ...

  19. Learner features in a New Corpus-based Swahili dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As far as traditionally published Swahili language dictionaries are concerned, throughout the long history of Swahili lexicography, most new dictionaries were based on their predecessors. Thus far the only innovative traditionally printed corpus-based dictionary has been published by Finnish scholars (Abdulla et al. 2002).

  20. Language learner's use of a bilingual dictionary: a comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares and contrasts dictionary use and needs of language learners at the University of York in the United Kingdom and at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Five aspects are discussed in this study viz. dictionaries used, instructions and guidance on dictionary use, the functions for which students ...

  1. The compilation of electronic dictionaries for the African languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lexicographers increasingly acknowledge the enormous potential of electronic dictionaries. The great capacity and speed characteristic of electronic products, combined with enhanced query and data retrieval technology, pave the way to a new generation of dictionaries unimagined in the paper-dictionary era. It is amazing ...

  2. Thoughts and views on the compilation of monolingual dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The end-products should be of a high lexicographic standard, well-balanced in terms of lemma selection, length of the articles, maximum utilisation of available dictionary space etc. They should also be planned and compiled in such a way that the transition from paper dictionaries to electronic dictionaries could be easily ...

  3. Two Recent Major Afrikaans–English/English–Afrikaans Dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: When Pharos Dictionaries was established in 1996, its first order of business was to develop a comprehensive Afrikaans–English/English–Afrikaans dictionary that could succeed the standard-bearing but ageing TW (Tweetalige Woordeboek/Bilingual Dictionary by Bosman, Van der. Merwe and Hiemstra).

  4. Development of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: constructing an item pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Laura Kelly, Crispin Jenkinson, Sarah Dummett, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, David Morley Health Services Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Purpose: The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure in development that is grounded on the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF. The study reported here aimed to inform and generate an item pool for the new measure, which is specifically designed for the assessment of participation and activity in patients experiencing a range of health conditions. Methods: Items were informed through in-depth interviews conducted with 37 participants spanning a range of conditions. Interviews aimed to identify how their condition impacted their ability to participate in meaningful activities. Conditions included arthritis, cancer, chronic back pain, diabetes, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury. Transcripts were analyzed using the framework method. Statements relating to ICF themes were recast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n=13 were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results: ICF themes relevant to activities and participation in everyday life were explored, and a total of 222 items formed the initial item pool. This item pool was refined by the research team and 28 generic items were mapped onto all nine chapters of the ICF construct, detailing activity and participation. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, items, and response options were acceptable to participants. Conclusion: Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 28 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. A large-scale postal survey will follow in order to refine the instrument further and

  5. Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race: Performance, Pacing and Tactics Between 1890 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew M; Guy, Joshua H; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-10-01

    Currently no studies have examined the historical performances of Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race crews in the context of performance, pacing and tactics which is surprising as the event has routinely taken place annually for over 150 years on the same course. The purpose of this study was twofold, to firstly examine the historical development of performances and physical characteristics of crews over 124 years of the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race between 1890 and 2014 and secondly to investigate the pacing and tactics employed by crews over that period. Linear regression modelling was applied to investigate the development of performance and body size for crews of eight male individuals over time from Boat Race archive data. Performance change over time was further assessed in 10-year clusters while four intra-race checkpoints were used to examine pacing and tactics. Significant correlations were observed between performance and time (1890-2014) for both Oxford (r = -0.67; p tactical advantage from commencing on either the Surrey or Middlesex station beyond chance alone; however, all crews (n = 228) adopted a fast-start strategy, with 81 % of victories achieved by the crew leading the race at the first intra-race checkpoint (24 % of total distance). Crews leading the race at the final checkpoint (83 % of total distance; 1143 m) achieved victory on 94 % of occasions. Performances and physical characteristics of the crews have changed markedly since 1890, with faster heavier crews now common. Tactically, gaining the early lead position with a fast-start strategy seems particularly meaningful to success in the Boat Race throughout the years, and has been of greater importance to race outcome than factors such as the starting station.

  6. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish version of the Oxford hip score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, A; Odgaard, Anders; Overgaard, S

    2012-01-01

    missing to calculate a sum score. Construct validity was adequate and 80% of our predefined hypotheses regarding the correlation between scores on the Danish OHS and the other questionnaires were confirmed. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of the different items ranged from 0.80 to 0.95 and the average......Objectives The Oxford hip score (OHS) is a 12-item questionnaire designed and developed to assess function and pain from the perspective of patients who are undergoing total hip replacement (THR). The OHS has been shown to be consistent, reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical change following...

  7. The Oxford SWIFT Spectrograph: first commissioning and on-sky results

    OpenAIRE

    Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Mathias; Clarke, Fraser; Goodsall, Timothy; Fogarty, Lisa; Houghton, Ryan; Salter, Graeme; Scott, Nicholas; Davies, Roger L.; Bouchez, Antonin; Dekany, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Oxford SWIFT spectrograph, an I & z band (6500-10500 A) integral field spectrograph, is designed to operate as a facility instrument at the 200 inch Hale Telescope on Palomar Mountain, in conjunction with the Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics system PALAO (and its upgrade to PALM3000). SWIFT provides spectra at R(≡λ/▵λ)~4000 of a contiguous two-dimensional field, 44 x 89 spatial pixels (spaxels) in size, at spatial scales of 0.235";, 0.16", and 0.08" per spaxel. It employs two 250μ...

  8. Deep Mapping and Screen Tourism: The Oxford of Harry Potter and Inspector Morse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cateridge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that the experiences of screen tourists in Oxford help to create a theoretical “deep map” of the city which explores place through narrative. Building on the travel writing of William Least Heat-Moon and other recent work in the spatial humanities, two case studies of major screen tourism drivers are considered and analyzed. The British television drama Inspector Morse (1987–2000 explores the ambiguity of Oxford intellectualism through its central character. Morse’s love of high culture, especially music, provides suggestive additional layers for multimedia mapping, which are realized online through user-adapted Google Maps and geolocated images posted on the Flickr service. Harry Potter fans may not be “pure” or independent screen tourists, but they provide a wealth of data on their interactions with filming locations via social media such as Instagram. This data provides emotional as well as factual evidence, and is accumulating into an ever richer and deeper digital map of human experience.

  9. Accurate Typing of Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Genes by Oxford Nanopore Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Xiao, Fangzhou; Hoisington-Lopez, Jessica; Lang, Kathrin; Quenzel, Philipp; Duffy, Brian; Mitra, Robi David

    2018-04-03

    Oxford Nanopore Technologies' MinION has expanded the current DNA sequencing toolkit by delivering long read lengths and extreme portability. The MinION has the potential to enable expedited point-of-care human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, an assay routinely used to assess the immunologic compatibility between organ donors and recipients, but the platform's high error rate makes it challenging to type alleles with accuracy. We developed and validated accurate typing of HLA by Oxford nanopore (Athlon), a bioinformatic pipeline that i) maps nanopore reads to a database of known HLA alleles, ii) identifies candidate alleles with the highest read coverage at different resolution levels that are represented as branching nodes and leaves of a tree structure, iii) generates consensus sequences by remapping the reads to the candidate alleles, and iv) calls the final diploid genotype by blasting consensus sequences against the reference database. Using two independent data sets generated on the R9.4 flow cell chemistry, Athlon achieved a 100% accuracy in class I HLA typing at the two-field resolution. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cemented versus Uncemented Oxford Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: Is There a Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Akan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The use of uncemented unicompartmental knee prostheses has recently increased. However, few studies on the outcomes of uncemented unicompartmental knee prostheses have been performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of cemented and uncemented Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. This retrospective observational study evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of 263 medial Oxford unicompartmental prostheses (141 cemented, 122 uncemented implanted in 235 patients. The mean follow-up was 42 months in the cemented group and 30 months in the uncemented group. Results. At the last follow-up, there were no significant differences in the clinical results or survival rates between the two groups. However, the operation time in the uncemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasty group was shorter than that in the cemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasty group. In addition, the cost of uncemented arthroplasty was greater. Conclusion. Despite the successful midterm results in the uncemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasty group, a longer follow-up period is required to determine the best fixation mode.

  11. Parroquia católica en Oxford, Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrends, Peter

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available This strange new building was commissioned Í0 accommodate the expanding activities of the Newman Community which acts as a religious and social center for the Catholics of the University of Oxford. The following have been constructed: a chapel, a multiple-use room, entrance hall, bar, library, meeting room, eight bedrooms, small lounges and kitchen, etc. Part of the already existing building was used for the installation of another kitchen and several bathrooms. The best possible advantage has been taken of the lot which is narrow and irregularly shaped. Construction consists basically of brick walls, with columns, reinforced concrete stairs and castings.Este curioso y nuevo edificio se ha edificado para subsanar la creciente expansión de actividades de la Comunidad Newman, que actúa como centro religioso y social para los católicos de la Universidad de Oxford. Han sido construidos: una capilla, una sala de usos múltiples, entrada, bar, biblioteca, sala de reuniones, ocho dormitorios, pequeñas salitas y cocina, etc., aprovechando parte del edificio existente para ubicar otra cocina y varios cuartos de baño. El solar, que era estrecho y de forma irregular, se ha aprovechado al máximo. La construcción se ha llevado a cabo, fundamentalmente, a base de muros de fábrica de ladrillo, con pilares, forjados y escaleras de hormigón armado.

  12. “To Live in Hearts We Leave Behind is Not to Die.” Remembrance Sunday at Pusey House, Oxford University, A Review of Worship at Oxford University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Kraus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, religious participation by students of all faiths at Universities in the United Kingdom has seen a steady increase in attendance. This brief essay is a case study of worship by members of the University Community at Pusey House at the University of Oxford, which reflects the trend. On a crisp fall, November day, the twenty-third Sunday after Trinity (8th of November 2015 I had the opportunity to attend services at Pusey House, Oxford on Remembrance Sunday while on sabbatical at The University of Oxford (St. Stephen’s House.

  13. A concise course on the theory of classical liquids basics and selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    This short primer offers non-specialist readers a concise, yet comprehensive introduction to the field of classical fluids – providing both fundamental information and a number of selected topics to bridge the gap between the basics and ongoing research. In particular, hard-sphere systems represent a favorite playground in statistical mechanics, both in and out of equilibrium, as they represent the simplest models of many-body systems of interacting particles, and at higher temperature and densities they have proven to be very useful as reference systems for real fluids. Moreover, their usefulness in the realm of soft condensed matter has become increasingly recognized – for instance, the effective interaction among (sterically stabilized) colloidal particles can be tuned to almost perfectly match the hard-sphere model. These lecture notes present a brief, self-contained overview of equilibrium statistical mechanics of classical fluids, with special applications to both the structural and thermodynamic pr...

  14. Concise Review: Inner Ear Stem Cells—An Oxymoron, But Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaghi, Mohammad; Nasr, Marjan; Heller, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Hearing loss, caused by irreversible loss of cochlear sensory hair cells, affects millions of patients worldwide. In this concise review, we examine the conundrum of inner ear stem cells, which obviously are present in the inner ear sensory epithelia of nonmammalian vertebrates, giving these ears the ability to functionally recover even from repetitive ototoxic insults. Despite the inability of the mammalian inner ear to regenerate lost hair cells, there is evidence for cells with regenerative capacity because stem cells can be isolated from vestibular sensory epithelia and from the neonatal cochlea. Challenges and recent progress toward identification of the intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways that could be used to re-establish stemness in the mammalian organ of Corti are discussed. PMID:22102534

  15. Concise review: Inner ear stem cells--an oxymoron, but why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaghi, Mohammad; Nasr, Marjan; Heller, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Hearing loss, caused by irreversible loss of cochlear sensory hair cells, affects millions of patients worldwide. In this concise review, we examine the conundrum of inner ear stem cells, which obviously are present in the inner ear sensory epithelia of nonmammalian vertebrates, giving these ears the ability to functionally recover even from repetitive ototoxic insults. Despite the inability of the mammalian inner ear to regenerate lost hair cells, there is evidence for cells with regenerative capacity because stem cells can be isolated from vestibular sensory epithelia and from the neonatal cochlea. Challenges and recent progress toward identification of the intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways that could be used to re-establish stemness in the mammalian organ of Corti are discussed. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  16. Concise formulation of the three-dimensional multiple-scattering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyhenart, Laurent; Vignéras, Valérie

    2012-08-01

    The scattering of an electromagnetic wave by a set of dielectric and metallic spheres is a well-known physical problem. We show a mathematical simplification of the multiple-scattering theory. In this paper, we will establish the multiple-scattering equation in two different ways. Through the study of the equation form, we can choose the simplest spherical wave expansion for calculations. Then, we propose concise expressions of the Mie scattering coefficients and translation coefficients for both polarizations. With these simplified expressions, large spheres are studied without loss of accuracy. Far-field expressions, cross-sections, and the scattering matrix are also simplified. Thus, we obtain formulas that can be easily understood from a physical point of view.

  17. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Concise Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hofer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concisely summarizes data on the action of one of the principal and best known growth factors, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, in a mammalian organism exposed to radiation doses inducing acute radiation syndrome. Highlighted are the topics of its real or anticipated use in radiation accident victims, the timing of its administration, the possibilities of combining G-CSF with other drugs, the ability of other agents to stimulate endogenous G-CSF production, as well as of the capability of this growth factor to ameliorate not only the bone marrow radiation syndrome but also the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. G-CSF is one of the pivotal drugs in the treatment of radiation accident victims and its employment in this indication can be expected to remain or even grow in the future.

  18. A concise biogas plant construction suitable for Ghana and other tropical countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbagbo, J.K.N.

    1997-04-01

    This report is intended to be used by people in the field of biogas for workshops, technicians, teachers to educate as well as to carry out hands on constructions in Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 1, discusses the biogas technology, what a biogas plant is, and how it functions. Chapter 2, describes the entire process. Chapter 3, discusses the necessary conditions for fermentation. Chapter 4, the measuring parameters for monitoring the system. Chapter 5, describes the various types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Chapter 6, describes a planning guide for Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 7, discusses digester sizing and finally, Chapter 8, describes a concise biogas plant construction suitable for the rural areas of Ghana and other tropical countries. (au)

  19. Compiling a Monolingual Dictionary for Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hanks

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article gives a survey of the main issues confronting the compilers of monolingual dictionaries in the age of the Internet. Among others, it discusses the relationship between a lexical database and a monolingual dictionary, the role of corpus evidence, historical principles in lexicography vs. synchronic principles, the instability of word meaning, the need for full vocabulary coverage, principles of definition writing, the role of dictionaries in society, and the need for dictionaries to give guidance on matters of disputed word usage. It concludes with some questions about the future of dictionary publishing.

    OPSOMMING: Die samestelling van 'n eentalige woordeboek vir moedertaalsprekers. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van die hoofkwessies waarmee die samestellers van eentalige woordeboeke in die eeu van die Internet te kampe het. Dit bespreek onder andere die verhouding tussen 'n leksikale databasis en 'n eentalige woordeboek, die rol van korpusgetuienis, historiese beginsels vs sinchroniese beginsels in die leksikografie, die onstabiliteit van woordbetekenis, die noodsaak van 'n volledige woordeskatdekking, beginsels van die skryf van definisies, die rol van woordeboeke in die maatskappy, en die noodsaak vir woordeboeke om leiding te gee oor sake van betwiste woordgebruik. Dit sluit af met 'n aantal vrae oor die toekoms van die publikasie van woordeboeke.

    Sleutelwoorde: EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEKE, LEKSIKALE DATABASIS, WOORDEBOEKSTRUKTUUR, WOORDBETEKENIS, BETEKENISVERANDERING, GEBRUIK, GEBRUIKSAANTEKENINGE, HISTORIESE BEGINSELS VAN DIE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, SINCHRONIESE BEGINSELS VAN DIE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, REGISTER, SLANG, STANDAARDENGELS, WOORDESKATDEKKING, KONSEKWENSIE VAN VERSAMELINGS, FRASEOLOGIE, SINTAGMATIESE PATRONE, PROBLEME VAN KOMPOSISIONALITEIT, LINGUISTIESE PRESKRIPTIVISME, LEKSIKALE GETUIENIS

  20. Macmillan English Dictionary: The End of Print?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rundell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the Macmillan English Dictionary (MED and its transition from printed book to digital-only resource. The background to this decision is explained in terms of changes both in technology and in dictionary-users’ behaviour: was this move inevitable, and will other dictionary publishers follow (sooner or later? The possible downsides of abandoning print are discussed, alongside the advantages of digital media. As well as offering great opportunities (many still unexplored, being online also creates new demands. With easy access to numerous free reference sites, users searching for lexical information have a huge variety of options. Consequently, publishers are under pressure to continually broaden the range of content they supply, to improve the quality of the design and “user experience”, and above all to stay abreast of language change. And, it will be shown, there is much more to keeping a dictionary up to date than simply adding new words as they emerge. The imperative of moving to digital has generated a good deal of turbulence in the world of dictionary publishing (especially for commercial publishers who cannot run at a loss, and there is considerable uncertainty around the long-term survival of “the dictionary” as the autonomous object we are all familiar with. But humans’ communicative needs should ensure a continued demand for high-quality lexical data – even if this data is delivered and accessed in new and different ways.

  1. ENLISH JURIDICAL TERMINOLOGY IN INDIAN DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bytko Nataliya Sergeevna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lexicography of India has a long and fruitful history with Sanskrit being the central object of lexicographic description. However, the development of linguistic and sociocultural situation in the region brought other languages, including English, to the attention of lexicographers. In this article, one of the first dictionaries representing the use of English in India A Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms and Useful Words is studied. The methodology consists in the complex lexicographic analysis of the dictionary in the context with the linguistic and sociocultural situation in India. The research revealed the correlation between macroand micro- parameters of the dictionary and linguistic and sociocultural situation of the time. At the macro-level the correlation manifests itself in the fact that the dictionary parameters and the content were determined by the board of directors of the East India Company; the boards recommendations were based on the necessities of the Companys employees around the Raj territory. The exigency of better understanding of the terms cultural components required the substantial use of encyclopedic information. As a result, the dictionary typological characteristics were changed. At the micro-level the correlation reveals itself in the unification of entries orthography, in the combination of alphabetical and net word ordering.

  2. Terms in the Language of Culture-Dependent LSP Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    Many dictionaries covering the cultural and social sciences are monolingual, but bi- and polylingual dictionaries should also be included in this category, in particular bilingual dictionaries with a monolingual dimension. These are culture-dependent dictionaries that can only be analysed...... and designed with a view to their genuine purpose. First, this concerns the components of the dictionary, as the inclusion of an encyclopaedic section may facilitate cross-references from individual articles to a systematic and general presentation of a specialist field. Second, it concerns the lemma selection...

  3. Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed; Ahmed Gumaa Siddiek

    2013-01-01

    A dictionary is (a) learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provid...

  4. Unsupervised behaviour-specific dictionary learning for abnormal event detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2015-01-01

    the training data is only a small proportion of the surveillance data. Therefore, we propose behavior-specific dictionaries (BSD) through unsupervised learning, pursuing atoms from the same type of behavior to represent one behavior dictionary. To further improve the dictionary by introducing information from...... potential infrequent normal patterns, we refine the dictionary by searching ‘missed atoms’ that have compact coefficients. Experimental results show that our BSD algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art dictionaries in abnormal event detection on the public UCSD dataset. Moreover, BSD has less false alarms...

  5. Integrasi concise learning method dengan mind mapping dalam pembelajaran matematika di perguruan tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciptianingsari Ayu Vitantri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available [Bahasa]: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan penerapan, pemahaman konsep, dan respon mahasiswa terhadap pembelajaran CLM  yang diintegrasikan dengan mind mapping pada mata kuliah aljabar linier elementer I. Penelitian ini termasuk dalam penelitian deskriptif kualitatif, dengan subjek penelitian adalah mahasiswa prodi matematika dan pendidikan matematika semester gasal tahun ajaran 2016/2017 yang mengambil mata kuliah aljabar linier elementer I. Instrumen utama dalam penelitian ini adalah peneliti sendiri dengan instrumen pendukung yaitu lembar observasi, tes pemahaman konsep, angket respon, dan pedoman wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: 1 Langkah-langkah pembelajaran CLM yang diintegrasikan dengan mind mapping meliputi preview, participate, process (mengolah informasi dalam bentuk mind mapping, practice, dan produce. 2 Pemahaman konsep mahasiswa mengalami peningkatan setelah pembelajaran. Dan 3 Mahasiswa memberikan respon positif terhadap pelaksanaan pembelajaran CLM yang diintegrasikan dengan mind mapping. Kata kunci: Concise Learning Method; Mind Mapping; Pemahaman Konsep; Respon; Aljabar Linier Elementer. [English]: This research aimed to describe the implementation, students’ understanding and their responses on CLM integrated with mind mapping on Linear Elementary Algebra I course,  This research was qualitative descriptive research with the subjects involved were students of mathematics and mathematics education on 2016/2017 academic year who took Linear Elementary Algebra I course. The main instrument in this research was the researcher and the supporting instruments used are observation sheet, test, response questionnaire, and interview guide. The results showed that: 1 The steps of CLM integrated with mind mapping include preview, participate, process (process all information into mind mapping, practice, and produce. 2 The students’ understanding of the mathematics concept of were developed. And 3 the students

  6. Coupled dictionary learning for joint MR image restoration and segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuesong; Fan, Yong

    2018-03-01

    To achieve better segmentation of MR images, image restoration is typically used as a preprocessing step, especially for low-quality MR images. Recent studies have demonstrated that dictionary learning methods could achieve promising performance for both image restoration and image segmentation. These methods typically learn paired dictionaries of image patches from different sources and use a common sparse representation to characterize paired image patches, such as low-quality image patches and their corresponding high quality counterparts for the image restoration, and image patches and their corresponding segmentation labels for the image segmentation. Since learning these dictionaries jointly in a unified framework may improve the image restoration and segmentation simultaneously, we propose a coupled dictionary learning method to concurrently learn dictionaries for joint image restoration and image segmentation based on sparse representations in a multi-atlas image segmentation framework. Particularly, three dictionaries, including a dictionary of low quality image patches, a dictionary of high quality image patches, and a dictionary of segmentation label patches, are learned in a unified framework so that the learned dictionaries of image restoration and segmentation can benefit each other. Our method has been evaluated for segmenting the hippocampus in MR T1 images collected with scanners of different magnetic field strengths. The experimental results have demonstrated that our method achieved better image restoration and segmentation performance than state of the art dictionary learning and sparse representation based image restoration and image segmentation methods.

  7. The ideal number of lemmas in an ideal accounting dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Norddahl, Bjarni

    2014-01-01

    no clear rules or methods to avoid lemma flooding. Now we will try the same kind of analysis of log files for the English-Danish and the Danish-English Accounting Dictionaries. We see here that there are differences between different dictionaries (monolingual for English and Danish and bilingual......Lemma lacunas in dictionaries are a traditional focus area for lexicographers, but the opposite problem, which we choose to call lemma flooding, has received very little attention. The study of this flooding could be relevant in order to save lexicographers spending thousands of hours producing...... dictionary entries which nobody reads. In Bergenholtz/Norddahl (2012) we showed that during a three-year period less than 33% of all dictionary articles out of 18 million dictionary consultations were consulted in a dictionary with 111.000 entries. We examined nine possible reasons why a given word might...

  8. Standardized Representation of Clinical Study Data Dictionaries with CIMI Archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak K; Solbrig, Harold R; Prud'hommeaux, Eric; Pathak, Jyotishman; Jiang, Guoqian

    2016-01-01

    Researchers commonly use a tabular format to describe and represent clinical study data. The lack of standardization of data dictionary's metadata elements presents challenges for their harmonization for similar studies and impedes interoperability outside the local context. We propose that representing data dictionaries in the form of standardized archetypes can help to overcome this problem. The Archetype Modeling Language (AML) as developed by the Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI) can serve as a common format for the representation of data dictionary models. We mapped three different data dictionaries (identified from dbGAP, PheKB and TCGA) onto AML archetypes by aligning dictionary variable definitions with the AML archetype elements. The near complete alignment of data dictionaries helped map them into valid AML models that captured all data dictionary model metadata. The outcome of the work would help subject matter experts harmonize data models for quality, semantic interoperability and better downstream data integration.

  9. Dictionary-driven protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoutsos, Isidore; Huynh, Tien; Floratos, Aris; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel

    2002-09-01

    Computational methods seeking to automatically determine the properties (functional, structural, physicochemical, etc.) of a protein directly from the sequence have long been the focus of numerous research groups. With the advent of advanced sequencing methods and systems, the number of amino acid sequences that are being deposited in the public databases has been increasing steadily. This has in turn generated a renewed demand for automated approaches that can annotate individual sequences and complete genomes quickly, exhaustively and objectively. In this paper, we present one such approach that is centered around and exploits the Bio-Dictionary, a collection of amino acid patterns that completely covers the natural sequence space and can capture functional and structural signals that have been reused during evolution, within and across protein families. Our annotation approach also makes use of a weighted, position-specific scoring scheme that is unaffected by the over-representation of well-conserved proteins and protein fragments in the databases used. For a given query sequence, the method permits one to determine, in a single pass, the following: local and global similarities between the query and any protein already present in a public database; the likeness of the query to all available archaeal/ bacterial/eukaryotic/viral sequences in the database as a function of amino acid position within the query; the character of secondary structure of the query as a function of amino acid position within the query; the cytoplasmic, transmembrane or extracellular behavior of the query; the nature and position of binding domains, active sites, post-translationally modified sites, signal peptides, etc. In terms of performance, the proposed method is exhaustive, objective and allows for the rapid annotation of individual sequences and full genomes. Annotation examples are presented and discussed in Results, including individual queries and complete genomes that were

  10. DOLPHIn—Dictionary Learning for Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Andreas M.; Eldar, Yonina C.; Mairal, Julien

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new algorithm to learn a dictionary for reconstructing and sparsely encoding signals from measurements without phase. Specifically, we consider the task of estimating a two-dimensional image from squared-magnitude measurements of a complex-valued linear transformation of the original image. Several recent phase retrieval algorithms exploit underlying sparsity of the unknown signal in order to improve recovery performance. In this work, we consider such a sparse signal prior in the context of phase retrieval, when the sparsifying dictionary is not known in advance. Our algorithm jointly reconstructs the unknown signal - possibly corrupted by noise - and learns a dictionary such that each patch of the estimated image can be sparsely represented. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our approach can obtain significantly better reconstructions for phase retrieval problems with noise than methods that cannot exploit such "hidden" sparsity. Moreover, on the theoretical side, we provide a convergence result for our method.

  11. Dictionary of pressure vessel and piping technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is the result of many years of evaluation of technical terminology taken from the salient non-German rules, regulations, standards and specifications such as ANSI, API, ASME, ASNT, ASTM, BSI, EJMA, TEMA, and WRC (see bibliography) and of comparing these with the corresponding German rules, regulations, etc., as well as examining relevant technical documentation. This dictionary fills the gap left by existing dictionaries. The following specialized factors are given special attention: pressure vessels, tanks, heat exchangers, piping, valves and fittings, expansion joints, flanges, giving particular consideration to the fields of materials, welding, strength calculation, design and construction, fracture mechanics, destructive and non-destructive testing, as well as heat and mass transfer. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Dictionary Indexing of Electron Channeling Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saransh; De Graef, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The dictionary-based approach to the indexing of diffraction patterns is applied to electron channeling patterns (ECPs). The main ingredients of the dictionary method are introduced, including the generalized forward projector (GFP), the relevant detector model, and a scheme to uniformly sample orientation space using the "cubochoric" representation. The GFP is used to compute an ECP "master" pattern. Derivative free optimization algorithms, including the Nelder-Mead simplex and the bound optimization by quadratic approximation are used to determine the correct detector parameters and to refine the orientation obtained from the dictionary approach. The indexing method is applied to poly-silicon and shows excellent agreement with the calibrated values. Finally, it is shown that the method results in a mean disorientation error of 1.0° with 0.5° SD for a range of detector parameters.

  13. Pharos Woordeboeke / Dictionaries 5 in 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Louw

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 het 'n produk van Pharos verskyn wat die landskap van veral die Afrikaanse leksikografie ingrypend verander het. Pharos Woordeboeke/Dictionaries 5 in 1 (voortaan Pharos 5 in 1 bied vir die eerste maal 'n geïntegreerde digitale biblioteek van woordeboeke met Afrikaans as behandelde taal wat ook kan inskakel by 'n groter digitale biblioteek op die Logos-platform. Vir die eerste keer word daar vir die gebruiker 'n kommersieel suksesvolle vertalende woordeboek met Afrikaans en Engels as behandelde taalpaar op CD-ROM gebied, nl. Groot Woordeboek/Major Dictionary met Pharos se Nuwe Woorde/New Words en Tweetalige Frasewoordeboek/Bilingual Phrase Dictionary ter ondersteuning. Die Afrikaanse verklarende leksikografie baat ook met aanvulling vir die ELHAT wat kom in die vorm van Verklarende Afrikaanse Woordeboek. Laastens word die Groot Tesourus van Afrikaans ter afronding van die biblioteek beskikbaar gestel.

  14. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation

  15. Assessment of practical and experimental work in physics through OCEA (Oxford Certificate of Educational Achievement)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephy, Richard

    1986-07-01

    For some years there has been a growing recognition of the need for changes in assessment patterns in school science. These changes include a move towards criterion-based assessment linking to objectives and an increased emphasis on the assessment of practical and experimental skills. These changes are, to a significant extent, embodied in the new GCSE assessment schemes and will thus affect all students and teachers of physics from September (1986). At least 20% of the total assessment in GCSE physics examinations must be of practical and experimental skills, and at least half of this must be carried out in the laboratory environment. One development which addresses the needs and problems outlined above is the science component of OCEA, the Oxford Certificate of Educational Achievement. Because this covers a much wider field than assessment of practical and experimental skills in physics, a brief description of the whole project is given.

  16. The Oxford Probe: an open access five-hole probe for aerodynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B. F.; Povey, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Oxford Probe is an open access five-hole probe designed for experimental aerodynamic measurements. The open access probe can be manufactured by the end user via additive manufacturing (metal or plastic). The probe geometry, drawings, calibration maps, and software are available under a creative commons license. The purpose is to widen access to aerodynamic measurement techniques in education and research environments. There are many situations in which the open access probe will allow results of comparable accuracy to a well-calibrated commercial probe. We discuss the applications and limitations of the probe, and compare the calibration maps for 16 probes manufactured in different materials and at different scales, but with the same geometrical design.

  17. The Oxford Probe: an open access five-hole probe for aerodynamic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B F; Povey, T

    2017-01-01

    The Oxford Probe is an open access five-hole probe designed for experimental aerodynamic measurements. The open access probe can be manufactured by the end user via additive manufacturing (metal or plastic). The probe geometry, drawings, calibration maps, and software are available under a creative commons license. The purpose is to widen access to aerodynamic measurement techniques in education and research environments. There are many situations in which the open access probe will allow results of comparable accuracy to a well-calibrated commercial probe. We discuss the applications and limitations of the probe, and compare the calibration maps for 16 probes manufactured in different materials and at different scales, but with the same geometrical design. (paper)

  18. Violation of a local form of the Lieb-Oxford bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, J. G.; Räsänen, E.; Lehtovaara, L.; Marques, M. A. L.

    2012-05-01

    In the framework of density-functional theory, several popular density functionals for exchange and correlation have been constructed to satisfy a local form of the Lieb-Oxford bound. In its original global expression, the bound represents a rigorous lower limit for the indirect Coulomb interaction energy. Here we employ exact-exchange calculations for the G2 test set to show that the local form of the bound is violated in an extensive range of both the dimensionless gradient and the average electron density. Hence, the results demonstrate the severity in the usage of the local form of the bound in functional development. On the other hand, our results suggest alternative ways to construct accurate density functionals for the exchange energy.

  19. Dictionary-enhanced imaging cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Antony; Schaak, Diane; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2017-02-01

    State-of-the-art high-throughput microscopes are now capable of recording image data at a phenomenal rate, imaging entire microscope slides in minutes. In this paper we investigate how a large image set can be used to perform automated cell classification and denoising. To this end, we acquire an image library consisting of over one quarter-million white blood cell (WBC) nuclei together with CD15/CD16 protein expression for each cell. We show that the WBC nucleus images alone can be used to replicate CD expression-based gating, even in the presence of significant imaging noise. We also demonstrate that accurate estimates of white blood cell images can be recovered from extremely noisy images by comparing with a reference dictionary. This has implications for dose-limited imaging when samples belong to a highly restricted class such as a well-studied cell type. Furthermore, large image libraries may endow microscopes with capabilities beyond their hardware specifications in terms of sensitivity and resolution. We call for researchers to crowd source large image libraries of common cell lines to explore this possibility.

  20. Nuclear engineering dictionary. Woerterbuch Kerntechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R

    1985-01-01

    This dictionary treats the subject field of nuclear engineering as a field of applied nuclear physics: Industrial and other applications of nuclear energy, isotopes and ionizing radiation, and their, scientific-technical bases. Emphasis is placed on the terminology of the nuclear fuel cycle. Other applications of nuclear energy include military applications, nuclear fusion technology, and plasma physics, as well as methods and equipment of isotope and radiation technology, without the aspects of biological applications. High-energy physics is also excluded. The terminology presented primarily covers general and basic concepts, special terms have been included as far as available and ascertainable in all four languages. For selection of terms, numerous textbooks and monographies have been searched and compared, as well as various subject-related journals which have been regularly scanned for years. Standards have been a main source of information, as e.g. the international standards of the IAEA (including the INIS terminology), of the ISO, of the COMECON, and of the World Energy Conference and the IEC. Numerous national standards have been evaluated in search for definitions and designations. Users will appreciate the introduction of subject-field codes indicating the main field of usage of a term. Explanations and other hints are numerous and extensive in order to clearly define the terms chosen from other, similar terms, and in order to show homonyms.

  1. Photographic monitoring of soiling and decay of roadside walls in central Oxford, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornbush, Mary J.; Viles, Heather A.

    2008-12-01

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring of Integrated Transport Strategies (EMITS) project, which examined the impact of the Oxford Transport Strategy (OTS) on the soiling and decay of buildings and structures in central Oxford, England, a simple photographic survey of a sample of roadside walls was carried out in 1997, with re-surveys in 1999 and 2003. Thirty photographs were taken each time, covering an area of stonework approximately 30 × 30 cm in dimensions at 1-1.3 m above pavement level. The resulting images have been used to investigate, both qualitatively as well as quantitatively, the progression of soiling and decay. Comparison of images by eye reveals a number of minor changes in soiling and decay patterns, but generally indicates stability except at one site where dramatic, superficial damage occurred over 2 years. Quantitative analysis of decay features (concavities resulting from surface blistering, flaking, and scaling), using simple techniques in Adobe Photoshop, shows variable pixel-based size proportions of concavities across 6 years of survey. Colour images (in Lab Color) generally have a reduced proportion of pixels, representing decay features in comparison to black and white (Grayscale) images. The study conveys that colour images provide more information both for general observations of soiling and decay patterns and for segmentation of decay-produced concavities. The study indicates that simple repeat photography can reveal useful information about changing patterns of both soiling and decay, although unavoidable variation in external lighting conditions between re-surveys is a factor limiting the accuracy of change detection.

  2. Polyethylene wear in Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement: a retrieval study of 47 bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, B J L; Longino, D; Pandit, H; Svard, U; Gill, H S; Dodd, C A F; Murray, D W; Price, A J

    2010-03-01

    The Oxford Unicompartmental Knee replacement (UKR) was introduced as a design to reduce polyethylene wear. There has been one previous retrieval study involving this implant, which reported very low rates of wear in some specimens but abnormal patterns of wear in others. There has been no further investigation of these abnormal patterns. The bearings were retrieved from 47 patients who had received a medial Oxford UKR for anteromedial osteoarthritis of the knee. None had been studied previously. The mean time to revision was 8.4 years (sd 4.1), with 20 having been implanted for over ten years. The macroscopic pattern of polyethylene wear and the linear penetration were recorded for each bearing. The mean rate of linear penetration was 0.07 mm/year. The patterns of wear fell into three categories, each with a different rate of linear penetration; 1) no abnormal macroscopic wear and a normal articular surface, n = 16 (linear penetration rate = 0.01 mm/year); 2) abnormal macroscopic wear and normal articular surfaces with extra-articular impingement, n = 16 (linear penetration rate = 0.05 mm/year); 3) abnormal macroscopic wear and abnormal articular surfaces with intra-articular impingement +/- signs of non-congruous articulation, n = 15 (linear penetration rate = 0.12 mm/year). The differences in linear penetration rate were statistically significant (p < 0.001). These results show that very low rates of polyethylene wear are possible if the device functions normally. However, if the bearing displays suboptimal function (extra-articular, intra-articular impingement or incongruous articulation) the rates of wear increase significantly.

  3. On the Timelessness of Music Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Bergenholtz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: A music dictionary for the Internet fulfils the same functions as printed music dictionaries. An earlier music dictionary is as useful as a new one if its information is correct. But the fact that an Internet dictionary can at any time be corrected according to modern practices makes it, if not timeless, at least more up to date. Furthermore, the possibilities of illustrating with picture and sound open a wide field of usefulness. Nevertheless the lexicographer has to be aware of the different needs of different user types in different user situations. The dictionary being discussed, Musikordbogen, has been designed for text reception rather than translation or text production. After the inception of the dictionary has been described, the way the possibilities of the Internet has influenced the concept and the content of the articles and the outer texts is discussed.

    Keywords: MUSIC DICTIONARY, DICTIONARY FUNCTIONS, SPECIALIZED LEXICO-GRAPHY, INTERNET LEXICOGRAPHY, TRANSLATION, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUC-TION, MUSICAL KNOWLEDGE

    Opsomming: Oor die tydloosheid van musiekwoordeboeke. 'n Musiekwoor-deboek vir die Internet vervul dieselfde funksie as gedrukte musiekwoordeboeke. 'n Vroeëre musiekwoordeboek is net so nuttig soos 'n nuwe een indien sy inligting juis is. Maar die feit dat 'n Internetwoordeboek enige tyd gekorrigeer kan word volgens moderne praktyke, maak dit, indien nie tydloos nie, ten minste meer op datum. Verder open die moontlikhede van illustrasie met prent en klank 'n wye veld van bruikbaarheid. Nogtans moet die leksikograaf bewus wees van die ver-skillende behoeftes van verskillende gebruikertipes in verskillende gebruikersituasies. Die woorde-boek wat bespreek word, Musikordbogen, is beplan vir teksontvangs eerder as vertaling of tekspro-duksie. Nadat die ontstaan van die woordeboek beskryf is, word die manier bespreek waarop die moontlikhede van die internet die ontwerp en inhoud van die artikels en

  4. How to do language policy with dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2006-01-01

    The lexicographic presentation of terms from the field of language planning often lacks a clear and unambiguous distinction and a proper explanation. Too often dictionaries even fail to include these terms in the lemma list and some central terms have not been treated in any general or special...... and the motivation for the introduction of the notion of a communication policy should help lexicographers to give a more comprehensive account of terms from this field and it will also benefit scholars in the field of language policy. A second aspect of this paper is the discussion of ways in which dictionaries...

  5. Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2017-01-01

    This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.

  6. Dictionary of pressure vessel and piping technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentgen, L.; Schmitz, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    A specialised dictionary has been compiled containing the appropriate English and German terms in the following technical fields: materials science, welding, destructive and non-destructive testing, thermal and mass transfer, the design and construction in particular of pressure vessels, tanks, heat exchangers, piping, expansion joints, valves, and components associated with the above fields. This dictionary is the result of many years spent in evaluating technical terminology from the relevant American and British regulations, technical rules, standards, and specifications (see bibliography) and correlating these with the terminology of comparable German regulations, rules and standards, together with the essential technical literature. (orig.) [de

  7. The Routledge Dictionary of English Language Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Filled with real examples of the way people use English in different contexts, The Routledge Dictionary of English Language Studies is an indispensable guide to the richness and variety of the English language for both students and the general reader.From abbreviation to zero-article, via fricative and slang, the Dictionary contains over 600 wide ranging and informative entries covering:the core areas of language description and analysis: phonetics and phonology, grammar, lexis, semantics, pragmatics and discoursesociolinguistics, including entries on social and regional variation, stylistic v

  8. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    It is worth stressing that distinguishing between the form and its meaning in comparing the material 6 languages belonging to three different groups of Slavic languages (as is the case in the MONDILEX Project will allow us to avoid numeorus substantiva mistakes and erroneous conclusions. Hence dictionary entries should be verified and made uniform in that respect before they are “digitalized”... Distinction between the form and its meaning in a dictionary entry is fully possible, as shown by works of Z. Saloni (2002 and A.Przepiórkowski (2008.

  9. Lower Bounds for External Memory Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N < M insertions perform at most δ · N/B I/Os, then......We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N

  10. Multilingual Aeronautical Dictionary (Dictionnaire Aeronautique Multilingue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    8217See ’aerofoil profile’ DE Bord’Boden-Funkverkehr (ili 20~ AGARD MULTILINGUAL AERONAUTICAL DICTIONARY 10318 air mileage indicator (AMI) ES comunicacion ...Autogenschweissen (nil ES sistema fml autom~tico de comunicacion NE automatische besturing ES soldadura MI autdgena aire-tierra P otooWatmtc FR soudage Wm autogene...AERONAUTICAL DICTIONARY DE Fernmeldesatellit [m) RU 1. maPXWbPOBK& ff1 OTcOKOB RU onPe~ene~me Wn Aesma84HN Komnaca ES satelite Wm do comunicaciones 2

  11. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Saber A; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F H; Hettne, Kristina M; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small.Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Professor Daniel M Segal and studies of collision and `half-collision' complexes at Imperial College London and Oxford University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Keith

    2018-03-01

    We discuss Danny Segal's key roles in the development of the spectroscopy of collision complexes at Imperial College and Oxford. We explain how his work lead to a number of new insights into collision dynamics in external fields.

  13. The OEAD: New Perspectives on English–Arabic Dictionaries for English-Speaking Users and Users' Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radia Benzehra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: The article sheds light on the necessity of finding new techniques to rank the users' preferences for English–Arabic dictionaries. The first section of the article reports the findings of an experimental technique devised for this particular purpose. The reviews for dictionaries on Amazon. com turn out to be a more valuable source of lexicographical information than had been expected. It will also be shown how the reviews can determine the future buyers' choice as to which English–Arabic or Arabic–English dictionary would meet their needs. Based on the Amazon reviews, the article devotes a section to investigate the microstructural features of some lexical entries in the Oxford English–Arabic Dictionary of Current Usage (OEAD. To learn more about the dictionary's microstructure, the next section analyzes a pre-selected list of 113 lexical units in an attempt to test the dictionary for the amount of information it provides for some high-frequency items. The article deals with the OEAD mostly from the point of view of encoding English-speaking users. The Modern Language Association (MLA recently reported that from 1998 to 2002 there was a 92% increase in the number of Arabic programs throughout the United States, hence the pressing need for dictionaries designed with English-speaking users as the target group. The article suggests that an extensive linguistic revision of the OEAD will make it more systematic and userfriendly.

    OPSOMMING: Die OEAD: Nuwe perspektiewe op Engels–Arabiese woordeboeke vir Engelssprekende gebruikers en gebruikersopnames. Hierdie artikel werp lig op die noodsaaklikheid om nuwe tegnieke te kry om gebruikers se voorkeure vir Engels–Arabiese woordeboeke in rangorde te plaas. Die eerste afdeling van die artikel doen verslag van die bevindings van 'n eksperimentele tegniek ontwerp vir hierdie bepaalde doel. Die resensies van woordeboeke op Amazon.com het geblyk 'n meer waardevolle bron van

  14. Fast Low-Rank Shared Dictionary Learning for Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiep Huu Vu; Monga, Vishal

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that different objects possess distinct class-specific features, they also usually share common patterns. This observation has been exploited partially in a recently proposed dictionary learning framework by separating the particularity and the commonality (COPAR). Inspired by this, we propose a novel method to explicitly and simultaneously learn a set of common patterns as well as class-specific features for classification with more intuitive constraints. Our dictionary learning framework is hence characterized by both a shared dictionary and particular (class-specific) dictionaries. For the shared dictionary, we enforce a low-rank constraint, i.e., claim that its spanning subspace should have low dimension and the coefficients corresponding to this dictionary should be similar. For the particular dictionaries, we impose on them the well-known constraints stated in the Fisher discrimination dictionary learning (FDDL). Furthermore, we develop new fast and accurate algorithms to solve the subproblems in the learning step, accelerating its convergence. The said algorithms could also be applied to FDDL and its extensions. The efficiencies of these algorithms are theoretically and experimentally verified by comparing their complexities and running time with those of other well-known dictionary learning methods. Experimental results on widely used image data sets establish the advantages of our method over the state-of-the-art dictionary learning methods.

  15. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries I. Direct estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    We study various approximation classes associated with m-term approximation by elements from a (possibly) redundant dictionary in a Banach space. The standard approximation class associated with the best m-term approximation is compared to new classes defined by considering m-term approximation w...

  16. Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives. 257 ... be regarded, according to Gouws (2007: 314), as externally motivated products. .... Fair attention is given to different style or normative levels, i.e. .... differs enough from standard French to be regarded as a new emerging lan- ..... Tous les leaders des par-.

  17. Meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries | Mafela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not ...

  18. Monolingual Dictionary Use in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, has been encouraging its students to use monolingual dictionaries rather than bilingual or bilingualized ones in classroom and during the exams. This policy with has been received with mixed feelings and attitudes. Therefore, this study strives to explore teachers' and students' attitudes about the use of…

  19. Using Dictionary Pair Learning for Seizure Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Yu, Nana; Zhou, Weidong

    2018-02-13

    Automatic seizure detection is extremely important in the monitoring and diagnosis of epilepsy. The paper presents a novel method based on dictionary pair learning (DPL) for seizure detection in the long-term intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. First, for the EEG data, wavelet filtering and differential filtering are applied, and the kernel function is performed to make the signal linearly separable. In DPL, the synthesis dictionary and analysis dictionary are learned jointly from original training samples with alternating minimization method, and sparse coefficients are obtained by using of linear projection instead of costly [Formula: see text]-norm or [Formula: see text]-norm optimization. At last, the reconstructed residuals associated with seizure and nonseizure sub-dictionary pairs are calculated as the decision values, and the postprocessing is performed for improving the recognition rate and reducing the false detection rate of the system. A total of 530[Formula: see text]h from 20 patients with 81 seizures were used to evaluate the system. Our proposed method has achieved an average segment-based sensitivity of 93.39%, specificity of 98.51%, and event-based sensitivity of 96.36% with false detection rate of 0.236/h.

  20. Nuclear medicine imaging. An encyclopedic dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thie, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly growing and somewhat complex area of nuclear medicine imaging receives only limited attention in broad-based medical dictionaries. This encyclopedic dictionary is intended to fill the gap. More than 400 entries of between one and three paragraphs are included, defining and carefully explaining terms in an appropriate degree of detail. The dictionary encompasses concepts used in planar, SPECT, and PET imaging protocols and covers both scanner operations and popular data analysis approaches. In spite of the mathematical complexities in the acquisition and analysis of images, the explanations given are kept simple and easy to understand; in addition, many helpful concrete examples are provided. Nuclear Medicine Imaging: An Encyclopedic Dictionary will be ideal for those who wish to obtain a rapid grasp of a concept beyond a definition of a few words but do not want to resort to a time-consuming search of the reference literature. The almost tutorial-like style accommodates the needs of students, nuclear medicine technologists, and varieties of other medical professionals who interface with specialists within nuclear medicine.

  1. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.

  2. Dictionary of microelectronics and microcomputer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attiyate, Y.H.; Shah, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    This bilingual dictionary (German-English and English-German) is to give the general public a clearer idea of the terminology of microelectronics, microcomputers, data processing, and computer science. Each part contains about 7500 terms frequently encountered in practice, about 2000 of which are supplemented by precise explanations. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Dictionary of chemistry. English/German

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenske, G.

    1992-01-01

    This English/German dictionary covers more than 100.000 terms from chemistry, chemical engineering and related fields. It also contains molecular formulas, as well as numerous synonyms and areas of application. IUPAC terminology is emphasized, and outdated or rare terminology is indicated. (MM) [de

  4. Bikol Dictionary. PALI Language Texts: Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Malcolm W.

    The Bikol language of the Philippines, spoken in the southernmost peninsula of Luzon Island and extending into the island provinces of Catanduanes and Masbate, is presented in this bilingual dictionary. An introduction explains the Bikol alphabet, orthographic representation (including policies adopted in writing Spanish and English loan words),…

  5. Methods in Lexicography and Dictionary Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Access Structures in Printed Dictionaries. Gouws,. Rufus H., Ulrich Heid, Wolfgang Schweickard and Herbert Ernst Wiegand (Eds.). 2013: 110-149. Wiegand, Herbert Ernst and Mª Teresa Fuentes Morán. 2010. Estructuras lexicográficas. Aspectos centrales de una teoría de la forma del diccionario. Colección Lexicografía 2.

  6. Culinary Arts Dictionary 1. Project HIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David C.; And Others

    Designed as supplemental material to on-going instruction in the vocational program, this first of three picture dictionary booklets in the Culinary Arts series is intended to assist the learning handicapped student to master the core vocabulary taught in the trade. Intended for individual or small group instruction with minimal supervision, this…

  7. Culinary Arts Dictionary 3. Project HIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David C.; And Others

    Designed as supplemental material to on-going instruction in the vocational program, this third of three picture dictionary booklets in the Culinary Arts series is intended to assist the learning handicapped student to master the core vocabulary taught in the trade. Intended for individual or small group instruction with minimal supervision, this…

  8. Culinary Arts Dictionary 2. Project HIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David C.; And Others

    Designed as supplemental material to on-going instruction in the vocational program, this second of three picture dictionary booklets in the Culinary Arts series is intended to assist the learning handicapped student to master the core vocabulary taught in the trade. Intended for individual or small group instruction with minimal supervision, this…

  9. Bilingual Dictionary and Meaning Discrimination in Venda*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    Page 1 ... The translation equivalents of entry-words in a bilingual dictionary are usually of two types, i.e. translational and explanatory. A translational equiva- lent is a lexical unit which can immediately be ... to express themselves in or translate into the foreign language. Venda, one of the languages which were previously ...

  10. Categorising Example Sentences in Dictionaries for Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    able contextual or grammatical support. I have constructed a table to classify example sentences according to different criteria. I filled in this table with randomly selected words and their examples which have been taken from five different South African school dictionaries. The goal of this research is to present characteristics ...

  11. Some Dictionary Descriptions of Grammatical Structure | Branford ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines some points in the treatment of grammatical structure in four recent dictionaries of English as Ll. These are viewed against the background concepts of "Iexicogrammar" (Halliday 1978) and of the interdependence of lexicographical and syntactic descriptions of language. Its scope is necessari1y ...

  12. Dictionary of Large Hadron Collider signatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report on a plan to establish a `Dictionary of LHC Signatures', an initiative that started at the WHEPP-X workshop in Chennai, January 2008. This study aims at the strategy of distinguishing 3 classes of dark matter motivated scenarios such as -parity conserved supersymmetry, little Higgs models with -parity ...

  13. Bilingual Dictionaries and Communicative Equivalence for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that a bilingual dictionary becomes a poly functional instrument, presenting more information than just translation equivalents. ... With the emphasis on the user perspective, metalexicographical criteria are used to investigate problems regarding the access structure and the addressing procedures in Afrikaans ...

  14. Comparative Eskimo Dictionary with Aleut Cognates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortescue, Michael, Ed.; And Others

    This dictionary covers 10 Eskimo dialects (Alutiiq, Central Alaskan Yupik, Naukan, Central Siberian Yupik, Sirenik, Seward Peninsula Inuit, North Alaskan Inuit, Western Canadian Inuit, Eastern Canadian Inuit, Greenlandic Inuit). An introductory section details the classification of languages and dialects and their phonologies, and discusses the…

  15. Children's Dictionary of Occupations. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parramore, Barbara M.; Hopke, William E.; Drier, Harry N.

    About 300 job titles are listed and defined with an illustration of a child working in each one in this specialized dictionary. Approximate phonetic pronunciations are given. Both girls and boys of various racial or ethnic backgrounds are used in the illustrations. Discussion of the world of work, getting a job, kinds of jobs, careers, and the…

  16. Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    used in England and Wales in the light of the change of structure of and terminology ... Legal Terms in General Dictionaries of English: The Civil Procedure Mystery ... (2015: 8), between 1.4 million and 2.1 million cases annually were brought.

  17. Book Review: Public Administration Dictionary | Marais | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Public Administration Dictionary. Book Author: William Fox & Ivan H. Meyer. 1995. viii + 139 pp. ISBN 0 70213219 5. Juta. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  18. Towards a Unified University Infrastructure: The Data Management Roll-Out at the University of Oxford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. J. Wilson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since presenting a paper at the International Digital Curation Conference 2010 conference entitled ‘An Institutional Approach to Developing Research Data Management Infrastructure’, the University of Oxford has come a long way in developing research data management (RDM policy, tools and training to address the various phases of the research data lifecycle. Work has now begun on integrating these various elements into a unified infrastructure for the whole university, under the aegis of the Data Management Roll-out at Oxford (Damaro Project.This paper will explain the process and motivation behind the project, and describes our vision for the future. It will also introduce the new tools and processes created by the university to tie the individual RDM components together. Chief among these is the ‘DataFinder’ – a hierarchically-structured metadata cataloguing system which will enable researchers to search for and locate research datasets hosted in a variety of different datastores from institutional repositories, through Web 2 services, to filing cabinets standing in department offices. DataFinder will be able to pull and associate research metadata from research information databases and data management plans, and is intended to be CERIF compatible. DataFinder is being designed so that it can be deployed at different levels within different contexts, with higher-level instances harvesting information from lower-level instances enabling, for example, an academic department to deploy one instance of DataFinder, which can then be harvested by another at an institutional level, which can then in turn be harvested by another at a national level.The paper will also consider the requirements of embedding tools and training within an institution and address the difficulties of ensuring the sustainability of an RDM infrastructure at a time when funding for such endeavours is limited. Our research shows that researchers (and indeed departments

  19. Comparison of neonatal intensive care: Trento area versus Vermont Oxford Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pederzini Fabio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S. Chiara hospital is the only neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in the Province of Trento (Italy. It serves a population of about 460000 people with about 5000 infants per year, admitting the totality of the inborn and outborn VLBWI of the province. The aim of this work is to compare mortality, morbidity and neonatal treatment of the very low birth weight infants (VLBWI of Trento area with those recorded in the Vermont Oxford Network (VON during 2004. Methods In this retrospective analysis, the rates of complications and related treatments reported in VLBWI admitted in the S. Chiara NICU during the period 2000–2005 were compared with those recorded in the VON in 2004. The analysis included both the total populations and different weight groups. Results The frequency of inborn infants was significantly higher in Trento than in VON: 91% vs 84% (MH 8.56; p-value 0.003. The administration of prenatal steroids (82% vs 74%; MH 7.47 and p-value 0.006 and caesarean section were significantly more frequent in the Trento area than in VON. In Trento significantly more VLBWI with BW ≤ 1000 grams were given surfactant prophylaxis compared with VON and significantly fewer VLBWI in every Trento weight group developed RDS (MH 18.55; p-value 0.00001. Overall rates of complications (CLD, PDA, NEC, IVH were significantly lower than in the Vermont Oxford Network. In CLD and PDA the differences were marked also in infants weighting less than 1000 grams. Overall rates of PNX, PVL, severe grade of ROP and mortality were similar in the two populations. In Trento, significantly more infants were discharged on human milk than in VON, in both the overall population and in BW sub-groups. Conclusion On the basis of this analysis, a less aggressive therapeutic strategy based on perinatal prevention in global management, such as that employed in Trento area, may be associated with an improvement in clinical outcomes in very low birth weight infants.

  20. SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Sánchez Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of

  1. Concise set of files for smooth return to work in employees with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitsugu, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Yuko; Hiroyama, Yuji; Nagano, Nobuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Sick leave due to mental disorders is a societal problem. It carries a high cost in terms of loss of labor productivity and absenteeism. Partial remission increases the risk of relapse after a return to work. There is sometimes a difference between the ability to return to work as judged by a general practitioner (GP) and the needs of the workplace. GPs are the main controllers of treatment and tend to protect their patients. Communication and agreement by GPs and occupational physicians play an effective role in the return to work. However, it requires considerable effort for both of them to make time to do this. We have developed a concise set of files for a smooth return to work. The files consist of three parts: "Suggestions for corresponding with employees taking sick leave"; "Checklist for smooth return to work"; and "Pattern of living". We put them into practice among 20 companies in Japan from January 2012 to October 2013. The companies had 8244 workers in total and 116 workers were on sick-leave due to mental disorders. Our set of files contributed to sharing the written basic policy of return to work among employees on sick leave with mental disorders, GPs, occupational physicians and personnel officers. That sharing led to facilitating a smooth return to work. Although there are differences in the legal and medical systems between Japan and other countries, our concept of sharing the written basic policy may give some help to occupational physicians in other parts of the world as well.

  2. Serious Games: A Concise Overview on What They Are and Their Potential Applications to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, Guido; Baum, Analía; Giunta, Diego; Plazzotta, Fernando; Benitez, Sonia; Gómez, Adrián; Luna, Daniel; Bernaldo de Quiros, Fernan González

    2015-01-01

    Younger generations are extensive users of digital devices; these technologies have always existed and have always been a part of their lives. Video games are a big part of their digital experience. User-centered design is an approach to designing systems informed by scientific knowledge of how people think, act, and coordinate to accomplish their goals. There is an emerging field of intervention research looking into using these techniques to produce video games that can be applied to healthcare. Games with the purpose of improving an individual's knowledge, skills, or attitudes in the "real" world are called "Serious Games". Before doctors and patients can consider using Serious Games as a useful solution for a health care-related problem, it is important that they first are aware of them, have a basic understanding of what they are, and what, if any, claims on their effectiveness exist. In order to bridge that gap, we have produced this concise overview to introduce physicians to the subject at hand.

  3. A Concise and Comprehensive Description of Shoulder Pathology and Procedures: The 4D Code System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Lafosse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We introduce a novel description system of shoulder pathoanatomy. Its goal is to provide a comprehensive three-dimensional picture, with an additional component of time; thus, we call it the 4D code. Methods. Each line of the code starts with right versus left and a time designation. The pillar components are recorded regardless of pathology; they include subscapularis, long head of biceps tendon, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor. Secondary elements can be added if there is observed pathology, including acromioclavicular joint, glenohumeral joint, labrum, tear configuration, location and extent of partial cuff tear, calcific tendonitis, fatty infiltration, and neuropathy. Results. We provide two illustrative examples of patients which show the ease and effectiveness of the 4D code. With a few simple lines, significant amount of information about patients’ pathology, surgery, and recovery can be easily conveyed. Discussion. We utilize existing validated classification systems for parts of the shoulder and provide a frame work to build a comprehensive picture. The alphanumeric code provides a simple language that is universally understood. The 4D code is concise yet complete. It seeks to improve efficiency and accuracy of the communication, documentation, and visualization of shoulder pathology within individual practices and between providers.

  4. Environmental Warning System Based on the DPSIR Model: A Practical and Concise Method for Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Though we are in urgent need of environmental warnings to slow environmental deterioration, currently, there is no internationally concise method for environmental warnings. In addition, the existing approaches do not combine the three aspects of ecology, resources, and environment. At the same time, the three elements of the environment (air, water, and soil are separated in most environmental warning systems. Thus, the method this paper gives is an innovative attempt and aims to make environmental assessment more practical. This paper establishes the index system of an environmental early warning based on the Driving–Pressure–State–Influence–Response (DPSIR model. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to determine the weights. Next, single and integrated index methods further assess the environmental warning state, in which the weighted summation method is used to summarize the data and results. The case of Tianjin is used to confirm the applicability of this method. In conclusion, the method in this paper is more well-behaved and, therefore, more suitable to assist cities in their environmental assessment.

  5. The Ideology of the Perfect Dictionary: How Efficient Can a Dictionary Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Abecassis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Dictionaries have become essential tools of the modern world. Not only have dictionary sales dramatically increased, but the variety of dictionaries and the competition between editors are also very much on the rise. Monolingual dictionaries attract native speakers for several reasons. Some wish to capture the subtleties of their own language, others to speak the 'standard' language, and an 'ideologically' politically correct variety devoid of colloquialisms, hence the crucial role played by style labels. Furthermore, a large number of word enthusiasts enjoy linguistic curiosities, archaisms and other vestiges from the past conserved in dictionaries. Is the concept of a perfect dictionary a reality or an ideal? There is no perfect student. Language learners, for whom dictionaries are of great importance, seek user-friendly material which will improve both their fluency in and understanding of the target language, and embed acquired lexis in their long-term memory. Lexicographers, in their search for perfection and in compliance with users' wishes, are constantly innovating, and every dictionary hopes to become a landmark in lexicography and in second language acquisition. This article aims to look at the way dictionaries have evolved and assess the latest generation of computer-based dictionaries, as well as consider possible developments which will contribute to the compilation of future dictionaries.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICAL ACQUISITION, VOCABULARY, STYLE LABELS,CORPUS/CORPORA, DICTIONARIES, IDEOLOGY, STANDARD, LANGUAGE LEARNING,FRENCH MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES, ELECTRONIC DICTIONARIES, CD-ROMS

    Opsomming: Die ideologie van die volmaakte woordeboek: Hoe doeltreffendkan 'n woordeboek wees? Woordeboeke het noodsaaklike werktuie van die modernewêreld geword. Nie alleen het woordeboekverkope dramaties vermeerder nie, maar die verskeidenheidwoordeboeke en die wedywering tussen redakteurs is ook aansienlik aan die

  6. Isaac Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Westfall, Richard S

    2007-01-01

    Definitive, concise, and very interesting... From William Shakespeare to Winston Churchill, the Very Interesting People series provides authoritative bite-sized biographies of Britain's most fascinating historical figures - people whose influence and importance have stood the test of time. Each book in the series is based upon the biographical entry from the world-famous Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. -

  7. Living English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    The latest (July, 1976) edition of the "Concise Oxford Dictionary" is seen as "prescriptive," and of limited use to foreigners, since it lacks an international phonetic transcription. It is questioned whether sufficient treatment is given to new words, scientific words, non-British English, obscene language, change of meaning, and obsolescence.…

  8. Waiting in the surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, F

    1994-07-01

    The concise Oxford English Dictionary defines 'dilemma' as an argument forcing one to choose one of two alternatives, both of which are unfavourable. This is a situation that frequently confronts the general practitioner. This paper will present one practitioner's view on the subject of patients waiting to see the doctor.

  9. Prima la musica: insegnare il melodramma a Oxford negli Anni 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Senici

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La tavola rotonda ‘L’opera monta in cattedra: didattica del melodramma’, coordinata da Lorenzo Bianconi e Annamaria Cecconi nel novembre 2007 in occasione dell’XI Colloquio di Musicologia del «Saggiatore musicale», includeva un mio breve intervento sull’esperienza didattica maturata in moduli d’argomento operistico nell’Università di Oxford, dove ho insegnato dal 1998 al 2008. L’intento era di fornire dati utili a un esercizio comparativo, il quale permettesse d’osservare le esperienze di docenti sia d’università sia di conservatorii italiani dalla prospettiva d’un sistema universitario molto diverso da ambo le istituzioni e che però, come vedremo, per le sue caratteristiche pare collocarsi a cavallo tra le due. Le pagine che seguono costituiscono un ripensamento sistematico di quelle riflessioni, nella speranza che esse possano tuttora risultare di qualche interesse a chi riflette sulla didattica del melodramma in Italia. Dopo aver delineato in breve il contesto istituzionale, presenterò un questionario proposto a due gruppi di studenti; sui risultati esporrò poi qualche riflessione conclusiva, tenendo presenti i temi proposti dal testo-base della tavola rotonda e la discussione che ebbe luogo a Bologna. Avverto infine che, benché io scriva quasi sempre al presente, ciò che dico si riferisce al periodo del mio insegnamento oxoniense: dal 2008 alcune cose possono essere cambiate.

  10. Mantel--Haenszel analysis of Oxford data. II. Independent effects of fetal irradiation subfactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneale, G.W.; Stewart, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    A Mantel-Haenszel analysis of fetal irradiation subfactors indicated that most of the extra x-rayed cases in the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers were radiation induced. First trimester exposures were rare but probably ten times more dangerous than later exposures. Ratios of observed: expected numbers of cancer deaths were lower for children with abnormal x-rays than for other x-rayed children, and lower for recent than remote exposures. The first of these differences was probably due to several antenatal conditions having positive associations with obstetric radiography and several causes of early (noncancer) deaths; the second one was probably due to a progressive lowering of film doses between 1940 and the present time. A rare cause of fetal irradiation (hydramnios), whose associations with congenital defects are well documented, led to the discovery that two faults in the International Classification of Diseases and Causes of Death have contributed to mistaken ideas about the etiology of childhood cancers: Neoplasms were not listed among the official causes of stillbirths, and cystic tumors of the kidneys and lungs of infants were not listed as neoplasms

  11. Radiological characterization survey results for Gaskill Hall, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio (OXO015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhans, K.R.; Murray, M.E.; Carrier, R.F.

    1996-04-01

    Between October 1952 and February 1957, National Lead of Ohio (NLO), a primary contractor for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), subcontracted certain uranium machining operations to Alba Craft Laboratory, Incorporated, located at 10-14 West Rose Avenue, Oxford, Ohio. In 1992, personnel from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) confirmed the presence of residual radioactive materials from the AEC-related operations in and around the facility in amounts exceeding the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines. Although the amount of uranium found on the property posed little health hazard if left undisturbed, the levels were sufficient to require remediation to bring radiological conditions into compliance with current guidelines, thus ensuring that the public and the environment are protected. Because it was suspected that uranium may have been used in the past in the immediate vicinity of Alba Craft in a Miami University building a team from ORNL, performed a radiological characterization survey of that structure in January 1994. The survey was conducted at the request of DOE as a precautionary measure to ensure that no radioactive residuals were present at levels exceeding guidelines. The survey included the determination of directly measured radiation levels and the collection of smear samples to detect possible removable alpha and beta-gamma activity levels, and comparison of these data to the guidelines. Results of the survey showed that all measurements were below the applicable guideline limits set by DOE

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui Soles; Caldeira, Carolina Quintal; Rodrigues, Mónica Vieira; Felícia, Sabine Cardoso; Cavalheiro, Luís Manuel; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2018-03-08

    To translate and culturally adapt the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) to the European Portuguese language, and to test its reliability (internal consistency, reproducibility and measurement error) and validity (construct validity). The OSS Portuguese version was obtained through translations, back-translations, consensus panels, clinical review and cognitive pre-test. Portuguese OSS, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires, and the visual analogue scales of pain at rest [VAS rest] and during movement [VAS movement] were applied to 111 subjects with shoulder pain (degenerative or inflammatory disorders) and recommended for physical therapy. A clinical and sociodemographic questionnaire was also applied. The reliability was good, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.90, an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.92, a standard error of measurement (SEM) of 2.59 points and a smallest detectable change (SDC) of 7.18 points. Construct validity was supported by the confirmation of three initial hypotheses involving expected significant correlation between OSS and other measures (DASH, VAS rest and VAS movement) and between OSS and the number of days of work absenteeism. The Portuguese OSS version presented suitable psychometric properties, in terms of reliability (internal consistency, reproducibility and measurement error) and validity (construct validity).

  13. The Oxford SWIFT Spectrograph: first commissioning and on-sky results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Mathias; Clarke, Fraser; Goodsall, Timothy; Fogarty, Lisa; Houghton, Ryan; Salter, Graeme; Scott, Nicholas; Davies, Roger L.; Bouchez, Antonin; Dekany, Richard

    2010-07-01

    The Oxford SWIFT spectrograph, an I & z band (6500-10500 A) integral field spectrograph, is designed to operate as a facility instrument at the 200 inch Hale Telescope on Palomar Mountain, in conjunction with the Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics system PALAO (and its upgrade to PALM3000). SWIFT provides spectra at R(≡λ/▵λ)~4000 of a contiguous two-dimensional field, 44 x 89 spatial pixels (spaxels) in size, at spatial scales of 0.235", 0.16", and 0.08" per spaxel. It employs two 250μm thick, fully depleted, extremely red sensitive 4k X 2k CCD detector arrays (manufactured by LBNL) that provide excellent quantum efficiency out to 1000 nm. We describe the commissioning observations and present the measured values of a number of instrument parameters. We also present some first science results that give a taste of the range of science programs where SWIFT can have a substantial impact.

  14. Determination of baroreflex sensitivity during the modified Oxford maneuver by trigonometric regressive spectral analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in spontaneous and drug-induced baroreflex sensitivity (BRS have been attributed to its different operating ranges. The current study attempted to compare BRS estimates during cardiovascular steady-state and pharmacologically stimulation using an innovative algorithm for dynamic determination of baroreflex gain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-five volunteers underwent the modified Oxford maneuver in supine and 60° tilted position with blood pressure and heart rate being continuously recorded. Drug-induced BRS-estimates were calculated from data obtained by bolus injections of nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Spontaneous indices were derived from data obtained during rest (stationary and under pharmacological stimulation (non-stationary using the algorithm of trigonometric regressive spectral analysis (TRS. Spontaneous and drug-induced BRS values were significantly correlated and display directionally similar changes under different situations. Using the Bland-Altman method, systematic differences between spontaneous and drug-induced estimates were found and revealed that the discrepancy can be as large as the gain itself. Fixed bias was not evident with ordinary least products regression. The correlation and agreement between the estimates increased significantly when BRS was calculated by TRS in non-stationary mode during the drug injection period. TRS-BRS significantly increased during phenylephrine and decreased under nitroprusside. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The TRS analysis provides a reliable, non-invasive assessment of human BRS not only under static steady state conditions, but also during pharmacological perturbation of the cardiovascular system.

  15. Validity and cross-cultural adaptation of the persian version of the oxford elbow score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Vahedi, Ehsan; Moradi, Ali; Mashayekhi, Zeinab; Hallaj-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Azami, Mehran; Birjandinejad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-reported questionnaire used to assess outcomes after elbow surgery. The aim of this study was to validate and adapt the OES into Persian language. After forward-backward translation of the OES into Persian, a total number of 92 patients after elbow surgeries completed the Persian OES along with the Persian DASH and SF-36. To assess test-retest reliability, 31 randomly selected patients (34%) completed the Persian OES again after three days while abstaining from all forms of therapeutic regimens. Reliability of the Persian OES was assessed by measuring intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the construct validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92 showing excellent reliability. Cronbach's alpha for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales was 0.95, 0.86, and 0.85, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.85 for the overall questionnaire and 0.90, 0.76, and 0.75 for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales, respectively. Construct validity was confirmed as the Spearman correlation between OES and DASH was 0.80. Persian OES is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure to assess postsurgical elbow status in Persian speaking population.

  16. Gut Microbiota Confers Resistance of Albino Oxford Rats to the Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljević, Suzana; Dinić, Miroslav; Jevtić, Bojan; Đedović, Neda; Momčilović, Miljana; Đokić, Jelena; Golić, Nataša; Mostarica Stojković, Marija; Miljković, Đorđe

    2018-01-01

    Albino Oxford (AO) rats are extremely resistant to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), with established autoimmune pathogenesis. The autoimmune response against the antigens of the CNS is initiated in the peripheral lymphoid tissues after immunization of AO rats with CNS antigens. Subsequently, limited infiltration of the CNS occurs, yet without clinical sequels. It has recently become increasingly appreciated that gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and gut microbiota play an important role in regulation and propagation of encephalitogenic immune response. Therefore, modulation of AO gut microbiota by antibiotics was performed in this study. The treatment altered composition of gut microbiota in AO rats and led to a reduction in the proportion of regulatory T cells in Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and in lymph nodes draining the site of immunization. Upregulation of interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-17 production was observed in the draining lymph nodes. The treatment led to clinically manifested EAE in AO rats with more numerous infiltrates and higher production of IL-17 observed in the CNS. Importantly, transfer of AO gut microbiota into EAE-prone Dark Agouti rats ameliorated the disease. These results clearly imply that gut microbiota is an important factor in AO rat resistance to EAE and that gut microbiota transfer is an efficacious way to treat CNS autoimmunity. These findings also support the idea that gut microbiota modulation has a potential as a future treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  17. Validation of the Italian version of the Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Nicolò; Romeo, Giovanni; Bonifacini, Carlo; Viganò, Marco; Bianchi, Alberto; Malerba, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate the Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire (OAFQ) into Italian, to perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The Italian OAFQ was developed according to the recommended forward/backward translation protocol and evaluated in pediatric patients treated for symptomatic flatfoot deformity. Feasibility, reliability, internal consistency, construct validity [comparing OAFQ domains with Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) domains] and responsiveness to surgical treatment were assessed. A total of 61 children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Results showed satisfactory levels of internal consistency for both children and parent forms. The test-retest reliability was confirmed by high ICC values for both child and parents subscales. Good construct validity was showed by patterns of relationships consistent with theoretically related domains of the CHQ. After surgery, the mean OAFQ scores improved in all the domains after treatment with the subtalar arthroereisis, for both children and parent scales (p valid instrument in order to evaluate interventions used to treat children's foot or ankle problem, but needs further study on different clinical settings.

  18. Dictionary Based Machine Translation from Kannada to Telugu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, D. V.; Sagar, B. M.

    2017-08-01

    Machine Translation is a task of translating from one language to another language. For the languages with less linguistic resources like Kannada and Telugu Dictionary based approach is the best approach. This paper mainly focuses on Dictionary based machine translation for Kannada to Telugu. The proposed methodology uses dictionary for translating word by word without much correlation of semantics between them. The dictionary based machine translation process has the following sub process: Morph analyzer, dictionary, transliteration, transfer grammar and the morph generator. As a part of this work bilingual dictionary with 8000 entries is developed and the suffix mapping table at the tag level is built. This system is tested for the children stories. In near future this system can be further improved by defining transfer grammar rules.

  19. Women in the Dictionary of Danish Insular Dialects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    Women in the Dictionary of Danish Insular Dialects In this presentation, I discuss the representation of female domains in the Dictionary of Danish Insular Dialects (DID; Ømålsordbogen ), an historical dictionary giving thorough descriptions of the dialects on the Danish isles 1750-1945. First...... volume appeared in 1992 but data collection and structure of the dictionary date back to the 1920s. It has been pointed out that the language, thoughts and domains of women until recently have been strongly neglected in for instance literary studies and history – and that the representations have been...... characterised by stereotypical images. This point has also been made as regards dictionaries (Hageberg 1990, choice of vocabulary; Mattisson 2006, data and examples). As for DID, however, female domains (‘food’, ‘clothes’, ‘milk’ etc.) are thoroughly registered in the collections and described in the dictionary...

  20. Polarimetric SAR image classification based on discriminative dictionary learning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Cheng Wei; Sun, Hong

    2018-03-01

    Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) image classification is one of the important applications of PolSAR remote sensing. It is a difficult high-dimension nonlinear mapping problem, the sparse representations based on learning overcomplete dictionary have shown great potential to solve such problem. The overcomplete dictionary plays an important role in PolSAR image classification, however for PolSAR image complex scenes, features shared by different classes will weaken the discrimination of learned dictionary, so as to degrade classification performance. In this paper, we propose a novel overcomplete dictionary learning model to enhance the discrimination of dictionary. The learned overcomplete dictionary by the proposed model is more discriminative and very suitable for PolSAR classification.

  1. Weighted Discriminative Dictionary Learning based on Low-rank Representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Heyou; Zheng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Low-rank representation has been widely used in the field of pattern classification, especially when both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Dictionary plays an important role in low-rank representation. With respect to the semantic dictionary, the optimal representation matrix should be block-diagonal. However, traditional low-rank representation based dictionary learning methods cannot effectively exploit the discriminative information between data and dictionary. To address this problem, this paper proposed weighted discriminative dictionary learning based on low-rank representation, where a weighted representation regularization term is constructed. The regularization associates label information of both training samples and dictionary atoms, and encourages to generate a discriminative representation with class-wise block-diagonal structure, which can further improve the classification performance where both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Experimental results demonstrate advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  2. An augmented Lagrangian multi-scale dictionary learning algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Meng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Learning overcomplete dictionaries for sparse signal representation has become a hot topic fascinated by many researchers in the recent years, while most of the existing approaches have a serious problem that they always lead to local minima. In this article, we present a novel augmented Lagrangian multi-scale dictionary learning algorithm (ALM-DL, which is achieved by first recasting the constrained dictionary learning problem into an AL scheme, and then updating the dictionary after each inner iteration of the scheme during which majorization-minimization technique is employed for solving the inner subproblem. Refining the dictionary from low scale to high makes the proposed method less dependent on the initial dictionary hence avoiding local optima. Numerical tests for synthetic data and denoising applications on real images demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  3. Nonparametric, Coupled ,Bayesian ,Dictionary ,and Classifier Learning for Hyperspectral Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Mian, Ajmal

    2017-10-03

    We present a principled approach to learn a discriminative dictionary along a linear classifier for hyperspectral classification. Our approach places Gaussian Process priors over the dictionary to account for the relative smoothness of the natural spectra, whereas the classifier parameters are sampled from multivariate Gaussians. We employ two Beta-Bernoulli processes to jointly infer the dictionary and the classifier. These processes are coupled under the same sets of Bernoulli distributions. In our approach, these distributions signify the frequency of the dictionary atom usage in representing class-specific training spectra, which also makes the dictionary discriminative. Due to the coupling between the dictionary and the classifier, the popularity of the atoms for representing different classes gets encoded into the classifier. This helps in predicting the class labels of test spectra that are first represented over the dictionary by solving a simultaneous sparse optimization problem. The labels of the spectra are predicted by feeding the resulting representations to the classifier. Our approach exploits the nonparametric Bayesian framework to automatically infer the dictionary size--the key parameter in discriminative dictionary learning. Moreover, it also has the desirable property of adaptively learning the association between the dictionary atoms and the class labels by itself. We use Gibbs sampling to infer the posterior probability distributions over the dictionary and the classifier under the proposed model, for which, we derive analytical expressions. To establish the effectiveness of our approach, we test it on benchmark hyperspectral images. The classification performance is compared with the state-of-the-art dictionary learning-based classification methods.

  4. Criteria for Selecting a Monolingual Dictionary for Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Rogers

    2003-01-01

    There are a bewildering number of monolingual dictionaries on the market in Japan, including new learner dictionaries which give students a great deal of potentially useful information about how to use words. However it is essential to carefully evaluate dictionaries to ensure that they meet the needs of the learners who will use them. This article sets out some criteria to help make such decisions.

  5. English-Chinese Cross-Language IR Using Bilingual Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    specialized dictionaries together contain about two million entries [6]. 4 Monolingual Experiment The Chinese documents and the Chinese translations of... monolingual performance. The main performance-limiting factor is the limited coverage of the dictionary used in query translation. Some of the key con...English-Chinese Cross-Language IR using Bilingual Dictionaries Aitao Chen , Hailing Jiang , and Fredric Gey School of Information Management

  6. Word Similarity from Dictionaries: Inferring Fuzzy Measures from Fuzzy Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicenc Torra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available WORD SIMILARITY FROM DICTIONARIES: INFERRING FUZZY MEASURES FROM FUZZY GRAPHS The computation of similarities between words is a basic element of information retrieval systems, when retrieval is not solely based on word matching. In this work we consider a measure between words based on dictionaries. This is achieved assuming that a dictionary is formalized as a fuzzy graph. We show that the approach permits to compute measures not only for pairs of words but for sets of them.

  7. The New Etymological Dictionary of Hungarian Idioms and Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárdosi Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After briefly surveying the research carried out in Hungary on the origin of sayings, proverbs and adages, this paper introduces and exemplifies the way the new Hungarian phraseological etymological dictionary has been compiled. It subsequently presents excerpts from the dictionary that will expound on the origin of 1800 set phrases and statistically analyses the linguistic, cultural-historical, historical, literary, ethnographic and intercultural background of the Hungarian set phrases included in the dictionary.

  8. Danish Lexicography with Special Reference to LSP Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    liberal and professional areas such as music, business and technical subjects. The number of LSP dictionaries increased at a slow but steady pace until the early 1900s when the pace went up and from around 1970 the number of new LSP dictionaries increased significantly. This indicates that lexicography...... business. This also reflects the trend of making printed dictionaries available in electronic form either on CD-ROMs or on the Internet. The traditional publishers offer most of their LSP dictionaries in electronic form on a subscription basis and new actors, such as IT companies have entered the scene...

  9. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  10. Preparation of novel pyrrolo [2,3-b]pyridine derivatives via a new concise synthetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Na; Jia, Haiyong; You, Xing; Jiang, Du; Lu, Kui; Yu, Peng [Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Ministry of Education, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industry Microbiology, College of Biotechnology, Sino-French Joint Lab of Food Nutrition/Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2015-04-15

    The pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine core structure, a bioisostere of quinolones, is found in several molecules that possess important biological activity. We describe here a new, concise, three-step synthesis of pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines starting from L-alanine. A series of 4,7-dihydro-4-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid derivatives, which have not been previously reported, were synthesized using this approach.

  11. Dealing with phraseology in business dictionaries: focus on dictionary functions – not phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The language of written business communication is characterised by the extensive use of phraseology, not only in terms of collocations and idiomatic expressions, but also of standard phrases in prototypical business genres. In any case, the phraseological information should be included in business dictionaries (in the following referred to as BDs in accordance with the planned dictionary functions. Hence, the selection and presentation of the phraseological information should be decided by the lexicographer on the basis of the user needs alone and not on the recommendations of the phraseological literature about lexicographical practice. In this paper, I will firstly explain why lexicography and phraseology, although closely associated in a large number of studies, are quite different disciplines, and how their shared interest for dictionary practice in general is based on radically different views. I will then discuss the dictionary functions of BDs and focus on a number of concepts featuring extensive phraseological solutions to show and argue that dealing with phraseology in BDs should always keep focus on dictionary functions.

  12. Quality of life after TIA and stroke: ten-year results of the Oxford Vascular Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Gray, Alastair M; Bull, Linda; Welch, Sarah; Cuthbertson, Fiona; Rothwell, Peter M

    2013-10-29

    To evaluate the 5-year impact of stroke and TIA on utility and quality-adjusted survival. TIA and stroke patients from a UK population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study) were recruited from 2002 to 2007, and followed up until 2012. Quality of life was assessed over 5 years using the EQ-5D (EuroQol-5 Dimensions), with responses converted into utilities ranging from -0.59 (worse than death) to 1 (perfect health), using UK population valuations. Utilities for stroke and TIA patients were compared with those in matched controls obtained from the 2006 Health Survey for England. Five-year quality-adjusted life years were estimated by combining utility and survival information. Four hundred forty TIA and 748 stroke patients were ascertained and included. Utility remained constant at approximately 0.78 over the 5 years after TIA. Utility improved from 0.64 one month after stroke to 0.70 at 6 months (p = 0.006), remaining at approximately 0.70 thereafter. Matched controls had considerably higher utility levels than stroke/TIA patients (0.85, p TIA and 2.21 (2.15-2.37) after stroke, varying considerably by severity (minor: 2.94; moderate: 1.65; and severe: 0.70). Quality-adjusted survival is low over the 5 years after stroke and TIA, with severity and recurrent stroke being major predictors. There remains considerable scope for improvements in acute treatment and secondary prevention to improve the quality of life after TIA and stroke.

  13. Clinical Outcomes and Risks of Single-stage Bilateral Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty via Oxford Phase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis often affects the joint bilaterally, and the single-stage (SS unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA is advantageous in terms of a single anesthesia administration, a short hospital stay, lower medical costs, and enhanced patient convenience. However, the complication risk of SS UKA continues to be debated. The aim of this article was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness, complications, and functional recovery of SS and two-stage (TS UKA. Methods: From January 2008 to December 2013, we compared a series of 36 SS UKA with 45 TS UKA for osteoarthritis. The mean age was 65.4 years (range: 55-75 years. The mean body mass index was 25.2 kg/m 2 (range: 22-29 kg/m 2 . The pre- and post-operative Oxford Knee Scores (OKSs, complications, operative times, tourniquet times, the amount of drainage, and hemoglobin (Hb were evaluated. The Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, and paired and grouped t-tests were used in this study. Results: The mean follow-up was 50 months. No complications of death, fat embolism, deep vein thrombosis, and prosthetic infection were reported. Patients who underwent SS UKA had a shorter cumulative anesthesia time (113.5 vs. 133.0 min, P 0.05. At the final follow-up, the mean OKS improved from 39.48 ± 5.69 to 18.83 ± 3.82 (P 0.05. Patients who underwent SS UKA had a faster recovery. Conclusions: The single-staged UKA offers the benefits of a single anesthesia administration, reduced total anesthetic time, decreased overall rehabilitation time, and absence of an increase in perioperative mortality or complications compared with the TS bilateral UKA.

  14. Postremediation dose assessment for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1996-04-01

    Potential maximum radiation dose rates were calculated for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio, which was involved in machining of uranium metal in the 1950s for the U.S. atomic energy program. The site is not currently being used. The residual radioactive material guidelines (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was sued in this evaluation. Three potential land use scenarios were considered for the former Alba Craft site; the scenarios vary with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food consumed. Scenario A (a possible land use scenario) assumed industrial use of the site; Scenario B (a likely future land use scenario) assumed residential use of the site; and Scenario C (a possible but unlikely land use scenario) assumed the presence of a resident farmer. For scenario A, it was assumed that any water used for domestic or industrial activities would be from uncontaminated off-site municipal sources. The water used for drinking, household purposes, and irrigation was assumed to be from uncontaminated municipal sources in Scenario B; groundwater drawn from a well located at the downgradient edge of the contaminated zone would be the only source of water for drinking, irrigation, and raising livestock in Scenario C. The results of the evaluation indicated that the DOE dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for any of the scenarios analyzed. The potential maximum dose rates for Scenarios A, B, and C are 0.64, 2.0, and 11 mrem/yr, respectively

  15. The Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire for children: responsiveness and longitudinal validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Doll, Helen; Davies, Neville; Wainwright, Andrew; Theologis, Tim; Willett, Keith; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate how scores from the Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire change over time and with treatment using both distribution-based and anchor-based approaches. Eighty children aged 5-16 and their parent or career completed questionnaires at orthopaedic or trauma outpatient clinics. They were asked to complete and return a second set of questionnaires again within 2 weeks (retest), and then mailed a third set of questionnaires to complete again after 2 months (follow-up). The follow-up questionnaires included a global rating of change 'transition' item. Child- and parent-reported mean domain scores (Physical, School & Play, and Emotional) were all stable at retest, whereas positive mean changes were observed at follow-up. As we hypothesised, trauma patients had poorer scores than elective patients at baseline, and showed greater improvement at follow-up. For trauma patients, mean changes in per cent scores were large (scores improved between 40 and 56 for the Physical and School & Play domains, and 17 and 21 for Emotional); all effect sizes (ES) were large (>0.8). For elective patients, the mean improvement in per cent scores were more moderate (Physical: child 10, ES = 0.4, parent 11, ES = 0.5; School & Play child 0, ES = 0, parent 9 ES = 0.4; Emotional: child 6, ES = 0.2; parents 8, ES > 0.3). Minimal detectable change (MDC(90)), an indication of measurement error, ranged from 6 to 8. Half the standard deviation of baseline scores ranged from 11 to 18. Minimal important difference could only be calculated for elective patients (9 child and 13 parent ratings), these ranged from 7 to 17. The findings support the responsiveness and longitudinal validity of the scales. Changes in domain scores of, or exceeding, the MDC(90) (6-8) are likely to be beyond measurement error; further work is required to refine the estimate of change that can be considered important.

  16. Anatomical masking of pressure footprints based on the Oxford Foot Model: validation and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Claudia; Stebbins, Julie A

    2017-03-01

    Plantar pressure analysis is widely used in the assessment of foot function. In order to assess regional loading, a mask is applied to the footprint to sub-divide it into regions of interest (ROIs). The most common masking method is based on geometric features of the footprint (GM). Footprint masking based on anatomical landmarks of the foot has been implemented more recently, and involves the integration of a 3D motion capture system, plantar pressure measurement device, and a multi-segment foot model. However, thorough validation of anatomical masking (AM) using pathological footprints has not yet been presented. In the present study, an AM method based on the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) was compared to an equivalent GM. Pressure footprints from 20 young healthy subjects (HG) and 20 patients with clubfoot (CF) were anatomically divided into 5 ROIs using a subset of the OFM markers. The same foot regions were also identified by using a standard GM method. Comparisons of intra-subject coefficient of variation (CV) showed that the OFM-based AM was at least as reliable as the GM for all investigated pressure parameters in all foot regions. Clinical relevance of AM was investigated by comparing footprints from HG and CF groups. Contact time, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area proved to be sensitive parameters that were able to distinguish HG and CF groups, using both AM and GM methods However, the AM method revealed statistically significant differences between groups in 75% of measured variables, compared to 62% using a standard GM method, indicating that the AM method is more sensitive for revealing differences between groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    2018-03-01

    The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in pathological conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of the OFM in children with foot deformity. Intra-tester repeatability was assessed for 45 children (15 typically developing, 15 hemiplegic, 15 clubfoot). Inter-tester repeatability was assessed in the clubfoot population. The mean absolute differences between testers (clubfoot) and sessions (clubfoot and hemiplegic) were calculated for each of 15 clinically relevant, kinematic variables and compared to typically developing children. Children with clubfoot showed a mean difference between visits of 2.9° and a mean difference between raters of 3.6° Mean absolute differences were within one degree for the intra and inter-rater reliability in 12/15 variables. Hindfoot rotation, forefoot/tibia abduction and forefoot supination were the most variable between testers. Overall the clubfoot data were less variable than the typically developing population. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated slightly higher differences between sessions (mean 4.1°), with the most reliable data in the sagittal plane, and largest differences in the transverse plane. The OFM was designed to measure different types of foot deformity. The results of this study show that it provides repeatable results in children with foot deformity. To be distinguished from measurement artifact, changes in foot kinematics as a result of intervention or natural progression over time must be greater than the repeatability reported here. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensitivity of the Oxford Foot Model to marker misplacement: A systematic single-case investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Christopher P; Walsh, Henry P J; Gillett, Jarred G

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper was to systematically assess the effect of Oxford Foot Model (OFM) marker misplacement on hindfoot relative to tibia, and forefoot relative to hindfoot kinematic calculations during the stance phase of gait. Marker trajectories were recorded with an 8-camera motion analysis system (Vicon Motion Systems Ltd., UK) and ground reaction forces were recorded from three force platforms (AMTI, USA). A custom built marker cluster consisting of 4 markers in a square arrangement (diagonal distance 2 cm) was used to assess the effect of marker misplacement in the superior, inferior, anterior and posterior direction for the sustentaculum tali (STL), the proximal 1st metatarsal (P1M), distal 5th metatarsal (D5M), proximal 5th metatarsal (P5M) and lateral calcaneus (LCA) markers. In addition manual movement of the heel complex 1 cm superiorly, inferiorly, medially and laterally, and also an alignment error of 10° inversion and 10° eversion was assessed. Clinically meaningful effects of marker misplacement were determined using a threshold indicating the minimal clinically important difference. Misplacement of the heel-wand complex had the most pronounced effect on mean kinematic profiles during the stance phase across all degrees-of-freedom with respect to hindfoot-tibia and forefoot-hindfoot angles. Vertical marker misplacement of the D5M and P5M markers affected the sagittal plane, and to a lesser extent frontal plane, forefoot-hindfoot kinematics. In conclusion, the OFM is highly sensitive to misplacement of the heel-wand complex in all directions and the P5M marker in the vertical direction. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of foot kinematics wearing high heels using the Oxford foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meizi; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien Steven

    2018-04-29

    Wearing high heels is thought to lead to various foot disorders and injuries such as metatarsal pain, Achilles tendon tension, plantar fasciitis and Haglund malformation. However, there is little available information explaining the specific mechanisms and reasons why wearing high heels causes foot deformity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the foot kinematics of high heel wearers and compare any differences with barefoot individuals using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Fifteen healthy women aged 20-25 years were measured while walking barefoot and when wearing high heels. The peak value of angular motion for the hallux with respect to the forefoot, the forefoot with respect to the hind foot, and the hind foot with respect to the tibia were all analyzed. Compared to the barefoot, participants wearing high heels demonstrated larger hallux dorsiflexion (22.55∘± 1.62∘ VS 26.6∘± 2.33∘ for the barefoot; P= 0.001), and less hallux plantarflexion during the initial stance phase (-4.86∘± 2.32∘ VS -8.68∘± 1.13∘; Pfoot demonstrated a larger dorsiflexion in the horizontal plane (16.59∘± 1.69∘ VS 12.08∘± 0.9∘; Pfoot extension rotation (-5.49∘± 0.69∘ VS -10.73∘± 0.42∘; P= 0.001). These findings complement existing kinematic evidence that wearing high heels can lead to foot deformities and injuries.

  20. The Vermont oxford neonatal encephalopathy registry: rationale, methods, and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2006, the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) established the Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry (NER) to characterize infants born with neonatal encephalopathy, describe evaluations and medical treatments, monitor hypothermic therapy (HT) dissemination, define clinical research questions, and identify opportunities for improved care. Methods Eligible infants were ≥ 36 weeks with seizures, altered consciousness (stupor, coma) during the first 72 hours of life, a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, or receiving HT. Infants with central nervous system birth defects were excluded. Results From 2006–2010, 95 centers registered 4232 infants. Of those, 59% suffered a seizure, 50% had a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, 38% received HT, and 18% had stupor/coma documented on neurologic exam. Some infants experienced more than one eligibility criterion. Only 53% had a cord gas obtained and only 63% had a blood gas obtained within 24 hours of birth, important components for determining HT eligibility. Sixty-four percent received ventilator support, 65% received anticonvulsants, 66% had a head MRI, 23% had a cranial CT, 67% had a full channel encephalogram (EEG) and 33% amplitude integrated EEG. Of all infants, 87% survived. Conclusions The VON NER describes the heterogeneous population of infants with NE, the subset that received HT, their patterns of care, and outcomes. The optimal routine care of infants with neonatal encephalopathy is unknown. The registry method is well suited to identify opportunities for improvement in the care of infants affected by NE and study interventions such as HT as they are implemented in clinical practice. PMID:22726296