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Sample records for concise oxford dictionary

  1. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  2. News from the Library: You need never be lost for words again - Oxford Reference Online and Oxford Dictionaries Pro

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    Whether you are looking for an English word definition or want to check the correct usage of a word, we can offer you a solution: Oxford Reference Online.   It includes a wide range of monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, but also subject-specific reference books on physics, astronomy or mathematics. All these works are fully indexed and cross-searchable. Two highlights from this vast collection of reference works are the Concise Oxford English Dictionary and the Oxford Dictionary of English, which is the online counterpart of the compact, single-volume dictionary of current English language. As the name says, Oxford Dictionaries Pro focuses on language dictionaries. Particularly noteworthy are the dictionaries for writers and editors. On a dedicated web page you will find access to: - The "New Hart's Rules", providing information on all aspects of writing and preparing copy for publication, whether in print or electronically - The New Oxford Dictionary for Wri...

  3. OXFORD DICTIONARY OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine provides reliable definitions of sports science and medicine terms. It provides an invaluable reference book for anyone interested in the captivating subject of sport. PURPOSE This dictionary aims to include almost every sports science, anatomy, physiology, biomechanical, injuries description, and psychological term as related to sports medicine and science and support the explanations by illustrations wherever necessary. AUDIENCE As a comprehensive dictionary of sports science and medicine, it will be of particular help to medical specialists and general practitioners, as well as students of PE, coaches, and athletes who need to understand the anatomical structures and physiological processes which affect athletic performance. Any member of public interested in health and fitness; exercise and sport or wants to understand what the obscure terms mean, like jogger's nipple, social loafing, and Zatopek phenomenon will also benefit from this book. FEATURES The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine features terms in A to Z fashion at all the major areas of sports science and medicine including: anatomy, physiology/exercise physiology, biomechanics, training principles and techniques, nutrition, sports psychology and sociology, sports injuries and rehabilitation. A team of prominent contributors and advisers put together this dictionary in the first edition. The third edition includes around 8000 cross-referenced terms which have been updated or added since the first edition. There are plenty of illustrations wherever appropriate to make the terms easily understandable. ASSESSMENT A must-have dictionary for all medics practising in sports and exercise medicine, as well as students of medicine, physical education, nursing and physiotherapy. Even coaches, trainers, biomechanical experts; in fact anyone who has a special interest in this area will find this dictionary useful.

  4. The new Oxford dictionary of English

    CERN Document Server

    Hanks, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    This dictionary focuses on English as it is really used in the late 20th century, informed by available evidence and thinking. Its defining style makes it possible to give the most complete picture of English as it is used today, providing authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the language. Compiled after in-depth analysis of computerized databases of current English, this dictionary is the first to base its coverage on the evidence of real English. Accessibility is one of the dictionary's key aims; a rapid-reference page design separates out parts of speech, word histories, phrases, and derivatives to make information easy to find, and the most modern meaning of each word, as used by the majority of people, is placed first within each entry. Contemporary rules are given on question of usage, providing relevant advice on problems old and new. Word history notes not only explain the linguistic roots of words, but also tell the story of how a word's meaning and form have changed over time. Oxford's worldw...

  5. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern Sotho and English (De Schryver 2007) is a welcome addition to dictionaries that have been compiled for school use in particular. Its novelty and appeal lie in the fact that the lemmas and Northern Sotho mini-grammar are based on a corpus of general language usage and ...

  6. G.-M. de Schryver (Editor. Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Zulu and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Prinsloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Zulu and English (henceforth OZSD is the latest addition to the bidirectional English–isiZulu bilingual dictionary market and is based on the same successful and prize-winning formula used for the Oxford Northern Sotho School Dictionary (ONSD published in 2007.

  7. G.-M. de Schryver et al. (Eds.). Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Oxford University Press Southern Africa has added the Oxford Bilingual School. Dictionary: IsiXhosa and English to its impressively developing series of bilingual school dictionaries involving English and other official languages of South. Africa. The series already has similar dictionaries in other languages namely. isiZulu ...

  8. G.-M. de Schryver et al. (Eds.). Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Oxford University Press Southern Africa has added the Oxford Bilingual School. Dictionary: IsiXhosa and English to its ... learners, the size of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: IsiXhosa and English makes it obvious that it is targeted at .... that "[a] more formal term for lunch is isidlo sasemini" (p. 69). That way, the lexi-.

  9. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mindful that the dictionary is aimed at school learners, the compilers do not confront the user unnecessarily with linguistic technicalities or lexico- graphic terms. For example: —. The distinction between verbs and verb stems is not strictly maintained. The distinction would be important to a grammarian, but for the target.

  10. Concise dictionary of engineering a guide to the language of engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hanifan, Ron

    2014-01-01

    This reference defines the principle and most commonly used terms found in engineering documents and drawings across multiple disciplines and explains them in plain, unambiguous English. Concise Dictionary of Engineering: A Guide to the Language of Engineering also distinguishes how some terms take on different meanings in different engineering contexts—critical knowledge when working on collaborative projects with diverse elements and colleagues. Based on an edition developed for researchers and technicians at Lockheed Martin, each entry in this volume is written in clear, everyday English without confusing jargon and “techno-speak.” The book is ideal for students, professional engineers, industrial personnel, managers, and anyone else who requires a solid understanding of the language of engineers. This dictionary also: ·         Clarifies technical terms often intermixed or misused ·         Spans a range of engineering disciplines, including mechanical, electrical, materials, and c...

  11. Tradurre nel contesto pluriglosso dell'arabo con l'aiuto di un nuovo dizionario bilingue. Riflessioni sull'Oxford Arabic Dictionary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Tresso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating in the Arabic Plurilingual Context with the Help of a New Bilingual Dictionary. Some remarks on the Oxford Arabic Dictionary. A bilingual dictionary from English, the International language for communication, to Arabic nowadays represents one of the major challenges in the fields of translation studies and teaching. The Oxford Arabic Dictionary, with is corpus-based word list represents a good point of departure for future lexicographical works and for the development of teaching of Modern Standard Arabic.

  12. G.-M. de Schryver (Editor). Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Zulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    mails and letters, ... words in the OZSD. Dictionary articles are elaborate and give information on, among others, frequency of use, part of speech, sense distinction, translation equivalents, examples of ... binations, spelling, word division, etc.

  13. Oxford English Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and supremacist attitudes, which caused entries for words of this kind to be shorter and less detailed, and affected ... kinds should receive the same degree of attention, which implies that data collection from the reading of primary ... this paper, African languages have contributed a great many vocabulary items to the English ...

  14. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  15. Review: The Oxford History of English Lexicography. Volume I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.P. Cowie (Editor). The Oxford History of English Lexicography. Volume I: General-purpose Dictionaries. Volume II: Specialized Dictionaries. 2009. Volume I: xviii + 467 pp., Volume II: xix + 551 pp. ISBN Volume I–II: 978-0-19-928562-4. Volume I: 978-0-19-928560-0. Volume II: 978-0-19-928561-7. Oxford: Oxford University ...

  16. Dictionnaires, dictionnaires... (Dictionaries, Dictionaries...)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, Pierre

    1985-01-01

    Eight special-purpose French-language dictionaries are described, including an illustrated edition, works oriented toward young children and intermediate second-language learners, etymological and grammatical dictionaries, and two literary references. (MSE)

  17. Radiological sciences dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Dowsett, David

    2009-01-01

    The Radiological Sciences Dictionary is a rapid reference guide for all hospital staff employed in diagnostic imaging, providing definitions of over 3000 keywords as applied to the technology of diagnostic radiology.Written in a concise and easy to digest form, the dictionary covers a wide variety of subject matter, including:· radiation legislation and measurement · computing and digital imaging terminology· nuclear medicine radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals· radiographic contrast agents (x-ray, MRI and ultrasound)· definitions used in ultrasound and MRI technology· statistical exp

  18. Review: Julie Coleman: A History of Cant and Slang Dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Julie Coleman. A History of Cant and Slang Dictionaries. Volume I: 1567– 1784. 2004, xii + 259 pp. ISBN 0 19 925471 0 (Hb.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Price: £115. Julie Coleman. A History of Cant and Slang Dictionaries. Volume II: 1785– 1858. 2004, xiv + 338 pp. ISBN 0 19 925470 2 (Hb.). Oxford: Oxford ...

  19. Dictionaries Defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Describes the growing number of dictionaries available to reference librarians, discusses factors that have led to the need for more dictionaries, and provides buying guidelines to help in selection decisions. Electronic versions of various dictionaries are described, and a sidebar examines the "American Heritage Dictionary" revisions.…

  20. Dictionary criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    Dictionary criticism is part of the lexicographical universe and reviewing of electronic and printed dictionaries is not an exercise in linguistics or in subject fields but an exercise in lexicography. It does not follow from this that dictionary reviews should not be based on a linguistic approach......, but that the linguistic approach is only one of several approaches to dictionary reviewing. Similarly, the linguistic and factual competences of reviewers should not be relegated to an insignificant position in the review process. Moreover, reviewers should define the object of their reviews, the dictionary, as a complex...... information tool with several components and in terms of significant lexicographical features: lexicographical functions, data and structures. This emphasises the fact that dictionaries are much more than mere vessels of linguistic categories, namely lexicographical tools that have been developed to fulfil...

  1. Binukid Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanes, Fe T., Ed.; Wrigglesworth, Hazel

    1992-01-01

    The dictionary of Binukid, a language spoken in the Bukidnon province of the Philippines, is intended as a tool for students of Binukid and for native Binukid-speakers interested in learning English. A single dialect was chosen for this work. The dictionary is introduced by notes on Binukid grammar, including basic information about phonology and…

  2. A.P. Cowie. English Dictionaries for Foreign Learners: A History ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    In the mid 1990s the evolution of the English learner's dictionary reached a zenith with the appearance on the market of four advanced-level monolingual learners' dictionaries. Three of these were existing works, i.e. the Oxford Ad- vanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English (henceforth ALD), the Longman. Dictionary of ...

  3. Tensor Dictionary Learning for Positive Definite Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Ravishankar; Boley, Daniel; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Sparse models have proven to be extremely successful in image processing and computer vision. However, a majority of the effort has been focused on sparse representation of vectors and low-rank models for general matrices. The success of sparse modeling, along with popularity of region covariances, has inspired the development of sparse coding approaches for these positive definite descriptors. While in earlier work, the dictionary was formed from all, or a random subset of, the training signals, it is clearly advantageous to learn a concise dictionary from the entire training set. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for dictionary learning over positive definite matrices. The dictionary is learned by alternating minimization between sparse coding and dictionary update stages, and different atom update methods are described. A discriminative version of the dictionary learning approach is also proposed, which simultaneously learns dictionaries for different classes in classification or clustering. Experimental results demonstrate the advantage of learning dictionaries from data both from reconstruction and classification viewpoints. Finally, a software library is presented comprising C++ binaries for all the positive definite sparse coding and dictionary learning approaches presented here.

  4. Linguistic Features of English and Russian Dictionaries (A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leščinskij

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish differences and similarities between linguistic characteristics of English and Russian dictionaries. Two dictionaries were selected for the study – electronic version of the 8th edition of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (OALD and the online version of Ozhegov’s explanatory dictionary. The methods chosen for the study were descriptive, comparative and contrastive analysis. Linguistic characteristics of the dictionaries were analysed and compared. The research showed that both reference books provided different linguistic information on the headwords. OALD provided exhaustive phonetic information, which Ozhegov’s dictionary lacked. The two dictionaries provided different orthographic information. OALD disclosed semantic information via various tools available in the electronic version; these were unavailable in Ozhegov’s dictionary. Both dictionaries used similar stylistic labels.

  5. Compiling Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is ..... What words refer to looking at something in order to learn? watch, scrutinize .... lated into French, Spanish, Chinese, and other major languages of the world. 8.

  6. Electrochemical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Bard, Allen J; Scholz, Fritz 0

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive dictionary includes some 3000 common terms in electrochemistry and energy research, and related fields. Offers clear, precise definitions, references and more than 600 illustrations. The new edition adds more than 300 new and revised terms.

  7. combination Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    advanced-level Spanish-speaking EFL learners. 2. Word combinations ... a certain process of segregation as a separate branch of linguistics. While lexi- ... As substantiated by Ilson's investigation of lexicographic practices, most dictionaries ...

  8. A.P. Cowie. English Dictionaries for Foreign Learners: A History ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    ISBN 0-19-925084-7. Oxford: Oxford University Press. In the mid 1990s the evolution ... learners' dictionaries. Three of these were existing works, i.e. the Oxford Ad- vanced Learner's Dictionary of .... tured tag sets, and, eventually, the debate whether to continue working in an. SGML- or similarly based text editor, or to make ...

  9. Dictionary Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    In management theories we find different descriptions of project planning, but the following steps occur in most management plans: target, concept, time plan with milestones and a deadline, project management and the delegation of tasks. These abstract steps are in practice applied very differently...... anticipated until the project is completed with the publication of one or more dictionaries. The reason for that is normally an unrealistic and much too optimistic planning. But it is also due to a missing knowledge about management planning according to a relevant overall lexicographic theory......) theoretical lexicography, and (2) practical lexicography. The ideal practical lexicography, i.e. the ideal way of planning and making dictionaries, applies a theory based on practice. In lexicography the list of steps in a dictionary management plan will be different for each single project. This has always...

  10. Enterprising future for Oxford

    OpenAIRE

    George Smith

    2002-01-01

    The aims of the Department of Materials at Oxford University stretch from cutting edge research to encouraging knowledge of materials at school level. At a time when some traditional scientific disciplines are seeing student numbers fall, materials science — and Oxford Materials — is gaining a higher profile than ever before.

  11. Lossy Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Rodler, Flemming Friche

    2001-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient dictionary with worst case constant lookup time, equaling the theoretical performance of the classic dynamic perfect hashing scheme of Dietzfelbinger et al. The space usage is similar to that of binary search trees, i.e., three words per key on average...

  12. Compiling Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi- larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin- guistic research into semantic and ...

  13. Dictionary Snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2014-01-01

    for image segmentation that operates without training data. Our method is based on a probabilistic dictionary of image patches coupled with a deformable model inspired by snakes and active contours without edges. We separate the image into two classes based on the information provided by the evolving curve...

  14. Internet accounting dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Mourier, Lise

    2005-01-01

    An examination of existing accounting dictionaries on the Internet reveals a general need for a new type of dictionary. In contrast to the dictionaries now accessible, the future accounting dictionaries should be designed as proper Internet dictionaries based on a functional approach so they can...

  15. The African dimension of the Oxford English Dictionary | Weiner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African languages have contributed and continue to contribute a great many vocabulary items to English, both directly and via the intermediary of other ... the unavailability to the editors of relevant information at the time of compilation of OED1; and supremacist attitudes, which caused entries for words of this kind to be ...

  16. The OEAD: New Perspectives on English–Arabic Dictionaries for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    entries in the Oxford English–Arabic Dictionary of Current Usage (OEAD). To learn more about the ... was a 92% increase in the number of Arabic programs throughout the United States, hence the pressing need for ...... Arabic. There are many dialectal dictionaries which describe either the dialect spoken in Egypt, the Gulf, ...

  17. BKSTS illustrated dictionary of moving image technology

    CERN Document Server

    Uren, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The fourth edition of the BKSTS dictionary provides clear and concise explanations of the terminology and acronyms encountered in the broadcasting and moving image industries.Convergence of these industries means that those practising within them are increasingly faced with unfamiliar terminology. Martin Uren has reflected this change in his extended choice of industry terms, acronyms and colloquialisms. He provides:- Over 3300 definitions covering film, television, sound and multimedia technologies, together with technical terms from the computing, networks and telecommunications industries.-

  18. Juta's Concise Dictionary of Accounting Terms with their Afri- kaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest and other costs incurred by an enter- prise in connection with the borrowing of funds. (AC 114.04). Carrying amount Drabedrag. The amount at which an asset is recognised in the balance sheet after deducting any accumulated depreciation. (amortisation) and accumulated impairment losses thereon. (AC. 128.06).

  19. Online dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2012-01-01

    provide individualized solutions to the users’ punctual information needs. In this respect, it analyses the relation between the type and the individual and argues that lexicographers, although having individualization of needs satisfaction as their goal, still have to work with types of user, situation......, need, consultation, and data. The article then proceeds to the discussion of some advanced information science techniques that may contribute to the desired individualization. Upon this basis, it finally discusses the interaction between online dictionaries and external sources like the Internet...

  20. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šuštaršič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003, with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001, this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and consonants, the paper also deals with the different representations of word accentuation and the issue of consistency regarding application of phonemic (systemic, broad, rather than phonetic (allophonic, narrow transcription. The different transcriptions are assessed from the points of view of their departures from the International Phonetic Alphabet, their overlapping with orthographic representation (spelling and their appropriateness in terms of reflecting actual pronunciation in standard British and/or American pronunciation.

  1. Book Review: English Dictionaries for Foreign Learners: | Louw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.P. Cowie. English Dictionaries for Foreign Learners: A History. 1999, 232 pp. ISBN 0-19-925084-7. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/lex.v15i1.51472 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Academic Dominance: Oxford and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynell, Jenfer

    1978-01-01

    Oxford is examined as a center of influence, based on the assumption that Oxford's influence is a direct consequence of what is perceived as its excellence. The proportion of philosophy professors in British universities with Oxford degrees is determined and adopted as the method of measuring influence. (LBH)

  3. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  4. A timeless music dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: A music dictionary for the Internet fulfils the same functions as printed music dic- tionaries. An earlier music dictionary is as useful as a new one if its information is correct. But the fact that an Internet dictionary can at any time be corrected according to modern practices makes it, if not timeless, at least more up to ...

  5. Teaching Dictionary Skills through a Slang Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Stanley M.

    A unit for teaching dictionary skills through the compilation of a slang dictionary was written with the purpose of providing an inductive learning situation. The students are to begin by defining slang usage and bringing in slang words and definitions on cards. Small groups are to be formed to evaluate the definitions and make additions. In…

  6. From Data to Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Almind, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Most online dictionaries are based on printed dictionaries or specially developed databases. However, these dictionaries do not fully satisfy the needs for help and knowledge users have, so a re-assessment of the practical and theoretical foundation is necessary. Based on the work on the Accounting....... Users who want to know how to use a specific term or phrase when producing texts are presented with data that differ from those presented to users who want to know the meaning of a particular term. The theoretical foundation and practical implications of this type of dynamic online dictionaries, we...... argue, allow lexicographers to design dictionaries that satisfy the needs for practical lexicographical tools....

  7. Dictionary of computer vision and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Robert B; Dawson-Howe, Kenneth; Fitzgibbon, Andrew; Robertson, Craig; Trucco, Emanuele; Williams, Christopher K I

    2013-01-01

    Written by leading researchers, the 2nd Edition of the Dictionary of Computer Vision & Image Processing is a comprehensive and reliable resource which now provides explanations of over 3500 of the most commonly used terms across image processing, computer vision and related fields including machine vision. It offers clear and concise definitions with short examples or mathematical precision where necessary for clarity that ultimately makes it a very usable reference for new entrants to these fields at senior undergraduate and graduate level, through to early career researchers to help build u

  8. Working on an historical dictionary: the Swedish academy dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working on an historical dictionary: the Swedish academy dictionary project. P Stille, B-O Wendt. Abstract. The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the written standard language of Swedish ...

  9. Dictionary Visions, Research and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is about dictionaries and dictionary making. In six thematic sections it presents nineteen contributions covering a wide field within lexicography: Online Lexicography, Dictionary Structure, Phraseology in Dictionaries, LSP Lexicography, Dictionaries and the User, plus Etymology, History...... and Culture in Lexicography. Some chapters focus on theoretical aspects, others report on dictionary work in the making, and still others compare and analyze existing dictionaries. Common to all authors, however, is the concern for the dictionary user. Trivial as it may seem, the fact that dictionaries...

  10. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  11. The SMAP Dictionary Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin A.; Swan, Christoper A.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Dictionary Management System is a web-based tool to develop and store a mission dictionary. A mission dictionary defines the interface between a ground system and a spacecraft. In recent years, mission dictionaries have grown in size and scope, making it difficult for engineers across multiple disciplines to coordinate the dictionary development effort. The Dictionary Management Systemaddresses these issues by placing all dictionary information in one place, taking advantage of the efficiencies inherent in co-locating what were once disparate dictionary development efforts.

  12. Richard Compton, University of Oxford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Analyst profiles Richard Compton, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and the first and only recipient of both the RSC Medals in Electrochemistry and in Electroanalytical Chemistry.

  13. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    ... Globe and Mail said, an enterprising publication. Despite the existence of the Winston dictionary, some Canadians were still, at the end of the 1950s, prepared to dismiss Canadian lexicography as pointless. When the idea of a Canadian dictionary was introduced to the Dean of Arts and Science at Dalhousie University in ...

  14. Dictionary, Systemicity, Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Recent lexicographical work, especially in dictionaries aimed at the Teaching English-as-a-foreign-language (TEFL) market, has tended towards a functional grouping of vocabulary items in thesaurus format, rather than the traditional alphabetical approach of dictionaries. One reason for this, stemming from a more communicative approach to language…

  15. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    and free online dictionaries. The Diccionario español para la producción de textos is an example of a general text production dictionary that makes use of internet technologies, is based on a lexicographic theory, contains all the lexicographic data that users need in a production situation, and aims...

  16. Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674

  17. The Swedish Academy Dictionary Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    (bo.wendt@svenskaakademien.se), Dictionary Staff of the Swedish Academy,. Lund, Sweden. Abstract: The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the writ- ten standard language of Swedish from ...

  18. Women Leaders in Oxford House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpo, Phyllis; Price, Temple; Salina, Doreen; Witek, Caroline; Pommer, Nicole; Jason, Leonard A

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined women assuming leadership roles in Oxford Houses, which are communal, democratically run recovery settings for substance use disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women Oxford House leaders who shared their thoughts and experiences on leadership. Several themes emerged from qualitative data analysis, most notably that stepping up and accepting a leadership role in Oxford House had a positive effect on self-esteem, which is vital to women with a history of substance abuse. Barriers to leadership were also identified such as negative interpersonal relationships with other women. A number of methods mentioned to increase the number of women leaders included: developing workshops, providing positive encouragement, and accessing existing female role models. The implications of this study are discussed.

  19. Translation Dictionaries and Bilingual Dictionaries. Two Different Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2002-01-01

    to problems arising from the translation process? If one tries to answer this question based on the available lexicographic theory, the result might be that the solution is not to be found in a bilingual dictionary or - and this is more likely - that bilingual dictionaries are not the only type...... of dictionaries - and in some cases even not the best ones - to assist the translator who runs into problems in the translation process. In my paper, I will argue that monolingual dictionaries - together with bilingual dictionaries «the other way around«, e.g. L2-L1 dictionaries when translating from L1 into L2......, and vice versa - are far the best ones to provide solutions to a numbers of problems frequently popping up during the translation process. In my paper, I will first look at the concepts of a bilingual dictionary and a translation dictionary, then I will discuss the modern theory of dictionary functions...

  20. Computer science a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Computer Science: A Concise Introduction covers the fundamentals of computer science. The book describes micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers and their uses; the ranges and types of computers and peripherals currently available; applications to numerical computation; and commercial data processing and industrial control processes. The functions of data preparation, data control, computer operations, applications programming, systems analysis and design, database administration, and network control are also encompassed. The book then discusses batch, on-line, and real-time systems; the basic

  1. The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Dodge, Yadolah

    2008-01-01

    The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics presents the essential information about statistical tests, concepts, and analytical methods in language that is accessible to practitioners and students of the vast community using statistics in medicine, engineering, physical science, life science, social science, and business/economics. The reference is alphabetically arranged to provide quick access to the fundamental tools of statistical methodology and biographies of famous statisticians. The more than 500 entries include definitions, history, mathematical details, limitations, examples, references,

  2. A dictionary of chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daintith, John

    2008-01-01

    "Fully revised and updated, the sixth edition of this popular dictionary covers all aspects of chemistry from physical chemistry to biochemisty, and boasts broader coverage in forensics, metallurgy, and geology...

  3. Multilingualism and Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilingualism and Dictionaries The Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that we (Wojciech Sosnowski, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Anna Kisiel are currently developing has no precedent as far as its theoretical foundations and its structure are concerned. The dictionary offers a unique combination of three Slavic languages that belong to three different groups: a West Slavic language (Polish, a South Slavic language (Bulgarian and an East Slavic language (Russian. The dictionary describes semantic and syntactic equivalents of words between the languages. When completed, the dictionary will contain around 30,000 entries. The principle we build the dictionary on is that every language should be given equal status. Many of our data come from the Parallel Polish-Bulgarian-Russian corpus developed by us as part of the CLARIN-PL initiative. In the print version, the entries come in the order of the Cyrillic alphabet and they are not numbered (except for homonyms, which are disambiguated with Roman numbers. We selected the lemmas for the dictionary on the basis of their frequency in the corpus. Our dictionary is the first dictionary to include forms of address and most recent neologisms in the three languages. Faithful to the recent developments in contrastive linguistics, we begin with a form from the dictionary’s primary language and we define it in Polish. Subsequently, based on this definition, we try to find an equivalent in the second and the third language. Therefore, the meaning comes first and only then we look for the form (i.e. the equivalent that corresponds to this meaning. This principle, outlined in Gramatyka konfrontatywna języków polskiego i bułgarskiego (GKBP, allows us to treat data from multiple languages as equal. In the dictionary, we draw attention to the correct choice of equivalents in translation; we also provide categorisers that indicate the meaning of verbal tenses and aspects. The definitions of states, events and

  4. Storytelling through animation: Oxford Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, D. M.; Cook, A.

    2013-12-01

    Oxford Sparks is a portal that launched in 2012, with the aim of bringing together resources that have been created across the University of Oxford and elsewhere for the purpose of wider engagement with science. To bring attention to this site, Oxford Sparks developed a set of high-quality short animations, each designed to tell a story relating to a current area of science. These animations have been launched on YouTube, and will shortly be available on iTunesU, and have covered broad areas of science from subduction zones (';Underwater Volcano Disaster'), through the early history of the solar system (';Rogue Planet') to the workings of the Large Hadron Collider (';A quick look around the LHC'). The animations have each been developed in close collaboration with researchers, created by a team with experience of education, engagement and outreach. The two minute scripts are intended to be both widely accessible and viewable as ';stand alone' stories. To this end, the scripts are humorous; while the animations are delightfully quirky, and created by professional animator with a degree-level science background. The animations are also intended to be used as ';lesson starters' in school, and educational activities graded for different age groups are being developed in parallel with the animations. They have been used, successfully, on pre-university summer schools, and in university classes. We are gathering both quantitative (analytics) and qualitative (school teacher and student focus group) feedback to monitor the success of the project, and to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In the first year since launch, Oxford Sparks animations were viewed over 80,000 times on YouTube, in part due to the surge of interest in the Large Hadron Collider animation after the discovery of the Higgs Boson.

  5. Concise Synthesis of Broussonone A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeju Jo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A concise and expeditious approach to the total synthesis of broussonone A, a p-quinol natural compound, has been developed. The key features of the synthesis include the Grubbs II catalyst mediated cross metathesis of two aromatic subunits, and a chemoselective oxidative dearomatizationin the presence of two phenol moieties. Especially, optimization associated with the CM reaction of ortho-alkoxystyrenes was also studied, which are known to be ineffective for Ru-catalyzed metathesis reactions under conventional reaction conditions because ortho-alkoxy group could coordinate to the ruthenium center, resulting in the potential complication of catalyst inhibition.

  6. Improving the dictionary lookup approach for disease normalization using enhanced dictionary and query expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Jue, Toni Rose; Chang, Nai-Wen; Dai, Hong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly increasing biomedical literature calls for the need of an automatic approach in the recognition and normalization of disease mentions in order to increase the precision and effectivity of disease based information retrieval. A variety of methods have been proposed to deal with the problem of disease named entity recognition and normalization. Among all the proposed methods, conditional random fields (CRFs) and dictionary lookup method are widely used for named entity recognition and normalization respectively. We herein developed a CRF-based model to allow automated recognition of disease mentions, and studied the effect of various techniques in improving the normalization results based on the dictionary lookup approach. The dataset from the BioCreative V CDR track was used to report the performance of the developed normalization methods and compare with other existing dictionary lookup based normalization methods. The best configuration achieved an F-measure of 0.77 for the disease normalization, which outperformed the best dictionary lookup based baseline method studied in this work by an F-measure of 0.13.Database URL: https://github.com/TCRNBioinformatics/DiseaseExtract. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Reviewing printed and electronic dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Dictionary reviewing is an integral part of the lexicographic universe. However, lexicographers have called for generally applicable principles embracing both printed and electronic dictionaries. I propose that scholarly reviews contain information that is useful to their intended audiences...

  8. Language Planning and Monolingual Dictionaries:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    vocabulary or the standard meaning of words. Monolingual general-purpose dictionaries like the ISN are the standard dictionaries for their respective lan- guages and are assumed to reflect the 'standard usage' of that language in terms not only of spelling but also of meaning. Writing on the relationship of dictionaries to ...

  9. Tweetalige aanleerderswoordeboek . bilingual learner's dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review article the discussion concentrates on the purpose of learner's dictionaries, viz. to improve the communicative competence of a foreign language learner, and on usage guidance in learner's dictionaries. It is pointed out that target users should be clearly identified and their needs assessed before the dictionary ...

  10. Comparative Nivkh Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    This dictionary undertakes to reconstruct the lexis and morphology of the Nivkh proto-language by marshaling and organizing all the data available in published form on the contemporary dialects. It builds upon a considerable body of descriptive and comparative work carried out by scholars who have...... World is a subject of continuing interest to both linguists and anthropologists. The dictionary does not address this question directly. Reconstructing the proto-language is an essential step, however, to any further comparative work – in particular to sorting out the relationship between Nivkh...

  11. Farhang’s Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nasr Isfahani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mirza Ab ol-Qasem Shirazi, whose pseudonym was "Farhang", is the calligrapher and the poet of the thirteen century A.H. and the son of Vesal Shirazi. He has written some worthwhile works such as "Collected Poems", "Farhang’s Dictionary", "A Commentary on Hadaegh os-Sehr". His worthiest work is "Farhang Dictionary" that its writing has been completed in 1276 A.H., and its manuscript is kept at the National Library of Iran. This manuscript edited and interpreted by the author of this text, will be published soon. Farhang wrote this dictionary for the purpose of providing the poets with a comprehensive dictionary to have an easy and quick access to Persian vocabulary. The strength of this book is its word order in a particular way because the author has found equivalents for Persian, Arabic, and Turkish vocabulary. This book comprises an introduction, two sections, and a conclusion.       The first section consists of different kinds of vocabulary it has thirty one chapters that each of them has numerous chapters too. The second section consists of specific vocabulary and has twenty nine chapters that some of them have several chapters too. The concluding section of this book consists of words such as letters, gerunds, and noun of sounds. The sources that have been cited in this book are "Borhan Ghat'e", Jahangiri’s Dictionary", "Rashidi Dictionary", "Soruri’s Dictionary", and "Sarah al-Loghat". The author of this book has followed the following ways for the structure of vocabulary and making word: 1. Making word by deleting the inarticulate "h". 2. Making word by changing the consonants with similar pronunciation such as "B", "P" and "Ch", "J" and "K", "G". 3. Making word by deleting the final consonant of the words. 4. Making word by replacing consonants or vowels. 5. Making word by deleting the initial "A". 6. Making word by changing long vowel to short vowel. 7. Making word by deleting the middle consonant. 8. Making word by

  12. A dictionary of astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This revised edition contains 4,000 up-to-date entries written by an expert team of contributors, under the editorship of Ian Ridpath, renowned author and broadcaster. Covering the most recent space exploration missions and latest technological development, this authoritative dictionary covers everything from astrophysics to galaxies and time. World-wide coverage of observatories and telescopes, and major entries on supernova, Big Bang theory, and stellar evolution, make this an invaluable reference source for students, professionals, and amateur astronomers. Appendices include tables of Apollo lunar landing missions and the constellations. The entries are supported by numerous tables and diagrams, and the dictionary also features biographical entries on eminent astronomers.

  13. Review of the Oxford Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, G.

    The Oxford Cryocooler incorporates a linear drive compressor operating close to resonance. All dynamic seals are noncontacting clearance seals maintained by mounting the piston and displacer on mechanical suspension systems with infinite fatigue life. The displacer is pneumatically driven but controlled by a miniature linear motor. The cooler is therefore nonwearing and performance can be maintained even in adverse environments by servo control of piston and displacer strokes and relative phase. Split and integral, single- and two-stage coolers have been produced with operating temperatures between 30 K and 200 K, refrigeration powers between 50 mW and several watts and capable of operating in ambient temperatures from -40 C to 70 C. A current project aims to extend the refrigeration power to 500 watts at 80 K. Experimental optimisation techniques have been devised for rapid development of high efficiency coolers.

  14. A concise introduction to analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stroock, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the basic ideas and tools used in mathematical analysis. It is a hybrid cross between an advanced calculus and a more advanced analysis text and covers topics in both real and complex variables. Considerable space is given to developing Riemann integration theory in higher dimensions, including a rigorous treatment of Fubini's theorem, polar coordinates and the divergence theorem. These are used in the final chapter to derive Cauchy's formula, which is then applied to prove some of the basic properties of analytic functions. Among the unusual features of this book is the treatment of analytic function theory as an application of ideas and results in real analysis. For instance, Cauchy's integral formula for analytic functions is derived as an application of the divergence theorem. The last section of each chapter is devoted to exercises that should be viewed as an integral part of the text. A Concise Introduction to Analysis should appeal to upper level undergraduate math...

  15. CRC concise encyclopedia of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Weisstein, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    Upon publication, the first edition of the CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics received overwhelming accolades for its unparalleled scope, readability, and utility. It soon took its place among the top selling books in the history of Chapman & Hall/CRC, and its popularity continues unabated. Yet also unabated has been the dedication of author Eric Weisstein to collecting, cataloging, and referencing mathematical facts, formulas, and definitions. He has now updated most of the original entries and expanded the Encyclopedia to include 1000 additional pages of illustrated entries. The accessibility of the Encyclopedia along with its broad coverage and economical price make it attractive to the widest possible range of readers and certainly a must for libraries, from the secondary to the professional and research levels. For mathematical definitions, formulas, figures, tabulations, and references, this is simply the most impressive compendium available.

  16. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  17. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  18. Uniform deterministic dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzic, Milan

    2008-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the well-known family of multiplicative hash functions, and improved deterministic algorithms for selecting “good” hash functions. The main motivation is realization of deterministic dictionaries with fast lookups and reasonably fast updates. The model of computation ...

  19. Optimal Resilient Dynamic Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    $ on the number of corruptions and $O(1)$ reliable memory cells are provided. In this model, we focus on the design of resilient dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries which are able to operate correctly (at least) on the set of uncorrupted keys. We first present a simple resilient dynamic search tree, based on random...... updates in $O(\\log n+\\delta)$ amortized time. Our dynamic dictionary also supports range queries in $O(\\log n+\\delta+t)$ worst case time, where $t$ is the size of the output. Finally, we show that every resilient search tree (with some reasonable properties) must take~$\\Omega(\\log n + \\delta)$ worst...... sampling, with $O(\\log n + \\delta)$ expected amortized cost per operation, and $O(n)$ space complexity. We then propose an optimal deterministic static dictionary supporting searches in $\\Theta(\\log n+\\delta)$ time in the worst case, and we show how to use it in a dynamic setting in order to support...

  20. English-Cinyanja Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambesi Mission, Mitsidi (Malawi).

    This English-Chinyanja (Cinyanja) dictionary was prepared and published by the Zambesi Mission for use in Africa. Compilers of this volume were aided by Africans of Southern Angoniland and a Yao tribesman from the Blantyre district knowledgeable in Chinyanja. Spelling rules used are those of the United Translation Board, which has adopted…

  1. Accessing the ANW dictionary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk, F.; Tiberius, C.; Niestadt, J.; Zock, M.; Huang, C.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the functional design of an interface for an online scholarly dictionary of contemporary standard Dutch, the ANW. One of the main innovations of the ANW is a twofold meaning description: definitions are accompanied by ‘semagrams’. In this paper we focus on the strategies that

  2. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  3. A Bilingualised English Dictionary for Catalan Speakers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: In view of the benefits of both monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, a new type of dictionary which combines the strong points of a monolingual learner's dictionary with those of a bilingual dictionary was designed and introduced into some Catalan primary and secondary schools: the Easy English Dictionary with ...

  4. School dictionaries for first-language learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Gouws, Rufus H.

    2012-01-01

    Acknowledging the ambiguity of terms like school dictionary, children's dictionary, first language, mother-tongue this article motivates a specific use of school dictionary, first language and learner and focuses on various problems in these dictionaries. The typical functions of these dictionaries...

  5. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  6. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...... may provide the help needed. Beginners and intermediate learners are unlikely to be familiar with the syntactic structures used in legal language and which distinguish it from LGP and other LSPs, especially those structures that are unusual and complex. The optimal legal translation dictionary...

  7. Making a dictionary without words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the particular problems connected with lemma representation and lemmatization in a sign language dictionary. The paper is mainly based on the authors' work experience from the Danish Sign Language Dictionary project. In a sign language dictionary sign representation...... constitutes a problem. as there is - at least for Danish Sign Language - no conventional notation used by native signers and the various other sign user groups. We look into the different possibilities of representing signs and present the solution that we chose for the Danish Sign Language Dictionary....... Defining the criteria for lernmatization is another area where sign language dictionaries differ from written language dictionaries. The criteria should obviously include the manual expression of the signs, but a sign's manual expression has features from several categories (e.g. handshape, place...

  8. The concept of 'dictionary usage'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Tarp, Sven

    2004-01-01

    If you only ask questions about dictionary use, then you will exclusively get answers like those that characterise the filled in questionnaires of the commercial publishing houses. They produce dictionaries in order to sell them and earn money and, therefore, they conceive them in such a way...... that users that might have a bad dictionary culture feel that the dictionaries meet their needs. In doing so, you generate inbreeding and block the necessary innovation. This is the unavoidable result of a practice that pays excessive attention to the study of existing dictionaries and doesn't endeavour...... to produce new concepts and to introduce a new dictionary culture. It is, in other words, a poor lexicography....

  9. The INL Dictionary Writing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The INL-DWS is a Dictionary Writing System (DWS for compiling monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. It has been developed at the Institute of Dutch Lexicology (INL since 2007 and is now being used for the production of a monolingual dictionary at INL and a bilingual dictionary at the Fryske Akademy. This paper describes the functionalities of the system, on the one hand, from a lexicographical point of view, and on the other hand, from a more technical perspective. The paper concludes with a short evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of in-house systems versus off-the-shelf systems.

  10. Dictionary learning in visual computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed fast development on dictionary learning approaches for a set of visual computing tasks, largely due to their utilization in developing new techniques based on sparse representation. Compared with conventional techniques employing manually defined dictionaries, such as Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform, dictionary learning aims at obtaining a dictionary adaptively from the data so as to support optimal sparse representation of the data. In contrast to conventional clustering algorithms like K-means, where a data point is associated with only one cluster c

  11. Compiling a Monolingual Dictionary for Native Speakers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick Hanks

    2010-01-01

    .... synchronic principles, the instability of word meaning, the need for full vocabulary coverage, principles of definition writing, the role of dictionaries in society, and the need for dictionaries...

  12. How Dictionary Users Choose Senses in Bilingual Dictionary Entries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the task, an eye-tracking device unobtrusively recorded their gaze patterns, which are analyzed and discussed. Both successful and unsuccessful searches are examined. Also, we assess the potential of eye-tracking technology in the study of dictionary use. Keywords: eye tracking, bilingual dictionary, entry ...

  13. Kirkeby's English–Swahili Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    numbering in Arabic numerals only begins with the main text, Kirkeby starts off with Arabic numbering from the first page so that the main section of the dictionary only begins on page 13. Kirkeby (2000) ...... used variants. Since Swahili has dialects, variant pronunciations are inevitable. A pedagogical dictionary should aim ...

  14. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  15. Improving Dictionary Skills in Ndebele

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Ndebele. Samukele Hadebe, Department of African Languages and Literature,. University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe (samukeleh@yahoo.co.uk). Abstract: This article proposes ways of improving dictionary skills amongst the Ndebele. One way of accomplishing this is incorporating the teaching of dictionary skills into ...

  16. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freedman, D. N.; Noel, David; Myers, Allen; Beck, Astrid B.

    2000-01-01

    The Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible gathers nearly 5,000 alphabetically ordered articles that thoroughly yet clearly explain all the books, persons, places, and significant terms found in the Bible. The Dictionary also explores the background of each biblical book and related writings and discusses

  17. Improving Dictionary Skills in Ndebele

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    There are schools with no library and thou- sands others far from acquiring their ... prepare the ground for a discussion of problems likely to face the Ndebele lan- guage student. As stated earlier, teaching dictionary skills is part of language teaching. Alphabetic ordering in dictionaries should be discussed as well as its pur-.

  18. Sparse decompositions in 'incoherent' dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, R.; Nielsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    a unique sparse representation in such a dictionary. In particular, it is proved that the result of Donoho and Huo, concerning the replacement of a combinatorial optimization problem with a linear programming problem when searching for sparse representations, has an analog for dictionaries that may...

  19. Subtitle Overlooked: Madame Bovary and the Dictionary of Accepted Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignac Fock

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is an intertextual study of Flaubert’s novel Madame Bovary and his fragmentary, posthumously published work Dictionary of Accepted Ideas. By listing examples of thematic parallelisms as well as those in formulation, the author proves the presence of certain sociological, historical and literary patterns which are, almost theoretically, concretized as accepted ideas in the Dictionary whereas in a novelistic form, they shape a kind of “social scenery”, paraphrased also by the subtitle of Madame Bovary: Patterns of Provincial Life. He consequently warns that Madame Bovary is not (merely a novel about Emma Bovary whose story is, furthermore, given a meaning, if not even justified, only by the mentioned patterns of provincial life. In Flaubert’s work, conceptualisation and literarisation of the “universally acknowledged” are simultaneous and no temporal priority can thus be discussed. However, in Madame Bovary it is precisely under the form of social scenery that is reproduced the concise satire of the Dictionary, the latter being therefore perceived by the author as a cross section and a synthesis of the novelist’s entire work as well as a complementary reading to this particular novel.

  20. Dictionary of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel-Marie

    2006-01-01

    This book comes out of need and urgency (expressed especially in areas of Information Retrieval with respect to Image, Audio, Internet and Biology) to have a working tool to compare data.The book will provide powerful resource for all researchers using Mathematics as well as for mathematicians themselves. In the time when over-specialization and terminology fences isolate researchers, this Dictionary try to be ""centripedal"" and ""oikoumeni"", providing some access and altitude of vision but without taking the route of scientific vulgarisation. This attempted balance is the main philosophy

  1. Corner Office Interviews: Oxford's Casper Grathwohl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncevic, Mirela

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Casper Grathwohl, VP and publisher of reference at Oxford University Press (OUP), regarding his background of reference publishing, his role in OUP, and his plans of moving on with Oxford Bibliographies Online (OBO). Over the past 12 years, Grathwohl, has led a successful transition of the venerable…

  2. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries....... The result is that the traditional focus on language system will be extended to usage because the central unit of translation is not the word but the text....... treat one or few fields extensively thereby neglecting the discourse of the other fields. Furthermore, recent research shows that specialised translation is not limited to terms but also concerns domain-specific syntactic structures and genre conventions using various translation strategies. To meet...

  3. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  4. Leadership Styles of Oxford House Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A; Harvey, Ronald; Olson, Brad

    Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire. Results showed that participants were more likely to use person-oriented behaviors above task-oriented actions. Transformational leadership was associated with higher outcomes than Transactional leadership. Implications for future research are discussed.

  5. The Oxford handbook of economic inequality. - Paperback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Smeeding, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality presents a challenging analysis of economic inequality, focusing primarily on economic inequality in highly-developed countries. This comprehensive and authoritative volume contains twenty-seven original contributions on topics ranging from gender to

  6. Pequeno glosario del nuevo lenguaje politico-social (A Concise Dictionary of New Sociopolitical Terms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D.

    1980-01-01

    Lists terms from current sociopolitical language, continuing from an earlier issue of "Yelmo" and covering the second half of the alphabet, "J" to "X". Provides definitions and context quotations for all items, and in some cases, notes on their historical origin. Includes borrowings from English and from some regional…

  7. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  8. NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dictionary of more than 150 genetics-related terms written for healthcare professionals, developed to support the comprehensive, evidence-based, peer-reviewed PDQ cancer genetics information summaries.

  9. Medical Dictionary: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/mplusdictionary.html Medical Dictionary To use the sharing features on this ... Search term GO GO Visit the tutorial, Understanding Medical Words You may also be interested in these ...

  10. Materials handbook: a concise desktop reference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardarelli, François

    2008-01-01

    ... and extensive interest in both science and technology, and excessive consumption of scientific and technical literature. François Cardarelli Dedication for the Second Edition The Materials Handbook: A Concise Desktop Reference is dedicated to my father, Antonio, and my mother, Claudine, to my sister, Elsa, and to my wife Elizabeth I.R. Cardarelli for thei...

  11. On the timelessness of music dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bergenholtz, Inger

    2007-01-01

    A music dictionary for the Internet serves the same functions as printed music dictionaries. An old music dictionary is as useful as a new one if its information is correct. But the fact that an Internet dictionary can at any time be corrected according to modern practices makes it, if not timele...... reception rather than translation or text production. It is described what was the starting point of the dictionary and in what way the possibilities of the Internet has influenced the concept and the content of the articles and the outer texts.......A music dictionary for the Internet serves the same functions as printed music dictionaries. An old music dictionary is as useful as a new one if its information is correct. But the fact that an Internet dictionary can at any time be corrected according to modern practices makes it, if not timeless...

  12. Seismic classification through sparse filter dictionaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickmann, Kyle Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Srinivasan, Gowri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-13

    We tackle a multi-label classi cation problem involving the relation between acoustic- pro le features and the measured seismogram. To isolate components of the seismo- grams unique to each class of acoustic pro le we build dictionaries of convolutional lters. The convolutional- lter dictionaries for the individual classes are then combined into a large dictionary for the entire seismogram set. A given seismogram is classi ed by computing its representation in the large dictionary and then comparing reconstruction accuracy with this representation using each of the sub-dictionaries. The sub-dictionary with the minimal reconstruction error identi es the seismogram class.

  13. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ...; Alexander, Stephen PH; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Buneman, O Peter; Catterall, William A; Cidlowski, John A; Davenport, Anthony P; Fabbro, Doriano; Fan, Grace; McGrath, John C; Spedding, Michael; Davies, Jamie A; Aldrich, R; Attali, B; Bäck, Ml; Barnes, NM; Bathgate, R; Beart, PM; Becirovic, E; Biel, M; Birdsall, NJ; Boison, D; Bräuner‐Osborne, H; Bröer, S; Bryant, C; Burnstock, G; Burris, T; Cain, D; Calo, G; Chan, SL; Chandy, KG; Chiang, N; Christakos, S; Christopoulos, A; Chun, JJ; Chung, J‐J; Clapham, DE; Connor, MA; Coons, L; Cox, HM; Dautzenberg, FM; Dent, G; Douglas, SD; Dubocovich, ML; Edwards, DP; Farndale, R; Fong, TM; Forrest, D; Fowler, CJ; Fuller, P; Gainetdinov, RR; Gershengorn, MA; Goldin, A; Goldstein, SAN; Grimm, SL; Grissmer, S; Gundlach, AL; Hagenbuch, B; Hammond, JR; Hancox, JC; Hartig, S; Hauger, RL; Hay, DL; Hébert, T; Hollenberg, AN; Holliday, ND; Hoyer, D; Ijzerman, AP; Inui, KI; Ishii, S; Jacobson, KA; Jan, LY; Jarvis, GE; Jensen, R; Jetten, A; Jockers, R; Kaczmarek, LK; Kanai, Y; Kang, HS; Karnik, S; Kerr, ID; Korach, KS; Lange, CA; Larhammar, D; Leeb‐Lundberg, F; Leurs, R; Lolait, SJ; Macewan, D; Maguire, JJ; May, JM; Mazella, J; Mcardle, CA; Mcdonnell, DP; Michel, MC

    2015-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug...

  14. Developing a distributed data dictionary service

    Science.gov (United States)

    U'Ren, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will explore the use of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) using the ISO 11179 Data Dictionary Schema as a mechanism for standardizing the structure and communication links between data dictionaries.

  15. The Southern Dutch dialect dictionaries | Kruijsen | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: lexicography, onomasiology, dialect geography, language variation, phonology, historical linguistics, dictionary, regional dictionary, word atlas, cartography, general vocabulary, agrarian terminology, terminology of traditional crafts, dialect, traditional dialect, flemish, brabant dialect, limburg dialect, dutch, the ...

  16. Concise encyclopedia of history of energy

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    "The Concise Encyclopedia of the History of Energy" draws together in a single volume a comprehensive account of the field from the prestigious and award-winning "Encyclopedia of Energy" (2004). This volume covers all aspects of energy history with authoritative articles authoritatively contributed and edited by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Extensively revised since the original publication of the "Encylopedia of Energy", this work describes the most interesting historical developments of the past five years in the energy sector. It is a concise desk reference for researchers and those interested in any aspect of the history of energy science. It provides eminently cost-effective access to some of the most interesting articles in "Encyclopedia of Energy". It is significantly revised to accommodate the latest trends in each field of enquiry.

  17. The Treatment of Terms Relating to Islam and the Arab World in English Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashan Al-Ajmi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article investigates the treatment of vocabulary items relating to Islam and the Arab world in three major English dictionaries: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Oxford Dictionary of English, and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. The three dictionaries are compared with regard to their inclusion of 73 Arabic items (including loanwords used in texts on Islam and the Middle East at the Google news file. With religion as theme, eight of these terms have been examined and compared across their entries in these three dictionaries to determine the closeness of the lexicographic description of these terms to their original meanings among native speakers of Arabic and to detect, from these speakers' viewpoint, any deficiencies in the defining language of their respective entries. The examination of the definitions of terms relating to Islam and the Arab world in the three dictionaries has revealed a number of pitfalls that may require editorial reconsideration. These include circularity, insufficient information, negative contexts, very general definitions, ambiguity, incomplete information, narrow definitions and encyclopedic re-dundancy.

    Keywords: ARABIC LOANWORDS, CULTURAL TERMS, DEFINITION, ISLAM, REPRE-SENTATION, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Die behandeling van terme betreffende Islam en die Arabie-se wêreld in Engelse woordeboeke. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die behandeling van woordeskatitems betreffende Islam en die Arabiese wêreld in drie vooraanstaande Engelse woor-deboeke: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Oxford Dictionary of English, en Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Die drie woordeboeke word vergelyk met betrekking tot hul opname van 73 Arabiese items (insluitende leenwoorde wat in tekste oor Islam en die Midde-Ooste in die Google-nuuslêers gebruik word. Met godsdiens as tema, is agt van hierdie terme ondersoek en vergelyk met hul inskrywing in dié drie woordeboeke om

  18. Balmer-Dominated Shocks: A Concise Review

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A concise and critical review of Balmer-dominated shocks (BDSs) is presented, summarizing the state of theory and observations, including models with/without shock precursors and their synergy with atomic physics. Observations of BDSs in supernova remnants are reviewed on an object-by-object basis. The relevance of BDSs towards understanding the acceleration of cosmic rays in shocks is emphasized. Probable and possible detections of BDSs in astrophysical objects other than supernova remnants,...

  19. Entry menus in bilingual electronic dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Robert; Tokarek, Patryk

    2010-01-01

    The study undertakes to assess the efficiency of entry menus in bilingual dictionaries in the electronic format. An experimental dictionary interface is tested for performance in terms of access speed and task success. The task underlying dictionary use is guided Polish-to-English translation, performed under three conditions by 90 Polish learners of English. The first version of the dictionary displays a complete polysemous entry immediately after an entry is selected. In the second version ...

  20. Dictionary Learning Algorithms for Sparse Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Murray, Joseph F.; Rao, Bhaskar D.; Engan, Kjersti; Lee, Te-Won; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2003-01-01

    Algorithms for data-driven learning of domain-specific overcomplete dictionaries are developed to obtain maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori dictionary estimates based on the use of Bayesian models with concave/Schur-concave (CSC) negative log priors. Such priors are appropriate for obtaining sparse representations of environmental signals within an appropriately chosen (environmentally matched) dictionary. The elements of the dictionary can be interpreted as concepts, features, or wo...

  1. The Oxford handbook of economic inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Smeeding, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The essential guide for students and researchers interested in economic inequality Contains 27 original research contributions from the top names in economic inequality. The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality presents a new and challenging analysis of economic inequality, focusing primarily on

  2. Harry Judge and Oxford: College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Has Harry Judge's career reproduced in a lifetime the centuries-old history of Brasenose College and the University of Oxford? His biography and the history of his college in relation to Christian belief and modern university reform are briefly recapitulated. All tell a story of adaptation and modernisation, the man short, the college long, the…

  3. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  4. Methods in Lexicography and Dictionary Research | Schierholz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods are used in every stage of dictionary-making and in every scientific analysis which is carried out in the field of dictionary research. This article presents some general considerations on methods in philosophy of science, gives an overview of many methods used in linguistics, in lexicography, dictionary research as ...

  5. Pragmatics, Lexicography and Dictionaries of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgusta, Ladislav

    1988-01-01

    Details a history of the term "pragmatics" and how it influences lexicography. Three pragmatic aspects of dictionaries are discussed, including: 1) the cultural setting; 2) equivalence in bilingual dictionaries; 3) the lexicographic definition. Lexicographic definitions illustrate how a dictionary is largely based on pragmatics. (Author/LMO)

  6. Dictionnaire de Fulfulde (Fulfulde Dictionary). Trainee's Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Andreliz; And Others

    This dictionary of Fulani (Fulfulde) is designed for Peace Corps volunteers serving in Niger, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. A brief introduction to pronouns and verb endings precedes the dictionary text. The dictionary is presented in two sections. The first lists English words alphabetically and their translations in…

  7. Expectation Levels in Dictionary Consultation and Compilation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionary consultation and compilation is a two-way engagement between two parties, namely a dictionary user and a lexicographer. How well users cope with looking up words in a Bantu language dictionary and to what extent their expectations are met, depends on their consultation skills, their knowledge of the structure ...

  8. Example Sentences in Bilingual School Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Dictionaries are written for a specific user group and the content and presentation must therefore be directed/aimed at that specific target group. In the past dictionaries were often compiled without the lexicographers really taking time and researching the intended users and their specific needs. School dictionaries ...

  9. Chinese-English Nuclear and Physics Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. Foreign Technology Div.

    The Nuclear and Physics Dictionary is one of a series of Chinese-English technical dictionaries prepared by the Foreign Technology Division, United States Air Force Systems Command. The purpose of this dictionary is to provide rapid reference tools for translators, abstractors, and research analysts concerned with scientific and technical…

  10. Dictionary Quality and Dictionary Design: A Methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    prominently in either the dictionary design process, nor in current meta- lexicographic ... construction and empirical testing, but on its own it is not enough to elucidate the real ..... Develop: During this phase a first/concept draft of the final document is .... set by the mediating variables that impact on its functional quality.

  11. How Dictionary Users Choose Senses in Bilingual Dictionary Entries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: We use modern eye-tracking technology to scrutinize the process of sense and equivalent selection in polysemous bilingual entries. Our study subjects, intermediate and advanced Polish learners of English, consulted 26 Polish-to-English dictionary pages prompted with a sentence translation task. Throughout the ...

  12. Compressed Sensing with Rank Deficient Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Johansen, Daniel Højrup; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    In compressed sensing it is generally assumed that the dictionary matrix constitutes a (possibly overcomplete) basis of the signal space. In this paper we consider dictionaries that do not span the signal space, i.e. rank deficient dictionaries. We show that in this case the signal-to-noise ratio...... (SNR) in the compressed samples can be increased by selecting the rows of the measurement matrix from the column space of the dictionary. As an example application of compressed sensing with a rank deficient dictionary, we present a case study of compressed sensing applied to the Coarse Acquisition (C...

  13. Dictionary criticism and lexicographical function theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses dictionary criticism in the light of the function theory. It starts analyzing the objective of dictionary criticism and lists eight of the most important purposes with which criticism has been made by supporters of the function theory. It then discusses the two main...... types of dictionary criticism, namely criticism of other authors’ dictionaries and self-criticism of one’s own dictionaries. Based on this discussion, it proceeds to a definition of the concept of dictionary criticism which is above all considered a theory-based activity, the outcome of which may...... by the supporters of the function theory, and the way it could be presented in order to create debate. Finally, the contribution indicates the important role dictionary criticism has had in the development of the function theory and endorses an open and critical discussion culture within lexicography....

  14. Sentiment Polarity Analysis based multi-dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Zhou, Yanquan

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for Chinese online reviews, which identifies sentiment polarity. To determine the sentence is negative or positive, we extracted opinion words and identified their opinion targets by CRFs and establish the absolute emotional dictionary (AbED), the relative emotional dictionary (ReED), the field of emotional dictionary (FiED) and the field of targets and opinion words dictionary (TfED). With those emotional dictionary, negative dictionary and modified dictionary, we achieved an effective algorithm to discriminate sentiment polarity by multi-string pattern matching algorithm. For evaluation, we used car online reviews, hotel online reviews and computer online reviews which annotated positive or negative. Experimental results show that our proposed method has made a higher precision and recall rate.

  15. A Kurdish-English Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahby, Taufiq; Edmonds, C.J.

    The Kurdish of this dictionary is the standard language of belles-lettres, journalism, official and private correspondence, and formal speech of the Southern-Kirmanji dialect of Sulaimani in Iraq. It is the language adopted in Persia for Kurdish broadcasts and government-sponsored publications. Borrowings from Northern Kirmanji, Mukri, Sanandaji,…

  16. Cache-oblivious String Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    We present static cache-oblivious dictionary structures for strings which provide analogues of tries and suffix trees in the cache-oblivious model. Our construction takes as input either a set of strings to store, a single string for which all suffixes are to be stored, a trie, a compressed trie...

  17. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  18. STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS AND BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALONE, KEMP

    A STRUCTURAL, LINGUISTIC APPROACH TO BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DESCRIBED. DETAILED DISCUSSIONS WERE INCLUDED FOR USES OF MORPHEMES, MORPHEMIC SEQUENCES, PHONEMES, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS, AND ALLOPHONES. THIS REPORT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF 13 PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE ON LEXICOGRAPHY, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, NOVEMBER 11-12, 1960. (GC)

  19. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  20. Concepts for monofunctional accounting dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2012-01-01

    up to now. They are normally constructed as polyfunctional tools trying to give help by different kind of cognitive and communicative problems. Outgoing from one database I discuss the conception for this database and for 22 different accounting dictionaries with the languages Danish, English...

  1. Mediostructures in bilingual LSP dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    the comprehension of texts. It is possible to show hierachical relationships (genus/species relation) between terms as well as sequential relations by way of cross-references. Examples taken from bilingual law dictionaries also show that cross-references can facilitate the use of synopsis articles and the placing...

  2. Compiling a Sign Language Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    As we began working on the Danish Sign Language (DTS) Dictionary, we soon realised the truth in the statement that a lexicographer has to deal with problems within almost any linguistic discipline. Most of these problems come down to establishing simple rules, rules that can easily be applied eve...

  3. Dictionaries compiled with French and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    1. Introduction. In present-day lexicography, there is a tendency to give an account of the underlying culture and civilization of the languages being described. However, reservations can be made with regard to an encyclopaedic bias. Too often lexi- cographers compiling dictionaries in the languages in question have been.

  4. Learning Category-Specific Dictionary and Shared Dictionary for Fine-Grained Image Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Ma, Yi

    2014-02-01

    This paper targets fine-grained image categorization by learning a category-specific dictionary for each category and a shared dictionary for all the categories. Such category-specific dictionaries encode subtle visual differences among different categories, while the shared dictionary encodes common visual patterns among all the categories. To this end, we impose incoherence constraints among the different dictionaries in the objective of feature coding. In addition, to make the learnt dictionary stable, we also impose the constraint that each dictionary should be self-incoherent. Our proposed dictionary learning formulation not only applies to fine-grained classification, but also improves conventional basic-level object categorization and other tasks such as event recognition. Experimental results on five data sets show that our method can outperform the state-of-the-art fine-grained image categorization frameworks as well as sparse coding based dictionary learning frameworks. All these results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  5. A Concise Contrastive Grammar of English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    Like the first edition, this second revised edition of the workbook is intended to be used together with A Concise Contrastive Grammar of English for Danish Students, which is a systematic and pedagogical introduction to English grammar for Danish students of English at bachelor level. The purpose...... of the workbook is to supply students and teachers with material which can be used in connection with the study of grammar. The workbook is organised so that each chapter in the grammar book matches a chapter in the workbook. There are exercises of many different kinds in the workbook. Some aim at explanation...

  6. Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Conradie, Willem

    2015-01-01

    A concise yet rigorous introduction to logic and discrete mathematics. This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade.  The chapters on logic - propositional and first-order - provide a robust toolkit for logical reasoning, emphasizing the conceptual understanding of the language and the semantics of classical logic as well as practical applications through the easy

  7. Concise Synthesis of v-Coelenterazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Takamitsu; Iimori, Rie; Yoshida, Suguru; Sumida, Yuto; Sahara-Miura, Yuiko; Sato, Jun-ichi; Inouye, Satoshi

    2015-08-07

    A novel synthetic method for v-coelenterazine (v-CTZ), which is a vinylene-bridged analog of native CTZ with a large red-shifted luminescence property, is described. The synthesis was achieved in a concise way through the use of three sequential cross-coupling reactions and ring-closing metathesis (RCM). A newly synthesized C2-modified trifluoromethyl analog cf3-v-CTZ showed slightly more red-shifted luminescence than v-CTZ when it was used as a substrate for Renilla luciferases.

  8. Digital Lexicographic Systems and Traditional Paper Dictionaries (From Traditional Paper Dictionaries to Digital Lexicographic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital Lexicographic Systems and Traditional Paper Dictionaries (From Traditional Paper Dictionaries to Digital Lexicographic Systems Main problems of modern lexicography are under analysis. The theory of lexicographical systems is presented as well as its applications for the description of the structure of lexicographical systems for new digital Ukrainian Explanatory Dictionary and Etymological Dictionary of Ukrainian Language. The concept of virtual lexicographical laboratories is presented. The implementation of two virtual lexicographical laboratories is given (the first for Ukrainian Explanatory Dictionary and next for Etymological Dictionary of Ukrainian Language.

  9. Issues in the planning of a multilingual explanatory dictionary of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... successful completion of the project, as well as favourable results, will verify the hypotheses that served as points of departure for the project. Keywords: chemistry; explanatory dictionary; multilingual dictionary; terminography; pedagogical dictionary; special-field dictionary; science and technology; translatory dictionary ...

  10. Explanatory Notes in LSP Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise

    2010-01-01

    for specific users and user situations (Tarp 2004) advocating user-oriented subject-matter information as a natural category of translation dictionaries. Via further operational tools for selection and specification of subject-matter data, like the recommendations for adapting definitions to non-experts made......) challenges the traditional terminology concept of 'definition' and suggests 'templates of understanding' with a varying number of modules of information for different units of understanding and different perspectives. The theory of lexicographic functions likewise operates with flexible dictionary concepts...... by Bo Svensén 2004 and the categorisation of elaborations and extensions in the van Leeuwen linking system (2005), it is demonstrated that the current framework can be specified and in that way open up for more consistent fields of subject-matter information as to both form and content.   Moreover...

  11. The Danish Sign Language Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The entries of the The Danish Sign Language Dictionary have four sections:  Entry header: In this section the sign headword is shown as a photo and a gloss. The first occurring location and handshape of the sign are shown as icons.  Video window: By default the base form of the sign headword...... function signs) and mouth movement, cross-references to synonyms etc., information about restricted use, and example sentences. Semantically opaque compounds with the sign are shown below the regular meanings.  Additional information: This section holds cross-references to homonyms and to common frozen...... forms of the sign (only for classifier entries). In addition to this, frequent co-occurrences with the sign are shown in this section. The signs in the The Danish Sign Language Dictionary can be looked up through:  Handshape: Particular handshapes for the active and the passive hand can be specified...

  12. Resensies / Reviews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    latest updated computerized databases of the Oxford English dictionaries. This has enabled the compilers to include such topical entries as ethnic cleansing, karaoke, pixel, toy boy and virtual reality. Comparing this 'pocket' dictionary with myoid 1964 edition of the Concise. Oxford Dictionary (whicI:t is about the same size), ...

  13. A Dictionary of Disaster Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier; Dahlberg, Rasmus

    A Dictionary of Disaster Management offers over 200 terms covering different disasters from a social science perspective, brining together insights from many different disciplines including sociology, political science, history, anthropology, and natural science. It also features practical terms......, key concepts in disaster research, and important organizations involved in disaster management. Terms include famine, disaster diplomacy, gender intersectionality, and humanitarian principles allowing readers to access definitions on the most important topics within this developing field...

  14. Bootstrapping pronunciation dictionaries: practical issues

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available speaker and verified by the authors. Based on ear- lier experience with dictionary developers who are more error prone [5], we artificially corrupted a fraction of these transcrip- tions and then measured the efficiency of the number-of-words 3That is..., a language with a very regular mapping between phonemes and graphemes. guideline to indicate the words with corrupted transcriptions. We introduced two types of corruptions into the transcriptions: ? Systematic corruptions reflect the fact...

  15. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    The quantity of numbered minor planets has now well exceeded a quarter million. The new sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, which is the IAU’s official reference work for the field, now covers more than 17,000 named minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names provides authoritative information on the basis of the rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to artists, from scientists to Nobel laureates, from historical or political figures to ordinary women and men, from mountains to buildings, as well as a variety of compound terms and curiosities. This sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names has grown by more than 7,000 entries compared to the fifth edition and by more than 2,000 compared to the fifth edition, including its two addenda published in 2006 and 2009. In addition, there are many  corrections, revisions and updates to the entries published in earlier editions....

  16. Basic theoretical physics a concise overview

    CERN Document Server

    Krey, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    This concise treatment embraces, in four parts, all the main aspects of theoretical physics (I . Mechanics and Basic Relativity, II. Electrodynamics and Aspects of Optics, III. Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, IV. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics). It summarizes the material that every graduate student, physicist working in industry, or physics teacher should master during his or her degree course. It thus serves both as an excellent revision and preparation tool, and as a convenient reference source, covering the whole of theoretical physics. It may also be successfully employed to deepen its readers' insight and add new dimensions to their understanding of these fundamental concepts. Recent topics such as holography and quantum cryptography are included, thus making this a unique contribution to the learning material for theoretical physics.

  17. A concise guide to chaotic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buscarino, Arturo; Frasca, Mattia; Sciuto, Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides a source of instruction from which students can be taught about the practicalities of designing and using chaotic circuits. The text provides information on suitable materials, circuit design and schemes for design realization. Readers are then shown how to reproduce experiments on chaos and to design new ones. The text guides the reader easily from the basic idea of chaos to the laboratory test providing an experimental basis that can be developed for such applications as secure communications. This brief provides introductory information on sample chaotic circuits, includes coverage of their development, and the “gallery” section provides information on a wide range of circuits. Concise Guide to Chaotic Electronic Circuits will be useful to anyone running a laboratory class involving chaotic circuits and to students wishing to learn about them.

  18. A Weighted Block Dictionary Learning Algorithm for Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zhongrong

    2016-01-01

    Discriminative dictionary learning, playing a critical role in sparse representation based classification, has led to state-of-the-art classification results. Among the existing discriminative dictionary learning methods, two different approaches, shared dictionary and class-specific dictionary, which associate each dictionary atom to all classes or a single class, have been studied. The shared dictionary is a compact method but with lack of discriminative information; the class-specific dict...

  19. The concise guide to pharmacology 2017/18: Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil V.; Peters, John A.; Faccenda, Elena; Harding, Simon D.; Pawson, Adam J.; Sharman, Joanna L.; Southan, Christopher; Buneman, O. Peter; Cidlowski, John A.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Davenport, Anthony P.; Fabbro, Doriano; Spedding, Michael; Striessnig, Jörg; Davies, Jamie A.; Abbracchio, M.-P.; Aldrich, R.; Al-Hosaini, K.; Arumugam, T. V.; Attali, B.; Bäck, M.; Barnes, N. M.; Bathgate, R.; Beart, P. M.; Becirovic, E.; Bettler, B.; Biel, M.; Birdsall, N. J.; Blaho, V.; Boison, D.; Bräuner-Osborne, H.; Bröer, S.; Bryant, C.; Burnstock, G.; Calo, G.; Catterall, W. A.; Ceruti, S.; Chan, S. L.; Chandy, K. G.; Chazot, P.; Chiang, N.; Chun, J. J.; Chung, J.-J.; Clapham, D. E.; Clapp, L.; Connor, M. A.; Cox, H. M.; Davies, P.; Dawson, P. A.; Decaen, P.; Dent, G.; Doherty, P.; Douglas, S. D.; Dubocovich, M. L.; Fong, T. M.; Fowler, C. J.; Frantz, A.; Fuller, P.; Fumagalli, M.; Futerman, A. H.; Gainetdinov, R. R.; Gershengorn, M. A.; Goldin, A.; Goldstein, San; Goudet, C.; Gregory, K.; Grissmer, S.; Gundlach, A. L.; Hagenbuch, B.; Hamann, Jörg; Hammond, J. R.; Hancox, J. C.; Hanson, J.; Hanukoglu, I.; Hay, D. L.; Hobbs, A. J.; Hollenberg, A. N.; Holliday, N. D.; Hoyer, D.; IJzerman, A. P.; Inui, K. I.; Irving, A. J.; Ishii, S.; Jacobson, K. A.; Jan, L. Y.; Jarvis, M. F.; Jensen, R.; Jockers, R.; Kaczmarek, L. K.; Kanai, Y.; Karnik, S.; Kellenberger, S.; Kemp, Stephan; Kennedy, C.; Kerr, I. D.; Kihara, Y.; Kukkonen, J.; Larhammar, D.; Leach, K.; Lecca, D.; Leeman, S.; Leprince, J.; Lolait, S. J.; MacEwan, D.; Maguire, J. J.; Marshall, F.; Mazella, J.; McArdle, C. A.; Michel, M. C.; Miller, L. J.; Mitolo, V.; Mizuno, H.; Monk, P. N.; Mouillac, B.; Murphy, P. M.; Nahon, J.-L.; Nerbonne, J.; Nichols, C. G.; Norel, X.; Offermanns, S.; Palmer, L. G.; Panaro, M. A.; Papapetropoulos, A.; Perez-Reyes, E.; Pertwee, R. G.; Pintor, S.; Pisegna, J. R.; Plant, L. D.; Poyner, D. R.; Prossnitz, E. R.; Pyne, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Ren, D.; Rondard, P.; Ruzza, C.; Sackin, H.; Sanger, G.; Sanguinetti, M. C.; Schild, L.; Schiöth, H.; Schulte, G.; Schulz, S.; Segaloff, D. L.; Serhan, C. N.; Singh, K. D.; Slesinger, P. A.; Snutch, T. P.; Sobey, C. G.; Stewart, G.; Stoddart, L. A.; Summers, R. J.; Szabo, C.; Thwaites, D.; Toll, L.; Trimmer, J. S.; Tucker, S.; Vaudry, H.; Verri, T.; Vilargada, J.-P.; Waldman, S. A.; Ward, D. T.; Waxman, S. G.; Wei, A. D.; Willars, G. B.; Wong, S. S.; Woodruff, T. M.; Wulff, H.; Ye, R. D.; Yung, Y.; Zajac, J.-M.

    2017-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2017/18 is the third in this series of biennial publications. This version provides concise overviews of the key properties of nearly 1800 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to an open access knowledgebase of

  20. Review of "A Dictionary of Global Huayu"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the first Huayu dictionary published by the Commercial Press, "A Dictionary of Global Huayu" (Chinese Language) did a pioneer work in many aspects. It did expand the influence of Chinese and provided Chinese speaker abroad a valuable reference book for study and communication. Nevertheless, there are still some demerits. First of all,…

  1. Getting the Most out of the Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckwardt, Albert H.

    2012-01-01

    The usefulness of the dictionary as a reliable source of information for word meanings, spelling, and pronunciation is widely recognized. But even in these obvious matters, the information that the dictionary has to offer is not always accurately interpreted. With respect to pronunciation there seem to be two general pitfalls: (1) the…

  2. Compiling Specialised Dictionaries in African Languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the challenges encountered in the compilation of Isichazamazwi SezoMculo, a Ndebele dictionary of musical terms, henceforth the ISM and the strategies that were used to deal with the respective challenges. The article notes that the experience of the compilers of the dictionary in question is similar to ...

  3. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries,.. II: Inverse estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    In this paper we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for separated decomposable dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal mutually...

  4. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries. II. Inverse Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, which is the sequel to [16], we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for blockwise incoherent dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block...

  5. On Monolingual Dictionaries and Child Language Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He advocates for the development of monolingual dictionaries to stem "… the chaotic nature of language acquisition by the modern African child." In this paper we set out to discuss a few of Amfani's exciting claims about the lexicon, the dictionary, second language acquisition, child language acquisition and child language ...

  6. Linguistic and Cultural Strategies in ELT Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrius, Montse; Pujol, Didac

    2010-01-01

    There are three main types of ELT dictionaries: monolingual, bilingual, and bilingualized. Each type of dictionary, while having its own advantages, also hinders the learning of English as a foreign language and culture in so far as it is written from a homogenizing (linguistic- and culture-centric) perspective. This paper presents a new type of…

  7. Devices for Information Presentation in Electronic Dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For highly complex situations, we suggest guidance through a decision tree-like device. We assume that the solutions proposed here are not specific to one language only but can, after careful analysis, be applied to e-dictionaries in different languages across the world. Keywords: Electronic Dictionaries; User Guidance; ...

  8. Bilingual Dictionaries, the Lexicographer and the Translator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This article focuses on the problems, and advantages and disadvantages of the bilingual dictionary from both the lexicographer's and the translator's point of view, with specific reference to bilingual Zulu dictionaries. It is shown that there are many and varying problems the lexicographer has to deal with and take ...

  9. Bilingual Dictionaries and Communicative Equivalence for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speakers in a multilingual society often employ a bilingual dictionary as the only instrument to meet their lexicographic needs. This implies that a bilingual dictionary becomes a poly functional instrument, presenting more information than just translation equivalents. This article focuses on the contents and the presentation ...

  10. From Polyfunctional to Monofunctional Accounting Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the theoretical foundation of the accounting dictionaries as well as its practical results. Furthermore, the implementation of the project shows how the constant interaction of lexicographical theory with practical dictionary work over a period of 10 years has led to lexicographical development and ...

  11. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  12. Notes on Compiling a Corpus- Based Dictionary*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    useful in the compilation of a dictionary. Thus, a brief survey of some of the major steps of dic- tionary compilation is presented here, supplemented by the original Czech data, analyzed in their raw, though semiotically classified form. Keywords: MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES, CORPUS LEXICOGRAPHY, SYNTAG-.

  13. The Compilation of Bilingual Dictionaries between African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    The Compilation of Bilingual. Dictionaries between African. Languages in South Africa: The Case of Northern Sotho and. Tshivenda*. Kwena J. Mashamaite, Department of Northern Sotho, University of the. North, Pietersburg, Republic of South Africa. (mashamaitek@unin.unorth.ac.za). Abstract: Bilingual dictionaries ...

  14. Igbo Technical Dictionary Compilation: A Stimulating Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning through bookshelves in university/college libraries or bookstands in bookshops for written materials on Igbo language and culture, one would easily discover that Igbo dictionaries are the least available. In spite of the indispensable pedagogical role, which dictionaries generally play in the learning process at all ...

  15. Translating Culture in Bilingual Dictionaries | Kotze | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, some conclusions resulting from a comparative survey of some South African dictionaries are drawn, specifically with regard to bi- and trilingual dictionaries in which Afrikaans, English, Japanese, Xhosa and Zulu combine as macrostructural components. After relating the act of translating in the various ...

  16. On development of “smart” dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available On development of “smart” dictionaries The paper discusses the need for development of intelligent dictionaries that allow for two-way interaction with its users. Theoretical ground for such development is suggested. Practical implementation as LexSite lexical resource is shown, concepts for further improvement of the efficiency are proposed.

  17. Monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries | Gouws | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevant lexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function merging are introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-based approach to dictionary usage. Keywords: bilingual dictionary ...

  18. Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract: Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms, including legal terms relating to civil lawsuits. The existing literature provides general discussions of scientific and tech- nical terms in ordinary dictionaries but does not specifically address the inclusion of legal terms. This study examines four general ...

  19. The concept of a bilingual dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2005-01-01

    of the concept of a bilingual dictionary. It is evident that most people has an intuitive idea of what is meant by «bilingual dictionary». But science-based lexicographic theory - at least if it wants to be considered as such - must go beyond intuition and furnish precise definitions of the concepts used...... in the framework of this theory. Surprisingly, this is not the case. Although the theoretical literature provides a number of definitions given by various lexicographers, these definitions vary a lot and are often inconsistent and in contradiction with other definitions given by the same authors. In the following...... chapters, various definitions will be discussed and related to dictionary practice and, subsequently, the very concept of a bilingual dictionary will be examined in the light of a dictionary typology based upon the modern theory of lexicographic functions....

  20. Dictionary Networking in an LSP Learning Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    and usage of a subject-field, particularly when they have to read, write or translate domain-specific texts. The modern theory of dictionary functions presented in Bergenholtz and Tarp (2002) opens up exciting new possibilities for theoretical and practical lexicography and encourages lexicographers...... text production, but discusses an individual dictionary for a particular function. It is shown that in a general context of learning accounting and its relevant LSP with a view to writing or translating financial reporting texts, the modern theory of dictionary functions provides a good theoretical...... and practical basis. This paper describes how the study of communication-oriented and cognitive-oriented functions may lead to the creation of a network of four on-line accounting dictionaries for learning accounting and its LSP. The dictionary network described consists of two monolingual and two bilingual...

  1. Dictionary criticism in Scandinavian lexicographic journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    is that dictionary reviews in LexicoNordica are academic writings of a high quality structured as proper scholarly papers, include in-text citations and bibliographies, and often refer to existing lexicographic or other scholarly literature in support of reviewer arguments and discussions. This broad approach allows......Dictionary criticism has a long tradition in the Nordic countries in for instance academic journals and newspapers. In order to limit the scope of the paper, the examination of dictionary reviews in the Nordic countries is restricted to the Nordic lexicographic journal Lexico......Nordica. The examination shows that there is great variation in the way reviewers write their critiques, and reviewers address many relevant topics and do not focus on one or two topics. Another characteristic of dictionary criticism in LexicoNordica is that reviewers often compare the dictionary under review with other...

  2. MUMFORD, Stephen. Metaphysics: a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Mendes Rocha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MUMFORD, Stephen. Metaphysics: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2012. 1ª Ed. 113 pp ISBN 978-0-19-965712-4.Este pequeno livro apresenta-se como uma notável introdução à metafísica. Escrito pelo filósofo e professor de metafísica da Universidade de Notthingham, Stephen Mumford, o livro Metaphysics: a very short introduction compõe uma coleção editada pela Oxford University Press que já conta com mais de trezentos volumes publicados. Em cerca de uma centena de páginas Mumford apresenta de maneira introdutória os principais temas das discussões contemporâneas sobre metafísica.

  3. Dictionary of hydrogeology; Hydrogeologisches Woerterbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C.; Glaesser, W. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Hydrogeologie; Hoelting, B.

    2000-07-01

    The dictionary presents the terminology of hydrogeology and related fields. Most terms refer to water, i.e. development, distribution and characteristics of bodies of water, as well as their utilisation and protection. This includes references to environmental aspects, to process engineering in the water sector, and to mining. The definitions are based on the use of terminology in current literature, standards, technical guides, rules and regulations, worksheets and specifications and in water management and legislation. Terms used in the former German Democratic Republic were edited and included. The dictionary addresses scientists, practical experts and interested lay readers in Germany and other German-speaking countries. [German] Vorliegendes Woerterbuch enthaelt Fachbegriffe, die im Zusammenhang mit hydrogeologischen Arbeiten unter Einbeziehung wissenschaftlicher Nachbardisziplinen stehen. Dabei handelt es sich vor allem um Begriffe zum Wasserkreislauf, d.h. zur Entstehung, Verbreitung und Beschaffenheit von Gewaessern sowie deren Nutzung und Schutz. Hierzu gehoeren auch Begriffe mit Bezuegen zur Umwelt, zur Verfahrenstechnik der Wasserwirtschaft und zum Bergbau. Die Begriffe wurden nach ihrem Verstaendnis in der aktuellen Literatur, in Normen, Richtlinien, Regeln, Arbeits- und Merkblaettern, nach ihrer wasserwirtschaftlichen und wasserrechtlichen Anwendung definiert. Begriffe aus der frueheren DDR wurden angeglichen. Das Woerterbuch ist gleichermassen fuer Wissenschaftler, Praktiker und hydrogeologisch interessierte Laien in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, aber auch fuer das gesamte deutschsprachige Ausland bestimmt. (orig.)

  4. Topological structure of dictionary graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuks, Henryk; Krzeminski, Mark [Department of Mathematics, Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario L2S 3A1 (Canada)], E-mail: hfuks@brocku.ca

    2009-09-18

    We investigate the topological structure of the subgraphs of dictionary graphs constructed from WordNet and Moby thesaurus data. In the process of learning a foreign language, the learner knows only a subset of all words of the language, corresponding to a subgraph of a dictionary graph. When this subgraph grows with time, its topological properties change. We introduce the notion of the pseudocore and argue that the growth of the vocabulary roughly follows decreasing pseudocore numbers-that is, one first learns words with a high pseudocore number followed by smaller pseudocores. We also propose an alternative strategy for vocabulary growth, involving decreasing core numbers as opposed to pseudocore numbers. We find that as the core or pseudocore grows in size, the clustering coefficient first decreases, then reaches a minimum and starts increasing again. The minimum occurs when the vocabulary reaches a size between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4}. A simple model exhibiting similar behavior is proposed. The model is based on a generalized geometric random graph. Possible implications for language learning are discussed.

  5. Topological structure of dictionary graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukś, Henryk; Krzemiński, Mark

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the topological structure of the subgraphs of dictionary graphs constructed from WordNet and Moby thesaurus data. In the process of learning a foreign language, the learner knows only a subset of all words of the language, corresponding to a subgraph of a dictionary graph. When this subgraph grows with time, its topological properties change. We introduce the notion of the pseudocore and argue that the growth of the vocabulary roughly follows decreasing pseudocore numbers—that is, one first learns words with a high pseudocore number followed by smaller pseudocores. We also propose an alternative strategy for vocabulary growth, involving decreasing core numbers as opposed to pseudocore numbers. We find that as the core or pseudocore grows in size, the clustering coefficient first decreases, then reaches a minimum and starts increasing again. The minimum occurs when the vocabulary reaches a size between 103 and 104. A simple model exhibiting similar behavior is proposed. The model is based on a generalized geometric random graph. Possible implications for language learning are discussed.

  6. A Bilingualised English Dictionary for Catalan Speakers | Corrius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a monolingual learner's dictionary with those of a bilingual dictionary was designed and introduced into some Catalan primary and secondary schools: the Easy English Dictionary with a Catalan–English Vocabulary. This article looks in detail at this new kind of dictionary: its philosophy, the way it functions, its advantages ...

  7. Subject-field components as integrated parts of LSP dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    the introduction of subject-field components in dictionaries. Dictionary functions are communication-orientated or cognition-orientated, and the lexicographers must identify the relevant functions and select and present the data so that the dictionary satisfies the needs of the users. The optimal dictionary...... contains aided fully integrated subject-field components that supplement and complement the data included in the articles....

  8. A Bilingualised English Dictionary for Catalan Speakers | Corrius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a new type of dictionary which combines the strong points of a monolingual learner's dictionary with those of a bilingual dictionary was designed and introduced into some Catalan primary and secondary schools: the Easy English Dictionary with a Catalan–English Vocabulary. This article looks in detail at this new kind of ...

  9. The Ideology of the Perfect Dictionary: How Efficient Can a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Not only have dictionary sales dramatically increased, but the variety of dictionaries and the competition between editors are also very much on the rise. Monolingual dictionaries attract native speakers for several ... Is the concept of a perfect dictionary a reality or an ideal? There is no perfect student. Language learners, for ...

  10. Discriminative Bayesian Dictionary Learning for Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Shafait, Faisal; Mian, Ajmal

    2016-12-01

    We propose a Bayesian approach to learn discriminative dictionaries for sparse representation of data. The proposed approach infers probability distributions over the atoms of a discriminative dictionary using a finite approximation of Beta Process. It also computes sets of Bernoulli distributions that associate class labels to the learned dictionary atoms. This association signifies the selection probabilities of the dictionary atoms in the expansion of class-specific data. Furthermore, the non-parametric character of the proposed approach allows it to infer the correct size of the dictionary. We exploit the aforementioned Bernoulli distributions in separately learning a linear classifier. The classifier uses the same hierarchical Bayesian model as the dictionary, which we present along the analytical inference solution for Gibbs sampling. For classification, a test instance is first sparsely encoded over the learned dictionary and the codes are fed to the classifier. We performed experiments for face and action recognition; and object and scene-category classification using five public datasets and compared the results with state-of-the-art discriminative sparse representation approaches. Experiments show that the proposed Bayesian approach consistently outperforms the existing approaches.

  11. Practical IT service management a concise guide for busy executives

    CERN Document Server

    Thejendra, BS

    2008-01-01

    Practical IT Service Management is a clear, concise and to the point guide to implementing IT service management (ITSM). It is based on ITIL Version 3, one of the most widely accepted best-practice approaches to ITSM

  12. A Bilingualised English Dictionary for Catalan Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Corrius

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: In view of the benefits of both monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, a new type of dictionary which combines the strong points of a monolingual learner's dictionary with those of a bilingual dictionary was designed and introduced into some Catalan primary and secondary schools: the Easy English Dictionary with a Catalan–English Vocabulary. This article looks in detail at this new kind of dictionary: its philosophy, the way it functions, its advantages over other kinds of dictionaries and the fact that the monolingual part is specifically aimed at Catalan learners of English. Additionally, the article deals with the pedagogical functions of illustrations as well as the adequacy of the dictionary to the lexical needs and requirements of Catalan learners of English in primary and secondary education.

    OPSOMMING: 'n Tweetalig verklarende Engelse woordeboek vir sprekers van Katalaans. Gesien die voordele van sowel eentalige as tweetalige woordeboeke, is 'n nuwe soort woordeboek wat die sterk punte van 'n eentalige aanleerderswoordeboek met dié van 'n tweetalige woordeboek kombineer, ontwerp en ingevoer in sekere Katalaanse primêre en sekondêre skole: die Easy English Dictionary with a Catalan–English Vocabulary. Hierdie artikel kyk in besonderhede na dié nuwe soort woordeboek: sy filosofie, die manier waarop dit funksioneer, sy voordele bo ander soorte woordeboeke en die feit dat die eentalige deel spesifiek gerig is op Katalaanse aanleerders van Engels. Daarbenewens behandel die artikel die opvoedkundige funksies van illustrasies, asook die leksikale behoeftes en vereistes van Katalaanse aanleerders van Engels in die primêre en sekondêre onderwys.

    Sleutelwoorde: VREEMDETAALAANLEER, TWEETALIG VERKLARENDE WOORDEBOEKE, ILLUSTRASIES, GLOKALISERING, OPVOEDKUNDIGE DEFINISIES, KATALAANSE AANLEERDERS VAN ENGELS, LEKSIKOGRAFIE

  13. Unsupervised dictionary learning with Fisher discriminant for clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mai; Dong, Haoyu; Chen, Chen; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel Fisher discriminant unsupervised dictionary learning (FD-UDL) approach, for improving the clustering performance of state-of-the-art dictionary learning approaches in unsupervised scenarios. This is achieved by employing a novel Fisher discriminant criterion on dictionary elements to encourage the diversity between different sub-dictionaries, and also the coherence within each sub-dictionary. Such a discriminant is incorporated to formulate the optimization p...

  14. BILINGUAL ENGLISH-SERBIAN DICTIONARY OF SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Marković

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines principles of lexicographical standardization of bilingual English-Serbian dictionary of sports terminology. The issue is analyzed both from aspects of macro and microstructure of the dictionary. The part of macrostructure is divided into three sections: a. economy register segment choice, b. number of lexemes of general language fund, c. organization of lexical entries. The part of microstructure of the dictionary is also organised in three sections: a. term in native language, b. translational equivalent and c. definition of meaning.

  15. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  16. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Moe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

    Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die

  17. One Database, Four Monofunctional Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Inger; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    . If you go to a shop and ask for a saw, you have to specify fi rst what you are going to saw: a big tree or a small piece of plywood. After having explained that, you will be offered a monofunctional saw. So it should be too for information tool: A good tool is a tool designed for a certain function...... on musical terms mainly from the world of classical music, but also from commercial music and the so-called world music. The music dictionaries intend to be tools for music students in universities and music schools, for both amateurs and professional musicians and for every interested person who wants aid...... when reading texts on music or who wishes to get further information on musical terms and topics....

  18. Joyce M. Hawkins (Compiler). The South African Oxford School Diction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparing a dictionary for school children confronts the compiler with at least two problems. The first is how to simplify complex definitions, using a limited vocabulary; the second is what words to put in, and what to leave out. Indeed, how does one begin to assess what words South African school children· cur- rently live ...

  19. Sense-Analysis for a Historical Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. Comments are based on the compiling of A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue''. Paper presented at the Table Ronde de Lexicographie Historique, Florence, Italy, May 4, 1971. (DD)

  20. Parsing and Tagging of Binlingual Dictionary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Huanfeng; Karagol-Ayan, Burcu; Doermann, David S; Oard, Doug; Wang, Jianqiang

    2003-01-01

    Bilingual dictionaries hold great potential as a source of lexical resources for training and testing automated systems for optical character recognition, machine translation, and cross-language information retrieval...

  1. Dictionnaires et encyclopedies (Dictionaries and Encyclopedias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, Pierre

    1988-01-01

    Eight French dictionaries and encyclopedic reference books are reviewed, focusing on their formats, characteristics, and intended uses. They include references for language, geopolitics and economics, economic history, signs and symbols, and an almanac. (MSE)

  2. Monolingual Accounting Dictionaries for EFL Text Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types...... of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...... text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items...

  3. Compiling dictionaries using semantic domains | Moe | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

  4. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types...... of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...... text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items...

  5. Verifying pronunciation dictionaries using conflict analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ways: they perform a controlled experiment using artificially corrupted data (allowing us to measure precision and recall exactly); and then apply the technique to a real-world pronunciation dictionary, demonstrating its effectiveness in practice...

  6. An electronic dictionary of Danish Sign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Compiling sign language dictionaries has in the last 15 years changed from most often being simply collecting and presenting signs for a given gloss in the surrounding vocal language to being a complicated lexicographic task including all parts of linguistic analysis, i.e. phonology, phonetics......, morphology, syntax and semantics. In this presentation we will give a short overview of the Danish Sign Language dictionary project. We will further focus on lemma selection and some of the problems connected with lemmatisation....

  7. Dictionary of geophysics, astrophysics, and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Matzner, Richard A

    2001-01-01

    The Dictionary of Geophysics, Astrophysics, and Astronomy provides a lexicon of terminology covering fields such as astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, relativity, geophysics, meteorology, Newtonian physics, and oceanography. Authors and editors often assume - incorrectly - that readers are familiar with all the terms in professional literature. With over 4,000 definitions and 50 contributing authors, this unique comprehensive dictionary helps scientists to use terminology correctly and to understand papers, articles, and books in which physics-related terms appear.

  8. Dictionaries of Mexican Sexual Slang for NLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Villarejo-Martínez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the creation of two relevant resources for the double entendre and humour recognition problem in Mexican Spanish is described: a morphological dictionary and a semantic dictionary. These were created from two sources: a corpus of albures (drawn from “Antología del albur” book and a Mexican slang dictionary (“El chilangonario”. The morphological dictionary consists of 410 forms of words that corresponds to 350 lemmas. The semantic dictionary consists of 27 synsets that are associated to lemmas of morphological dictionary. Since both resources are based on Freeling library, they are easy to implement for tasks in Natural Language Processing. The motivation for this work comes from the need to address problems such as double entendre and computational humour. The usefulness of these disciplines has been discussed many times and it has been shown that they have a direct impact on user interfaces and, mainly, in human-computer interaction. This work aims to promote that the scientific community generates more resources about informal language in Spanish and other languages.

  9. The ideal number of lemmas in an ideal accounting dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Norddahl, Bjarni

    2014-01-01

    no clear rules or methods to avoid lemma flooding. Now we will try the same kind of analysis of log files for the English-Danish and the Danish-English Accounting Dictionaries. We see here that there are differences between different dictionaries (monolingual for English and Danish and bilingual...... dictionary entries which nobody reads. In Bergenholtz/Norddahl (2012) we showed that during a three-year period less than 33% of all dictionary articles out of 18 million dictionary consultations were consulted in a dictionary with 111.000 entries. We examined nine possible reasons why a given word might...... for English-Danish and Danish-English). We will try to give some explanations, but must admit beforehand that we have not found satisfying explanations which could lead to a plan for future accounting dictionaries or other economic dictionaries thus avoiding the production of never used dictionary articles....

  10. Seismic Signal Compression Using Nonparametric Bayesian Dictionary Learning via Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a seismic signal compression method based on nonparametric Bayesian dictionary learning method via clustering. The seismic data is compressed patch by patch, and the dictionary is learned online. Clustering is introduced for dictionary learning. A set of dictionaries could be generated, and each dictionary is used for one cluster’s sparse coding. In this way, the signals in one cluster could be well represented by their corresponding dictionaries. A nonparametric Bayesian dictionary learning method is used to learn the dictionaries, which naturally infers an appropriate dictionary size for each cluster. A uniform quantizer and an adaptive arithmetic coding algorithm are adopted to code the sparse coefficients. With comparisons to other state-of-the art approaches, the effectiveness of the proposed method could be validated in the experiments.

  11. Dictionaries and distributions: Combining expert knowledge and large scale textual data content analysis : Distributed dictionary representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Justin; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Boghrati, Reihane; Iskiwitch, Carol; Dehghani, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    Theory-driven text analysis has made extensive use of psychological concept dictionaries, leading to a wide range of important results. These dictionaries have generally been applied through word count methods which have proven to be both simple and effective. In this paper, we introduce Distributed Dictionary Representations (DDR), a method that applies psychological dictionaries using semantic similarity rather than word counts. This allows for the measurement of the similarity between dictionaries and spans of text ranging from complete documents to individual words. We show how DDR enables dictionary authors to place greater emphasis on construct validity without sacrificing linguistic coverage. We further demonstrate the benefits of DDR on two real-world tasks and finally conduct an extensive study of the interaction between dictionary size and task performance. These studies allow us to examine how DDR and word count methods complement one another as tools for applying concept dictionaries and where each is best applied. Finally, we provide references to tools and resources to make this method both available and accessible to a broad psychological audience.

  12. Making the Dictionary of the Frisian Language available in the Dutch historical dictionary portal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depuydt, Katrien; de Does, Jesse; Duijff, P.; Sijens, H.; Odijk, Jan; van Hessen, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the GTB-WFT project was to publish the the monumental Dictionary of the Frisian Language GTB-WFT (Wurdboek fan 'e Fryske Taal, WFT) in the CLARIN research infrastructure, according to open, CLARIN-compliant standards. This has been achieved by 1) curation of the dictionary data,

  13. Dictionary-enhanced imaging cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Antony; Schaak, Diane; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2017-02-01

    State-of-the-art high-throughput microscopes are now capable of recording image data at a phenomenal rate, imaging entire microscope slides in minutes. In this paper we investigate how a large image set can be used to perform automated cell classification and denoising. To this end, we acquire an image library consisting of over one quarter-million white blood cell (WBC) nuclei together with CD15/CD16 protein expression for each cell. We show that the WBC nucleus images alone can be used to replicate CD expression-based gating, even in the presence of significant imaging noise. We also demonstrate that accurate estimates of white blood cell images can be recovered from extremely noisy images by comparing with a reference dictionary. This has implications for dose-limited imaging when samples belong to a highly restricted class such as a well-studied cell type. Furthermore, large image libraries may endow microscopes with capabilities beyond their hardware specifications in terms of sensitivity and resolution. We call for researchers to crowd source large image libraries of common cell lines to explore this possibility.

  14. Meaning Discrimination in Bilingual Venda Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munzhedzi James Mafela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Venda, one of the minority languages in South Africa, has few dictionaries. All are translational bilingual dictionaries meant for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with equivalents which they cannot distinguish. In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not helpful for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Devices such as giving illustrative examples, indicating parts of speech and adding etymology could be used to solve the problem of meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries. This article highlights the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination and suggests solutions to future Venda lexico-graphers in this regard.


    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, MEANING DISCRIMINATION, EQUIVALENCE, ENTRY-WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, CULTURE, TRANSLATION, SOURCE LANGUAGE, TAR-GET LANGUAGE, SYNONYM, POLYSEMY


    *****

    OPSOMMING: Betekenisonderskeiding in tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke. Venda, een van die minderheidstale in Suid-Afrika, het min woordeboeke. Almal is vertalende tweetalige woordeboeke bedoel vir woordeboekgebruikers wat nie moedertaalsprekers van die taal is nie. Woordeboekgebruikers vind dit moeilik om tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke te gebruik om-dat hulle gekonfronteer word met ekwivalente wat hulle nie kan onderskei nie. In die meeste gevalle word die ekwivalente van die trefwoorde verskaf sonder om betekenisonderskeiding aan te dui. Sonder 'n goeie beheersing van Venda en die aanduiding van betekenisonderskeiding, sal gebruikers dit moeilik vind om die regte keuse van die

  15. DDLm: a new dictionary definition language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaccini, Nick; Hall, Sydney R

    2012-08-27

    A previous paper [Spadaccini and Hall J. Chem. Inf. Model. doi:10.1021/ci300074v] details extensions to the STAR File [Hall J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 1991, 31, 326-333] syntax that will improve the exchange and archiving of electronic data. This paper describes a dictionary definition language (DDLm) for defining STAR File data items in a domain dictionary. A dictionary that defines the ontology and vocabulary of a discipline is built with DDLm, which is itself implemented in STAR, and is extensible and machine parsable. The DDLm is semantically rich and highly specific; provides strong data typing, data enumerations, and ranges; enables relationship keys between data items; and uses imbedded methods written in dREL [Spadaccini et al. J. Chem. Inf. Model. doi:10.1021/ci300076w] for data validation and evaluation and for refining data definitions. It promotes the modular definition of the discipline ontology and reuse through the ability to import definitions from other local and remote dictionaries, thus encouraging the sharing of data dictionaries within and across domains.

  16. Compiling a Monolingual Dictionary for Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hanks

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article gives a survey of the main issues confronting the compilers of monolingual dictionaries in the age of the Internet. Among others, it discusses the relationship between a lexical database and a monolingual dictionary, the role of corpus evidence, historical principles in lexicography vs. synchronic principles, the instability of word meaning, the need for full vocabulary coverage, principles of definition writing, the role of dictionaries in society, and the need for dictionaries to give guidance on matters of disputed word usage. It concludes with some questions about the future of dictionary publishing.

    OPSOMMING: Die samestelling van 'n eentalige woordeboek vir moedertaalsprekers. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van die hoofkwessies waarmee die samestellers van eentalige woordeboeke in die eeu van die Internet te kampe het. Dit bespreek onder andere die verhouding tussen 'n leksikale databasis en 'n eentalige woordeboek, die rol van korpusgetuienis, historiese beginsels vs sinchroniese beginsels in die leksikografie, die onstabiliteit van woordbetekenis, die noodsaak van 'n volledige woordeskatdekking, beginsels van die skryf van definisies, die rol van woordeboeke in die maatskappy, en die noodsaak vir woordeboeke om leiding te gee oor sake van betwiste woordgebruik. Dit sluit af met 'n aantal vrae oor die toekoms van die publikasie van woordeboeke.

    Sleutelwoorde: EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEKE, LEKSIKALE DATABASIS, WOORDEBOEKSTRUKTUUR, WOORDBETEKENIS, BETEKENISVERANDERING, GEBRUIK, GEBRUIKSAANTEKENINGE, HISTORIESE BEGINSELS VAN DIE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, SINCHRONIESE BEGINSELS VAN DIE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, REGISTER, SLANG, STANDAARDENGELS, WOORDESKATDEKKING, KONSEKWENSIE VAN VERSAMELINGS, FRASEOLOGIE, SINTAGMATIESE PATRONE, PROBLEME VAN KOMPOSISIONALITEIT, LINGUISTIESE PRESKRIPTIVISME, LEKSIKALE GETUIENIS

  17. Macmillan English Dictionary: The End of Print?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rundell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the Macmillan English Dictionary (MED and its transition from printed book to digital-only resource. The background to this decision is explained in terms of changes both in technology and in dictionary-users’ behaviour: was this move inevitable, and will other dictionary publishers follow (sooner or later? The possible downsides of abandoning print are discussed, alongside the advantages of digital media. As well as offering great opportunities (many still unexplored, being online also creates new demands. With easy access to numerous free reference sites, users searching for lexical information have a huge variety of options. Consequently, publishers are under pressure to continually broaden the range of content they supply, to improve the quality of the design and “user experience”, and above all to stay abreast of language change. And, it will be shown, there is much more to keeping a dictionary up to date than simply adding new words as they emerge. The imperative of moving to digital has generated a good deal of turbulence in the world of dictionary publishing (especially for commercial publishers who cannot run at a loss, and there is considerable uncertainty around the long-term survival of “the dictionary” as the autonomous object we are all familiar with. But humans’ communicative needs should ensure a continued demand for high-quality lexical data – even if this data is delivered and accessed in new and different ways.

  18. Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A dictionary is (a learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provides much data about language to its readers such as telling them about: the word spelling, phonology, phonetics, etymology, stylistics and definitions among other aspects. This paper sheds light on how the dictionary can teach its readers with special focus on monolingual dictionary. Hence, the discussion of this paper will centre on how dictionaries can teach students rather than on how students can learn from them.

  19. Improving the Incoherence of a Learned Dictionary via Rank Shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaru, Shashanka; Seghouane, Abd-Krim; Saad, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    This letter considers the problem of dictionary learning for sparse signal representation whose atoms have low mutual coherence. To learn such dictionaries, at each step, we first update the dictionary using the method of optimal directions (MOD) and then apply a dictionary rank shrinkage step to decrease its mutual coherence. In the rank shrinkage step, we first compute a rank 1 decomposition of the column-normalized least squares estimate of the dictionary obtained from the MOD step. We then shrink the rank of this learned dictionary by transforming the problem of reducing the rank to a nonnegative garrotte estimation problem and solving it using a path-wise coordinate descent approach. We establish theoretical results that show that the rank shrinkage step included will reduce the coherence of the dictionary, which is further validated by experimental results. Numerical experiments illustrating the performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to various other well-known dictionary learning algorithms are also presented.

  20. Dictionnaires et encyclopedies: cuvee 89 (Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Vintage 89).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Amr Helmy

    1989-01-01

    For the first time since its initial publication in 1905, the much-imitated "Petit Larousse" dictionary/reference book has a true competitor in Hachette's "Le Dictionnaire de notre temps", a new dictionary reflecting modern French usage. (MSE)

  1. Thoughts and views on the compilation of monolingual dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    art developments in the theory and practice of lexicography is necessary. The focus of the African languages should be directed onto the compilation of monolingual dictionaries. It is important that these monolingual dictionaries should be ...

  2. Use of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries among Students of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kavalir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of dictionary use in 32 firstyear students of English at the University of Ljubljana in the academic year 2009/2010 shows that students use a variety of dictionaries with a slight preponderance of monolingual dictionaries over bilingual ones. The bilingual dictionaries listed do not include some of the most recent and most comprehensive dictionaries while some of the most frequently used resources are quite modest sized. The students are already predominantly users of electronic and online dictionaries with a lower frequency of printed resources – a trend which is only likely to accelerate with the advent of new bilingual online dictionaries. These results have practical relevance for teachers in all sectors, from primary and secondary schools to universities, as they point towards a need for additional training in the use of bilingual dictionaries. The transition from printed to electronic and online resources can also be expected to induce changes in EFL methodology at all levels.

  3. Dictionary for Sparse Representation of Chirp Echo in Broadband Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Lei

    2010-01-01

    A new dictionary for sparse representation of chirp echo in broadband radar is put forward in this paper. Different with chirplet decomposition which decomposes echo in time-frequency plane, the dictionary transforms the sparsity of target observed by radar in distance range to the sparsity in frequency domain by stretch processing and the sparse representation of echo is realized. Using strict deduction with mathematics, the sparsity of echo in dictionary is proved and the dictionary is orth...

  4. DOLPHIn—Dictionary Learning for Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Andreas M.; Eldar, Yonina C.; Mairal, Julien

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new algorithm to learn a dictionary for reconstructing and sparsely encoding signals from measurements without phase. Specifically, we consider the task of estimating a two-dimensional image from squared-magnitude measurements of a complex-valued linear transformation of the original image. Several recent phase retrieval algorithms exploit underlying sparsity of the unknown signal in order to improve recovery performance. In this work, we consider such a sparse signal prior in the context of phase retrieval, when the sparsifying dictionary is not known in advance. Our algorithm jointly reconstructs the unknown signal - possibly corrupted by noise - and learns a dictionary such that each patch of the estimated image can be sparsely represented. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our approach can obtain significantly better reconstructions for phase retrieval problems with noise than methods that cannot exploit such "hidden" sparsity. Moreover, on the theoretical side, we provide a convergence result for our method.

  5. Dictionary Indexing of Electron Channeling Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saransh; De Graef, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The dictionary-based approach to the indexing of diffraction patterns is applied to electron channeling patterns (ECPs). The main ingredients of the dictionary method are introduced, including the generalized forward projector (GFP), the relevant detector model, and a scheme to uniformly sample orientation space using the "cubochoric" representation. The GFP is used to compute an ECP "master" pattern. Derivative free optimization algorithms, including the Nelder-Mead simplex and the bound optimization by quadratic approximation are used to determine the correct detector parameters and to refine the orientation obtained from the dictionary approach. The indexing method is applied to poly-silicon and shows excellent agreement with the calibrated values. Finally, it is shown that the method results in a mean disorientation error of 1.0° with 0.5° SD for a range of detector parameters.

  6. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...... that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.......Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types...

  7. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types...... text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items...... that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading....

  8. How to do language policy with dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2006-01-01

    The lexicographic presentation of terms from the field of language planning often lacks a clear and unambiguous distinction and a proper explanation. Too often dictionaries even fail to include these terms in the lemma list and some central terms have not been treated in any general or special...... purpose dictionary. This paper utilises results from research in the field of language policy to make suggestions for the lexicographic presentation and treatment of a number of relevant terms. The emphasis on a distinction between language policy as applied to the intralingual and the interlingual level...... and the motivation for the introduction of the notion of a communication policy should help lexicographers to give a more comprehensive account of terms from this field and it will also benefit scholars in the field of language policy. A second aspect of this paper is the discussion of ways in which dictionaries...

  9. South Africa's new African language dictionaries and their use for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionaries are useful tools for language documentation and standardization, as they try to cover and docu-ment the general vocabulary (general dictionaries) or the specialized vocabulary (technical diction-aries). They empower the language users because they help to improve communication by pro-viding users with the ...

  10. Some features of monolingual LSP dictionaries | Mihindou | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionaries are classified according to a certain set of criteria. On the one hand, there are general purpose dictionaries, aiming to satisfy the needs of the majority of users, and focused on the general vocabulary, and, on the other hand, there are limited or specific dictionaries for specialists dealing with language for special ...

  11. Den Engelske Regnskabsordbog/English Dictionary of Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Mourier, Lise; Bergenholtz, Henning

    The English Dictionary of Accounting contains about 5.600 accounting terms, both British, American and international (IFRS). The terms are defined and the dictionary gives language information about the terms. The dictionary can be used when writing and reading English accounting texts and when you...

  12. Research Timeline: Dictionary Use by English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    The history of research into dictionary use tends to be characterised by small-scale studies undertaken in a variety of different contexts, rather than larger-scale, longer-term funded projects. The research conducted by dictionary publishers is not generally made public, because of its commercial sensitivity, yet because dictionary production is…

  13. Dictionary use, beliefs and students' preference: The case of ECS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most language practitioners are of the opinion that dictionaries are a valuable and an indispensable tool for learning a non-native/second language. Dictionaries are the custodians of a language and they provide students with valuable information. At the University of Venda, first year students are exposed to dictionary skills ...

  14. Should Dictionaries Be Used in Translation Tests and Examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Abdulmoneim

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the conflicting views regarding the use of the dictionary in translation tests and examinations this study was intended to verify the dictionary-free vs dictionary-based translation hypotheses. The subjects were 135 Arabic-speaking male and female EFL third-year university students. A group consisting of 62 students translated a text…

  15. Danish Lexicography with Special Reference to LSP Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    , not as publishers in the strict sense but at providers of online dictionaries. At present, theoretical LSP lexicography has a solid foundation in Denmark. This does not mean that all LSP dictionaries are prepared according to the latest theoretical principles, as many dictionaries are still influenced...

  16. Legal Terms in General Dictionaries of English: The Civil Procedure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms, including legal terms relating to civil lawsuits. The existing literature provides general discussions of scientific and technical terms in ordinary dictionaries but does not specifically address the inclusion of legal terms. This study examines four general dictionaries ...

  17. Igor Burkhanov. Lexicography: A Dictionary of Basic Terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A long-awaited dictionary has at last been published, going beyond a glossary of lexicographic terms (cf. Robinson 1984) or a dictionary of a particular aspect of lexicography (cf. Cluver 1989). It is the first dictionary of basic lexicography terms. In 265 pages Burkhanov gives us a balanced view of the state of the art.

  18. The Influence of Electronic Dictionaries on Vocabulary Knowledge Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mojtaba; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning needs special strategies in language learning process. The use of dictionaries is a great help in vocabulary learning and nowadays the emergence of electronic dictionaries has added a new and valuable resource for vocabulary learning. The present study aims to explore the influence of Electronic Dictionaries (ED) Vs. Paper…

  19. William Fox and Ivan H. Meyer. Public Administration Dictionary, 1995.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public Administration Dictionary, 1995. viii + 139 pp. ISBN 0 70213219 5. Juta. Price R69,OO. As a member of the Dictionary for Political and Associated Sciences Terms for the past 16 years and consequently having some idea of the work involved in compiling such a dictionary, I congratulate Proff. Fox and Meyer.

  20. On the metalexicographic genre of dictionary reviews, with specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wiegand (1984) introduced dictionary criticism as a formal component of a general theory of lexicography. Since then many scholars have focused on various aspects of dictionary criticism. In this article a distinction is made between two major types of dictionary criticism, i.e. the review of metalexicographical literature and ...

  1. On the metalexicographic genre of dictionary reviews, with specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract: Wiegand (1984) introduced dictionary criticism as a formal component of a general theory of lexicography. Since then many scholars have focused on various aspects of dictionary criticism. In this article a distinction is made between two major types of dictionary criticism, i.e. the review of metalexicographical ...

  2. How Efficacious is the Electronic Dictionary in Sense Discrimination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    dictionary in helping learners differentiate senses of polysemous words in dictionaries. An adapta- tion of the mixed ... students (Groupe-LowMed) in the electronic group after deliberate dictionary training in navigation and windows switching. .... vocabulary learning retention and reading comprehension. Sharpe (1995: 50),.

  3. Evaluating L2 Readers' Vocabulary Strategies and Dictionary Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Caleb

    2008-01-01

    A review of the relevant literature concerning second language dictionary use while reading suggests that selective dictionary use may lead to improved comprehension and efficient vocabulary development. This study aims to examine the dictionary use of Japanese university students to determine just how selective they are when reading nonfiction…

  4. Online English-English Learner Dictionaries Boost Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmukhamedov, Ulugbek

    2012-01-01

    Learners of English might be familiar with several online monolingual dictionaries that are not necessarily the best choices for the English as Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) context. Although these monolingual online dictionaries contain definitions, pronunciation guides, and other elements normally found in general-use dictionaries, they are…

  5. Ursula Wingate. The Effectiveness of Different Learner Dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    The Effectiveness of Different Learner Dictionaries: An. Investigation into the Use of Dictionaries for Reading Comprehension by Inter- mediate Learners of German. 2002, X + 301 pp. ISBN 3-484-39112-X. Lexi- cographica. Series Major 112. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. Price: €88. Unlike the long tradition of EFL dictionaries, ...

  6. Students' Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries for Writing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learner's Dictionary, and the English–English dictionary in their PEDs (the Water II experiment). The experimental study ... These teachers seemed to take a negative view when students used PEDs. A discussion with a few ...... Students' Use of Portable Electronic Dictionaries in the EFL/ESL Classroom: A Survey of Teacher ...

  7. How effective is the electronic dictionary in sense discrimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is indicated by improved scores regarding time taken (efficacy rate) and a significant correlation between actual efficacy and self-perceived efficacy. The results imply that dictionary users need to be given dictionary training based on specific problems they face. As a whole, however, the print dictionary group has higher ...

  8. Learner features in a new corpus-based Swahili dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    treatment of derivatives in Swahili dictionaries. Based on such data we intend to expand or modify the existing electronic dictionary to adapt to users' level of grammar and dictionary structure knowledge. During this research we identified a list of lemma lacuna that cause the majority of unsuccessful Swahili searches.

  9. Article structures: Moving from printed to e-dictionaries | Gouws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of the cohesion resulting from the use of comments in printed dictionaries is much more restricted in e-dictionaries. The use of search zones and rapid access to these zones have a much more important role in the article structure of edictionaries. In the planning of e-dictionaries provision needs to be made for a ...

  10. A series of foundation phase dictionaries for a multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IT

    approach to one that is more user-directed in the planning and compilation of new dictionaries. (cf. e.g. Gouws 2006, 2007). A question any lexicographer has to answer with regard to a new dictionary project is no longer to which typological category the dictionary should belong, but rather what the lexicographer wants the ...

  11. Two Recent Major Afrikaans–English/English–Afrikaans Dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: When Pharos Dictionaries was established in 1996, its first order of business was to develop a comprehensive Afrikaans–English/English–Afrikaans dictionary that could succeed the standard-bearing but ageing TW (Tweetalige Woordeboek/Bilingual Dictionary by Bosman, Van der. Merwe and Hiemstra).

  12. The Role of the Introductory Matter in Bilingual Dictionaries of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    learner's dictionaries and bilingual English–Arabic dictionaries, and to determine to what extent a given set of popular dictionaries ... of English and Arabic. 61 aries use the term "introduction" while others begin their texts with the title .... designed for native speakers of English, especially for comprehension and composition.

  13. Planning a dictionary for mother tongue education: A conceptual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present article is a plea for mother tongue education dictionary projects in Gabonese lexicography. The latter has been in a fast-developing process for the past twenty years and has experienced quite an important crop of dictionary products in such a short time. However, the production of dictionaries for mother tongue ...

  14. The Dirty Dozen: A Concise Measure of the Dark Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K.; Webster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural…

  15. Metabolic surgery: a concise overview and understanding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... The long-term mortality rate of gastric bypass procedure. (GBP) patients is reduced by up to 40%.10,11 Currently, the general death rate from bariatric surgery seems to. Metabolic surgery: a concise overview and understanding of potential complications. Potgieter AJ, MBChB (Stell), MMed (Chir), FCS(SA).

  16. Oxford engineering students to study new solutions for vacuum chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Department of Engineering Science - University of Oxford

    2012-01-01

    In April, eleven engineering science students in their third year at Oxford University were invited here to present their design ideas for new vacuum chamber materials to be used in accelerators. We publish below an abstract of the article that the University of Oxford featured on its website.   The 11 Oxford students who worked at CERN on alternatives to beryllium in vacuum chambers. (Photo courtesy of the Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford.) Engineering Science students invited to design for CERN’s Large Hadron Collider In April, eleven Engineering Science students in their third year were invited to the CERN laboratory in Geneva to present their ideas for new vacuum chamber designs for the experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Their design objectives were to propose alternatives to beryllium – the material used for some of the existing experimental vacuum chambers. Beryllium (chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4) is to...

  17. Early recovery after fast-track Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stig; Dalsgaard, Jesper; Bjerggaard, Karin

    2012-01-01

    trauma. We investigated changes in leg-extension power (LEP) in the first month after MIS Oxford UKA and its relation to pain, knee motion, functional performance, and knee function. Patients and methods In 35 consecutive Oxford UKA patients, LEP was measured 1 week before and 1 month after surgery...... together with knee motion, knee swelling, the 30-second chair-stand test, and Oxford knee score. Assessment of knee pain at rest and walking was done using a visual analog scale. Results 30 patients were discharged on the day after surgery, and 5 on the second day after surgery. LEP and functional...... supervision in the first month after discharge. Interpretation Fast-track MIS Oxford UKA with discharge on the day after surgery is safe and leads to early recovery of knee motion and strength even when no physiotherapy is used....

  18. The Routledge Dictionary of English Language Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Filled with real examples of the way people use English in different contexts, The Routledge Dictionary of English Language Studies is an indispensable guide to the richness and variety of the English language for both students and the general reader.From abbreviation to zero-article, via fricative and slang, the Dictionary contains over 600 wide ranging and informative entries covering:the core areas of language description and analysis: phonetics and phonology, grammar, lexis, semantics, pragmatics and discoursesociolinguistics, including entries on social and regional variation, stylistic v

  19. Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2017-01-01

    This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.

  20. On the Timelessness of Music Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Bergenholtz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: A music dictionary for the Internet fulfils the same functions as printed music dictionaries. An earlier music dictionary is as useful as a new one if its information is correct. But the fact that an Internet dictionary can at any time be corrected according to modern practices makes it, if not timeless, at least more up to date. Furthermore, the possibilities of illustrating with picture and sound open a wide field of usefulness. Nevertheless the lexicographer has to be aware of the different needs of different user types in different user situations. The dictionary being discussed, Musikordbogen, has been designed for text reception rather than translation or text production. After the inception of the dictionary has been described, the way the possibilities of the Internet has influenced the concept and the content of the articles and the outer texts is discussed.

    Keywords: MUSIC DICTIONARY, DICTIONARY FUNCTIONS, SPECIALIZED LEXICO-GRAPHY, INTERNET LEXICOGRAPHY, TRANSLATION, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUC-TION, MUSICAL KNOWLEDGE

    Opsomming: Oor die tydloosheid van musiekwoordeboeke. 'n Musiekwoor-deboek vir die Internet vervul dieselfde funksie as gedrukte musiekwoordeboeke. 'n Vroeëre musiekwoordeboek is net so nuttig soos 'n nuwe een indien sy inligting juis is. Maar die feit dat 'n Internetwoordeboek enige tyd gekorrigeer kan word volgens moderne praktyke, maak dit, indien nie tydloos nie, ten minste meer op datum. Verder open die moontlikhede van illustrasie met prent en klank 'n wye veld van bruikbaarheid. Nogtans moet die leksikograaf bewus wees van die ver-skillende behoeftes van verskillende gebruikertipes in verskillende gebruikersituasies. Die woorde-boek wat bespreek word, Musikordbogen, is beplan vir teksontvangs eerder as vertaling of tekspro-duksie. Nadat die ontstaan van die woordeboek beskryf is, word die manier bespreek waarop die moontlikhede van die internet die ontwerp en inhoud van die artikels en

  1. Image Recovery Algorithm Based on Learned Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghui Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a recovery scheme for image deblurring. The scheme is under the framework of sparse representation and it has three main contributions. Firstly, considering the sparse property of natural image, the nonlocal overcompleted dictionaries are learned for image patches in our scheme. And, then, we coded the patches in each nonlocal clustering with the corresponding learned dictionary to recover the whole latent image. In addition, for some practical applications, we also proposed a method to evaluate the blur kernel to make the algorithm usable in blind image recovery. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed scheme is competitive with some current state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Theory and practice of specialised online dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Tarp, Sven

    The book deals with various aspects of specialised lexicography: the discipline and its academic status; the function theory and the various arguments against it; competing theories, especially theories of terminography; various aspects of methodology; special problems related to online...... lexicography; and criticism of a number of existing specialised online dictionaries. Finally, the ideas put forward are exemplified by means of a detailed description of a specialised dictionary project from the planning phase to its publication, as well as recommendations for other types of specialised...

  3. Farhang’s Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nasr Isfahani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mirza Ab ol-Qasem Shirazi, whose pseudonym was "Farhang", is the calligrapher and the poet of the thirteen century A.H. and the son of Vesal Shirazi. He has written some worthwhile works such as "Collected Poems", "Farhang’s Dictionary", "A Commentary on Hadaegh os-Sehr". His worthiest work is "Farhang Dictionary" that its writing has been completed in 1276 A.H., and its manuscript is kept at the National Library of Iran. This manuscript edited and interpreted by the author of this text, will be published soon. Farhang wrote this dictionary for the purpose of providing the poets with a comprehensive dictionary to have an easy and quick access to Persian vocabulary. The strength of this book is its word order in a particular way because the author has found equivalents for Persian, Arabic, and Turkish vocabulary. This book comprises an introduction, two sections, and a conclusion.       The first section consists of different kinds of vocabulary it has thirty one chapters that each of them has numerous chapters too. The second section consists of specific vocabulary and has twenty nine chapters that some of them have several chapters too. The concluding section of this book consists of words such as letters, gerunds, and noun of sounds. The sources that have been cited in this book are "Borhan Ghat'e", Jahangiri’s Dictionary", "Rashidi Dictionary", "Soruri’s Dictionary", and "Sarah al-Loghat". The author of this book has followed the following ways for the structure of vocabulary and making word: 1. Making word by deleting the inarticulate "h". 2. Making word by changing the consonants with similar pronunciation such as "B", "P" and "Ch", "J" and "K", "G". 3. Making word by deleting the final consonant of the words. 4. Making word by replacing consonants or vowels. 5. Making word by deleting the initial "A". 6. Making word by changing long vowel to short vowel. 7. Making word by deleting the middle consonant

  4. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    It is worth stressing that distinguishing between the form and its meaning in comparing the material 6 languages belonging to three different groups of Slavic languages (as is the case in the MONDILEX Project will allow us to avoid numeorus substantiva mistakes and erroneous conclusions. Hence dictionary entries should be verified and made uniform in that respect before they are “digitalized”... Distinction between the form and its meaning in a dictionary entry is fully possible, as shown by works of Z. Saloni (2002 and A.Przepiórkowski (2008.

  5. Books | Lee | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valuable distillations of other people's experiences. How To Do It. Vol. 3. Pp. x + 203. Illustrated. £9 (including postage by air). London: BMJ. 1990. (Also available from Libriger Book Distributors, Bloemfontein.) Medical dictionary. Concise Medical Dictionary. 3rd ed. Ed. By Elizabeth A. Martin. Pp. 1-759. Oxford: Oxford ...

  6. Interest groups, the Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment. Water resource managers and decision-makers should therefore be aware of these actors and the roles they are likely to play when influencing aspects of water infrastructure ... for Environmental Monitoring (GEM), the Environmental ...... CONCISE OXFORD DICTIONARY (COD) (1982) The Concise Oxford.

  7. Bilingual Dictionaries for Communication in the Domain of Economics: Function-Based Translation Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    With their focus on terms, bilingual dictionaries are important tools for translating texts on economics. The most common type is the multi-fi eld dictionary covering several related subject fi elds; however, multi-fi eld dictionaries treat one or few fi elds extensively thereby neglecting other fi...... varieties such as British, American and international English to indicate syntactic options and restrictions on language use. Secondly, translators need to know the meaning of domain-specifi c terms to properly understand the differences in the structure of the domains in the cultures involved. Finally...... elds in contrast to single-fi eld and sub-fi eld dictionaries. Furthermore, recent research shows that economic translation is not limited to terms so lexicographers who identify and analyse the needs of translators, usage situations and stages in translating economic texts will have a sound basis...

  8. Monolingual Dictionary Use in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, has been encouraging its students to use monolingual dictionaries rather than bilingual or bilingualized ones in classroom and during the exams. This policy with has been received with mixed feelings and attitudes. Therefore, this study strives to explore teachers' and students' attitudes about the use of…

  9. School Dictionaries for First- Language Learners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    written and oral texts when they explain in which situations their dictionaries may be used, and it is a fact that these ... text reception (written or oral). 2. To assist school children with text production (written or oral) ..... the appropriate lexicographical data simplified and presented in a more didactic way, and the access system.

  10. Culinary Arts Dictionary 2. Project HIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David C.; And Others

    Designed as supplemental material to on-going instruction in the vocational program, this second of three picture dictionary booklets in the Culinary Arts series is intended to assist the learning handicapped student to master the core vocabulary taught in the trade. Intended for individual or small group instruction with minimal supervision, this…

  11. Culinary Arts Dictionary 1. Project HIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David C.; And Others

    Designed as supplemental material to on-going instruction in the vocational program, this first of three picture dictionary booklets in the Culinary Arts series is intended to assist the learning handicapped student to master the core vocabulary taught in the trade. Intended for individual or small group instruction with minimal supervision, this…

  12. Culinary Arts Dictionary 3. Project HIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David C.; And Others

    Designed as supplemental material to on-going instruction in the vocational program, this third of three picture dictionary booklets in the Culinary Arts series is intended to assist the learning handicapped student to master the core vocabulary taught in the trade. Intended for individual or small group instruction with minimal supervision, this…

  13. A DICTIONARY OF IDIOMS FOR THE DEAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOATNER, MAXINE T.; GATES, JOHN E.

    DESIGNED FOR USE IN SECONDARY CLASSES FOR THE DEAF, THIS DICTIONARY LISTS OVER 4,000 IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS. FOR EACH IDIOM, THE ENTRY MAY INCLUDE VARIANT FORMS, PART OF SPEECH LABEL, STYLE LABEL, DEFINITION, USAGE NOTE, ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES, CROSS REFERENCES, A SYNONYM OR CONTRAST, AND ETYMOLOGY. AN APPENDIX LISTS ESSENTIAL IDIOMS. THIS DOCUMENT…

  14. Considering Bilingual Dictionaries Against a Corpus.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sent them with actually used meanings of actually used lexicogrammar, rather than with the perhaps mistaken intuitions ... The same must be true for the bilingual dictionary, the language learners' tool par excellence, but here things .... CAME Collection of English Language COIpora CO-. ROM, distributed by the Norwegian ...

  15. Methods in Lexicography and Dictionary Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    making and in every scientific analysis which is carried out ..... lemma list under A is excessively long and that also the dictionary articles are more extensive i.e. produced more ... 1989), of abbreviations, symbols etc. — the utilization of transcription ...

  16. Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives. 261. —. Neologisms: buflon (young buffalo), dédeuillement (the ending of the mourning period), fétichisme (fetishism), tresseuse (a female who plaits), marabout (a sangoma), maraboutisme (the craft of the sangoma), marabouter. (to act as a sangoma), se saper (to ...

  17. Book Review: Public Administration Dictionary | Marais | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Public Administration Dictionary. Book Author: William Fox & Ivan H. Meyer. 1995. viii + 139 pp. ISBN 0 70213219 5. Juta. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  18. Revising Matumo's Setswana– English–Setswana Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: The aim of this article is to design a revision strategy for the Setswana to English side of the Setswana–English–Setswana Dictionary compiled by Z.I. Matumo in 1993. An existing general organic Setswana corpus as well as a dedicated corpus compiled for the purposes of the revision will be used as a basis for ...

  19. Compact English-Chinese Dictionary (Yale Romanization).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.K.; Wu, K.S.

    The 13,000 entries in this English-to-Chinese dictionary were chosen to represent "common words and expressions in art, education, science, sports, and music, as well as basic terminology in military and other fields." Each entry consists of an English word, an abbreviation for its part of speech, and one or more Chinese equivalents in…

  20. A critical analysis of multilingual dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    A Critical Analysis of Multilingual Dictionaries. 227. Minor mistakes noticed is that the English words for days and months are not correctly aligned with the translation table and that numbers are not translated, cf. Figure 5. Figure 5: Days of the week and Numbers in OJPD. OJPD is inconsistent in terms of reference to the ...

  1. A General Framework for Reviewing Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    and lexicography at its centre. This seems to be in line with the modern understanding of lexicography as a separate academic discipline concerned with the compilation, design, evaluation and use of dictionaries. Moreover, a set of generally applicable principles may lead the discourse community to accept...

  2. Persian: 12 Week Course. Volume 6: Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This two-way dictionary is a supplement to the Persian 12-Week Course. It consists of a Persian-English and an English-Persian section. Phonetic symbols are used for indicating Persian pronunciations. In addition to vocabulary, the Persian-English section contains idioms and expressions. With the infinitives, the present and past simple roots of…

  3. Expectation Levels in Dictionary Consultation and Compilation*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with certain target users in mind. The demands they place on users' ..... cult balancing act. On the one hand, the dictionary must contain as much information as possible without becoming unnecessarily bulky; on the other hand, this information must not be so compressed that the intended user will not be able to utilize it.".

  4. Bilingual Dictionary and Meaning Discrimination in Venda*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    Venda, Afrikaans–Venda Vocabulary and Phrase Book) and students (Improved Tri- lingual Dictionary: Venda–Afrikaans–English), who know very little or nothing at all about the Venda language or culture. The objective of this article is to highlight the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination for the equivalents of ...

  5. Lower Bounds for External Memory Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N

  6. etymological information in the advanced ndebele dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Moto Magazine 124: 3, May. Hadebe, S. 2002. The Standardisation of the Ndebele Language through Dictionary-Making. D.Phil. The- sis. Harare/Oslo: University of Zimbabwe/University of Oslo. Hadebe, S. (Ed.). 2001. Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. Harare: College Press. Hughes, A.J.B and J. van Velsen. 1954. The Shona ...

  7. De meilleurs dictionnaires bilingues (Better Bilingual Dictionaries)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debyser, Francis

    1981-01-01

    Reviews three Italian-French dictionaries recently published in Italy comparing them with an older one. States that all three mark a definite progress compared to the latter, for the variety and abundance of examples and the coverage of phraseology, but finds them lacking in the areas of syntactic and semantic information. (MES)

  8. Language Teaching and Dictionary Use: An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequent dictionary use may also affect production activities adversely by deferring the student's attention from the logical whole to individual lexical problems. Kipfer (1987: 48) rightfully concludes that "Few students can conti- nually sustain an attention span to bridge such interruptions in reading and writing". R eprod u ced.

  9. implications for dictionary policy and lexicographic conventions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Libro en el que se recogen y explican de forma ordenada voces de una o más lenguas… At the other end of the scale, we have a resource like Babelnet. describing itself as "both a multilingual encyclopedic dictionary … and a semantic network which connects concepts and named entities", Babelnet takes full advantage of.

  10. Compiling the First Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    theory explains how the different modules of a language contribute information to the different .... lexicography is not a branch of linguistics but a discipline of its own. ... languages. Lusoga was categorized as an undocumented language but the contexts in which the dictionaries in the two contexts were compiled is not the.

  11. Digitizing the Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary: Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrasting academia with the trade, legacy with state-of the-art dictionary compilation software, high praise and visibility with daily and down-to-earth drudgery, it recounts the events chronologically, from humble to grand, from paper to digital, from success to insignificance, and leads to a set of highly realistic proposals to ...

  12. An Advanced Dictionary? Similarities and Differences between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article a comparative analysis of Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC) and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC) is made. Both DRC and DGC are monolingual Shona dictionaries compiled by a team of researchers under the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX) Project, now the African Languages Research Institute ...

  13. Language planning and monolingual dictionaries: with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first monolingual Ndebele dictionary, Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele, had a number of effects on Ndebele, some of which with implications for language planning. One such language planning activity was the standardization of Ndebele. The article focuses on the standardization of vocabulary and spelling. Lexicographers ...

  14. (Editors). Dictionaries of Medieval Germanic Languag

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    nederlands Woordenboek and the Computer" which describes how the computer has been applied in the compilation of the Dictionary for Early Middle Dutch, the other six papers deal with specific problems and problem areas encoun- tered in historical lexicography regarding the earlier forms of a language: (a) aspects of ...

  15. Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This dictionary will be appreciated in all countries where Tamil is taught in schools and uni- versities. Traditional and customary idioms or phrases are from the different regions or areas within India. It is possible that Tamils who have settled in. South Africa, Fiji, Reunion, Ceylon, Australia and other countries may have idi-.

  16. Dictionaries of Canadian English | Considine | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lexicographical record of English in Canada began with wordlists of the late eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. From the beginning of the twentieth century onwards, the general vocabulary of English in Canada has been represented in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries, often adapted from ...

  17. THE PROPOSED NDEBELE-SHONA DICTIONARY: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    tential users are mother-tongue Ndebele and Shona speakers. Lexicographic factors to be considered are the age and educational level of the potential users. Also of interest are the dictionary skills of the potential users as all these factors have a direct and/or indirect bearing on the lemmatisation, defining styles,.

  18. SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Sánchez Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of

  19. Joint Dictionary Learning for Multispectral Change Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Xiangtao

    2017-04-01

    Change detection is one of the most important applications of remote sensing technology. It is a challenging task due to the obvious variations in the radiometric value of spectral signature and the limited capability of utilizing spectral information. In this paper, an improved sparse coding method for change detection is proposed. The intuition of the proposed method is that unchanged pixels in different images can be well reconstructed by the joint dictionary, which corresponds to knowledge of unchanged pixels, while changed pixels cannot. First, a query image pair is projected onto the joint dictionary to constitute the knowledge of unchanged pixels. Then reconstruction error is obtained to discriminate between the changed and unchanged pixels in the different images. To select the proper thresholds for determining changed regions, an automatic threshold selection strategy is presented by minimizing the reconstruction errors of the changed pixels. Adequate experiments on multispectral data have been tested, and the experimental results compared with the state-of-the-art methods prove the superiority of the proposed method. Contributions of the proposed method can be summarized as follows: 1) joint dictionary learning is proposed to explore the intrinsic information of different images for change detection. In this case, change detection can be transformed as a sparse representation problem. To the authors' knowledge, few publications utilize joint learning dictionary in change detection; 2) an automatic threshold selection strategy is presented, which minimizes the reconstruction errors of the changed pixels without the prior assumption of the spectral signature. As a result, the threshold value provided by the proposed method can adapt to different data due to the characteristic of joint dictionary learning; and 3) the proposed method makes no prior assumption of the modeling and the handling of the spectral signature, which can be adapted to different data.

  20. A Concise Introduction to Mechanics of Rigid Bodies Multidisciplinary Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, L

    2012-01-01

    A Concise Introduction to Mechanics of Rigid Bodies: Multidisciplinary Engineering presents concise, key concepts of kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies. This compact volume bridges the steep gap between  introductory texts on engineering mechanics, which focus on one and two dimensional motions of particles and rigid bodies, and advanced texts on multi-body dynamics in high dimension spaces  found in multidisciplinary areas like mechatronics, robotics and biomechanics. In the book, rigid body motions in the spaces with different dimensions are described in addition to studies in a uniform framework supported by vector and matrix operations. Rigorous mathematic tools and explanations are provided to clarify the most complex concepts. This book also: Provides practical examples from different engineering areas, offering a link between theoretical fundamentals and everyday applications Offers simplified mathematical equations to clearly present essential theories in robotics and mechanics Presents statics...

  1. Concise encyclopedia of semiconducting materials and related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, S M

    1992-01-01

    The development of electronic materials and particularly advances in semiconductor technology have played a central role in the electronics revolution by allowing the production of increasingly cheap and powerful computing equipment and advanced telecommunications devices. This Concise Encyclopedia, which incorporates relevant articles from the acclaimed Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering as well as newly commissioned articles, emphasizes the materials aspects of semiconductors and the technologies important in solid-state electronics. Growth of bulk crystals and epitaxial layer

  2. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Buneman, O Peter; Catterall, William A; Cidlowski, John A; Davenport, Anthony P; Fabbro, Doriano; Fan, Grace; McGrath, John C; Spedding, Michael; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13347/full. This compilation of the major pharmacological targets is divided into eight areas of focus: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, other ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The Concise Guide is published in landscape format in order to facilitate comparison of related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2015, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in the previous Guides to Receptors & Channels and the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor targeted radiopharmaceuticals: A concise update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Hoffman, T.J. E-mail: HoffmanT@health.missouri.edu

    2003-11-01

    The gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor is becoming an increasingly attractive target for development of new radiolabeled peptides with diagnostic and therapeutic potential. The attractiveness of the GRP receptor as a target is based upon the functional expression of GRP receptors in several tumors of neuroendocrine origin including prostate, breast, and small cell lung cancer. This concise review outlines some of the efforts currently underway to develop new GRP receptor specific radiopharmaceuticals by employing a variety of radiometal chelation systems.

  4. A Comparison of Print Dictionaries, CD-ROMS/ DVD-ROMS and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of the study are to compare the print edition and the electronic versions (CD-ROM/DVD-ROM and online dictionaries) of the same dictionary to see whether the lists of labels used in one particular dictionary coincide across versions of one and the same dictionary. Parallels are then drawn between dictionaries to ...

  5. Fast Low-Rank Shared Dictionary Learning for Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tiep Huu; Monga, Vishal

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that different objects possess distinct class-specific features, they also usually share common patterns. This observation has been exploited partially in a recently proposed dictionary learning framework by separating the particularity and the commonality (COPAR). Inspired by this, we propose a novel method to explicitly and simultaneously learn a set of common patterns as well as class-specific features for classification with more intuitive constraints. Our dictionary learning framework is hence characterized by both a shared dictionary and particular (class-specific) dictionaries. For the shared dictionary, we enforce a low-rank constraint, i.e. claim that its spanning subspace should have low dimension and the coefficients corresponding to this dictionary should be similar. For the particular dictionaries, we impose on them the well-known constraints stated in the Fisher discrimination dictionary learning (FDDL). Further, we develop new fast and accurate algorithms to solve the subproblems in the learning step, accelerating its convergence. The said algorithms could also be applied to FDDL and its extensions. The efficiencies of these algorithms are theoretically and experimentally verified by comparing their complexities and running time with those of other well-known dictionary learning methods. Experimental results on widely used image datasets establish the advantages of our method over state-of-the-art dictionary learning methods.

  6. The Oxford Ethnography Conference: A Place in History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a history of the Oxford Ethnography Conference. Over more than three decades, a regular conference of sociologists of education and ethnographers has met and produced a series of academic writings. The paper describes some of the interrelationships between developments that occurred within the conference and external changes to…

  7. The University of Oxford's Approach to Adult and Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. Neil

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the historical development of adult and continuing education as provided through the Open University system of Great Britain. An interview with the librarian for Oxford's Department of External Studies examines the current status of the program and describes the library services available to participants. (8 references) (CLB)

  8. Validation of the Danish version of the Oxford Elbow Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaschke, Hans Christian; Jørgensen, Andreas Møller; Thillemann, Theis Muncholm

    2013-01-01

    The Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-related outcome measure quantifying quality of life in relation to elbow disorders. This 12-item patient-administered English questionnaire comprises three domains: function, social-psychological status and pain. The purpose of this study was to examine...

  9. Person-environment interactions among residents of Oxford Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A; Miller, Steven A; Stevens, Ed; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    The continued struggle of addiction recovery support systems suggest that the paradigm of this field needs to continue its evolution, which has increasingly emphasized environments. Field Theory suggests that the products of individual and environmental characteristics be considered rather than a summation of the two. This study examined such interactions in Oxford Houses, a network of democratic, and self-governed addiction recovery homes. This study examined sobriety in experienced houses (average length of residency > six months) compared to less experienced houses (average length of residency ≤ six months) in relation to individual resident characteristics (age, length of residence in an Oxford House, and referral from the criminal justice system). Using multilevel modeling, findings indicated that older residents living in an experienced Oxford Houses were more likely to remain abstinent over time than those in inexperienced homes. Additionally, for inexperienced houses, residents who had been in the Oxford House for a longer period had a higher the probability of abstinence than those that had been in the house for a shorter period of time. Finally, legal referral was related to a lower probability of one-year abstinence but only for those in experienced homes. These types of person-environment interactions point to the need for more research to better understand how person variables interact with environmental variables in the processes of recovery and adaptation to settings, as well as for treatment professionals' consideration of both person and environment when making recovery home referrals.

  10. Continuity and Change: The Integration of Oxford University's Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Barbara B.

    2005-01-01

    Prior to 1997, the University of Oxford in Great Britain had approximately one hundred autonomous libraries with little coordination of services, collection development, or management among them. In that year a new director was hired with the mandate to integrate many of these libraries into one centralized system. Over the past seven years…

  11. Dealing with phraseology in business dictionaries: focus on dictionary functions – not phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The language of written business communication is characterised by the extensive use of phraseology, not only in terms of collocations and idiomatic expressions, but also of standard phrases in prototypical business genres. In any case, the phraseological information should be included in business dictionaries (in the following referred to as BDs in accordance with the planned dictionary functions. Hence, the selection and presentation of the phraseological information should be decided by the lexicographer on the basis of the user needs alone and not on the recommendations of the phraseological literature about lexicographical practice. In this paper, I will firstly explain why lexicography and phraseology, although closely associated in a large number of studies, are quite different disciplines, and how their shared interest for dictionary practice in general is based on radically different views. I will then discuss the dictionary functions of BDs and focus on a number of concepts featuring extensive phraseological solutions to show and argue that dealing with phraseology in BDs should always keep focus on dictionary functions.

  12. Theory and practice of specialised online dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Tarp, Sven

    The book deals with various aspects of specialised lexicography: the discipline and its academic status; the function theory and the various arguments against it; competing theories, especially theories of terminography; various aspects of methodology; special problems related to online lexicogra......The book deals with various aspects of specialised lexicography: the discipline and its academic status; the function theory and the various arguments against it; competing theories, especially theories of terminography; various aspects of methodology; special problems related to online...... lexicography; and criticism of a number of existing specialised online dictionaries. Finally, the ideas put forward are exemplified by means of a detailed description of a specialised dictionary project from the planning phase to its publication, as well as recommendations for other types of specialised...

  13. Dictionary of algebra, arithmetic, and trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2000-01-01

    Clear, rigorous definitions of mathematical terms are crucial to good scientific and technical writing-and to understanding the writings of others. Scientists, engineers, mathematicians, economists, technical writers, computer programmers, along with teachers, professors, and students, all have the need for comprehensible, working definitions of mathematical expressions. To meet that need, CRC Press proudly introduces its Dictionary of Algebra, Arithmetic, and Trigonometry- the second published volume in the CRC Comprehensive Dictionary of Mathematics. More than three years in development, top academics and professionals from prestigious institutions around the world bring you more than 2,800 detailed definitions, written in a clear, readable style, complete with alternative meanings, and related references.From Abelian cohomology to zero ring and from the very basic to the highly advanced, this unique lexicon includes terms associated with arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry, with natural overlap into geom...

  14. Unsupervised behaviour-specific dictionary learning for abnormal event detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2015-01-01

    . Despite progress in this area, the relationship of atoms within the dictionary is commonly neglected, thereafter anomalies which are detected based on reconstruction error could brings high false alarm - noise or infrequent normal visual features could be wrongly detected as anomalies, especially when...... the training data is only a small proportion of the surveillance data. Therefore, we propose behavior-specific dictionaries (BSD) through unsupervised learning, pursuing atoms from the same type of behavior to represent one behavior dictionary. To further improve the dictionary by introducing information from...... potential infrequent normal patterns, we refine the dictionary by searching ‘missed atoms’ that have compact coefficients. Experimental results show that our BSD algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art dictionaries in abnormal event detection on the public UCSD dataset. Moreover, BSD has less false alarms...

  15. Function- and User-related Definitions in Online Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    A study of the existing literature shows that definitions play an important part in dictionary use and making. The discussions primarily concern printed dictionaries and show that definitions are static in that only one definition should be provided for each meaning of a lemma or entry word......, as argued in e.g. Jackson (2002: 86-100). However, online dictionaries provide lexicographers with the option of taking a more flexible approach to lexicographic definitions in an attempt to give the best possible help to users. The “one-size-fits-all” approach to dictionary making has its limits......, and lexicographers may want to consider the options of making online dictionaries that are multi-functional and at the same time present definitions targeted to specific user types. One possible result is the writing and presentation of more than one definition for each meaning of a word or concept in a dictionary...

  16. CONTRIBUTION OF DICTIONARY REFERENCE SKILLS TO READING COMPREHENSION ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatik Tatik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A dictionary is considered to be an important factorthat influences the success of learning language as long as the learners are skillful dictionary users. The present study attempts to investigate the contribution of dictionary reference skills to reading comprehension achievement. For this purpose, a set of dictionary reference skills test battery intended to measure the ability to get feedback from the context, the ability to find the dictionary entry, the ability to relate the meaning to the context and a reading comprehension test are developed and administered to 54 second grade students of a private junior high school in Malang. The analysis using multiple regressions shows that the dictionary reference skills contribute highly to the reading comprehension achievement independently and simultaneously.

  17. Weighted Discriminative Dictionary Learning based on Low-rank Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heyou; Zheng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Low-rank representation has been widely used in the field of pattern classification, especially when both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Dictionary plays an important role in low-rank representation. With respect to the semantic dictionary, the optimal representation matrix should be block-diagonal. However, traditional low-rank representation based dictionary learning methods cannot effectively exploit the discriminative information between data and dictionary. To address this problem, this paper proposed weighted discriminative dictionary learning based on low-rank representation, where a weighted representation regularization term is constructed. The regularization associates label information of both training samples and dictionary atoms, and encourages to generate a discriminative representation with class-wise block-diagonal structure, which can further improve the classification performance where both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Experimental results demonstrate advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Dictionary Based Machine Translation from Kannada to Telugu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, D. V.; Sagar, B. M.

    2017-08-01

    Machine Translation is a task of translating from one language to another language. For the languages with less linguistic resources like Kannada and Telugu Dictionary based approach is the best approach. This paper mainly focuses on Dictionary based machine translation for Kannada to Telugu. The proposed methodology uses dictionary for translating word by word without much correlation of semantics between them. The dictionary based machine translation process has the following sub process: Morph analyzer, dictionary, transliteration, transfer grammar and the morph generator. As a part of this work bilingual dictionary with 8000 entries is developed and the suffix mapping table at the tag level is built. This system is tested for the children stories. In near future this system can be further improved by defining transfer grammar rules.

  19. A Scatter Storage Scheme for Dictionary Lookups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Murray

    1970-09-01

    Full Text Available Scatter storage schemes are examined with respect to their applicability to dictionary lookup procedures. Of particular interest are virtual scatter methods which combine the advantages of rapid search speed and reasonable storage requirements. The theoretical aspects of computing hash addresses are developed, and several algorithms are evaluated. Finally, experiments with an actual text lookup process are described, and a possible library application is discussed.

  20. Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cet article fait le point sur les activités lexicographiques en ce qui concerne la langue fran- çaise telle qu'elle est ... français du Gabon par rapport à la langue française parlée en France, autrement dit le français de. Paris, langue ..... Across dictionaries, lexicographers usually experience similar problems which can be dealt ...

  1. Environment, Safety and Health Thesaurus/Dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, D.C. (ed.)

    1991-07-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Thesaurus/Dictionary, was developed for the Office of Safety and Quality Assurance (EH-30) by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). This thesaurus/dictionary is to provide a single departmental reference for: (1) definitions or semantic structure of environment, safety, and health terms that will help assure consistent DOE-wide understanding of these terms, and (2) synonyms and related terms that will improve the logic of a user's analytical strategy for word searches in computerized environment, safety, and health information systems. In addition to special data fields found within the individual word blocks, the most noteworthy features of the document are the three appendices following the main body of the thesaurus. These appendices include: (1) a listing of all thesaurus acronyms and their reciprocal phrases; (2) a listing of all thesaurus terms under broader subject categories; and (3) a separate mini-thesaurus for the DOE FRASE (Factor Relationship and Sequence of Events) vocabulary used on the Safety Performance Measurement System (SPMS). Eventually, an electronic version of the thesaurus/dictionary will be available on the Safety Performance Measurement System (SPMS) to improve users' search and analytical capabilities.

  2. Nonparametric, Coupled ,Bayesian ,Dictionary ,and Classifier Learning for Hyperspectral Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Mian, Ajmal

    2017-10-03

    We present a principled approach to learn a discriminative dictionary along a linear classifier for hyperspectral classification. Our approach places Gaussian Process priors over the dictionary to account for the relative smoothness of the natural spectra, whereas the classifier parameters are sampled from multivariate Gaussians. We employ two Beta-Bernoulli processes to jointly infer the dictionary and the classifier. These processes are coupled under the same sets of Bernoulli distributions. In our approach, these distributions signify the frequency of the dictionary atom usage in representing class-specific training spectra, which also makes the dictionary discriminative. Due to the coupling between the dictionary and the classifier, the popularity of the atoms for representing different classes gets encoded into the classifier. This helps in predicting the class labels of test spectra that are first represented over the dictionary by solving a simultaneous sparse optimization problem. The labels of the spectra are predicted by feeding the resulting representations to the classifier. Our approach exploits the nonparametric Bayesian framework to automatically infer the dictionary size--the key parameter in discriminative dictionary learning. Moreover, it also has the desirable property of adaptively learning the association between the dictionary atoms and the class labels by itself. We use Gibbs sampling to infer the posterior probability distributions over the dictionary and the classifier under the proposed model, for which, we derive analytical expressions. To establish the effectiveness of our approach, we test it on benchmark hyperspectral images. The classification performance is compared with the state-of-the-art dictionary learning-based classification methods.

  3. Randomized LU decomposition: An Algorithm for Dictionaries Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Rotbart, Aviv; Shabat, Gil; Shmueli, Yaniv; Averbuch, Amir

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, distinctive-dictionary construction has gained importance due to his usefulness in data processing. Usually, one or more dictionaries are constructed from a training data and then they are used to classify signals that did not participate in the training process. A new dictionary construction algorithm is introduced. It is based on a low-rank matrix factorization being achieved by the application of the randomized LU decomposition to a training data. This method is fast, scal...

  4. The New Etymological Dictionary of Hungarian Idioms and Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárdosi Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After briefly surveying the research carried out in Hungary on the origin of sayings, proverbs and adages, this paper introduces and exemplifies the way the new Hungarian phraseological etymological dictionary has been compiled. It subsequently presents excerpts from the dictionary that will expound on the origin of 1800 set phrases and statistically analyses the linguistic, cultural-historical, historical, literary, ethnographic and intercultural background of the Hungarian set phrases included in the dictionary.

  5. The use of dictionaries in the light of language teaching methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some suggestions are made how this situation could be rectified. Keywords: african languages, first and second language teaching, traditional educational method, rote learning, functional educational approach, outcomes based education, interpretation of syllabi, availability of dictionaries, dictionary usage, dictionary ...

  6. Data Presentation Structures in Specialised Dictionaries: Law Dictionaries with Communicative Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    little has been said about the arrangement of data in e-dictionaries. The relevant data types are lexicographical data providing help concerning the function(s) and use of dictionaries on search results pages. In order to create a visual hierarchy on screen that makes the most important search result...... data stand out, lexicographers should prioritize functional data that are directly related to and support the function(s) of dictionaries on a need-to-have/nice-to have basis, because data presentation structures with functional focus may better help users achieve their intended goals, i.e. finding...... answers to problems in communicative situations. One result is that lexicographers can analyse and describe the visual hierarchy in terms of data presentation fields and search zones, even though some search results may be described as non-articles....

  7. John Considine: Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. John Considine. Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage. 2008, xiv + 393 pp. ISBN: 9780521886741. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Price: £55 / $99.

  8. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  9. Accelerated diffusion spectrum imaging with compressed sensing using adaptive dictionaries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bilgic, Berkin; Setsompop, Kawin; Cohen‐Adad, Julien; Yendiki, Anastasia; Wald, Lawrence L; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2012-01-01

    .... As the performance of compressed sensing reconstruction depends strongly on the level of sparsity in the selected transform space, a dictionary specifically tailored for diffusion probability density...

  10. Transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids a concise primer

    CERN Document Server

    Olsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    This short primer provides a concise and tutorial-style introduction to transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids , in particular the transport of mass, energy and momentum.  The reader will find detailed derivations of the transport equations for these phenomena, as well as selected analytical solutions to the transport equations in some simple geometries. After a brief introduction to the basic mathematics used in the text, Chapter 2, which deals with momentum transport, presents a derivation of the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equation describing the basic flow in a Newtonian fluid.  Also provided at

  11. Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction : solutions manual

    CERN Document Server

    Conradie, Willem; Robinson, Claudette

    2015-01-01

    Solutions manual to accompany Logic and Discrete Mathematics: A Concise Introduction This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade. Written in a clear and reader-friendly style, each section ends with an extensive set of exercises, most of them provided with complete solutions which are available in this accompanying solutions manual.

  12. A concise introduction to image processing using C++

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Meiqing

    2008-01-01

    Image recognition has become an increasingly dynamic field with new and emerging civil and military applications in security, exploration, and robotics. Written by experts in fractal-based image and video compression, A Concise Introduction to Image Processing using C++ strengthens your knowledge of fundamentals principles in image acquisition, conservation, processing, and manipulation, allowing you to easily apply these techniques in real-world problems. The book presents state-of-the-art image processing methodology, including current industrial practices for image compression, image de-noi

  13. The geometry of special relativity a concise course

    CERN Document Server

    Dragon, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    In this concise primer it is shown that, with simple diagrams, the phenomena of time dilatation, length contraction and Lorentz transformations can be deduced from the fact that in a vacuum one cannot distinguish physically straight and uniform motion from rest, and that the speed of light does not depend on the speed of either the source or the observer. The text proceeds to derive the important results of relativistic physics and to resolve its apparent paradoxes. A short introduction into the covariant formulation of electrodynamics is also given. This publication addresses, in particular, students of physics and mathematics in their final undergraduate year.

  14. A Concise Introduction to Multiagent Systems and Distributed Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Vlassis, Nikos

    2007-01-01

    Multiagent systems is an expanding field that blends classical fields like game theory and decentralized control with modern fields like computer science and machine learning. This monograph provides a concise introduction to the subject, covering the theoretical foundations as well as more recent developments in a coherent and readable manner. The text is centered on the concept of an agent as decision maker. Chapter 1 is a short introduction to the field of multiagent systems. Chapter 2 covers the basic theory of singleagent decision making under uncertainty. Chapter 3 is a brief introductio

  15. Short Pulses THz FEL for the Oxford Accelerator Science Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Chanwattana, Thakonwat; Bartolini, Riccardo; Seryi, Andrei; Bartolini, Riccardo; Tsesmelis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The Accelerator Science Laboratory (ASL) is under development at the John Adams Institute in Oxford with the aim of fostering advanced accelerator concepts and applications. The option to install a short pulse THz FEL based on a conventional RF accelerator driven by a RF photocathode gun is being investigated. This report presents the concept of the facility, the accelerator physics and FEL studies and engineering integration in the University physics department.

  16. Nanocall: an open source basecaller for Oxford Nanopore sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matei; Dursi, L J; Yao, Delia; Boutros, Paul C; Simpson, Jared T

    2017-01-01

    The highly portable Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencer has enabled new applications of genome sequencing directly in the field. However, the MinION currently relies on a cloud computing platform, Metrichor (metrichor.com), for translating locally generated sequencing data into basecalls. To allow offline and private analysis of MinION data, we created Nanocall. Nanocall is the first freely available, open-source basecaller for Oxford Nanopore sequencing data and does not require an internet connection. Using R7.3 chemistry, on two E.coli and two human samples, with natural as well as PCR-amplified DNA, Nanocall reads have ∼68% identity, directly comparable to Metrichor '1D' data. Further, Nanocall is efficient, processing ∼2500 Kbp of sequence per core hour using the fastest settings, and fully parallelized. Using a 4 core desktop computer, Nanocall could basecall a MinION sequencing run in real time. Metrichor provides the ability to integrate the '1D' sequencing of template and complement strands of a single DNA molecule, and create a '2D' read. Nanocall does not currently integrate this technology, and addition of this capability will be an important future development. In summary, Nanocall is the first open-source, freely available, off-line basecaller for Oxford Nanopore sequencing data. Nanocall is available at github.com/mateidavid/nanocall, released under the MIT license. matei.david@oicr.on.caSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Attempted suicide in Oxford University students, 1976-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, K; Haigh, R; Simkin, S; Fagg, J

    1995-01-01

    During the 14 years between the beginning of academic year 1976-7 and the end of academic year 1989-90, 216 Oxford University students (119 females and 97 males) were referred to the general hospital in Oxford because of suicide attempts (254 in all). The rate of attempted suicide during university term-time (106/100,000) was lower than in other young people of similar age in Oxford City (164/100,000). The difference was particularly marked in females (178/100,000 v. 269/100,000). The lower rate in the students may in part reflect their generally higher socio-economic status. Very few of the attempts by the students appeared to be failed suicides. The most frequent problems faced by the students at the time of their attempts were interpersonal, especially difficulties regarding partners, followed by academic problems. The latter were usually problems with ongoing course work rather than with the Finals examinations. Approximately a quarter of the students had psychiatric problems, with personality disorders and depression being most common. At least 30% had a history of previous attempts. Suggestions are made concerning measures for improving the management and prevention of attempted suicide by students.

  18. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; McGrath, John C; Catterall, William A; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties from the IUPHAR database. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. This compilation of the major pharmacological targets is divided into seven areas of focus: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors & Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528237

  19. The compilation of bilingual dictionaries between African languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absence of bilingual dictionaries between African languages again provides evidence of who the lexicographers were and which population groups they represented. To fill this void, a model called the hub-and-spoke is proposed in this paper for the compilation of such kind of dictionaries. The model has been chosen ...

  20. Access Structures in a Standard Translation Dictionary·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The access structure is the primary guide structure in the central texts of any stan- dard translation dictionary. The metalexicographical term "guide structures" refers to the set of structures that provides a framework within which the accessibility and availability of information types in the dictionary can be evaluated.

  1. The Role of the Introductory Matter in Bilingual Dictionaries of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    ing interest in Arabic and tend to provide justifications for listing dialect words which are treated as part and parcel of modern Arabic. In the Dictionary of Mod- ern Written Arabic, the introduction speaks about the growing interest in bilin- gual dictionaries of Arabic as the motive behind the compiler's decision to translate his ...

  2. A critical analysis of multilingual dictionaries | Prinsloo | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the lexicographic value of multilingual dictionaries. Dictionaries covering three or more languages spoken in South Africa are taken as a case in point. An attempt will be made to reflect on their merits and shortcomings as reference works and learning tools but the focus will be on presumed ...

  3. South Africa's new African language dictionaries and their use for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    ment the general vocabulary (general dictionaries) or the specialized vocabulary (technical diction- aries). They empower the language users because they help to improve communication by pro- viding users with the necessary vocabulary they need. In addition, dictionaries have a high sym- bolic value for a language.

  4. A dictionary of commonly used terms and terminologies in nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A need for a comprehensive dictionary of cotton was assessed by the International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC), Washington, DC. The ICAC has selected the topics (from the fiber to fabric) to be covered in the dictionary. The ICAC has invited researchers/scientists from across the globe, to compi...

  5. A Series of Foundation Phase Dictionaries for a Multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the design and use of the Maskew Miller Longman series of dictionaries published in several different official languages of South Africa and aimed at learners in the foundation phase of primary school. It will be argued that when planning new dictionaries such as these, lexicographers ...

  6. An Electronic Dictionary and Translation System for Murrinh-Patha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiss, Melanie; Nordlinger, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an electronic dictionary and translation system for the Australian language Murrinh-Patha. Its complex verbal structure makes learning Murrinh-Patha very difficult. Design learning materials or a dictionary which is easy to understand and to use also presents a challenge. This paper discusses some of the difficulties posed by…

  7. Personalized Age Progression with Bi-level Aging Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiangbo; Tang, Jinhui; Li, Zechao; Lai, Hanjiang; Zhang, Liyan; Yan, Shuicheng

    2017-05-17

    Age progression is defined as aesthetically re-rendering the aging face at any future age for an individual face. In this work, we aim to automatically render aging faces in a personalized way. Basically, for each age group, we learn an aging dictionary to reveal its aging characteristics (e.g., wrinkles), where the dictionary bases corresponding to the same index yet from two neighboring aging dictionaries form a particular aging pattern cross these two age groups, and a linear combination of all these patterns expresses a particular personalized aging process. Moreover, two factors are taken into consideration in the dictionary learning process. First, beyond the aging dictionaries, each person may have extra personalized facial characteristics, e.g. mole, which are invariant in the aging process. Second, it is challenging or even impossible to collect faces of all age groups for a particular person, yet much easier and more practical to get face pairs from neighboring age groups. To this end, we propose a novel Bi-level Dictionary Learning based Personalized Age Progression (BDL-PAP) method. Here, bi-level dictionary learning is formulated to learn the aging dictionaries based on face pairs from neighboring age groups. Extensive experiments well demonstrate the advantages of the proposed BDL-PAP over other state-of-the-arts in term of personalized age progression, as well as the performance gain for cross-age face verification by synthesizing aging faces.

  8. Textual Condensation in Printed Dictionaries. A Theoretical Draft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an excerpt from a theory of lexicographic texts which deals particularly with dictionary articles. Almost all characteristics of dictionary articles considered as typically lexicographic may be regarded as results of textual condensation processes. A theory of textual condensation in lexicography thus makes it ...

  9. An Electronic Translation of the LIWC Dictionary into Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wissen, Leon; Boot, P.

    LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count) is a text analysis tool developed by social psychologists but now widely used outside of psychology. The tool counts words in certain categories, as defined in an accompanying (English-language) dictionary. The most recent version of the dictionary was

  10. The Reproduction of Cultural Aspects in Dictionaries in French and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Reproduction of Cultural Aspects in Dictionaries in French and the Gabonese Languages* ... The reproduction of culture in dictionaries constitutes one of the fundamental prob-lems of lexicographers today. What is the ... However, to be used in the most efficient way, these lexicographic publications need to be revised.

  11. Bilingualized Dictionaries with Special Reference to the Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    erence for language teaching, particularly for vocabulary pedagogy. By learn- ing about users' needs and reference skills and identifying the problems with. BLD use, we can enhance students' awareness of the role of dictionaries in lan- guage learning process and improve their dictionary use competence. Fur- thermore ...

  12. South Africa's new African language dictionaries and their use for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    be discussed, as a functional dictionary culture can help to empower people. .... seeing the whole book, gets an idea of the size of the stock of words of the lan- guage .... tive and not prescriptive, dictionaries are mainly perceived as prescriptive by ... play a vital role because they provide a standardized term for a concept, i.e..

  13. El Diccionario Del Espanol Chicano (The Dictionary of Chicano Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Roberto A.; Teschner, Richard V.

    This is a supplementary dictionary of the Spanish spoken by Chicanos in the states of Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. The nearly 8,000 entries represent a compilation of Chicano words and phrases not typically found in standard dictionaries. Items are listed alphabetically in Spanish, followed by an English…

  14. Looking beyond Meaning in the Advanced Ndebele Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mev. R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: It is an established view in lexicography that the most important function of early dictionaries was to provide information on the meaning of words of a particular language. Over the years, tendencies have emerged with modern dictionaries providing detailed linguistic infor- mation resulting in more informative ...

  15. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    This dictionary, prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE), defines 13,000 technical words from every area of electrical and electronics engineering. The dictionary contains hundreds of new terms as well as revisions of earlier ones. Each definition is an official standard of IEEE. The definitions are arranged…

  16. Affirming a Role for Specialised Dictionaries in Indigenous African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    2000, 2002, 2008) to affirm the role of specialised dictionaries in indigenous African languages and also to give insights into ... they do not need lexicographic assistance regarding their native languages. This results in dictionaries in ... How are you going to define terms for specialised concepts in Shona? — Why would you ...

  17. Making an Online Dictionary of New Zealand Sign Language*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The Online Dictionary of New Zealand Sign Language (ODNZSL),1 launched in 2011, is an example of a contemporary sign language dictionary that leverages the 21st century advantages of a digital medium and an existing body of descriptive research on the language, including a small electronic corpus of New ...

  18. Making an Online Dictionary of New Zealand Sign Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Online Dictionary of New Zealand Sign Language (ODNZSL),1 launched in 2011, is n example of a contemporary sign language dictionary that leverages the 21st century advantages of a digital medium and an existing body of descriptive research on the language, including a small electronic corpus of New Zealand ...

  19. Henrik Gottlieb and Jens Erik Mogensen (Editors). Dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    to enable lexicographers of a new Latvian–English dictionary to ascertain whether they have taken all the possible equivalents into account. Although dictionary reversal is a controversial practice, the results of this particular pro- ject described by Veisbergs did produce an increase in material. Naturally, some serious ...

  20. Using an Online Dictionary for Identifying the Meanings of Verb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The Longman English–Japanese Dictionary (ロングマン英和辞典, henceforth. LEJD), co-edited by the British and Japanese linguists Geoffrey Leech and. Yoshihiko Ikegami and first published in 2007 by Pearson Education, is the first genuine bilingual learner's dictionary exclusively intended for Japanese Eng- lish learners.

  1. Julie Coleman, A History of Cant and Slang Dictionaries, vol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    These two beautifully printed and presented volumes document a complete history of dictionaries of English cant and slang from 1567 to 1858. Coleman investigates the wealth of dictionaries and glossaries of cant and slang that are, as she puts it, 'far more often used than studied' but which, nonetheless, form an essential ...

  2. Chinese-Cantonese Dictionary of Common Chinese-Cantonese Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This dictionary contains 1,500 Chinese-Cantonese characters (selected from three frequency lists), and more than 6,000 Chinese-Cantonese terms (selected from three Cantonese-English dictionaries). The characters are arranged alphabetically according to the U.S. Army Language School System of Romanization, which is described in the…

  3. Chinese-English Technical Dictionaries. Volume 1, Aviation and Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Aerospace Technology Div.

    The present dictionary is the first of a series of Chinese-English technical dictionaries under preparation by the Aerospace Technology Division of the Library of Congress. The purpose of the series is to provide rapid reference tools for translators, abstractors, and research analysts concerned with scientific and technical materials published in…

  4. Orthogonal Procrustes Analysis for Dictionary Learning in Sparse Linear Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Giuliano; Lanzarotti, Raffaella; Lin, Jianyi

    2017-01-01

    In the sparse representation model, the design of overcomplete dictionaries plays a key role for the effectiveness and applicability in different domains. Recent research has produced several dictionary learning approaches, being proven that dictionaries learnt by data examples significantly outperform structured ones, e.g. wavelet transforms. In this context, learning consists in adapting the dictionary atoms to a set of training signals in order to promote a sparse representation that minimizes the reconstruction error. Finding the best fitting dictionary remains a very difficult task, leaving the question still open. A well-established heuristic method for tackling this problem is an iterative alternating scheme, adopted for instance in the well-known K-SVD algorithm. Essentially, it consists in repeating two stages; the former promotes sparse coding of the training set and the latter adapts the dictionary to reduce the error. In this paper we present R-SVD, a new method that, while maintaining the alternating scheme, adopts the Orthogonal Procrustes analysis to update the dictionary atoms suitably arranged into groups. Comparative experiments on synthetic data prove the effectiveness of R-SVD with respect to well known dictionary learning algorithms such as K-SVD, ILS-DLA and the online method OSDL. Moreover, experiments on natural data such as ECG compression, EEG sparse representation, and image modeling confirm R-SVD's robustness and wide applicability.

  5. Dictionary Form in Decoding, Encoding and Retention: Further Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziemianko, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the role of dictionary form (paper versus electronic) in language reception, production and retention. The body of existing research does not give a clear answer as to which dictionary medium benefits users more. Divergent findings from many studies into the topic might stem from differences in research…

  6. Compiling a Bidirectional Dictionary Bridging English and the Sotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    languages/Nguni languages/Afrikaans dictionary of this magnitude is a use- ful contribution in the complete absence of dictionaries bridging African lan- guages with each other and could be improved by simultaneous treatment of the target languages. Consider the following attempt to improve CMD's articles for the lemmas ...

  7. Creating a German–Basque electronic dictionary for German learners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we introduce the new electronic dictionary project EuDeLex, which is currently being worked on at UPV-EHU University of the Basque Country. The introduction addresses the need for and functions of a new electronic dictionary for that language pair, as well as general considerations about bilingual ...

  8. E-dictionaries and phonolexicographic needs of EFL users

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    netic access, i.e. querying the contents of the dictionary via the phonetic code, (d) didactic aspects of phonolexicographic ... tions have again been approached in my two books on phonolexicography. (Sobkowiak 1999 and 2006) ... deed, the only book-length treatment of dictionary definition phonetics (of. Macmillan English ...

  9. Lexique: Construire son propre dictionnaire (Lexicon: Constructing One's Own Dictionary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gilles

    1990-01-01

    An approach in which advanced language students construct their own dictionaries in class combines vocabulary development with development of a metalanguage. The procedures used in the classroom exercise are outlined and illustrated, and examples of students' personalized dictionaries are presented. (MSE)

  10. Using an Online Dictionary for Identifying the Meanings of Verb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Hai Xu, Centre for Linguistics and Applied Linguistics,. Guangdong ... tive as paper dictionaries for new word acquisition for EFL learners. In stark contrast to the .... The Macmillan English Dictionary Online (MEDO) was chosen because it only provides an ..... International Journal of Lexicography 23(3): 275-306. De Schryver ...

  11. Compiling a monolingual dictionary for native speakers. | Hanks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among others, it discusses the relationship between a lexical database and a monolingual dictionary, the role of corpus evidence, historical principles in lexicography vs. synchronic principles, the instability of word meaning, the need for full vocabulary coverage, principles of definition writing, the role of dictionaries in ...

  12. The Dictionary in Examinations at a South African University: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract: This paper interrogates students' use of dictionaries for examination purposes at. Rhodes ... English additional language students use the dictionary in examinations for assistance that may be considered to be .... academic language with which English language additional students are strug- gling. There are ...

  13. Etymology in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article offers an insight into etymological information provided in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish (Pol. Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN, WSJP PAN). The dictionary and the rules of producing the entries are briefly presented. These rules influence the way of working on etymology within ...

  14. Creating a German–Basque Electronic Dictionary for German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    By means of modern Dictionary Writing Systems (DWS) as, for example, Tshwane-. Lex (Joffe, De Schryver and Prinsloo 2003, De Schryver and Joffe 2005), it is pos- sible to create Multifunctional Lexical Databases (about the concept, Pajzs 2009) based on XML-coded microstructures. Different monofunctional dictionaries,.

  15. Preparing an Online Dictionary of Business Communication: From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the plan for an online English–Spanish dictionary of business communication based on the function theory. After a short overview of lexicographical traditions within this field, it focuses on the philosophy behind the overall dictionary concept, the methods applied to develop this concept, some of the ...

  16. The access structure in learner's dictionaries | Steyn | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... become effective dictionary users. Keywords: metalexicography, outer access structure, inner access structure, learner's dictionary, frame structure, unintegrated, integrated, mono- and poly-accessible, outer texts, outer rapid access, data distribution structure, micro-architecture, data-architecture, data exposure structure, ...

  17. A Compact In-Memory Dictionary for RDF data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazoubandi, Hamid R.; de Rooij, Steven; Urbani, Jacopo; ten Teije, Annette; van Harmelen, Frank; Bal, Henri

    2015-01-01

    While almost all dictionary compression techniques focus on static RDF data, we present a compact in-memory RDF dictionary for dynamic and streaming data. To do so, we analysed the structure of terms in real-world datasets and observed a high degree of common prefixes. We studied the applicability

  18. Language Learners' Use of a Bilingual Dictionary: A Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This paper compares and contrasts dictionary use and needs of language learners at the University of York in the United Kingdom and at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Five aspects are discussed in this study viz. dictionaries used, instructions and guidance on dictio- nary use, the functions for which ...

  19. Design of a Function-Based Internet Accounting Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Mourier, Lise

    2007-01-01

    The traditional definition of a dictionary needs to be replaced by one that defines the dictionary in terms of lexicographic functions, data and structures. These must be linked to the intended user groups, the users’ linguistic and factual competences and their needs in the relevant situations o...... to the user in communication-oriented situations within a register-specific context such as accounting....

  20. Pedagogical Wishes for a Machine Dictionary: An Example from Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Howard H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the uses for and advantages of a computerized foreign language/ English dictionary. Using Russian as an example, the additional teaching functions such a dictionary could provide include: (1) word frequency; (2) etymological information; (3) word family; (4) tergo listings; (5) synonym listings; (6) thesaurus listings; and (7) literary…

  1. The compilation of electronic dictionaries for the African languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the most burning lemmatization problems encountered by lexicographers for African languages in paper dictionaries. Keywords: electronic dictionary, lexicography, data retrieval, lemmatization, cd-rom, access route, pop-up functionalities, pop-up screens, edutainment, cross-referencing, information retrieval, encoding, ...

  2. Francolin Illustrated School Dictionary for Southern Africa | Benjamin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dorothea Mantzel and Bernd Schulz. Francolin Illustrated School Dictionary for Southern Africa. Developed by The Dictionary Unit for South African English in consultation with The Molteno Project and READ Education Trust. 1997. xvi + 336 pp. ISBN 1-86859-015-1. Cape Town: Francolin Publishers.

  3. The OEAD: New Perspectives on English–Arabic Dictionaries for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article sheds light on the necessity of finding new techniques to rank the users' preferences for English–Arabic dictionaries. The first section of the article reports the findings of an experimental technique devised for this particular purpose. The reviews for dictionaries on Amazon. com turn out to be a more valuable ...

  4. The Compilation of Electronic Dictionaries for the African Languages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    enhanced query and data retrieval technology, pave the way to a new generation of dictionaries unimagined in the .... a double click on a word on screen will call up a dictionary entry for that word. (Nesi 1999: 61) ..... Adding information is facilitated by the pop-up functionalities of the electronic product. Information that would ...

  5. Cuban School Dictionaries for First-Language Learners: A Shared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It will give no final answer, but it will discuss an experience with a Cuban school dictionary which has reached its target users in large numbers. The contribution will particularly look at the multi-faceted relation between lexicographers and users which characterises the Cuban dictionary project. The objective is not to copy ...

  6. The Use of Examples in Polyfunc- tional Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Dictionary compilation for the African languages in South Africa stands on the eve of the African Renaissance and prospective compilers of dictionaries for African languages are in need of a sound perspective and guidelines in respect of the compilation and choice of examples. The aim of this article is to analyse ...

  7. The compilation of the Shona–English biomedical dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bilingual Shona–English dictionary of biomedical terms, Duramazwi reUrapi neUtano, was compiled with the aim of improving the efficiency of communication between doctor and patient. The dictionary is composed of terms from both modern and traditional medicinal practices. The article seeks to look at the methods ...

  8. Is Lexicography making progress? on dictionary use and language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article sets out to explore the ways native speakers as well as foreign language learners use dictionaries and the strategies dictionary users adopt in the language acquisition process. The basis for this article is a corpus of six books (in chronological order Atkins (Ed.) 1998, Nesi 2000, Tono 2001, Humblé 2001, ...

  9. Beyond meaning in dictionaries: Teaching Ndebele grammar using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article calls for a user-oriented approach in the provision of lexicographic information in dictionaries and the need for such an approach to be complemented by the optimum utilization of dictionaries. The point of departure is arguably going beyond meaning information on both ends of a lexicographic plane, namely ...

  10. L2 writing assistants and context-aware dictionaries: New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionaries are increasingly integrated into other tools designed to assist the reading, writing and translation of texts. Write Assistant is a newly developed tool aimed at assisting people writing in a second language. It feeds on big data taken in from corpora and digital dictionaries. The paper discusses the philosophy ...

  11. Multi-instance dictionary learning via multivariate performance measure optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2016-12-29

    The multi-instance dictionary plays a critical role in multi-instance data representation. Meanwhile, different multi-instance learning applications are evaluated by specific multivariate performance measures. For example, multi-instance ranking reports the precision and recall. It is not difficult to see that to obtain different optimal performance measures, different dictionaries are needed. This observation motives us to learn performance-optimal dictionaries for this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel joint framework for learning the multi-instance dictionary and the classifier to optimize a given multivariate performance measure, such as the F1 score and precision at rank k. We propose to represent the bags as bag-level features via the bag-instance similarity, and learn a classifier in the bag-level feature space to optimize the given performance measure. We propose to minimize the upper bound of a multivariate loss corresponding to the performance measure, the complexity of the classifier, and the complexity of the dictionary, simultaneously, with regard to both the dictionary and the classifier parameters. In this way, the dictionary learning is regularized by the performance optimization, and a performance-optimal dictionary is obtained. We develop an iterative algorithm to solve this minimization problem efficiently using a cutting-plane algorithm and a coordinate descent method. Experiments on multi-instance benchmark data sets show its advantage over both traditional multi-instance learning and performance optimization methods.

  12. Ekonomiese en Bedryfswoordeboek: Engels–Afrikaans/Dictionary of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekonomiese en Bedryfswoordeboek: Engels–Afrikaans/Dictionary of Eco-nomics and Business: English–Afrikaans. S Marx. Abstract. W.F.J. Steenkamp en/and H.J.J. Reynders (Hoofredakteurs/Chief Edi-tors. Ekonomiese en Bedryfswoordeboek: Engels–Afrikaans/Dictionary of Eco-nomics and Business: English–Afrikaans.

  13. Orthogonal Procrustes Analysis for Dictionary Learning in Sparse Linear Representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Grossi

    Full Text Available In the sparse representation model, the design of overcomplete dictionaries plays a key role for the effectiveness and applicability in different domains. Recent research has produced several dictionary learning approaches, being proven that dictionaries learnt by data examples significantly outperform structured ones, e.g. wavelet transforms. In this context, learning consists in adapting the dictionary atoms to a set of training signals in order to promote a sparse representation that minimizes the reconstruction error. Finding the best fitting dictionary remains a very difficult task, leaving the question still open. A well-established heuristic method for tackling this problem is an iterative alternating scheme, adopted for instance in the well-known K-SVD algorithm. Essentially, it consists in repeating two stages; the former promotes sparse coding of the training set and the latter adapts the dictionary to reduce the error. In this paper we present R-SVD, a new method that, while maintaining the alternating scheme, adopts the Orthogonal Procrustes analysis to update the dictionary atoms suitably arranged into groups. Comparative experiments on synthetic data prove the effectiveness of R-SVD with respect to well known dictionary learning algorithms such as K-SVD, ILS-DLA and the online method OSDL. Moreover, experiments on natural data such as ECG compression, EEG sparse representation, and image modeling confirm R-SVD's robustness and wide applicability.

  14. From Print to Digital: Implications for Dictionary Policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple example is the kind of "recursive" definition found in many English dictionaries where a nominalization (such as assimilation) is defined in terms of the related verb ... Keywords: Definitions, example sentences, digital media, exclusion Criteria, gatekeeper, lexicographic conventions, online dictionary, user profile ...

  15. Using an Online Dictionary for Identifying the Meanings of Verb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated the use of an online dictionary by Chinese EFL learners in identifying the meanings of verb phrases. Thirty-two stu-dents with English as major subject participated in a meaning determination task with and without the help of the Macmillan English Dictionary ...

  16. A Secured Protocol For Preventing Online Dictionary Attack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of passwords is a major point of vulnerablility in computer security as passwords are often easy to guess by automated programs running dictionary attacks. Several attempts have been made by researchers in order to counter online dictionary attack but with one drawback or the other, for example storing ...

  17. Access Routes of Internet Finance Dictionaries: Present Solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lexicographers working on finance dictionaries have not properly exploited the fast development of the Internet. This is revealed by the poor utilization of the access routes found in current Internet finance dictionaries. Consequently, users cannot effectively and efficiently find answers to their lexicographical problems. Firstly ...

  18. Access Routes of Internet Finance Dictionaries: Present Solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: Lexicographers working on finance dictionaries have not properly exploited the fast development of the Internet. This is revealed by the poor utilization of the access routes found in current Internet finance dictionaries. Consequently, users cannot effectively and efficiently find answers to their lexicographical ...

  19. Access Structures in a Standard Translation Dictionary | Louw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The access structure is the primary guide structure in the central texts of any standard translation dictionary. The metalexicographical term "guide structures" refers to the set of structures that provides a framework within which the accessibility and availability of information types in the dictionary can be evaluated. The access ...

  20. An Interview with Professor Paddy Scannell, Oxford, July 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry, Tarik

    2007-01-01

    Paddy Scannell: I had done a degree in English literature at Oxford for three years and after that, because I hadn’t a clue what I wanted to do next, I thought I might as well stay on a bit longer. So I applied to do postgraduate research in English literature. That turned out to be total waste of time and I packed it up at the end of the first year. I moved on to a postgraduate certificate in education at the University of Hull - the only place I could get into just before the start of the a...

  1. Expanding the Bethe/Gauge dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Lukowski, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We expand the Bethe/Gauge dictionary between the XXX Heisenberg spin chain and 2d N = (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories to include aspects of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We construct the wave functions of off-shell Bethe states as orbifold defects in the A-twisted supersymmetric gauge theory and study their correlation functions. We also present an alternative description of off-shell Bethe states as boundary conditions in an effective N = 4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Finally, we interpret spin chain R-matrices as correlation functions of Janus interfaces for mass parameters in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  2. Dictionary of dissuasion; Dictionnaire de la dissuasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodka-Gallien, P.

    2011-09-15

    With more than 300 head words, this dictionary covers, at the worldwide scale, the history of men (from Curie and Einstein to Barack Obama), the issues (secrecy and information, weapons rush, proliferation and counter-proliferation..), the strategies (massive or gradual counter-attacks), the organisations (IAEA, CEA, Greenpeace etc.) and the equipments in relation with nuclear dissuasion. If the main part of the book is devoted to military equipments and topics, some other aspects of the nuclear domain are also presented, like radioactivity, civil nuclear accidents, thermonuclear fusion, laboratory equipments, disarmament and others. (J.S.)

  3. Online Dictionary Learning for Sparse Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    inpainting . 2. Problem Statement Classical dictionary learning techniques (Olshausen & Field, 1997; Engan et al., 1999; Aharon et al., 2006; Lee et al...ing A0 = t0I and B0 = t0D0 for the matrices At and Bt, where t0 is a new parameter. 5.2. Application to Inpainting Our last experiment demonstrates...that our algorithm can be used for a difficult large-scale image processing task, namely, removing the text ( inpainting ) from the damaged 12-Megapixel

  4. Hessel Visser. Naro Dictionary: Naro?English, English?Naro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman M. Batibo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although this dictionary was not published by a well-established publishing house, its quality and usefulness rival those of seasoned publishers in the field of Khoesan studies, such as the dictionaries by Dickens (1994, Traill (1994 and Haacke (2002. This fourth edition of Visser's Naro Dictionary is a medium-sized dictionary of 240 pages, including 16 pages of appendices. The work is the result of more than 10 years of lexical compilation which resulted in several editions of the dictionary, each of which was an expanded version of the earlier one. Thus, from a miniature version, it has grown into a sizeable high-quality work, in spite of the compiler's modest observation in his introduction that it is a mere "working document" and that it is still a "preliminary publication".

  5. THE REFLECTION OF EVALUATION AND VALUES IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л И Богданова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the evaluative characteristics of lexis which denotes concepts which are culturally significant for society, and have been reflected in various ways in Russian dictionaries. Experi-ence of research in this area (Yu.D. Apresyan, N.D. Arutyunova, E. Bartminsky, A. Wierzbicka, E.M. Wolf, T.V. Larina, N.V. Ufimtseva, etc. demonstrates that one effective direction is a communication-activity ap-proach which allows researchers to explore evaluation characteristics from the perspectives of both recipient and producer of the speech. This article represents the fruit of research into the receptive aspect of the study of values; its aim is to show how evaluation markers are dealt with in dictionaries, and describe the representation of evaluations and values in lexicographical sources. During the research, various methods and operational procedures were used, including the analysis of definitions, component analysis, context transformation, equivalent replacement, modelling, linguistic experiment, etc. While studying the ways of denoting estimations and values in Russian dictionaries, we found explicit and implicit means of express-ing the evaluative characteristics of lexical units, which affect the reception of estimates by users of dic-tionaries. Special attention is paid to research into the problems of cultures in contact situations. The structure of views about the same event cannot correspond across different cultural communities, which confirms the thesis on the existence of fundamental culture codes which manage linguistic and perceptual codes (Fou-cault. It was found that evaluative components are inconsistently reproduced, in explanatory dictionaries, and dictionary definitions frequently fail to clarify the question of evaluation of the content in question, which makes it difficult for users to process the evaluative significance of dictionary entries. The dictionary definition, therefore, often fails to reflect the

  6. 76 FR 9967 - Removal and Amendment of Class E Airspace, Oxford, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... upward from 700 feet at Oxford, CT. Decommissioning of the Waterbury Non- Directional Beacon (NDB) at the Waterbury-Oxford airport has made this action necessary for the safety and management of Instrument Flight... proposed rulemaking to remove and amend Class E airspace at Waterbury-Oxford Airport, Oxford, CT (75 FR...

  7. 75 FR 52484 - Proposed Removal and Amendment of Class E Airspace, Oxford, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... amend Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet at Oxford, CT. Decommissioning of the Waterbury Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) at the Waterbury-Oxford airport has made this action necessary for the... surface at Oxford- Waterbury Airport, Oxford, CT. The Waterbury NDB has been decommissioned and reference...

  8. Highly undersampled MR image reconstruction using an improved dual-dictionary learning method with self-adaptive dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiansen; Song, Ying; Zhu, Zhen; Zhao, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Dual-dictionary learning (Dual-DL) method utilizes both a low-resolution dictionary and a high-resolution dictionary, which are co-trained for sparse coding and image updating, respectively. It can effectively exploit a priori knowledge regarding the typical structures, specific features, and local details of training sets images. The prior knowledge helps to improve the reconstruction quality greatly. This method has been successfully applied in magnetic resonance (MR) image reconstruction. However, it relies heavily on the training sets, and dictionaries are fixed and nonadaptive. In this research, we improve Dual-DL by using self-adaptive dictionaries. The low- and high-resolution dictionaries are updated correspondingly along with the image updating stage to ensure their self-adaptivity. The updated dictionaries incorporate both the prior information of the training sets and the test image directly. Both dictionaries feature improved adaptability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently and significantly improve the quality and robustness of MR image reconstruction.

  9. A dictionary gives definitions, not decisions: On using a dictionary to identify the basic senses of words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, A.G.; Reijnierse, W.G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of a dictionary in metaphor identification may lead to conflicts between sense descriptions in the dictionary and analysts’ (native speaker) intuitions about word meanings. This paper offers suggestions for dealing with these conflicts by focusing on the descriptive rather than prescriptive

  10. Letters to a Dictionary: Competing Views of Language in the Reception of "Webster's Third New International Dictionary"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Anne Pence

    2013-01-01

    The publication of "Webster's Third New International Dictionary" in September 1961 set off a national controversy about dictionaries and language that ultimately included issues related to linguistics and English education. The negative reviews published in the press about the "Third" have shaped beliefs about the nature of…

  11. Turning the corpus into a functional component of the dictionary: the case of the Oenolex wine dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Lexicographical corpora for dictionary making are normally used as an empirical base of the dictionary. They provide highly valuable lexical material, patterns, attestations of use, etc. However, once exploited by the lexicographer, they remain hidden to the user. The question thus is: Can a corp...

  12. The Oxford Guide to the History of Physics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, John L.

    2005-06-01

    With over 150 alphabetically arranged entries about key scientists, concepts, discoveries, technological innovations, and learned institutions, the Oxford Guide to Physics and Astronomy traces the history of physics and astronomy from the Renaissance to the present. For students, teachers, historians, scientists, and readers of popular science books such as Galileo's Daughter , this guide deciphers the methods and philosophies of physics and astronomy as well as the historical periods from which they emerged. Meant to serve the lay reader and the professional alike, this book can be turned to for the answer to how scientists learned to measure the speed of light, or consulted for neat, careful summaries of topics as complicated as quantum field theory and as vast as the universe. The entries, each written by a noted scholar and edited by J. L. Heilbron, Professor of History and Vice Chancellor, Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley, reflect the most up-to-date research and discuss the applications of the scientific disciplines to the wider world of religion, law, war, art and literature. No other source on these two branches of science is as informative or as inviting. Thoroughly cross-referenced and accented by dozens of black and white illustrations, the Oxford Guide to Physics and Astronomy is the source to turn to for anyone looking for a quick explanation of alchemy, x-rays and any type of matter or energy in between.

  13. Suicide in Oxford University students, 1976-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, K; Simkin, S; Fagg, J; Hawkins, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim was to determine the extent, characteristics and timing of suicide in Oxford University students. Students who died from suicide or undetermined cause between October 1976 and September 1990 were identified through University records and individual colleges. Information about each student was sought from coroners, college staff, general practitioners and hospital case notes. There were 21 suicides (16 men and 5 women) and one open verdict (female). The observed number of suicides (O) was greater than the number expected (E = 11.09) on the basis of mortality statistics for England and Wales (O/E = 1.89; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.90). When deaths due to undetermined cause were included, however, the difference between O and E (17.03) was much reduced (O/E = 1.29; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.95). There was no evidence of an association with the Finals examination but two-thirds of the students had been worried about academic achievement or their courses. Nearly half appeared to have had a psychiatric disorder (mostly depression). The much publicised apparent excess of Oxford University student suicides may be partly artefactual. Measures for preventing student suicides include careful induction upon arrival at university, means of alleviating academic stress and worries, and readily available and closely associated student counselling and psychiatric services.

  14. Flexner at 100: a brief view from Oxford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kenneth A

    2011-01-01

    Of all the principles set out by Flexner in 1910, the most fundamental, that of academic and scientific excellence, is more relevant to medical education in the United Kingdom today than ever before. To realize this, undergraduate medical education (UGME) at Oxford has evolved to incorporate the tutorial method of teaching to promote independent and critical thought. Coupled with the usual didactic experiences, each medical student is also required to complete a 26-week research experience before going on to clinical study. Outcome measures reveal that Oxford graduates have consistently achieved highest marks in the U.K. equivalent of the United States Medical Licensing Examination. In contrast to UGME in the United Kingdom, postgraduate medical education (PGME) occurs largely outside the academy and often emphasizes the practical at the expense of the underlying Flexnarian principles of academic excellence. A reassertion of Flexner's belief that universities and medical schools should be the center for all medical education would greatly benefit PGME in the United Kingdom and be a tribute to Flexner's enduring legacy.

  15. Quantum spin systems on infinite lattices a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Naaijkens, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    This course-based primer offers readers a concise introduction to the description of quantum mechanical systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom – and quantum spin systems in particular – using the operator algebraic approach. Here, the observables are modeled using elements of some operator algebra, usually a C*-algebra. This text introduces readers to the framework and the necessary mathematical tools without assuming much mathematical background, making it more accessible than advanced monographs. The book also highlights the usefulness of the so-called thermodynamic limit of quantum spin systems, which is the limit of infinite system size. For example, this makes it possible to clearly distinguish between local and global properties, without having to keep track of the system size. Together with Lieb-Robinson bounds, which play a similar role in quantum spin systems to that of the speed of light in relativistic theories, this approach allows ideas from relativistic field theories to be implemen...

  16. Extraintestinal manifestations of Helicobacter pylori: A concise review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frank; Rayner-Hartley, Erin; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been clearly linked to peptic ulcer disease and some gastrointestinal malignancies. Increasing evidence demonstrates possible associations to disease states in other organ systems, known as the extraintestinal manifestations of H. pylori. Different conditions associated with H. pylori infection include those from hematologic, cardiopulmonary, metabolic, neurologic, and dermatologic systems. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of the evidence that supports or refutes the associations of H. pylori and its proposed extraintestinal manifestations. Based on data from the literature, PUD, mucosal associated lymphoid tumors lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma has well-established links. Current evidence most supports extraintestinal manifestations with H. pylori in immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, urticaria, Parkinson’s, migraines and rosacea; however, there is still plausible link with other diseases that requires further research. PMID:25232230

  17. Continuum mechanics through the twentieth century a concise historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gerard A

    2013-01-01

    This overview of the development of continuum mechanics throughout the twentieth century is unique and ambitious. Utilizing a historical perspective, it combines an exposition on the technical progress made in the field and a marked interest in the role played by remarkable individuals and scientific schools and institutions on a rapidly evolving social background. It underlines the newly raised technical questions and their answers, and the ongoing reflections on the bases of continuum mechanics associated, or in competition, with other branches of the physical sciences, including thermodynamics. The emphasis is placed on the development of a more realistic modeling of deformable solids and the exploitation of new mathematical tools. The book presents a balanced appraisal of advances made in various parts of the world. The author contributes his technical expertise, personal recollections, and international experience to this general overview, which is very informative albeit concise.

  18. A concise quantum efficiency measurement system for gaseous photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Toru [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Tokanai, Fuyuki, E-mail: tokanai@sci.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Okazaki, Keisuke; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Gunji, Shuichi [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kawabata, Hironobu; Sohtome, Takayuki [BUNKOUKEIKI Co., Ltd., Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0033 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Takayuki [Graduate School of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirioyuki; Okada, Teruyuki; Ohishi, Noboru [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka 438-0193 (Japan); Kishimoto, Syunji [Institute of Material Structure Science, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    We have been developing gaseous photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a bialkali photocathode combined with micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs). The sensitivity of a PMT is described in terms of its quantum efficiency (QE). The QE is very important in many experiments, particularly when dealing with low photon statistics. A concise QE measurement system has been developed to evaluate the characteristics of a sealed gaseous PMT with a bialkali photocathode. This QE measurement system consists of a Xe arc lamp source, reflective optics and filters, a monochromator, and a reference Si photodiode detector. Using the system, we evaluated the QE, gain, and long-term stability of the gaseous PMT. Here, we report the results of our evaluation.

  19. A Concise Introduction to the Statistical Physics of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This concise primer (based on lectures given at summer schools on complex systems and on a masters degree course in complex systems modeling) will provide graduate students and newcomers to the field with the basic knowledge of the concepts and methods of statistical physics and its potential for application to interdisciplinary topics.  Indeed, in recent years, statistical physics has begun to attract the interest of a broad community of researchers in the field of complex system sciences, ranging from biology to the social sciences, economics and computer science. More generally, a growing number of graduate students and researchers feel the need to learn some basic concepts and questions originating in other disciplines without necessarily having to master all of the corresponding technicalities and jargon. Generally speaking, the goals of statistical physics may be summarized as follows: on the one hand to study systems composed of a large number of interacting ‘entities’, and on the other to predict...

  20. The peace and nuclear war dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S.R. (North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States))

    1989-01-01

    The Peace and Nuclear War Dictionary is organized so that entries and supplementary data can be located easily and quickly. Items are arranged alphabetically throughout, rather than grouped into chapters. When doubtful about how to locate an entry, consult the general index. Page numbers for terms appear in the index in heavy black type; subsidiary concepts discussed within entries can be found in the index, identified by page numbers in regular type. For study purposes, numerous entries have also been subsumed under major topical headings in the index, affording the reader access to broad classes of related information. The reader can also fully explore a topic by employing the extensive cross-references included in all entries. Many entries can be found as subsidiary terms, but in each case the concept is related to the main entry. The author has adopted the format of this book to provide the reader a variety of useful applications. These include its use as a dictionary and ready reference guide to the global language of peace and nuclear war; a study guide for introductory courses in Nuclear War and Peace of International Relations, or for any specialized course in the area; a supplement to a textbook or a group of paperback monographs adopted for use in these courses; a source of review material for the political science major enrolled in advanced courses; and a social science aid for use in business, education, government, policy sciences, and journalism.

  1. Size-Dictionary Interpolation for Robot's Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza eDaneshmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the classification and size-dictionary interpolation of the three-dimensional data obtained by a laser scanner to be used in a realistic virtual fitting room, where automatic activation of the chosen mannequin robot, while several mannequin robots of different genders and sizes are simultaneously connected to the same computer, is also considered to make it mimic the body shapes and sizes instantly. The classification process consists of two layers, dealing, respectively, with gender and size. The interpolation procedure tries to find out which set of the positions of the biologically-inspired actuators for activation of the mannequin robots could lead to the closest possible resemblance of the shape of the body of the person having been scanned, through linearly mapping the distances between the subsequent size-templates and the corresponding position set of the bioengineered actuators, and subsequently, calculating the control measures that could maintain the same distance proportions, where minimizing the Euclidean distance between the size-dictionary template vectors and that of the desired body sizes determines the mathematical description. In this research work, the experimental results of the implementation of the proposed method on Fits.me's mannequin robots are visually illustrated, and explanation of the remaining steps towards completion of the whole realistic online fitting package is provided.

  2. Pharos Woordeboeke / Dictionaries 5 in 1: 5 ten volle geïntegreerde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharos. Pharos Woordeboeke / Dictionaries 5 in 1: 5 ten volle geïntegreerde woordeboeke / Fully Integrated Dictionaries. Afrikaans-Engels / English-Afrikaans 1. Groot Woordeboek / Major Dictionary 2. Tweetalige Frasewoordeboek / Bilingual Phrase Dictionary 3. Nuwe Woorde / New Words Afrikaans 4. Verklarende ...

  3. Students Working with an English Learners' Dictionary on CD-ROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Birgit

    This paper examines the growing literature on pedagogical lexicography and the growing focus on how well the learner uses the dictionary in second language learning. Dictionaries are becoming more user-friendly. This study used the writing task to reveal new insights into how students use a CD-ROM dictionary. It found a lack of dictionary-using…

  4. Using Different Types of Dictionaries for Improving EFL Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Majed A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of monolingual book dictionaries, popup dictionaries, and type-in dictionaries on improving reading comprehension and vocabulary learning in an EFL program. An experimental design involving four groups and a post-test was chosen for the experiment: (1) pop-up dictionary (experimental group 1); (2) type-in…

  5. Validation of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available David Morley, Sarah Dummett, Laura Kelly, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, Crispin Jenkinson Health Services Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Purpose: There is growing interest in the management of long-term conditions and in keeping people active and participating in the community. Testing the effectiveness of interventions that aim to affect activities and participation can be challenging without a well-developed, valid, and reliable instrument. This study therefore aims to develop a patient-reported outcome measure, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ, which is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF and fully compliant with current best practice guidelines. Methods: Questionnaire items generated from patient interviews and based on the nine chapters of the ICF were administered by postal survey to 386 people with three neurological conditions: motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Participants also completed the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and EQ-5D-5L. Results: Thus, 334 participants completed the survey, a response rate of 86.5%. Factor analysis techniques identified three Ox-PAQ domains, consisting of 23 items, accounting for 72.8% of variance. Internal reliability for the three domains was high (Cronbach's α: 0.81–0.96, as was test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation: 0.83–0.92. Concurrent validity was demonstrated through highly significant relationships with relevant domains of the MOS SF-36 and the EQ-5D-5L. Assessment of known-groups validity identified significant differences in Ox-PAQ scores among the three conditions included in the survey. Conclusion: Results suggest that the Ox-PAQ is a valid and reliable measure of participation and activity. The measure will now be validated in

  6. Sparse dictionary for synthetic transmit aperture medical ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Jiang, Jin-Yang; Li, Na; Luo, Han-Wu; Li, Fang; Cui, Shi-Gang

    2017-07-01

    It is possible to recover a signal below the Nyquist sampling limit using a compressive sensing technique in ultrasound imaging. However, the reconstruction enabled by common sparse transform approaches does not achieve satisfactory results. Considering the ultrasound echo signal's features of attenuation, repetition, and superposition, a sparse dictionary with the emission pulse signal is proposed. Sparse coefficients in the proposed dictionary have high sparsity. Images reconstructed with this dictionary were compared with those obtained with the three other common transforms, namely, discrete Fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, and discrete wavelet transform. The performance of the proposed dictionary was analyzed via a simulation and experimental data. The mean absolute error (MAE) was used to quantify the quality of the reconstructions. Experimental results indicate that the MAE associated with the proposed dictionary was always the smallest, the reconstruction time required was the shortest, and the lateral resolution and contrast of the reconstructed images were also the closest to the original images. The proposed sparse dictionary performed better than the other three sparse transforms. With the same sampling rate, the proposed dictionary achieved excellent reconstruction quality.

  7. Fast dictionary-based reconstruction for diffusion spectrum imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Berkin; Chatnuntawech, Itthi; Setsompop, Kawin; Cauley, Stephen F; Yendiki, Anastasia; Wald, Lawrence L; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2013-11-01

    Diffusion spectrum imaging reveals detailed local diffusion properties at the expense of substantially long imaging times. It is possible to accelerate acquisition by undersampling in q-space, followed by image reconstruction that exploits prior knowledge on the diffusion probability density functions (pdfs). Previously proposed methods impose this prior in the form of sparsity under wavelet and total variation transforms, or under adaptive dictionaries that are trained on example datasets to maximize the sparsity of the representation. These compressed sensing (CS) methods require full-brain processing times on the order of hours using MATLAB running on a workstation. This work presents two dictionary-based reconstruction techniques that use analytical solutions, and are two orders of magnitude faster than the previously proposed dictionary-based CS approach. The first method generates a dictionary from the training data using principal component analysis (PCA), and performs the reconstruction in the PCA space. The second proposed method applies reconstruction using pseudoinverse with Tikhonov regularization with respect to a dictionary. This dictionary can either be obtained using the K-SVD algorithm, or it can simply be the training dataset of pdfs without any training. All of the proposed methods achieve reconstruction times on the order of seconds per imaging slice, and have reconstruction quality comparable to that of dictionary-based CS algorithm.

  8. Acceptions of the "death"entry in language dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Camara Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Language dictionaries present the meaning of an entry in a way not restricted to linguistic information, since we also have interdisciplinary and contextual aspects that dialogue with socio-cultural issues in which the entry is inserted. Considering the potential character of the study of contextual meanings, the “death” entry was chosen to carry out a comparative analysis among language dictionaries. The choice was motivated by the recurrence of this entry in ancient and contemporary dictionaries, and the fact of its having a concept that allows various historical, social and ideological discussions. The goal is to reveal the different nuances of the “death” entry in language dictionaries, observing four main aspects: etymology, diachrony, synonymic construction and meaning of “death” in school dictionaries. Based on lexicographical studies of classical authors, we did a comparative analysis of meanings of “death” in different types of language dictionaries. We found that in each group dictionary we may find traces of ideological choices in the construction of the contextual meaning of the “death” entry.

  9. How do Slovene learners of English use their dictionaries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Vrbinc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The conference Dictionaries and their Users, which was organized by Reinhard Hartmann i.n the late 1970s, initiated a period of more intensive dictionary testing. Jerzy Tomaszczyk (1979 was the first to study the foreign users of dictionaries more thoroughly and was soon followed by Béjoint (1981, who based his investigation partly on Tomasczczyk's (Cowie 1999: 175-98. Later in the 1980s and 1990s, vari­ ous researchers carried out studies concerning different aspects of dictionary needs, skills and use. The focus was on many areas of interest, such as definitions, illustra­ tive examples, labels, grammatical information, inclusion of phraseological units, and the trend still continues (Atkins 1998, Dolezal and McCreary 1999, Tono 2001, Bogaards and van der Kloot 2001, Al-Ajmi 2002, Campoy Cubillo 2002, Nesi and Haill 2002, Wingate 2002. Consequently, learners' dictionaries have been improved a great deal on the basis of the findings of these studies, which have contributed to a better understanding of average dictionary users, their expectations and the prob­ lems they encounter when consulting their dictionaries.

  10. The Development of Android Based Dictionary For Graphic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Agustina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dictionary is one of the important media in learning English. Along with the rapid development of mobile technology at this time, the various applications for mobile is widely developed as a medium of learning, one of them is the application of Android-based dictionary. Dictionaries on mobile devices are more practical than conventional dictionaries, as users can receive information quickly anywhere without space and time constraints. Related to this, the research aims to create a dictionary application of English-Indonesian graphics techniques capable of running on android-based phones. This application is built to help and meet the needs of students majoring in graphic technique in searching for meaning and understand various English words related to science of graphics. The collection of words and phrases (word entries related to the science of graphic technique is done through literature studies of books, internet and other relevant sources. In addition, the collection of words and phrases is also done by conducting in-depth interviews with lecturers or graphic technique experts. The programming languages used in making this language dictionary application use Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME and SQLite. The dictionary after being validated of 4.14 with good category and tested received positive response from the students indicated with very positive questionnaire results.

  11. MR PROSTATE SEGMENTATION VIA DISTRIBUTED DISCRIMINATIVE DICTIONARY (DDD) LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanrong; Zhan, Yiqiang; Gao, Yaozong; Jiang, Jianguo; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Segmenting prostate from MR images is important yet challenging. Due to non-Gaussian distribution of prostate appearances in MR images, the popular active appearance model (AAM) has its limited performance. Although the newly developed sparse dictionary learning method[1, 2] can model the image appearance in a non-parametric fashion, the learned dictionaries still lack the discriminative power between prostate and non-prostate tissues, which is critical for accurate prostate segmentation. In this paper, we propose to integrate deformable model with a novel learning scheme, namely the Distributed Discriminative Dictionary (DDD) learning, which can capture image appearance in a non-parametric and discriminative fashion. In particular, three strategies are designed to boost the tissue discriminative power of DDD. First, minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) feature selection is performed to constrain the dictionary learning in a discriminative feature space. Second, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is employed to assemble residuals from different dictionaries for optimal separation between prostate and non-prostate tissues. Third, instead of learning the global dictionaries, we learn a set of local dictionaries for the local regions (each with small appearance variations) along prostate boundary, thus achieving better tissue differentiation locally. In the application stage, DDDs will provide the appearance cues to robustly drive the deformable model onto the prostate boundary. Experiments on 50 MR prostate images show that our method can yield a Dice Ratio of 88% compared to the manual segmentations, and have 7% improvement over the conventional AAM.

  12. Adaptive Greedy Dictionary Selection for Web Media Summarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yang; Liu, Ji; Sun, Gan; You, Quanzeng; Li, Yuncheng; Luo, Jiebo

    2017-01-01

    Initializing an effective dictionary is an indispensable step for sparse representation. In this paper, we focus on the dictionary selection problem with the objective to select a compact subset of basis from original training data instead of learning a new dictionary matrix as dictionary learning models do. We first design a new dictionary selection model via l2,0 norm. For model optimization, we propose two methods: one is the standard forward-backward greedy algorithm, which is not suitable for large-scale problems; the other is based on the gradient cues at each forward iteration and speeds up the process dramatically. In comparison with the state-of-the-art dictionary selection models, our model is not only more effective and efficient, but also can control the sparsity. To evaluate the performance of our new model, we select two practical web media summarization problems: 1) we build a new data set consisting of around 500 users, 3000 albums, and 1 million images, and achieve effective assisted albuming based on our model and 2) by formulating the video summarization problem as a dictionary selection issue, we employ our model to extract keyframes from a video sequence in a more flexible way. Generally, our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in both these two tasks.

  13. The Oxford handbook of the history of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics brings together cutting-edge writing by more than twenty leading authorities on the history of physics from the seventeenth century to the present day. By presenting a wide diversity of studies in a single volume, it provides authoritative introductions to scholarly contributions that have tended to be dispersed in journals and books not easily accessible to the general reader. While the core thread remains the theories and experimental practices of physics, the Handbook contains chapters on other dimensions that have their place in any rounded history. These include the role of lecturing and textbooks in the communication of knowledge, the contribution of instrument-makers and instrument-making companies in providing for the needs of both research and lecture demonstrations, and the growing importance of the many interfaces between academic physics, industry, and the military.

  14. St Hugh's Military Hospital (Head Injuries), Oxford 1940-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M F; Silver, J

    2017-06-01

    Despite being open for only five years, St Hugh's Military Hospital (Head Injuries) has a seminal place in the history of neurology, neurosurgery and rehabilitation medicine. At its peak, during the Normandy campaign of 1944, it provided 430 beds for the treatment of service personnel. Between 1940 and 1945, 13,000 patients were referred to St Hugh's providing a unique opportunity for ground-breaking research into the management of head injuries. The doctors at St Hugh's collaborated with research scientists at Oxford University in many areas of fundamental research including the treatment of infection, the mechanics of brain injury, brain surgery, neuropsychiatry and rehabilitation, and the use of electroencephalograms. This paper documents these scientific advances and considers their influence on the practice of neurology and neurosurgery in the UK.

  15. CARATTERISTICHE FONDAMENTALI DI UN LEARNER’S DICTIONARY ITALIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Schafroth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Il presente studio si dedica a una categoria di dizionari ancora assente nella lessicografia italiana: i dizionari per apprendenti L2. Mentre il mercato italiano è dotato di una serie di dizionari pedagogici ideati per alunni e studenti italiani, un’opera concepita secondo il modello dei leaner's dictionaries inglesi e tedeschi, esclusivamente indirizzati a utenti stranieri (o di italiano L2 in generale non esiste. L’articolo descrive le caratteristiche fondamentali di un tale dizionario, comprendenti le definizioni, i rapporti semantico-lessicali e morfosemantici tra i lemmi, i contesti sintagmatici tipici (collocazioni e valenze e la dimensione pragmatica nel trattamento lessicografico dei segnali discorsivi e dei fraseologismi. Ne risulta chiaramente come dovrebbe essere un learner’s dictionary italiano.     Fundamental characteristics of an italian learner’s dictionary   This study discusses a category of dictionaries which are still absent from Italian lexicography: dictionaries for L2 learners.  While the Italian market offers a series of pedagogical dictionaries designed for Italian pupils ad students, a work along the lines of an English or German learner’s dictionary model, exclusively for foreign learners (or Italian L2 learners in general does not exist.  The article describes the basic characteristics for such a dictionary, including definitions, the semantic-lexical and morphosyntatical relationships between the entries, typical syntagmatic contexts (collocations and valences and the pragmatic dimension in the lexographical  treatment of discourse signals and phraseologisms.  It is clear how an Italian learner’s dictionary should be designed.

  16. A relational Data Dictionary compatible with the National Bureau of Standards Information Resource Dictionary System.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsch, Robert A. II

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Data is a very valuable corporate asset. How it is managed and controlled can often determine the success or failure of a corporate venture. With this fact in mind many organizations are taking a close look at what tools are available to help them in this effort. This thesis takes a look at two types of data management tools available today, the Relational Data Base Management System (DBMS) and the Data Dictionary (DD...

  17. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  18. Levenshtein Distance Technique in Dictionary Lookup Methods: An Improved Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Haldar, Rishin

    2011-01-01

    Dictionary lookup methods are popular in dealing with ambiguous letters which were not recognized by Optical Character Readers. However, a robust dictionary lookup method can be complex as apriori probability calculation or a large dictionary size increases the overhead and the cost of searching. In this context, Levenshtein distance is a simple metric which can be an effective string approximation tool. After observing the effectiveness of this method, an improvement has been made to this method by grouping some similar looking alphabets and reducing the weighted difference among members of the same group. The results showed marked improvement over the traditional Levenshtein distance technique.

  19. Dictionaries in the Internet Era: Innovation or Business as Usual?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    in the current transition to the digital media. Through examples from lexicographical practice it provides a vision of dictionaries as information tools and presents the core elements of a general theory covering all types of lexicographical work. Upon this basis, the article discusses principles, methods...... and techniques which can be applied to improve the quality of present and future online dictionaries. Finally, it presents the main concept of an online business dictionary under construction where some of these principles, methods and techniques are used in order to adapt the articles visualised on the screen...

  20. An Online Spanish Learners’ Dictionary: The DAELE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Arias-Badia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current online dictionaries for learners of Spanish as a second language largely just reproduce their printed counterparts. This report summarizes the advances made in the DAELE, a prototype dictionary for learners of Spanish as a second language that has been designed solely for online publication. The purpose and main features of the macro- and microstructure of the dictionary are briefly described, as well as the methodology whereby the data are collected and the first steps taken to include the most significant collocations by applying a method based on collocational networks.

  1. Log files as a tool for improving Internet dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Bergenholtz.; Johnsen, Mia

    2005-01-01

    lexicographers to monitor user behaviour in a different and much more precise way. Analyses of log files reveal exactly which lemmas and which types of information have been requested, and, perhaps more significantly, which lemmas and which types of information have been requested but were not found...... in the dictionary. Furthermore, log files allow lexicographers to see the types of information which have not, or not yet, been searched for. All in all, log files may thus be used as a tool for improving internet dictionaries - and perhaps also printed dictionaries - quite considerably....

  2. Dictionary of television and audiovisual terminology

    CERN Document Server

    Moshkovitz, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    "Recommended"--Booklist; "unique"--Reference Reviews; "handy"--Multimedia Information & Technology; "clear...descriptive"--Classic Images; "clear, practical definitions"--Rettig on Reference; "recommended"--E-Streams; "extensive and comprehensive"--ARBA; "a handy guide"--Communication Booknotes Quarterly. With television programming being broadcast worldwide in real time, the industry needs a common professional language. Constantly changing technology, however, has resulted in continuously changing terminology, sometimes leaving even the most knowledgeable broadcasters with a lack of understanding. In this dictionary over 1,500 terms and acronyms, both modern and classical, are presented. The definitions are designed to be straightforward and jargon-free (except where defining jargon), permitting ease of use to readers from a variety of fields. Ample cross-references are provided.

  3. Metaphor identification in a terminological dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at demonstrating that metaphor is not simply a literary device, but an integral part of everyday language. The Theory of Conceptual Metaphor suggests that our conceptual system is fundamentally metaphorical. Concepts arise from our everyday interaction with the world and semantic structure reflects the conceptual structure. Metaphor, therefore, is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Based on these assumptions, we analyzed a terminological dictionary on environmental law in order to find metaphorically used lexical items. Then, for every such item we tried to determine its most literal meaning in another context. In order to do so, we applied the method for identifying metaphor developed by the Pragglejaz Group (2007. The results confirm the pervasiveness of metaphor and indicate how polysemy is motivated. Moreover, there seems to be no clear boundaries between literal and figurative language.

  4. DICTIONARY OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE” EDITED BY ACADEMICIAN YA. GROT AND PROBLEMS OF LEXICOGRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF SPECIAL VOCABULARY IN EXPLANATORY DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Tsumarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article compares “Dictionary of the Russian language” (1891- 1895 edited by academician Ya. Grot and contemporary explanatory dictionaries of the Russian language with respect to lexicographic presentation of special vocabulary (terms and professionalisms. Many-fold description of special vocabulary in “Dictionary of the Russian language” (with a number of examples from it is demonstrated. The article emphasizes great importance of this dictionary for Russian lexicography.

  5. Classification of Polarimetric SAR Data Using Dictionary Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    2012-01-01

    This contribution deals with classification of multilook fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data by learning a dictionary of crop types present in the Foulum test site. The Foulum test site contains a large number of agricultural fields, as well as lakes, forests, natural vegetation......, grasslands and urban areas, which make it ideally suited for evaluation of classification algorithms. Dictionary learning centers around building a collection of image patches typical for the classification problem at hand. This requires initial manual labeling of the classes present in the data and is thus...... a method for supervised classification. Sparse coding of these image patches aims to maintain a proficient number of typical patches and associated labels. Data is consecutively classified by a nearest neighbor search of the dictionary elements and labeled with probabilities of each class. Each dictionary...

  6. Super pixel-level dictionary learning for hyperspectral image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Wen; Liao, Bo; Fu, Xiangzheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a superpixel-level dictionary learning model for hyperspectral data. The idea is to divide the hyperspectral image into a number of super-pixels by means of the super-pixel segmentation method. Each super-pixel is a spatial neighborhood called contextual group. That is, each pixel is represented using a linear combination of a few dictionary items learned from the train data, but since pixels inside a super-pixel are often consisting of the same materials, their linear combinations are constrained to use common items from the dictionary. To this end, the sparse coefficients of the context group have a common sparse pattern by using the joint sparse regularizer for dictionary learning. The sparse coefficients are then used for classification using linear support vector machines. The validity of the proposed method is experimentally verified on a real hyperspectral images.

  7. Pronunciation dictionary development in resource-scarce environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of speech technology systems in the developing world is often hampered by the lack of appropriate linguistic resources. A suitable pronunciation dictionary is one such resource that can be difficult to obtain for lesser...

  8. Some Specimen Entries for the Dictionary of Old English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, C. J. E.; Cameron, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    Revised version of a working paper presented at the Dictionary of Old English Conference, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto, September 26, 1970. Article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  9. Dictionaries and the Standardization of Spelling in Swahili | Mdee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to adhere to the standard orthography. Keywords: standardization of spelling, spelling conventions, standard ortifography, swahili alphabet, dialectical variations, catchwords, phonetic transcriptions, standard language, spelling system, nonstandard ortifography, standardization process, word-list, lexicon and dictionary ...

  10. Localized Dictionaries Based Orientation Field Estimation for Latent Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao Yang; Jianjiang Feng; Jie Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Dictionary based orientation field estimation approach has shown promising performance for latent fingerprints. In this paper, we seek to exploit stronger prior knowledge of fingerprints in order to further improve the performance. Realizing that ridge orientations at different locations of fingerprints have different characteristics, we propose a localized dictionaries-based orientation field estimation algorithm, in which noisy orientation patch at a location output by a local estimation approach is replaced by real orientation patch in the local dictionary at the same location. The precondition of applying localized dictionaries is that the pose of the latent fingerprint needs to be estimated. We propose a Hough transform-based fingerprint pose estimation algorithm, in which the predictions about fingerprint pose made by all orientation patches in the latent fingerprint are accumulated. Experimental results on challenging latent fingerprint datasets show the proposed method outperforms previous ones markedly.

  11. La "civilisation" du dictionnaire (The "Culture" in a Dictionary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacco, Jean-Claude

    1984-01-01

    The potential classroom uses of the foreign language dictionary as a cultural object and source of information about language usage, cultural perceptions, and documentation of attitudes are explored. (MSE)

  12. Efficient generation of pronunciation dictionaries: human factors factors during bootstrapping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Bootstrapping techniques have significant potential for the efficient generation of linguistic resources such as electronic pronunciation dictionaries. The authors describe a system and an approach to bootstrapping for the development...

  13. The Role of Dictionaries in the Documentation and Codification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this way the Khoisan languages will be vitalized and research contribute to Khoisan language development. Keywords: Khoisan Languages, Underresearched Languages, Language Documentation And Codification, Dictionary, Lexicographical Works, Lemmatization Procedures, Linguistic And Indigenous Knowledge, ...

  14. Problems of Equivalence in Shona- English Bilingual Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    translation equivalents in Shona-English dictionaries where lexicographers will be dealing with divergent languages and cultures, traditional practices of lexicography and the absence of reliable corpora. Keywords: BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, CORPUS, CULTURE, CULTURE-BOUND,. CULTURAL GAP, DICTIONARY ...

  15. Legal dictionary of food security in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Collart Dutilleul, François; Bugnicourt, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This dictionary contains about 170 entries and presents an overview of the different issues related to worldwide food insecurity, with a particular yet not exclusive focus on the existing rules and regulations.

  16. Georgian Dialect Corpus: Linguistic and Encyclopedic Information in Online Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beridze Marina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Georgian Dialect Corpus (GDC has been created within the framework of the project “Linguistic Portrait of Georgia”. It was the first attempt to create a structured corpus of Georgian dialects. The work of this project includes building the technical framework for a corpus, collecting the corpus (text data of Georgian dialects including the lexicographic data (dictionaries, their linguistic processing, digitizing, developing annotation framework, making decision on the morphosyntactic annotation. Currently, the Georgian Dialect Corpus is a platform consisting of the dialect corpus, the text library, the lexicographical database/online dialect dictionaries. For the purposes of developing the lexicographical database and dialect dictionaries, we have created a new program – the Lexicographic Editor. It allows us to structure and improve the dictionaries with multiple linguistic and lexicographic information. The lexicographic concept of the GDC has been developed taking into consideration linguistic and social features of the Georgian dialects.

  17. Language teaching and dictionary use: an overview | Carstens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of language teaching is to improve language proficiency with regard to reading, writing, speaking and listening. ... Poor reference skills and a lack of knowledge with regard to dictionary typology seem to be the most ...

  18. The effectiveness of using a bilingualized dictionary for determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... advanced Hong Kong Cantonese ESL learn-ers in the determination of noun countability ... Chinese transla-tions are also sometimes sources of errors. ... Cantonese Esl Learners, Second Language Acquisition, Effectiveness Of Dictionaries ...

  19. Concise Synthesis of (2R,4R)-Monatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Monatin, 4-hydroxy-4-(3-indolylmethyl)-glutamic acid, is a naturally occurring sweet amino acid. The (2R,4R)-monatin isomer has been found to be the sweetest among its four stereoisomers. A concise and efficient synthesis of (2R,4R)-monatin was accomplished by the alkylation of (4R)-N-tert-butoxycarbonyl (tBoc)-4-tert-butyldimethylsilyoxy-D-pyroglutamic acid methyl ester with tert-butyl 3-(bromomethyl)-1H-indole-1-carboxylate to give (4R)-N-tBoc-4-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-4-(N-tBoc-3-indolylmethyl)-D-pyroglutamic acid methyl ester, i.e., the lactam form of (2R,4R)-monatin with protecting groups. This was followed by the hydrolysis of the lactam ring and deprotection. The 4-hydroxyl D-pyroglutamic acid derivative was demonstrated to be a suitable precursor for the efficient preparation of (2R,4R)-monatin in high optical purity because the alkylation proceeded in regioselective and stereoselective manners at C4 to form appropriate asymmetric tetra-substituted carbon center; the resulting alkylated pyroglutamic acid derivative was then easily converted into the linear form of monatin.

  20. The 'gender gap' in final examination results at Oxford University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellanby, J; Martin, M; O'Doherty, J

    2000-08-01

    A lower proportion of women than men obtain first class degrees at British universities (the so-called gender gap). At Oxford University, this difference is not seen in all degree subjects but is found both in some Arts and in some Science subjects. We have used a questionnaire administered under supervision to undergraduates 2 to 3 months before their final examination to assess factors which might be expected to affect examination performance. These included measures of verbal and non-verbal reasoning (Alice Heim AH6 test), self-esteem, motivation, responses to stresses of examinations and of personal relationships, happiness, risk-taking and working patterns. We have also obtained a detailed breakdown of the marks the students were given in the examination. Women scored higher on negative emotions while men scored higher on self-esteem, their perception of their own academic efficacy and on risk-taking strategies, but none of these factors predicted outcome. Verbal reasoning ability did predict outcome but there was no gender difference. Hence, it is concluded that the gender gap is not due to any of these individual differences and is more likely to be related to the nature of the academic assessment system.

  1. Oxford Nanopore MinION Sequencing and Genome Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyun Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The revolution of genome sequencing is continuing after the successful second-generation sequencing (SGS technology. The third-generation sequencing (TGS technology, led by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio, is progressing rapidly, moving from a technology once only capable of providing data for small genome analysis, or for performing targeted screening, to one that promises high quality de novo assembly and structural variation detection for human-sized genomes. In 2014, the MinION, the first commercial sequencer using nanopore technology, was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT. MinION identifies DNA bases by measuring the changes in electrical conductivity generated as DNA strands pass through a biological pore. Its portability, affordability, and speed in data production makes it suitable for real-time applications, the release of the long read sequencer MinION has thus generated much excitement and interest in the genomics community. While de novo genome assemblies can be cheaply produced from SGS data, assembly continuity is often relatively poor, due to the limited ability of short reads to handle long repeats. Assembly quality can be greatly improved by using TGS long reads, since repetitive regions can be easily expanded into using longer sequencing lengths, despite having higher error rates at the base level. The potential of nanopore sequencing has been demonstrated by various studies in genome surveillance at locations where rapid and reliable sequencing is needed, but where resources are limited.

  2. Results and Perspectives in the Study of Names: A Look from Oxford. Review of the book: Hough, C., & Izdebska, D. (Eds.. (2016. The Oxford Handbook of Names and Naming. Oxford: Oxford University Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey O. Goryaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The review provides a critical survey of the recently published volume of The Oxford Handbooks series which deals with the study of proper names. The book contains seven sections subdivided into 47 smaller chapters written by 43 scholars from 13 countries, each chapter focusing on a specific branch of onomastics. The reviewers give a detailed account of the first three sections of the book which deal with general issues in the theory of onomastics and with various aspects of toponomastics and anthroponomastics. The last four parts (outlining achievements in literary onomastics, socio-onomastics, inter-disciplinary name studies and the study of peripheral types of names are reviewed in a more general way. The reviewers conclude that, due to the scale of the issues discussed in the book, the variety of linguistic evidence and sources cited by the international team of authors, the typological treatment of onomastic data, the exposition of both classical and innovative approaches, as well as to a solid list of references, the reviewed edition can serve as a valuable source of information about the main branches of onomastics, its results and perspectives. It also convinces of the importance of a closer cooperation between different national schools of onomastic studies, since it appears that some of the topics discussed in the handbook are more and better elaborated in Russian onomastics.

  3. Compiling a corpus-based dictionary grammar: an example for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article it is shown how a corpus-based dictionary grammar may be compiled — that is, a mini-grammar fully based on corpus data and specifically written for use in and inte-grated with a dictionary. Such an effort is, to the best of our knowledge, a world's first. We exem-plify our approach for a Northern Sotho ...

  4. Sparsity and Nullity: Paradigm for Analysis Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    closely related to SNS problem discussed next. By decomposing the DL problem into a set of convex optimization subproblems, we can guarantee the...pursuit, and extend it to a solution of analysis dictionary learning. Experimental results on numerical synthetic data and real-world data are further...it to a solution of analysis dictionary learning. Experimental results on numerical synthetic data and real-world data are further presented to

  5. Online dictionaries for assisting translators of LSP texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual specialized lexicography generally aims to facilitate communication within specialized domains. Bilingual terminology, in contrast, tends to focus on recording, structuring and analyzing terms by describing differences and similarities between the language communities involved. A study...... shows that online terminological dictionaries for translation are often insufficient and appear to be influenced by linguistic traditions and practices in the way they present and give access to data. Specialized translation dictionaries, however, provide help to solve user needs at various stages...

  6. Identification of homonyms in different types of dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Homonyms are generally defined as distinct lexical items that happen to share an identical form but whose senses are etymologically or semantically unrelated (e.g. tattoo1 ‘ink mark on skin’ / tattoo2 ‘military drum signal’). In lexicography, however, the decision of when to split particular senses of a lexical form into different homonymous entries must take into account the function of the dictionary and the needs of its intended users. Consequently, different types of dictionaries adopt d...

  7. Dictionary construction in sparse methods for image restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Sparsity-based methods have achieved very good performance in a wide variety of image restoration problems, including denoising, inpainting, super-resolution, and source separation. These methods are based on the assumption that the image to be reconstructed may be represented as a superposition of a few known components, and the appropriate linear combination of components is estimated by solving an optimization such as Basis Pursuit De-Noising (BPDN). Considering that the K-SVD constructs a dictionary which has been optimised for mean performance over a training set, it is not too surprising that better performance can be achieved by selecting a custom dictionary for each individual block to be reconstructed. The nearest neighbor dictionary construction can be understood geometrically as a method for estimating the local projection into the manifold of image blocks, whereas the K-SVD dictionary makes more sense within a source-coding framework (it is presented as a generalization of the k-means algorithm for constructing a VQ codebook), is therefore, it could be argued, less appropriate in principle, for reconstruction problems. One can, of course, motivate the use of the K-SVD in reconstruction application on practical grounds, avoiding the computational expense of constructing a different dictionary for each block to be denoised. Since the performance of the nearest neighbor dictionary decreases when the dictionary becomes sufficiently large, this method is also superior to the approach of utilizing the entire training set as a dictionary (and this can also be understood within the image block manifold model). In practical terms, the tradeoff is between the computational cost of a nearest neighbor search (which can be achieved very efficiently), or of increased cost at the sparse optimization.

  8. Supervised dictionary learning for inferring concurrent brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijie; Han, Junwei; Lv, Jinglei; Jiang, Xi; Hu, Xintao; Zhao, Yu; Ge, Bao; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2015-10-01

    Task-based fMRI (tfMRI) has been widely used to explore functional brain networks via predefined stimulus paradigm in the fMRI scan. Traditionally, the general linear model (GLM) has been a dominant approach to detect task-evoked networks. However, GLM focuses on task-evoked or event-evoked brain responses and possibly ignores the intrinsic brain functions. In comparison, dictionary learning and sparse coding methods have attracted much attention recently, and these methods have shown the promise of automatically and systematically decomposing fMRI signals into meaningful task-evoked and intrinsic concurrent networks. Nevertheless, two notable limitations of current data-driven dictionary learning method are that the prior knowledge of task paradigm is not sufficiently utilized and that the establishment of correspondences among dictionary atoms in different brains have been challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel supervised dictionary learning and sparse coding method for inferring functional networks from tfMRI data, which takes both of the advantages of model-driven method and data-driven method. The basic idea is to fix the task stimulus curves as predefined model-driven dictionary atoms and only optimize the other portion of data-driven dictionary atoms. Application of this novel methodology on the publicly available human connectome project (HCP) tfMRI datasets has achieved promising results.

  9. Histopathological Image Classification using Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tiep Huu; Mousavi, Hojjat Seyed; Monga, Vishal; Rao, Ganesh; Rao, UK Arvind

    2016-01-01

    In histopathological image analysis, feature extraction for classification is a challenging task due to the diversity of histology features suitable for each problem as well as presence of rich geometrical structures. In this paper, we propose an automatic feature discovery framework via learning class-specific dictionaries and present a low-complexity method for classification and disease grading in histopathology. Essentially, our Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning (DFDL) method learns class-specific dictionaries such that under a sparsity constraint, the learned dictionaries allow representing a new image sample parsimoniously via the dictionary corresponding to the class identity of the sample. At the same time, the dictionary is designed to be poorly capable of representing samples from other classes. Experiments on three challenging real-world image databases: 1) histopathological images of intraductal breast lesions, 2) mammalian kidney, lung and spleen images provided by the Animal Diagnostics Lab (ADL) at Pennsylvania State University, and 3) brain tumor images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, reveal the merits of our proposal over state-of-the-art alternatives. Moreover, we demonstrate that DFDL exhibits a more graceful decay in classification accuracy against the number of training images which is highly desirable in practice where generous training is often not available. PMID:26513781

  10. Bilevel Model-Based Discriminative Dictionary Learning for Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pan; Zhang, Chao; Lin, Zhouchen

    2017-03-01

    Most supervised dictionary learning methods optimize the combinations of reconstruction error, sparsity prior, and discriminative terms. Thus, the learnt dictionaries may not be optimal for recognition tasks. Also, the sparse codes learning models in the training and the testing phases are inconsistent. Besides, without utilizing the intrinsic data structure, many dictionary learning methods only employ the l 0 or l 1 norm to encode each datum independently, limiting the performance of the learnt dictionaries. We present a novel bilevel model-based discriminative dictionary learning method for recognition tasks. The upper level directly minimizes the classification error, while the lower level uses the sparsity term and the Laplacian term to characterize the intrinsic data structure. The lower level is subordinate to the upper level. Therefore, our model achieves an overall optimality for recognition in that the learnt dictionary is directly tailored for recognition. Moreover, the sparse codes learning models in the training and the testing phases can be the same. We further propose a novel method to solve our bilevel optimization problem. It first replaces the lower level with its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions and then applies the alternating direction method of multipliers to solve the equivalent problem. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  11. Russian Ethnonyms and Related Lexical Categories in Explanatory Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr I. Grishchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the proprial status of ethnonyms as reflected in Russian explanatory dictionaries from the first relevant editions of the last quarter of the 19th century (the unfinished experimental Comprehensive Philological Dictionary by Aleksandr Orlov, 1884–1885 till the newest Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language (2004–. Interpreted as appellatives, ethnonyms were gradually included in explanatory dictionaries, their spelling being at the same time codified with lowercase letters. The dictionary definitions of ethnonyms do not always distinguish them from the related lexical category of inhabitants’ names. Russian ethnonymy as reflected in dictionaries gives evidence of lexicographers’ attempts to comply with the contemporary ethnological data, but these attempts are often overshadowed by the naive idea of ethnicity. Nevertheless, this idea of ethnicity has some heuristic potential for being fixed by the language itself, hence for the purpose of this article we adopt a wide interpretation of ethnicity where ethnonyms are names of all groups of people regarded as “peoples”, “nations”, “tribes” etc.

  12. Continuity and Change in the (New Kosciuszko Foundation Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamska-Sałaciak Arleta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kościuszko Foundation Dictionary (KFD1, the only bilingual dictionary between Polish and American English, first came out in 1959 (English-Polish volume and 1961 (Polish-English volume. Between then and 1995, it was reprinted fourteen times, with the content completely intact. In 2003, The New Kosciuszko Foundation Dictionary (NKFD1 finally appeared, in two printed volumes accompanied by a CD. Originally intended as a straightforward update of KFD, it ended up being closer to a brand new dictionary, linked with its predecessor mainly through the title - a consequence of the continuing patronage of The Kosciuszko Foundation - and through its focus on American English. With around 133,000 main entries, it was, at the time of publication, the most comprehensive English-Polish, Polish-English dictionary in existence. A new, revised and enlarged edition (NKFD2 is about to be published soon, this time exclusively in digital form. Having been involved in the latter two projects - respectively, as editor of the English-Polish volume and editor-in-chief - the author examines the development of the dictionary, tracing the continuity and change in its three successive incarnations.

  13. Dictionary-based fiber orientation estimation with improved spatial consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chuyang; Prince, Jerry L

    2018-02-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has enabled in vivo investigation of white matter tracts. Fiber orientation (FO) estimation is a key step in tract reconstruction and has been a popular research topic in dMRI analysis. In particular, the sparsity assumption has been used in conjunction with a dictionary-based framework to achieve reliable FO estimation with a reduced number of gradient directions. Because image noise can have a deleterious effect on the accuracy of FO estimation, previous works have incorporated spatial consistency of FOs in the dictionary-based framework to improve the estimation. However, because FOs are only indirectly determined from the mixture fractions of dictionary atoms and not modeled as variables in the objective function, these methods do not incorporate FO smoothness directly, and their ability to produce smooth FOs could be limited. In this work, we propose an improvement to Fiber Orientation Reconstruction using Neighborhood Information (FORNI), which we call FORNI+; this method estimates FOs in a dictionary-based framework where FO smoothness is better enforced than in FORNI alone. We describe an objective function that explicitly models the actual FOs and the mixture fractions of dictionary atoms. Specifically, it consists of data fidelity between the observed signals and the signals represented by the dictionary, pairwise FO dissimilarity that encourages FO smoothness, and weighted ℓ 1 -norm terms that ensure the consistency between the actual FOs and the FO configuration suggested by the dictionary representation. The FOs and mixture fractions are then jointly estimated by minimizing the objective function using an iterative alternating optimization strategy. FORNI+ was evaluated on a simulation phantom, a physical phantom, and real brain dMRI data. In particular, in the real brain dMRI experiment, we have qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the reproducibility of the proposed method. Results demonstrate that

  14. A dictionary learning approach for human sperm heads classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Fariba; Monadjemi, S Amirhassan; Alirezaie, Javad; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza

    2017-12-01

    To diagnose infertility in men, semen analysis is conducted in which sperm morphology is one of the factors that are evaluated. Since manual assessment of sperm morphology is time-consuming and subjective, automatic classification methods are being developed. Automatic classification of sperm heads is a complicated task due to the intra-class differences and inter-class similarities of class objects. In this research, a Dictionary Learning (DL) technique is utilized to construct a dictionary of sperm head shapes. This dictionary is used to classify the sperm heads into four different classes. Square patches are extracted from the sperm head images. Columnized patches from each class of sperm are used to learn class-specific dictionaries. The patches from a test image are reconstructed using each class-specific dictionary and the overall reconstruction error for each class is used to select the best matching class. Average accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score are used to evaluate the classification method. The method is evaluated using two publicly available datasets of human sperm head shapes. The proposed DL based method achieved an average accuracy of 92.2% on the HuSHeM dataset, and an average recall of 62% on the SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS dataset. The results show a significant improvement compared to a previously published shape-feature-based method. We have achieved high-performance results. In addition, our proposed approach offers a more balanced classifier in which all four classes are recognized with high precision and recall. In this paper, we use a Dictionary Learning approach in classifying human sperm heads. It is shown that the Dictionary Learning method is far more effective in classifying human sperm heads than classifiers using shape-based features. Also, a dataset of human sperm head shapes is introduced to facilitate future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Progressive multi-atlas label fusion by dictionary evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yantao; Wu, Guorong; Bahrami, Khosro; Sun, Quansen; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-02-01

    Accurate segmentation of anatomical structures in medical images is important in recent imaging based studies. In the past years, multi-atlas patch-based label fusion methods have achieved a great success in medical image segmentation. In these methods, the appearance of each input image patch is first represented by an atlas patch dictionary (in the image domain), and then the latent label of the input image patch is predicted by applying the estimated representation coefficients to the corresponding anatomical labels of the atlas patches in the atlas label dictionary (in the label domain). However, due to the generally large gap between the patch appearance in the image domain and the patch structure in the label domain, the estimated (patch) representation coefficients from the image domain may not be optimal for the final label fusion, thus reducing the labeling accuracy. To address this issue, we propose a novel label fusion framework to seek for the suitable label fusion weights by progressively constructing a dynamic dictionary in a layer-by-layer manner, where the intermediate dictionaries act as a sequence of guidance to steer the transition of (patch) representation coefficients from the image domain to the label domain. Our proposed multi-layer label fusion framework is flexible enough to be applied to the existing labeling methods for improving their label fusion performance, i.e., by extending their single-layer static dictionary to the multi-layer dynamic dictionary. The experimental results show that our proposed progressive label fusion method achieves more accurate hippocampal segmentation results for the ADNI dataset, compared to the counterpart methods using only the single-layer static dictionary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Athena data dictionary and description language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, Alain; Bouedo, Thierry; Ghez, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, LAPP-IN2P3-CNRS, BP. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Marino, Massimo; Tull, Craig [LBNL, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Athena is the ATLAS off-line software framework, based upon the GAUDI architecture from LHCb. As part of ATLAS' continuing efforts to enhance and customize the architecture to meet our needs, we have developed a data object description tool suite and service for Athena. The aim is to provide a set of tools to describe, manage, integrate and use the Event Data Model at a design level according to the concepts of the Athena framework (use of patterns, relationships,...). Moreover, to ensure stability and reusability this must be fully independent from the implementation details. After an extensive investigation into the many options, we have developed a language grammar based upon a description language (IDL, ODL) to provide support for object integration in Athena. We have then developed a compiler front end based upon this language grammar, JavaCC, and a Java Reflection API-like interface. We have then used these tools to develop several compiler back ends which meet specific needs in ATLAS such as automatic generation of object converters, and data object scripting interfaces. We present here details of our work and experience to date on the Athena Definition Language and Athena Data Dictionary. (authors)

  17. Dictionary of astronomy, space, and atmospheric phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tver, D.F.; Motz, L.; Hartmann, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    This concise and up-to-date compendium features descriptions and definitions of terms, techniques and equipment relating to celestial phenomena. It explains the latest concepts in space exploration, planetary research, stellar astronomy, and meteorological science. The authors explore the general configurations of star groups, galaxy types, stars, and other small bodies in the solar system, including such important facts as magnitude of each and distance from Earth. They describe the brightest stars one by one. Vital data provided by the Viking, Mariner, and Pioneer space probes, the Voyager flights past Jupiter and its moons, and the Apollo landings are clearly presented and explained. New concepts in stellar astronomy such as quasars, neutron stars (pulsars), and black holes are precisely defined. Also included are discussions of meteor showers and the important rock types found on each planet; definitions of meteorological terms, ad astronomical equipment including telescopes, eyepieces and their accessories, the Golay cell, canopus sensor, filar micrometer, and more. Charts aid in identifying and locating stars and planets, and helpful reference tables list the location of the major celestial bodies - asteroids, constellations, the nearest stars, the brightest stars, interesting double and variable stars and cluters. Also included is the Meisser catalog of the coordinates and magnitudes for more than 100 celestial objects.

  18. A Dictionary Approach to Electron Backscatter Diffraction Indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu H; Park, Se Un; Wei, Dennis; Newstadt, Greg; Jackson, Michael A; Simmons, Jeff P; De Graef, Marc; Hero, Alfred O

    2015-06-01

    We propose a framework for indexing of grain and subgrain structures in electron backscatter diffraction patterns of polycrystalline materials. We discretize the domain of a dynamical forward model onto a dense grid of orientations, producing a dictionary of patterns. For each measured pattern, we identify the most similar patterns in the dictionary, and identify boundaries, detect anomalies, and index crystal orientations. The statistical distribution of these closest matches is used in an unsupervised binary decision tree (DT) classifier to identify grain boundaries and anomalous regions. The DT classifies a pattern as an anomaly if it has an abnormally low similarity to any pattern in the dictionary. It classifies a pixel as being near a grain boundary if the highly ranked patterns in the dictionary differ significantly over the pixel's neighborhood. Indexing is accomplished by computing the mean orientation of the closest matches to each pattern. The mean orientation is estimated using a maximum likelihood approach that models the orientation distribution as a mixture of Von Mises-Fisher distributions over the quaternionic three sphere. The proposed dictionary matching approach permits segmentation, anomaly detection, and indexing to be performed in a unified manner with the additional benefit of uncertainty quantification.

  19. Customized Dictionary Learning for Subdatasets with Fine Granularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparse models have a wide range of applications in machine learning and computer vision. Using a learned dictionary instead of an “off-the-shelf” one can dramatically improve performance on a particular dataset. However, learning a new one for each subdataset (subject with fine granularity may be unwarranted or impractical, due to restricted availability subdataset samples and tremendous numbers of subjects. To remedy this, we consider the dictionary customization problem, that is, specializing an existing global dictionary corresponding to the total dataset, with the aid of auxiliary samples obtained from the target subdataset. Inspired by observation and then deduced from theoretical analysis, a regularizer is employed penalizing the difference between the global and the customized dictionary. By minimizing the sum of reconstruction errors of the above regularizer under sparsity constraints, we exploit the characteristics of the target subdataset contained in the auxiliary samples while maintaining the basic sketches stored in the global dictionary. An efficient algorithm is presented and validated with experiments on real-world data.

  20. Aveiro method in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces under complete dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Weixiong; Qian, Tao

    2017-12-01

    Aveiro Method is a sparse representation method in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) that gives orthogonal projections in linear combinations of reproducing kernels over uniqueness sets. It, however, suffers from determination of uniqueness sets in the underlying RKHS. In fact, in general spaces, uniqueness sets are not easy to be identified, let alone the convergence speed aspect with Aveiro Method. To avoid those difficulties we propose an anew Aveiro Method based on a dictionary and the matching pursuit idea. What we do, in fact, are more: The new Aveiro method will be in relation to the recently proposed, the so called Pre-Orthogonal Greedy Algorithm (P-OGA) involving completion of a given dictionary. The new method is called Aveiro Method Under Complete Dictionary (AMUCD). The complete dictionary consists of all directional derivatives of the underlying reproducing kernels. We show that, under the boundary vanishing condition, bring available for the classical Hardy and Paley-Wiener spaces, the complete dictionary enables an efficient expansion of any given element in the Hilbert space. The proposed method reveals new and advanced aspects in both the Aveiro Method and the greedy algorithm.

  1. Half-Face Dictionary Integration for Representation-Based Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoning; Feng, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Guosheng; Wu, Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a half-face dictionary integration (HFDI) algorithm for representation-based classification. The proposed HFDI algorithm measures residuals between an input signal and the reconstructed one, using both the original and the synthesized dual-column (row) half-face training samples. More specifically, we first generate a set of virtual half-face samples for the purpose of training data augmentation. The aim is to obtain high-fidelity collaborative representation of a test sample. In this half-face integrated dictionary, each original training vector is replaced by an integrated dual-column (row) half-face matrix. Second, to reduce the redundancy between the original dictionary and the extended half-face dictionary, we propose an elimination strategy to gain the most robust training atoms. The last contribution of the proposed HFDI method is the use of a competitive fusion method weighting the reconstruction residuals from different dictionaries for robust face classification. Experimental results obtained from the Facial Recognition Technology, Aleix and Robert, Georgia Tech, ORL, and Carnegie Mellon University-pose, illumination and expression data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, especially in the case of the small sample size problem.

  2. Fast dictionary learning for noise attenuation of multidimensional seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangkang

    2017-04-01

    The K-SVD algorithm has been successfully utilized for adaptively learning the sparse dictionary in 2-D seismic denoising. Because of the high computational cost of many singular value decompositions (SVDs) in the K-SVD algorithm, it is not applicable in practical situations, especially in 3-D or 5-D problems. In this paper, I extend the dictionary learning based denoising approach from 2-D to 3-D. To address the computational efficiency problem in K-SVD, I propose a fast dictionary learning approach based on the sequential generalized K-means (SGK) algorithm for denoising multidimensional seismic data. The SGK algorithm updates each dictionary atom by taking an arithmetic average of several training signals instead of calculating an SVD as used in K-SVD algorithm. I summarize the sparse dictionary learning algorithm using K-SVD, and introduce SGK algorithm together with its detailed mathematical implications. 3-D synthetic, 2-D and 3-D field data examples are used to demonstrate the performance of both K-SVD and SGK algorithms. It has been shown that SGK algorithm can significantly increase the computational efficiency while only slightly degrading the denoising performance.

  3. Classification of multiple sclerosis lesions using adaptive dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Maurel, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a sparse representation and an adaptive dictionary learning based method for automated classification of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Manual delineation of MS lesions is a time-consuming task, requiring neuroradiology experts to analyze huge volume of MR data. This, in addition to the high intra- and inter-observer variability necessitates the requirement of automated MS lesion classification methods. Among many image representation models and classification methods that can be used for such purpose, we investigate the use of sparse modeling. In the recent years, sparse representation has evolved as a tool in modeling data using a few basis elements of an over-complete dictionary and has found applications in many image processing tasks including classification. We propose a supervised classification approach by learning dictionaries specific to the lesions and individual healthy brain tissues, which include white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The size of the dictionaries learned for each class plays a major role in data representation but it is an even more crucial element in the case of competitive classification. Our approach adapts the size of the dictionary for each class, depending on the complexity of the underlying data. The algorithm is validated using 52 multi-sequence MR images acquired from 13 MS patients. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in MS lesion classification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic Evaluation of Concise Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and/or Pharmacotherapy for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuldijk, Denise; Carlier, Ingrid V E; van Vliet, Irene M; van Hemert, Albert M; Zitman, Frans G; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2015-12-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders cause great suffering and disability and are associated with high health care costs. In a previous conducted pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we have shown that a concise format of cognitive behavioural- and/or pharmacotherapy is as effective as standard care in reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms and in improving subdomains of general health and quality of life in secondary care psychiatric outpatients. In this economic evaluation, we examined whether a favourable cost-utility of concise care compared to standard care was attained. The economic evaluation was performed alongside a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire. Cost of healthcare utilization and productivity loss (absenteeism and presenteeism) were assessed using the Trimbos/iMTA questionnaire for Costs associated with Psychiatric Illness (TiC-P). A cost-utility analysis, using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, comparing differences in societal costs and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) at 1 year was performed. One year after study entry, the difference in mean cost per patient of the two primary treatments was not significant between both groups. No significant differences in other healthcare and non- healthcare costs could be detected between patients receiving concise care and standard care. Also, QALYs were not statistically different between the groups during the study period. From both the societal and healthcare perspective, the probability that concise care is more cost-effective compared to standard care remains below the turning point of 0.5 for all acceptable values of the willingness to pay for a QALY. The economic evaluation suggests that concise care is unlikely to be cost-effective compared to standard care in the treatment for depressive- and anxiety disorders in secondary mental health care during a one year follow up period. Total costs and QALYs

  5. Requirements for an "Ideal" Bilingual L1 →L2 Translation- Oriented Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Burkhanov

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The major aim of this article is to outline the requirements for an "ideal" bilingualL1 →L2 dictionary of the general vocabulary specifically designed for the purposes of professionaltranslation. The article challenges three commonly accepted beliefs: (a) a bilingual dictionaryequals a translation dictionary; (b) a bilingual dictionary is a source of immediately insertable lexicalequivalents of lemmata; and (c) a bilingual dictionary solely furnishes semantic-pragmaticequiv...

  6. Accurate classification of brain gliomas by discriminate dictionary learning based on projective dictionary pair learning of proton magnetic resonance spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebileje, Sikiru Afolabi; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Aiyelabegan, Hammed Tanimowo; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza

    2017-04-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful noninvasive technique that complements the structural images of cMRI, which aids biomedical and clinical researches, by identifying and visualizing the compositions of various metabolites within the tissues of interest. However, accurate classification of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is still a challenging issue in clinics due to low signal-to-noise ratio, overlapping peaks of metabolites, and the presence of background macromolecules. This paper evaluates the performance of a discriminate dictionary learning classifiers based on projective dictionary pair learning method for brain gliomas proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra classification task, and the result were compared with the sub-dictionary learning methods. The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy data contain a total of 150 spectra (74 healthy, 23 grade II, 23 grade III, and 30 grade IV) from two databases. The datasets from both databases were first coupled together, followed by column normalization. The Kennard-Stone algorithm was used to split the datasets into its training and test sets. Performance comparison based on the overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision was conducted. Based on the overall accuracy of our classification scheme, the dictionary pair learning method was found to outperform the sub-dictionary learning methods 97.78% compared with 68.89%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. 3D Reconstruction of human bones based on dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binkai; Wang, Xiang; Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Jinjin

    2017-11-01

    An effective method for reconstructing a 3D model of human bones from computed tomography (CT) image data based on dictionary learning is proposed. In this study, the dictionary comprises the vertices of triangular meshes, and the sparse coefficient matrix indicates the connectivity information. For better reconstruction performance, we proposed a balance coefficient between the approximation and regularisation terms and a method for optimisation. Moreover, we applied a local updating strategy and a mesh-optimisation method to update the dictionary and the sparse matrix, respectively. The two updating steps are iterated alternately until the objective function converges. Thus, a reconstructed mesh could be obtained with high accuracy and regularisation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has the potential to obtain high precision and high-quality triangular meshes for rapid prototyping, medical diagnosis, and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Studying the Quality of Colloquial Infinitives in Moin Persian Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shekoohi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Moin has been considered as one of the most committed literary men of the present time who recorded a considerable amount of Persian words, expressions, and declarations in his own 6 volumes Persian dictionary according to scientific research methods and in a different way in comparison to the previous dictionaries. This article argues the quality of colloquial infinitives which have been recorded in Moin Persian Dictionary. The most important obstacles in all researches related to literature and colloquial language is the recognition criterion of "being colloquial". In this article, the recognition criterion is that of Moin's criterion who was a great master in this field. In the other words, any infinitives in front of which he put the abbreviation "Ɂam", have been extracted and at the next stage, according to the syntactic resources, have been divided into 8 categories. Finally, the examples of each category have been presented through tables.

  9. Sign Inference for Dynamic Signed Networks via Dictionary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile online social network (mOSN is a burgeoning research area. However, most existing works referring to mOSNs deal with static network structures and simply encode whether relationships among entities exist or not. In contrast, relationships in signed mOSNs can be positive or negative and may be changed with time and locations. Applying certain global characteristics of social balance, in this paper, we aim to infer the unknown relationships in dynamic signed mOSNs and formulate this sign inference problem as a low-rank matrix estimation problem. Specifically, motivated by the Singular Value Thresholding (SVT algorithm, a compact dictionary is selected from the observed dataset. Based on this compact dictionary, the relationships in the dynamic signed mOSNs are estimated via solving the formulated problem. Furthermore, the estimation accuracy is improved by employing a dictionary self-updating mechanism.

  10. The Evaluation of the Outside Matter in Dictionary Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Reviewing dictionaries is part of the ongoing work in lexicography, and several lexi­cographers have discussed the process and guidelines for reviews published in academic journals. However, few have addressed the evaluation of the outside matter and, if so, only in a cursory way. This article...... examines the evaluation of the outside matter in reviews published in Lexikos with a view to proposing some general principles for reviewing outer texts in printed and electronic dictionaries. The study shows that reviewers define the review object differently, some excluding the outside matter altogether......, and that the way in which the outside matter is assessed differs within and between reviews. It is proposed that the separate sections of dictionaries should not only be examined independently but that their relationship to each other should also be evaluated so as to represent faithfully the lexicographic...

  11. SDL: Saliency based dictionary learning framework for image similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rituparna; Acton, Scott T

    2017-10-16

    In image classification, obtaining adequate data to learn a robust classifier has often proven to be difficult in several scenarios. Classification of histological tissue images for health care analysis is a notable application in this context due to the necessity of surgery, biopsy or autopsy. To adequately exploit limited training data in classification, we propose a saliency guided dictionary learning method and subsequently an image similarity technique for histo-pathological image classification. Salient object detection from images aids in the identification of discriminative image features. We leverage the saliency values for the local image regions to learn a dictionary and respective sparse codes for an image, such that the more salient features are reconstructed with smaller error. The dictionary learned from an image gives a compact representation of the image itself and is capable of representing images with similar content, with comparable sparse codes. We employ this idea to design a similarity measure between a pair of images, where local image features of one image, are encoded with the dictionary learned from the other and vice versa. To effectively utilize the learned dictionary, we take into account the contribution of each dictionary atom in the sparse codes to generate a global image representation for image comparison. The efficacy of the proposed method was evaluated using three tissue datasets that consist of mammalian kidney, lung and spleen tissue, breast cancer and colon cancer tissue images. From the experiments, we observe that our methods outperform the state of the art with an increase of 14.2% in the average classification accuracy over all datasets.In image classification, obtaining adequate data to learn a robust classifier has often proven to be difficult in several scenarios. Classification of histological tissue images for health care analysis is a notable application in this context due to the necessity of surgery, biopsy or

  12. Sydney's Past, History's Future: The Dictionary of Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Murray

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dictionary of Sydney www.dictionaryofsydney.org is a ground breaking, multimedia city biography that can present the history of metropolitan Sydney on the web, in your hand and on the street. Through its historical model the digital repository allows historical elements to be classified, connected, geo-referenced and mapped through space and time. By combining the fine-grained with the global, the histories in the Dictionary mirror the experience of the metropolis – the intimate and the personal interact with the impersonal and indeed often random nature of city life. A purely digital history redefines the possibilities for urban history and public history. This paper will introduce the Dictionary of Sydney, share some of the challenges and joys of building a digital history, and reflect upon the ways digital history as a publication form is shaping and changing the practice of public history.

  13. From cardinal spline wavelet bases to highly coherent dictionaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrle, Miroslav; Rebollo-Neira, Laura [Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-02

    Wavelet families arise by scaling and translations of a prototype function, called the mother wavelet. The construction of wavelet bases for cardinal spline spaces is generally carried out within the multi-resolution analysis scheme. Thus, the usual way of increasing the dimension of the multi-resolution subspaces is by augmenting the scaling factor. We show here that, when working on a compact interval, the identical effect can be achieved without changing the wavelet scale but reducing the translation parameter. By such a procedure we generate a redundant frame, called a dictionary, spanning the same spaces as a wavelet basis but with wavelets of broader support. We characterize the correlation of the dictionary elements by measuring their 'coherence' and produce examples illustrating the relevance of highly coherent dictionaries to problems of sparse signal representation. (fast track communication)

  14. Tensor-Dictionary Learning with Deep Kruskal-Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Pu, Yunchen; Sun, Yannan; Spell, Gregory; Carin, Lawrence

    2017-04-20

    We introduce new dictionary learning methods for tensor-variate data of any order. We represent each data item as a sum of Kruskal decomposed dictionary atoms within the framework of beta-process factor analysis (BPFA). Our model is nonparametric and can infer the tensor-rank of each dictionary atom. This Kruskal-Factor Analysis (KFA) is a natural generalization of BPFA. We also extend KFA to a deep convolutional setting and develop online learning methods. We test our approach on image processing and classification tasks achieving state of the art results for 2D & 3D inpainting and Caltech 101. The experiments also show that atom-rank impacts both overcompleteness and sparsity.

  15. A Study on the Use of Mobile Dictionaries in Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in technology have placed books and notebooks into the mobile phones and tablets and also the dictionaries into these small boxes. Giant dictionaries, which we once barely managed to carry, have been replaced by mobile dictionaries through which we can reach any words we want with only few touches. Mobile…

  16. 77 FR 47707 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ...): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary of Deficiency Definitions; Notice #0;#0;Federal... DEVELOPMENT Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary... February 23, 2011. In addition, this notice makes changes to the Dictionary of Deficiency Definitions...

  17. The Efficacy of Dictionary Use while Reading for Learning New Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Harley

    2012-01-01

    The researcher investigated the use of three types of dictionaries while reading by high school students with severe to profound hearing loss. The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of each type of dictionary for acquiring the meanings of unknown vocabulary in text. The three types of dictionaries were (a) an online…

  18. The Development of a Temporal Information Dictionary for Social Media Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Beck, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Dictionaries have been used to analyse text even before the emergence of social media and the use of dictionaries for sentiment analysis there. While dictionaries have been used to understand the tonality of text, so far it has not been possible to automatically detect if the tonality refers to t...

  19. The Creation of Learner-Centred Dictionaries for Endangered Languages: A Rotuman Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamarasi, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the creation of dictionaries for endangered languages (ELs). Though each dictionary is uniquely prepared for its users, all dictionaries should be based on sound principles of vocabulary learning, including the importance of lexical chunks, as emphasised by Michael Lewis in his "Lexical Approach." Many of the…

  20. A comme...Avec des dictionnaires (A as in...With Dictionaries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vever, Daniel; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This section contains four articles on using French dictionaries: exercises with the Gougenheim dictionary, for example, to increase vocabulary; games and activities to gain facility in using the alphabet; four vocabulary-building games; and a comparison of dictionaries of different centuries using the word "femme" as example. (AMH)